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Sample records for african test cities

  1. Prevalence and Correlates of HIV Testing among Sexually Active African American Adolescents in Four U.S. Cities

    PubMed Central

    Swenson, Rebecca R.; Rizzo, Christie J.; Brown, Larry K.; Payne, Nanetta; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Salazar, Laura F.; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; Valois, Robert F.; Romer, Daniel; Hennessy, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background Routine HIV testing is recommended for all adolescents ages 13 years and older. This study aims to report the prevalence of HIV testing among African American adolescents, describe characteristics of adolescents who have been tested, and identify potentially modifiable factors associated with greater likelihood of testing across gender. Methods African American adolescents ages 13 to 18 were recruited from community-based outreach in four U.S. cities. Present analyses include sexually active participants (N = 990; 52.3% female). Results Twenty-nine percent of adolescents had ever been tested for HIV. In a multivariate logistic regression adjusted for significant demographics, the strongest predictor of HIV testing among girls was prior STI testing (OR = 88.39) followed by pregnancy (OR = 2.75), risk reduction self-efficacy (OR = 2.28), and STI knowledge (OR = 2.25). Among boys, having had an STI test (OR = 38.09), having talked about testing with partners (OR = 3.49), and less religiosity (OR = 2.07) were associated with HIV testing. Conclusions African Americans adolescents are disproportionately at risk for HIV/AIDS, yet less than one-third of participants reported being tested. Those receiving sexual or reproductive healthcare services were most likely to be tested, but many teens at risk for HIV do not seek available services and others may face barriers to accessing healthcare. Findings provide support for increasing school-based educational programs due to the low rates of STI/HIV knowledge among teens. Additionally, culturally-sensitive programs promoting HIV testing among teens should foster skill-building for preventive behaviors and increase partner communication about testing. PMID:19661840

  2. City Children in African Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    A descriptive study identified titles and features of children's books set in an African city. Data were collected from various reviews of children's literature for titles published since 1980. In addition, the Cooperative Children's Book Center's log list of acquired titles for Africa from 1990 to 1996 was reviewed. Results showed that authors…

  3. Social Support Factors as Moderators of Community Violence Exposure Among Inner-City African American Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammack, Phillip L.; Richards, Maryse H.; Luo, Zupei; Edlynn, Emily S.; Roy, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    Using both surveys and the experience sampling method (ESM), community violence exposure, social support factors, and depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed longitudinally among inner-city African American adolescents. Moderator models were tested to determine protective factors for youth exposed to community violence. Several social…

  4. Astronomy as Practiced in the West African City of Timbuktu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medupe, Thebe Rodney

    Islam was introduced to West Africa over a millennium ago as a result of trade with North Africa and other parts of the Middle East. Islamic scholarship thrived in the city of Timbuktu in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. During this time West African scholars studied and taught mathematics, Quranic studies, and astronomy among other subjects. Until recently, the detail of what astronomy was known and practiced was not known. As an example of the content of material taught in the madrassas in West Africa, I present an outline of the content of two manuscripts written in the seventeenth century by Timbuktu scholars Muḥammad (or Aḥmad) b. Muḥammad Baghayu‛u b. Muḥammad Kūrdu and Abū l-‛Abbās Aḥmad b. al-Ḥājj R-mām-y-n al-Tuwātī al-Ghallāwī.

  5. Probability density function (Pdf) of daily rainfall depths by means of superstatistics of hydro-climatic fluctuations for African test cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topa, M. E.; De Paola, F.; Giugni, M.; Kombe, W.; Touré, H.

    2012-04-01

    and Urban Vulnerability in Africa) Project, shows the results relating to data processing of rainfall daily data with reference to the city of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) and Dar Es Salaam (Tanzania). In particular, with the help of "Superstatistics", such processing allowed, taking account of the hydro-climatic fluctuations, to define a pdf for daily rainfall depths and interarrivals substantially better than common probability distributions present in licterature. In particular the pdf for the rainfall daily depths (h) is: p(h) = ---1---- b1h ·(2 +h3/2) (2) in which, as Poisson exponential model, there is only a paramenter b1h. Considering the climatic fluctuations of b1h, by means of inferential analysis the pdf for this parameter is the two parameters (α e β) Frechèt distribution: ( ) ( ( ) ) α- -β- α+1 β- α g(b1h) = β · b1h ·exp - b1h (3) and so by applying the (1) the h pdf is: ( ) ---1--- α-+-1 p(h) = β ·(2 +h3/2) ·Γ α (4) where Γ is the gamma function.

  6. Extreme events evaluation over African cities with regional climate simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucchignani, Edoardo; Mercogliano, Paola; Simonis, Ingo; Engelbrecht, Francois

    2013-04-01

    The warming of the climate system in recent decades is evident from observations and is mainly related to the increase of anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations (IPCC, 2012). Given the expected climate change conditions on the African continent, as underlined in different publications, and their associated socio-economic impacts, an evaluation of the specific effects on some strategic African cities on the medium and long-term is of crucial importance with regard to the development of adaptation strategies. Assessments usually focus on averages climate properties rather than on variability or extremes, but often these last ones have more impacts on the society than averages values. Global Coupled Models (GCM) are generally used to simulate future climate scenarios as they guarantee physical consistency between variables; however, due to the coarse spatial resolution, their output cannot be used for impact studies on local scales, which makes necessary the generation of higher resolution climate change data. Regional Climate Models (RCM) describe better the phenomena forced by orography or by coastal lines, or that are related to convection. Therefore they can provide more detailed information on climate extremes that are hard to study and even harder to predict because they are, by definition, rare and obey different statistical laws. The normal bias of the RCM to represent the local climatology is reduced using adequate statistical techniques based on the comparison of the simulated results with long observational time series. In the framework of the EU-FP7 CLUVA (Climate Change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa) project, regional projections of climate change at high resolution (about 8 km), have been performed for selected areas surrounding five African cities. At CMCC, the regional climate model COSMO-CLM has been employed: it is a non-hydrostatic model. For each domain, two simulations have been performed, considering the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 emission

  7. Neuropsychological screening tests in African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Lampley-Dallas, V. T.

    2001-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests are instruments used to diagnose a variety of cognitive conditions. This article will review a few of the brief scales commonly used in screening for dementia. It will also discuss the properties of and problems with some of the brief scales that are commonly used to screen African Americans for dementia, highlighting the various biases. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is the most widely known and utilized cognitive impairment instrument in the United States. Whether or not it is biased to race after adjusting the scores for educational attainment remains controversial. The Blessed Information-Memory-Concentration Test (BIMC), Blessed Orientation-Memory-Concentration Test (BOMC), Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ), and Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (NCSE) are other screening tests used to diagnose dementia. Some of these tests have been found to misclassify many more African Americans as demented compared to the proportion of whites that are misclassified. The Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG) is the only brief neuropsychological scale designed to actually diagnose early dementia, but it is not known if it is biased for African Americans. PMID:11560287

  8. Blood lead levels in South African inner-city children.

    PubMed Central

    von Schirnding, Y; Bradshaw, D; Fuggle, R; Stokol, M

    1991-01-01

    Little is known about childhood lead absorption in South Africa. In this study a cross-sectional analytic survey was carried out to determine the blood lead levels and associated risk factors for inner-city, first-grade schoolchildren. Blood lead analyses, hematological and anthropometric measurements were conducted, and a pretested questionnaire was administered to parents to identify risk factors for lead exposure. In a detailed environmental study, daily air and dust samples were collected over a period of 1 year from several sites in the study area, contemporaneously with the blood and questionnaire surveys. Spatial and temporal variations in atmospheric lead were determined. It was found that 13% of mixed race children, but no white children, had blood lead levels greater than or equal to 25 micrograms/dL, the U.S. action level. Air lead levels averaged around 1 microgram/m3, and dust lead levels ranged from 410 to 3620 ppm. Environmental lead levels were significantly elevated near heavy traffic, where Environmental Protection Agency standards were exceeded mainly during winter months. Baseline exposure was of significance in influencing blood lead levels of children attending schools in direct proximity to heavy traffic, where blood lead levels were elevated irrespective of other influencing factors. Primary and secondary preventive measures are urgently needed in South Africa to reduce environmental lead exposure. At the time of the study, South Africa had one of the highest levels of lead in gasoline in the Western World, namely, 0.836 g/L. Although levels have subsequently been reduced, this is typical of the situation in many African countries today. PMID:1720096

  9. World City/Regional City: Latinos and African-Americans in Chicago and St. Louis. JSRI Working Paper No. 46.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanueva, Margaret; Erdman, Brian; Howlett, Larry

    This paper traces the effects of economic restructuring through comparative socioeconomic profiles of African American and Latinos in the Midwest, with a focus on Chicago and Kansas City. Globalization has been associated with deindustrialization, relocation of jobs to developing countries with cheaper labor, and expansion of the service sector. A…

  10. Impact of a two-city community cancer prevention intervention on African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, Daniel S.; Fort, Jane G.; Ahmed, Nasar U.; Semenya, Kofi A.; Schreiber, George B.; Perry, Shelley; Guillory, Joyce

    2005-01-01

    We report the first multisite, multicomponent community intervention trial to focus on cancer prevention in African Americans. The project explored the potential of historically black medical schools to deliver health information to their local communities and used a community-based participatory research approach. The intervention consisted of culturally sensitive messages at appropriate educational levels delivered over an 18-month period and tested in predominantly black census tracts in Nashville, TN and Atlanta, GA. Chattanooga, TN and Decatur, GA served as comparison cities. Results were evaluated by pre- and postintervention random-digit dial telephone surveys. The intervention cities showed an increase in reported contact with or knowledge of the project. There was little or no effect on knowledge or attitudes in the intervention cities. Compared to Chattanooga, Nashville showed an increase in percentage of women receiving Pap smears. Compared to Decatur, Atlanta showed an increase in percentage of age-appropriate populations receiving digital rectal exams, colorectal cancer screenings and mammograms. The results of this community intervention trial demonstrated modest success and are encouraging for future efforts of longer duration. PMID:16334495

  11. Asymptomatic Malaria in Refugees Living in a Non-Endemic South African City

    PubMed Central

    Tsoka-Gwegweni, Joyce M.; Okafor, Uchenna

    2014-01-01

    Background Asymptomatic malaria infection in refugees is both a threat to the lives of the individuals and the public in the host country. Although South Africa has been experiencing an unprecedented influx of refugees since 1994, data on malaria infection among refugees is lacking. Such information is critical since South Africa is among the countries that have planned to eliminate malaria. The objective of this study was to determine prevalence of asymptomatic malaria infection among a refugee population living in a city of KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. Methods and Findings A survey was conducted on adult refugee participants who attended a faith-based facility offering social services in a city of KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. The participants were screened for the presence of malaria using rapid diagnostic tests and microscopy. Demographic data for the participants were obtained using a closed ended questionnaire. Data was obtained for 303 participants consisting of 51.5% females and 47.5% males, ranging from 19 to 64 years old. More than 95% of them originated from sub-Saharan African countries. Two hundred and ninety participants provided a blood sample for screening of malaria. Of these, 3.8% tested positive for rapid diagnostic test and 5.9% for microscopy. The majority of malaria infections were due to Plasmodium falciparum. Conclusions The study confirms the presence of asymptomatic malaria infections among a refugee population residing in a city of KwaZulu-Natal province that is not endemic for malaria. The results have important implications for both public health and malaria control in South Africa, particularly since the country has decided to eliminate malaria by 2018. To achieve this goal, South Africa needs to expand research, surveillance and elimination activities to include non-endemic areas, particularly with high refugee populations. We further recommend use of powerful diagnostic tests such as PCR for these interventions. PMID

  12. Analytically Derived Neighborhoods in a Rapidly Growing West African City: The Case of Accra, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Getis, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Large numbers of people are currently migrating from the poor, inland areas of West Coast Africa to the major cities of Lagos, Accra, Abidjan, and other budding metropolises (Figures 1 and 2). The infrastructure of the Sub-Saharan African cities is inadequate to service their burgeoning populations. An argument is presented for using scientifically derived neighborhoods as the building blocks for current African urban understanding and planning. In this paper, I will explore the neighborhood concept and use available data and new heterogeneity statistics to derive homogeneous neighborhoods. The statistics are explained and maps of Accra neighborhoods are given. PMID:25435640

  13. Inner-City African American Parental Involvement in Elementary Schools: Getting beyond Urban Legends of Apathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Adil, Jaleel K.; Farmer, Alvin David, Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Parental involvement in schools is a national priority for both educators and researchers to promote the successful schooling of contemporary youth. Contemporary parental involvement research has produced some promising findings, but parental involvement efforts with inner-city African Americans are currently limited by problems of research…

  14. "Rewind the World!": An Ethnographic Study of Inner-City African American Children's Perceptions of Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towns, Donna Penn

    1996-01-01

    Reports findings and conclusions from taped discussions with third- and sixth-grade African-American, inner-city students concerning their response to violent events in their communities. By using the triangulated methodology of ethnographers, it reveals how these experiences affected children's school performance, behaviors, and aspirations. (GR)

  15. Knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and cancer screening among inner-city African-American women.

    PubMed Central

    Sung, J. F.; Blumenthal, D. S.; Coates, R. J.; Alema-Mensah, E.

    1997-01-01

    Three hundred twenty-one inner-city African-American women were interviewed to determine their knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding cancer and cancer screening, and their cancer screening histories. The women were recruited from a variety of sources in Atlanta and were interviewed in their homes by trained lay health workers. Half of the subjects had an annual household income of < $15,000. About half had received a Pap smear and clinical breast examination within the year preceding the interviews. For women > 35 years old, 35% had received a mammogram within the recommended interval. Younger women and women with higher incomes were more likely than older women and those with lower incomes to have received a Pap test and clinical breast examination within the preceding year, but income was not significantly associated with mammography histories. In general, women who were more knowledgeable about cancer and its prevention were more likely to have been appropriately screened. However, various attitudes and beliefs regarding cancer generally were not associated with screening histories. We conclude that cancer screening programs for inner-city minority women should focus on improving knowledge levels among older women rather than attempting to alter attitudes and beliefs. PMID:9195801

  16. Urban morphological determinants of temperature regulating ecosystem services in African cities: the case of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavan, Gina; Lindley, Sarah; Kibassa, Deusdedit; Shemdoe, Riziki; Capuano, Paolo; De Paola, Francesco; Renner, Florian; Pauleit, Stephan

    2013-04-01

    ., 2012). Mean temperatures in the climate zone are estimated to increase by at least 1°C between 1971-2000 and 2021-2050(CSIR, 2012). Dar es Salaam is represented using around 1700 UMT units mapped across 43 UMT categories for the year 2008. Modelled surface temperature profiles for the city are presented, including an assessment of the potential impact of changing green structure cover within selected UMT categories. Provisional recommendations are made concerning the potential contribution of green structures as a climate adaptation response to the increasing temperatures in Dar es Salaam, which could be relevant for other African cities in similar climate zones. References Cavan, G., Lindley, S., Yeshitela, K., Nebebe, A., Woldegerima, T., Shemdoe, R., Kibassa, D., Pauleit, S., Renner, R., Printz, A., Buchta, K., Coly, A., Sall, F., Ndour, N. M., Ouédraogo, Y., Samari, B. S., Sankara, B. T., Feumba, R. A., Ngapgue, J. N., Ngoumo, M. T., Tsalefac, M., Tonye, E. (2012) CLUVA deliverable D2.7 Green infrastructure maps for selected case studies and a report with an urban green infrastructure mapping methodology adapted to African cities. http://www.cluva.eu/deliverables/CLUVA_D2.7.pdf. Accessed 18/12/12. CSIR (2012) CLUVA deliverable D1.5 Regional climate change simulations available for the selected areas http://www.cluva.eu/deliverables/CLUVA_D1.5.pdf. Accessed 8/1/13. Giugni, M., Adamo, P., Capuano, P., De Paola, F., Di Ruocco, A., Giordano, S., Iavazzo, P., Sellerino, M., Terracciano, S., Topa, M. E. (2012) CLUVA deliverable D.1.2 Hazard scenarios for test cities using available data. http://www.cluva.eu/deliverables/CLUVA_D1.2.pdf. Accessed 8/1/13

  17. Knowing is not enough: a qualitative report on HIV testing among heterosexual African-American men.

    PubMed

    Bond, Keosha T; Frye, Victoria; Taylor, Raekiela; Williams, Kim; Bonner, Sebastian; Lucy, Debbie; Cupid, Malik; Weiss, Linda; Koblin, Beryl A

    2015-01-01

    Despite having higher rates of HIV testing than all other racial groups, African-Americans continue to be disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic in the United States. Knowing one's status is the key step to maintaining behavioral changes that could stop the spread of the virus, yet little is known about the individual- and socio-structural-level barriers associated with HIV testing and communication among heterosexual African-American men. To address this and inform the development of an HIV prevention behavioral intervention for heterosexual African-American men, we conducted computerized, structured interviews with 61 men, focus group interviews with 25 men in 5 different groups, and in-depth qualitative interviews with 30 men living in high HIV prevalence neighborhoods in New York City. Results revealed that HIV testing was frequent among the participants. Even with high rates of testing, the men in the study had low levels of HIV knowledge; perceived little risk of HIV; and misused HIV testing as a prevention method. Factors affecting HIV testing, included stigma, relationship dynamics and communication, and societal influences, suggesting that fear, low perception of risk, and HIV stigma may be the biggest barriers to HIV testing. These results also suggest that interventions directed toward African-American heterosexual men must address the use of "testing as prevention" as well as correct misunderstandings of the window period and the meaning of HIV test results, and interventions should focus on communicating about HIV. PMID:25298014

  18. Knowing is not enough: a qualitative report on HIV testing among heterosexual African-American men

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Keosha T.; Frye, Victoria; Taylor, Raekiela; Williams, Kim; Bonner, Sebastian; Lucy, Debbie; Cupid, Malik; Weiss, Linda; Koblin, Beryl A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite having higher rates of HIV testing than all other racial groups, African-Americans continue to be disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic in the United States. Knowing one’s status is the key step to maintaining behavioral changes that could stop the spread of the virus, yet little is known about the individual- and socio-structural-level barriers associated with HIV testing and communication among heterosexual African-American men. To address this and inform the development of an HIV prevention behavioral intervention for heterosexual African-American men, we conducted computerized, structured interviews with 61 men, focus group interviews with 25 men in 5 different groups, and in-depth qualitative interviews with 30 men living in high HIV prevalence neighborhoods in New York City. Results revealed that HIV testing was frequent among the participants. Even with high rates of testing, the men in the study had low levels of HIV knowledge; perceived little risk of HIV; and misused HIV testing as a prevention method. Factors affecting HIV testing, included stigma, relationship dynamics and communication, and societal influences, suggesting that fear, low perception of risk, and HIV stigma may be the biggest barriers to HIV testing. These results also suggest that interventions directed toward African-American heterosexual men must address the use of “testing as prevention” as well as correct misunderstandings of the window period and the meaning of HIV test results, and interventions should focus on communicating about HIV. PMID:25298014

  19. The concrete jungle: city stress and substance abuse among young adult African American men.

    PubMed

    Seth, Puja; Murray, Colleen C; Braxton, Nikia D; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2013-04-01

    Substance use is prevalent among African American men living in urban communities. The impact of substance use on the social, psychological, and physical health of African American men has important public health implications for families, communities, and society. Given the adverse consequences of alcohol and drug abuse within communities of color, this study evaluated the relationship between city stress, alcohol consumption, and drug use among African American men. Eighty heterosexual, African American men, 18 to 29 years old, completed psychosocial risk assessments that assessed substance use and city stress. Multiple logistic regression analyses, controlling for age, indicated that participants reporting high levels of urban stress, relative to low levels of urban stress, were more likely to report a history of marijuana use (AOR = 5.19, p = .05), history of ecstasy and/or GHB use (AOR = 3.34, p = .04), having family/friends expressing strong concerns about their illicit drug use (AOR = 4.06, p = .02), and being unable to remember what happened the night before due to drinking (AOR = 4.98, p = .01). African American men living within the confines of a stressful urban environment are at increased risk for exposure to and utilization of illicit substances. Culturally competent public health interventions for substance use/abuse should address psychological factors, such as stress and neighborhood violence. PMID:22739803

  20. Clinical manifestations of sarcoidosis among inner-city African-American dwellers.

    PubMed Central

    Mutlu, Gökhan M.; Rubinstein, Israel

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To characterize clinical, radiographic and physiological features of sarcoidosis among African Americans residing in inner-city Chicago. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of medical records of 75 African Americans with biopsy-proven sarcoidosis from internal medicine and pulmonary clinics at three inner-city, acute care hospitals in Chicago. RESULTS: The number of organs involved was 1.77 +/- 0.94 (mean +/- SD). The most common sites for tissue diagnosis were lung (49%), skin (19%) and lymph nodes (16%). Thirty-six (48%) patients had stage-2 and -3 disease on chest x-ray. Electrocardiographic changes and ocular involvement were detected in 23% and 21% of patients, respectively. Nineteen (25%) patients had obstructive defect (FEV1 1.71 +/- 0.78 L/s), 15 (20%) had a restrictive defect [TLC 4.1 +/- 1.2 L (63.9 +/- 9.2% predicted)]. Three patients had both restrictive and obstructive defect. Forced vital capacity and FEV1 declined by 0.26 L and 0.09 L/s per year, respectively, in patients with an obstructive defect. Most patients (91%) were treated with prednisone for 3.8 +/- 3.9 years (range 0-20 years). CONCLUSIONS: African Americans with sarcoidosis residing in inner-city Chicago express a high rate of chronic progressive disease necessitating corticosteroid therapy. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the reasons underlying this paradigm. PMID:16895285

  1. Two-Year Surveillance of Antibiotic Resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae in Four African Cities

    PubMed Central

    Benbachir, Mohamed; Benredjeb, Saida; Boye, Cheick Saadbouh; Dosso, Mireille; Belabbes, Houria; Kamoun, Aouatef; Kaire, Omar; Elmdaghri, Naima

    2001-01-01

    Worldwide spread of antibiotic resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major problem. However, data from West and North African countries are scarce. To study the level of resistance and compare the situations in different cities, a prospective study was conducted in Abidjan (Ivory Coast), Casablanca (Morocco), Dakar (Senegal), and Tunis (Tunisia), from 1996 to 1997. The resistances to eight antibiotics of 375 isolates were studied by E test, and the results were interpreted using the breakpoints recommended by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Overall, 30.4% of the isolates were nonsusceptible to penicillin G (25.6% were intermediate and 4.8% were resistant). Amoxicillin (96.3% were susceptible) and parenteral third-generation cephalosporins (92.7%) were highly active. Resistance to chloramphenicol was detected in 8.6% of the isolates. High levels of resistance were noted for erythromycin (28%), tetracycline (38.3%), and cotrimoxazole (36.4%). Resistance to rifampin was rare (2.1%). There were significant differences in resistance rates between individual countries. Multiple resistance was more frequent in penicillin-nonsusceptible isolates than in penicillin-susceptible isolates. Recommendations for treatment could be generated from these results in each participating country. PMID:11158769

  2. Blood lead levels in South African inner-city children

    SciTech Connect

    von Schirnding, Y.; Bradshaw, D. ); Fuggle, R. ); Stokol, M. )

    1991-08-01

    Little is known about childhood lead absorption in South Africa. In this study a cross-sectional analytic survey was carried out to determine the blood lead levels and associated risk factors for inner-city, first-grade schoolchildren. Blood lead analyses, hematological and anthropometric measurements were conducted, and a pretested questionnaire was administered to parents to identify risk factors for lead exposure. In detailed environmental study, daily air and dust samples were collected over a period of 1 year from several sites in the study area, contemporaneously with the blood and questionnaire surveys. Spatial and temporal variations in atmospheric lead were determined. It was found that 13% of mixed race children, but no white children, had blood lead levels {ge} 25 {mu}g/dL, the US action level. Air lead levels averaged around 1 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, and dust lead levels ranged from 410 to 3620 ppm. Environmental lead levels were significantly elevated near heavy traffic, where Environmental Protection Agency standards were exceeded mainly during winter months. Baseline exposure was of significance in influencing blood lead levels of children attending schools in direct proximity to heavy traffic, where blood lead levels were elevated irrespective of other influencing factors. Primary and secondary preventive measures are urgently needed in South Africa to reduce environmental lead exposure.

  3. Urbanisation, poverty and sexual behaviour: the tale of five African cities.

    PubMed

    Greif, Meredith J; Dodoo, F Nii-Amoo; Jayaraman, Anuja

    2011-01-01

    The question of how urbanisation and poverty are linked in sub-Saharan Africa is an increasingly pressing one. The urban character of the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa exacerbates concern about the urbanisation - poverty relationship. Recent empirical work has linked urban poverty, and particularly slum residence, to risky sexual behaviour in Kenya's capital city, Nairobi. This paper explores the generalisability of these assertions about the relationship between urban poverty and sexual behaviour using Demographic and Health Survey data from five African cities: Accra (Ghana), Dar-es-Salaam (Tanzania), Harare (Zimbabwe), Kampala (Uganda) and Nairobi (Kenya). The study affirms that, although risky behaviour varies across the five cities, slum residents demonstrate riskier sexual behaviour compared with non-slum residents. There is earlier sexual debut, lower condom usage and more multiple sexual partners among women residing in slum households regardless of setting, suggesting a relatively uniform effect of urban poverty on sexual risk behaviour. PMID:21744541

  4. Behavioural Precursors and HIV Testing Behaviour among African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhrig, Jennifer D.; Davis, Kevin C.; Rupert, Doug; Fraze, Jami

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether there is an association between knowledge, attitudes and beliefs, reported intentions to get an HIV test, and reported HIV testing behaviour at a later date among a sample of African American women. Design: Secondary analysis of data collected from October 2007 through March 2008 for a randomized controlled experiment…

  5. Explanatory models of obesity of inner-city African-American adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Ashcraft, Pamela F

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological inquiry was to construct an explanatory model of illness in inner-city African-American adolescent males using Kleinman's Explanatory Model of Illness as a framework. Thirteen males were enrolled in this study. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were used to explore adolescents' perspectives regarding the nature, cause, prevention and responses to obesity; their perception of self; and meanings they attach to obesity with particular emphasis on existing attitudes, expectations, and values. Data analysis was achieved through a process of inductive content analysis. Findings, future research and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:23398892

  6. The Effect of Social Problem Solving Skills in the Relationship between Traumatic Stress and Moral Disengagement among Inner-City African American High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Coker, Kendell L.; Ikpe, Uduakobong N.; Brooks, Jeannie S.; Page, Brian; Sobell, Mark B.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between traumatic stress, social problem solving, and moral disengagement among African American inner-city high school students. Participants consisted of 45 (25 males and 20 females) African American students enrolled in grades 10 through 12. Mediation was assessed by testing for the indirect effect using the confidence interval derived from 10,000 bootstrapped resamples. The results revealed that social problem-solving skills have an indirect effect on the relationship between traumatic stress and moral disengagement. The findings suggest that African American youth that are negatively impacted by trauma evidence deficits in their social problem solving skills and are likely to be at an increased risk to morally disengage. Implications for culturally sensitive and trauma-based intervention programs are also provided. PMID:25071874

  7. A Tale of Two Cities: Access to Care and Services Among African-American Transgender Women in Oakland and San Francisco

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Taylor M.; Iwamoto, Mariko; Sakata, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: The San Francisco Bay Area attracts people from all over the country due to the perception of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) acceptance and affirmation. African-American transgender women are severely marginalized across society and as such have many unmet health and social service needs. This study sought to quantitatively assess unmet needs among African-American transgender women with a history of sex work by comparing residents of Oakland versus San Francisco. Methods: A total of 235 African-American transgender women were recruited from San Francisco (n=112) and Oakland (n=123) through community outreach and in collaboration with AIDS service organizations. Participants were surveyed regarding basic, health, and social needs and HIV risk behaviors. Pearson Chi-squared tests and a linear regression model examined associations between city of residence and unmet needs. Results: While participants from both cities reported unmet needs, Oakland participants had a greater number of unmet needs in receiving basic assistance, mental health treatment, and health care services. Oakland participants also reported less transgender community identification but higher social support from the family. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate the enormity of African-American transgender women's needs within the Bay Area. Greater resources are needed for social service provision targeting this marginalized group of people, particularly in Oakland. PMID:26788672

  8. African Psychology and Black Personality Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Joseph A.

    1987-01-01

    The following instruments for measuring Black personality use the world view and cultural orientations of Africa have been developed and are described: (1) the Black Personality Questionnaire; (2) the Black Preference Inventory; (3) the Black Opinion Scale; (4) the Themes of Black Awareness Test; (5) the Themes Concerning Blacks Test; and (6) the…

  9. Strategies to Improve HIV Testing in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Kenya, Sonjia; Okoro, Ikenna; Wallace, Kiera; Carrasquillo, Olveen; Prado, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Only 17% of Miami-Dade County residents are African American, yet this population accounts for 59% of the county's HIV-related mortality. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend annual testing for persons at increased risk for HIV, but 40% of African Americans have never been tested. OraQuick® (OraSure Technologies, Inc., Bethlehem, PA), the first US Food and Drug Administration-approved home-based HIV rapid test (HBHRT), has the potential to increase testing rates; however, there are concerns about HBHRT in vulnerable populations. We conducted focus groups in an underserved Miami neighborhood to obtain community input regarding HBHRT as a potential mechanism to increase HIV testing in African Americans. We queried HIV knowledge, attitudes toward research, and preferred intervention methods. Several HIV misconceptions were identified, and participants expressed support for HIV research and introducing HBHRT into the community by culturally appropriate individuals trained to provide support. We concluded that community health workers paired with HBHRT were a promising strategy to increase HIV testing in this population. PMID:26066691

  10. Exploring child prostitution in a major city in the West African region.

    PubMed

    Hounmenou, Charles

    2016-09-01

    The study explored the characteristics of child prostitution in a major city in the West African region. A convenience sample of children in prostitution, specifically girls below age 18 (n=243), were recruited on 83 prostitution sites identified in Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso. A survey instrument, consisting of 71 closed-ended question items, was used to explore various variables including profile of children in prostitution, factors of vulnerability to prostitution; prostitution practices, compensations and related issues in child prostitution. The findings show that most children in prostitution in the city were from Burkina Faso (63%) and Nigeria (30%), two countries that do not share borders. Most native respondents practiced prostitution for survival and to support their families. In contrast, all the respondents from Nigeria practiced prostitution as victims of international sex trafficking. An important finding was that 77% of the children in prostitution surveyed were educated. Among the respondents, there were similarities in the major life events that contributed to their situation of prostitution. These life events include early separation with parents, sexual abuse, foster care, and forced marriage. Implications for policy, practice and research are discussed. PMID:27490517

  11. Firearm and Nonfirearm Homicide in 5 South African Cities: A Retrospective Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Mary Lou; Myers, Jonathan E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. We assessed the effectiveness of South Africa’s Firearm Control Act (FCA), passed in 2000, on firearm homicide rates compared with rates of nonfirearm homicide across 5 South African cities from 2001 to 2005. Methods. We conducted a retrospective population-based study of 37 067 firearm and nonfirearm homicide cases. Generalized linear models helped estimate and compare time trends of firearm and nonfirearm homicides, adjusting for age, sex, race, day of week, city, year of death, and population size. Results. There was a statistically significant decreasing trend regarding firearm homicides from 2001, with an adjusted year-on-year homicide rate ratio of 0.864 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.848, 0.880), representing a decrease of 13.6% per annum. The year-on-year decrease in nonfirearm homicide rates was also significant, but considerably lower at 0.976 (95% CI = 0.954, 0.997). Results suggest that 4585 (95% CI = 4427, 4723) lives were saved across 5 cities from 2001 to 2005 because of the FCA. Conclusions. Strength, timing and consistent decline suggest stricter gun control mediated by the FCA accounted for a significant decrease in homicide overall, and firearm homicide in particular, during the study period. PMID:24432917

  12. Ethnic Identity Assessment among Inner-City African American Children: Evaluating the Applicability of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Le'Roy E.; Vera, Elizabeth M.; Paikoff, Roberta L.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the reliability of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Scale (MEIM) (J. Phinney, 1992) in measuring feelings of ethnic affirmation and belongings, ethnic behaviors, and ethnic knowledge with 118 inner-city African American children aged 8 to 12 years. Results of reliability analyses are mixed and indicate that constructs of ethnic behavior and…

  13. School-based Management of Chronic Asthma Among Inner-city African-American Schoolchildren in Dallas, Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Melanie; Johnson, Pauline; Neatherlin, Jacque; Millard, Mark W.; Lawrence, Gretchen

    1998-01-01

    Examined the efficacy of a school-based asthma management program to prevent exacerbation of symptoms in inner-city, African-American students. Students visited the school clinic twice daily for treatment with inhaled anti-inflammatory medication and measurement of respiratory peak flow rates. Regular use of inhaled anti-inflammatory medication…

  14. Living Circumstances of Suicide Mortality in a South African City: An Ecological Study of Differences across Race Groups and Sexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Stephanie; Laflamme, Lucie

    2005-01-01

    In this study the importance of living area circumstances for suicide mortality was explored. Suicide mortality was assessed across race and sex groups in a South African city and the influence of area-based compositional and sociophysical characteristics on suicide risk was considered. Suicide mortality rates are highest among Whites, in…

  15. Different Forms of Aggression among Inner-City African-American Children: Gender, Configurations, and School Social Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Hongling; Farmer, Thomas W.; Cairns, Beverley D.

    2003-01-01

    Using narrative reports of peer conflicts among a sample of African-American children and adolescents from inner-city schools, investigates the development and social functions of four types of aggressive behaviors. Results showed that low levels of social aggression and high levels of physical aggression were reported in peer conflicts. Distinct…

  16. Back-trajectory analysis of African dust outbreaks at a coastal city in southern Spain: Selection of starting heights and assessment of African and concurrent Mediterranean contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabello, M.; Orza, J. A. G.; Dueñas, C.; Liger, E.; Gordo, E.; Cañete, S.

    2016-09-01

    The present study uses a back-trajectory analysis at multiple heights for better interpretation of the impact of the African dust outbreaks in the coastal Mediterranean city of Málaga (Spain), the southernmost large city in Europe. Throughout a 3-year period, 363 days were identified as dusty days by atmospheric transport models. During these events, PM10, SO2, O3, temperature, AOD and Ångström exponent showed statistically significant differences compared to days with no African dust. It was found that under African dust events, the study site was influenced by Mediterranean air masses at the lowermost heights and by Atlantic advections at high altitudes, while African air masses mostly reached Málaga at intermediate levels. Specifically, the lowest heights at which air masses reached the study site after having resided over Africa are confined into the 1000-2000 m range. The decoupling between the lowest heights and the ones for dust transport may explain the presence of aged air masses at the time of the African outbreak. Additionally, with the aim of studying the influence of the air mass origin and history on air quality, a new procedure based on Principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed to determine which altitudes are best suited as starting points for back-trajectory calculations, as they maximize the differences in residence time over different areas. Its application to Málaga identifies three altitudes (750, 2250 and 4500 m) and a subsequent analysis of back-trajectories for African dust days provided the main source areas over Africa as well as further insight on the Mediterranean contribution.

  17. Isotopic characterization of the Precambrian carbonate aquifers under the city of Bangui (Central African Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huneau, Frederic; Djebebe-Ndjiguim, Chantal-Laure; Foto, Eric; Ito, Mari; Celle-Jeanton, Helene; Garel, Emilie; Mabingui, Joseph

    2013-04-01

    The city of Bangui, the capital of the Central African Republic, is located on the right bank of the Ubangi River which is the northernmost tributary of the Congo River. From its foundation in 1889 this city has always suffered from serious problems of water management. This is related to the specificity of the site configuration (steep hills surrounding a large swampy flat valley poorly drained) and to the urbanisation process responsible for the waterproofing of soils and the associated increased runoff processes under tropical humid condition.This paper presents the results of a geochemical and isotopic survey carried out in 2011 aiming at evaluating the type and chemical quality of the groundwater resources of the Bangui region. By combining geological, hydrogeochemical and isotopic data it appears that the underground of Bangui seems favourable to the development of a secured and sustainable water supply from groundwater provided that the conditions of exploitation would be constrained by the local authorities. The deep fractured (and locally kastified) Precambrian carbonate aquifers known as Bimbo and Fatima formations are identified as target resources considering the relatively good quality of the resource from the chemical point of view, and the semi-confined structure of the aquifer preventing the mixing with shallow aquifers already strongly impacted by domestic and industrial pollutions.

  18. Influences on HIV Testing among Young African-American Men Who Have Sex with Men and the Moderating Effect of the Geographic Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashburn, Andrew J.; Peterson, John L.; Bakeman, Roger; Miller, Robin L.; Clark, Leslie F.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the influence of demographic characteristics, risk behaviors, knowledge, and psychosocial variables on HIV testing among a sample (n = 551) of young African-American men who have sex with men (MSM) from three cities--Atlanta (n = 241), Birmingham (n = 174), and Chicago (n = 136). Among the entire sample of young men, age,…

  19. Performance of African American Preschool and Kindergarten Students on the Expressive Vocabulary Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas-Tate, Shurita; Washington, Julie; Craig, Holly; Packard, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the validity of the Expressive Vocabulary Test (EVT; K. Williams, 1997) for assessing the expressive vocabulary skills of African American students. Method/Results: One hundred sixty-five African American preschool and kindergarten students were administered the EVT. The mean EVT score for these African American students was…

  20. Correlates of HIV Testing among Rural African American Cocaine Users

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Patricia B.; Booth, Brenda M.; Curran, Geoffrey M.; Borders, Tyrone F.; Ounpraseuth, Songthip T.; Stewart, Katharine E.

    2014-01-01

    Andersen's Revised Behavioral Model of Health Services Use (RBM) was used as a framework in this correlational cross-sectional study to examine factors associated with HIV testing among a sample of 251 rural African American cocaine users. All participants reported using cocaine and being sexually active within the past 30 days. Independent variables were categorized according to the RBM as predisposing, enabling, need, or health behavior factors. Number of times tested for HIV (never, one time, two to four times, five or more times) was the outcome of interest. In ordered logistic regression analyses, HIV testing was strongly associated with being female, of younger age (predisposing factors); having been tested for sexually transmitted diseases or hepatitis, ever having been incarcerated in jail or prison (enabling factors); and having had one sex partner the past 30 days (health behavior factor). Other sexual risk behaviors, drug use, health status, and perception of risk were not associated with HIV testing. Our findings confirm the importance of routine testing in all healthcare settings rather than risk-based testing. PMID:25346379

  1. A SNP test to identify Africanized honeybees via proportion of 'African' ancestry.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Nadine C; Harpur, Brock A; Lim, Julianne; Rinderer, Thomas E; Allsopp, Michael H; Zayed, Amro; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2015-11-01

    The honeybee, Apis mellifera, is the world's most important pollinator and is ubiquitous in most agricultural ecosystems. Four major evolutionary lineages and at least 24 subspecies are recognized. Commercial populations are mainly derived from subspecies originating in Europe (75-95%). The Africanized honeybee is a New World hybrid of A. m. scutellata from Africa and European subspecies, with the African component making up 50-90% of the genome. Africanized honeybees are considered undesirable for bee-keeping in most countries, due to their extreme defensiveness and poor honey production. The international trade in honeybees is restricted, due in part to bans on the importation of queens (and semen) from countries where Africanized honeybees are extant. Some desirable strains from the United States of America that have been bred for traits such as resistance to the mite Varroa destructor are unfortunately excluded from export to countries such as Australia due to the presence of Africanized honeybees in the USA. This study shows that a panel of 95 single nucleotide polymorphisms, chosen to differentiate between the African, Eastern European and Western European lineages, can detect Africanized honeybees with a high degree of confidence via ancestry assignment. Our panel therefore offers a valuable tool to mitigate the risks of spreading Africanized honeybees across the globe and may enable the resumption of queen and bee semen imports from the Americas. PMID:25846634

  2. Attitudes Towards Couples-Based HIV Testing Among MSM in Three US Cities

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Patrick S.; Salazar, Laura F.; Gratzer, Beau; Allen, Susan; Seelbach, Erick

    2012-01-01

    Couples-based voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT)—in which couples receive counseling and their HIV test results together—has been shown to be an effective strategy among heterosexual sero-discordant couples in Africa for reducing HIV transmission by initiating behavioral change. This study examined attitudes towards CVCT among men who have sex with men (MSM) in three US cities. Four focus group discussions (FGD) were held with MSM in Atlanta, Chicago, and Seattle. Although initially hesitant, participants reported an overwhelming acceptance of CVCT. CVCT was seen as a sign of commitment within a relationship and was reported to be more appropriate for men in longer-term relationships. CVCT was also seen as providing a forum for the discussion of risk-taking within the relationship. Our results suggest that there may be a demand for CVCT among MSM in the United States, but some modifications to the existing African CVCT protocol may be needed. PMID:21336607

  3. Mass Testing and the Underdevelopment of Inner-City Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesch, Rick

    2000-01-01

    Mass testing as a phenomena of global educational restructuring exacerbates social class differences. This phenomenon is examined via inner-city Winnipeg's experience, cross-cultural educational literature, and the Manitoba government's tendency to reinforce the underdevelopment of core area regions. Emerging resistance to educational…

  4. Raven's Test Performance of Sub-Saharan Africans: Average Performance, Psychometric Properties, and the Flynn Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicherts, Jelte M.; Dolan, Conor V.; Carlson, Jerry S.; van der Maas, Han L. J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic review of published data on the performance of sub-Saharan Africans on Raven's Progressive Matrices. The specific goals were to estimate the average level of performance, to study the Flynn Effect in African samples, and to examine the psychometric meaning of Raven's test scores as measures of general intelligence.…

  5. A Multi-Level Approach for Promoting HIV Testing Within African American Church Settings

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The African American church is a community-based organization that is integral to the lives, beliefs, and behaviors of the African American community. Engaging this vital institution as a primary setting for HIV testing and referral would significantly impact the epidemic. The disproportionately high HIV incidence rate among African Americans dictates the national priority for promotion of early and routine HIV testing, and suggests engaging community-based organizations in this endeavor. However, few multilevel HIV testing frameworks have been developed, tested, and evaluated within the African American church. This article proposes one such framework for promoting HIV testing and referral within African American churches. A qualitative study was employed to examine the perceptions, beliefs, knowledge, and behaviors related to understanding involvement in church-based HIV testing. A total of four focus groups with church leaders and four in-depth interviews with pastors, were conducted between November 2012 and June 2013 to identify the constructs most important to supporting Philadelphia churches' involvement in HIV testing, referral, and linkage to care. The data generated from this study were analyzed using a grounded theory approach and used to develop and refine a multilevel framework for identifying factors impacting church-based HIV testing and referral and to ultimately support capacity building among African American churches to promote HIV testing and linkage to care. PMID:25682887

  6. Barriers to HIV testing for migrant black Africans in Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Fakoya, I; Reynolds, R; Caswell, G; Shiripinda, I

    2008-07-01

    Migrant black Africans are disproportionately affected by HIV in Western Europe; we discuss the barriers to HIV testing for sub-Saharan migrants, with particular emphasis on the UK and the Netherlands. Cultural, social and structural barriers to testing, such as access to testing and care, fear of death and disease and fear of stigma and discrimination in the community, can be identified. Lack of political will, restrictive immigration policies and the absence of African representation in decision-making processes are also major factors preventing black Africans from testing. HIV testing strategies need to be grounded in outreach and community mobilisation, addressing fear of diagnosis, highlighting the success of treatment and tackling HIV-related stigma among black African migrant communities. PMID:18557866

  7. For People of African, Mediterranean, or Southeast Asian Heritage: Important Information about Diabetes Blood Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... p.m. eastern time, M-F For More Information American Diabetes Association National Heart, Lung, and Blood ... of African, Mediterranean, or Southeast Asian Heritage: Important Information about Diabetes Blood Tests Page Content On this ...

  8. Predicting Discordance Between Self-reports of Sexual Behavior and Incident Sexually Transmitted Infections with African American Female Adolescents: Results from a 4-city Study

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Jessica M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Salazar, Laura F.; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; Brown, Larry K.; Romer, Daniel; Valois, Robert F.; Stanton, Bonita

    2012-01-01

    This study examined correlates of the discordance between sexual behavior self-reports and Incident Sexually Transmitted Infections. African American adolescent females (N = 964) from four U.S. cities were recruited for an HIV/STI prevention trial. Self-reported sexual behaviors, demographics, and hypothesized psychosocial antecedents of sexual risk behavior were collected at baseline, 6-, 12-, and 18-month follow-up assessments. Urine specimens were collected and tested for three prevalent STIs (chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomonas) at each assessment. Seventeen percent of participants with a laboratory-confirmed STI reported either lifetime abstinence or recent abstinence from vaginal sex (discordant self-report). Lower STI knowledge, belief that fewer peers were engaging in sex, and belief that more peers will wait until marriage to have sex were associated with discordant reports. Discordance between self-reported abstinence and incident STIs was marked among African American female adolescents. Lack of STI knowledge and sexual behavior peer norms may result in underreporting of sexual behaviors. PMID:22323006

  9. Maternal HIV/AIDS and depressive symptoms among inner-city African American youth: the role of maternal depressive symptoms, mother-child relationship quality, and child coping.

    PubMed

    McKee, Laura; Jones, Deborah J; Roland, Erin; Coffelt, Nicole; Rakow, Aaron; Forehand, Rex

    2007-04-01

    This study was designed to examine interactions between psychosocial risk (i.e., maternal depressive symptoms) and protective (i.e., child coping skills and mother-child relationship quality) correlates of depressive symptoms among inner-city African American children of mothers with and without HIV/AIDS. Two primary hypotheses were tested: (a) whether these correlates interact differently in HIV-infected and noninfected samples and (b) whether child coping skills and a positive mother-child relationship interact to protect children from developing depressive symptoms in the context of maternal HIV infection. Results indicated that (a) a positive mother-child relationship, but not child coping skills, was protective in the HIV-infected sample when maternal depressive symptoms were high and (b) the combination of a positive mother-child relationship and child coping skills was associated with the lowest level of child depressive symptoms in the HIV-infected sample. These findings highlight the differential importance of various risk and protective mechanisms for HIV-infected and noninfected African American samples and, as such, have preventative implications for children of HIV-infected women. PMID:17535124

  10. Why African American College Students Miss the Perfect Test Score

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Ruben; Stokes, Dorothy

    2016-01-01

    Many African Americans were imbued with the cliché that they must work twice as hard as others to be a success in life. Entering college, students with this belief put extensive effort into earning top grades to ensure quality preparation for their chosen career; yet, some fail to earn top scores. Why? This is the million dollar question, but the…

  11. Predictors of Self-Reported Physical Symptoms in Low-Income, Inner-City African American Women: The Role of Optimism, Depressive Symptoms, and Chronic Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Deborah J.; O'Connell, Cara; Gound, Mary; Heller, Laurie; Forehand, Rex

    2004-01-01

    In this study we examined the association of optimism and depressive symptoms with self-reported physical symptoms in 241 low-income, inner-city African American women with or without a chronic illness (HIV). Although optimism was not a unique predictor of self-reported physical symptoms over and above depressive symptoms, optimism interacted with…

  12. Connectedness and Self-Regulation as Constructs of the Student Success Skills Program in Inner-City African American Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemberger, Matthew E.; Clemens, Elysia V.

    2012-01-01

    The authors evaluated a small-group counseling intervention, Student Success Skills, provided to 53 inner-city, 4th- and 5th-grade African American students. Compared with the control group, students who received the treatment reported significant changes in metacognitive skill and feelings of connectedness to school. Furthermore, treatment-group…

  13. Dating Violence Perpetration and/or Victimization and Associated Sexual Risk Behaviors among a Sample of Inner-City African American and Hispanic Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alleyne-Green, Binta; Coleman-Cowger, Victoria H.; Henry, David B.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of physical and psychological dating violence victimization and perpetration reported by inner-city African American and Hispanic adolescent girls as well as associated risky sexual behaviors among this population. Participants in this study were 10th- and 11th-grade female students from seven…

  14. Growing up in a Dangerous Developmental Milieu: The Effects of Parenting Processes on Adjustment in Inner-City African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazsonyi, Alexander T.; Pickering, Lloyd E.; Bolland, John M.

    2006-01-01

    The current longitudinal study examined the protective effects of parenting processes on measures of adolescent adjustment (health-compromising and violent behaviors) in a sample of high-risk, inner-city, poor African American youth N = 2,867). Parenting processes played an important role in this dangerous developmental milieu. For male…

  15. Elderly African Immigrants in Minnesota: A Case Study of Needs Assessment in Eight Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darboe, Kebba; Ahmed, Lul S.

    2007-01-01

    Needs assessment is the process of identifying the gap between a target population's needs and its services. If a gap exists, a program can be designed to effectively respond to those needs. This article explores the needs of elderly African immigrants in Minnesota through the use of qualitative interviews. A convenience sampling was used to…

  16. School Day Eating Habits of Inner-City, African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDuffie, Thomas E.; George, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    School administrators and food providers need to better understand what factors drive young consumers' food choices in order to keep them as customers and avoid a potential backlash from parents, the community, and public policymakers. This article reports the findings of a study on African American adolescents and food, specifically, their…

  17. This Test Is Unfair: African American and Latino High School Students' Perceptions of Standardized College Admission Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walpole, MaryBeth; McDonough, Patricia M.; Bauer, Constance J.; Gibson, Carolyn; Kanyi, Kamau T.; Toliver, Rita

    This qualitative study focused on African American and Latino high school students perceptions of standardized admission tests, including the Scholastic Assessment Tests (I and II) and the ACT Assessment. Students enrolled in college preparatory classes were interviewed about these tests individually and in focus groups in fall 1998 in their…

  18. Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) rainfall curves, for data series and climate projection in African cities.

    PubMed

    De Paola, Francesco; Giugni, Maurizio; Topa, Maria Elena; Bucchignani, Edoardo

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the hydrologic cycle due to increase in greenhouse gases cause variations in intensity, duration, and frequency of precipitation events. Quantifying the potential effects of climate change and adapting to them is one way to reduce urban vulnerability. Since rainfall characteristics are often used to design water structures, reviewing and updating rainfall characteristics (i.e., Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves) for future climate scenarios is necessary (Reg Environ Change 13(1 Supplement):25-33, 2013). The present study regards the evaluation of the IDF curves for three case studies: Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), Dar Es Salaam (Tanzania) and Douala (Cameroon). Starting from daily rainfall observed data, to define the IDF curves and the extreme values in a smaller time window (10', 30', 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h), disaggregation techniques of the collected data have been used, in order to generate a synthetic sequence of rainfall, with statistical properties similar to the recorded data. Then, the rainfall pattern of the three test cities was analyzed and IDF curves were evaluated. In order to estimate the contingent influence of climate change on the IDF curves, the described procedure was applied to the climate (rainfall) simulations over the time period 2010-2050, provided by CMCC (Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici). The evaluation of the IDF curves allowed to frame the rainfall evolution of the three case studies, considering initially only historical data, then taking into account the climate projections, in order to verify the changes in rainfall patterns. The same set of data and projections was also used for evaluating the Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP). PMID:25674436

  19. Negotiating markets for health: an exploration of physicians' engagement in dual practice in three African capital cities.

    PubMed

    Russo, Giuliano; McPake, Barbara; Fronteira, Inês; Ferrinho, Paulo

    2014-09-01

    Scarce evidence exists on the features, determinants and implications of physicians' dual practice, especially in resource-poor settings. This study considered dual practice patterns in three African cities and the respective markets for physician services, with the objective of understanding the influence of local determinants on the practice. Forty-eight semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted in the three cities to understand features of the practice and the respective markets. A survey was carried out in a sample of 331 physicians to explore their characteristics and decisions to work in public and private sectors. Descriptive analysis and inferential statistics were employed to explore differences in physicians' engagement in dual practice across the three locations. Different forms of dual practice were found to exist in the three cities, with public physicians engaging in private practice outside but also inside public facilities, in regulated as well as unregulated ways. Thirty-four per cent of the respondents indicated that they worked in public practice only, and 11% that they engaged exclusively in private practice. The remaining 55% indicated that they engaged in some form of dual practice, 31% 'outside' public facilities, 8% 'inside' and 16% both 'outside' and 'inside'. Local health system governance and the structure of the markets for physician services were linked to the forms of dual practice found in each location, and to their prevalence. Our analysis suggests that physicians' decisions to engage in dual practice are influenced by supply and demand factors, but also by how clearly separated public and private markets are. Where it is possible to provide little-regulated services within public infrastructure, less incentive seems to exist to engage in the formal private sector, with equity and efficiency implications for service provision. The study shows the value of analysing health markets to understand physicians' engagement in

  20. Performance of Elementary-Grade African American Students on the Gray Oral Reading Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Holly K.; Thompson, Connie A.; Washington, Julie A.; Potter, Stephanie L.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: African American students perform disproportionately more poorly on standardized reading assessments than their majority peers. Poor reading performances may be related to test biases inherent in standardized reading instruments. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the appropriateness of the Gray Oral Reading Tests-Third…

  1. Closing the Gap: A Group Counseling Approach to Improve Test Performance of African-American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Angelia M.; Getch, Yvette Q.; Ziomek-Daigle, Jolie

    2009-01-01

    This article evaluated the impact of a group counseling intervention on African-American students' achievement rates during the spring administration of high-stakes testing at a rural high school in Georgia. Eighty percent of eligible students who participated in the intervention received passing scores on the four sections tested during the…

  2. Inner-City African-American Women's Adolescence as Stressful Life Events: Understanding Substance Abusing Behavior.

    PubMed

    Durr, Marlese; Small, La Fleur F; Dunlap, Eloise

    2010-06-01

    Lula Beatty (2003:59) asks, "What makes a black woman, voluntarily take a substance into her body which alters her perceptions and feelings of well-being?" This research examines African American women's substance abuse as a response to stressful life events grounded in adolescence, drawing in part on the cognitive-transactional approach and distal stressor model to discuss the effects of stressors on mental health and substance abusing behavior. Most respondents viewed their adolescent experiences and the associated stress as tribulations or lessons to be lived through, rather than a signal of needed change in their social, cultural, and ecological life circumstances. The effect of exposure to constant stressors early in the life course coupled with proximal stressors often resulted in negative active responses to stress (i.e. substance abuse) and continued stunted emotional growth. Thus, our findings indicate that the experience of African American women as adolescents contributes to understanding substance abuse amongst this population. These findings further help develop the cognitive-transactional model, while adding to the distal stressors and life process model as a way of considering gender, race, and structural forces. PMID:23843768

  3. Awareness and use of the prostate-specific antigen test among African-American men.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Louie E.; Uhler, Robert J.; Williams, Kymber N.

    2005-01-01

    Although African-American men have a greater burden of prostate cancer than whites and other racial and ethnic groups, few studies on the burden of prostate cancer have focused on African Americans specifically. We used a sample of African-American men (N = 736) who participated in the 2000 National Health Interview Survey to explore their awareness of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test. Among African-American men aged > or = 45 with no history of prostate cancer, 63% had heard of the PSA test and 48% had been tested. Bivariate analyses showed significant associations between sociodemographic, family composition, health status and perceived risk with having heard of the PSA test and having been tested. The multivariate model showed significant associations between having heard of the PSA test and age, level of education, living in an MSA, and having private or military health insurance. For ever being tested, the multivariate model showed significant associations for age, private or military health insurance, being in fair or poor health, and having a family history of prostate cancer. Some of the correlates, such as age, increased levels of education and being married, were consistent with previous studies, but other correlates, such as metropolitan statistical area, health status and perceived risk, differed from previous studies. PMID:16080666

  4. Can Home-Based HIV Rapid Testing Reduce HIV Disparities Among African Americans in Miami?

    PubMed

    Kenya, Sonjia; Okoro, Ikenna S; Wallace, Kiera; Ricciardi, Michael; Carrasquillo, Olveen; Prado, Guillermo

    2016-09-01

    Sixty percent of African Americans have had an HIV test, yet this population disproportionately contributes to AIDS mortality, suggesting that testing is not occurring early enough to achieve optimal outcomes. OraQuick, the first Food and Drug Administration-approved home-based HIV rapid test (HBHRT) could potentially increase testing rates. We assessed whether community health workers (CHWs) paired with HBRHT could improve HIV screening and health care access among African Americans in Miami, Florida. In October-November 2013, 60 African Americans were enrolled and randomized to the experimental condition, which received CHW assistance to complete HBHRT, or the control condition, which were instructed to complete HBHRT independently. Intervention participants were significantly (p ≤ .05) more likely than control participants to complete HBHRT and, if positive, get linked to HIV care (100% vs. 83%) χ(2) (1, N = 60) = 5.46, p ≤ .02. We concluded that CHW-assisted HBHRT may be a promising strategy to improve HIV testing and care among African Americans. PMID:27091604

  5. Understanding and managing sanitary risks due to rodent zoonoses in an African city: beyond the Boston Model.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Peter J; Arntzen, Lorraine; Hayter, Mel; Iles, Malcolm; Frean, John; Belmain, Steven

    2008-03-01

    The Boston Model describes a successful rodent management plan that succeeded in a first-world city in the USA. In third-world cities, which often contain informal shack settlements, it is debatable whether the Boston Model would apply. In Durban, a major harbor city of three million people on the east coast of South Africa, we investigated the sanitary risks due to rodents in both formal (residential and commercial) and informal (shacks) sectors, and we evaluated the relative merits of different management interventions suggested by the Boston Model. Blood and tissue samples of six species (Rattus norvegicus, R. tanezumi, R. rattus, Mus musculus, Mastomys natalensis, Tatera brantsi) from 262 live-trapped rodents from 54 localities were tested for antibodies or DNA for plague (n= 193: antibody test), leptospirosis (n= 221 for antibody test; n= 69 for polymerase chain reaction test for DNA) and toxoplasmosis (n= 217: antibody test). We conducted a socioeconomic survey of 90 household to determine environmental and socioeconomic disease risk factors in the shack settlement of Cato Crest. No rodents were seropositive for plague, but nine Norway rats, R. norvegicus (4.1% of the sample tested) were seropositive for toxoplasmosis, and 22 R. norvegicus (10.0% of sample tested) were seropositive for leptospirosis. Disease endemic areas were concentrated in Cato Crest and the commercial district of Durban. Serology tests of humans living in Cato Crest (n= 219) showed 0% exposure to plague, 23% to leptospirosis and 35% to toxoplasmosis. Compared with shack-dwellers, the residents of brick houses had slightly lower levels of exposure to leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis. Based on our results, environmental hygiene and rodent-trapping campaigns were launched in Cato Crest. The initiative owes much of its current success to implementation of the principles inherent in the Boston Model, even though certain elements were lacking. PMID:21396050

  6. Sexual and geographic organisation of men who have sex with men in a large East African city: opportunities for outreach

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Michael W; Nyoni, Joyce; Bowen, Anne M; Williams, Mark L; Kashiha, John J

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To describe geographical and dispersion patterns of men who have sex with men (MSM)-related venues in a large East African city and their associations with times, participants and venue type. Methods Mapping of MSM sites in Dar es Salaam was carried out by community research workers who catalogued, observed and reported data on venue sites, formality, times of operation, type of participant, police or vigilante activity, length of operation and the degree to which it is known both in and outside the MSM and gay communities. Results There is a large and widely disseminated MSM/gay satellite cultures of at least 98 sites, which has some formal sites, but is largely informal and operates within mixed entertainment environments and at particular times (including some weekend-only locales) across the city. There is a mix of places for sexual contact, largely social venues and sex on location sites. Cruising appears to be limited to open spaces and parks, with no vehicular component and almost no internet component. They are widely disseminated across all suburbs and there is no central location for MSM activities. MSM sex workers (SWs) operate at a third of these sites. Conclusions There is a large number of ‘local’ MSM contact, social and sex sites and any work with MSM will have to include these less-formal and less-known sites. The widely disseminated nature of the MSM sites, however, also suggests that sexual networks may not be closely linked between sites. The climate of stigma, abuse and potential violence appear to be limiting the development of more formal sites. This pattern is probably typical of other large urban areas in East Africa and perhaps across sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). PMID:23180391

  7. Drug Use and Conflict in Inner-City African-American Relationships in the 2000s†

    PubMed Central

    Golub, Andrew; Dunlap, Eloise; Benoit, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Inner-city relationships face numerous challenges including illegal drug use and its consequences. The nature of this challenge, however, has changed dramatically with a shift from the crack subculture of the 1980s and early 1990s to the subsequent marijuana/blunts subculture. This study presents data concerning 95 inner-city relationships where illegal drug use was present from people who were interviewed in 2004-2006 and reinterviewed in 2008. Hard drug use was still problematic in the 2000s even with the passing of the crack epidemic and its associated behavioral norms. Hard drug (primarily crack) users reported drug use was a problem, reported Conflict over drugs, reported higher levels of Conflict than others and were the most likely to have broken up with their partner. On the other hand, the experiences and subcultural norms associated with marijuana use appeared to be much less detrimental to relationship harmony. Subjects who used marijuana but not hard drugs reported much less relationship Conflict. Indeed, many reported that they enjoyed using marijuana with their partner. These subcultural insights further the understanding that young adults have constructed a much more socially productive subculture regarding marijuana use than their predecessors had constructed around use of crack. PMID:21053755

  8. Drug use among inner-city African American women: the process of managing loss.

    PubMed

    Roberts, C A

    1999-09-01

    The grounded theory study described in this article investigated illicit drug use in the lives of 32 drug-using women living in two inner-city neighborhoods of a large metropolitan U.S. city. The underlying purpose was to describe the process of how life situations and events influenced the onset of drug use and changes in drug-using behaviors. Analysis of in-depth interviews revealed several themes. The basic social process, managing loss, was identified. Painful feelings of loss resulted from the separation of someone or something from the lives of participants and included death or desertion of a significant other, loss of child custody, and rejection by a significant other. Emotional, physical, and sexual abuse resulted in a loss of ability to give and receive love and trust in oneself or others. Losses resulted in an escalation of drug use. Findings have implications for interventions to assist women in dealing with drug use, violence in their lives, self-care, and parenting. PMID:10558371

  9. Precarious Projects: Conversions of (Biomedical) Knowledge in an East African City

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Ruth J.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the orientations of lay people in Kenya to science—specifically to biomedical knowledge about HIV—and their struggles to convert this knowledge into meaningful futures. In Kenya, the global response to the HIV-AIDS epidemic has resulted in a highly stratified landscape of intervention. Globally-funded treatment programs and clinical trials, focusing on HIV, channel transnational resources, expertise, and knowledge into specific sites—HIV clinics, NGOs, and research stations—inscribing these spaces as ‘global’ while leaving others decidedly ‘local.’ Rolled out in the form of ‘projects,’ these interventions offer resources and opportunities for a limited time only. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in the city of Kisumu, this article follows the circulation of biomedical knowledge through such projects and its conversion in ways beyond those imagined by policy-makers, as it meets the aspirations of city-dwellers and enters into local livelihoods. Mediated by nongovernmental organizations through workshops and certificates, this knowledge is both fragmentary and ephemeral. I explore the temporal and spatial implications of such knowledge for those who seek to attach themselves to it and shape their identities and futures in relation to it. PMID:24383753

  10. Precarious projects: conversions of (biomedical) knowledge in an East African city.

    PubMed

    Prince, Ruth J

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the orientations of lay people in Kenya to science-specifically to biomedical knowledge about HIV--and their struggles to convert this knowledge into meaningful futures. In Kenya, the global response to the HIV-AIDS epidemic has resulted in a highly stratified landscape of intervention. Globally-funded treatment programs and clinical trials, focusing on HIV, channel transnational resources, expertise, and knowledge into specific sites--HIV clinics, NGOs, and research stations--inscribing these spaces as 'global' while leaving others decidedly 'local.' Rolled out in the form of 'projects,' these interventions offer resources and opportunities for a limited time only. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in the city of Kisumu, this article follows the circulation of biomedical knowledge through such projects and its conversion in ways beyond those imagined by policy-makers, as it meets the aspirations of city-dwellers and enters into local livelihoods. Mediated by nongovernmental organizations through workshops and certificates, this knowledge is both fragmentary and ephemeral. I explore the temporal and spatial implications of such knowledge for those who seek to attach themselves to it and shape their identities and futures in relation to it. PMID:24383753

  11. This Test Is Unfair: Urban African American and Latino High School Students' Perceptions of Standardized College Admission Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walpole, Marybeth; McDonough, Patricia M.; Bauer, Constance J.; Gibson, Carolyn; Kanyi, Kamau; Toliver, Rita

    2005-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the perceptions of, knowledge regarding, and preparation for standardized college admissions exams of 227 urban African American and Latino high school students. Findings include the students' lack of information about the test and their reliance on their relatively uninformed and unavailable school officials for…

  12. Development and risk behavior among African American, Caucasian, and mixed-race adolescents living in high poverty inner-city neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Bolland, John M; Bryant, Chalandra M; Lian, Bradley E; McCallum, Debra M; Vazsonyi, Alexander T; Barth, Joan M

    2007-12-01

    Youths growing up in low-income inner-city neighborhoods are at substantial risk for initiating substance use, violent behavior, and sexual intercourse at early ages; these risk behaviors continue at comparatively high rates through adolescence. Hopelessness has been implicated as a risk factor for these behaviors. In this paper, we consider how race influences this process. African Americans form a demographic minority within the United States, but they are often the majority within inner-city neighborhoods. For Caucasians, the opposite typically holds. Mixed-race populations form a minority within both contexts. Using longitudinal data, we examine the relationship between race and risk behaviors in several impoverished inner-city neighborhoods where African Americans form the distinct majority and Caucasians and people of mixed racial heritage form a small minority. We also consider how race moderates the relationship between hopelessness and risk behavior. Our findings show that compared to Caucasian or mixed-race adolescents, African American adolescents are less likely to engage in risk behaviors, and that hopelessness has a less important impact on their behaviors. PMID:17932741

  13. Men Do Matter: Ethnographic Insights on the Socially Supportive Role of the African American Uncle in the Lives of Inner-City African American Male Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Joseph B., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the role of the African American uncle as a vital yet overlooked form of social support and social capital in the lives of adolescent African American male sons living in single-female-headed households. Research rarely examines the affective roles and functions of men in Black families; moreover, poor urban Black male youth…

  14. How do dual practitioners divide their time? The cases of three African capital cities.

    PubMed

    McPake, Barbara; Russo, Giuliano; Tseng, Fu-Min

    2014-12-01

    Health professionals dual practice has received increasing attention, particularly in the context of the universal health coverage movement. This paper explores the determinants of doctors' choices to become a dual practitioner and of dual practitioners' choices to allocate time to the private sector in the capital cities of Mozambique, Guinea Bissau and Cape Verde. The data are drawn from a survey conducted in 2012 among 329 physicians. We use a two-part model to analyse the decision of both public and private practitioners to become dual practitioners, and to allocate time between public and private sectors. We impute potential earnings in public and private practice by using nearest-neighbour propensity score matching. Our results show that hourly wage in the private sector, number of dependents, length of time as a physician, work outside city, and being a specialist with or without technology all have a positive association with the probability of being a dual physician, while number of dependents displays a negative sign. Level of salaries in the public sector are not associated with dual practice engagement, with important implications for attempts aimed at retaining professionals in the public sector through wage increases. As predicted by theory that recognises doctors' role in price setting, earnings rates are not significant predictors of private sector time allocation; personal characteristics of physicians appear more important, such as age, number of dependents, specialist without technology, specialist with technology, and three reasons for not working more hours in the private sector. Answers to questions about the factors that limit working hours in the private sector have significant predictive power, suggesting that type of employment in the private sector may be an underlying determinant of both dual practice engagement and time allocation decisions. PMID:25441323

  15. "I Feel Nervous... Very Nervous" Addressing Test Anxiety in Inner City Schools through Play and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobman, Carrie

    2014-01-01

    The intense focus on standardized tests has created a culture of anxiety in many inner-city schools. This article presents the findings of a case study of a test anxiety program that helped inner-city students and staffs deal more productively with anxiety through play, performance, and team building. According to the findings, the program created…

  16. African American church-based HIV testing and linkage to care: assets, challenges and needs.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Jennifer M; Thompson, Keitra; Rogers, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The US National HIV AIDS strategy promotes the use of faith communities to lessen the burden of HIV in African American communities. One specific strategy presented is the use of these non-traditional venues for HIV testing and co-location of services. African American churches can be at the forefront of this endeavour through the provision of HIV testing and linkage to care. However, there are few interventions to promote the churches' involvement in both HIV testing and linkage to care. We conducted 4 focus groups (n = 39 participants), 4 interviews and 116 surveys in a mixed-methods study to examine the feasibility of a church-based HIV testing and linkage to care intervention in Philadelphia, PA, USA. Our objectives were to examine: (1) available assets, (2) challenges and barriers and (3) needs associated with church-based HIV testing and linkage to care. Analyses revealed several factors of importance, including the role of the church as an access point for testing in low-income neighbourhoods, challenges in openly discussing the relationship between sexuality and HIV, and buy-in among church leadership. These findings can support intervention development and necessitate situating African American church-based HIV testing and linkage to care interventions within a multi-level framework. PMID:26652165

  17. How increased urbanisation has induced flooding problems in the UK: A lesson for African cities?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swan, Andrew

    This paper explores the relationship between increased urbanisation and subsequent capacity problems within drainage infrastructure. The respective merits of resolving these problems using: (i) ‘quick fix’ engineered solutions and (ii) long-term ‘planning-based’ remedial measures are investigated for a UK case study catchment. In the UK context a ‘quick fix’ approach would often involve the provision of in-sewer storage (e.g. a storage chamber or oversized sewer pipes) to store excess flows, releasing them back into the sewer later for subsequent conveyance to a treatment facility or outfall. SuDS retrofitting may represent an attractive alternative to this ‘hard engineering’ approach, but has proved difficult to implement under the UK’s current regulatory framework. A long-term ‘urban planning-based’ approach, on the other hand, involving the imposition of ‘pre-urbanised’ (greenfield), or even stricter, runoff restrictions to all new developments (or redevelopments) within urban areas could incrementally reduce the storm-water runoff entering the system over time. Historical maps are used to demonstrate how the case study catchment has become increasingly urbanised over the last 50 years; and a simple modelling exercise demonstrates how this process has been directly responsible for exacerbating the catchment’s flooding problems. The case study also demonstrates practical opportunities for reducing or resolving the flooding problems with ‘quick fix’ engineered solutions, retrofit options, and long-term ‘planning-based’ remedial measures. These issues are specifically illustrated for a UK case study containing known ‘surface water’ flooding problems, but parallels to the urban African context are drawn and discussed.

  18. The influence of intergroup comparisons on Africans' intelligence test performance in a job selection context.

    PubMed

    Klein, Olivier; Pohl, Sabine; Ndagijimana, Chantal

    2007-09-01

    Sub-Saharan Africans living in Belgium (N = 69) completed a culture-free intelligence test in a simulated job selection environment. Prior to testing, the authors instructed participants that Africans' average performance on this test was generally better (positive comparison), worse (negative comparison), or equal to Belgians' performance. In a control condition, no such information was given. Results indicated that, compared with the equal and control conditions, performance was lower when intergroup comparisons were negative. In the former condition, participants were also more likely to endorse external factors that may account for lower performance. The authors interpreted the findings in line with stereotype threat theory (C. M. Steele & J. Aronson, 1995). In the context of job selection, the validity of intelligence tests conducted with members of stigmatized groups may be affected by the salience of social stereotypes and intergroup social comparisons. PMID:17933401

  19. Characterizing the learning styles and testing the science-related attitudes of African American middle school students: Implications for the underrepresentation of African Americans in the sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perine, Donald Ray

    African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans and women are underrepresented among the population of scientists and science teachers in the United States. Specifically, the shortage of African Americans teaching math and science at all levels of the educational process and going into the many science-related fields is manifested throughout the entire educational and career structure of our society. This shortage exists when compared to the total population of African Americans in this country, the population of African American students, and to society's demand for more math and science teachers and professionals of all races. One suggestion to address this problem is to update curricular and instructional programs to accommodate the learning styles of African Americans from elementary to graduate school. There is little in the published literature to help us understand the learning styles of African American middle school students and how they compare to African American adults who pursue science careers. There is also little published data to help inform us about the relationship between learning styles of African American middle school students and their attitudes toward science. The author used a learning styles inventory instrument to identify the learning style preferences of the African American students and adults. The preferences identified describe how African American students and African American adult science professionals prefer to function, learn, concentrate, and perform in their educational and work activities in the areas of: (a) immediate environment, (b) emotionality, (c) sociological needs, and (d) physical needs. The learning style preferences for the students and adults were not significantly different in key areas of preference. A Test of Science-Related Attitudes (TOSRA) was used to measure seven distinct science-related attitudes of the middle school students. A comparison of the profile of the mean scores for the students in this study

  20. Delineation of flood-prone areas and the identification of residential hotspots for two African cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Risi, Raffaele; Jalayer, Fatemeh; De Paola, Francesco; Iervolino, Iunio; Giugni, Maurizio; Topa, Maria Elena; Yonas, Nebyou; Nebebe, Alemu; Woldegerima, Tekle; Yeshitela, Kumelachew; Kibassa, Deusdedit; Shemdoe, Riziki; Cavan, Gina; Lindley, Sarah; Renner, Florian; Printz, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    This work employs two GIS-based frameworks for identifying the urban residential hot spots. This is done by overlaying a map of potentially flood prone areas (the topographic wetness index, TWI) and a map of urban morphology types (UMT) classified as residential. The topographic wetness index (TWI, Qin et al. 2011) allows for the delineation of a portion of a hydrographic basin potentially exposed to flood inundation by identifying all the areas characterized by a topographic index that exceeds a given threshold. The urban morphological types (Pauleit and Duhme 2000, Gill et al. 2008, Cavan et al. 2012) form the foundation of a classification scheme which brings together facets of urban form and function. The application of the UMTs allows the delineation of geographical units. The distinction of UMTs at a 'meso'-scale (i.e. between the city level and that of the individual units) makes a suitable basis for the spatial analysis of cities. The TWI threshold value depends on the resolution of the digital elevation model (DEM), topology of the hydrographic basin (i.e. urban, peri-urban or rural) and the constructed infrastructure (Manfreda et al. 2011). This threshold value is usually calibrated based on the results of detailed delineation of the inundation profile for selected zones. In this study, the TWI threshold is calibrated based on the calculated inundation profiles for various return periods for selected zones within the basin through a Bayesian framework. The Bayesian framework enables the probabilistic characterization of the threshold value by calculating the complementary probability of false delineation of flood prone zones as a function of various threshold values. For a given return period, the probability of false delineation is calculated as the sum of the probability of indicating a zone flood prone which is not indicated as such by the inundation profile and the probability that a zone is indicated as not flood prone but indicated as flood prone by

  1. Beliefs About Asthma and Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Low-Income Inner-City African-American Adults

    PubMed Central

    George, Maureen; Birck, Kathleen; Hufford, David J; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Weaver, Terri E

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND The gap in asthma prevalence, morbidity, and mortality is increasing in low-income racial/ethnic minority groups as compared with Caucasians. In order to address these disparities, alternative beliefs and behaviors need to be identified. OBJECTIVE To identify causal models of asthma and the context of conventional prescription versus complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in low-income African-American (AA) adults with severe asthma. DESIGN Qualitative analysis of 28 in-depth interviews. PARTICIPANTS Twenty-six women and 2 men, aged 21 to 48, who self-identified as being AA, low-income, and an inner-city resident. APPROACH Transcripts of semi-structured in-depth qualitative interviews were inductively analyzed using the constant comparison approach. RESULTS Sixty-four percent of participants held biologically correct causal models of asthma although 100% reported the use of at least 1 CAM for asthma. Biologically based therapies, humoral balance, and prayer were the most popular CAM. While most subjects trusted prescription asthma medicine, there was a preference for integration of CAM with conventional asthma treatment. Complementary and alternative medicine was considered natural, effective, and potentially curative. Sixty-three percent of participants reported nonadherence to conventional therapies in the 2 weeks before the research interview. Neither CAM nor nonmedical causal models altered most individuals (93%) willingness to use prescription medication. Three possibly dangerous CAM were identified. CONCLUSIONS Clinicians should be aware of patient-generated causal models of asthma and use of CAM in this population. Discussing patients' desire for an integrated approach to asthma management and involving social networks are 2 strategies that may enhance patient-provider partnerships and treatment fidelity. PMID:16995890

  2. Physician-patient discussions about prostate-specific antigen test use among African-American men.

    PubMed Central

    Tannor, Bernice B.; Ross, Louie

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between physician-patient discussions, demographic and health-related variables, and PSA test use. Of the previous studies that examined physician-patient discussions about PSA test use, none focused on African-American men. METHODS: Using a sample of African-American men (N=739) aged > or = 40 years who had participated in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) 2000, we assessed demographic, health status and other variables related to two PSA test use outcomes: 1) had a PSA test within the past year, and 2) had > or = 3 PSA tests within the past five years. RESULTS: More than three-fourths (76.6%) of our sample reported that their doctors had discussed with them the advantages and disadvantages of the PSA test before administering it. The bivariate analysis showed a number of variables positively associated with PSA test use including men aged > or = 50, having health insurance coverage and having participated in physician-patient discussions about the test. DISCUSSION: Despite the high percentage of men who had discussions with their doctor, there was a large number of men who had neither heard of nor undergone a PSA test. More efforts should be made by the healthcare community to promote prostate cancer screening education and physician-patient discussions. PMID:16623065

  3. The Development of a Motivational Interviewing Intervention to Promote Medication Adherence among Inner-City, African-American Adolescents with Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Riekert, Kristin A.; Borrelli, Belinda; Bilderback, Andrew; Rand, Cynthia S.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To develop and assess the feasibility of a motivational interviewing (MI) based asthma self-management program for inner-city, African-American, adolescents with asthma. Methods 37 African-American adolescents (age 10-15 years) recently seen in an inner-city emergency department for asthma and prescribed an asthma controller medication participated in the newly developed program consisting of 5 home visits. Adolescents and their caregivers completed phone-based surveys before and after the intervention. Results 95% of the adolescents completed all 5 sessions; 89% of caregivers and 76% of adolescents believed other families would benefit from the intervention. Caregivers were more likely to report 100% adherence post-intervention compared to pre-intervention and reported a trend for adolescents taking greater responsibility for their asthma. There were no pre-post differences in adolescent-reported medication adherence, but adolescents did reported increased motivation and readiness to adhere to treatment. Caregivers and adolescents each reported statistically significant increases in their asthma quality of life. Conclusions The findings from this pilot study suggest that MI is a feasible and promising approach for increasing medication adherence among inner-city adolescents with asthma and is worthy of further evaluation in a randomized trial. PMID:20371158

  4. Human African trypanosomiasis: a latex agglutination field test for quantifying IgM in cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed Central

    Lejon, V.; Büscher, P.; Sema, N. H.; Magnus, E.; Van Meirvenne, N.

    1998-01-01

    LATEX/IgM, a rapid agglutination test for the semi-quantitative detection of IgM in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with African trypanosomiasis, is described in this article. The lyophilized reagent has been designed for field use and remains stable at 45 degrees C for one year. The test has been evaluated on cerebrospinal fluid samples from trypanosome-infected and non-infected patients, by comparison with commercial latex agglutination, radial immunodiffusion, and nephelometry. All test systems yielded similar results. PMID:10191550

  5. Predictable waves of sequential forest degradation and biodiversity loss spreading from an African city

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Neil D.; Milledge, Simon A. H.; Bulling, Mark T.; Fisher, Brendan; Smart, James C. R.; Clarke, G. Philip; Mhoro, Boniface E.; Lewis, Simon L.

    2010-01-01

    Tropical forest degradation emits carbon at a rate of ~0.5 Pg·y−1, reduces biodiversity, and facilitates forest clearance. Understanding degradation drivers and patterns is therefore crucial to managing forests to mitigate climate change and reduce biodiversity loss. Putative patterns of degradation affecting forest stocks, carbon, and biodiversity have variously been described previously, but these have not been quantitatively assessed together or tested systematically. Economic theory predicts a systematic allocation of land to its highest use value in response to distance from centers of demand. We tested this theory to see if forest exploitation would expand through time and space as concentric waves, with each wave targeting lower value products. We used forest data along a transect from 10 to 220 km from Dar es Salaam (DES), Tanzania, collected at two points in time (1991 and 2005). Our predictions were confirmed: high-value logging expanded 9 km·y−1, and an inner wave of lower value charcoal production 2 km·y−1. This resource utilization is shown to reduce the public goods of carbon storage and species richness, which significantly increased with each kilometer from DES [carbon, 0.2 Mg·ha−1; 0.1 species per sample area (0.4 ha)]. Our study suggests that tropical forest degradation can be modeled and predicted, with its attendant loss of some public goods. In sub-Saharan Africa, an area experiencing the highest rate of urban migration worldwide, coupled with a high dependence on forest-based resources, predicting the spatiotemporal patterns of degradation can inform policies designed to extract resources without unsustainably reducing carbon storage and biodiversity. PMID:20679200

  6. Predictable waves of sequential forest degradation and biodiversity loss spreading from an African city.

    PubMed

    Ahrends, Antje; Burgess, Neil D; Milledge, Simon A H; Bulling, Mark T; Fisher, Brendan; Smart, James C R; Clarke, G Philip; Mhoro, Boniface E; Lewis, Simon L

    2010-08-17

    Tropical forest degradation emits carbon at a rate of approximately 0.5 Pgxy(-1), reduces biodiversity, and facilitates forest clearance. Understanding degradation drivers and patterns is therefore crucial to managing forests to mitigate climate change and reduce biodiversity loss. Putative patterns of degradation affecting forest stocks, carbon, and biodiversity have variously been described previously, but these have not been quantitatively assessed together or tested systematically. Economic theory predicts a systematic allocation of land to its highest use value in response to distance from centers of demand. We tested this theory to see if forest exploitation would expand through time and space as concentric waves, with each wave targeting lower value products. We used forest data along a transect from 10 to 220 km from Dar es Salaam (DES), Tanzania, collected at two points in time (1991 and 2005). Our predictions were confirmed: high-value logging expanded 9 kmxy(-1), and an inner wave of lower value charcoal production 2 kmxy(-1). This resource utilization is shown to reduce the public goods of carbon storage and species richness, which significantly increased with each kilometer from DES [carbon, 0.2 Mgxha(-1); 0.1 species per sample area (0.4 ha)]. Our study suggests that tropical forest degradation can be modeled and predicted, with its attendant loss of some public goods. In sub-Saharan Africa, an area experiencing the highest rate of urban migration worldwide, coupled with a high dependence on forest-based resources, predicting the spatiotemporal patterns of degradation can inform policies designed to extract resources without unsustainably reducing carbon storage and biodiversity. PMID:20679200

  7. African American Women Working in the Twin Cities during the Mid-Twentieth Century: Discovering Their Vocational Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Sharon F.

    2010-01-01

    Existing scholarship has no examination of attributing the discourse on vocational identity to African American women, which in this study, has been defined as what a woman ought to be and do. African American women have been a subject of scholarly inquiry on having the longest history of paid work. This qualitative dissertation contains their…

  8. Addressing criticisms of existing predictive bias research: cognitive ability test scores still overpredict African Americans' job performance.

    PubMed

    Berry, Christopher M; Zhao, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Predictive bias studies have generally suggested that cognitive ability test scores overpredict job performance of African Americans, meaning these tests are not predictively biased against African Americans. However, at least 2 issues call into question existing over-/underprediction evidence: (a) a bias identified by Aguinis, Culpepper, and Pierce (2010) in the intercept test typically used to assess over-/underprediction and (b) a focus on the level of observed validity instead of operational validity. The present study developed and utilized a method of assessing over-/underprediction that draws on the math of subgroup regression intercept differences, does not rely on the biased intercept test, allows for analysis at the level of operational validity, and can use meta-analytic estimates as input values. Therefore, existing meta-analytic estimates of key parameters, corrected for relevant statistical artifacts, were used to determine whether African American job performance remains overpredicted at the level of operational validity. African American job performance was typically overpredicted by cognitive ability tests across levels of job complexity and across conditions wherein African American and White regression slopes did and did not differ. Because the present study does not rely on the biased intercept test and because appropriate statistical artifact corrections were carried out, the present study's results are not affected by the 2 issues mentioned above. The present study represents strong evidence that cognitive ability tests generally overpredict job performance of African Americans. PMID:25150378

  9. The hustle and bustle of city life: monitoring the effects of urbanisation in the African lesser bushbaby

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheun, Juan; Bennett, Nigel C.; Ganswindt, Andre; Nowack, Julia

    2015-10-01

    Urbanisation has become a severe threat to pristine natural areas, causing habitat loss and affecting indigenous animals. Species occurring within an urban fragmented landscape must cope with changes in vegetation type as well as high degrees of anthropogenic disturbance, both of which are possible key mechanisms contributing to behavioural changes and perceived stressors. We attempted to elucidate the effects of urbanisation on the African lesser bushbaby, Galago moholi, by (1) recording activity budgets and body condition (body mass index, BMI) of individuals of urban and rural populations and (2) further determining adrenocortical activity in both populations as a measure of stress via faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) levels, following successful validation of an appropriate enzyme immunoassay test system (adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge test). We found that both sexes of the urban population had significantly higher BMIs than their rural counterparts, while urban females had significantly higher fGCM concentrations than rural females. While individuals in the urban population fed mainly on provisioned anthropogenic food sources and spent comparatively more time resting and engaging in aggressive interactions, rural individuals fed almost exclusively on tree exudates and spent more time moving between food sources. Although interactions with humans are likely to be lower in nocturnal than in diurnal species, our findings show that the impact of urbanisation on nocturnal species is still considerable, affecting a range of ecological and physiological aspects.

  10. The hustle and bustle of city life: monitoring the effects of urbanisation in the African lesser bushbaby.

    PubMed

    Scheun, Juan; Bennett, Nigel C; Ganswindt, Andre; Nowack, Julia

    2015-10-01

    Urbanisation has become a severe threat to pristine natural areas, causing habitat loss and affecting indigenous animals. Species occurring within an urban fragmented landscape must cope with changes in vegetation type as well as high degrees of anthropogenic disturbance, both of which are possible key mechanisms contributing to behavioural changes and perceived stressors. We attempted to elucidate the effects of urbanisation on the African lesser bushbaby, Galago moholi, by (1) recording activity budgets and body condition (body mass index, BMI) of individuals of urban and rural populations and (2) further determining adrenocortical activity in both populations as a measure of stress via faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) levels, following successful validation of an appropriate enzyme immunoassay test system (adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge test). We found that both sexes of the urban population had significantly higher BMIs than their rural counterparts, while urban females had significantly higher fGCM concentrations than rural females. While individuals in the urban population fed mainly on provisioned anthropogenic food sources and spent comparatively more time resting and engaging in aggressive interactions, rural individuals fed almost exclusively on tree exudates and spent more time moving between food sources. Although interactions with humans are likely to be lower in nocturnal than in diurnal species, our findings show that the impact of urbanisation on nocturnal species is still considerable, affecting a range of ecological and physiological aspects. PMID:26336811

  11. IMMUNOLOCALIZATION OF INHIBIN/ACTIVIN SUBUNITS AND STEROIDOGENIC ENZYMES IN THE TESTES OF AN ADULT AFRICAN ELEPHANT (LOXODONTA AFRICANA).

    PubMed

    Li, Qinglin; Lu, Lu; Weng, Qiang; Kawakami, Shigehisa; Saito, Eriko; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Yuki; Kaewmanee, Saroch; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2016-06-01

    In this case report, the authors investigated immunolocalization of inhibin α and inhibin/activin βA and βB subunits, as well as steroidogenic enzymes, in the testes of an African elephant. Testes were collected from a reproductively active male African elephant (24 yr old) at autopsy. Histologically, all types of spermatogenic cells including mature-phase spermatozoa were found in the seminiferous tubules. Positive immunostaining for inhibin α and inhibin/activin βA and βB subunits was observed in Sertoli and Leydig cells. In addition, P450scc, 3βHSD, P450c17, and P450arom were also detected in the cytoplasm of Leydig cells. These results suggested that Leydig cells of adult African elephant testes have the ability to synthesize progestin, androgen, and estrogen, whereas both Sertoli and Leydig cells appear as a major source of inhibin secretion in the male African elephant. PMID:27468011

  12. HIV testing practices of South African township MSM in the era of expanded access to ART.

    PubMed

    Sandfort, Theo G M; Knox, Justin; Collier, Kate L; Lane, Tim; Reddy, Vasu

    2015-03-01

    While men who have sex with men (MSM) in Africa are at high risk for HIV infection, few of those already infected know their status. Effectively promoting frequent HIV testing-of increasing importance with the expanding accessibility of antiretroviral treatment-requires an understanding of the testing practices in this population. To understand men's HIV testing practices, including their behavior, experiences, and perceptions, we conducted in-depth interviews with 81 black South African MSM (ages 20-39), purposively recruited from four townships. Many men in the sample had tested for HIV. While ever having tested seemed to facilitate repeat testing, men still expressed a high level of discomfort with testing. It was common to test after having engaged in risky behavior, thus increasing anxiety about testing that was already present. Fear that they might test HIV positive caused some men to avoid testing until they were clearly sick, and others to avoid testing completely. HIV testing may increase in this population if it becomes a routine practice, instead of being driven by anxiety-inducing incidents. Mobilization through social support might facilitate frequent testing while education about current treatment options is needed. PMID:25103866

  13. An ICT-Based Diabetes Management System Tested for Health Care Delivery in the African Context

    PubMed Central

    Takenga, Claude; Berndt, Rolf-Dietrich; Musongya, Olivier; Kitero, Joël; Katoke, Remi; Molo, Kakule; Kazingufu, Basile; Meni, Malikwisha; Vikandy, Mambo; Takenga, Henri

    2014-01-01

    The demand for new healthcare services is growing rapidly. Improving accessibility of the African population to diabetes care seems to be a big challenge in most countries where the number of care centers and medical staff is reduced. Information and communication technologies (ICT) have great potential to address some of these challenges faced by several countries in providing accessible, cost-effective, and high-quality health care services. This paper presents the Mobil Diab system which is a telemedical approach proposed for the management of long-term diseases. The system applies modern mobile and web technologies which overcome geographical barriers, and increase access to health care services. The idea of the system is to involve patients in the therapy process and motivate them for an active participation. For validation of the system in African context, a trial was conducted in the Democratic Republic of Congo. 40 Subjects with diabetes divided randomly into control and intervention groups were included in the test. Results show that Mobil Diab is suitable for African countries and presents a number of benefits for the population and public health care system. It improves clinical management and delivery of diabetes care services by enhancing access, quality, motivation, reassurance, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness. PMID:25136358

  14. Determination of HIV status in African adults with discordant HIV rapid tests

    PubMed Central

    Fogel, Jessica M.; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Donohue, Kelsey; Cummings, Vanessa; Marzinke, Mark A.; Clarke, William; Breaud, Autumn; Fiamma, Agnès; Donnell, Deborah; Kulich, Michal; Mbwambo, Jessie K. K.; Richter, Linda; Gray, Glenda; Sweat, Michael; Coates, Thomas J.; Eshleman, Susan H.

    2015-01-01

    Background In resource-limited settings, HIV infection is often diagnosed using two rapid tests. If the results are discordant, a third tie-breaker test is often used to determine HIV status. This study characterized samples with discordant rapid tests and compared different testing strategies for determining HIV status in these cases. Methods Samples were previously collected from 173 African adults in a population-based survey who had discordant rapid test results. Samples were classified as HIV positive or HIV negative using a rigorous testing algorithm that included two fourth-generation tests, a discriminatory test, and two HIV RNA tests. Tie-breaker tests were evaluated, including: rapid tests (one performed in-country), a third-generation enzyme immunoassay (EIA), and two fourth-generation tests. Selected samples were further characterized using additional assays. Results Twenty-nine (16.8%) samples were classified as HIV positive; 24 (82.8%) of those samples had undetectable HIV RNA. Antiretroviral drugs were detected in one sample. Sensitivity was 8.3%–43% for the rapid tests; 24.1% for the third-generation EIA; 95.8% and 96.6% for the fourth-generation tests. Specificity was lower for the fourth-generation tests than the other tests. Accuracy ranged from 79.5–91.3%. Conclusions In this population-based survey, most HIV-infected adults with discordant rapid tests were virally suppressed without antiretroviral drugs. Use of individual assays as tie-breaker tests was not a reliable method for determining HIV status in these individuals. More extensive testing algorithms that use a fourth-generation screening test with a discriminatory test and HIV RNA test are preferable for determining HIV status in these cases. PMID:25835607

  15. HIV testing practices of South African township MSM in the era of expanded access to ART

    PubMed Central

    Sandfort, Theo G. M.; Knox, Justin; Collier, Kate L.; Lane, Tim; Reddy, Vasu

    2014-01-01

    While men who have sex with men (MSM) in Africa are at high risk for HIV infection, few of those already infected know their status. Effectively promoting frequent HIV testing—of increasing importance with the expanding accessibility of antiretroviral treatment—requires an understanding of the testing practices in this population. To understand men’s HIV testing practices, including their behavior, experiences, and perceptions, we conducted in-depth interviews with 81 black South African MSM (ages 20–39), purposively recruited from four townships. Many men in the sample had tested for HIV. While ever having tested seemed to facilitate repeat testing, men still expressed a high level of discomfort with testing. It was common to test after having engaged in risky behavior, thus increasing anxiety about testing that was already present. Fear that they might test HIV positive caused some men to avoid testing until they were clearly sick, and others to avoid testing completely. HIV testing may increase in this population if it becomes a routine practice, instead of being driven by anxiety-inducing incidents. Mobilization through social support might facilitate frequent testing while education about current treatment options is needed. PMID:25103866

  16. African-Americans' Test-taking Attitudes and Their Effect on Cognitive Ability Test Performance: Implications for Public Personnel Management Selection Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Patrick F.; Doverspike, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    Review of three research studies shows that some African Americans have negative perceptions of cognitive ability tests, including concerns that they may substantiate stereotypes. These attitudes may influence motivation, anxiety, and test performance. Training in test-taking skills and use of alternative testing formats are possible solutions.…

  17. Analysis of Kuwait Temperature Records: Test of Heat Island Existence in Kuwait City Arid Environment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasrallah, Hasan Ali

    Very few arid land cities have been studied to determine local climate effects developing from rapid urban growth in the twentieth century. Kuwait City in the State of Kuwait is examined to determine the significance of urban growth on heating in the region. The study examines recent changes in temperature for the State of Kuwait for the period 1958-1980. During this time period, Kuwait has experienced explosive urban growth from 0.2 million to 1.7 million population. Simple parametric inferential statistics are employed to monthly temperature records from seven locations in and adjacent to Kuwait City. These tests are conducted to determine the connection between urbanization and the development of urban heating effects. The statistical tests employ a national "benchmark" desert site; a rural, agricultural benchmark site in the State of Kuwait; and stations in Bahrain, Eilat, Riyadh, Abadan, and Baghdad. The analysis illustrates that there is only a modest level of urban heating detectable in temperature records from the region of Kuwait. This finding runs counter to prevailing literature on urban climatology, which generally states that urban heating depends strongly on urban extent and population growth. Upon inspection of geographic location and surficial characteristics of Kuwait City, two hypotheses are suggested for the low order urban heating detected: (1) cooling effects of advected Arabian Gulf air across the city, and, (2) the lack of substantive spatial differences of surface albedo, thermal inertia, surface moisture, and aerosol heating. However, Kuwait's morphological (i.e., building geometry) characteristics, according to urban canyon-heat island theory, should have promoted a 7 ^circC heat island in Kuwait City. A test of this theory revealed no such heat island of that magnitude. One major reason relates to station network inadequacy to portray the extent of Kuwait City's heat island development through time. More research, including modeling and

  18. Design and Testing of an Interactive Smoking Cessation Intervention for Inner-City Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Anna M.; Casper, Gail R.; Hutchison, Sondra K.; Stratton, Renee M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design and test the usability of a computer-mediated smoking cessation program for inner-city women. Design and content were developed consistent with principles of user-centered design. Formative and summative evaluation strategies were utilized in its testing. The summative evaluation was designed to test…

  19. Testing Black Students: Implications for Assessing Inner-City Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, LaMar P.

    1975-01-01

    Reviews some of the specific issues that underlie the testing controversy and suggests that it has become increasingly difficult to separate the issue of testing from the realities of a political situation which leaves black children at the mercy of a unified white majority that is often indifferent to their educational welfare. (Author/AM)

  20. Community influences on married men's uptake of HIV testing in eight African countries.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Rob; Miriam Elfstrom, K; Winter, Amy

    2013-09-01

    Despite efforts to increase HIV testing in the African region, the proportion of men who report ever having been tested for HIV remains low. Research has focused on individual level determinants of women's testing however little is known about factors associated with men's testing behavior. This analysis investigates community influences on HIV testing among men ages 15-54, using Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data from Chad, Ghana, Malawi, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Multilevel models were fitted in each country for the outcome of ever receiving an HIV test. After controlling for individual and household level factors, community level factors of demographics, economics, and behavior and knowledge remain significantly associated with HIV testing among men. The results of this analysis highlight the need to recognize the impact of community influences on men's HIV test seeking behavior, and to harness these community factors in the design of programs aimed at encouraging the uptake of HIV testing among men in Africa. PMID:22677974

  1. Diurnal and intra-urban particle concentrations in relation to windspeed and stability during the dry season in three African cities.

    PubMed

    Eliasson, I; Jonsson, P; Holmer, B

    2009-07-01

    The spatial and temporal variations of PM(2.5), PM(10) and TSP in three African cities of different sizes (Dar es Salaam, Ouagadougou and Gaborone) were investigated using portable particle counters. Three different areas (downtown, green residential and traditional residential) and a reference site were designated in each of the cities in order to detect intra-urban and temporal variability. Morning, noon and night measurements were conducted in the urban areas while observations at reference stations were made continuously over the field periods. A clear diurnal pattern in particle concentrations was found in inland Gaborone and Ouagadougou, with morning and night peaks where the latter was the highest. However, in coastal Dar es Salaam the night peak was almost absent due to delayed stabilisation of the air. Particle concentrations at the Ouagadougou reference station were extreme. The direct contribution of vehicle emissions are of secondary importance since the PM(2.5)/PM(10) ratios are low (0.1-0.3). Much of the particles are supposed to be soil particles that are entrained in the air by daytime high windspeeds followed by nighttime subsidence as the air is stabilised and windspeed decreases. However, in all three cities, resuspension are important as areas with a network of unpaved roads showed the highest concentrations of suspended particles. Generally, the central business district had the lowest concentrations of particulate matter. PMID:18607763

  2. Is the Moratorium over? African American Psychology Professionals' Views on Intelligence Testing in Response to Changes to Federal Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Scott; Mitchell, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Collectively, advocates for the well-being of African American children have long called for a moratorium on the use of intelligence testing for the placement of children in special education. With the 2004 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, intelligence testing is no longer required and in some states prohibited…

  3. A Matter of Vocabulary II: Low-Income African American Children's Performance on the Expressive Vocabulary Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Allyssa; Champion, Tempii B.

    2010-01-01

    The "Expressive Vocabulary Test" (EVT) has recently been found culturally fair for an economically mixed sample of African American children, and others have argued that it is fairer for such participants than the "Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III" (PPVT-III). In this study, the authors sought to replicate these findings with an exclusively…

  4. Academic Achievement of African American Boys: A City-Wide, Community-Based Investigation of Risk and Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fantuzzo, John; LeBoeuf, Whitney; Rouse, Heather; Chen, Chin-Chih

    2012-01-01

    In light of persistent Black-White achievement gaps for boys, this study examined publicly monitored risks believed to be associated with being behind academically for an entire subpopulation of African American boys in a large urban public school district. Also examined were indicators of academic engagement hypothesized to mediate the relations…

  5. HUB city steps: a 6-month lifestyle intervention improves blood pressure among a primarily African American community

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of community-based participatory research (CBPR) efforts to address the disproportionate burden of hypertension among African Americans remains largely untested. The objective of this 6-month, non-controlled, pre- post-experimental intervention was to examine the effectiveness of ...

  6. A Longitudinal Study of Depressive Symptoms and Marijuana Use in a Sample of Inner-City African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repetto, Paula B.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2008-01-01

    The association between marijuana use and depressive symptoms was examined longitudinally in a sample of 622 African American youth, interviewed on six occasions, using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM). We considered whether depressive symptoms predicted changes in marijuana use and vice versa from high school through the transition into young…

  7. Attacking the African American-White Achievement Gap on College Admissions Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettles, Michael T.; Millett, Catherine M.; Ready, Douglas D.

    2003-01-01

    The African American-white achievement gap exists even among the youngest children; African American students arrive at kindergarten considerably behind their white peers in measurable cognitive skills. Although the gap has narrowed somewhat over the past several decades, the average African American still scores below 75 percent of white students…

  8. A PROGRAM OF RESEARCH WITH HISPANIC AND AFRICAN AMERICAN FAMILIES: THREE DECADES OF INTERVENTION DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING INFLUENCED BY THE CHANGING CULUTURAL CONTEXT OF MIAMI

    PubMed Central

    Muir, Joan A.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Szapocznik, José

    2005-01-01

    In this article we summarize work with poor, inner-city Hispanic and African American families conducted at the University of Miami Center for Family Studies. We elucidate ways in which this research program has paralleled the treatment development paradigm and has been responsive to changes in local demographics. Specific cultural issues pertaining to Hispanics and African Americans are discussed in light of treatment development and implementation. Future directions and challenges for working with poor, inner-city minority families are addressed. PMID:15293648

  9. Acceptability of a Community-Based Outreach HIV-Testing Intervention Using Oral Fluid Collection Devices and Web-Based HIV Test Result Collection Among Sub-Saharan African Migrants: A Mixed-Method Study

    PubMed Central

    Manirankunda, Lazare; Platteau, Tom; Albers, Laura; Fransen, Katrien; Vermoesen, Tine; Namanya, Fiona; Nöstlinger, Christiana

    2016-01-01

    Background Late human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnosis is common among sub-Saharan African migrants. To address their barriers to HIV testing uptake and improve timely HIV diagnoses and linkage to care, the outreach HIV testing intervention, “swab2know,” was developed. It combined a community-based approach with innovative testing methods: oral fluid self-sampling and the choice between Web-based HIV test result collections using a secured website or post-test counseling at a sexual health clinic. The sessions included an informational speech delivered by a physician of sub-Saharan African origin and testimonies by community members living with HIV. Objectives The objectives of this study were to evaluate the intervention’s acceptability among sub-Saharan African migrants and its potential to reach subgroups at higher risk for HIV infection and to identify facilitators and barriers for HIV testing uptake. Methods This mixed-method study combined qualitative (participant observations and informal interviews with testers and nontesters) and quantitative data (paper–pencil survey, laboratory data, and result collection files). Data were analyzed using a content analytical approach for qualitative and univariate analysis for quantitative data. Results A total of 10 testing sessions were organized in sub-Saharan African migrant community venues in the city of Antwerp, Belgium, between December 2012 and June 2013. Overall, 18.2% of all people present (N=780) underwent HIV testing; 29.8% of them tested for HIV for the first time, 22.3% did not have a general practitioner, and 21.5% reported 2 or more sexual partners (last 3 months). Overall, 56.3% of participants chose to collect their HIV test results via the protected website. In total, 78.9% collected their results. The qualitative analysis of 137 participant observation field notes showed that personal needs and Internet literacy determined the choice of result collection method. Generally, the oral

  10. To Test or Not to Test: Barriers and Solutions to Testing African American College Students for HIV at a Historically Black College/University

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Naomi M.; Peterson, Jennifer; Johnson, Malynnda

    2014-01-01

    Young African Americans are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. The purpose was to identify reasons that African American college students at a historically Black college/university (HBCU) identified as barriers to HIV testing, and how these barriers can be removed. Fifty-seven heterosexual-identified undergraduate students (ages 18–25) attending an HBCU in the southeastern US participated in a mixed method study. Latent content analytic techniques were used to code the transcripts for themes and categories, and representative quotations were used in the findings. Quantitative data indicates high levels of perceived knowledge about HIV transmission, low perception of risk and concern of contracting HIV, yet continued sexual risk behavior. Qualitative data indicates three main themes used to avoid testing and three themes to encourage testing. Students were forthcoming in discussing the themes around avoidance of HIV testing (being scared to know, preferring not to know, and lack of discussion about HIV) and encouraging testing (group testing, increasing basic knowledge, and showing the reality of HIV). It is important for college healthcare professionals, researchers, and officials to identify appropriate ways to encourage HIV testing, and promote testing as part of overall health. PMID:25530921

  11. Social integration and suicide-related ideation from a social network perspective: a longitudinal study among inner-city African Americans.

    PubMed

    Kuramoto, S Janet; Wilcox, Holly C; Latkin, Carl A

    2013-08-01

    Social network density, as measured by the extent to which network members know each other, was examined to determine whether it is associated with suicide-related ideation and plan approximately 3 years later. Eight hundred and nineteen African Americans were interviewed at Wave 1 (1997-1999) and Wave 4 (2001-2003) of the Self-Help In Eliminating Life-Threatening Diseases (SHIELD) study, a HIV preventive intervention study in Baltimore, MD. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to compare risks of suicide-related ideation and plan at Wave 4 by Wave 1 density. Even after adjusting for baseline sociodemographic characteristics and depressive symptoms, individuals with a lower level of density were three times more likely to report suicide-related ideation and plan in the past year at Wave 4. The findings reinforce the importance of social integration among inner-city African Americans from a social network perspective. Future research should examine the mechanisms associated with this relationship and other social network constructs. PMID:23530665

  12. Perceptions of HIV risks and prevention strategies by rural and small city African Americans who use cocaine: views from the inside.

    PubMed

    Brown, Emma J; Hill, Mary Angelique

    2005-05-01

    HIV/AIDS disproportionately affects African Americans, yet knowledge gaps exist regarding their views of risks and effective prevention strategies. This focus group study of rural and small city African Americans who use drugs sought to assess these perceptions. Common views of HIV risks included drug use, physical appearance as an indicator of HIV status, intentional transmission, having multiple partners, unprotected sex, bisexuality, and unfounded trust. Trading sex for drugs and unprotected sex when high were seen as drug use/HIV risk links, while HIV education and condom use were identified as ways to decrease risk. Perceptions of effective strategies included community-based programs, gender specific groups, providing food or other incentives, and making the program fun. Healthcare professionals and parents were viewed as the best people to promote HIV prevention. Based on the findings, effective intervention for this target group should encompass ethnocentric community-based strategies that focus on HIV education, condom use skills, and drug risk reduction. PMID:16020054

  13. Evaluation of Madison Park PLATO Training on August 2000 BPS City Algebra Test Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Christopher F.

    This report presents empirical findings from the analysis of the performance of 85 students from Madison Park High School, Boston, Massachusetts, on the Boston Public Schools City Algebra Test (BPSCAT) in June and August 2000, and how their participation in Jobs for Youths Boston PLATO computer-based instruction in the intervening months may have…

  14. Why Take an HIV Test? Concerns, Benefits, and Strategies to Promote HIV Testing among Low-Income Heterosexual African American Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Scyatta A.; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Harris, Muriel J.; Townsend, Tiffany G.; Miller, Kim S.

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative study examined perceptions of HIV testing and strategies to enhance HIV testing among HIV-negative African American heterosexual young adults (ages 18-25 years). Twenty-six focus groups (13 male groups, 13 female groups) were conducted in two low-income communities (urban and rural). All sessions were audio-recorded and transcribed.…

  15. Welfare Reform in the mid-2000s: How African-American and Hispanic Families in Three Cities are Faring

    PubMed Central

    Cherlin, Andrew; Frogner, Bianca; Ribar, David; Moffitt, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a sample of 538 African American and Hispanic women who were receiving TANF in 1999, 416 of whom left the program by 2005. The Hispanic women consisted of a Mexican-origin group and a second group that was primarily Puerto Rican and Dominican. Combining the experiences of the employed and the non-employed welfare leavers, we find at best a modest decline in the average poverty rate among African American welfare leavers between 1999 and 2005. Mexican-origin and other Hispanic leavers showed larger average declines in poverty. Among just the welfare leavers who were employed in 2005, the averages for women in all racial-ethnic groups showed increases in household income and declines in poverty. Among those who were not employed, African-Americans had experienced a decline in household income and were further below the poverty line than in 1999, whereas Hispanic women had experienced modest declines or slight increases in their household incomes. PMID:20046222

  16. The African disability scooter: efficiency testing in paediatric amputees in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Beckles, Verona; McCahill, Jennifer L.; Stebbins, Julie; Mkandawire, Nyengo; Church, John C. T.; Lavy, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: The African Disability Scooter (ADS) was developed for lower limb amputees, to improve mobility and provide access to different terrains. The aim of this study was to test the efficiency of the ADS in Africa over different terrains. Method: Eight subjects with a mean age of 12 years participated. Energy expenditure and speed were calculated over different terrains using the ADS, a prosthetic limb, and crutches. Repeated testing was completed on different days to assess learning effect. Results: Speed was significantly faster with the ADS on a level surface compared to crutch walking. This difference was maintained when using the scooter on rough terrain. Oxygen cost was halved with the scooter on level ground compared to crutch walking. There were no significant differences in oxygen consumption or heart rate. There were significant differences in oxygen cost and speed between days using the scooter over level ground, suggesting the presence of a learning effect. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the ADS is faster and more energy efficient than crutch walking in young individuals with amputations, and should be considered as an alternative to a prosthesis where this is not available. The presence of a learning effect suggests supervision and training is required when the scooter is first issued.Implications for RehabilitationThe African Disability Scooter:is faster than crutch walking in amputees;is more energy efficient than walking with crutches;supervised use is needed when learning to use the device;is a good alternative/adjunct for mobility. PMID:25316033

  17. Do neuropsychological test norms from African Americans in the United States generalize to a Zambian population?

    PubMed

    Hestad, Knut A; Menon, J Anitha; Serpell, Robert; Kalungwana, Lisa; Mwaba, Sidney O C; Kabuba, Norma; Franklin, Donald R; Umlauf, Anya; Letendre, Scott; Heaton, Robert K

    2016-01-01

    Healthy Zambian adults (N = 324) were evaluated to determine to what degree a Western neuropsychological (NP) test battery, with African American norms adjusted for age, gender, and education could be used in healthy Zambians, including 157 men (48.46%) and 167 women (51.54%) with an average age of 38.48 (SD = 12.80) years and an average education level of 11.02 (SD = 2.58) years. The NP battery included tests of attention/working memory, executive function, verbal fluency, processing speed, verbal and visual episodic memory, and fine motor skills. The Zambian Achievement Test (ZAT) and the U.S. Wide Range Achievement Test-4 (WRAT-4) reading subtest also were administered to assess literacy and quality of education. Similar to findings in Western countries, the Zambian results show substantial age and education effects on most tests and smaller, less consistent effects of gender. Beyond the basic demographic effects, urban/rural background had small effects on some cognitive variables, and the ZAT (but not WRAT-4) reading level was a robust predictor of performance on many NP tests, even when other background characteristics were controlled. Women in the United States tend to outperform men on tests of processing speed and episodic memory. However, Zambian women showed modest but statistically significant disadvantages versus their male counterparts. The results show that tests developed in the United States may be used in Zambia. Nevertheless, development and use of local cultural norms remains very important and is a must. New demographically corrected norms were developed for the cohort that was examined. PMID:26146950

  18. Contraceptive Use and Uptake of HIV-Testing among Sub-Saharan African Women

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Jayleen K. L.; Asaolu, Ibitola O.; Gibson, Steven J.; Ehiri, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Despite improved availability of simple, relatively inexpensive, and highly effective antiretroviral treatment for HIV/AIDS, the disease remains a major public health challenge for women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Given the numerous barriers in access to care for women in this region, every health issue that brings them into contact with the health system should be optimized as an opportunity to integrate HIV/AIDS prevention. Because most non-condom forms of modern contraception require a clinical appointment for use, contraception appointments could provide a confidential opportunity for access to HIV counseling, testing, and referral to care. This study sought to investigate the relationship between contraceptive methods and HIV testing among women in SSA. Data from the Demographic and Health Survey from four African countries—Congo, Mozambique, Nigeria, and Uganda—was used to examine whether modern (e.g., pills, condom) or traditional (e.g., periodic abstinence, withdrawal) forms of contraception were associated with uptake of HIV testing. Data for the current analyses were restricted to 35,748 women with complete information on the variables of interest. Chi-square tests and logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between uptake of HIV testing and respondents' baseline characteristics and contraceptive methods. In the total sample and in Mozambique, women who used modern forms of contraception were more likely to be tested for HIV compared to those who did not use contraception. This positive association was not demonstrated in Congo, Nigeria, or Uganda. That many women who access modern contraception are not tested for HIV in high HIV burden areas highlights a missed opportunity to deliver an important intervention to promote maternal and child health. Given the increasing popularity of hormonal contraception methods in low-income countries, there is an urgent need to integrate HIV counseling, testing, and treatment into family

  19. A Comprehensive Test of the Health Belief Model in the Prediction of Condom Use among African American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winfield, Evelyn B.; Whaley, Arthur L.

    2002-01-01

    Tested an expanded version of the Health Belief Model (HBM) in predicting condom use among heterosexual African American college students. Overall, only the core HBM explained a significant amount of variance in condom use. Perceived barriers and gender significantly predicted condom use. Perceived barriers mediated the correlation between gender…

  20. Mean reversion in the current account of forty-eight african countries: Evidence from the Panel SURADF test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Hsiao-Ping; Chang, Tsangyao; Chang, Hsu-Ling; Su, Chi-Wei; Yuan, Young

    2007-10-01

    Here, the Panel seemingly unrelated regressions augmented Dickey-Fuller test (SURADF) test, first introduced and advanced by Breuer et al. [Misleading inferences from panel unit-root tests with an illustration from purchasing power parity, Rev. Int. Econ. 9(3) (2001) 482-493], is used to investigate the mean-reverting behavior of the current account of 48 African countries during the 1980-2004 periods. The empirical results from numerous panel-based unit root tests, conducted earlier, indicated that the current account of each of these countries is stationary; however, when Breuer et al.'s (2001) Panel SURADF test is conducted, it is found that a unit root exists in the current account of 11 of the countries studied. These results have one extremely important policy implication for the 48 African countries studied: the current account deficit of most is sustainable, and thus signifying that those nations should have no incentive to default on their international debt.

  1. HUB city steps: a 6-month lifestyle intervention improves blood pressure among a primarily African-American community.

    PubMed

    Zoellner, Jamie; Connell, Carol; Madson, Michael B; Thomson, Jessica L; Landry, Alicia S; Fontenot Molaison, Elaine; Blakely Reed, Vickie; Yadrick, Kathleen

    2014-04-01

    The effectiveness of community-based participatory research (CBPR) efforts to address the disproportionate burden of hypertension among African Americans remains largely untested. The objective of this 6-month, noncontrolled, pre-/post-experimental intervention was to examine the effectiveness of a CBPR intervention in achieving improvements in blood pressure, anthropometric measures, biological measures, and diet. Conducted in 2010, this multicomponent lifestyle intervention included motivational enhancement, social support provided by peer coaches, pedometer diary self-monitoring, and monthly nutrition and physical activity education sessions. Of 269 enrolled participants, 94% were African American and 85% were female. Statistical analysis included generalized linear mixed models using maximum likelihood estimation. From baseline to 6 months, blood pressure decreased significantly: mean (± standard deviation) systolic blood pressure decreased from 126.0 ± 19.1 to 119.6 ± 15.8 mm Hg, P=0.0002; mean diastolic blood pressure decreased from 83.2 ± 12.3 to 78.6 ± 11.1 mm Hg, P<0.0001). Sugar intake also decreased significantly as compared with baseline (by approximately 3 tsp; P<0.0001). Time differences were not apparent for any other measures. Results from this study suggest that CBPR efforts are a viable and effective strategy for implementing nonpharmacologic, multicomponent, lifestyle interventions that can help address the persistent racial and ethnic disparities in hypertension treatment and control. Outcome findings help fill gaps in the literature for effectively translating lifestyle interventions to reach and engage African-American communities to reduce the burden of hypertension. PMID:24534602

  2. An Australasian test of the recent African origin theory using the WLH-50 calvarium.

    PubMed

    Hawks, J; Oh, S; Hunley, K; Dobson, S; Cabana, G; Dayalu, P; Wolpoff, M H

    2000-07-01

    This analysis investigates the ancestry of a single modern human specimen from Australia, WLH-50 (Thorne et al., in preparation; Webb, 1989). Evaluating its ancestry is important to our understanding of modern human origins in Australasia because the prevailing models of human origins make different predictions for the ancestry of this specimen, and others like it. Some authors believe in the validity of a complete replacement theory and propose that modern humans in Australasia descended solely from earlier modern human populations found in Late Pleistocene Africa and the Levant. These ancestral modern populations are believed to have completely replaced other archaic human populations, including the Ngandong hominids of Indonesia. According to this recent African origin theory, the archaic humans from Indonesia are classified as Homo erectus, a different evolutionary species that could not have contributed to the ancestry of modern Australasians. Therefore this theory of complete replacement makes clear predictions concerning the ancestry of the specimen WLH-50. We tested these predictions using two methods: a discriminant analysis of metric data for three samples that are potential ancestors of WLH-50 (Ngandong, Late Pleistocene Africans, Levant hominids from Skhul and Qafzeh) and a pairwise difference analysis of nonmetric data for individuals within these samples. The results of these procedures provide an unambiguous refutation of a model of complete replacement within this region, and indicate that the Ngandong hominids or a population like them may have contributed significantly to the ancestry of WLH-50. We therefore contend that Ngandong hominids should be classified within the evolutionary species, Homo sapiens. The Multiregional model of human evolution has the expectation that Australasian ancestry is in all three of the potentially ancestral groups and best explains modern Australasian origins. PMID:10896810

  3. Making sense of HIV testing: social representations in young Africans' HIV-related narratives from six countries.

    PubMed

    Beres, Laura K; Winskell, Kate; Neri, Elizabeth M; Mbakwem, Benjamin; Obyerodhyambo, Oby

    2013-01-01

    HIV testing and counselling are a critical intervention to support treatment access and prevent new infections. Despite high rates of infection, few young Africans know their HIV status. With the aim of informing initiatives that encourage HIV testing and access to testing benefits, this study seeks to understand how young Africans make sense of HIV testing. We conducted thematic narrative-based analysis of a stratified random sample (n = 586, ≈ 5%) from 11,354 narratives written in 2005 by males and females aged 10-24 from six sub-Saharan African countries for the 'Scenarios from Africa' scriptwriting contest which invites young people to contribute ideas for short films about HIV. The factors represented by the young authors as influencing testing behaviour and outcomes are complex and interactive, indicating that interventions that are not contextually appropriate are unlikely to affect a shift towards increased testing or improved post-testing outcomes. The narratives point to opportunities to increase HIV testing in this demographic. PMID:24004339

  4. Providers' perceptions and practices regarding BRCA1/2 genetic counseling and testing in African American women.

    PubMed

    Graves, Kristi D; Christopher, Juleen; Harrison, Toni Michelle; Peshkin, Beth N; Isaacs, Claudine; Sheppard, Vanessa B

    2011-12-01

    We examined healthcare providers' perceptions of genetic counseling and testing in African American women at moderate to high-risk of carrying a BRCA1/2 mutation. We conducted 20 in-depth interviews with genetic counselors (n = 5), medical oncologists (n = 8), obstetrician/gynecologists (n = 2) and surgeons (n = 5). Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and independently coded by two individuals using a content analysis approach. Seven themes emerged relevant to providers' perceptions of African American women's use of BRCA1/2 genetic services: access factors, cultural beliefs and preferences, effects of testing, patient motivators for genetic counseling and testing, patient-provider communication, reasons for provider referral, and reasons for patient refusal. Providers identified individual- and system-level barriers to African American women's use of genetic services, including lack of follow-up after referrals to genetic specialists and challenges to obtaining financial coverage for under- and uninsured high-risk women. Results have implications for physician and patient education regarding appropriate referrals to and uptake of genetic services in at-risk African American women. PMID:21822773

  5. Inner-City African-American Women’s Adolescence as Stressful Life Events: Understanding Substance Abusing Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Small, La Fleur F.; Dunlap, Eloise

    2013-01-01

    Lula Beatty (2003:59) asks, “What makes a black woman, voluntarily take a substance into her body which alters her perceptions and feelings of well-being?” This research examines African American women’s substance abuse as a response to stressful life events grounded in adolescence, drawing in part on the cognitive-transactional approach and distal stressor model to discuss the effects of stressors on mental health and substance abusing behavior. Most respondents viewed their adolescent experiences and the associated stress as tribulations or lessons to be lived through, rather than a signal of needed change in their social, cultural, and ecological life circumstances. The effect of exposure to constant stressors early in the life course coupled with proximal stressors often resulted in negative active responses to stress (i.e. substance abuse) and continued stunted emotional growth. Thus, our findings indicate that the experience of African American women as adolescents contributes to understanding substance abuse amongst this population. These findings further help develop the cognitive-transactional model, while adding to the distal stressors and life process model as a way of considering gender, race, and structural forces. PMID:23843768

  6. A Qualitative Study of Barriers to the Utilization of HIV Testing Services Among Rural African American Cocaine Users

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Patricia B.; Stewart, Katharine E.; Curran, Geoffrey M.; Booth, Brenda M.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study is about barriers to the utilization of HIV testing as perceived by African Americans who have recently used cocaine and who live in the rural Delta region of Arkansas. Affordability, physical accessibility, and geographic availability were not perceived as barriers to HIV testing in this sample, yet acceptability was still perceived as poor. Acceptability due to social mores and norms was a major barrier. Many said testing was unacceptable because of fear of social costs. Many were confident of being HIV-negative based on risky assumptions about testing and the notification process. Small-town social and sexual networks added to concerns about reputation and risk. System approaches may fail if they focus solely on improving access to HIV services but do not take into consideration deeply internalized experiences of rural African Americans as well as involvement of the community in developing programs and services. PMID:24039279

  7. A Qualitative Study of Barriers to the Utilization of HIV Testing Services Among Rural African American Cocaine Users.

    PubMed

    Wright, Patricia B; Stewart, Katharine E; Curran, Geoffrey M; Booth, Brenda M

    2013-07-01

    This qualitative study is about barriers to the utilization of HIV testing as perceived by African Americans who have recently used cocaine and who live in the rural Delta region of Arkansas. Affordability, physical accessibility, and geographic availability were not perceived as barriers to HIV testing in this sample, yet acceptability was still perceived as poor. Acceptability due to social mores and norms was a major barrier. Many said testing was unacceptable because of fear of social costs. Many were confident of being HIV-negative based on risky assumptions about testing and the notification process. Small-town social and sexual networks added to concerns about reputation and risk. System approaches may fail if they focus solely on improving access to HIV services but do not take into consideration deeply internalized experiences of rural African Americans as well as involvement of the community in developing programs and services. PMID:24039279

  8. Testing a Culture-Specific Extension of Objectification Theory regarding African American Women's Body Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Taneisha S.; Fischer, Ann R.; Tokar, David M.; Yoder, Janice D.

    2008-01-01

    Objectification theory has emphasized objectification in terms of body shape and size. African American women may expect to be evaluated on additional physical attributes such as skin tone. Therefore, we extended previous research on objectification theory by adding separate measures of skin-tone concerns in a survey of 117 African American women.…

  9. Testing the Factor Structure of a Scale to Assess African American Acculturation: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Robert J.; Brown, Tiffany L.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Snowden, Lonnie; Hines, Alice

    2009-01-01

    Research has pointed to the important role that acculturation plays in understanding a range of physical health behaviors as well as psychological functioning, but only a few studies have attempted to establish reliable and valid measures of African American acculturation. The scale developed by Snowden and Hines (1999) to assess African American…

  10. "You Must Do the Test to Know Your Status": Attitudes to HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing for Adolescents among South African Youth and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPhail, Catherine Lorne; Pettifor, Audrey; Coates, Tom; Rees, Helen

    2008-01-01

    Reduced HIV risk behavior and increased use of care and support services have been demonstrated among adults accessing HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT). The impact of VCT on adolescents is, however, not known. Focus group discussions were held with adolescents and parents in two South African townships to establish the perceptions of and…

  11. Concordant and Discordant Reports on Shared Sexual Behaviors and Condom Use Among African American Serodiscordant Couples in Four Cities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the concordance of reported shared sexual behaviors, including condom use, among 535 heterosexual, African American, serodiscordant couples and identifies factors that might predict discordant reports. Percentages of agreement, Kappa and McNemar’s statistics and conditional probability indices are used to measure concordance. Logistic regression models identify predictors of couples’ discordant sexual reports. Analyses revealed Kappa statistics for reporting anal sex, fellatio and cunnilingus indicated moderate to substantial agreement. The effects of demographics and the couples’ relationship contexts on concordance of reported sexual behaviors were found to vary somewhat by gender and type of sexual behavior. Findings showed that concordance of reporting between the couples was consistent for the past 90 and 30 days. Findings from this paper provide new scientific insights into the knowledge base of self-reported couples’ data and suggest that these data can be used to evaluate their accuracy and serve as a proxy for validity. PMID:20499151

  12. The Perceptions of Standardized Tests, Academic Self-Efficacy, and Academic Performance of African American Graduate Students: a Correlational and Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrah, Arleezah K.

    2012-01-01

    The academic performance of African American students continues to be a concern for educators, researchers, and most importantly their community. This issue is particularly prevalent in the standardized test scores of African American students where they score on average one or more standard deviations below their Caucasian and Asian American…

  13. City of North Bonneville, Washington: Geothermal Exploration Project, production test well, Phase II. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    Based on discussions with the City of North Bonneville, the production test well was drilled to a depth that would also explore for ground water temperatures near 130/sup 0/F (54.4/sup 0/C). Depth projections to a 130/sup 0/F bottom hole temperature were made by assuming a constant ground water temperature rise greater than 50/sup 0/C per kilometer, and by assuming that essentially homogeneous or equivalent conductive rock units would be encountered. Minimum water production requirements were not set, although the City determined that about 800 gpm would be acceptable. Large upper casing diameters of 16 and 12 inches were installed in order to provide the future use of either a vertical turbine or submersible pump, as desired by the city. The scope of work included interpretation of well characteristics, evaluation of ground water as a geothermal resource, geologic analysis of data from drilling and testing, drilling supervision, daily drilling cost accounting, and preparation of a final report. The report includes geologic evaluation of the drilling and test data, ground water and geothermal potential.

  14. Jail-based providers' perceptions of challenges to routine HIV testing in New York City jails.

    PubMed

    Sabharwal, Charulata J; Muse, Kathy Hunt; Alper, Howard; Begier, Elizabeth; McNeill, Michele; Galeta, Ghairunisa; Huang, Katy; Franklin, Woodman; Parvez, Farah

    2010-10-01

    About 25% of New York City jail inmates are tested for HIV despite a universal offer of rapid testing at medical intake. Health care workers were surveyed to examine provider-related challenges to testing at medical intake. Of the 291 eligible staff, 215 (73.9%) responded. Most (87.0%) felt confident recommending rapid HIV testing; however, only 85.5% of medical professionals and 70.8% of nurses felt confident providing negative rapid HIV test results. Identified barriers are those common to other medical settings (insufficient staffing, inadequate privacy or space, and ''too much'' paperwork) and those specific to correctional settings (limited time for medical intake and competing Department of Correction priorities). Staff have been given extended training to address their lack of confidence with key aspects of the HIV testing process, including providing negative results. PMID:20881145

  15. Condom use among South African adolescents: developing and testing theoretical models of intentions and behavior.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Angela; Kagee, Ashraf; Broaddus, Michelle R

    2006-07-01

    We developed and tested models of intentions and behavior among adolescents from Cape Town, South Africa. Data from 261 participants who completed an initial measure of attitudes, beliefs, and prior behavior were used to develop a model of intentions to use condoms based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and additional constructs found to be important in previous research with adolescents. Of the initial sample, 227 (87%) completed a behavioral follow-up 4 months later, and approximately one-third of those (n=72; 44 boys and 30 girls) reported having had sex in the prior 4 months. Data from this smaller sample were used to develop a model of condom use behavior based on intentions (as per the TPB) and the additional sub-population relevant constructs. Analyses generally supported the validity of the TPB in this context for predicting intentions and behavior. HIV knowledge and positive outlook (self-esteem and future optimism) were significantly related to TPB predictors of intentions. Intentions, acceptance of sexuality, and gender were significant predictors of behavior. Implications for the status of the TPB and the design of interventions for South African adolescents are discussed. PMID:16636891

  16. A test of the Lamendin method of age estimation in South African canines.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Anja; Steyn, Maryna

    2014-03-01

    Age estimation in unknown adult skeletons remains a considerable problem in forensic anthropology. In 1992, Lamendin et al. published a non-destructive method of age estimation on single rooted teeth. With this method, periodontosis and root transparency are judged against root height, and these are then used in regression formulae to estimate age. The aim of this study was to test the accuracy of the Lamendin method on a large sample of canines of South Africans, and if necessary to adapt the formulae for this population. A sample of known sex, age and population group was used. This included 537 upper and lower canines from 498 skulls, and included black males, black females, white males and white females. The age of the individuals ranged from 20 to 90 years. The original formulae gave relatively poor results, and in an attempt to obtain better accuracy the formulae were adapted with the current data. Even after adaptation of the formulae, the highest correlation between estimated age and actual age remained low (R(2)=0.41), with mean errors ranging between 12 and 15 years. Periodontosis was better correlated with age than root transparency. The accuracy of the method was found to be much lower than what was originally published, but probably reflects biological reality and is on a par with other methods of adult age estimation. PMID:24445081

  17. Mapping beach morphodynamics remotely: A novel application tested on South African sandy shores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Linda; Nel, Ronel; Schoeman, David

    2011-03-01

    Sandy beaches have been identified as threatened ecosystems but despite the need to conserve them, they have been generally overlooked. Systematic conservation planning (SCP) has emerged as an efficient method of selecting areas for conservation priority. However, SCP analyses require digital shapefiles of habitat and species diversity. Mapping these attributes for beaches from field data can take years and requires exhaustive resources. This study thus sought to derive a methodology to classify and map beach morphodynamic types from satellite imagery. Since beach morphodynamics is a strong predictor of macrofauna diversity, they could be considered a good surrogate for mapping beach biodiversity. A dataset was generated for 45 microtidal beaches (of known morphodynamic type) by measuring or coding for several physical characteristics from imagery acquired from Google Earth. Conditional inference trees revealed beach width to be the only factor that significantly predicted beach morphodynamic type, giving four categories: dissipative, dissipative-intermediate, intermediate and reflective. The derived model was tested by using it to predict the morphodynamic type of 28 other beaches of known classification. Model performance was good (75% prediction accuracy) but misclassifications occurred at the three breaks between the four categories. For beaches around these breaks, consideration of surf zone characteristics in addition to beach width ameliorated the misclassifications. The final methodology yielded a 93% prediction accuracy of beach morphodynamic type. Overlaying other considerations on this classification scheme could provide additional value to the layer, such that it also describes species' spatial patterns. These could include: biogeographic regions, estuarine versus sandy beaches and short versus long beaches. The classification scheme was applied to the South African shoreline as a case study. The distribution of the beach morphodynamic types was partly

  18. Taking Action Together: A YMCA-based protocol to prevent Type-2 Diabetes in high-BMI inner-city African American children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Associated with a tripling in obesity since 1970, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in children has risen 9-10 fold. There is a critical need of protocols for trials to prevent T2DM in children. Methods/Design This protocol includes the theory, development, evaluation components and lessons learned from a novel YMCA-based T2DM prevention intervention designed specifically for high-BMI African American children from disadvantaged, inner-city neighborhoods of Oakland, California. The intervention was developed on the basis of: review of epidemiological and intervention studies of pediatric T2DM; a conceptual theory (social cognitive); a comprehensive examination of health promotion curricula designed for children; consultation with research, clinical experts and practitioners and; input from community partners. The intervention, Taking Action Together, included culturally sensitive and age-appropriate programming on: healthy eating; increasing physical activity and, improving self esteem. Discussion Evaluations completed to date suggest that Taking Action Together may be an effective intervention, and results warrant an expanded evaluation effort. This protocol could be used in other community settings to reduce the risk of children developing T2DM and related health consequences. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01039116. PMID:20492667

  19. Adapting the Andersen model to a francophone West African immigrant population: hepatitis B screening and linkage to care in New York City.

    PubMed

    Blanas, Demetri A; Nichols, Kim; Bekele, Mulusew; Shankar, Hari; Bekele, Saba; Jandorf, Lina; Izzeldin, Saria; Ndiaye, Daouda; Traore, Adama; Bassam, Motahar; Perumalswami, Ponni V

    2015-02-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is highly endemic in West Africa and immigration from this region to the United States has greatly increased over the past quarter century. Using the Andersen Model as a conceptual framework, this study qualitatively examines francophone West African immigrants' perceptions of factors affecting access to HBV screening and linkage-to-care in New York City. Four focus groups were conducted with 39 purposefully selected participants. The focus groups were conducted in French, audio-recorded, translated into English, transcribed, analyzed, and coded for major themes. Participants identified increasing knowledge of HBV and opportunities to access care in a culturally-sensitive manner that decreases fatalism and avoids generating stigma as priorities. They also emphasized the importance of engaging religious establishments and social networks and employing the Internet to disseminate HBV-relevant information. Cost and health insurance are identified as future challenges that will need to be addressed in a health care environment in which undocumented immigrants are ineligible for health insurance. The qualitative analysis in this study highlights the recursive and interdependent nature of the Andersen Model, and a modification of the model is proposed that is intended to inform examinations of other minority communities' access to health care. PMID:25000917

  20. Genetic testing of canine degenerative myelopathy in the South African Boxer dog population.

    PubMed

    Zeiler, Gareth E; Van der Zwan, Henriette; Oosthuizen, Marinda C

    2013-01-01

    Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM) is a progressive disease process that is diagnosed late in life and mainly affects the pelvic limbs. Factors that make an ante-mortem definitive diagnosis of DM include: an insidious onset and clinical manifestation that mimics other disease processes of the pelvic limbs (hip dysplasia, cranial cruciate ligament rupture, etc.) or there may even be concurrent disease processes, old-age onset and lack of reliable diagnostic methods. Until recently, South African dog owners had to submit samples to laboratories overseas for genetic testing in order to confirm an affected dog (homozygous A/A) and to aid in the ante-mortem diagnosis of DM. Only affected dogs have been confirmed to manifest the clinical signs of DM. This study aimed to verify whether genetic testing by a local genetic laboratory was possible in order to detect a missense mutation of the superoxide dismutase gene (SOD1) that is implicated in causing the clinical signs of DM. The study also aimed to detect and map the inheritance of this disease process in a local Boxer dog population where the pedigree of the sampled population was known. Venous blood collected from Boxer dogs using a simple random sampling technique. The samples were genotyped for the SOD1:c.118G>A polymorphism. Carrier and affected Boxer dogs were detected. A pedigree that demonstrated the significance of inheriting a carrier or affected state in the population was mapped. The present study concludes that genotyping of the missense mutation in Boxer dogs is possible in South Africa. There are carrier and affected Boxer dogs in the local population, making DM a plausible diagnosis in aged dogs presenting with pelvic limb pathology. PMID:27476391

  1. Environmental Domains and Range-Limiting Mechanisms: Testing the Abundant Centre Hypothesis Using Southern African Sandhoppers

    PubMed Central

    Baldanzi, Simone; McQuaid, Christopher D.; Cannicci, Stefano; Porri, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    Predicting shifts of species geographical ranges is a fundamental challenge for conservation ecologists given the great complexity of factors involved in setting range limits. Distributional patterns are frequently modelled to “simplify” species responses to the environment, yet the central mechanisms that drive a particular pattern are rarely understood. We evaluated the distributions of two sandhopper species (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Talitridae), Talorchestia capensis and Africorchestia quadrispinosa along the Namibian and South African coasts, encompassing three biogeographic regions influenced by two different oceanographic systems, the Benguela and Agulhas currents. We aimed to test whether the Abundant Centre Hypothesis (ACH) can explain the distributions of these species’ abundances, sizes and sex ratios and examined which environmental parameters influence/drive these distributions. Animals were collected during a once-off survey at 29 sites over c.3500 km of coastline. The ACH was tested using a non-parametric constraint space analysis of the goodness of fit of five hypothetical models. Distance Based Linear Modelling (DistLM) was performed to evaluate which environmental traits influenced the distribution data. Abundance, size and sex ratio showed different patterns of distribution. A ramped model fitted the abundance (Ramped North) and size (Ramped South) distribution for A. quadrispinosa. The Inverse Quadratic model fitted the size distribution of T. capensis. Beach slope, salinity, sand temperature and percentage of detritus found on the shore at the time of collection played important roles in driving the abundance of A. quadrispinosa. T. capensis was mainly affected by salinity and the morphodynamic state of the beach. Our results provided only some support for the ACH predictions. The DistLM confirmed that the physical state of the beach is an important factor for sandy beach organisms. The effect of salinity and temperature suggest metabolic

  2. Demographically Corrected Norms for African Americans and Caucasians on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test 64-Card Version

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Marc A.; Moore, David J.; Taylor, Michael; Franklin, Donald; Cysique, Lucette; Ake, Chris; Lazarretto, Deborah; Vaida, Florin; Heaton, Robert K.

    2011-01-01

    Memory and executive functioning are two important components of clinical neuropsychological (NP) practice and research. Multiple demographic factors are known to affect performance differentially on most NP tests, but adequate normative corrections, inclusive of race/ethnicity, are not available for many widely used instruments. This study compared demographic contributions for widely used tests of verbal and visual learning and memory (Brief Visual Memory Test-Revised, Hopkins Verbal Memory Test-Revised), and executive functioning (Stroop Color and Word Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-64) in groups of healthy Caucasians (n = 143) and African-Americans (n = 103). Demographic factors of age, education, gender, and race/ethnicity were found to be significant factors on some indices of all four tests. The magnitude of demographic contributions (especially age) was greater for African-Americans than Caucasians on most measures. New, demographically corrected T-score formulas were calculated for each race/ethnicity. The rates of NP impairment using previously published normative standards significantly overestimated NP impairment in African-Americans. Utilizing the new demographic corrections developed and presented herein, NP impairment rates were comparable between the two race/ethnicities and unrelated to the other demographic characteristics (age, education, gender) in either race/ethnicity group. Findings support the need to consider extended demographic contributions to neuropsychological test performance in clinical and research settings. PMID:21547817

  3. Attitudes Toward HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) Among African American Men Who Have Sex With Men: Concerns Underlying Reluctance to Test.

    PubMed

    St Lawrence, Janet S; Kelly, Jeffrey A; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Owczarzak, Jill; Amirkhanian, Yuri A; Sitzler, Cheryl

    2015-06-01

    Contemporary antiretroviral therapy (ART) can produce viral suppression of HIV, maintain health, and prevent onward HIV transmission from infected persons to their sexual partners, giving rise to the concept of treatment as prevention. Successful implementation of test-and-treat strategies rests on the early detection of HIV infection through voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) followed by entry and retention in care, ART initiation and adherence, and subsequent viral suppression. In the United States, African American men who have sex with men (MSM) bear a disproportionate burden of HIV and have high rates of undetected and untreated HIV infection. However, little research has examined racial minority MSM's views about HIV testing. In this study, in-depth interviews were conducted with 96 key informants knowledgeable about racial minority MSM as well as 100 African American MSM community members in Milwaukee, Cleveland, and Miami. Most men in the sample were aware of the availability of testing and knew testing locations, but many voiced great personal ambivalence about being tested, feared knowing their HIV status, expressed concern about stigma and loss of confidentiality, and held beliefs indicative of medical mistrust. Participants did not spontaneously cite benefits of being tested, risk reduction behavior changes made as a consequence of testing, nor the benefits of testing to get early medical care for HIV infection. There is a gap between the public health field's perception of testing benefits and the beliefs about testing held by racial minority MSM in this sample. To increase the desired outcomes from VCT for minority MSM, VCT promotion should address the concerns of African American MSM and underscore the benefits of early entry into medical care. PMID:26010312

  4. Attitudes Toward HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) Among African American Men Who Have Sex with Men: Concerns Underlying Reluctance to Test

    PubMed Central

    St. Lawrence, Janet S.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Owczarzak, Jill; Amirkhanian, Yuri A.; Sitzler, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary antiretroviral therapy (ART) can produce viral suppression of HIV, maintain health, and prevent onward HIV transmission from infected persons to their sexual partners, giving rise to the concept of treatment as prevention. Successful implementation of test-and-treat strategies rests on the early detection of HIV infection through voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) followed by entry and retention in care, ART initiation and adherence, and subsequent viral suppression. In the United States, African American men who have sex with men (MSM) bear a disproportionate burden of HIV and have high rates of undetected and untreated HIV infection. However, little research has examined racial minority MSM’s views about HIV testing. In this study, in-depth interviews were conducted with 96 key informants knowledgeable about racial minority MSM as well as 100 African American MSM community members in Milwaukee, Cleveland, and Miami. Most men in the sample were aware of the availability of testing and knew testing locations, but many voiced great personal ambivalence about being tested, feared knowing their HIV status, expressed concern about stigma and loss of confidentiality, and held beliefs indicative of medical mistrust. Participants did not spontaneously cite benefits of being tested, risk reduction behavior changes made as a consequence of testing, nor the benefits of testing to get early medical care for HIV infection. There is a gap between the public health field’s perception of testing benefits and the beliefs about testing held by racial minority MSM in this sample. To increase the desired outcomes from VCT for minority MSM, VCT promotion should address the concerns of African American MSM and underscore the benefits of early entry into medical care. PMID:26010312

  5. HIV Testing Implementation in Two Urban Cities: Practice, Policy, and Perceived Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Hallmark, Camden J.; Skillicorn, Jennifer; Giordano, Thomas P.; Davila, Jessica A.; McNeese, Marlene; Rocha, Nestor; Smith, Avemaria; Cooper, Stacey; Castel, Amanda D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although funding has supported the scale up of routine, opt-out HIV testing in the US, variance in implementation mechanisms and barriers in high-burden jurisdictions remains unknown. Methods We conducted a survey of health care organizations in Washington, DC and Houston/Harris County to determine number of HIV tests completed in 2011, policy and practices associated with HIV testing, funding mechanisms, and reported barriers to testing in each jurisdiction and to compare results between jurisdictions. Results In 2012, 43 Houston and 35 DC HIV-testing organizations participated in the survey. Participants represented 85% of Department of Health-supported testers in DC and 90% of Department of Health-supported testers in Houston. The median number of tests per organization was 568 in DC and 1045 in Houston. Approximately 50% of organizations in both DC and Houston exclusively used opt-in consent and most conducted both pre- and post-test counseling with HIV testing (80% of organizations in DC, 70% in Houston). While the most frequent source of funding in DC was the Department of Health, Houston organizations primarily billed the patient or third-party payers. Barriers to testing most often reported were lack of funding, followed by patient discomfort/refusal with more barriers reported in DC. Conclusions Given unique policies, resources and programmatic contexts, DC and Houston have taken different approaches to support routine testing. Many organizations in both cities reported opt-in consent approaches and pre-test counseling, suggesting 2006 national HIV testing recommendations are not being followed consistently. Addressing the barriers to testing identified in each jurisdiction may improve expansion of testing. PMID:25310462

  6. GIS-based Identification of Urban Residential Hotspots to Flooding and the Quantification of the Uncertainties for two African Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalayer, Fatemeh; De Risi, Raffaele; De Paola, Francesco; Iervolino, Iunio; Giugni, Maurizio; Topa, Maria Elena; Yonas, Nebyou; Nebebe, Alemu; Kibassa, Deusdedit; Cavan, Gina; Renner, Florian; Lindley, Sarah

    2013-04-01

    The hot spots in an urban setting can be defined as the zones exposed to significant risk due to climate-related extreme events such as flooding. Arguably, identifying the urban hot spots to flooding is one of the first steps in an integrated methodology for urban flood risk assessment and mitigation. The delineation of urban hotspots not only can provide useful information for the policy makers but also it can be useful as support information for indicating future urban dynamics and trends. This work employs two GIS-based frameworks for identifying the urban residential hot spots. This is done by overlaying a map of potentially flood prone areas (the topographic wetness index, TWI) and a map of urban morphology types (UMT) classified as residential. The topographic wetness index (TWI, Beven Qin et al. 2011) allows for the delineation of a portion of a hydrographic basin potentially exposed to flood inundation by identifying all the areas characterized by a topographic index that exceeds a given threshold. The urban morphological types (Pauleit and Duhme 2000, Gill et al. 2008, Cavan et al. 2012) form the foundation of a classification scheme which brings together facets of urban form and function. The application of the UMTs allows the delineation of geographical units. The distinction of UMTs at a 'meso'-scale (i.e. between the city level and that of the individual units) makes a suitable basis for the spatial analysis of cities. The TWI threshold value depends on the resolution of the digital elevation model (DEM), topology of the hydrographic basin (i.e. urban, peri-urban or rural) and the constructed infrastructure (Manfreda et al. 2011). This threshold value is usually calibrated based on the results of detailed delineation of the inundation profile for selected zones. In this study, the TWI threshold is calibrated based on the calculated inundation profiles for various return periods for selected zones within the basin through a Bayesian framework. The

  7. Testing the Pareto against the lognormal distributions with the uniformly most powerful unbiased test applied to the distribution of cities.

    PubMed

    Malevergne, Yannick; Pisarenko, Vladilen; Sornette, Didier

    2011-03-01

    Fat-tail distributions of sizes abound in natural, physical, economic, and social systems. The lognormal and the power laws have historically competed for recognition with sometimes closely related generating processes and hard-to-distinguish tail properties. This state-of-affair is illustrated with the debate between Eeckhout [Amer. Econ. Rev. 94, 1429 (2004)] and Levy [Amer. Econ. Rev. 99, 1672 (2009)] on the validity of Zipf's law for US city sizes. By using a uniformly most powerful unbiased (UMPU) test between the lognormal and the power-laws, we show that conclusive results can be achieved to end this debate. We advocate the UMPU test as a systematic tool to address similar controversies in the literature of many disciplines involving power laws, scaling, "fat" or "heavy" tails. In order to demonstrate that our procedure works for data sets other than the US city size distribution, we also briefly present the results obtained for the power-law tail of the distribution of personal identity (ID) losses, which constitute one of the major emergent risks at the interface between cyberspace and reality. PMID:21517562

  8. Testing the Pareto against the lognormal distributions with the uniformly most powerful unbiased test applied to the distribution of cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malevergne, Yannick; Pisarenko, Vladilen; Sornette, Didier

    2011-03-01

    Fat-tail distributions of sizes abound in natural, physical, economic, and social systems. The lognormal and the power laws have historically competed for recognition with sometimes closely related generating processes and hard-to-distinguish tail properties. This state-of-affair is illustrated with the debate between Eeckhout [Amer. Econ. Rev.SCIEAS0002-828210.1257/0002828043052303 94, 1429 (2004)] and Levy [Amer. Econ. Rev.SCIEAS0002-828210.1257/aer.99.4.1672 99, 1672 (2009)] on the validity of Zipf’s law for US city sizes. By using a uniformly most powerful unbiased (UMPU) test between the lognormal and the power-laws, we show that conclusive results can be achieved to end this debate. We advocate the UMPU test as a systematic tool to address similar controversies in the literature of many disciplines involving power laws, scaling, “fat” or “heavy” tails. In order to demonstrate that our procedure works for data sets other than the US city size distribution, we also briefly present the results obtained for the power-law tail of the distribution of personal identity (ID) losses, which constitute one of the major emergent risks at the interface between cyberspace and reality.

  9. Improving asthma self-efficacy: Developing and testing a pilot community-based asthma intervention for African American adults

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Molly A.; Catrambone, Catherine D.; Kee, Romina A.; Evans, Arthur T.; Sharp, Lisa K.; Lyttle, Christopher; Rucker-Whitaker, Cheryl; Weiss, Kevin B.; Shannon, John Jay

    2009-01-01

    Background Low-income African American adults in Chicago have disproportionately high asthma morbidity and mortality rates. Interventions that improve asthma self-efficacy for appropriate self-management behaviors may ultimately improve asthma control in this population. Objective To pilot test an intervention to improve asthma self-efficacy for appropriate self-management behaviors. Methods Participants for this trial were recruited through two primary care clinics located in the largest African American community in Chicago. Participants were then randomized into two groups. The control group received mailed asthma education. The intervention group was offered 4 group sessions lead by a community social worker and 6 home visits by community health workers. Telephone interviews were conducted at baseline (pre-intervention), 3 months (post-intervention), and 6 months (maintenance). Results The 42 participants were predominantly African American, low income, and had poorly controlled persistent asthma. The intervention group had significantly higher asthma self-efficacy at 3 months (p<0.001) after the completion of the intervention. Asthma action plans were more common in the intervention group at 3 months (p=0.06). At 6 months, the intervention group had improved asthma quality of life (p=0.002), and improved coping (p=0.01) compared to controls. Trends in behavioral and clinical outcomes favored the intervention group but were not statistically significant. Conclusions This community-based asthma intervention improved asthma self-efficacy, self-perceived coping skills, and asthma quality of life for low income African American adults. Larger trials are needed to test the efficacy of this intervention to reduce asthma morbidity in similar high-risk populations. PMID:19130936

  10. Understanding client satisfaction with HIV testing and counseling services: a mixed-methods study in four African countries.

    PubMed

    Osborn, Michelle; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf

    2016-06-01

    This paper uses mixed methods to provide comparative evidence across four African countries and identify those aspects of the testing experience that are the most important components of clients' satisfaction with services. We analyze data from three sources: a survey of clients at health facilities that included closed-ended questions about specific services and interactions around testing; responses to open-ended questions about testing experiences that were part of the same survey; and semi-structured interviews with a subsample of respondents who described their experience of testing and being diagnosed with HIV. High levels of reported satisfaction are found in both the survey and interview. The critical factors contributing to client satisfaction included: the three C's of testing-counseling, consent, and confidentiality, client-provider interactions, convenience of location, "good services", and reliable test results. PMID:26872848

  11. Food insecurity, overweight and obesity among low-income African-American families in Baltimore City: Associations with food-related perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Vedovato, Gabriela M.; Surkan, Pamela J.; Jones-Smith, Jessica; Steeves, Elizabeth Anderson; Han, Eunkyung; Trude, Angela C.B.; Kharmats, Anna Y.; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between food insecurity, excess body weight, psychosocial factors and food behaviors among low-income African-American (AA) families. Design Cross-sectional survey of participants in the baseline evaluation of the B’More Healthy Communities for Kids (BHCK) obesity prevention trial. We collected data on socioeconomic factors, food source destinations, acquiring food, preparation methods, psychosocial factors, beliefs and attitudes, participation in food assistance programs, anthropometry and food security. We used principal component analysis to identify patterns of food source destinations and logistic regression to examine associations. Setting Fourteen low-income, predominantly AA neighborhoods in Baltimore City. Subjects 298 adult caregiver-child (10–14 years old) dyads. Results 41.6% of households had some level of food insecurity, and 12.4% experienced some level of hunger. Food insecure participants with hunger were significantly more likely to be unemployed and to have lower incomes. We found high rates of excess body weight (overweight and obese) among adults and children (82.8% and 37.9% food insecure without hunger; 89.2% and 45.9% with hunger, respectively), although there were no significant differences by security status. Food source usage patterns, food acquisition, preparation, knowledge, self-efficacy and intentions did not differ by food security. Food security was associated with perceptions that healthy foods are affordable and convenient. Greater caregiver body satisfaction was associated with food insecurity and excess body weight. Conclusions In this setting, obesity and food insecurity are major problems. For many food insecure families, perceptions of healthy foods may serve as additional barriers to their purchase and consumption. PMID:26441159

  12. Inverter Load Rejection Over-Voltage Testing: SolarCity CRADA Task 1a Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, A.; Hoke, A.; Chakraborty, S.; Chebahtah, J.; Wang, T.; Zimmerly, B.

    2015-02-01

    Various interconnection challenges exist when connecting distributed PV into the electrical distribution grid in terms of safety, reliability, and stability of electric power systems. One of the urgent areas for additional research - as identified by inverter manufacturers, installers, and utilities - is the potential for transient over-voltage from PV inverters. In one stage of a cooperative tests were repeated a total of seven times. The maximum over-voltage measured in any test did not exceed 200% of nominal, and typical over-voltage levels were significantly lower. The total voltage duration and the maximum continuous time above each threshold are presented here, as well as the time to disconnect for each test. Finally, we present a brief investigation into the effect of DC input voltage as well as a series of no-load tests. This report describes testing conducted at NREL to determine the duration and magnitude of transient over-voltages created by several commercial PV inverters during load-rejection conditions. For this work, a test plan that is currently under development by the Forum on Inverter Grid Integration Issues (FIGII) has been implemented in a custom test setup at NREL. Through a cooperative research and development agreement, NREL is working with SolarCity to address two specific types of transient overvoltage: load rejection overvoltage (LRO) and ground fault overvoltage (GFO). Additional partners in this effort include the Hawaiian Electric Companies, Northern Plains Power Technologies, and the Electric Power Research Institute.

  13. Learning to Talk Like the Test: Guiding Speakers of African American Vernacular English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Lapp, Diane

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we focus on instructional support for 91 students who speak African American Vernacular English and who are at high risk for not passing the required state exams. We profile the instruction that was provided and the results from that instruction, providing examples of how students' language was scaffolded such that they could…

  14. Barriers and missed opportunities to HIV testing among injection drug users in two Mexico – US border cities

    PubMed Central

    MOYER, L. B.; BROUWER, K. C.; BRODINE, S. K.; RAMOS, R.; LOZADA, R.; CRUZ, M. FIRESTONE; MAGIS-RODRIGUEZ, C.; STRATHDEE, S. A.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction and Aims Despite increasing HIV prevalence in cities along the Mexico – US border, HIV testing among high-risk populations remains low. We sought to identify barriers associated with HIV testing among injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, the two largest Mexican border cities located across from San Diego, California and El Paso, Texas, respectively. Design and Methods In 2005, 222 IDUs in Tijuana and 205 IDUs in Ciudad Juarez were recruited by respondent-driven sampling and administered a questionnaire to collect socio-demographic, behavioural and HIV testing history data. Blood samples were provided for serological testing of HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis. Results Only 38% and 30% of respondents in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, respectively, had ever had an HIV test. The factors associated independently with never having been tested for HIV differed between the two sites, except for lack of knowledge on HIV transmission, which was associated independently in both locales. Importantly, 65% of those who had never been tested for HIV in both cities experienced at least one missed opportunity for voluntary testing, including medical visits, drug treatment and spending time in jail. Discussion and Conclusions Among this high-risk IDU population we found HIV testing to be low, with voluntary testing in public and private settings utilised inadequately. These findings underscore the need to expand voluntary HIV education and testing and to integrate it into services and locales frequented by IDUs in these Mexico –US border cities. PMID:18034380

  15. Differential Item Functioning of the Boston Naming Test in Cognitively Normal African American and Caucasian Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pedraza, Otto; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Smith, Glenn E.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Willis, Floyd B.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Lucas, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Scores on the Boston Naming Test (BNT) are frequently lower for African American when compared to Caucasian adults. Although demographically-based norms can mitigate the impact of this discrepancy on the likelihood of erroneous diagnostic impressions, a growing consensus suggests that group norms do not sufficiently address or advance our understanding of the underlying psychometric and sociocultural factors that lead to between-group score discrepancies. Using item response theory and methods to detect differential item functioning (DIF), the current investigation moves beyond comparisons of the summed total score to examine whether the conditional probability of responding correctly to individual BNT items differs between African American and Caucasian adults. Participants included 670 adults age 52 and older who took part in Mayo's Older Americans and Older African Americans Normative Studies. Under a 2-parameter logistic IRT framework and after correction for the false discovery rate, 12 items where shown to demonstrate DIF. Six of these 12 items (“dominoes,” “escalator,” “muzzle,” “latch,” “tripod,” and “palette”) were also identified in additional analyses using hierarchical logistic regression models and represent the strongest evidence for race/ethnicity-based DIF. These findings afford a finer characterization of the psychometric properties of the BNT and expand our understanding of between-group performance. PMID:19570311

  16. Development and testing of a 25-item patient satisfaction scale for black South African diabetic outpatients.

    PubMed

    Westaway, M S; Rheeder, P; van Zyl, D G; Seager, J R

    2002-08-01

    Although there is general agreement that patient satisfaction is an integral component of service quality, there is a paucity of South African research on reliable and valid satisfaction measures and the effects of health status on satisfaction. A 25-item patient satisfaction scale was developed and tested for evaluating the quality of health care for black diabetic outpatients. It was hypothesised that: (1) the underlying dimensions of patient satisfaction were interpersonal and organisational; and (2) patients in poor health would be less satisfied with the quality of their care than patients in good health. The questionnaire was administered to 263 black outpatients from Pretoria Academic Hospital and Kalafong Hospital. Factor analysis was conducted on the patient satisfaction scale and three factors, accounting for 71% of the variance, were extracted. The major items on Factor I were helpfulness, communication, support and consideration, representing the interpersonal dimension. Factors II and III were mainly concerned with service logistics and technical expertise, with the emphasis on waiting time, follow-up and thoroughness of examination. The three factors had excellent reliability coefficients, ranging between 0.82 (technical), 0.85 (logistics) and 0.98 (interpersonal). Multiple analyses of co-variance showed that patients in poor general health were significantly less satisfied with the logistical (p = 0.004) and technical (p = 0.007) quality of their care than patients in good health; patients in poor mental health were significantly less satisfied with the interpersonal quality of their care (p = 0.05) than patients in good mental health. These findings provided support for both hypotheses and suggested that patients in poor health attend to different aspects of their care than patients in good health. Of more importance to clinical practice, the results endorsed the need for a multidisciplinary health team comprising nurse/social worker (Factor I

  17. Genome-wide Ancestry Association Testing Identifies a Common European Variant on 6q14.1 as a Risk Factor for Asthma in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Torgerson, Dara G.; Capurso, Daniel; Ampleford, Elizabeth J.; Li, Xingnan; Moore, Wendy C.; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Hu, Donglei; Eng, Celeste; Mathias, Rasika A.; Busse, William W.; Castro, Mario; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Fitzpatrick, Anne M.; Gaston, Benjamin; Israel, Elliot; Jarjour, Nizar N.; Teague, W. Gerald; Wenzel, Sally E.; Rodríguez-Santana, José R.; Rodríguez-Cintrón, William; Avila, Pedro C.; Ford, Jean G.; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Burchard, Esteban G.; Howard, Timothy D.; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Meyers, Deborah A.; Cox, Nancy J.; Ober, Carole; Nicolae, Dan L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Genetic variants that contribute to asthma susceptibility may be present at varying frequencies in different populations, which is an important consideration and advantage for performing genetic association studies in admixed populations. Objective To identify asthma-associated loci in African Americans. Methods We compared local African and European ancestry estimated from dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype data in African American adults with asthma and non-asthmatic controls. Allelic tests of association were performed within the candidate regions identified, correcting for local European admixture. Results We identified a significant ancestry association peak on chromosomes 6q. Allelic tests for association within this region identified a SNP (rs1361549) on 6q14.1 that was associated with asthma exclusively in African Americans with local European admixture (OR=2.2). The risk allele is common in Europe (42% in the HapMap CEU) but absent in West Africa (0% in the HapMap YRI), suggesting the allele is present in African Americans due to recent European admixture. We replicated our findings in Puerto Ricans and similarly found that the signal of association is largely specific to individuals who are heterozygous for African and non-African ancestry at 6q14.1. However, we found no evidence for association in European Americans or in Puerto Ricans in the absence of local African ancestry, suggesting that the association with asthma at rs1361549 is due to an environmental or genetic interaction. Conclusion We identified a novel asthma-associated locus that is relevant to admixed populations with African ancestry, and highlight the importance of considering local ancestry in genetic association studies of admixed populations. PMID:22607992

  18. The Effect of Athletic Participation on the Academic Aspirations and Achievement of African American Males in a New York City High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, S. Kareem

    1990-01-01

    Attempts to determine the following: (1) whether African American students participating in sports on the high school varsity level hold and/or are being hurt by unrealistic athletic aspirations; and (2) how levels of athletic and academic aspirations affect future goals of African American student athletes. Finds no clear evidence of detrimental…

  19. Cognitive testing of PAINReportIt in adult African Americans with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Jha, Aruna; Suarez, Marie L; Ferrans, Carol E; Molokie, Robert; Kim, Young Ok; Wilkie, Diana J

    2010-01-01

    PAINReportIt, a computerized version of the McGill Pain Questionnaire (Pain. 1975, 1:277-299), presents pain measurement items to responders in serial display screens accompanied by pop-up screens. In this study, we used cognitive interviews to examine further validity of PAINReportIt with 25 African Americans with sickle cell disease. The specific aims were to determine if the questions in the PAINReportIt program were relevant to and understood by African Americans with sickle cell disease and to describe the nature of the pain they experienced. Most study participants were enthusiastic and able to use the tool as intended and appreciated the comprehensiveness, detail, and multidimensionality of its pain data. For some screens, two to six participants' responses suggested some question understanding and interpretation issues, inability to retrieve the requested information, or technical issues. Their responses indicated that screens lacked sufficient specificity for the temporal nature of pain recurrence over a lifetime. The program captured both nociceptive and neuropathic aspects of sickle cell pain and provided detailed information on the location, intensity, quality, and pattern of pain experienced by participants. We recommend that future revisions to the PAINReportIt program address the temporal issues of measuring recurrent pain, resolve technological issues related to pop-ups, and simplify difficult words to better match the typical health literacy levels of patients. These revisions could further enhance the technological aspects, usability, and cultural appropriateness of the tool for African Americans with sickle cell disease. PMID:20431356

  20. Cognitive Testing of PAINReportIt® in Adult African Americans with Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Aruna; Suarez, Marie L.; Ferrans, Carol E.; Molokie, Robert; Kim, Young Ok; Wilkie, Diana J.

    2013-01-01

    PAINReportIt,® a computerized version of Melzack’s (© 1970) McGill Pain Questionnaire, presents pain measurement items to responders in serial display screens accompanied by pop-up screens. In this study, we used cognitive interviews to examine further validity of PAINReportIt® with 25 African Americans with sickle cell disease. The specific aims were to determine if the questions in the PAINReportIt® program were relevant to and understood by African Americans with SCD and to describe the nature of the pain they experienced. Most study participants were enthusiastic and able to use the tool as intended, appreciated the comprehensiveness, detail, and multidimensionality of its pain data. For some screens, two to six participants’ responses suggested some question understanding and interpretation issues, inability to retrieve the requested information, or technical issues. Their responses indicated that screens lacked sufficient specificity for the temporal nature of pain recurrent over a lifetime. The program captured both nociceptive and neuropathic aspects of sickle cell pain, and provided detailed information on the location, intensity, quality and pattern of pain experienced by participants. We recommend that future revisions to the PAINReportIt® program address the temporal issues of measuring recurrent pain, resolve technological issues related to pop-ups, and simplify difficult words to better match the typical health literacy levels of patients. These revisions could further enhance the technological aspects, usability, and cultural appropriateness of the tool for African Americans with SCD. PMID:20431356

  1. Testing Jessor's problem behavior theory and syndrome: a nationally representative comparative sample of Latino and African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mobley, Michael; Chun, Heejung

    2013-04-01

    Based on Jessor's problem behavior theory (PBT; R. Jessor, 1987, Problem-behavior theory, psychosocial development, and adolescent problem drinking, British Journal of Addiction, Vol. 82, pp. 331-342), the comparability of a second-order problem behavior model (SPBM) was investigated employing structural equation modeling (SEM) and latent mean differences in problem behavior engagement were examined among racial/ethnic adolescents. Within a span of nearly 25 years, this study represents the first nationally representative sample of Latino and African American adolescents utilized in testing Jessor's PBT and problem behavior syndrome (PBS). Using a sample of 5,831 Latino, African American, and European American adolescents drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a series of invariance tests evidenced support for Jessor's PBT and PBS. Latent mean difference test results evidenced significant differences in problem behaviors (e.g., academic failure [AF], aggression [AG], substance use [SU], and risky sexual activity[RSA]) across racial/ethnic adolescent groups, which could be explained partially by PBS. A discussion of findings, limitations, and recommendations for future research is presented. PMID:23647329

  2. Pre-exposure to food temptation reduces subsequent consumption: A test of the procedure with a South-African sample.

    PubMed

    Duh, Helen Inseng; Grubliauskiene, Aiste; Dewitte, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that the consumption of unhealthy Westernized diet in a context of poverty and resultant food insecurity may have contributed to South-Africa's status of the third fattest country in the World. Considering that a number of South-Africans are reported to have experienced, or are still experiencing food insecurity, procedures which have been shown to reduce the consumption of unhealthy food in higher income countries may be ineffective in South-Africa. We thus tested the robustness of the so called pre-exposure procedure in South-Africa. We also tested the moderating role of childhood poverty in the pre-exposure procedure. With the pre-exposure procedure, a respondent is exposed to a tempting unhealthy food (e.g. candy) in a context that is designed such that eating the food interferes with a task goal. The typical result is that this procedure spills over and reduces consumption of similar tempting food later on. An experimental study conducted in a South-African laboratory showed that the pre-exposure effect is robust even with a sample, where food insecurity prevails. Childhood poverty did not moderate the effect. This study proves that behavioral procedures aimed at reducing the consumption of unhealthy food would be valuable in less rich non-Western countries. Further testing of the robustness of the pre-exposure effect is however recommended in other poorer food insecure countries. PMID:26505288

  3. Test data from the chloride-monitor well at Sun City Center, Hillsborough County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sinclair, William C.

    1979-01-01

    A test well drilled for Southwest Florida Water Management District at Sun City Center in Hillsborough County, will serve to monitor the interface between freshwater in the aquifer and the underlying chloride water. The sulfate content of the water in the aquifer at the well site exceeds 250 mg/L below a depth of about 700 feet. Wells for domestic and public supply in the area bottom at less than 500 feet and are separated from the sulfate water by about 100 feet of poorly-permeable limestone. The freshwater-chloride water interface is quite sharp and occurs at a depth of 1,410 feet. The chloride water is similar in composition to seawater but nearly twice as saline. (Woodard-USGS).

  4. Quantitative geochemical modelling using leaching tests: application for coal ashes produced by two South African thermal processes.

    PubMed

    Hareeparsad, Shameer; Tiruta-Barna, Ligia; Brouckaert, Chris J; Buckley, Chris A

    2011-02-28

    The present work focuses on the reactivity of coal fly ash in aqueous solutions studied through geochemical modelling. The studied coal fly ashes originate from South African industrial sites. The adopted methodology is based on mineralogical analysis, laboratory leaching tests and geochemical modelling. A quantitative modelling approach is developed here in order to determine the quantities of different solid phases composing the coal fly ash. It employs a geochemical code (PHREEQC) and a numerical optimisation tool developed under MATLAB, by the intermediate of a coupling program. The experimental conditions are those of the laboratory leaching test, i.e. liquid/solid ratio of 10 L/kg and 48 h contact time. The simulation results compared with the experimental data demonstrate the feasibility of such approach, which is the scope of the present work. The perspective of the quantitative geochemical modelling is the waste reactivity prediction in different leaching conditions and time frames. This work is part of a largest research project initiated by Sasol and Eskom companies, the largest South African coal consumers, aiming to address the issue of waste management of coal combustion residues and the environmental impact assessment of coal ash disposal on land. PMID:21208742

  5. Data for ground-water test hole near Butte City, Central Valley aquifer project, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, James J.; Page, R.W.; Bertoldi, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    This report provides preliminary data for the third of seven test holes drilled as part of the Central Valley Aquifer Project which is part of the National Regional Aquifer Systems Analysis Program. The test hole was drilled in the SW 1/4 NE 1/4 sec. 32, T. 19 N., R. 1 W., Glenn County, California, about one-half mile south of the town of Butte City. Drilled to a depth of 1,432 feet below land surface, the hole is cased to a depth of 82 feet and equipped with three piezometer tubes to depths of 592 feet, 968 feet, and 1,330 feet. A 5-foot well screen is at the bottom of each piezometer. Each screened interval has a cement plug above and below it to isolate it from other parts of the aquifer , and the well bore is filled between the plugs with sediment. Nine cores and 49 sidewall cores were recovered. Laboratory tests were made for mineralogy, hydraulic conductivity, porosity , consolidation, grain-size distribution, Atterberg limits, X-ray diffraction, and chemical quality of water. Geophysical and thermal gradient logs were made. The hole is sampled periodically for chemical analysis and measured for water level in the three tapped zones. This report presents methods used to obtain field samples, laboratory procedures, and the data obtained. (USGS)

  6. Test of socioeconomic causation of secular trend: stature changes among favored and oppressed South Africans are parallel.

    PubMed

    Henneberg, M; van den Berg, E R

    1990-12-01

    Secular trends in body height, however common, run at different rates and even in opposite directions in various populations. The standard explanation is that direction and tempo of the trend are reflections of changes in the socioeconomic situation. The aim of this work is to test this hypothesis by examining trends in different socioeconomic groups living in the same country. Our observations on affluent South Africans of European extraction (AE) and on Polish medical students are compared with the data on statures of other affluent and poor peoples from the two countries measured at various dates during the 19th and 20th centuries. The trend among native Southern Africans is erratic (Tobias: South African Journal of Medical Science 40:145-164, 1975), but the overall direction is positive with a slow rate (0.24 cm/decade for 72 Negroid male groups and 0.48 cm/d for 28 Khoisan male samples). Magnitude of the trend among adult AE (0.41 cm/d for females, 0.59 for males) does not differ significantly from that among natives. The trend was absent in the data for 10-year-old AE boys and girls. The rate of trend among AE is much lower than that in their countries of origin (mainly Holland and Britain). The trend among AE medical students is markedly weaker than the trend among Polish medical students (1.21 cm/d), who in turn parallel Polish general conscripts (1.24 cm/d). It follows that the explanation of the secular trend as being an ecosensitive response of individuals to changing levels of well-being is insufficient. PMID:2275483

  7. Measuring Financial Literacy: Developing and Testing a Measurement Instrument with a Selected Group of South African Military Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwella, E.; van Nieuwenhuyzen, Bernard J.

    2014-01-01

    Are South Africans financially literate, and how can this be measured? Until 2009 there was no South African financial literacy measure and, therefore, the aim was to develop a South African measurement instrument that is scientific, socially acceptable, valid and reliable. To achieve this aim a contextual and conceptual analysis of financial…

  8. Phase 2 and 3 Slim Hole Drilling and Testing at the Lake City, California Geothermal Field

    SciTech Connect

    Dick Benoit; David Blackwell; Joe Moore; Colin Goranson

    2005-10-27

    During Phases 2 and 3 of the Lake City GRED II project two slim holes were cored to depths of 1728 and 4727 ft. Injection and production tests with temperature and pressure logging were performed on the OH-1 and LCSH-5 core holes. OH-1 was permanently modified by cementing an NQ tubing string in place below a depth of 947 ft. The LCSH-1a hole was drilled in Quaternary blue clay to a depth of 1727 ft and reached a temperature of 193 oF at a depth of 1649 ft. This hole failed to find evidence of a shallow geothermal system east of the Mud Volcano but the conductive temperature profile indicates temperatures near 325 oF could be present below depth of 4000 ft. The LCSH-5 hole was drilled to a depth of 4727 ft and encountered a significant shallow permeability between depths of 1443 and 1923 ft and below 3955 ft. LCSH-5 drilled impermeable Quaternary fanglomerate to a depth of 1270 ft. Below 1270 ft the rocks consist primarily of Tertiary sedimentary rocks. The most significant formation deep in LCSH-5 appears to be a series of poikoilitic mafic lava flows below a depth of 4244 ft that host the major deep permeable fracture encountered. The maximum static temperature deep in LCSH-5 is 323 oF and the maximum flowing temperature is 329 oF. This hole extended the known length of the geothermal system by ¾ of a mile toward the north and is located over ½ mile north of the northernmost hot spring. The OH-1 hole was briefly flow tested prior to cementing the NQ rods in place. This flow test confirmed the zone at 947 ft is the dominant permeability in the hole. The waters produced during testing of OH-1 and LCSH-5 are generally intermediate in character between the deep geothermal water produced by the Phipps #2 well and the thermal springs. Geothermometers applied to deeper fluids tend to predict higher subsurface temperatures with the maximum being 382 oF from the Phipps #2 well. The Lake City geothermal system can be viewed as having shallow (elevation > 4000 ft and

  9. A method to estimate the environmental impact of an electric city car during six months of testing in an Italian city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donateo, T.; Ingrosso, F.; Licci, F.; Laforgia, D.

    2014-12-01

    The present investigation describes the results of a research project (P.R.I.M.E.) aimed at testing the performance and the environmental impact of an electric city car in Italian cities. The vehicle considered in the project is the Daimler AG Smart ForTwo Electric Drive. A Smart ED vehicle was tested at the University of Salento for six months over different driving conditions (routes, traffic, use of auxiliaries). A data acquisition system has been designed on purpose and assembled on board to provide information about driving cycle and energy flows. The system was also used to evaluate the losses of energy during recharges due to the battery cooling system. The experimental tests were used to identify the average, minimum and maximum consumption of electricity in the Smart ED in Lecce according to driving conditions and in particular according to the usage of auxiliaries. The measured data of electric consumption have been used to quantify the emissions of CO2 and pollution of the vehicle using information about the Italian electricity production mix of each recharging event and the emissions factors of the Italian power plants with an innovative and comprehensive methodology.

  10. Pubertal timing and sexual risk behaviors among rural African American male youth: testing a model based on life history theory.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Steven M; Cho, Junhan; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Allen, Kimberly A; Beach, Steven R H; Simons, Ronald L; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2015-04-01

    Life History Theory (LHT), a branch of evolutionary biology, describes how organisms maximize their reproductive success in response to environmental conditions. This theory suggests that challenging environmental conditions will lead to early pubertal maturation, which in turn predicts heightened risky sexual behavior. Although largely confirmed among female adolescents, results with male youth are inconsistent. We tested a set of predictions based on LHT with a sample of 375 African American male youth assessed three times from age 11 to age 16. Harsh, unpredictable community environments and harsh, inconsistent, or unregulated parenting at age 11 were hypothesized to predict pubertal maturation at age 13; pubertal maturation was hypothesized to forecast risky sexual behavior, including early onset of intercourse, substance use during sexual activity, and lifetime numbers of sexual partners. Results were consistent with our hypotheses. Among African American male youth, community environments were a modest but significant predictor of pubertal timing. Among those youth with high negative emotionality, both parenting and community factors predicted pubertal timing. Pubertal timing at age 13 forecast risky sexual behavior at age 16. Results of analyses conducted to determine whether environmental effects on sexual risk behavior were mediated by pubertal timing were not significant. This suggests that, although evolutionary mechanisms may affect pubertal development via contextual influences for sensitive youth, the factors that predict sexual risk behavior depend less on pubertal maturation than LHT suggests. PMID:25501863

  11. An assessment of African test sites in the context of a global network of quality-assured reference standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Xiong, X.; Angal, A.; Choi, T.

    2009-01-01

    The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Infrared and Visible Optical Sensors (IVOS) subgroup members established a set of CEOS-endorsed globally distributed reference standard test sites for the postlaunch calibration of space-based optical imaging sensors. This paper discusses the top five African pseudo-invariant sites (Libya 4, Mauritania 1/2, Algeria 3, Libya 1, and Algeria 5) that were identified by the IVOS subgroup. This paper focuses on monitoring the long-term radiometric stability of the Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensors using near-simultaneous and cloud-free image pairs acquired from launch to December 2008 over the five African desert sites. Residual errors and coefficients of determination were also generated to support the quality assessment of the calibration differences between the two sensors. An effort was also made to evaluate the relative stability of these sites for long-term monitoring of the optical sensors. ??2009 IEEE.

  12. Pubertal Timing and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Rural African American Male Youth: Testing a Model Based on Life History Theory

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Steven M.; Cho, Junhan; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Allen, Kimberly A.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Simons, Ronald L.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2014-01-01

    Life History Theory (LHT), a branch of evolutionary biology, describes how organisms maximize their reproductive success in response to environmental conditions. This theory suggests that challenging environmental conditions will lead to early pubertal maturation, which in turn predicts heightened risky sexual behavior. Although largely confirmed among female adolescents, results with male youth are inconsistent. We tested a set of predictions based on LHT with a sample of 375 African American male youth assessed three times from age 11 to age 16. Harsh, unpredictable community environments and harsh, inconsistent, or unregulated parenting at age 11 were hypothesized to predict pubertal maturation at age 13; pubertal maturation was hypothesized to forecast risky sexual behavior, including early onset of intercourse, substance use during sexual activity, and lifetime numbers of sexual partners. Results were consistent with our hypotheses. Among African American male youth, community environments were a modest but significant predictor of pubertal timing. Among those youth with high negative emotionality, both parenting and community factors predicted pubertal timing. Pubertal timing at age 13 forecast risky sexual behavior at age 16. Results of analyses conducted to determine whether environmental effects ons exual risk behavior were mediated by pubertal timing were not significant. This suggests that, although evolutionary mechanisms may affect pubertal development via contextual influences for sensitive youth, the factors that predict sexual risk behavior depend lesson pubertal maturation than LHT suggests. PMID:25501863

  13. Testing the stages model in the adaptive radiation of cichlid fishes in East African Lake Tanganyika

    PubMed Central

    Muschick, Moritz; Nosil, Patrik; Roesti, Marius; Dittmann, Marie Theres; Harmon, Luke; Salzburger, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive radiation (AR) is a key process in the origin of organismal diversity. However, the evolution of trait disparity in connection with ecological specialization is still poorly understood. Available models for vertebrate ARs predict that diversification occurs in the form of temporal stages driven by different selective forces. Here, we investigate the AR of cichlid fishes in East African Lake Tanganyika and use macroevolutionary model fitting to evaluate whether diversification happened in temporal stages. Six trait complexes, for which we also provide evidence of their adaptiveness, are analysed with comparative methods: body shape, pharyngeal jaw shape, gill raker traits, gut length, brain weight and body coloration. Overall, we do not find strong evidence for the ‘stages model’ of AR. However, our results suggest that trophic traits diversify earlier than traits implicated in macrohabitat adaptation and that sexual communication traits (i.e. coloration) diversify late in the radiation. PMID:25274371

  14. Testing the stages model in the adaptive radiation of cichlid fishes in East African Lake Tanganyika.

    PubMed

    Muschick, Moritz; Nosil, Patrik; Roesti, Marius; Dittmann, Marie Theres; Harmon, Luke; Salzburger, Walter

    2014-11-22

    Adaptive radiation (AR) is a key process in the origin of organismal diversity. However, the evolution of trait disparity in connection with ecological specialization is still poorly understood. Available models for vertebrate ARs predict that diversification occurs in the form of temporal stages driven by different selective forces. Here, we investigate the AR of cichlid fishes in East African Lake Tanganyika and use macroevolutionary model fitting to evaluate whether diversification happened in temporal stages. Six trait complexes, for which we also provide evidence of their adaptiveness, are analysed with comparative methods: body shape, pharyngeal jaw shape, gill raker traits, gut length, brain weight and body coloration. Overall, we do not find strong evidence for the 'stages model' of AR. However, our results suggest that trophic traits diversify earlier than traits implicated in macrohabitat adaptation and that sexual communication traits (i.e. coloration) diversify late in the radiation. PMID:25274371

  15. Who gets tested for HIV in a South African urban township? Implications for test and treat and gender-based prevention interventions

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, Kartik K; Madiba, Precious; De Bruyn, Guy; Lurie, Mark N; Coates, Thomas J; Gray, Glenda E

    2011-01-01

    Background With increasing calls for linking HIV-infected individuals to treatment and care via expanded testing, we examined socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics associated with HIV testing among men and women in Soweto, South Africa. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional household survey involving 1539 men and 1877 women as part of the community-randomized prevention trial Project ACCEPT/HPTN043 between July 2007-October 2007. Multivariable logistic regression models, stratified by sex, assessed factors associated with HIV testing, and then repeated testing. Results Most women (64.8%) and 28.9% of men reported ever having been tested for HIV, among whom 57.9% reported repeated HIV testing. In multivariable analyses, youth and students had a lower odds of HIV testing. Men and women who had conversations about HIV/AIDS with increasing frequency and who had heard about antiretroviral therapy were more likely to report HIV testing, as well as repeated testing. Men who had ≥12 years of education and who were of high socio-economic status; and women who were married, who were of low socio-economic status, and who had children under their care had a higher odds of HIV testing. Women, older individuals, those with higher levels of education, married individuals, and those with children under their care had a higher odds of reporting repeated HIV testing. Uptake of HIV testing was not associated with condom use, having multiple sex partners, and HIV-related stigma. Conclusions Given the low uptake of HIV testing among men and youth, further targeted interventions could facilitate a test and treat strategy among urban South Africans. PMID:21084993

  16. Crash tests for forward-looking flood control in the city of Zürich (Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappa, M.; Andres, N.; Kienzler, P.; Näf-Huber, D.; Marti, C.; Oplatka, M.

    2015-06-01

    Floods in the city of Zürich (Switzerland) were already reported in the 13th century. The most severe threat are floods from the Sihl river (336 km2, including also an hydropower reservoir) with peaks exceeding 350 m3 s-1. An assessment using a rainfall-runoff model has been completed to evaluate extreme flood situations by combining 18 precipitation scenarios with different initial conditions. These scenarios identified deficits for the safety of Zürich. For the improvement of flood management several measures are possible. Crash-tests with 41 472 combinations of measures and scenarios have been evaluated. According to the results, the spillway channel option in the downstream reach of the Sihl is a promising structural measure to ensure flood relief for Zürich. Lowering the artificial reservoir lake before the event consistently increases safety also in the upstream part, but causes financial losses in terms of hydroelectricity. The combination of measures can lead to an optimal safety also in case of unfavourable initial conditions. Pending questions concern the costs, political decisions and the environmental sustainability.

  17. Development and testing of meteorology and air dispersion models for Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, M. D.; Brown, M. J.; Cruz, X.; Sosa, G.; Streit, G.

    Los Alamos National Laboratory and Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo are completing a joint study of options for improving air quality in Mexico City. We have modified a three-dimensional, prognostic, higher-order turbulence model for atmospheric circulation (HOTMAC) and a Monte Carlo dispersion and transport model (RAPTAD) to treat domains that include an urbanized area. We used the meteorological model to drive models which describe the photochemistry and air transport and dispersion. The photochemistry modeling is described in a separate paper. We tested the model against routine measurements and those of a major field program. During the field program, measurements included: (1) lidar measurements of aerosol transport and dispersion, (2) aircraft measurements of winds, turbulence, and chemical species aloft, (3) aircraft measurements of skin temperatures, and (4) Tethersonde measurements of winds and ozone. We modified the meteorological model to include provisions for time-varying synoptic-scale winds, adjustments for local wind effects, and detailed surface-coverage descriptions. We developed a new method to define mixing-layer heights based on model outputs. The meteorology and dispersion models were able to provide reasonable representations of the measurements and to define the sources of some of the major uncertainties in the model-measurement comparisons.

  18. H.U.B city steps: methods and early findings from a community-based participatory research trial to reduce blood pressure among african americans

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been recognized as an important approach to develop and execute health interventions among marginalized populations, and a key strategy to translate research into practice to help reduce health disparities. Despite growing interest in the CBPR approach, CBPR initiatives rarely use experimental or other rigorous research designs to evaluate health outcomes. This behavioral study describes the conceptual frameworks, methods, and early findings related to the reach, adoption, implementation, and effectiveness on primary blood pressure outcomes. Methods The CBPR, social support, and motivational interviewing frameworks are applied to test treatment effects of a two-phased CBPR walking intervention, including a 6-month active intervention quasi experimental phase and 12-month maintenance randomized controlled trial phase to test dose effects of motivational interviewing. A community advisory board helped develop and execute the culturally-appropriate intervention components which included social support walking groups led by peer coaches, pedometer diary self-monitoring, monthly diet and physical activity education sessions, and individualized motivational interviewing sessions. Although the study is on-going, three month data is available and reported. Analyses include descriptive statistics and paired t tests. Results Of 269 enrolled participants, most were African American (94%) females (85%) with a mean age of 43.8 (SD = 12.1) years. Across the 3 months, 90% of all possible pedometer diaries were submitted. Attendance at the monthly education sessions was approximately 33%. At the 3-month follow-up 227 (84%) participants were retained. From baseline to 3-months, systolic BP [126.0 (SD = 19.1) to 120.3 (SD = 17.9) mmHg; p < 0.001] and diastolic BP [83. 2 (SD = 12.3) to 80.2 (SD = 11.6) mmHg; p < 0.001] were significantly reduced. Conclusions This CBPR study highlights implementation factors and signifies

  19. A simple urban dispersion model tested with tracer data from Oklahoma City and Manhattan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, Steven; Baja, Emmanuel

    A simple urban dispersion model is tested that is based on the Gaussian plume model and modifications to the Briggs urban dispersion curves. An initial dispersion coefficient ( σo) of 40 m is assumed to apply in built-up downtown areas, and the stability is assumed to be slightly unstable during the day and slightly stable during the night. Observations from tracer experiments during the Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) field study in Oklahoma City and the Madison Square Garden 2005 (MSG05) field study in Manhattan are used for model testing. The tracer SF 6 was released during JU2003 near ground level in the downtown area and concentrations were observed at over 100 locations within 4 km from the source. Six perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) gases were released near ground level during MSG05 and sampled by about 20 samplers at the surface and on building roofs. The evaluations compare concentrations normalized by source release rate, C/ Q, for each sampler location and each tracer release, where data were used only if both the observed and predicted concentrations exceeded threshold levels. At JU2003, for all samplers and release times, the fractional mean bias (FB) is about 0.2 during the day (20% mean underprediction) and 0.0 during the night. About 45 -50% of the predictions are within a factor of two (FAC2) of the observations day and night at JU2003. The maximum observed C/ Q is about two times the maximum predicted C/ Q both day and night. At MSG05, for all PFTs, surface samplers, and release times, FB is 0.14 and FAC2 is about 45%. The overall 60 min-averaged maximum C/ Q is underpredicted by about 40% for the surface samplers and is overpredicted by about 25% for the building-roof samplers.

  20. Simulations Show Diagnostic Testing For Malaria In Young African Children Can Be Cost-Saving Or Cost-Effective.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Victoria; Njau, Joseph; Li, Shang; Kachur, Patrick

    2015-07-01

    Malaria imposes a substantial global disease burden. It disproportionately affects sub-Saharan Africans, particularly young children. In an effort to improve disease management, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended in 2010 that countries test children younger than age five who present with suspected malaria fever to confirm the diagnosis instead of treating them presumptively with antimalarial drugs. Costs and concerns about the overall health impact of such diagnostic testing for malaria in children remain barriers to full implementation. Using data from national Malaria Indicator Surveys, we estimated two-stage microsimulation models for Angola, Tanzania, and Uganda to assess the policy's cost-effectiveness. We found that diagnostic testing for malaria in children younger than five is cost-saving in Angola. In Tanzania and Uganda the cost per life-year gained is $5.54 and $94.28, respectively. The costs projected for Tanzania and Uganda are less than the WHO standard of $150 per life-year gained. Our results were robust under varying assumptions about cost, prevalence of malaria, and behavior, and they strongly suggest the pursuit of policies that facilitate full implementation of testing for malaria in children younger than five. PMID:26153315

  1. Simulations Show Diagnostic Testing For Malaria In Young African Children Can Be Cost-Saving Or Cost-Effective

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Victoria; Njau, Joseph; Li, Shang; Kachur, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Malaria imposes a substantial global disease burden. It disproportionately affects sub-Saharan Africans, particularly young children. In an effort to improve disease management, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended in 2010 that countries test children younger than age five who present with suspected malaria fever to confirm the diagnosis instead of treating them presumptively with antimalarial drugs. Costs and concerns about the overall health impact of such diagnostic testing for malaria in children remain barriers to full implementation. Using data from national Malaria Indicator Surveys, we estimated two-stage microsimulation models for Angola, Tanzania, and Uganda to assess the policy’s cost-effectiveness. We found that diagnostic testing for malaria in children younger than five is cost-saving in Angola. In Tanzania and Uganda the cost per life-year gained is $5.54 and $94.28, respectively. The costs projected for Tanzania and Uganda are less than the WHO standard of $150 per life-year gained. Our results were robust under varying assumptions about cost, prevalence of malaria, and behavior, and they strongly suggest the pursuit of policies that facilitate full implementation of testing for malaria in children younger than five. PMID:26153315

  2. "It's Better Not to Know": Perceived Barriers to HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing among Sub-Saharan African Migrants in Belgium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manirankunda, Lazare; Loos, Jasna; Alou, Therese Assebide; Colebunders, Robert; Nostlinger, Christiana

    2009-01-01

    This study explored perceptions, needs, and barriers of sub-Saharan African migrants in relation to HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT). Using an inductive qualitative methodological approach, data were obtained from focus group discussions. Results showed that participants were in principle in favor of VCT. However, they indicated that…

  3. Gender Differences in Rates of Depressive Symptoms among Low-Income, Urban, African American Youth: A Test of Two Mediational Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Kathryn E.; Lyons, Aoife L.; Finkelstein, Jo-Ann S.; Conway, Kathryn M.; Reynolds, Linda K.; O'Koon, Jeffrey H.; Waitkoff, Gregory R.; Hicks, Kira J.

    2004-01-01

    The present study tested for gender differences in depressive symptoms in a sample of 622 low-income, urban, African American adolescents. Results indicate that adolescent girls in this sample were significantly more likely to endorse depressive symptoms than were boys. To examine possible explanations for this gender difference, 2 variables were…

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF COAL CLEANING PROCESSES: HOMER CITY POWER COMPLEX TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a preliminary, preoperational environmental survey conducted at a newly constructed advanced physical coal cleaning plant near Homer City, PA. The work is part of a comprehensive environmental assessment of physical and chemical coal cleaning processes perfor...

  5. Neuropsychological Testing in a Rural African School-Age Population: Evaluating Contributions to Variability in Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitsao-Wekulo, Patricia K.; Holding, Penny A.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Abubakar, Amina; Connolly, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of a number of neuropsychological tests adapted for use in sub-Saharan Africa. A total of 308 school-age children in a predominantly rural community completed the tests. These tests were developed to assess skills similar to those measured by assessments of cognitive development published for use…

  6. High Stakes Testing of African-American Male Student Performance on Middle School Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murrell-Heydorf, Tanya

    2011-01-01

    The driving force behind high-stakes-testing may be attributed to the issue of education reform. In the last decade, high-stakes testing has generated intense controversy among educators and parents. The use of high-stakes testing in making decisions about student promotion and graduation is both controversial and significant. The purpose of the…

  7. The Process of Adaptation of a Community-Level, Evidence-Based Intervention for HIV-Positive African American Men Who Have Sex with Men in Two Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Beatrice E.; Galbraith, Jennifer S.; Lund, Sharon M.; Hamilton, Autumn R.; Shankle, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the process of adapting a community-level, evidence-based behavioral intervention (EBI), Community PROMISE, for HIV-positive African American men who have sex with men (AAMSM). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Map of the Adaptation Process (MAP) guided the adaptation process for this new target population by two…

  8. Financial strain, parenting behaviors, and adolescents' achievement: testing model equivalence between African American and European American single- and two-parent families.

    PubMed

    Gutman, L M; Eccles, J S

    1999-01-01

    This study tested the equivalence of a theoretical model of parenting behaviors linking financial strain to adolescents' achievement for African American and European American families and for single- and two-parent families. The sample included an economic cross-section of African American (n = 387) and European American families (n = 230) from single- (n = 171) and two-parent (n = 446) homes. Multi-group analyses revealed no significant differences in the structural equation models between the African American and European American families, or between the single- and two-parent families. Results demonstrated that negative parent-adolescent relationships and parental school involvement mediated the relation between financial strain and adolescents' academic achievement. PMID:10621967

  9. Determining the effects and challenges of incorporating genetic testing into primary care management of hypertensive patients with African ancestry.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, C R; Abul-Husn, N S; Ellis, S; Ramos, M A; Negron, R; Suprun, M; Zinberg, R E; Sabin, T; Hauser, D; Calman, N; Bagiella, E; Bottinger, E P

    2016-03-01

    People of African ancestry (Blacks) have increased risk of kidney failure due to numerous socioeconomic, environmental, and clinical factors. Two variants in the APOL1 gene are now thought to account for much of the racial disparity associated with hypertensive kidney failure in Blacks. However, this knowledge has not been translated into clinical care to help improve patient outcomes and address disparities. GUARDD is a randomized trial to evaluate the effects and challenges of incorporating genetic risk information into primary care. Hypertensive, non-diabetic, adults with self-reported African ancestry, without kidney dysfunction, are recruited from diverse clinical settings and randomized to undergo APOL1 genetic testing at baseline (intervention) or at one year (waitlist control). Providers are educated about genomics and APOL1. Guided by a genetic counselor, trained staff return APOL1 results to patients and provide low-literacy educational materials. Real-time clinical decision support tools alert clinicians of their patients' APOL1 results and associated risk status at the point of care. Our academic-community-clinical partnership designed a study to generate information about the impact of genetic risk information on patient care (blood pressure and renal surveillance) and on patient and provider knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. GUARDD will help establish the effective implementation of APOL1 risk-informed management of hypertensive patients at high risk of CKD, and will provide a robust framework for future endeavors to implement genomic medicine in diverse clinical practices. It will also add to the important dialog about factors that contribute to and may help eliminate racial disparities in kidney disease. PMID:26747051

  10. HIV testing behaviors and attitudes among community recruited methamphetamine users in a South African township

    PubMed Central

    Meade, Christina S.; Towe, Sheri L.; Watt, Melissa H.; Hobkirk, Andrea; Skinner, Donald; Myers, Bronwyn; Kimani, Stephen M.; Pieterse, Desiree

    2015-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine users in South Africa are at high risk for HIV infection and transmission, but little is known about HIV testing in this population. Methods We examined HIV testing behaviors and attitudes in 362 methamphetamine users recruited using chain referral sampling from one peri-urban community. Results Many (44%) had not been HIV tested in the past year. HIV testing was associated with positive testing attitudes, less AIDS stigma, and greater methamphetamine stigma. Among participants who reported HIV infection (8%), less than half were linked to care. Conclusions Findings highlight the need to identify barriers to HIV service uptake for methamphetamine users. PMID:24858393

  11. Perceptions of family history and genetic testing and feasibility of pedigree development among African Americans with hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Pettey, Christina M; McSweeney, Jean C; Stewart, Katharine E; Price, Elvin T; Cleves, Mario A; Heo, Seongkum; Souder, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Background Pedigree development, family history, and genetic testing are thought to be useful in improving outcomes of chronic illnesses such as hypertension (HTN). However, the clinical utility of pedigree development is still unknown. Further, little is known about African Americans’ (AAs’) perceptions of family history and genetic testing. Aims This study examined the feasibility of developing pedigrees for AAs with HTN and explored perceptions of family history and genetic research among AAs with HTN. Methods The US Surgeon General’s My Family Health Portrait was administered, and 30–60 minute in-person individual interviews were conducted. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze pedigree data. Interview transcripts were analyzed with content analysis and constant comparison. Results Twenty-nine AAs with HTN were recruited from one free clinic (15 women, 14 men; mean age 49 years, SD 9.6). Twenty-six (90%) reported their family history in sufficient detail to develop a pedigree. Perceptions of family history included knowledge of HTN in the family, culturally influenced family teaching about HTN, and response to family history of HTN. Most participants agreed to future genetic testing and DNA collection because they wanted to help others; some said they needed more information and others expressed a concern for privacy. Conclusion The majority of AAs in this sample possessed extensive knowledge of HTN within their family and were able to develop a three generation pedigree with assistance. The majority were willing to participate in future genetic research. PMID:25322748

  12. Why take an HIV test? Concerns, benefits, and strategies to promote HIV testing among low-income heterosexual African American young adults.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Scyatta A; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Harris, Muriel J; Townsend, Tiffany G; Miller, Kim S

    2011-10-01

    A qualitative study examined perceptions of HIV testing and strategies to enhance HIV testing among HIV-negative African American heterosexual young adults (ages 18-25 years). Twenty-six focus groups (13 male groups, 13 female groups) were conducted in two low-income communities (urban and rural). All sessions were audio-recorded and transcribed. Data analysis was completed using AnSWR software. Many participants expressed that learning one's HIV status, regardless of the result, was a benefit of taking an HIV test because this was perceived to produce emotional relief. Additional benefits included the avoidance of unknowingly spreading the virus, being offered treatment access if HIV-positive, and taking time to assess and modify risky sexual behaviors if HIV-negative. If diagnosed HIV-positive, HIV testing concerns included the recognition of one's mortality, the experience of social stigma, and concerns about accessing affordable treatment. Recommended promotion strategies included the use of HIV-positive individuals, pop culture icons, and the media to promote HIV testing messages. PMID:21464204

  13. Relative risk of Alzheimer disease and age-at-onset distributions, based on APOE genotypes among elderly African Americans, caucasians, and hispanics in New York City

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, M.X.; Liu, X.H.; Stern, Y.

    1996-03-01

    Apolipoprotein-E {epsilon}4 (APOE-{epsilon}4) has been consistently associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) and may be responsible for an earlier age at onset. We have previously reported a diminished association between APOE-{epsilon}4 and AD in African Americans. Using a new method, which allows inclusion of censored information, we compared relative risks by APOE genotypes in an expanded collection of cases and controls from three ethnic groups in a New York community. The relative risk for AD associated with APOE-{epsilon}4 homozygosity was increased in all ethnic groups (African American relative risk [RR] = 3.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5-5.9; Caucasian RR = 7.3, 95% CI = 2.5-21.6; and Hispanic RR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.1-5.7), compared with those with APOE-{epsilon}3/{epsilon}3 genotypes. The risk was also increased for APOE-{epsilon}4 heterozygous Caucasians (RR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.7-5.1) and Hispanics (RR = 1.6,95% CI = 1.1-2.3), but not for African Americans (RR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.4-0.9). The age distribution of the proportion of Caucasians and Hispanics without AD was consistently lower for APOE-{epsilon}4 homozygous and APOE-{epsilon}4 heterozygous individuals than for those with other APOE genotypes. In African Americans this relationship was observed only in APOE-{epsilon}4 homozygotes. These results confirm that APOE genotypes influence the RR of AD in Caucasians and Hispanics. Differences in risk among APOE-{epsilon}4 heterozygote African Americans suggest that other genetic or environmental factors may modify the effect of APOE-{epsilon}4 in some populations. 58 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Relative risk of Alzheimer disease and age-at-onset distributions, based on APOE genotypes among elderly African Americans, Caucasians, and Hispanics in New York City.

    PubMed Central

    Tang, M. X.; Maestre, G.; Tsai, W. Y.; Liu, X. H.; Feng, L.; Chung, W. Y.; Chun, M.; Schofield, P.; Stern, Y.; Tycko, B.; Mayeux, R.

    1996-01-01

    Apolipoprotein-E epsilon 4 (APOE-epsilon 4) has been consistently associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) and may be responsible for an earlier age at onset. We have previously reported a diminished association between APOE-epsilon 4 and AD in African Americans. Using a new method, which allows inclusion of censored information, we compared relative risks by APOE genotypes in an expanded collection of cases and controls from three ethnic groups in a New York community. The relative risk for AD associated with APOE-epsilon 4 homozygosity was increased in all ethnic groups (African American relative risk [RR]=3.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.5-5.9; Caucasian RR=7.3, 95% CI=2.5-21.6; and Hispanic RR=2.5, 95% CI=1.1-5.7), compared with those with APOE-epsilon 3/epsilon 3 genotypes. The risk was also increased for APOE-epsilon 4 heterozygous Caucasians (RR=2.9, 95% CI=1.7-5.1) and Hispanics (RR=1.6, 95% CI=1.1-2.3), but not for African Americans (RR=0.6, 95% Ci=0.4-0.9). The age distribution of the proportion of Caucasians and Hispanics without AD was consistently lower for APOE-epsilon 4 homozygous and APOE-epsilon 4 heterozygous individuals than for those with other APOE genotypes. In African Americans this relationship was observed only in APOE-epsilon 4 homozygotes. These results confirm that APOE genotypes influence the RR of AD in Caucasians and Hispanics. Differences in risk among APOE-epsilon 4 heterozygote African Americans suggest that other genetic or environmental factors may modify the effect of APOE-epsilon 4 in some populations. PMID:8644717

  15. Relationship between the single-breath N test and age, sex, and smoking habit in three North American cities.

    PubMed

    Buist, A S; Ghezzo, H; Anthonisen, N R; Cherniack, R M; Ducic, S; Macklem, P T; Manfreda, J; Martin, R R; McCarthy, D; Ross, B B

    1979-08-01

    This report describes a collaborative study conducted in Montreal, Canada, Portland, Ore., and Winnipeg, Canada, to establish the relationship between the single-breath N2 test and age, sex, and smoking and to determine the prevalence of functional abnormalities in these populations. In nonsmokers, age-related regressions for closing volume, closing capacity, and the slope of phase III obtained from the single-breath N2 test, plus the ratio of the I-s forced expiratory volume to the forced vital capacity had very similar slopes, suggesting that differences in geographic location, climate, air pollution, and occupation had no effect on lung function detectable by these tests. Among the 6 city/six groups there was no systematic difference in the prevalence of functional abnormalities between the cities, but closing capacity expressed as a percentage of total lung capacity was abnormal most often in men and the slope of the alveolar plateau was abnormal most often in women. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms within different smoking categories was similar in the 3 cities. Although the number of cigarettes smoked had a significant effect on every test except the ratio of the I-s forced expiratory volume to forced vital capacity in men, the effect of age was considerably greater than the effect of smoking, and the dose-response relationship was weak. We conclude that additional factors may interact with smoking to place a smoker at risk of developing chronic airflow limitation. PMID:475152

  16. The influence of acculturation and breast cancer-specific distress on perceived barriers to genetic testing for breast cancer among women of African descent

    PubMed Central

    Sussner, Katarina M.; Thompson, Hayley S.; Jandorf, Lina; Edwards, Tiffany A.; Forman, Andrea; Brown, Karen; Kapil-Pair, Nidhi; Bovbjerg, Dana H.; Schwartz, Marc D.; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Rising health disparities are increasingly evident in relation to use of genetic services (including genetic counseling and testing) for breast cancer risk, with women of African descent less likely to use genetic services compared with Whites. Meanwhile, little is known regarding potential within-group acculturation and psychological differences underlying perceived barriers to genetic testing among women of African descent. Methods Hypothesized contributions of acculturation factors and breast cancer-specific distress to perceived barriers to genetic testing were examined with a statistical analysis of baseline data from 146 women of African descent (56% US born and 44% foreign born) meeting genetic breast cancer risk criteria and participating in a larger longitudinal study that included the opportunity for free genetic counseling and testing. Perceived barriers assessed included: (1) anticipation of negative emotional reactions, (2) stigma, (3) confidentiality concerns, (4) family-related worry, and (5) family-related guilt associated with genetic testing. Results In multivariate analyses, being foreign born was a significant predictor of anticipated negative emotional reactions about genetic testing (β= 0.26; SE=0.11; p = 0.01). Breast cancer-specific distress scores (avoidance symptoms) were positively related to anticipated negative emotional reactions (β = 0.02; SE= 0.005; p = <0.0001), confidentiality concerns (β = 0.02; SE = 0.01; p = 0.02), and family-related guilt (β = 0.02; SE=0.01; p = 0.0009) associated with genetic testing. Conclusions Results suggest an influence of acculturation and breast cancer-specific distress on perceived barriers to genetic testing among women of African descent. The potential utility of culturally tailored genetic counseling services taking into account such influences and addressing emotional and psychological concerns of women considering genetic testing for breast cancer should be investigated. PMID

  17. Poverty and the Development of African American Children: Testing an Adaptation of McLoyd's Theoretical Model with the NLSY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nievar, M. Angela; Luster, Tom

    Based on McLoyd's (1990) model of African American children's development, this study examined the linkages between poverty, maternal psychological distress, marital conflict, the home environment, and children's outcomes among a sample of 805 African American 4- to 9-year-olds whose families were interviewed in 1992 as part of the National…

  18. Understanding Alcohol Consumption and Its Correlates among African American Youths in Public Housing: A Test of Problem Behavior Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombe, Margaret; Yu, Mansoo; Nebbitt, Von; Earl, Tara

    2011-01-01

    African American youths are overrepresented in urban public housing developments characterized by violence, poverty, and alternative market activities. Using Jessor and Jessor's problem behavior theory (PBT), the authors examined alcohol use and its correlates in a sample of African American youths from three public housing developments (N = 403).…

  19. Fracture hydraulic conductivity in the Mexico City clayey aquitard: Field piezometer rising-head tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, Carlos; Ortega-Guerrero, Adrián

    A regional lacustrine aquitard covers the main aquifer of the metropolitan area of Mexico City. The aquitard's hydraulic conductivity (K') is fundamental for evaluating the natural protection of the aquifer against a variety of contaminants present on the surface and its hydraulic response. This study analyzes the distribution and variation of K' in the plains of Chalco, Texcoco and Mexico City (three of the six former lakes that existed in the Basin of Mexico), on the basis of 225 field-permeability tests, in nests of existing piezometers located at depths of 2-85 m. Tests were interpreted using the Hvorslev method and some by the Bouwer-Rice method. Results indicate that the distribution of K' fits log-Gaussian regression models. Dominant frequencies for K' in the Chalco and Texcoco plains range between 1E-09 and 1E-08 m/s, with similar population means of 1.19E-09 and 1.7E-09 m/s, respectively, which are one to two orders of magnitude higher than the matrix conductivity. In the Mexico City Plain the population mean is near by one order of magnitude lower; K'=2.6E-10 m/s. The contrast between the measured K' and that of the matrix is attributed to the presence of fractures in the upper 25-40 m, which is consistent with the findings of previous studies on solute migration in the aquitard. Un imperméable régional d'origine lacustre recouvre le principal aquifère de la zone urbaine de la ville de Mexico. La conductivité hydraulique K' de cet imperméable est fondamentale pour évaluer la protection naturelle de l'aquifère, contre les différents contaminants présents en surface, et sa réponse hydraulique. Cette étude analyse et les variations de K' dans les plaines de Chalco, Texcoco et Mexico (trois des six anciens lacs qui existaient dans le Bassin de Mexico), sur la base de 225 essais de perméabilité sur le terrain, réalisés en grappes dans des piézomètres existants entre 2 et 85 m de profondeur. Les essais ont été interprétés avec la m

  20. Making the Global City, Making Inequality: The Political Economy and Cultural Politics of Chicago School Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipman, Pauline

    2002-01-01

    Discusses current Chicago, Illinois, school reform in the context of economic restructuring, the drive to become a "global city," and the cultural politics of race. Focuses on high stakes testing and accountability. Suggests that education policies are part of a cultural politics of race aimed at the control and regulation of African American and…

  1. For People of African, Mediterranean, or Southeast Asian Heritage: Important Information about Diabetes Blood Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Top ] How do hemoglobin variants affect the A1C test and my diabetes care? A variant form of hemoglobin in your blood ... more information about hemoglobin variants and the A1C test? Your health care provider can access a fact sheet that explains ...

  2. Trends in access to water supply and sanitation in 31 major sub-Saharan African cities: an analysis of DHS data from 2000 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background By 2050, sub-Saharan Africa’s (SSA) urban population is expected to grow from 414 million to over 1.2 billion. This growth will likely increase challenges to municipalities attempting to provide access to water supply and sanitation (WS&S). This study aims to characterize trends in access to WS&S in SSA cities and identify factors affecting those trends. Methods DHS data collected between 2000 and 2012 were used for this analysis of thirty-one cities in SSA. Four categories of household access to WS&S were studied using data from demographic and health surveys – these included: 1) household access to an improved water supply, 2) household’s time spent collecting water, 3) household access to improved sanitation, and 4) households reporting to engage in open defecation. An exploratory analysis of these measures was then conducted to assess the relationship of access to several independent variables. Results Among the 31 cities, there was wide variability in coverage levels and trends in coverage with respect to the four categories of access. The majority of cities were found to be increasing access in the categories of improved water supply and improved sanitation (65% and 83% of cities, respectively), while fewer were making progress in reducing the amount of time spent collecting water and reducing open defecation (50% and 38% of cities, respectively). Additionally, the prevalence of open defecation in study cities was found to be, on average, increasing. Conclusions Based on DHS data, cities appeared to be making the most progress in gaining access to WS&S along metrics which reflect specified targets of the Millennium Development Goals. Nearly half of the cities, however, did not make progress in reducing open defecation or the time spent collecting water. This may reflect that the MDGs have led to a focus on “improved” services while other measures, potentially more relevant to the extreme poor, are being neglected. This study highlights

  3. Agent based models for testing city evacuation strategies under a flood event as strategy to reduce flood risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, Neiler; Sanchez, Arlex; Nokolic, Igor; Vojinovic, Zoran

    2016-04-01

    This research explores the uses of Agent Based Models (ABM) and its potential to test large scale evacuation strategies in coastal cities at risk from flood events due to extreme hydro-meteorological events with the final purpose of disaster risk reduction by decreasing human's exposure to the hazard. The first part of the paper corresponds to the theory used to build the models such as: Complex adaptive systems (CAS) and the principles and uses of ABM in this field. The first section outlines the pros and cons of using AMB to test city evacuation strategies at medium and large scale. The second part of the paper focuses on the central theory used to build the ABM, specifically the psychological and behavioral model as well as the framework used in this research, specifically the PECS reference model is cover in this section. The last part of this section covers the main attributes or characteristics of human beings used to described the agents. The third part of the paper shows the methodology used to build and implement the ABM model using Repast-Symphony as an open source agent-based modelling and simulation platform. The preliminary results for the first implementation in a region of the island of Sint-Maarten a Dutch Caribbean island are presented and discussed in the fourth section of paper. The results obtained so far, are promising for a further development of the model and its implementation and testing in a full scale city

  4. Readiness to Implement HIV Testing in African-American Church Settings.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Jennifer M; Thompson, Keitra

    2016-04-01

    HIV and AIDS continue to impact Black Americans at disproportionately high rates. Promotion of HIV testing and linkage to care is a national health imperative for this population. As a pillar in the Black community, the Black Church could have a significant impact on the promotion of HIV testing within their churches and surrounding communities. Churches, however, have varied levels of involvement in testing. Furthermore, little is known about how to assess a church's readiness to integrate HIV testing strategies into its mission, much less how to promote this practice among churches. This qualitative study used interviews and focus groups with pastors and church leaders from four churches with varying levels of involvement in HIV testing to identify key stages in the progression of toward church-based HIV testing and linkage to care. Findings showed that churches progressed through levels of readiness, from refusal of the possibility of HIV interventions to full integration of HIV testing and linkage to care within the church. PMID:26019024

  5. “911” among West African immigrants in New York City: A qualitative study of parents’ disciplinary practices and their perceptions of child welfare authorities

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Andrew; Akinsulure-Smith, Adeyinka; Chu, Tracy; Keatley, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Immigrant parents’ perceptions of child protective services may have important implications for their engagement in public institutions that are central to their children’s well being. The current study examined West African immigrants’ perceptions of child welfare authorities and the role of disciplining and monitoring in these communities’ meaning making. A multiethnic group of 59 West African immigrants (32 parents and 27 adolescent children) living in the United States were interviewed in 18 focus groups and eight individual interviews between December 2009 and July 2010. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach; strategies for rigor included triangulation (multiple interview formats, varied composition of groups, multiple coders for each transcript), verification (follow-up interviewing, feedback to community-based organizations), and auditability. Primary among parents’ concerns were “911” (used to refer to the police and child protective authorities), the loss of collective child monitoring networks, and threats to their children posed by “American” values and neighborhood violence. Children were concerned with parents’ close monitoring that resulted in boredom and a sense that parents did not recognize them for adhering to their families’ values. Feedback from CBOs suggested that parents got their information about child protective policies from children but that although misinformed they were accurate in their negative assessment of contact. Not unlike in other urban populations, West African immigrants’ disciplinary tactics are instrumental, oriented towards protecting their children from the multiple dangers perceived in their surroundings, but may also put them at risk for contact with child protective services. Results suggest that “911” results from a “loss spiral” (Hobfoll, 1989) that begins as West Africans resettle without collective child monitoring networks, leading to increased concern for their

  6. "911" Among West African immigrants in New York City: a qualitative study of parents' disciplinary practices and their perceptions of child welfare authorities.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Andrew; Akinsulure-Smith, Adeyinka; Chu, Tracy; Keatley, Eva

    2012-08-01

    Immigrant parents' perceptions of child protective services may have important implications for their engagement in public institutions that are central to their children's well being. The current study examined West African immigrants' perceptions of child welfare authorities and the role of disciplining and monitoring in these communities' meaning making. A multiethnic group of 59 West African immigrants (32 parents and 27 adolescent children) living in the United States were interviewed in 18 focus groups and eight individual interviews between December 2009 and July 2010. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach; strategies for rigor included triangulation (multiple interview formats, varied composition of groups, multiple coders for each transcript), verification (follow-up interviewing, feedback to community-based organizations), and auditability. Primary among parents' concerns were "911" (used to refer to the police and child protective authorities), the loss of collective child monitoring networks, and threats to their children posed by "American" values and neighborhood violence. Children were concerned with parents' close monitoring that resulted in boredom and a sense that parents did not recognize them for adhering to their families' values. Feedback from CBOs suggested that parents got their information about child protective policies from children but that although misinformed they were accurate in their negative assessment of contact. Not unlike in other urban populations, West African immigrants' disciplinary tactics are instrumental, oriented toward protecting their children from the multiple dangers perceived in their surroundings, but may also put them at risk for contact with child protective services. Results suggest that "911" results from a "loss spiral" (Hobfoll, 1989) that begins as West Africans resettle without collective child monitoring networks, leading to increased concern for their children's safety, and interacting with

  7. HIV counselling and testing utilisation and attitudes of male inmates in a South African prison.

    PubMed

    Motshabi, Lelaka C; Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2011-01-01

    The Department of Correctional Services Policy on the management of HIV and AIDS for offenders include voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) for HIV as one of the priorities in the rehabilitation of inmates. The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with the utilisation of VCT services in the correctional centres in terms of level of satisfaction, their experiences and expectations, and motivating factors and barriers for VCT utilisation at Losperfontein Correctional Centre, South Africa. This was a case control study (cases being those who underwent testing and controls those who did not) examining predictors of HIV VCT utilisation among 200 male adult sentenced inmates serving medium and maximum sentences. Results indicate that a poor health system (OR=0.34, 95%CI: 0.23 - 0.50) was inversely associated with HIV testing acceptance in prison, while age, educational level, population group, marital status, length of incarceration and access to HIV testing in prison were not associated with HIV testing acceptance in prison. Half of the participants (50%) agreed that VCT services are accessible and are promoted at their correctional centre. Most were satisfied with different components of VCT services, ranging from 79% (fair to very good) for 'the way he/she received you' to 62% 'clarified all your concerns'. This study demonstrated some challenges and benefits to the field of health promotion and HIV prevention in the correctional centres especially with regard to VCT services. PMID:23237725

  8. Effects of a Pilot Church-Based Intervention to Reduce HIV Stigma and Promote HIV Testing Among African Americans and Latinos.

    PubMed

    Derose, Kathryn P; Griffin, Beth Ann; Kanouse, David E; Bogart, Laura M; Williams, Malcolm V; Haas, Ann C; Flórez, Karen R; Collins, Deborah Owens; Hawes-Dawson, Jennifer; Mata, Michael A; Oden, Clyde W; Stucky, Brian D

    2016-08-01

    HIV-related stigma and mistrust contribute to HIV disparities. Addressing stigma with faith partners may be effective, but few church-based stigma reduction interventions have been tested. We implemented a pilot intervention with 3 Latino and 2 African American churches (4 in matched pairs) in high HIV prevalence areas of Los Angeles County to reduce HIV stigma and mistrust and increase HIV testing. The intervention included HIV education and peer leader workshops, pastor-delivered sermons on HIV with imagined contact scenarios, and HIV testing events. We surveyed congregants at baseline and 6 month follow-up (n = 1235) and found statistically significant (p < 0.05) reductions in HIV stigma and mistrust in the Latino intervention churches but not in the African American intervention church nor overall across matched African American and Latino pairs. However, within matched pairs, intervention churches had much higher rates of HIV testing (p < 0.001). Stigma reduction and HIV testing may have synergistic effects in community settings. PMID:27000144

  9. Depth-dependent groundwater quality sampling at City of Tallahassee test well 32, Leon County, Florida, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McBride, William S.; Wacker, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    A test well was drilled by the City of Tallahassee to assess the suitability of the site for the installation of a new well for public water supply. The test well is in Leon County in north-central Florida. The U.S. Geological Survey delineated high-permeability zones in the Upper Floridan aquifer, using borehole-geophysical data collected from the open interval of the test well. A composite water sample was collected from the open interval during high-flow conditions, and three discrete water samples were collected from specified depth intervals within the test well during low-flow conditions. Water-quality, source tracer, and age-dating results indicate that the open interval of the test well produces water of consistently high quality throughout its length. The cavernous nature of the open interval makes it likely that the highly permeable zones are interconnected in the aquifer by secondary porosity features.

  10. Four Effects of the High-Stakes Testing Movement on African American K-12 Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Gail L.; Allen, Tawannah G.

    2012-01-01

    In order to ensure that American students are competitive with students in other countries, since the 1980s, U.S. policymakers have been trying to improve the K-12 public school system. Recent reform efforts have led to the current high-stakes testing movement, which measures student achievement and school effectiveness mainly by standardized test…

  11. Secretarial Improvement Program for African Office Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Margaret A.

    1970-01-01

    For the past two years, Colby Junior College, in New London, New Hampshire, in cooperation with Operation Crossroads Africa of New York City, has successfully operated an eight-week secretarial improvement course for African office employees. (Author)

  12. Influence of prey dispersion on territory and group size of African lions: a test of the resource dispersion hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Valeix, Marion; Loveridge, Andrew J; MacDonald, David W

    2012-11-01

    Empirical tests of the resource dispersion hypothesis (RDH), a theory to explain group living based on resource heterogeneity, have been complicated by the fact that resource patch dispersion and richness have proved difficult to define and measure in natural systems. Here, we studied the ecology of African lions Panthera leo in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe, where waterholes are prey hotspots, and where dispersion of water sources and abundance of prey at these water sources are quantifiable. We combined a 10-year data set from GPS-collared lions for which information of group composition was available concurrently with data for herbivore abundance at waterholes. The distance between two neighboring waterholes was a strong determinant of lion home range size, which provides strong support for the RDH prediction that territory size increases as resource patches are more dispersed in the landscape. The mean number of herbivore herds using a waterhole, a good proxy of patch richness, determined the maximum lion group biomass an area can support. This finding suggests that patch richness sets a maximum ceiling on lion group size. This study demonstrates that landscape ecology is a major driver of ranging behavior and suggests that aspects of resource dispersion limit group sizes. PMID:23236920

  13. The Impact of Timing of Exposure to Violence on Violent Behavior in a High Poverty Sample of Inner City African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spano, Richard; Rivera, Craig; Bolland, John

    2006-01-01

    A growing body of research has linked exposure to violence to violent behavior, but few studies have examined the impact of the timing of exposure to violence on violent behavior among inner city, minority youth. Theoretical insights derived from developmental psychology and psychopathology (DPP) and Agnew's general strain theory (GST) give…

  14. Correlates of HIV and STI testing among Latino men who have sex with men in New York City.

    PubMed

    Spadafino, Joseph T; Martinez, Omar; Levine, Ethan C; Dodge, Brian; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Fernandez, M Isabel

    2016-06-01

    We assessed the extent to which sociodemographic, personal, and behavioral factors are associated with human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) testing among a diverse group of Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) in New York City. The triangulation approach was used to synthesize data from 176 MSM who completed an in-person or phone questionnaire about substance use, alcohol consumption, sexual behaviors, and HIV/STI testing history and 40 participants who participated in focus groups. Correlates of testing significant in univariable analyses (p < .05) were entered into multivariable logistic regression models. Over half (57.9%) of study subjects tested for HIV in the previous 12 months and 60.2% tested for STIs in the previous 12 months. Age and education were positively correlated with HIV testing in multivariable analysis. No significant correlates of STI testing were identified. Spanish-speaking only subjects were less likely to get tested for HIV and STI; however, this association was not significant. Our study demonstrates the need for further study of predictors of STI testing as well as the potential role of language barriers and education in routine testing for HIV. Social and behavioral factors may intensify these obstacles. Future research and interventions should address the role of language barriers and perceived issues of immigration status in the decision to get tested. PMID:26886172

  15. "Getting tested is almost like going to the Salem witch trials": discordant discourses between Western public health messages and sociocultural expectations surrounding HIV testing among East African immigrant women.

    PubMed

    De Jesus, Maria; Carrete, Claudia; Maine, Cathleen; Nalls, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Washington, DC, has the highest AIDS diagnosis rate in the USA, and Black women are disproportionately affected. Although HIV testing is the first entryway into vital treatment services, evidence reveals that foreign-born blacks have a lower rate of recent HIV testing than US-born blacks. To date, however, there are no studies that examine the culture-specific perceptions of HIV testing among East African immigrant women (who comprise a large share of Black Africans in DC) to better understand their potential barriers to testing. Adopting the PEN-3 cultural model as our theoretical framework, the main objective of this study was to examine East African women's HIV testing perceptions and partner communication norms. Between October 2012 and March 2013, trained interviewers conducted a total of 25 interviews with East African women in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. For triangulation purposes, data collection consisted of both in-depth, semi-structured interviews and cognitive interviews, in which participants were administered a quantitative survey and assessed on how they interpreted items. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed a systematic pattern of discordant responses across participants. While they were aware of messages related to Western public health discourse surrounding HIV testing (e.g., Everyone should get tested for HIV; One should talk to one's spouse about HIV testing), divergent sociocultural expectations rooted in cultural and religious beliefs prevailed (e.g., Getting an HIV test brings shame to the person who got tested and to one's family; it implies one is engaging in immoral behavior; One should not talk with one's spouse about HIV testing; doing so breaks cultural norms). Implications of using a culture-centered model to examine the role of sociocultural expectations in HIV prevention research and to develop culturally responsive prevention strategies are discussed. PMID:25616443

  16. ‘Getting tested is almost like going to the Salem witch trials’: Discordant discourses between western public health messages and sociocultural expectations surrounding HIV testing among East African immigrant women

    PubMed Central

    DE JESUS, Maria; CARRETE, Claudia; MAINE, Cathleen; NALLS, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Washington, DC has the highest AIDS diagnosis rate in the United States and Black women are disproportionately affected. Although HIV testing is the first entryway into vital treatment services, evidence reveals that foreign-born blacks have a lower rate of recent HIV testing than U.S.-born blacks. To date, however, there are no studies that examine the culture-specific perceptions of HIV testing among East African immigrant women (who comprise a large share of Black Africans in DC) to better understand their potential barriers to testing. Adopting the PEN-3 cultural model as our theoretical framework, the main objective of this study was to examine East African women’s HIV testing perceptions and partner communication norms. Between October 2012 and March 2013, trained interviewers conducted a total of 25 interviews with East African women in the Washington DC Metropolitan area. For triangulation purposes, data collection consisted of both in-depth, semi-structured interviews and cognitive interviews, in which participants were administered a quantitative survey and assessed on how they interpreted items. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed a systematic pattern of discordant responses across participants. While they were aware of messages related to western public health discourse surrounding HIV testing (e.g., Everyone should get tested for HIV; One should talk to one’s spouse about HIV testing), divergent sociocultural expectations rooted in cultural and religious beliefs prevailed (e.g., Getting an HIV test brings shame to the person who got tested and to one’s family; it implies one is engaging in immoral behavior; One should not talk with one’s spouse about HIV testing; doing so breaks cultural norms). Implications of using a culture-centered model to examine the role of sociocultural expectations in HIV prevention research and to develop culturally responsive prevention strategies are discussed. PMID:25616443

  17. [Positive breathalyzer test: factors associated with drinking and driving in the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Campos, Valdir Ribeiro; Salgado, Rogério de Souza; Rocha, Mariela Campos

    2013-01-01

    Few researches in Brazil have focused on factors associated with drinking and driving. The current study presents data on the prevalence and characteristics of individuals that drive under the influence of alcohol (DUI) in nine regions of the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A total of 1,656 drivers were interviewed, of whom 1,254 (76%) agreed to answer a structured questionnaire and submit to the breathalyzer test. The breathalyzer test was positive in 15% of these drivers. The logistic regression model predicted 1.5 times higher odds of a positive breathalyzer test in drivers over 31 years of age and 4.5 times higher in individuals that reported at least weekly alcohol consumption. In addition, drivers in the Barreiro region showed two-fold odds of a positive breathalyzer test. Focused studies with sobriety checkpoints can monitor DUI behavior, drivers' characteristics, and traffic risks, meanwhile orienting public policies to prevent drinking and driving. PMID:23370024

  18. Development and testing of an air quality model for Mexico City

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.D.; Streit, G.; Cruz, X.; Ruiz, M.; Sosa, G.; Russell, A.G.; McNair, L.A.

    1992-03-02

    Los Alamos National Laboratory and Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo have embarked on a joint study of options for improving air quality in Mexico City. The intent is to develop a modeling system which can address the behavior of pollutants in the region so that option for improving Mexico City air quality can be properly evaluated. In February of 1991, the project conducted a field program which yielded a variety of data which is being used to evaluate and improve the models. Normally the worst air quality for both primary and photochemical pollutants occurs in the winter Mexico City. During the field program, measurements included: (1) lidar measurements of aerosol transport and dispersion, (2) aircraft measurements of winds, turbulence, and chemical species aloft, (3) aircraft measurements of earth surface skin temperatures, and (4) tethersonde measurements of wind, temperature and ozone vertical profiles. A three-dimensional, prognostic, higher order turbulence meteorological model (HOTMAC) was modified to include an urban canopy and urban heat sources. HOTMAC is used to drive an Monte-Carlo kernel dispersion code (RAPTAD). HOTMAC also provides winds and mixing heights for the CIT photochemical model which was developed by investigators at the California Institute of Technology and Carnegie Mellon University.

  19. A Comparison of Third Grade Suburban and Inner City Children's Performance on the Standard Administration of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and the Naming of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test Plates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Lenore W.; And Others

    Ninety children were administered the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) with the standardized administration, as well as an elicited word response task of the PPVT Stimulus Plates. The subjects were inner city black (BIC), inner city white (WIC), and middle class white (WMC) children. The data were analyzed to determine consistency of item…

  20. Positive parenting and child psychosocial adjustment in inner-city single-parent African American families. The role of maternal optimism.

    PubMed

    Jones, Deborah J; Forehand, Rex; Brody, Gene H; Armistead, Lisa

    2002-09-01

    The primary purposes of this study were to examine whether maternal optimism is related to positive parenting and child adjustment and whether it contributes beyond maternal depressive symptoms to our understanding. The participants were 141 African American single mothers and one of their children. Findings revealed that maternal optimism was associated with positive parenting and this association was only partially mediated by maternal depressive symptoms. Maternal optimism was not associated with child psychosocial adjustment, but positive parenting was associated with lower levels of both internalizing and externalizing difficulties. The utility of understanding the link between maternal optimism and parenting for prevention and intervention efforts aimed at enhancing quality of life and subsequent child adjustment is discussed, as well as directions for future research on maternal optimism. PMID:12205822

  1. Social and Proximate Determinants of the Frequency of Condom Use Among African, Caribbean, and Other Black People in a Canadian City: Results from the BLACCH Study.

    PubMed

    Baidoobonso, Shamara; Bauer, Greta R; Speechley, Kathy Nixon; Lawson, Erica

    2016-02-01

    African, Caribbean, and other Black (ACB) people are a priority group for HIV prevention in Canada, but little is known about condom use in this population. This exploratory community-based research project addresses this gap in knowledge. 125 sexually active ACB people completed a questionnaire covering condom use and social determinants of health. The data were analyzed using ordinal logistic regression and mediation analyses. 20.5 % of sexually active ACB adults used condoms consistently. Male gender, wealth, unstable immigration classes, and unsecure employment statuses were independently associated with more frequent condom use. Proximate determinants mediating these relationships included: not having a cohabiting regular partner, not disliking condoms, and having a history of unwanted sex. The proximate determinants mediated 85.7-97.6 % of the effects of the social determinants. These results link social context and proximate factors with condom use. They can be used to design evidence-informed interventions for ACB people. PMID:24488693

  2. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN HEALTH STATUS AND THE PERFORMANCE OF EXCESSIVELY VARIABLE SPIROMETRY TESTS IN A POPULATION-BASED STUDY IN SIX U.S. CITIES (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between six chronic respiratory symptoms and the inability to perform an acceptable lung function test (test failure) was examined among 8,390 white adults in six U.S. cities. A total of 141 subjects were unable to perform such a test. The proportion of subjects ...

  3. Tomorrow's City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Emrys

    1979-01-01

    Examines several simple models of cities, discussing possible future changes in city design. The concepts of the megalopolis, linear city, tower block, imploded or miniaturized city, and dispersed city are described. (CS)

  4. Comparison of strategies to increase HIV testing among African-American gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men in Washington, DC.

    PubMed

    Baytop, Chanza; Royal, Scott; Hubbard McCree, Donna; Simmons, Ron; Tregerman, Rebecca; Robinson, Carolyn; Johnson, Wayne D; McLaughlin, Mike; Price, Cristofer

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents results from a study conducted to compare the relative effectiveness of three strategies - alternate venue testing (AVT), the social network strategy (SNS), and partner counseling and referral services (PCRS; standard care) - for reaching and motivating previously undiagnosed, African-American men who have sex with men (AA MSM) to be tested for HIV. Data were collected between June 2008 and February 2010 at a gay-identified, community-based organization (CBO) serving AA MSM in Washington, DC. Men were eligible to participate if they were 18-64 years old, self-identified as black or African-American, were biologically male, and self-reported oral or anal sex with a man in the past six months. Fisher's exact test of independence was used to assess differences in demographics, testing history, HIV status and sexual behaviors across the three strategies. The final sample included 470 men who met all eligibility requirements. There were no statistically significant differences in HIV positivity rates across the three strategies. However, relative to standard care, the SNS, and (to a lesser degree) the AVT strategies were more successful in recruiting men that had never been tested. Additionally, the results indicate that each strategy recruited different subgroups of men. Specifically, heterosexually identified men and men who reported engaging in unprotected sex were most likely to be recruited via SNS. Bisexually identified men and older men were most likely to be recruited via AVT or SNS, while standard care tended to reach greater proportions of young men and homosexually identified men. These findings suggest that a combination of strategies may be the best approach for engaging African-American MSM in HIV testing. PMID:24116886

  5. AIDS in Black and White: The Influence of Newspaper Coverage of HIV/AIDS on HIV/AIDS Testing Among African Americans and White Americans, 1993–2007

    PubMed Central

    STEVENS, ROBIN; HORNIK, ROBERT C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the impact of newspaper coverage of HIV/AIDS on HIV testing behavior in the US population. HIV testing data were taken from the CDC’s National Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) from 1993 to 2007 (n=265,557). News stories from 24 daily newspapers and one wire service during the same time period were content analyzed. Distributed lagged regression models were employed to estimate how well HIV/AIDS newspaper coverage predicted later HIV testing behavior. Increases in HIV/AIDS newspaper coverage were associated with declines in population level HIV testing. Each additional 100 HIV/AIDS related newspaper stories published each month was associated with a 1.7% decline in HIV testing levels in the subsequent month. This effect differed by race, with African Americans exhibiting greater declines in HIV testing subsequent to increased news coverage than did Whites. These results suggest that mainstream newspaper coverage of HIV/AIDS may have a particularly deleterious effect on African Americans, one of the groups most impacted by the disease. The mechanisms driving the negative effect deserve further investigation to improve reporting on HIV/AIDS in the media. PMID:24597895

  6. Selection of Postgraduate Students in a South African Management Programme: How Effective Is the General Reasoning Test?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahams, Fatima; Friedrich, Christian; Tredoux, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    South African higher education institutions are experiencing challenges regarding access, redress and the successful completion of programmes in an environment where there are still imbalances in the schooling system. Tools are needed that will assist with the process of selecting students. The aim of this study is to determine whether a test…

  7. City Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markle, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    This article provides information on the evolution of the building material, concrete, and suggests hands-on activities that allow students to experience concrete's qualities, test the heat absorbency of various ground surface materials, discover how an area's geology changes, and search for city fossils. A reproducible activity sheet is included.…

  8. The process of adaptation of a community-level, evidence-based intervention for HIV-positive African American men who have sex with men in two cities.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Beatrice E; Galbraith, Jennifer S; Lund, Sharon M; Hamilton, Autumn R; Shankle, Michael D

    2012-06-01

    We describe the process of adapting a community-level, evidence-based behavioral intervention (EBI), Community PROMISE, for HIV-positive African American men who have sex with men (AAMSM). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Map of the Adaptation Process (MAP) guided the adaptation process for this new target population by two community-based organizations (CBOs) working in partnership with two research organizations. We describe five steps of the MAP, assessment, selection, preparation, pilot, and implementation, and the use of qualitative interviews, field observations, and a cross-sectional survey. We recommend: (1) development of a centralized interactive website, listserv, or other resources where agencies adapting EBIs can share tools, materials, experiences, lessons learned, and best practices; (2) strengthening Funding Opportunity Announcements by funding incrementally in phases linked to the MAP; and (3) research should examine (a) whether EBIs adapted by CBOs remain efficacious and (b) the best "fit" between the cultural and climate characteristics of effective collaborations between community- and research-based organizations. PMID:22676461

  9. Comparative Intradermal Tuberculin Testing of Free-Ranging African Buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) Captured for Ex Situ Conservation in the Kafue Basin Ecosystem in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor; Matandiko, Wigganson; Nambota, Andrew; Muma, John Bwalya; Mweene, Aaron Simanyengwe; Munyeme, Musso

    2011-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is endemic in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) in some National Parks in Southern Africa, whilst no studies have been conducted on BTB on buffalo populations in Zambia. The increased demand for ecotourism and conservation of the African buffalo on private owned game ranches has prompted the Zambian Wildlife Authority (ZAWA) and private sector in Zambia to generate a herd of “BTB-free buffaloes” for ex situ conservation. In the present study, 86 African buffaloes from four different herds comprising a total of 530 animals were investigated for the presence of BTB for the purpose of generating “BTB free” buffalo for ex-situ conservation. Using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT) the BTB status at both individual animal and herd level was estimated to be 0.0% by the CIDT technique. Compared to Avian reactors only, a prevalence of 5.8% was determined whilst for Bovine-only reactors a prevalence of 0.0% was determined. These results suggest the likelihood of buffalo herds in the Kafue National Park being free of BTB. PMID:21776347

  10. SiHLEWeb.com: Development and Usability Testing of an Evidence-Based HIV/STI Prevention Website for Female African-American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Danielson, Carla Kmett; McCauley, Jenna L.; Gros, Kirstin Stauffacher; Jones, Andrea M.; Barr, Simone C.; Borkman, April L.; Bryant, Brittany G.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    African-American adolescent girls are at disproportionate risk for HIV infection. Although numerous evidence-based risk-reduction interventions exist, dissemination and implementation resources remain limited, and prevention services remain notably inaccessible to the very populations at highest risk for HIV infection. Internet delivery of HIV risk-reduction programming has promise as a mechanism for extending the reach of existing prevention efforts and overcoming barriers associated with traditional service delivery. This article: (1) details the development process for the creation of SiHLEWeb, a web-adapted version of an evidence-based, culturally-informed HIV prevention program traditionally delivered to female African-American adolescents via an in-person group format; and (2) presents findings from quantitative and qualitative usability testing conducted among 18 African-American girls (13–18). Results suggest that users found the website improved knowledge and learning, was helpful, efficient to use, and generally attractive. Users reported some concerns about website navigation. Implications for internet delivery of health prevention programming are discussed. PMID:25167865

  11. SiHLEWeb.com: Development and usability testing of an evidence-based HIV prevention website for female African-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Danielson, Carla Kmett; McCauley, Jenna L; Gros, Kirstin Stauffacher; Jones, Andrea M; Barr, Simone C; Borkman, April L; Bryant, Brittany G; Ruggiero, Kenneth J

    2016-06-01

    African-American adolescent girls are at disproportionate risk for HIV infection. Although numerous evidence-based risk-reduction interventions exist, dissemination and implementation resources remain limited, and prevention services remain notably inaccessible to the very populations at highest risk for HIV infection. Internet delivery of HIV risk-reduction programming has promise as a mechanism for extending the reach of existing prevention efforts and overcoming barriers associated with traditional service delivery. This article (1) details the development process for the creation of SiHLEWeb, a web-adapted version of an evidence-based, culturally informed HIV prevention program traditionally delivered to female African-American adolescents via an in-person group format, and (2) presents findings from quantitative and qualitative usability testing conducted among 18 African-American girls (13-18 years). Results suggest that users found the website improved knowledge and learning, was helpful, efficient to use, and generally attractive. Users reported some concerns about website navigation. Implications for Internet delivery of health prevention programming are discussed. PMID:25167865

  12. Enhancing Parental Motivation to Monitor African American Adolescents’ Diabetes Care: Development and Beta Test of a Brief Computer-Delivered Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Deborah A; Naar, Sylvie; Ondersma, Steven J; Moltz, Kathleen; Dekelbab, Baseem; Joseph, Christine LM

    2014-01-01

    Background African American youth are at increased risk for poor diabetes management. Parenting behaviors such as parental monitoring are significant predictors of youth diabetes management and metabolic control, but no intervention has targeted parental monitoring of daily diabetes care. Objective The purpose of the present study was to develop and pilot test a three-session computer-delivered intervention to enhance parental motivation to monitor African American pre-adolescents’ diabetes management. Methods The 3 Ms (Medication, Meter, and Meals) intervention was based on the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model of health behavior change and Motivational Interviewing approaches. Five caregivers of African American youth aged 10-13 years diagnosed with type 1 diabetes for a minimum of one year (ie, the target population) reviewed the intervention and provided feedback via semi-structured interviews. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Caregivers’ responses to interview questions suggest that The 3 Ms was helpful (minimum rating was 8 out of 10) and they would recommend the program to another parent of a child with diabetes (minimum rating was 9 out of 10). Three of five reported that The 3 Ms program increased the likelihood that they would talk to their child about diabetes. Thematic analysis suggested two primary themes: caregivers found the intervention to be a useful reminder of the importance of supervising their child’s diabetes care and that it evoked a feeling of shared experience with other parents. Conclusions The 3 Ms computer-delivered intervention for increasing parental monitoring of African-American youth with type 1 diabetes was well-received and highly rated by a small sample of representative caregivers. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01515930; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01515930 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6Rm0vq9pn). PMID:25236503

  13. A comparison of the oral and silent reading methods of standardized science test delivery on the performance level of fifth-grade African American students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merenda, Gloria Louise

    This study compared two methods of standardized test administration, oral delivery using an audio tape and the standard silent reading by the student, on the performance level (test score) and science understanding (right answer/right reason) of urban fifth grade African American students. The effect of reading ability, special needs, and socioeconomic status were also examined as possible confounding variables. A randomized post-test only control group design was used with data for the sample (N = 106) collected from student files at two Detroit Public Schools, which included the Michigan Education Assessment Program (MEAP) reading and science scores. In addition, face-to-face interviews were completed with a small subsample to determine reasoning for selecting their answers. Six hypotheses were developed to determine if there were significant differences in science performance level and understanding in fifth grade urban African American students when the standardized science test, MEAP, Area Specific Portions, Physical Science and Earth/Space Science, were delivered orally, using the audio tape, and silently, which is the present standard delivery method. Significant differences in scores were found favoring the oral over the silent test group. A significant association was also found for reading and science MEAP scores, with students who had higher scores on the reading test achieving higher scores on the science test. Although socioeconomic status did not appear to result in differential outcomes among the students, a significant interaction was found between test administration type and socioeconomic status. The conclusion that was reached was that students who have difficulty in reading the printed material could benefit from having standardized tests administered orally (except for reading tests).

  14. TESTING POPULATION-SPECIFIC QUANTITATIVE TRAIT ASSOCIATIONS FOR CLINICAL OUTCOME RELEVANCE IN A BIOREPOSITORY LINKED TO ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORDS: LPA AND MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN AFRICAN AMERICANS

    PubMed Central

    Dumitrescu, Logan; Diggins, Kirsten E.; Goodloe, Robert; Crawford, Dana C.

    2015-01-01

    Previous candidate gene and genome-wide association studies have identified common genetic variants in LPA associated with the quantitative trait Lp(a), an emerging risk factor for cardiovascular disease. These associations are population-specific and many have not yet been tested for association with the clinical outcome of interest. To fill this gap in knowledge, we accessed the epidemiologic Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES III) and BioVU, the Vanderbilt University Medical Center biorepository linked to de-identified electronic health records (EHRs), including billing codes (ICD-9-CM) and clinical notes, to test population-specific Lp(a)-associated variants for an association with myocardial infarction (MI) among African Americans. We performed electronic phenotyping among African Americans in BioVU ≥40 years of age using billing codes. At total of 93 cases and 522 controls were identified in NHANES III and 265 cases and 363 controls were identified in BioVU. We tested five known Lp(a)-associated genetic variants (rs1367211, rs41271028, rs6907156, rs10945682, and rs1652507) in both NHANES III and BioVU for association with myocardial infarction. We also tested LPA rs3798220 (I4399M), previously associated with increased levels of Lp(a), MI, and coronary artery disease in European Americans, in BioVU. After meta-analysis, tests of association using logistic regression assuming an additive genetic model revealed no significant associations (p<0.05) for any of the five LPA variants previously associated with Lp(a) levels in African Americans. Also, I4399M rs3798220 was not associated with MI in African Americans (odds ratio = 0.51; 95% confidence interval: 0.16 – 1.65; p=0.26) despite strong, replicated associations with MI and coronary artery disease in European American genome-wide association studies. These data highlight the challenges in translating quantitative trait associations to clinical outcomes in diverse populations

  15. TESTING POPULATION-SPECIFIC QUANTITATIVE TRAIT ASSOCIATIONS FOR CLINICAL OUTCOME RELEVANCE IN A BIOREPOSITORY LINKED TO ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORDS: LPA AND MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN AFRICAN AMERICANS.

    PubMed

    Dumitrescu, Logan; Diggins, Kirsten E; Goodloe, Robert; Crawford, Dana C

    2016-01-01

    Previous candidate gene and genome-wide association studies have identified common genetic variants in LPA associated with the quantitative trait Lp(a), an emerging risk factor for cardiovascular disease. These associations are population-specific and many have not yet been tested for association with the clinical outcome of interest. To fill this gap in knowledge, we accessed the epidemiologic Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES III) and BioVU, the Vanderbilt University Medical Center biorepository linked to de-identified electronic health records (EHRs), including billing codes (ICD-9-CM) and clinical notes, to test population-specific Lp(a)-associated variants for an association with myocardial infarction (MI) among African Americans. We performed electronic phenotyping among African Americans in BioVU≥40 years of age using billing codes. At total of 93 cases and 522 controls were identified in NHANES III and 265 cases and 363 controls were identified in BioVU. We tested five known Lp(a)-associated genetic variants (rs1367211, rs41271028, rs6907156, rs10945682, and rs1652507) in both NHANES III and BioVU for association with myocardial infarction. We also tested LPA rs3798220 (I4399M), previously associated with increased levels of Lp(a), MI, and coronary artery disease in European Americans, in BioVU. After meta-analysis, tests of association using logistic regression assuming an additive genetic model revealed no significant associations (p<0.05) for any of the five LPA variants previously associated with Lp(a) levels in African Americans. Also, I4399M rs3798220 was not associated with MI in African Americans (odds ratio = 0.51; 95% confidence interval: 0.16 - 1.65; p=0.26) despite strong, replicated associations with MI and coronary artery disease in European American genome-wide association studies. These data highlight the challenges in translating quantitative trait associations to clinical outcomes in diverse populations

  16. Light and electron microscopical observations on the Leydig cells of the scrotal and abdominal testes of naturally unilateral cryptorchid West African dwarf goats.

    PubMed Central

    Ezeasor, D N

    1985-01-01

    The structure of interstitial cells of Leydig in the scrotal and abdominal testes of adult West African dwarf goats was studied utilising light and electron microscopy. The Leydig cells in both testes were scattered singly, in cords or clusters in the intertubular connective tissue in close proximity to vascular elements. The intertubular connective tissue in the abdominal testes was however much wider because of the hypoplasia of the seminiferous tubules. While the cells of the scrotal testes exhibited non-granular, pale staining cytoplasm, those of the abdominal testes were darkly staining and the majority contained coarse intracytoplasmic osmiophilic granules Interspersed amongst these cells were adipose cells occasionally distributed overall. With the electron microscope, it was found that agranular endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and mitochondria were more prominently developed in the scrotal testes. In marked contrast, there were numerous lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of the Leydig cells in the abdominal testes. Furthermore, the cytoplasm of several of these cells showed evidence of degeneration. It is concluded that, contrary to observations in the experimentally induced condition, abdominal retention of testes in natural unilateral cryptorchidism induces alterations in the light microscopical and ultrastructural features of the Leydig cells of West African dwarf goats, changes which possibly can be ascribed to the chronic decline in testicular blood flow and the elevated temperature of the abdominal environment. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:2867081

  17. Laboratory testing of airborne brake wear particle emissions using a dynamometer system under urban city driving cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagino, Hiroyuki; Oyama, Motoaki; Sasaki, Sousuke

    2016-04-01

    To measure driving-distance-based mass emission factors for airborne brake wear particulate matter (PM; i.e., brake wear particles) related to the non-asbestos organic friction of brake assembly materials (pads and lining), and to characterize the components of brake wear particles, a brake wear dynamometer with a constant-volume sampling system was developed. Only a limited number of studies have investigated brake emissions under urban city driving cycles that correspond to the tailpipe emission test (i.e., JC08 or JE05 mode of Japanese tailpipe emission test cycles). The tests were performed using two passenger cars and one middle-class truck. The observed airborne brake wear particle emissions ranged from 0.04 to 1.4 mg/km/vehicle for PM10 (particles up to 10 μm (in size), and from 0.04 to 1.2 mg/km/vehicle for PM2.5. The proportion of brake wear debris emitted as airborne brake wear particles was 2-21% of the mass of wear. Oxygenated carbonaceous components were included in the airborne PM but not in the original friction material, which indicates that changes in carbon composition occurred during the abrasion process. Furthermore, this study identified the key tracers of brake wear particles (e.g., Fe, Cu, Ba, and Sb) at emission levels comparable to traffic-related atmospheric environments.

  18. HIV Incidence Estimates Using the Limiting Antigen Avidity EIA Assay at Testing Sites in Kiev City, Ukraine: 2013-2014

    PubMed Central

    Kruglov, Yuri; Yurchenko, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate HIV incidence and highlight the characteristics of persons at greatest risk of HIV in the Ukraine capital, Kiev. Method Residual samples from newly-diagnosed persons attending the Kiev City AIDS Centre were tested for evidence of recent HIV infection using an avidity assay. Questions on possible risk factors for HIV acquisition and testing history were introduced. All persons (≥16yrs) presenting for an HIV test April’13–March’14 were included. Rates per 100,000 population were calculated using region-specific denominators. Results During the study period 6370 individuals tested for HIV. Of the 467 individuals newly-diagnosed with HIV, 21 had insufficient samples for LAg testing. Of the remaining 446, 39 (8.7%) were classified as recent with an avidity index <1.5ODn, 10 were reclassified as long-standing as their viral load was <1000 copies/mL, resulting in 29 (6.5%) recent HIV infections. The only independent predictor for a recent infection was probable route of exposure, with MSM more likely to present with a recent infection compared with heterosexual contact [Odds Ratio 8.86; 95%CI 2.65–29.60]. We estimated HIV incidence at 21.5 per 100,000 population, corresponding to 466 new infections. Using population estimates for MSM and PWID, incidence was estimated to be between 2289.6 and 6868.7/100,000 MSM, and 350.4 for PWID. Conclusion A high proportion of persons newly-infected remain undiagnosed, with MSM disproportionally affected with one in four newly-HIV-diagnosed and one in three recently-HIV-infected. Our findings should be used for targeted public health interventions and health promotion. PMID:27276170

  19. Perinatal HIV testing among African American, Caucasian, Hmong and Latina women: exploring the role of health-care services, information sources and perceptions of HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Lee King, Patricia A; Pate, David J

    2014-02-01

    Perinatal HIV transmission disproportionately affects African American, Latina and potentially Hmong women in the United States. Understanding racially and ethnically diverse women's perceptions of and experiences with perinatal health care, HIV testing and HIV/AIDS may inform effective health communications to reduce the risk of perinatal HIV transmission among disproportionate risk groups. We used a qualitative descriptive research design with content analysis of five focus groups of African American, Caucasian, Hmong and Latina women of reproductive age with low socioeconomic status distinguished by their race/ethnicity or HIV status. A purposive stratified sample of 37 women shared their health-care experiences, health information sources and perceptions of HIV testing and HIV/AIDS. Women's responses highlighted the importance of developing and leveraging trusted provider and community-based relationships and assessing a woman's beliefs and values in her sociocultural context, to ensure clear, consistent and relevant communications. Perinatal health communications that are culturally sensitive and based on an assessment of women's knowledge and understanding of perinatal health and HIV/AIDS may be an effective tool for health educators addressing racial and ethnic disparities in perinatal HIV transmission. PMID:24150728

  20. The Relationship between the Percentage of African-American Teachers on Public School Secondary Campuses and the Percentage of African-American Students Passing the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills Test (TAKS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Victor S.

    2010-01-01

    No Child Left Behind has caused educators to take a critical look at the achievement levels of all population groups on campus. African-American student achievement can no longer be masked by the achievement levels of other student populations. Educators must develop strategies to reduce the African-American achievement gap in order to meet…

  1. HIV Testing Trends and Correlates among Young Asian and Pacific Islander Men Who Have Sex with Men in Two U.S. Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Do, Tri D.; Hudes, Esther S.; Proctor, Kristopher; Han, Chung-Sook; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2006-01-01

    We sought to determine the prevalence, trends, and correlates of recent HIV testing (within the past year) among young Asian and Pacific Islander men who have sex with men (API MSM) in two U.S. cities. We conducted serial, cross-sectional, interviewer-administered surveys of 908 API MSM aged 15-25 years, sampled from randomly selected…

  2. Early African Hominids: Pedagogic Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, James L.

    1984-01-01

    By studying early African hominids, students can learn about the interactive testing and creative aspects of scientific thinking and sharpen their geographical skills. It is impossible to study this topic without giving prominence to space and time. (RM)

  3. The Paternal Landscape along the Bight of Benin – Testing Regional Representativeness of West-African Population Samples Using Y-Chromosomal Markers

    PubMed Central

    Larmuseau, Maarten H. D.; Vessi, Andrea; Jobling, Mark A.; Van Geystelen, Anneleen; Primativo, Giuseppina; Biondi, Gianfranco; Martínez-Labarga, Cristina; Ottoni, Claudio; Decorte, Ronny; Rickards, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Patterns of genetic variation in human populations across the African continent are still not well studied in comparison with Eurasia and America, despite the high genetic and cultural diversity among African populations. In population and forensic genetic studies a single sample is often used to represent a complete African region. In such a scenario, inappropriate sampling strategies and/or the use of local, isolated populations may bias interpretations and pose questions of representativeness at a macrogeographic-scale. The non-recombining region of the Y-chromosome (NRY) has great potential to reveal the regional representation of a sample due to its powerful phylogeographic information content. An area poorly characterized for Y-chromosomal data is the West-African region along the Bight of Benin, despite its important history in the trans-Atlantic slave trade and its large number of ethnic groups, languages and lifestyles. In this study, Y-chromosomal haplotypes from four Beninese populations were determined and a global meta-analysis with available Y-SNP and Y-STR data from populations along the Bight of Benin and surrounding areas was performed. A thorough methodology was developed allowing comparison of population samples using Y-chromosomal lineage data based on different Y-SNP panels and phylogenies. Geographic proximity turned out to be the best predictor of genetic affinity between populations along the Bight of Benin. Nevertheless, based on Y-chromosomal data from the literature two population samples differed strongly from others from the same or neighbouring areas and are not regionally representative within large-scale studies. Furthermore, the analysis of the HapMap sample YRI of a Yoruban population from South-western Nigeria based on Y-SNPs and Y-STR data showed for the first time its regional representativeness, a result which is important for standard population and forensic genetic applications using the YRI sample. Therefore, the uniquely

  4. The Paternal Landscape along the Bight of Benin - Testing Regional Representativeness of West-African Population Samples Using Y-Chromosomal Markers.

    PubMed

    Larmuseau, Maarten H D; Vessi, Andrea; Jobling, Mark A; Van Geystelen, Anneleen; Primativo, Giuseppina; Biondi, Gianfranco; Martínez-Labarga, Cristina; Ottoni, Claudio; Decorte, Ronny; Rickards, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Patterns of genetic variation in human populations across the African continent are still not well studied in comparison with Eurasia and America, despite the high genetic and cultural diversity among African populations. In population and forensic genetic studies a single sample is often used to represent a complete African region. In such a scenario, inappropriate sampling strategies and/or the use of local, isolated populations may bias interpretations and pose questions of representativeness at a macrogeographic-scale. The non-recombining region of the Y-chromosome (NRY) has great potential to reveal the regional representation of a sample due to its powerful phylogeographic information content. An area poorly characterized for Y-chromosomal data is the West-African region along the Bight of Benin, despite its important history in the trans-Atlantic slave trade and its large number of ethnic groups, languages and lifestyles. In this study, Y-chromosomal haplotypes from four Beninese populations were determined and a global meta-analysis with available Y-SNP and Y-STR data from populations along the Bight of Benin and surrounding areas was performed. A thorough methodology was developed allowing comparison of population samples using Y-chromosomal lineage data based on different Y-SNP panels and phylogenies. Geographic proximity turned out to be the best predictor of genetic affinity between populations along the Bight of Benin. Nevertheless, based on Y-chromosomal data from the literature two population samples differed strongly from others from the same or neighbouring areas and are not regionally representative within large-scale studies. Furthermore, the analysis of the HapMap sample YRI of a Yoruban population from South-western Nigeria based on Y-SNPs and Y-STR data showed for the first time its regional representativeness, a result which is important for standard population and forensic genetic applications using the YRI sample. Therefore, the uniquely

  5. Correlates of requesting home HIV self-testing kits on online social networks among African-American and Latino men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Chiu, ChingChe J; Young, Sean D

    2016-01-01

    High levels of HIV stigma are one of the main difficulties in engaging African-American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) in HIV testing. The availability of home HIV test and the possibility of self-testing in private may improve uptake and counteract stigma. This paper sought to determine the correlates of requesting home HIV test kits among a sample of MSM social media users. The odds of participants requesting a test kit were significantly associated with using social networks to seek sexual partners (aOR: 2.47, 95% CI: 1.07-6.06) and thinking it is easier to use social networks for seeking sexual partners (1.87, 1.2-3.12), uncertain HIV status (4.29, 1.37-14.4), and having sex under the influence of alcohol (2.46, 1.06-5.77). Participants who had not been tested for more than 6 months were more likely to request a test kit than those who were tested in the past 6 months (2.53, 1.02-6.37). Participants who frequently talked to others about having sex with men online were less likely to request a test kit (0.73, 0.56-0.92). By reaching people over social media and offering them access to test kits, we were able to reach at-risk individuals who were uncertain about their HIV status and had not been regularly tested. The findings of the study will help to inform future HIV testing interventions. PMID:26444956

  6. Building functional cities.

    PubMed

    Henderson, J Vernon; Venables, Anthony J; Regan, Tanner; Samsonov, Ilia

    2016-05-20

    The literature views many African cities as dysfunctional with a hodgepodge of land uses and poor "connectivity." One driver of inefficient land uses is construction decisions for highly durable buildings made under weak institutions. In a novel approach, we model the dynamics of urban land use with both formal and slum dwellings and ongoing urban redevelopment to higher building heights in the formal sector as a city grows. We analyze the evolution of Nairobi using a unique high-spatial resolution data set. The analysis suggests insufficient building volume through most of the city and large slum areas with low housing volumes near the center, where corrupted institutions deter conversion to formal sector usage. PMID:27199420

  7. Prevalence of Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis in pregnant women in Havana City by an immunologic latex agglutination test.

    PubMed

    Fernández Limia, Octavio; Lantero, María Isela; Betancourt, Arsenio; de Armas, Elizabeth; Villoch, Alejandra

    2004-10-15

    We aimed to estimate the prevalence of Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis in immunocompetent pregnant women living in Havana City, Cuba, with or without symptoms of vaginitis, using a sample of 640 women from 6 Gyneco-obstetrics hospitals, which represents 2.5% of total yearly pregnant women. Diagnosis was made using a new latex agglutination kit (Newvagin C-Kure, La Habana, Cuba). Clinical sensitivity and specificity of this assay were validated against culture method, with 467 and 489 clinical specimens for Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis, respectively. Results showed that the kit clinical sensitivity was 100% for Candida albicans and 86.7% for Trichomonas vaginalis compared with a clinical specificity of 93.3% for Candida albicans and 95.1% for Trichomonas vaginalis by culture. The prevalence of candidiasis was determined to be 42.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.8%); the prevalence of trichomoniasis was 9.84% (95% CI 2.3%). In our sample, 48.7% of the women tested negative with respect to both candidiasis and trichomoniasis. Only 6.41% of the cases yielded inconclusive results. The test has high sensitivity, and our results indicate a relatively high prevalence of both infections. However, a significant difference (P < .001) was also observed in candidiasis and trichomoniasis prevalence among hospitals corresponding to the quantity of women with clinical vaginitis. No difference was observed between diabetics and nondiabetics, probably due to the special care of diabetic pregnant women. We conclude that the method is useful for this kind of vaginitis prevalence study and that candidiasis and trichomoniasis prevalences in pregnant women of Havana are 38.5% to 46.2 % (95% CI) and 7.5% to 12.1% (95% CI), respectively. PMID:15775877

  8. Knowledge about Inquiry: A Study in South African High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaigher, Estelle; Lederman, Norman; Lederman, Judith

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a study on South African learners' knowledge about scientific inquiry using the Views About Scientific Inquiry (VASI) Questionnaire. The sample consisted of 105 grade 11 learners from 7 schools across the socio-economic spectrum in a South African city. A rubric for scoring the VASI Questionnaire was developed and refined…

  9. Educational Needs and Barriers for African Refugee Students in Manitoba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanu, Yatta

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the educational needs and barriers for diverse African refugee students in two inner-city high schools in Manitoba. Forty African refugee students, two principals, eight teachers, four parents, and four community leaders participated in the study. Five focus groups, individual interviews, and school and classroom…

  10. Taking Ownership of the ITC's Guidelines for Computer-Based and Internet-Delivered Testing: A South African Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foxcroft, Cheryl D.; Davies, Caroline

    2006-01-01

    The increased use of computer-based and Internet-delivered testing has raised a number of ethical and legal issues. The International Test Commission's (this issue) Guidelines for Computer-Based and Internet-Delivered Testing represent the most recent attempt to provide test users, publishers, and developers with guidance regarding the appropriate…

  11. Discrepancies between HIV prevention communication attitudes and actual conversations about HIV testing within social and sexual networks of African American men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, Karin Elizabeth; Yang, Cui; Sun, Christina; Spikes, Pilgrim; Patterson, Jocelyn; Latkin, Carl Asher

    2015-01-01

    Background Promoting communication among African American men who have sex with men (AA MSM) and their social networks about HIV testing is an avenue for altering HIV prevention social norms. This study examined attitudes of AA MSM on talking with peers about HIV testing and characteristics of their network members with whom they have these conversations. Methods Data came from a cross-sectional survey of n=226 AA MSM who were aged >=18 years and self-reported sex with another male in the prior 90 days. Participants completed an inventory to characterize network members with whom they had conversations about HIV testing and HIV status. Results The majority of the sample reported that it was important/very important to talk to male friends about HIV (85%) and that they were comfortable/very comfortable talking with their friends about sexual behaviors (84%). However, a small proportion of the social network had been talked to by the participant about HIV testing (14%). Among sexual networks, 58% had been talked to about their HIV status and this was positively associated with main and casual partner type compared to partners with whom money or drugs were exchanged. Conclusion Findings suggest that positive attitudes about communication may be necessary but not sufficient for actual conversations to occur. Designing interventions that increase communication with social networks is warranted. PMID:24622631

  12. African Aesthetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abiodun, Rowland

    2001-01-01

    No single traditional discipline can adequately supply answers to the many unresolved questions in African art history. Because of the aesthetic, cultural, historical, and, not infrequently, political biases, already built into the conception and development of Western art history, the discipline of art history as defined and practiced in the West…

  13. What’s God got to do with it? Engaging African American faith-based institutions in HIV prevention

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Amy; Cornwall, Alexandra; Thomas, Gladys; Waller, Pastor Alyn; Friend, Rafiyq; Broadnax, Pastor Jay; Flanigan, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    African Americans are disproportionately infected and affected by HIV/AIDS. Although faith-based institutions play critical leadership roles in the African American community, the faith-based response to HIV/AIDS has historically been lacking. We explore recent successful strategies of a citywide HIV/AIDS awareness and testing campaign developed in partnership with 40 African American faith-based institutions in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, a city with some of the United State’s highest HIV infection rates. Drawing on important lessons from the campaign and subsequent efforts to sustain the campaign’s momentum with a citywide HIV testing, treatment and awareness program, we provide a roadmap for engaging African American faith communities in HIV prevention that include partnering with faith leaders; engaging the media to raise awareness, destigmatising HIV/AIDS and encouraging HIV testing; and conducting educational and HIV testing events at houses of worship. African American faith based institutions have a critical role to play in raising awareness about the HIV/AIDS epidemic and for reducing racial disparities in HIV infection. PMID:23379422

  14. Narcolepsy in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Makoto; O'Hara, Ruth; Einen, Mali; Lin, Ling; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Although narcolepsy affects 0.02–0.05% of individuals in various ethnic groups, clinical presentation in different ethnicities has never been fully characterized. Our goal was to study phenotypic expression across ethnicities in the United States. Design/Setting: Cases of narcolepsy from 1992 to 2013 were identified from searches of the Stanford Center for Narcolepsy Research database. International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition diagnosis criteria for type 1 and type 2 narcolepsy were used for inclusion, but subjects were separated as with and without cataplexy for the purpose of data presentation. Information extracted included demographics, ethnicity and clinical data, HLA-DQB1*06:02, polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) data, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1 level. Patients: 182 African-Americans, 839 Caucasians, 35 Asians, and 41 Latinos with narcolepsy. Results: Sex ratio, PSG, and MSLT findings did not differ across ethnicities. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score was higher and age of onset of sleepiness earlier in African Americans compared with other ethnicities. HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity was higher in African Americans (91.0%) versus others (76.6% in Caucasians, 80.0% in Asians, and 65.0% in Latinos). CSF hypocretin-1 level, obtained in 222 patients, was more frequently low (≤ 110 pg/ml) in African Americans (93.9%) versus Caucasians (61.5%), Asians (85.7%) and Latinos (75.0%). In subjects with low CSF hypocretin-1, African Americans (28.3%) were 4.5 fold more likely to be without cataplexy when compared with Caucasians (8.1%). Conclusions: Narcolepsy in African Americans is characterized by earlier symptom onset, higher Epworth Sleepiness Scale score, higher HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity, and low cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 level in the absence of cataplexy. In African Americans, more subjects without cataplexy have type 1 narcolepsy. Citation: Kawai M, O'Hara R, Einen M, Lin L

  15. Testing the relationships between energy consumption, CO2 emissions, and economic growth in 24 African countries: a panel ARDL approach.

    PubMed

    Asongu, Simplice; El Montasser, Ghassen; Toumi, Hassen

    2016-04-01

    This study complements existing literature by examining the nexus between energy consumption (EC), CO2 emissions (CE), and economic growth (GDP; gross domestic product) in 24 African countries using a panel autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach. The following findings are established. First, there is a long-run relationship between EC, CE, and GDP. Second, a long-term effect from CE to GDP and EC is apparent, with reciprocal paths. Third, the error correction mechanisms are consistently stable. However, in cases of disequilibrium, only EC can be significantly adjusted to its long-run relationship. Fourth, there is a long-run causality running from GDP and CE to EC. Fifth, we find causality running from either CE or both CE and EC to GDP, and inverse causal paths are observable. Causality from EC to GDP is not strong, which supports the conservative hypothesis. Sixth, the causal direction from EC to GDP remains unobservable in the short term. By contrast, the opposite path is observable. There are also no short-run causalities from GDP, or EC, or EC, and GDP to EC. Policy implications are discussed. PMID:26635224

  16. An Examination of Successful Leadership Behaviors Exhibited by Middle School Principals in Stimulating and Sustaining African-American Students' Achievement on the California Standards Test in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to examine leadership behaviors of middle school principals who have been successful in stimulating and sustaining African-American students' mathematics achievement on the California Standards Test. Specifically, this research sought to answer the following questions: 1) How do middle school principal…

  17. Performance and Passing Rate Differences of African American and White Prospective Teachers on Praxis[TM] Examinations: A Joint Project of the National Education Association (NEA) and Educational Testing Service (ETS). Research Report. ETS RR-11-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettles, Michael T.; Scatton, Linda H.; Steinberg, Jonathan H.; Tyler, Linda L.

    2011-01-01

    This report focuses on two aspects of teacher supply and quality: (a) the under-representation of racial/ethnic minorities, especially African Americans in the teaching pool, and (b) teacher candidates' performance on licensure assessments, including general skills tests in reading, writing, and mathematics (known as Praxis I[R]) and selected…

  18. Clinical versus Rapid Molecular HIV Diagnosis in Hospitalized African Infants: A Randomized Controlled Trial Simulating Point-of-Care Infant Testing

    PubMed Central

    McCollum, Eric D.; Preidis, Geoffrey A.; Maliwichi, Madalitso; Olson, Dan; McCrary, L. Madeline; Kazembe, Peter N.; van der Horst, Charles; Hoffman, Irving; Hosseinipour, Mina C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Many African infants fail to receive their diagnostic HIV molecular test results and subsequently, antiretroviral therapy (ART). To determine whether a point-of-care molecular HIV test increases ART access for hospitalized Malawian infants, we simulated a point-of-care test using rapid HIV RNA polymerase chain reaction (Rapid PCR) and compared patient outcomes to an optimized standard care that included assessment with the World Health Organization (WHO) clinical algorithm for HIV infection plus a DNA PCR with a turnaround time of several weeks (standard care). Design Randomized controlled trial. Methods Hospitalized HIV-exposed Malawian infants <12 months old were randomized into Rapid PCR or standard care. Rapid PCR infants obtained molecular test results within 48 hours to facilitate immediate ART, similar to a point-of-care test. Standard care infants meeting clinical criteria were also offered inpatient ART. The primary outcome was appropriate in-hospital ART for DNA or RNA PCR-confirmed HIV-infected infants. Results 300 infants were enrolled. A greater proportion of HIV-infected infants receiving Rapid PCR, versus standard care, started inpatient ART (72.3% vs 47.8%, p=0.016). Among molecular test-negative infants, 26.9% receiving standard care unnecessarily initiated inpatient ART, versus 0.0% receiving Rapid PCR (p<0.001). Rapid PCR modestly reduced the median days to ART (3.0 vs 6.5, p=0.001) but did not influence outpatient follow-up for HIV-infected infants (78.1% vs 82.4%, P = 0.418). Conclusions Rapid PCR, versus an optimized standard care, increased the proportion of hospitalized HIV-infected infants initiating ART and reduced ART exposure in molecular test-negative infants, without meaningfully impacting time to ART initiation or follow-up rates. PMID:24326604

  19. Education Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaked, Haim

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, several cities in Israel have labeled themselves "Education Cities," concentrating on education as their central theme. Employing qualitative techniques, this article aims to describe, define, and conceptualize this phenomenon as it is being realized in three such cities. Findings show that Education Cities differ from…

  20. Rational case management of malaria with a rapid diagnostic test, Paracheck Pf®, in antenatal health care in Bangui, Central African Republic

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Both treatment and prevention strategies are recommended by the World Health Organization for the control of malaria during pregnancy in tropical areas. The aim of this study was to assess use of a rapid diagnostic test for prompt management of malaria in pregnancy in Bangui, Central African Republic. Methods A cohort of 76 pregnant women was screened systematically for malaria with ParacheckPf® at each antenatal visit. The usefulness of the method was analysed by comparing the number of malaria episodes requiring treatment in the cohort with the number of prescriptions received by another group of pregnant women followed-up in routine antenatal care. Results In the cohort group, the proportion of positive ParacheckPf® episodes during antenatal clinics visits was 13.8%, while episodes of antimalarial prescriptions in the group which was followed-up routinely by antenatal personnel was estimated at 26.3%. Hence, the relative risk of the cohort for being prescribed an antimalarial drug was 0.53. Therefore, the attributable fraction of presumptive treatment avoided by systematic screening with ParacheckPf® was 47%. Conclusions Use of a rapid diagnostic test is useful, affordable and easy for adequate treatment of malaria in pregnant women. More powerful studies of the usefulness of introducing the test into antenatal care are needed in all heath centres in the country and in other tropical areas. PMID:22734602

  1. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 2): Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center (Area B Navy Fire Test Facility), Atlantic County, Atlantic City International Airport, NJ, September 20, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for Area B, the Navy Fire Test Facility, at the FAA Technical Center, Atlantic City Internatioal Airport, New Jersey. The selected remedy for Area B includes: Installation of additional monitoring wells; Continued ground water and surface water monitoring; Installation and operation of air sparging wells, vapor extraction wells and monitoring probes; On-site vapor treatment (if necessary); and Five year reviews.

  2. Remediation of chromate-contaminated groundwater using zero-valent iron: Field test at USCG Support Center, Elizabeth City, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Puls, R.W.; Paul, C.J.; Powell, R.M.

    1996-12-31

    A field test was conducted near an old hard-chrome plating facility on the USCG Support Center near Elizabeth City, North Carolina to evaluate the in situ remediation of ground water contaminated by hexavalent chromium using a passive permeable reactive barrier composed of a zero-valent iron-sand-aquifer material mixture. The remedial effectiveness of this innovative in situ technology was in situ technology was monitored over a one year period.

  3. African American's Perceptions of Psychotherapy and Psychotherapists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Vetta L. Sanders; Akbar, Maysa D.; Bazile, Anita

    The attitudes and beliefs about utilization of mental health services of 201 African Americans, 18 years and older, are explored. One hundred and thirty-four females and 66 males participated in mixed sex focus groups conducted in an urban, Midwestern city. Discussion probes addressed participant perceptions of psychotherapists and psychotherapy,…

  4. The Alignment of Software Testing Skills of IS Students with Industry Practices--A South African Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Elsje; Zadirov, Alexander; Feinberg, Sean; Jayakody, Ruwanga

    2004-01-01

    Software testing is a crucial component in the development of good quality systems in industry. For this reason it was considered important to investigate the extent to which the Information Systems (IS) syllabus at the University of Cape Town (UCT) was aligned with accepted software testing practices in South Africa. For students to be effective…

  5. Lateralisation in agonistic encounters: do mirror tests reflect aggressive behaviour? A study on a West African cichlid.

    PubMed

    Scherer, U; Buck, M; Schuett, W

    2016-09-01

    In this study, population level lateralisation and the suitability of mirror tests as a test of natural aggressive behaviour in male rainbow kribs Pelvicachromis pulcher was investigated. Aggressive behaviour in live agonistic trials correlated positively with behaviours towards a mirror image and no visual lateralisation was detected. PMID:27329496

  6. Analysis of non-regulated vehicular emissions by extractive FTIR spectrometry: tests on a hybrid car in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, F.; Grutter, M.; Jazcilevich, A.; González-Oropeza, R.

    2006-07-01

    A methodology to acquire valuable information on the chemical composition and evolution of vehicular emissions is presented. The analysis of the gases is performed by passing a constant flow of a sample gas from the tail-pipe into a 10 L multi-pass cell. The absorption spectra within the cell are obtained using an FTIR spectrometer at 0.5 cm-1 resolution along a 13.1 m optical path. Additionally, the total flow from the exhaust is continuously measured from a differential pressure sensor on a Pitot tube installed at the exit of the exhaust. This configuration aims to obtain a good speciation capability by coadding spectra during 30 s and reporting the emission (in g/km) of key and non-regulated pollutants, such as CO2, CO, NO, SO2, NH3, HCHO, NMHC, during predetermined driving routines. The advantages and disadvantages of increasing the acquisition frequency, as well as the effect of other parameters such as spectral resolution, cell volume and flow rate, are discussed. With the aim of testing and evaluating the proposed technique, experiments were performed on a dynamometer running FTP-75 and typical driving cycles of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) on a Toyota Prius hybrid vehicle. This car is an example of recent automotive technology to reach the market dedicated to reduce emissions and therefore pressing the need of low detection techniques. This study shows the potential of the proposed technique to measure and report in real time the emissions of a large variety of pollutants, even from a super ultra-low emission vehicle (SULEV). The emissions of HC's, NOx, CO and CO2 obtained here are similar to experiments performed in other locations with the same vehicle model. Some differences suggest that an inefficient combustion process and type of gasoline used in the MCMA may be partly responsible for lower CO2 and higher CO and NO emission factors. Also, a fast reduction of NO emission to very low values is observed after cold ignition, giving rise to

  7. Remediation of chromate-contaminated ground water using zero-valent iron: Field test at USCG Support Center, Elizabeth City, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Puls, R.W.; Paul, C.J.; Powell, R.M.

    1996-12-31

    A field test was conducted near an old hard-chrome plating facility on the USCG Support Center near Elizabeth City, North Carolina, to evaluate the in situ remediation of ground water contaminated by hexavalent chromium using a passive permeable reactive barrier composed of a zero-valent iron-sand-aquifer material mixture. The remedial effectiveness of this innovative in situ technology was monitored over a one-year period. The success of this small-scale test has prompted a full-scale implementation of the technology at the site for late Spring 1996.

  8. Choice in HIV testing: the acceptability and anticipated use of a self-administered at-home oral HIV test among South Africans.

    PubMed

    Kelvin, Elizabeth A; Cheruvillil, Sonia; Christian, Stephanie; Mantell, Joanne E; Milford, Cecilia; Rambally-Greener, Letitia; Mosery, Nzwakie; Greener, Ross; Smit, Jennifer A

    2016-07-01

    Combination HIV prevention is being widely promoted by funders. This strategy aims to offer HIV prevention choices that can be selected and combined to decrease HIV risk in ways that fit with each individual's situation. Treatment as prevention and pre-exposure prophylaxis are two new evidence-based strategies to decrease HIV incidence, both of which require high HIV testing rates to be effective, and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) has set a goal of 90% of HIV-positive individuals knowing their status by 2030. However, HIV testing rates in many countries remain suboptimal. Just as no single HIV prevention method is ideal for all people in all situations, no single HIV testing modality is likely to be acceptable to everyone. By offering HIV testing choices, we may be able to increase testing rates. However, many low-resourced countries have been slow to take up new HIV testing options such as the self-administered at-home oral HIV test that is currently available in the United States. In this paper, we present findings from 20 in-depth interviews, conducted in 2010, documenting opinions about self-administered at-home oral HIV testing, a testing modality still largely unavailable in Africa. Participants were clients of three primary healthcare clinics in South Africa. Self-testing was seen as enabling confidentiality/privacy, saving time, and facilitating testing together with partners. However, concerns were raised about psychological distress when testing at home without a counsellor. Some suggested this concern could be minimised by having experienced clinic-based HIV testing and counselling before getting self-testing kits for home use. Thus, self-administered HIV testing could be an option added to the current testing modalities to address some important barriers to testing. PMID:27399040

  9. Obesity and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  10. Victimization among African-American adolescents in substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Perron, Brian E; Gotham, Heather J; Cho, Dong

    2008-03-01

    Victimization is regarded as a significant public health issue, especially among adolescents in urban areas. Although victimization is linked to substance use, the research on victimization among adolescents in treatment is underdeveloped. Given the high rate of victimization among African-American adolescents, further research on the prevalence and correlates of victimization for this population is needed. This knowledge can guide the development of effective treatment and prevention strategies. This study contributed to the research by examining the rate and different types of victimization among a sample of African-American adolescents in an urban substance abuse treatment program, testing whether victimization is associated with increased levels of psychopathology and high-risk behaviors; and comparing the rates and associations with existing studies of adolescent victimization. It reports on a sample of 259 African-American adolescents receiving substance abuse treatment in an inner-city program. Fifty-four percent of the subjects reported lifetime victimization. Severity of victimization was associated with depression, generalized anxiety disorder, traumatic stress disorder, and conduct disorder, although the effect sizes were relatively small. Lifetime victimization exhibited a relationship of small to moderate strength with high-risk behaviors (i.e., illegal activity, gang membership, multiple sex partners and unprotected sex). Service implications and recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:18472666

  11. Academic Achievement and Behavioral Health among Asian American and African American Adolescents: Testing the Model Minority and Inferior Minority Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whaley, Arthur L.; Noel, La Tonya

    2013-01-01

    The present study tested the model minority and inferior minority assumptions by examining the relationship between academic performance and measures of behavioral health in a subsample of 3,008 (22%) participants in a nationally representative, multicultural sample of 13,601 students in the 2001 Youth Risk Behavioral Survey, comparing Asian…

  12. Association between health status and the performance of excessively variable spirometry tests in a population-based study in six U. S. cities

    SciTech Connect

    Eisen, E.A.; Dockery, D.W.; Speizer, F.E.; Fay, M.E.; Ferris, B.G. Jr.

    1987-12-01

    The relationship between 6 chronic respiratory symptoms and the performance of an excessively variable FEV1 (test failure) was examined among 8,522 white adults in 6 U.S. cities. A total of 747 (8.9%) performed an excessively variable FEV1 according to the American Thoracic Society criterion. After adjusting for smoking, age, and city of residence in 6 separate logistic regression models, the odds ratios for FEV1 failure among men were 2.32, 1.39, 1.40, 1.82, 2.61, 1.92 for moderate breathlessness, chronic cough, phlegm, wheeze, asthma, and recurrent chest illness, respectively. Among women, FEV1 failure was significantly associated with moderate breathlessness, chronic phlegm, wheeze, and asthma with odds ratios of 1.55, 1.45, 1.62, and 1.95, respectively. When all symptoms were evaluated simultaneously in a single logistic regression model, only breathlessness and asthma remained associated with FEV1 failure; odds ratio = 1.97 for asthma and 2.03 for breathlessness among men and 1.53 for both asthma and breathlessness among women. The 11-yr mortality experience of subjects with test failure, as defined by 2 different criteria, was compared to that of the quartile of the cohort with the highest cross-sectional test results. After adjusting for age, gender, and smoking, the relative risks of mortality were 1.62 and 1.98 for subjects with an FEV1 failure as defined by the ATS and 6-Cities criteria, respectively, and 1.99 and 1.90 for the groups with FVC failure as defined by the 2 criteria. Thus, test failure is almost as strong a predictor of mortality as poor FEV1.

  13. Point-of-Care CD4 Testing to Inform Selection of Antiretroviral Medications in South African Antenatal Clinics: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ciaranello, Andrea L.; Myer, Landon; Kelly, Kathleen; Christensen, Sarah; Daskilewicz, Kristen; Doherty, Katie; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Hou, Taige; Wood, Robin; Francke, Jordan A.; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Walensky, Rochelle P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Many prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programs currently prioritize antiretroviral therapy (ART) for women with advanced HIV. Point-of-care (POC) CD4 assays may expedite the selection of three-drug ART instead of zidovudine, but are costlier than traditional laboratory assays. Methods We used validated models of HIV infection to simulate pregnant, HIV-infected women (mean age 26 years, gestational age 26 weeks) in a general antenatal clinic in South Africa, and their infants. We examined two strategies for CD4 testing after HIV diagnosis: laboratory (test rate: 96%, result-return rate: 87%, cost: $14) and POC (test rate: 99%, result-return rate: 95%, cost: $26). We modeled South African PMTCT guidelines during the study period (WHO “Option A”): antenatal zidovudine (CD4 ≤350/μL) or ART (CD4>350/μL). Outcomes included MTCT risk at weaning (age 6 months), maternal and pediatric life expectancy (LE), maternal and pediatric lifetime healthcare costs (2013 USD), and cost-effectiveness ($/life-year saved). Results In the base case, laboratory led to projected MTCT risks of 5.7%, undiscounted pediatric LE of 53.2 years, and undiscounted PMTCT plus pediatric lifetime costs of $1,070/infant. POC led to lower modeled MTCT risk (5.3%), greater pediatric LE (53.4 years) and lower PMTCT plus pediatric lifetime costs ($1,040/infant). Maternal outcomes following laboratory were similar to POC (LE: 21.2 years; lifetime costs: $23,860/person). Compared to laboratory, POC improved clinical outcomes and reduced healthcare costs. Conclusions In antenatal clinics implementing Option A, the higher initial cost of a one-time POC CD4 assay will be offset by cost-savings from prevention of pediatric HIV infection. PMID:25756498

  14. Bioaccumulation monitoring and toxicity testing in streams and groundwater wells at the US Department of Energy Kansas City Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Peterson, M.J.; Ashwood, T.L.

    1992-03-01

    The Kansas City Plant (KCP) is part of a federal complex located in south Kansas City, Missouri. The plant, operated by Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division for the US Department of Energy (DOE), occupies 137 of the 300 acres covered by the complex. Blue River and its tributary Indian Creek receive surface water runoff, discharges permitted under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), and groundwater from the complex. Indian Creek also receives runoff from residential and commercial facilities and discharges from a sewage treatment plant upstream from the KCP. Blue River, a tributary of the Missouri River, receives runoff from an urban area, including a large landfill downstream from the KCP. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been detected in outfall 002 and in soils in various locations around the KCP. The Missouri Department of Conservation (MDC) found that both carp and channel catfish collected from the Blue River were contaminated with PCBs and chlordane; however, the source of this contamination was not identified. Trichlorethene (TCE) and 1,2-dichloroethene (DCE) are present in some wells adjacent to the Blue River, both TCE and DCE have been detected in outfall 001. To assess the biological significance of PCB and chlorinated solvent contamination from the KCP and to determine whether the KCP was a significant source of PCB contamination in fish, two separate studies were conducted by staff members of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report presents the results of these studies.

  15. Prevalence of various Human Papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes among women who subjected to routine Pap smear test in Bushehr city (South west of Iran)2008-2009

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Some genotypes of human papillomaviruses can infect the genital tract and they are important infectious agents which their oncogenicity is regardable. Thus the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of various genital human papillomaviruses (HPV) among women being subjected to routine pap smear test in Bushehr city of Iran. Results Based on the collected data, 11(5.5%) samples were detected positive for HPV DNA and 189(94.5%) samples out of 200 samples were detected negative for HPV DNA. Meanwhile 4(2%) samples detected positive for HPV DNA by PCR were detected positive for HPV by pap smear test as well. On the other hand 5 samples which were detected positive for HPV by pap smear test didn't have HPV DNA after being tested by PCR method. Among the 11 positive samples 7 samples were identified as HPV-16, 3 samples were HPV-18 and one was HPV-53. Conclusion Regarding the prevalence of highly carcinogen genotypes of HPV in our study determination of genital HPV prevalence among the normal population of women of Bushehr city is recommended. PMID:20302680

  16. African American community leaders' policy recommendations for reducing racial disparities in HIV infection, treatment, and care: results from a community-based participatory research project in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Nunn, Amy; Sanders, Julia; Carson, Lee; Thomas, Gladys; Cornwall, Alexandra; Towey, Caitlin; Lee, Hwajin; Tasco, Marian; Shabazz-El, Waheedah; Yolken, Annajane; Smith, Tyrone; Bell, Gary; Feller, Sophie; Smith, Erin; James, George; Shelton Dunston, Brenda; Green, Derek

    2015-01-01

    African Americans account for 45% of new HIV infections in the United States. Little empirical research investigates African American community leaders' normative recommendations for addressing these disparities. Philadelphia's HIV infection rate is 5 times the national average, nearly 70% of new infections are among African Americans, and 2% of African Americans in Philadelphia are living with HIV/AIDS. Using a community-based participatory research approach, we convened focus groups among 52 African American community leaders from diverse backgrounds to solicit normative recommendations for reducing Philadelphia's racial disparities in HIV infection. Leaders recommended that (a) Philadelphia's city government should raise awareness about HIV/AIDS with media campaigns featuring local leaders, (b) local HIV-prevention interventions should address social and structural factors influencing HIV risks rather than focus exclusively on mode of HIV transmission, (c) resources should be distributed to the most heavily affected neighborhoods of Philadelphia, and (d) faith institutions should play a critical role in HIV testing, treatment, and prevention efforts. We developed a policy memo highlighting these normative recommendations for how to enhance local HIV prevention policy. This policy memo led to Philadelphia City Council hearings about HIV/AIDS in October 2010 and subsequently informed local HIV/AIDS prevention policy and development of local HIV prevention interventions. This community-based participatory research case study offers important lessons for effectively engaging community leaders in research to promote HIV/AIDS policy change. PMID:24879446

  17. African American community leaders' policy recommendations for reducing racial disparities in HIV infection, treatment and care: results from a community-based participatory research project in Philadelphia, PA

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Amy; Sanders, Julia; Carson, Lee; Thomas, Gladys; Cornwall, Alexandra; Towey, Caitlin; Lee, Hwajin; Tasco, Marian; Shabazz-El, Waheedah; Yolken, Annajane; Smith, Tyrone; Bell, Gary; Feller, Sophie; Smith, Erin; James, George; Dunston, Brenda Shelton; Green, Derek

    2015-01-01

    African Americans account for 45% of new HIV infections in the United States. Little empirical research investigates African American community leaders' normative recommendations for addressing these disparities. Philadelphia's HIV infection rate is five times the national average, nearly 70% of new infections are among African Americans, and 2% of African Americans in Philadelphia are living with HIV/AIDS. Using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, we convened focus groups among 52 African American community leaders from diverse backgrounds to solicit normative recommendations for reducing Philadelphia's racial disparities in HIV infection. Leaders recommended: 1) Philadelphia's city government should raise awareness about HIV/AIDS with media campaigns featuring local leaders; 2) Local HIV prevention interventions should address social and structural factors influencing HIV risks rather than focus exclusively on mode of HIV transmission; 3) Resources should be distributed to the most heavily impacted neighborhoods of Philadelphia; and 4) Faith institutions should play a critical role in HIV testing, treatment and prevention efforts. We developed a policy memo highlighting these normative recommendations for how to enhance local HIV prevention policy. This policy memo led to Philadelphia City Council hearings about HIV/AIDS in October 2010 and subsequently informed local HIV/AIDS prevention policy and development of local HIV prevention interventions. This CBPR case study offers important lessons for effectively engaging community leaders in research to promote HIV/AIDS policy change. PMID:24879446

  18. Straight talk: HIV prevention for African-American heterosexual men: theoretical bases and intervention design.

    PubMed

    Frye, Victoria; Bonner, Sebastian; Williams, Kim; Henny, Kirk; Bond, Keosha; Lucy, Debbie; Cupid, Malik; Smith, Stephen; Koblin, Beryl A

    2012-10-01

    In the United States, racial disparities in HIV/AIDS are stark. Although African Americans comprise an estimated 14% of the U.S. population, they made up 52% of new HIV cases among adults and adolescents diagnosed in 2009. Heterosexual transmission is now the second leading cause of HIV in the United States. African Americans made up a full two-thirds of all heterosexually acquired HIV/AIDS cases between 2005 and 2008. Few demonstrated efficacious HIV prevention interventions designed specifically for adult, African-American heterosexual men exist. Here, we describe the process used to design a theory-based HIV prevention intervention to increase condom use, reduce concurrent partnering, and increase HIV testing among heterosexually active African-American men living in high HIV prevalence areas of New York City. The intervention integrated empowerment, social identity, and rational choices theories and focused on four major content areas: HIV/AIDS testing and education; condom skills training; key relational and behavioral turning points; and masculinity and fatherhood. PMID:23016501

  19. Straight Talk: HIV Prevention for African-American Heterosexual Men: Theoretical Bases and Intervention Design

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Victoria; Bonner, Sebastian; Williams, Kim; Henny, Kirk; Bond, Keosha; Lucy, Debbie; Cupid, Malik; Smith, Stephen; Koblin, Beryl A.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, racial disparities in HIV/AIDS are stark. Although African Americans comprise an estimated 14% of the U.S. population, they made up 52% of new HIV cases among adults and adolescents diagnosed in 2009. Heterosexual transmission is now the second leading cause of HIV in the United States. African Americans made up a full two-thirds of all heterosexually acquired HIV/AIDS cases between 2005 and 2008. Few demonstrated efficacious HIV prevention interventions designed specifically for adult, African-American heterosexual men exist. Here, we describe the process used to design a theory-based HIV prevention intervention to increase condom use, reduce concurrent partnering, and increase HIV testing among heterosexually active African-American men living in high HIV prevalence areas of New York City. The intervention integrated empowerment, social identity, and rational choices theories and focused on four major content areas: HIV/AIDS testing and education; condom skills training; key relational and behavioral turning points; and masculinity and fatherhood. PMID:23016501

  20. Toward Participatory Communal Citizenship: Rendering Visible the Civic Teaching, Learning, and Actions of African Immigrant Youth and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Michelle G.; Watson, Vaughn W. M.

    2014-01-01

    Rendering visible African immigrants' shared and differing experiences of civic learning and action, the authors present findings from in-depth semi-structured interviews with second- and 1.5-generation African immigrants in New York City. Drawing on an interdisciplinary framework of African immigrant identities constructions and civic…

  1. Urban Middle School African American Girls' Attitudes toward Physical Education and Out-of-School Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this two-part study were (1) to investigate urban middle school African American girls' physical activity levels and their relationships to attitudes and, (2) to explore urban middle school African American girls' attitude toward physical education. A total of (N = 649) African American girls from 14 New York City middle…

  2. Africans in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Ayanna; Spangler, Earl

    This book introduces African-American history and culture to children. The first Africans in America came from many different regions and cultures, but became united in this country by being black, African, and slaves. Once in America, Africans began a long struggle for freedom which still continues. Slavery, the Civil War, emancipation, and the…

  3. African Outreach Workshop 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Nancy J.

    This report discusses the 1974 African Outreach Workshop planned and coordinated by the African Studies Program at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Its major aim was to assist teachers in developing curriculum units on African using materials available in their local community. A second aim was for the African Studies Program to…

  4. The Analysis of Exhaust Gas Thermal Energy Recovery Through a TEG Generator in City Traffic Conditions Reproduced on a Dynamic Engine Test Bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkisz, Jerzy; Fuc, Pawel; Lijewski, Piotr; Ziolkowski, Andrzej; Wojciechowski, Krzysztof T.

    2015-06-01

    We present an analysis of thermal energy recovery through a proprietary thermoelectric generator (TEG) in an actual vehicle driving cycle reproduced on a dynamic engine test bed. The tests were performed on a 1.3-L 66-kW diesel engine. The TEG was fitted in the vehicle exhaust system. In order to assess the thermal energy losses in the exhaust system, advanced portable emission measurement system research tools were used, such as Semtech DS by Sensors. Aside from the exhaust emissions, the said analyzer measures the exhaust mass flow and exhaust temperature, vehicle driving parameters and reads and records the engine parameters. The difficulty related to the energy recovery measurements under actual traffic conditions, particularly when passenger vehicles and TEGs are used, spurred the authors to develop a proprietary method of transposing the actual driving cycle as a function V = f( t) onto the engine test bed, opn which the driving profile, previously recorded in the city traffic, was reproduced. The length of the cycle was 12.6 km. Along with the motion parameters, the authors reproduced the parameters of the vehicle and its transmission. The adopted methodology enabled high repeatability of the research trials while still ensuring engine dynamic states occurring in the city traffic.

  5. Patterns of Lifetime and Recent HIV Testing Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in New York City Who Use Grindr

    PubMed Central

    Rendina, H. Jonathon; Jimenez, Ruben H.; Grov, Christian; Ventuneac, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Rates of HIV infection continue to rise for men who have sex with men (MSM), and may be partially due to lack of testing among groups at risk for HIV. Mobile applications have demonstrated promise to identify at-risk MSM, though more research is needed to address testing patterns among this population. We conducted an online survey of 1,351 MSM in the New York City (NYC) area recruited from Grindr and analyzed predictors of lifetime and past-year testing using Pearson’s chi-squared statistic, Fisher’s exact tests, and logistic regression. A majority (90 %) of men had been tested within their lifetimes, and most (71 %) had been tested within the prior year. Among those who had never been tested (n = 135), one-third had engaged in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in the prior 3 months and nearly one-third identified themselves as HIV-negative rather than unknown. Older age, reporting an HIV-negative (versus unknown) status, and recent UAI were independently associated with lifetime testing. Greater proportions of men who had recently engaged in UAI reported testing within the past year compared with those who had not engaged in UAI. Overall, rates of testing among MSM in this sample exceeded those of the general population, including the general population in NYC. A greater proportion of this sample had never tested compared to a population-based sample of NYC MSM, though a higher percentage had also tested in the past year. This study demonstrated that 1 in 10 NYC men using Grindr and 1 in 5 who were 18–24 years of age had never received an HIV test in their lives. Using the existing infrastructure and popularity of mobile technology such as Grindr to identify and link men to information regarding HIV testing may be a useful strategy for prevention. PMID:23925515

  6. Patterns of lifetime and recent HIV testing among men who have sex with men in New York City who use Grindr.

    PubMed

    Rendina, H Jonathon; Jimenez, Ruben H; Grov, Christian; Ventuneac, Ana; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2014-01-01

    Rates of HIV infection continue to rise for men who have sex with men (MSM), and may be partially due to lack of testing among groups at risk for HIV. Mobile applications have demonstrated promise to identify at-risk MSM, though more research is needed to address testing patterns among this population. We conducted an online survey of 1,351 MSM in the New York City (NYC) area recruited from Grindr and analyzed predictors of lifetime and past-year testing using Pearson's chi-squared statistic, Fisher's exact tests, and logistic regression. A majority (90 %) of men had been tested within their lifetimes, and most (71 %) had been tested within the prior year. Among those who had never been tested (n = 135), one-third had engaged in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in the prior 3 months and nearly one-third identified themselves as HIV-negative rather than unknown. Older age, reporting an HIV-negative (versus unknown) status, and recent UAI were independently associated with lifetime testing. Greater proportions of men who had recently engaged in UAI reported testing within the past year compared with those who had not engaged in UAI. Overall, rates of testing among MSM in this sample exceeded those of the general population, including the general population in NYC. A greater proportion of this sample had never tested compared to a population-based sample of NYC MSM, though a higher percentage had also tested in the past year. This study demonstrated that 1 in 10 NYC men using Grindr and 1 in 5 who were 18-24 years of age had never received an HIV test in their lives. Using the existing infrastructure and popularity of mobile technology such as Grindr to identify and link men to information regarding HIV testing may be a useful strategy for prevention. PMID:23925515

  7. A Call to Action to Raise Achievement for African American Students. Student Achievement Policy Brief #1: African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    One out of every six public school students in the U.S. is African American. The achievement of African American students as a group will have a significant impact on the nation's economic strength and social well-being. This brief looks at the performance of African American students on state reading and mathematics tests and considers the policy…

  8. Exploring risk in early adolescent African American youth.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Thomas W; Price, LeShawndra N; O'Neal, Keri K; Leung, Man-Chi; Goforth, Jennifer B; Cairns, Beverley D; Reese, Le'Roy E

    2004-03-01

    Two studies were conducted to explore the degree to which single- and multiple-risk profiles were evident in samples of African American early adolescents in low-income inner-city, rural, and suburban schools. Study 1 examined early adolescent risk status (i.e., single, multiple) in relation to later adjustment in a representative sample (70% European American, 30% African American). Youth who experienced a single risk in early adolescence had moderately increased levels of school dropout and criminal arrests, whereas youth with multiple risks (i.e., combination of 2 or more risks) had significantly increased levels of school dropout, criminal arrests, and teen parenthood. Study 2 examined the extent to which single- and multiple-risk profiles were evident in cross-sectional samples of African American youth from low-income inner-city and rural areas. About one fourth of both the inner-city and rural samples of African American youth were composed of youth in the single-risk category. A significantly greater proportion of boys in the inner-city sample (20%) than boys in the rural sample (13%) experienced multiple risks. Girls across the rural and inner-city samples did not differ in terms of risk. Overall, more than 60% of African American youth in these two low-income samples did not evidence risk for later adjustment problems. Implications for research and intervention are discussed. PMID:15055754

  9. To Develop and Analyze a Non-Reading Group Test on the Concepts of Light and Shadows for Second Grade English Speaking Pupils in New York City School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sack, Nathan

    The construction and validation of a test to assess the concepts of light and shadows contained in the New York City Board of Education bulletin "Science K-2" are described. The final form of the Non-Reading Concept Test is a filmstrip with 32 color drawings. The first two items are trial questions to familiarize students with the test format. The…

  10. Development of an Empirically Based Preventive Intervention for Depression in Preadolescent African American Girls.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Sophia; Brown, Tasha M; Katsonga-Phiri, Tiamo; Bouris, Alida; Grant, Kathryn E; Keenan, Kate

    2016-05-01

    We describe the development, feasibility, and acceptability of a novel preventive intervention for depression in African American girls living in urban poverty. Our approach targeted individual and interpersonal vulnerabilities that have been shown to confer risk for depression in samples of African American girls living in low-income, urban settings, including suppression of negative emotion and lack of assertiveness with peers, memory for positive emotion, active coping, and family connection. Focus groups and an open trial were conducted to refine the goals and mechanisms for skill building. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) of the new program (Cities Mother-Daughter Project) was conducted with 3rd-5th grade students from Chicago Public Schools (CPS). Three cycles of screening, randomization, and deployment were conducted to assess feasibility, satisfaction, and usability. Results indicate that feasibility was weak; whereas, satisfaction and usability were high. Future directions for testing efficacy are discussed. PMID:26846917

  11. Increasing information-seeking about HPV vaccination through community partnerships in African American and Hispanic communities

    PubMed Central

    Kreuter, Matthew W.; Fernandez, Maria E.; Brown, Melissa; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Pfeiffer, Debbie; Adams-Piphus, Brandie; Krebill, Hope; Gonzalez, Dora Alice; Campos, Daisy Morales; Kirklin, Ginny Thompson; Betsworth, Sarah; Casey, Chris; Luke, Doug

    2013-01-01

    This study tested the feasibility of promoting 1-800-4-CANCER through partnerships with organizations serving African American and Hispanic communities. Small media and client reminders about HPV vaccination were made available through local agents to 28 community organizations. Organizations ordered 79,932 resources and distributed them to young women and parents of girls – African Americans in St. Louis, MO and Hispanics in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Pre-to post-intervention calls to 1-800-4-CANCER increased 38% in these communities, while declining 15% in comparison communities of Kansas City, MO and El Paso, TX (F=8.6, p=.004) and 1.4% in the U.S. as a whole. PMID:22143485

  12. Four plant defensins from an indigenous South African Brassicaceae species display divergent activities against two test pathogens despite high sequence similarity in the encoding genes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Plant defensins are an important component of the innate defence system of plants where they form protective antimicrobial barriers between tissue types of plant organs as well as around seeds. These peptides also have other activities that are important for agricultural applications as well as the medical sector. Amongst the numerous plant peptides isolated from a variety of plant species, a significant number of promising defensins have been isolated from Brassicaceae species. Here we report on the isolation and characterization of four defensins from Heliophila coronopifolia, a native South African Brassicaceae species. Results Four defensin genes (Hc-AFP1-4) were isolated with a homology based PCR strategy. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences showed that the peptides were 72% similar and grouped closest to defensins isolated from other Brassicaceae species. The Hc-AFP1 and 3 peptides shared high homology (94%) and formed a unique grouping in the Brassicaceae defensins, whereas Hc-AFP2 and 4 formed a second homology grouping with defensins from Arabidopsis and Raphanus. Homology modelling showed that the few amino acids that differed between the four peptides had an effect on the surface properties of the defensins, specifically in the alpha-helix and the loop connecting the second and third beta-strands. These areas are implicated in determining differential activities of defensins. Comparing the activities after recombinant production of the peptides, Hc-AFP2 and 4 had IC50 values of 5-20 μg ml-1 against two test pathogens, whereas Hc-AFP1 and 3 were less active. The activity against Botrytis cinerea was associated with membrane permeabilization, hyper-branching, biomass reduction and even lytic activity. In contrast, only Hc-AFP2 and 4 caused membrane permeabilization and severe hyper-branching against the wilting pathogen Fusarium solani, while Hc-AFP1 and 3 had a mild morphogenetic effect on the fungus, without any indication of

  13. Work‐related respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function tests in northeast iranian (the city of Mashhad) carpenters

    PubMed Central

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hossain; Rezaiyan, Majid Khadem; Navabi, Iman; Shafiei, Sara; Arab, Shahideh Shafiei

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function of carpenters from the city of Mashhad (northeast Iran). METHODS: The frequency of respiratory symptoms was retrospectively estimated in a sample of 66 carpenters in the city of Mashhad in northeast Iran using a questionnaire including questions on work‐related respiratory symptoms in the past year, allergy, type of irritant chemicals that induce respiratory symptoms, smoking habits, and working periods as a carpenter. PFT values were also measured in all participants, and the age and smoking habits matched those of a sample of men from the general population as a control group. RESULTS: Thirty‐five carpenters (53%) reported work‐related respiratory symptoms. Cough (34.4%) and sputum (33.3%) were the most common symptoms, and only 15.15% of carpenters reported wheezing during work. All respiratory symptoms were higher in carpenters than in controls, which was statistically significant for cough and sputum (p<0.001 in both cases). Most allergic symptoms were also significantly greater among the carpenters than in the control group (p<0.05 for both itchy eyes and sneezing). Most respiratory and allergic symptoms in the carpenters increased during work compared to rest period which was statistically significant only for cough (p<0.05). PFT values were significantly lower in the carpenters than in control subjects (p<0.05 to p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Carpentry work was associated with a high frequency of respiratory symptoms, particularly after exposure to irritating chemicals during work. PFT values were also significantly reduced among carpenters compared to controls. PMID:21120301

  14. Coupled barrier island-resort model: 2. Tests and predictions along Ocean City and Assateague Island National Seashore, Maryland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, D. E.; Werner, B. T.

    2008-03-01

    The fate of coastlines and their human settlements under the effects of global climate change will depend critically on the nonlinear dynamics of and feedbacks between shoreline processes and human agency. This hypothesis is explored on the barrier island coastline of Ocean City and Assateague Island National Seashore, Maryland, using a model-coupling natural coastal processes, including erosion, accretion, island overwash, alongshore sediment transport, dune growth and migration, inlet migration and ebb tidal delta growth to economics of tourist resort development through storm damage and beach and dune replenishment. Initiating the model in 1845, the RMS difference between model and measurements of the shoreline position in 2001 is 84.97 m compared to a net onshore migration of 472.2 m and the RMS difference between modeled and measured hotel room density in 2001 is 2950 rooms km-1 compared to a net gain of 28,824 rooms km-1. Simulations to year 3400 for a rate of sea level rise of 3.5 mm a-1 show a steady state barrier island position 158 m further offshore and 0.54 m lower in elevation compared to its natural counterpart. Changing the rate of sea level rise to 10.5 mm a-1 increases these differences to 288 m and 0.76 m. Changing storminess by increasing the standard deviation of storm size 50% diminishes coupling between resorts and barriers, bringing the natural and coupled attractors into near coincidence. These results suggest that predicted increases in the rate of sea level rise will lead to enhanced vulnerability for Ocean City.

  15. The Ebola threat: China's response to the West African epidemic and national development of prevention and control policies and infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hao-Jun; Gao, Hong-Wei; Ding, Hui; Zhang, Bi-Ke; Hou, Shi-Ke

    2015-02-01

    There is growing concern in West Africa about the spread of the Ebola hemorrhagic fever virus. With the increasing global public health risk, a coordinated international response is necessary. The Chinese government is prepared to work in collaboration with West African countries to assist in the containment and control of the epidemic through the contribution of medical expertise and mobile laboratory testing teams. Nationally, China is implementing prevention programs in major cities and provinces, the distribution of Ebola test kits, and the deployment of a new national Ebola research laboratory. PMID:25563862

  16. Mexico City

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    ... Mexico City has one of the world's most serious air pollution problems. The city is located atop a high plain at an altitude of ... as the orange and red areas, and mountainous areas appear light blue and green. The position of the clouds within the 70-degree image are ...

  17. City Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dargan, Amanda; Zeitlin, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Today, fewer city blocks preserve the confidence of lifestyle and urban geography that sustain traditional games and outdoor play. Large groups of children choosing sides and organizing Red Rover games are no longer commonplace. Teachers must encourage free play; urban planners must build cities that are safe play havens. (MLH)

  18. Dynamic Site Characterization and Correlation of Shear Wave Velocity with Standard Penetration Test ` N' Values for the City of Agartala, Tripura State, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sil, Arjun; Sitharam, T. G.

    2014-08-01

    Seismic site characterization is the basic requirement for seismic microzonation and site response studies of an area. Site characterization helps to gauge the average dynamic properties of soil deposits and thus helps to evaluate the surface level response. This paper presents a seismic site characterization of Agartala city, the capital of Tripura state, in the northeast of India. Seismically, Agartala city is situated in the Bengal Basin zone which is classified as a highly active seismic zone, assigned by Indian seismic code BIS-1893, Indian Standard Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures, Part-1 General Provisions and Buildings. According to the Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi (2002), it is the highest seismic level (zone-V) in the country. The city is very close to the Sylhet fault (Bangladesh) where two major earthquakes ( M w > 7) have occurred in the past and affected severely this city and the whole of northeast India. In order to perform site response evaluation, a series of geophysical tests at 27 locations were conducted using the multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) technique, which is an advanced method for obtaining shear wave velocity ( V s) profiles from in situ measurements. Similarly, standard penetration test (SPT-N) bore log data sets have been obtained from the Urban Development Department, Govt. of Tripura. In the collected data sets, out of 50 bore logs, 27 were selected which are close to the MASW test locations and used for further study. Both the data sets ( V s profiles with depth and SPT-N bore log profiles) have been used to calculate the average shear wave velocity ( V s30) and average SPT-N values for the upper 30 m depth of the subsurface soil profiles. These were used for site classification of the study area recommended by the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP) manual. The average V s30 and SPT-N classified the study area as seismic site class D and E categories, indicating that

  19. The reliability and validity of a questionnaire testing parents’ support for improving the diet of African American girls ages 9–12 yrs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of overweight in African American (AA) girls is higher than other ethnic groups. Increasing physical activity (PA) or decreasing energy intake is the goal of obesity prevention programs. Identifying factors that influence PA behavior is an important step in developing successful obesi...

  20. A Test of the Tripartite Model of Career Indecision of Brown and Krane for African Americans Incorporating Emotional Intelligence and Positive Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Marie S.; Lockman, Jennifer D.; Boling, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Brown and Krane have posited a tripartite model of career indecision, which includes three higher order factors: negative affect, poor vocational identity development, and lack of career information. The purpose of this study was to examine the adequacy of their tripartite model of career indecision for African American students, considering that…

  1. A Correlation Study of Exemplary Exurban African American Achievement in Standardized Testing and the Relationship of Parental Household Size in a Southeastern Public School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittington, David H.

    2012-01-01

    This study included a literature review of juried research studies of student achievement factors that affect African American achievements tracked in the No Child Left Behind Legislative Act. Statistical correlation analyses were performed to determine if the absence or presence of one or two-parents in the household affected student achievement…

  2. FERTILITY INTENTIONS AND EARLY LIFE HEALTH STRESS AMONG WOMEN IN EIGHT INDIAN CITIES: TESTING THE REPRODUCTIVE ACCELERATION HYPOTHESIS.

    PubMed

    Kulathinal, Sangita; Säävälä, Minna

    2015-09-01

    In life history theory, early life adversity is associated with an accelerated reproductive tempo. In harsh and unpredictable conditions in developing societies fertility is generally higher and the reproductive tempo faster than in more secure environments. This paper examines whether differences in female anthropometry, particularly adult height, are associated with fertility intentions of women in urban environments in India. The study population consists of women aged 15-29 (N=4485) in slums and non-slums of eight Indian cities in the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) of 2005-2006. Adult height is taken as a proxy for early childhood health and nutritional condition. Fertility intentions are examined by using two variables: the desire to have a child or another child, and to have it relatively soon, as indicative of accelerated reproductive scheduling. Evidence supporting the acceleration hypothesis is found in two urban frames out of 26 examined in a two-staged multinomial logistic model. In three cases, the relationship between fertility intentions and height is the opposite than expected by the acceleration hypothesis: taller women have a higher predictive probability of desiring a(nother) child and/or narrower birth spacing. Potential explanations for the partly contradictory relationship between the childhood health indicator and fertility intentions are discussed. PMID:25115228

  3. A Multivariate Test of an Expanded Andersen Health Care Utilization Model for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Use in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Barner, Jamie; Bohman, Tom; Richards, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The objectives of this study were (1) to determine which Andersen Model variables [predisposing, enabling, and need (PEN)] are related to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use by African Americans in the past 12 months; and (2) to determine whether the addition of disease states to the Model will explain significant variation in CAM use in the past 12 months. Design The 2002 National Health Interview Survey was used with 4256 African American adults (n = 23,828,268 weighted) selected as the study population. The dependent variable, CAM Past 12 Months, represented participants' use of at least 1 of 17 CAM modalities during the past 12 months. The Andersen Model variables [predisposing (e.g., age); enabling (e.g., insurance); and need (e.g., medical conditions)] and prevalent disease states (≥10%) comprised the independent variables. Logistic regression analyses, incorporating the sampling weights, were employed. Results Among predisposing factors, CAM use was associated with middle-aged to older, more educated, and female African Americans. Region (Northeast less likely than South) was the only significant enabling factor. Need factors had the most frequent relationships, with more medical conditions, more physician visits, better health status, prescription and over-the-counter medication use, more frequent exercise, and having activities of daily living limitations being associated with CAM use. After adjusting for PEN factors, the disease states of pain/aching joints, recurring pain, and migraine were related to CAM use. Conclusions African American CAM users are middle-aged to older, female, educated, and have more medical conditions (especially pain-related). Users report higher utilization of “traditional” care (e.g., physician visits), indicating that CAM is likely a complement to conventional treatment in this population. Health care providers should use these factors as prompts for inquiring about CAM use in African

  4. Black African Traditional Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslavsky, Claudia

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the traditional number systems and the origin of the number names used by several African peoples living south of the Sahara. Also included are limitations in African mathematical development, and possible topics for research. (RP)

  5. The African Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2012-01-01

    From student and faculty exchanges to joint research projects, U.S. universities maintain a broad spectrum of collaborative relationships with African universities. It's unclear how many U.S. colleges and universities have partnerships with African universities. The African Studies Association, an organization of scholars, doesn't keep that kind…

  6. Risk behavior of customers in centers for free voluntary HIV counselling and testing in two Croatian cities--Osijek and Zadar.

    PubMed

    Kozul, Karlo; Stevanović, Ranko; Medić, Alan; Pristas, Ivan; Kolarić, Branko; Samardzić, Senka; Kraljik, Nikola

    2010-06-01

    The primary goal of this research is to compare risks and occurrence of HIV infection in Osijek-Baranja and Zadar County. Several chosen socioeconomic factors controlled by sex and age were investigated including level of education, employment and marital status of the free-of charge voluntary counseling and testing center (VCT) customers in the towns of Osijek and Zadar and their risk behaviors for acquiring HIV. Bivariate analysis of the differences between the customers from Osijek and Zadar showed statistically significant differences in the following variables: gender, education, number of VCT clients who use intravenous drugs (IDU), promiscuous behavior, number of homosexual clients, mode of receiving information on the VCT services, marital and partnership status, having children, inclination towards homosexual and bisexual relations, the main reasons for not using condoms, injecting drugs (IDU) needle sharing and the occurrence of hepatitis C. The analysis showed that significantly more males were counseled and tested in the city of Osijek, significantly less hepatitis C positive persons and promiscuity among all behavioral risk factors more often. A higher number of the customers of the VCT in the city of Osjek were "in permanent" relationship. Strategic management of health and health care, methods of comparing regional and national standardized indicators can provide valuable information about setting the focus, choosing priorities and establishing a good economic policy at the micro level. This study clearly established the dimensions of problems in HIV/AIDS prevention onto which it should be influenced through regional and local measures and actions. The indexes measured indicate which special initiatives and programs should be focused and set up as priorities in particular regions. The determined differences point to the need for a regional approach to HIV/AIDS prevention in purpose of improving preventive activities according to most common risk

  7. Taking Boys out of the Hood: Exile as a Parenting Strategy for African American Male Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Joseph B., Jr.; Van Brakle, Mischelle; St. Vil, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that inner-city neighborhood effects are correlated with school dropout, substance abuse, crime, violence, homicide, HIV risk related behaviors, and incarceration for adolescent African American males. Parents of adolescent African American males face many challenges as they try to keep their children safe in high-risk…

  8. Positive Individual and Social Behavior among Gang and Nongang African American Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Carl S.; Lerner, Richard M.; von Eye, Alexander; Bobek, Deborah L.; Balsano, Aida B.; Dowling, Elizabeth M.; Anderson, Pamela M.

    2003-01-01

    To explore potential bases of positive development among gang youth, attributes of positive individual and social behavior were assessed in individual interviews with 45 African American adolescent male members of inner-city Detroit gangs and 50 African American adolescent males from the same communities but involved in community-based…

  9. Perceptions of Mate Selection for Marriage among African American, College-Educated, Single Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Rochelle

    2009-01-01

    This ethnographic study researched the perceptions of mate selection for marriage and the decisions of college-educated, African American mothers who bore children while single. Twenty-five senior-level African American students who attended a college in New York City participated in the study. There has been a significant change in the family…

  10. Grade-Related Changes in the Production of African American English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Holly K.; Washington, Julie A.

    2004-01-01

    This investigation examined grade as a source of systematic variation in the African American English (AAE) produced by students in preschool through fifth grades. Participants were 400 typically developing African American boys and girls residing in low- or middle-income homes in an urban-fringe community or midsize central city in the…

  11. African anthropogenic combustion emission inventory: specificities and uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekou, K.; Liousse, C.; Eric-michel, A.; Veronique, Y.; Thierno, D.; Roblou, L.; Toure, E. N.; Julien, B.

    2015-12-01

    Fossil fuel and biofuel emissions of gases and particles in Africa are expected to significantly increase in the near future, particularly due to the growth of African cities. In addition, African large savannah fires occur each year during the dry season, mainly for socio-economical purposes. In this study, we will present the most recent developments of African anthropogenic combustion emission inventories, stressing African specificities. (1)A regional fossil fuel and biofuel inventory for gases and particulates will be presented for Africa at a resolution of 0.25° x 0.25° from 1990 to 2012. For this purpose, the original database of Liousse et al. (2014) has been used after modification for emission factors and for updated regional fuel consumption including new emitter categories (waste burning, flaring) and new activity sectors (i.e. disaggregation of transport into sub-sectors including two wheel ). In terms of emission factors, new measured values will be presented and compared to litterature with a focus on aerosols. They result from measurement campaigns organized in the frame of DACCIWA European program for each kind of African specific anthropogenic sources in 2015, in Abidjan (Ivory Coast), Cotonou (Benin) and in Laboratoire d'Aérologie combustion chamber. Finally, a more detailed spatial distribution of emissions will be proposed at a country level to better take into account road distributions and population densities. (2) Large uncertainties still remain in biomass burning emission inventories estimates, especially over Africa between different datasets such as GFED and AMMABB. Sensitivity tests will be presented to investigate uncertainties in the emission inventories, applying methodologies used for AMMABB and GFED inventories respectively. Then, the relative importance of each sources (fossil fuel, biofuel and biomass burning inventories) on the budgets of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, black and organic carbon, and volatile

  12. Marriage and Offending among a Cohort of Disadvantaged African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Elaine Eggleston; Ensminger, Margaret E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Drawing on Sampson and Laub’s age-graded theory of informal social control, this research tests the generalizability of the marriage effect on desistance from crime. Specifically, do urban African American men and women living in the United States benefit from marriage similarly to Whites? Methods The authors use hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to analyze the relationship between marriage and official arrest counts among African American male and female first graders from Woodlawn, an inner-city community in Chicago, first assessed in 1966 and followed up at three time points (ages 16, 32, and 42). Results The authors find strong evidence of a marriage effect for the males across crime type, with a reduction in offending between 21 percent and 36 percent when in a state of marriage. The findings for females were less consistent across crime type, a 10 percent reduction in the odds of a property arrest and a 9 percent increase in the odds of a drug arrest when in a state of marriage. Conclusions Their findings provide evidence in favor of the generality of Sampson and Laub’s theory, at least for males. However, the authors were not able to evaluate the mechanisms of desistance and identify this as an area of future research. PMID:24817770

  13. Prevalence of water pipe smoking in the city of Mashhad (North East of Iran) and its effect on respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function tests

    PubMed Central

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hossain; Farhang, Lila; Mahmoodinia, Mahbobeh; Boskabady, Morteza; Heydari, Gholam Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of water pipe (WP) smoking was studied using a standard questionnaire. Pulmonary function tests were also compared between WP smokers and non-smokers. Materials and Methods: The prevalence of WP smoking was studied using a standard questionnaire. Pulmonary function tests including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF), peak expiratory flow (PEF), maximal expiratory flow at 75%, 50%, and 25% of the FVC (MEF75,50,25) were compared between WP smokers and non-smokers. Results: A total of 673 individuals including 372 males and 301 females were interviewed. The number of WP smokers was 58 (8.6%) including 24 males (6.5%) and 34 females (11.3%). All pulmonary functional test (PFT) values in WP smokers were lower as compared to the non-smokers (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). The prevalence and severity of respiratory symptoms (RS) in WP smokers were higher than non-smokers (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). There were negative correlations between PFT values and positive correlation between RS and duration, rate, as well as total smoking (duration X rate) (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). Conclusion: In this study the prevalence of WP smoking in Mashhad city was evaluated for the first time. The results also showed a significant effect of WP smoking on PFT values and respiratory symptoms. PMID:25125810

  14. Diving in or Guarding the Tower: Mina Shaughnessy's Resistance and Capitulation to High-Stakes Writing Tests at City College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molloy, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Mina Shaughnessy continues to exert powerful influences over Basic Writing practices, discourses and pedagogy thirty-five years after her death: Basic Writing remains in some ways trapped by Shaughnessy's legacy in what Min-Zhan Lu labeled as essentialism, accommodationism and linguistic innocence. High-stakes writing tests, a troubling hallmark…

  15. Parental endorsement of spanking and children's internalizing and externalizing problems in African American and Hispanic families.

    PubMed

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Kull, Melissa A; Carrano, Jennifer

    2014-02-01

    This study assessed prospective, bidirectional associations between maternal endorsement of spanking and children's internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in low-income urban African American and Hispanic (N = 592) families drawn from the Three City Study. Children in sample families were followed from early childhood through middle childhood with 3 sets of interviews and assessments at ages 3, 4, and 9 years. Cross-lagged path analyses tested longitudinal bidirectional associations between parental endorsement of spanking and children's internalizing and externalizing problems, with multigroup comparisons employed to test group differences between race/ethnic groups. African American and Hispanic mothers showed similar endorsements of spanking. Results suggest that associations between spanking endorsement and child functioning were due primarily to parenting effects, with spanking predicting changes in children's behaviors, rather than child evocative effects, with limited evidence of child behaviors predicting changes in parental spanking. Maternal spanking endorsement predicted short-term decreases in children's internalizing problems in early childhood, but over the longer term spanking was associated with increased internalizing and externalizing problems for both African American and Hispanic children in middle childhood among economically disadvantaged families. PMID:24364363

  16. Keeping the Faith: African American Faith Leaders’ Perspectives and Recommendations for Reducing Racial Disparities in HIV/AIDS Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Amy; Cornwall, Alexandra; Chute, Nora; Sanders, Julia; Thomas, Gladys; James, George; Lally, Michelle; Trooskin, Stacey; Flanigan, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    In Philadelphia, 66% of new HIV infections are among African Americans and 2% of African Americans are living with HIV. The city of Philadelphia has among the largest numbers of faith institutions of any city in the country. Although faith-based institutions play an important role in the African American community, their response to the AIDS epidemic has historically been lacking. We convened 38 of Philadelphia’s most influential African American faith leaders for in-depth interviews and focus groups examining the role of faith-based institutions in HIV prevention. Participants were asked to comment on barriers to engaging faith-based leaders in HIV prevention and were asked to provide normative recommendations for how African American faith institutions can enhance HIV/AIDS prevention and reduce racial disparities in HIV infection. Many faith leaders cited lack of knowledge about Philadelphia’s racial disparities in HIV infection as a common reason for not previously engaging in HIV programs; others noted their congregations’ existing HIV prevention and outreach programs and shared lessons learned. Barriers to engaging the faith community in HIV prevention included: concerns about tacitly endorsing extramarital sex by promoting condom use, lack of educational information appropriate for a faith-based audience, and fear of losing congregants and revenue as a result of discussing human sexuality and HIV/AIDS from the pulpit. However, many leaders expressed a moral imperative to respond to the AIDS epidemic, and believed clergy should play a greater role in HIV prevention. Many participants noted that controversy surrounding homosexuality has historically divided the faith community and prohibited an appropriate response to the epidemic; many expressed interest in balancing traditional theology with practical public health approaches to HIV prevention. Leaders suggested the faith community should: promote HIV testing, including during or after worship services

  17. Keeping the faith: African American faith leaders' perspectives and recommendations for reducing racial disparities in HIV/AIDS infection.

    PubMed

    Nunn, Amy; Cornwall, Alexandra; Chute, Nora; Sanders, Julia; Thomas, Gladys; James, George; Lally, Michelle; Trooskin, Stacey; Flanigan, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    In Philadelphia, 66% of new HIV infections are among African Americans and 2% of African Americans are living with HIV. The city of Philadelphia has among the largest numbers of faith institutions of any city in the country. Although faith-based institutions play an important role in the African American community, their response to the AIDS epidemic has historically been lacking. We convened 38 of Philadelphia's most influential African American faith leaders for in-depth interviews and focus groups examining the role of faith-based institutions in HIV prevention. Participants were asked to comment on barriers to engaging faith-based leaders in HIV prevention and were asked to provide normative recommendations for how African American faith institutions can enhance HIV/AIDS prevention and reduce racial disparities in HIV infection. Many faith leaders cited lack of knowledge about Philadelphia's racial disparities in HIV infection as a common reason for not previously engaging in HIV programs; others noted their congregations' existing HIV prevention and outreach programs and shared lessons learned. Barriers to engaging the faith community in HIV prevention included: concerns about tacitly endorsing extramarital sex by promoting condom use, lack of educational information appropriate for a faith-based audience, and fear of losing congregants and revenue as a result of discussing human sexuality and HIV/AIDS from the pulpit. However, many leaders expressed a moral imperative to respond to the AIDS epidemic, and believed clergy should play a greater role in HIV prevention. Many participants noted that controversy surrounding homosexuality has historically divided the faith community and prohibited an appropriate response to the epidemic; many expressed interest in balancing traditional theology with practical public health approaches to HIV prevention. Leaders suggested the faith community should: promote HIV testing, including during or after worship services and in

  18. STI/HIV test result disclosure between female sex workers and their primary, noncommercial male partners in two Mexico-U.S. border cities

    PubMed Central

    Pines, Heather A.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Rangel, Gudelia; Martinez, Gustavo; Robertson, Angela M.; Ulibarri, Monica D.; Syvertsen, Jennifer L.; Martin, Natasha K.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Disclosure of STI/HIV results to sexual partners in Mexico is left to the individual as public health guidelines do not mandate disclosure. To assess the feasibility of couples-based STI/HIV testing with facilitated disclosure as a risk reduction strategy within female sex workers’ (FSWs) primary partnerships, we examined current STI/HIV test result disclosure patterns between FSWs and their primary, non-commercial male partners in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, two Mexico-U.S. border cities. Methods In a cohort study (2010–2013), 330 participants (178 FSWs and 152 primary male partners) were followed for 24 months. At semi-annual visits, participants were tested for STIs/HIV and reported on their disclosure of test results from the prior visit. Multilevel logistic regression for dyadic data was used to identify individual- and partnership-level predictors of cumulative STI/HIV test result disclosure within couples during follow-up (disclosed all results vs. did not disclose ≥1 result). Results Eighty-seven percent of participants reported disclosing all STI/HIV test results to their primary partners. Non-disclosure of ≥1 STI/HIV test result was more common among participants who reported an STI/HIV diagnosis as part of the study (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=3.54, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.18–10.60), those in longer-duration partnerships (AOR=1.11 per year, 95% CI: 1.01–1.21), and those who used drugs before/during sex within partnerships (AOR=3.71, 95% CI: 1.16–11.86). Non-disclosure was less common among participants who injected drugs (AOR=0.27, 95% CI: 0.09–0.80). Conclusions STI/HIV test result disclosure was highly prevalent within FSWs’ primary partnerships, suggesting couples-based STI/HIV testing with facilitated disclosure may be feasible for these and potentially other socially-marginalized couples. PMID:25298381

  19. Neighborhood Racial/Ethnic Concentration, Social Disadvantage, and Homicide Risk: An Ecological Analysis of 10 U.S. Cities

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Melanie

    2008-01-01

    Homicide is one of the leading causes of death among African-American and Hispanic men. We investigated how neighborhood characteristics associated with social disadvantage explain racial/ethnic homicide gaps in 10 U.S. cities. The test hypotheses were that (1) higher concentrations of African-Americans and Hispanics would be associated with higher homicide rates and (2) the relationship between racial/ethnic concentration and homicide would be attenuated after adjusting for neighborhood characteristics (e.g., unemployment, median household income, low educational attainment, and female headship). The test hypotheses were examined using separate Poisson regression models, which adjusted for spatial autocorrelation. Homicide rates were greater in neighborhoods with higher concentrations of African-Americans and Hispanics than in other groups, and the association of neighborhood racial/ethnic concentration with homicide was reduced after adjusting for neighborhood social disadvantage variables, especially percent female head of household and percent persons with less than a high school education. We also found that the relationship between neighborhood racial/ethnic concentration and homicide was explained more by social disadvantage variables in some cities than in others. Based on our findings, policy makers may wish to consider implementation of policies that (1) expand early childhood education programs and higher education opportunities and (2) encourage economic and community development initiatives in socially disadvantaged neighborhoods. PMID:18661242

  20. Antineoplastic constituents of some Southern African plants.

    PubMed

    Charlson, A J

    1980-12-01

    Extracts of several Southern African plants which have been used in folk remedies have been prepared, and the extracts were tested in a variety of experimental tumour test-systems. Raphionacme hirsuta and Cheilanthes contracta have been used in African anticancer medicines. Extracts of these plants showed antitumor activity in some rodent test-systems, but the results were not confirmed. In the folk-lore, Haemanthus natalensis has been used in emetics and Urginea capitata preparations have been used to vaccinate African chiefs. Extracts of these plants showed significant cytotoxicity in the KB cell culture test-system. Infusions of Brunsvigia radulosa have been used as folk remedies for abdominal troubles. An extract of this Amaryllis plant increased the life span of P-388 leukaemic mice. Amaryllis bellandonna has also been investigated. Extracts of Amaryllis belladonna had to be fractionated in order to produce significant antitumour activity in the P-388 lymphocytic leukaemia test-system. PMID:7421280

  1. The South African Experience: Beyond the CIDA Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruton, John M.

    2008-01-01

    The Community and Individual Development Association (CIDA) City Campus is presented by Heaton as an innovative African alternative to traditional business education. However, he considers the model in isolation from the unique educational and economic circumstances of postapartheid South Africa. As a response, this article goes beyond the CIDA…

  2. African American Preschool Children's Physical Activity Levels in Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Bo; Reinhart-Lee, Tamara; Janisse, Heather; Brogan, Kathryn; Danford, Cynthia; Jen, K-L. C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels of urban inner city preschoolers while attending Head Start, the federally funded preschool program for children from low-income families. Participants were 158 African American children. Their physical activity during Head Start days was measured using programmed RT-3…

  3. Decreasing Discipline Referrals for African American Males in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Earl, Jr.; Ratchford, Vicky F.

    2007-01-01

    Brogden Middle School (BMS) is located approximately 15 miles south of Goldsboro, North Carolina, a city of approximately 40,000 citizens and the home of a military base. To decrease the number of discipline referrals of African American males, 10 students who had the most frequent discipline referrals during their seventh-grade year were…

  4. Testing sky brightness models against radial dependency: A dense two dimensional survey around the city of Madrid, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamorano, J.; Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Ocaña, F.; Pila-Díez, B.; Gómez Castaño, J.; Pascual, S.; Tapia, C.; Gallego, J.; Fernández, A.; Nievas, M.

    2016-09-01

    We present a study of the night sky brightness around the extended metropolitan area of Madrid using Sky Quality Meter (SQM) photometers. The map is the first to cover the spatial distribution of the sky brightness in the centre of the Iberian peninsula. These surveys are necessary to test the light pollution models that predict night sky brightness as a function of the location and brightness of the sources of light pollution and the scattering of light in the atmosphere. We describe the data-retrieval methodology, which includes an automated procedure to measure from a moving vehicle in order to speed up the data collection, providing a denser and wider survey than previous works with similar time frames. We compare the night sky brightness map to the nocturnal radiance measured from space by the DMSP satellite. We find that (i) a single source model is not enough to explain the radial evolution of the night sky brightness, despite the predominance of Madrid in size and population and (ii) that the orography of the region should be taken into account when deriving geo-specific models from general first-principles models. We show the tight relationship between these two luminance measures. This finding sets up an alternative roadmap to extended studies over the globe that will not require the local deployment of photometers or trained personnel.

  5. City 2020+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to

  6. Assessment of unsuspected exposure to drugs of abuse in children from a Mediterranean city by hair testing.

    PubMed

    Pichini, Simona; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Alvarez, Airam; Gottardi, Massimo; Marchei, Emilia; Svaizer, Fiorenza; Pellegrini, Manuela; Rotolo, Maria Concetta; Pacifici, Roberta

    2014-02-01

    Hair testing was used to investigate the prevalence of unsuspected exposure to drugs of abuse in a group of children presenting to an urban paediatric emergency department without suggestive signs or symptoms. Hair samples were obtained from 114 children between 24 months and 10 years of age attending the emergency room of Hospital del Mar in Barcelona, Spain. Hair samples from the accompanying parent were also collected. The samples were analyzed for the presence of opiates, cocaine, amphetamines, and cannabinoids by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Parental sociodemographics and possible drug of abuse history were recorded. Hair samples from twenty-three children (20.1%) were positive for cocaine (concentration range 0.15-3.81 ng/mg hair), those of thirteen children (11.4%) to cannabinoids (D9-THC concentration range 0.05-0.54 ng/mg hair), with four samples positive to codeine (0.1-0.25 ng/mg hair), one positive for 2.09 ng methadone per mg hair and one to 6-MAM (0.42 ng/mg hair) and morphine (0. 15 ng/mg hair) . In 69.5 and 69.2% of the positive cocaine and cannabinoids cases respectively, drugs was also found in the hair of accompanying parent. Parental sociodemographics were not associated with children exposure to drugs of abuse. However, the behavioural patterns with potential harmful effects for the child's health (e.g., tobacco smoking, cannabis, benzodiazepines and/or antidepressants use) were significantly higher in the parents of exposed children. In the light of the obtained results (28% overall children exposure to drugs of abuse) and in agreement with 2009 unsuspected 23% cocaine exposure in pre-school children from the same hospital, we support general hair screening to disclose exposure to drugs of abuse in children from risky environments to provide the basis for specific social and health interventions. PMID:24566054

  7. A Comparison of African American Students' Self-Perceptions of School Competence with Their Performance on State-Mandated Achievement Tests and Normed Tests of Oral and Written Language and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon Pershey, Monica

    2011-01-01

    This study measured self-perceptions of school competence among 263 4th- and 6th-grade African American students who attended an academically challenged school district. Self-perceptions of school competence are defined as self-perceptions of ability, confidence, and school satisfaction. Results indicated that 4th-grade students had lesser…

  8. African and non-African admixture components in African Americans and an African Caribbean population.

    PubMed

    Murray, Tanda; Beaty, Terri H; Mathias, Rasika A; Rafaels, Nicholas; Grant, Audrey Virginia; Faruque, Mezbah U; Watson, Harold R; Ruczinski, Ingo; Dunston, Georgia M; Barnes, Kathleen C

    2010-09-01

    Admixture is a potential source of confounding in genetic association studies, so it becomes important to detect and estimate admixture in a sample of unrelated individuals. Populations of African descent in the US and the Caribbean share similar historical backgrounds but the distributions of African admixture may differ. We selected 416 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to estimate and compare admixture proportions using STRUCTURE in 906 unrelated African Americans (AAs) and 294 Barbadians (ACs) from a study of asthma. This analysis showed AAs on average were 72.5% African, 19.6% European and 8% Asian, while ACs were 77.4% African, 15.9% European, and 6.7% Asian which were significantly different. A principal components analysis based on these AIMs yielded one primary eigenvector that explained 54.04% of the variation and captured a gradient from West African to European admixture. This principal component was highly correlated with African vs. European ancestry as estimated by STRUCTURE (r(2)=0.992, r(2)=0.912, respectively). To investigate other African contributions to African American and Barbadian admixture, we performed PCA on approximately 14,000 (14k) genome-wide SNPs in AAs, ACs, Yorubans, Luhya and Maasai African groups, and estimated genetic distances (F(ST)). We found AAs and ACs were closest genetically (F(ST)=0.008), and both were closer to the Yorubans than the other East African populations. In our sample of individuals of African descent, approximately 400 well-defined AIMs were just as good for detecting substructure as approximately 14,000 random SNPs drawn from a genome-wide panel of markers. PMID:20717976

  9. Prevalence and correlates of knowledge of male partner HIV testing and serostatus among African-American women living in high poverty, high HIV prevalence communities (HPTN 064)

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Larissa; Rompalo, Anne M.; Wang, Jing; Hughes, James; Adimora, Adaora A.; Hodder, Sally; Soto-Torres, Lydia E.; Frew, Paula M.; Haley, Danielle F.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of sexual partners' HIV infection can reduce risky sexual behaviors. Yet, there are no published studies to-date examining prevalence and characteristics associated with knowledge among African-American women living in high poverty communities disproportionately affected by HIV. Using the HIV Prevention Trial Network's (HPTN) 064 Study data, multivariable logistic regression was used to examine individual, partner, and partnership-level determinants of women's knowledge (n=1,768 women). Results showed that women's demographic characteristics alone did not account for the variation in serostatus awareness. Rather, lower knowledge of partner serostatus was associated with having two or more sex partners (OR=0.49, 95%CI: 0.37-0.65), food insecurity (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.49-0.94), partner age>35 (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.49-0.94), and partner concurrency (OR=0.63, 95%CI: 0.49-0.83). Access to financial support (OR=1.42, 95%CI: 1.05-1.92) and coresidence (OR=1.43, 95%CI: 1.05-1.95) were associated with higher knowledge of partner serostatus. HIV prevention efforts addressing African-American women's vulnerabilities should employ integrated behavioral, economic, and empowerment approaches. PMID:25160901

  10. The African superswell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyblade, Andrew A.; Robinson, Scott W.

    1994-01-01

    Maps of residual bathymetry in the ocean basins around the African continent reveal a broad bathymetric swell in the southeastern Atlantic Ocean with an amplitude of about 500 m. We propose that this region of anomalously shallow bathymetry, together with the contiguous eastern and southern African plateaus, form a superswell which we refer to as the African superswell. The origin of the African superswell is uncertain. However, rifting and volcanism in eastern Africa, as well as heat flow measurements in southern Africa and the southeastern Atlantic Ocean, suggest that the superswell may be attributed, at least in part, to heating of the lithosphere.

  11. Locating the Places People Meet New Sexual Partners in a Southern US City to Inform HIV/STI Prevention and Testing Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Maria R.; Tisdale, Caroline; Norcott, Kathy; Duncan, Jesse; Kaplan, Andrew M.; Weir, Sharon S.

    2012-01-01

    Places where people meet new sex partners can be venues for the delivery of individual and environmental interventions that aim to reduce transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Using the Priorities for Local AIDS Control Efforts (PLACE) methodology we identified and characterized venues where people in a southeastern US city with high prevalence of both HIV and STI go to meet new sexual partners. A total of 123 community informants identified 143 public, private and commercial venues where people meet sex partners. Condoms were available at 14% of the venues, although 48% of venue representatives expressed a willingness to host HIV prevention efforts. Interviews with 373 people (229 men, 144 women) socializing at a random sample of 54 venues found high rates of HIV risk behaviors including concurrent sexual partnerships, transactional sex and illicit substance abuse. Risk behaviors were more common among those at certain venue types including those that may be overlooked by public health outreach efforts. The systematic methodology used was successful in locating venues where risky encounters are established and reveal opportunities for targeted HIV prevention and testing programs as well as research. PMID:20614175

  12. Transthyretin isoleucine-122 mutation in African and American blacks.

    PubMed

    Afolabi, I; Hamidi Asl, K; Nakamura, M; Jacobs, P; Hendrie, H; Benson, M D

    2000-06-01

    The gene frequency of the transthyretin (TTR) mutation (Val122Ile) was studied in African and African-American populations. The African populations analyzed included the Zulu and Xhosa of South Africa, and Yorubas from the city of Ibadan, Nigeria. The African-American population included patients at the Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center, Indianapolis, and newborns from a local hospital in Indianapolis. The Val122Ile TTR mutation was identified in 1 of 55 Zulu, 0 of 34 Xhosa, 0 of 9 Nigerian subjects, 5 of 51 Veteran patients, and 3 of 103 newborns. Assuming the 2.91% prevalence in newborns to be the norm, there is a significant increased prevalence in the VA patient population. PMID:10842715

  13. HIV-related stigma among African, Caribbean, and Black youth in Windsor, Ontario.

    PubMed

    Mihan, Robert; Kerr, Jelani; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor

    2016-01-01

    HIV-related stigma has been shown to undermine prevention, care, treatment, and the well-being of people living with HIV. A disproportion burden of HIV infection, as well as elevated levels of HIV-related stigma, is evidenced in sub-Saharan African (SSA) and African-diasporic populations. This study explores factors that influence HIV-related stigma among 16- to 25-year-old youth residing in a Canadian city who identify as African, Caribbean, or Black. Stigma, as rooted in cultural norms and beliefs and related social institutions, combined with insights from research on stigma in SSA and African-diasporic populations, guided the development of a path analytic structural equation model predicting levels of HIV-related stigmatizing attitudes. The model was tested using survey responses of 510 youth to estimate the direct and indirect influences of ethno-religious identity, religious service attendance, time in Canada, HIV/AIDS knowledge, HIV-testing history, sexual health service contact, and gender on HIV-related stigma. Statistically significant negative associations were found between levels of stigma and knowledge and HIV-testing history. Ethno-religious identity and gender had both direct and indirect effects on stigma. African-Muslim participants had higher levels of stigma, lower knowledge, and were less likely to have been tested for HIV infection than other ethno-religious groups. Male participants had higher levels of stigma and lower knowledge than women. Time in Canada had only indirect effects on stigma, with participants in Canada for longer periods having higher knowledge and less likely to have been tested than more recent arrivals. While the strength of the effect of knowledge on stigmatizing attitudes in this research is consistent with other research on stigma and evaluations of stigma-reduction programs, the path analytic results provide additional information about how knowledge and HIV-testing function as mediators of non

  14. Climate change induced risk analysis of Addis Ababa city (Ethiopia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalayer, Fatemeh; Herslund, Lise; Cavan, Gina; Printz, Andreas; Simonis, Ingo; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Hellevik, Siri; Fekade, Rebka; Nebebe, Alemu; Woldegerima, Tekle; Workalemahu, Liku; Workneh, Abraham; Yonas, Nebyou; Abebe Bekele, Essete; Yeshitela, Kumelachew

    2013-04-01

    CLUVA (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa; http://www.cluva.eu/) is a 3 years project, funded by the European Commission in 2010. Its objective is to develop context-centered methods to assess vulnerability and increase knowledge on managing climate related risks and to estimate the impacts of climate changes in the next 40 years at urban scale in Africa. The project downscales IPCC climate projections to evaluate threats to selected African test cities; mainly floods, sea-level rise, droughts, heat waves, desertification. It also evaluates and links: social vulnerability; urban green structures and ecosystem services; urban-rural interfaces; vulnerability of urban built environment and lifelines; and related institutional and governance dimensions of adaptation. CLUVA combines assessment approaches to investigate how cities, communities and households can resist and cope with, as well as recover from climate induced hazards. This multi-scale and multi-disciplinary qualitative, quantitative and probabilistic approach of CLUVA is currently being applied to selected African test cities (Addis Ababa - Ethiopia; Dar es Salaam - Tanzania; Douala - Cameroun; Ouagadougou - Burkina Faso; St. Louis - Senegal). In particular, the poster will report on the progresses of the Addis Ababa case study. Addis Ababa, the largest city in Ethiopia, is exposed to heat waves, drought, and, more recently, to flash floods. Due to undulating topography, poor waste management and the absence of sustainable storm water management, Addis Ababa is prone to severe flood events during the rainy seasons. Metropolitan Addis Ababa is crossed by several small watercourses. Torrential rains, very common during the rainy season, cause a sudden rise in the flow of these water courses, inundating and damaging the settlements along their banks and affecting the livelihood of the local population. The combination of climate change and development pressures are expected to exacerbate the

  15. African American community members sustain favorable blood pressure outcomes through 12-month telephone motivational interviewing (MI) maintenance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Community approaches offer promise for addressing disparities experienced by African Americans in hypertension prevalence, treatment, and control. HUB City Steps, a community-based participatory research lifestyle intervention, tracked participants through a 12-month MI maintenance phase following a...

  16. 16 Extraordinary African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    This collection for children tells the stories of 16 African Americans who helped make America what it is today. African Americans can take pride in the heritage of these contributors to society. Biographies are given for the following: (1) Sojourner Truth, preacher and abolitionist; (2) Frederick Douglass, abolitionist; (3) Harriet Tubman, leader…

  17. African Studies Computer Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    African studies computer resources that are readily available in the United States with linkages to Africa are described, highlighting those most directly corresponding to African content. Africanists can use the following four fundamental computer systems: (1) Internet/Bitnet; (2) Fidonet; (3) Usenet; and (4) dial-up bulletin board services. The…

  18. African Literature as Celebration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achebe, Chinua

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Igbo tradition of "Mbari," a communal creative enterprise that celebrates the world and the life lived in it through art. Contrasts the cooperative, social dimension of pre-colonial African culture with the exclusion and denial of European colonialism, and sees new African literature again celebrating human presence and dignity. (AF)

  19. Educating African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American…

  20. Africans Away from Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, John Henrik

    Africans who were brought across the Atlantic as slaves never fully adjusted to slavery or accepted its inevitability. Resistance began on board the slave ships, where many jumped overboard or committed suicide. African slaves in South America led the first revolts against tyranny in the New World. The first slave revolt in the Caribbean occurred…

  1. Keeping African Masks Real

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddington, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Art is a good place to learn about our multicultural planet, and African masks are prized throughout the world as powerfully expressive artistic images. Unfortunately, multicultural education, especially for young children, can perpetuate stereotypes. Masks taken out of context lose their meaning and the term "African masks" suggests that there is…

  2. Adaptation of the African couples HIV testing and counseling model for men who have sex with men in the United States: an application of the ADAPT-ITT framework.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Patrick S; Stephenson, Rob; Grazter, Beau; Wingood, Gina; Diclemente, Ralph; Allen, Susan; Hoff, Colleen; Salazar, Laura; Scales, Lamont; Montgomery, Jeanne; Schwartz, Ann; Barnes, Jasper; Grabbe, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    To respond to the need for new HIV prevention services for men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States, and to respond to new data on the key role of main partnerships in US MSM epidemics, we sought to develop a new service for joint HIV testing of male couples. We used the ADAPT-ITT framework to guide our work. From May 2009 to July 2013, a multiphase process was undertaken to identify an appropriate service as the basis for adaptation, collect data to inform the adaptation, adapt the testing service, develop training materials, test the adapted service, and scale up and evaluate the initial version of the service. We chose to base our adaptation on an African couples HIV testing service that was developed in the 1980s and has been widely disseminated in low- and middle-income countries. Our adaptation was informed by qualitative data collections from MSM and HIV counselors, multiple online surveys of MSM, information gathering from key stakeholders, and theater testing of the adapted service with MSM and HIV counselors. Results of initial testing indicate that the adapted service is highly acceptable to MSM and to HIV counselors, that there are no evident harms (e.g., intimate partner violence, relationship dissolution) associated with the service, and that the service identifies a substantial number of HIV serodiscordant male couples. The story of the development and scale-up of the adapted service illustrates how multiple public and foundation funding sources can collaborate to bring a prevention adaptation from concept to public health application, touching on research, program evaluation, implementation science, and public health program delivery. The result of this process is an adapted couples HIV testing approach, with training materials and handoff from academic partners to public health for assessment of effectiveness and consideration of the potential benefits of implementation; further work is needed to optimally adapt the African couples

  3. Diabetes in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, M

    2005-01-01

    African Americans have a high risk for type 2 diabetes. Genetic traits, the prevalence of obesity, and insulin resistance all contribute to the risk of diabetes in the African American community. African Americans have a high rate of diabetic complications, because of poor glycaemic control and racial disparities in health care in the USA. African Americans with diabetes may have an atypical presentation that simulates type 1 diabetes, but then their subsequent clinical course is typical of type 2 diabetes. Culturally sensitive strategies, structured disease management protocols, and the assistance of nurses, diabetic educators, and other health care professionals are effective in improving the outcome of diabetes in the African American community. PMID:16344294

  4. African bees to control African elephants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollrath, Fritz; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2002-11-01

    Numbers of elephants have declined in Africa and Asia over the past 30 years while numbers of humans have increased, both substantially. Friction between these two keystone species is reaching levels which are worryingly high from an ecological as well as a political viewpoint. Ways and means must be found to keep the two apart, at least in areas sensitive to each species' survival. The aggressive African bee might be one such method. Here we demonstrate that African bees deter elephants from damaging the vegetation and trees which house their hives. We argue that bees can be employed profitably to protect not only selected trees, but also selected areas, from elephant damage.

  5. The Impact of Oakland Freedom School's Summer Youth Program on the Psychosocial Development of African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethea, Sharon L.

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation considers the program outcomes of one community youth project, Leadership Excellence Inc., Oakland Freedom Schools. Oakland Freedom Schools are culturally relevant 6-week summer Language Arts enrichment programs for primarily inner-city African American youth aged 5 to 14 years. In this study, 79 African American youth…

  6. High-Achieving, Low Socioeconomic Status African-American Males: A Comparative Perspective of Students at Three Urban High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randle, James P.

    2012-01-01

    A recent study by the Council of the Great City Schools reports that "the nation's young African-American males are in a state of crisis" and describes the situation as "a national catastrophe" (Lewis, Simon, Uzzell, Horwitz, & Casserly, 2010; Herbert, 2010). The report indicates that African-American males still lag…

  7. Familial Factors in the Early Life Experiences of a Population of African American Crack-Cocaine Users: The Father Link?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Patricia

    1998-01-01

    Explored factors contributing to addiction in 140 African-American males in an inner-city homeless shelter. A common theme in their life stories is that of negative and painful experiences with father figures. Suggestions are made for research into this area and policy strategies to enhance the African-American father's role. (SLD)

  8. The "Colored Schools" of Cincinnati and African American Community in Nineteenth-Century Cincinnati, 1849-1890

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertaux, Nancy; Washington, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between the nineteenth century Colored Public Schools of Cincinnati and the overall African American community in the nineteenth-century "borderland" city of Cincinnati is examined. It is concluded that the employment of African American teachers, while a positive development in itself, apparently failed to lead to significant…

  9. Use and Misuse of Speech Diagnostics for African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baugh, John

    2015-01-01

    Many African American students have been tested using speech pathology diagnostics that are ill suited to their distinctive linguistic circumstances. Slave descendants of African origin share a unique linguistic heritage in contrast and comparison to every other immigrant group residing within America. In an effort to overcome the legacy of…

  10. Tecnical Note: Analysis of non-regulated vehicular emissions by extractive FTIR spectrometry: tests on a hybrid car in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, F.; Grutter, M.; Jazcilevich, A.; González-Oropeza, R.

    2006-11-01

    A methodology to acquire valuable information on the chemical composition and evolution of vehicular emissions is presented. The analysis of the gases is performed by passing a constant flow of a sample gas from the tail-pipe into a 10 L multi-pass cell. The absorption spectra within the cell are obtained using an FTIR spectrometer at 0.5 cm-1 resolution along a 13.1 m optical path. Additionally, the total flow from the exhaust is continuously measured from a differential pressure sensor on a textit{Pitot} tube installed at the exit of the exhaust. This configuration aims to obtain a good speciation capability by coadding spectra during 30 s and reporting the emission (in g/km) of both criteria and non-regulated pollutants, such as CO2, CO, NO, SO2, NH3, HCHO and some NMHC, during predetermined driving cycles. The advantages and disadvantages of increasing the measurement frequency, as well as the effect of other parameters such as spectral resolution, cell volume and flow rate, are discussed. To test and evaluate the proposed technique, experiments were performed on a dynamometer running FTP-75 and typical driving cycles for the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) on a Toyota Prius hybrid vehicle. This car is an example of recent marketed automotive technology dedicated to reduced emissions, increasing the need for sensitive detection techniques. This study shows the potential of the proposed technique to measure and report in real time the emissions of a large variety of pollutants, even from a super ultra-low emission vehicle (SULEV). The emissions of HC's, NOx, CO and CO2 obtained here were compared to experiments performed in other locations with the same model vehicle. The proposed technique provides a tool for future studies comparing in detail the emissions of vehicles using alternative fuels and emission control systems.

  11. Parental Endorsement of Spanking and Children’s Internalizing and Externalizing Problems in African American and Hispanic Families

    PubMed Central

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Kull, Melissa A.; Carrano, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed prospective, bidirectional associations between maternal endorsement of spanking and children’s internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in low-income urban African American and Hispanic (N = 592) families drawn from the Three City Study. Children in sample families were followed from early childhood through middle childhood with three sets of interviews and assessments at ages 3, 4, and 9 years. Cross-lagged path analyses tested longitudinal bidirectional associations between parental endorsement of spanking and children’s internalizing and externalizing problems, with multi-group comparisons employed to test group differences between race/ethnic groups. African American and Hispanic mothers showed similar endorsements of spanking. Results suggest that associations between spanking endorsement and child functioning were due primarily to parenting effects, with spanking predicting changes in children’s behaviors, rather than child evocative effects, with limited evidence of child behaviors predicting changes in parental spanking. Maternal spanking endorsement predicted short-term decreases in children’s internalizing problems in early childhood, but over the longer term spanking was associated with increased internalizing and externalizing problems for both African American and Hispanic children in middle childhood among economically disadvantaged families. PMID:24364363

  12. Energy flows in a secondary city: a case study of Nakuru, Kenya

    SciTech Connect

    Milukas, M.V.

    1987-01-01

    Secondary cities are currently seen as an important focus for promoting a more spatially-equitable pattern of economic infrastructure in developing countries, but their energy needs have not been considered. To test the thesis of this work - that the present pattern of energy demand in secondary cities differs, in important ways, from that of primary cities - a case study was conducted in the East African city of Nakuru, Kenya. Energy supplies used in Nakuru fall into two categories: industrial sources (electricity and petroleum) and traditional sources (wood, charcoal, and agricultural residues). This analysis of Nakuru's use of industrial sources is introduced by a historical discussion of nationwide patterns of distribution, use, and pricing of electricity and petroleum products, and is followed by data gathered from Nakuru's suppliers of these energy sources. The portrait of energy use in Nakuru is completed with an analysis of the demand for traditional energy sources. Surveys were conducted to estimate the total quantities of charcoal, wood, and agricultural resides used in Nakuru. The cornerstone of this effort was a residential energy survey stratified according to income. Nakuru is shown to rely on biomass fuels (charcoal) to a much greater degree than Nairobi, thereby proving the thesis.

  13. African ancestry protects against Alzheimer's disease-related neuropathology

    PubMed Central

    Schlesinger, D; Grinberg, L T; Alba, J G; Naslavsky, M S; Licinio, L; Farfel, J M; Suemoto, C K; de Lucena Ferretti, R E; Leite, R E P; de Andrade, M P; dos Santos, A C F; Brentani, H; Pasqualucci, C A; Nitrini, R; Jacob-Filho, W; Zatz, M

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies in dementia epidemiology have reported higher Alzheimer's disease rates in African-Americans when compared with White Americans. To determine whether genetically determined African ancestry is associated with neuropathological changes commonly associated with dementia, we analyzed a population-based brain bank in the highly admixed city of São Paulo, Brazil. African ancestry was estimated through the use of previously described ancestry-informative markers. Risk of presence of neuritic plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, small vessel disease, brain infarcts and Lewy bodies in subjects with significant African ancestry versus those without was determined. Results were adjusted for multiple environmental risk factors, demographic variables and apolipoprotein E genotype. African ancestry was inversely correlated with neuritic plaques (P=0.03). Subjects with significant African ancestry (n=112, 55.4%) showed lower prevalence of neuritic plaques in the univariate analysis (odds ratio (OR) 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55–0.95, P=0.01) and when adjusted for age, sex, APOE genotype and environmental risk factors (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.21–0.89, P=0.02). There were no significant differences for the presence of other neuropathological alterations. We show for the first time, using genetically determined ancestry, that African ancestry may be highly protective of Alzheimer's disease neuropathology, functioning through either genetic variants or unknown environmental factors. Epidemiological studies correlating African-American race/ethnicity with increased Alzheimer's disease rates should not be interpreted as surrogates of genetic ancestry or considered to represent African-derived populations from the developing nations such as Brazil. PMID:22064377

  14. Black versus Black: The Relationship among African, African American, and African Caribbean Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Jennifer V.; Cothran, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Surveyed people of African descent regarding relationships among African, African-American, and African-Caribbean persons, focusing on contact and friendship, travel to countries of the diaspora, cross-cultural communication, thoughts and stereotypes, and education. Most respondents had contacts with the other groups, but groups had preconceived…

  15. Parental Involvement (and Uninvolvement) at an Inner-City High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Terrinieka T.; Sanchez, Bernadette

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to understand the perceptions of parental involvement and parental uninvolvement at a predominantly African American inner-city high school. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 15 parents and 10 staff at an inner-city public high school. Five major themes emerged regarding the meanings of parental involvement at this…

  16. Bringing Jazz Back to Its Roots: Inner City Students Explore Their Musical Heritage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouillette, Liane

    2006-01-01

    This article looks at an inner city playwriting project that brought professional writers and artists into inner city classrooms to help students explore the cultural history of their community and begin to find their own voices as writers. This project was set up by Larry Hunter, an African American playwright who worked as a writer-in-residence…

  17. "In the Midst of Strange and Terrible Times": The New York City Draft Riots of 1863

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz, Barbara C.; Patterson, Jennifer Marques

    2005-01-01

    During the New York City Draft Riots the city's own inhabitants unleashed a torrent of violence and destruction that chiefly targeted African Americans. What originated as a protest against the enforcement of the Conscription Act quickly escalated into a riot that erupted at the volatile nineteenth century crossroads of race, class, and economic…

  18. NeoCITIES: an experimental test-bed for quantifying the effects of cognitive aids on team performance in C2 situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellar, D. B.; Hall, David L.

    2009-05-01

    In this paper, we describe the design and development of the NeoCITIES Simulation task environment. The enhanced NeoCITIES environment allows repeatable experiments in which artifacts are introduced to improve team performance and measure quantities such as inference accuracy as a function of crisis tempo, data rate, decision complexity and individual factors such as induced stress. NeoCITIES was developed to study the effectiveness of cognitive artifacts within a simulated command and control environment. This paper describes the initial results of a human in the loop experiment to quantify the effects of data overload on human analyst performance. The experiment involves the introduction of cognitive aids to support improved team coordination and understanding of team-member interactions in a simulated extreme events scenario.

  19. North African Populations Carry the Signature of Admixture with Neandertals

    PubMed Central

    Civit, Sergi; Arenas, Conxita; Ávila-Arcos, María C.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Comas, David; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2012-01-01

    One of the main findings derived from the analysis of the Neandertal genome was the evidence for admixture between Neandertals and non-African modern humans. An alternative scenario is that the ancestral population of non-Africans was closer to Neandertals than to Africans because of ancient population substructure. Thus, the study of North African populations is crucial for testing both hypotheses. We analyzed a total of 780,000 SNPs in 125 individuals representing seven different North African locations and searched for their ancestral/derived state in comparison to different human populations and Neandertals. We found that North African populations have a significant excess of derived alleles shared with Neandertals, when compared to sub-Saharan Africans. This excess is similar to that found in non-African humans, a fact that can be interpreted as a sign of Neandertal admixture. Furthermore, the Neandertal's genetic signal is higher in populations with a local, pre-Neolithic North African ancestry. Therefore, the detected ancient admixture is not due to recent Near Eastern or European migrations. Sub-Saharan populations are the only ones not affected by the admixture event with Neandertals. PMID:23082212

  20. Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

  1. Astronomy for African development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govender, Kevindran

    2011-06-01

    In recent years there have been a number of efforts across Africa to develop the field of astronomy as well as to reap benefit from astronomy for African people. This presentation will discuss the case of the SALT (Southern African Large Telescope) Collateral Benefits Programme (SCBP) which was set up to ensure societal benefit from astronomy. With African society as the target, the SCBP has embarked on various projects from school level education to public understanding of science to socio-economic development, the latter mainly being felt in the rural communities surrounding the South African Astronomical Observatory (home to SALT). A development plan for ``Astronomy in Africa'' will also be discussed. This plan has been drawn up with input from all over Africa and themed ``Astronomy for Education''. The Africa case stands as a good example for the IYA cornerstone project ``Developing Astronomy Globally'' which focuses on developing regions.

  2. African American Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... accounted for 83.8% of Caucasian elderly suicides. • Firearms were the predominant method of suicide among African ... per 100,000 annually. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Vital Statistics System. Mortality Data. ...

  3. Box City Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Understanding the Built Environment, Prairie Village, KS.

    This curriculum packet contains two lesson plans about cities and architecture intended for use with students in upper elementary grades and middle schools. The first lesson plan, "City People, City Stories" (Jan Ham), states that understanding architecture and cities must begin with an understanding of the people of the city. The children create…

  4. Exposure to Community Violence and Social Maladjustment Among Urban African American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Devin C.; Richards, Maryse H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Because of the evidence that children living in inner city communities are chronically exposed to violence, the goal of the present study was to longitudinally explore the reciprocal and perpetuating relationship between exposure to violence and child social maladjustment. Method Participants were 268 African American students (M age = 11.65 years, 40% males and 60% females) from six inner city Chicago public schools in high crime neighborhoods. Data was collected longitudinally over three years on measures of demographic information, exposure to community violence, and social adjustment. It was hypothesized that high levels of exposure to community violence, would be related to higher reports of social maladjustment (both cross-sectionally and longitudinally) and these variables would interact transactionally, leading to a greater risk of exposure to violence. Results These hypotheses were tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and results revealed that exposure to community violence was not consistently linked to social maladjustment. Transactional results revealed that there are certain periods in development in which being more socially maladjusted may put a youth in risk for more exposure to violence. Conclusions Results of the present study have important implications for interventions for inner-city youth exposed to violence. PMID:25171169

  5. Patient-Centered Community Diabetes Education Program Improves Glycemic Control in African-American Patients with Poorly Controlled Type 2 Diabetes: Importance of Point of Care Metabolic Measurements.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Trudy; Amponsah, Grace; Osei, Kwame

    2015-07-01

    African-Americans with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) have higher morbidity and mortality partly attributed to poor glucose control and lack of formal diabetes self-management education and support (DSMES) programs compared to Whites. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the clinical and metabolic parameters during DSMES vs. standard care in African-Americans with T2DM attending primary care inner city clinics. We recruited 124 African-American patients with T2DM, randomized into Group 1-DSMES (n = 58) and Group 2-standard care group (n = 38) for 6 months. Body weight, blood pressure, random blood sugars and point-of-care (POC) hemoglobin A1C (A1C) and lipids/lipoproteins were measured at 0, 3, and 6 months. At 6 months, Group 1 had significant reduction in A1C (8.2 ± 1.4% vs. 7.5 ± 1.5%, p = 0.02) and random glucose (190.4 ± 77.6 vs. 160.6 ± 59.8 mg/dl, p = 0.03). However, there were no changes in body weight, blood pressure, or lipids/lipoprotein levels. We found no significant changes in the clinical/metabolic parameters in Group 2. We concluded that DSMES, supplemented with POC testing, was associated with significant improvements in glycemic control without changes in body weight, blood pressure, or lipids/lipoproteins. We recommend the inclusion of DSMES with POC testing in managing African-American patients with T2DM attending inner city primary care clinics. PMID:26371360

  6. The Cross-cultural Utility of Foreign- and Locally-derived Normative Data for Three WHO-endorsed Neuropsychological Tests for South African Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ferrett, Helen L.; Thomas, Kevin G. F.; Tapert, Susan F.; Carey, Paul D.; Conradie, Simone; Cuzen, Natalie L.; Stein, Dan J.; Fein, George

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation of neuropsychological tests may be hampered by confounding sociodemographic factors and by using inappropriate normative data. We investigated these factors in three tests endorsed by the World Health Organization: the Grooved Pegboard Test (GPT), the Children's Color Trails Test (CCTT), and the WHO/UCLA version of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). In a sample of 12-15-year-old, Afrikaans- and English-speaking adolescents from the Cape Town region of South Africa, analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) demonstrated that quality of education was the sociodemographic factor with the biggest influence on test performance, and that age also significantly influenced GPT and CCTT performance. Based on those findings, we provide appropriately stratified normative data for the age group in question. Comparisons between diagnostic interpretations made using foreign normative data versus those using the current local data demonstrate that it is imperative to use appropriately stratified normative data to guard against misinterpreting performance. PMID:24526566

  7. The cross-cultural utility of foreign- and locally-derived normative data for three WHO-endorsed neuropsychological tests for South African adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ferrett, Helen L; Thomas, Kevin G F; Tapert, Susan F; Carey, Paul D; Conradie, Simone; Cuzen, Natalie L; Stein, Dan J; Fein, George

    2014-06-01

    Interpretation of neuropsychological tests may be hampered by confounding sociodemographic factors and by using inappropriate normative data. We investigated these factors in three tests endorsed by the World Health Organization: the Grooved Pegboard Test (GPT), the Children's Color Trails Test (CCTT), and the WHO/UCLA version of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). In a sample of 12-15-year-old, Afrikaans- and English-speaking adolescents from the Cape Town region of South Africa, analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) demonstrated that quality of education was the sociodemographic factor with the biggest influence on test performance, and that age also significantly influenced GPT and CCTT performance. Based on those findings, we provide appropriately stratified normative data for the age group in question. Comparisons between diagnostic interpretations made using foreign normative data versus those using the current local data demonstrate that it is imperative to use appropriately stratified normative data to guard against misinterpreting performance. PMID:24526566

  8. Health parties for African American study recruitment.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Georgia Robins; York, Crystal; Madlensky, Lisa; Gibson, Kathi; Wasserman, Linda; Rosenthal, Eric; Barbier, Leslie; Newman, Vicky A; Tso, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    Innovative strategies are needed to increase minorities' research participation. Using existing social networks within the African American community, "home health parties" were tested as a way to recruit African American women to a breast cancer control study. Parties included social, educational, and recruitment components. All women attending health parties consented, completed a survey, and received the study's preliminary breast cancer risk assessment. There were no differences in rates of participation for subsequent study components between women recruited via parties versus other methods. Health parties are viable recruitment strategies, reduce barriers to participation, provide a supportive environment, and are relatively inexpensive. PMID:17020516

  9. African American and Latino Youth and Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome: Effects on School Violence and Interventions for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zyromski, Brett

    2007-01-01

    Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome (PTSD) is found more frequently in inner-city African American and Latino youth than in European American youth. Previous research on PTSD and its relationship with inner-city violence, minority youth, school violence and institutionalized oppression is examined. School counselor's roles and possible interventions…

  10. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  11. Hyperinsulinemia and acanthosis nigricans in African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, C. A.; Gilkison, C. R.; Keenan, B. S.; Nagamani, M.

    1997-01-01

    Compared with the US white, non-Hispanic population, the African-American population has a nearly two-fold higher prevalence of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Obesity, which usually precedes NIDDM, is associated with the skin lesion acanthosis nigricans in African Americans. This study was undertaken to determine what the relationship of acanthosis nigricans was to hyperinsulinemia, a major risk factor for NIDDM. Eighty-nine African-American subjects with acanthosis nigricans and 25 others without the skin lesion were evaluated using oral glucose tolerance testing and responsiveness to insulin. Noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus was present in 19 of the subjects with acanthosis nigricans. The prevalence of NIDDM in this group increased with increasing age, reaching 50% among those in their 40s. Fasting plasma insulin concentration was in direct proportion to the severity of the acanthosis nigricans involvement of the neck. These data suggest that among African Americans, this skin lesion is a marker for hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. Furthermore, the presence of acanthosis nigricans identifies a subset with a much higher prevalence of NIDDM than is present in African Americans in the general population. PMID:9264219

  12. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in free-living African mammals.

    PubMed

    Riemann, G P; Burridge, M J; Behymer, D E; Franti, C E

    1975-10-01

    Twelve species of free-living African mammals from Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii using the indirect hemagglutination test. Of 157 animals sampled, 20 (13%) were seropositive. T. gondii antibodies were detected in Burchell's zebra, (Equus burchelli), hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), African elephant (Loxodonta africana), defassa waterbuck (Kobus defassa), lion (Panthera leo), and rock hyrax (Procavia capensis), The highest titers were found in elephants, two having titers of 1:4096 and one of 1:8192. These results are discussed in relation to the maintenance of T. gondii among African wildlife. PMID:1195497

  13. Marin City Families First: Three Case Studies. Ruby and James: A Second Chance. Eleanor: Standing on My Own. Freda: The Value of Family. Child and Family Studies Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WestEd, San Francisco, CA.

    Marin City is an isolated African American community located in mostly affluent Marin County, California. Thirty-six percent of households in Marin City fall below the poverty line. This report provides three case studies from the Marin City Families First (MCFF) program, an intervention that aims to develop a model comprehensive child and family…

  14. The effects of a mass media HIV-risk reduction strategy on HIV-related stigma and knowledge among African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Jelani C; Valois, Robert F; DiClemente, Ralph J; Carey, Michael P; Stanton, Bonita; Romer, Daniel; Fletcher, Faith; Farber, Naomi; Brown, Larry K; Vanable, Peter A; Salazar, Laura F; Juzang, Ivan; Fortune, Thierry

    2015-03-01

    HIV-related stigma undermines HIV prevention, testing, and treatment. Multipronged risk-reduction strategies may reduce stigma among African American adolescents. To test the effectiveness of a risk-reduction strategy in addressing stigma, 1613 African American adolescents from four mid-sized cities participated in a randomized control trial. Participants received a sexual-risk reduction [Focus on Youth (FOY)] or general health curriculum [Promoting Health Among Teens (PHAT)]. Two cities received a culturally-tailored media intervention. Participants completed baseline, 3-, 6-, and 12-month surveys to measure HIV-related stigma and knowledge. Analysis of covariance tested for stigma and knowledge differences by media city status and curriculum/media city status (PHAT media vs. PHAT non-media, FOY media vs. FOY non-media; FOY media vs. PHAT media; FOY non-media vs. PHAT non-media) at each measurement. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) determined stigma and knowledge differences over time. Media participants demonstrated greater HIV-related knowledge (p<0.10) at 6 months and lower stigma at 3 months (p<0.10). FOY media participants had lower 3-month (p<0.05) and 12-month (p<0.10) stigma scores than non-media FOY participants. FOY media and non-media participants had greater knowledge than PHAT for all intervals after baseline. FOY media had lower stigma than PHAT media after baseline for all intervals after baseline. HLM indicated greater knowledge slopes for the media group (p<0.05). FOY media participants had greater knowledge slopes (p<0.05) relative to non-media FOY participants and media PHAT participants (p<0.01). A combination of a HIV risk-reduction curriculum and culturally-tailored media demonstrated some effectiveness in reducing stigma. Future use of media in HIV-prevention should include and evaluate effects on stigma. PMID:25738952

  15. The Effects of a Mass Media HIV-Risk Reduction Strategy on HIV-Related Stigma and Knowledge Among African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Valois, Robert F.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Carey, Michael P.; Stanton, Bonita; Romer, Daniel; Fletcher, Faith; Farber, Naomi; Brown, Larry K.; Vanable, Peter A.; Salazar, Laura F.; Juzang, Ivan; Fortune, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Abstract HIV-related stigma undermines HIV prevention, testing, and treatment. Multipronged risk-reduction strategies may reduce stigma among African American adolescents. To test the effectiveness of a risk-reduction strategy in addressing stigma, 1613 African American adolescents from four mid-sized cities participated in a randomized control trial. Participants received a sexual-risk reduction [Focus on Youth (FOY)] or general health curriculum [Promoting Health Among Teens (PHAT)]. Two cities received a culturally-tailored media intervention. Participants completed baseline, 3-, 6-, and 12-month surveys to measure HIV-related stigma and knowledge. Analysis of covariance tested for stigma and knowledge differences by media city status and curriculum/media city status (PHAT media vs. PHAT non-media, FOY media vs. FOY non-media; FOY media vs. PHAT media; FOY non-media vs. PHAT non-media) at each measurement. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) determined stigma and knowledge differences over time. Media participants demonstrated greater HIV-related knowledge (p<0.10) at 6 months and lower stigma at 3 months (p<0.10). FOY media participants had lower 3-month (p<0.05) and 12-month (p<0.10) stigma scores than non-media FOY participants. FOY media and non-media participants had greater knowledge than PHAT for all intervals after baseline. FOY media had lower stigma than PHAT media after baseline for all intervals after baseline. HLM indicated greater knowledge slopes for the media group (p<0.05). FOY media participants had greater knowledge slopes (p<0.05) relative to non-media FOY participants and media PHAT participants (p<0.01). A combination of a HIV risk-reduction curriculum and culturally-tailored media demonstrated some effectiveness in reducing stigma. Future use of media in HIV-prevention should include and evaluate effects on stigma. PMID:25738952

  16. Implementation and Operational Research: What Happens After a Negative Test for Tuberculosis? Evaluating Adherence to TB Diagnostic Algorithms in South African Primary Health Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Grant, A. D.; Chihota, V.; Ginindza, S.; Mvusi, L.; Churchyard, G. J.; Fielding, K.L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Background: Diagnostic tests for tuberculosis (TB) using sputum have suboptimal sensitivity among HIV-positive persons. We assessed health care worker adherence to TB diagnostic algorithms after negative sputum test results. Methods: The XTEND (Xpert for TB—Evaluating a New Diagnostic) trial compared outcomes among people tested for TB in primary care clinics using Xpert MTB/RIF vs. smear microscopy as the initial test. We analyzed data from XTEND participants who were HIV positive or HIV status unknown, whose initial sputum Xpert MTB/RIF or microscopy result was negative. If chest radiography, sputum culture, or hospital referral took place, the algorithm for TB diagnosis was considered followed. Analysis of intervention (Xpert MTB/RIF) effect on algorithm adherence used methods for cluster-randomized trials with small number of clusters. Results: Among 4037 XTEND participants with initial negative test results, 2155 (53%) reported being or testing HIV positive and 540 (14%) had unknown HIV status. Among 2155 HIV-positive participants [684 (32%) male, mean age 37 years (range, 18–79 years)], there was evidence of algorithm adherence among 515 (24%). Adherence was less likely among persons tested initially with Xpert MTB/RIF vs. smear [14% (142/1031) vs. 32% (364/1122), adjusted risk ratio 0.34 (95% CI: 0.17 to 0.65)] and for participants with unknown vs. positive HIV status [59/540 (11%) vs. 507/2155 (24%)]. Conclusions: We observed poorer adherence to TB diagnostic algorithms among HIV-positive persons tested initially with Xpert MTB/RIF vs. microscopy. Poor adherence to TB diagnostic algorithms and incomplete coverage of HIV testing represents a missed opportunity to diagnose TB and HIV, and may contribute to TB mortality. PMID:26966843

  17. Optimizing care for African-American HIV-positive patients.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kimberly Y; Brutus, Andre; Cathcart, Ronald; Gathe, Joseph; Johnson, William; Jordan, Wilbert; Kwakwa, Helena A; Nkwanyou, Joseph; Page, Carlos; Scott, Robert; Vaughn, Anita C; Virgil, Luther A; Williamson, Diana

    2003-10-01

    The African-American community has been disproportionately affected HIV/AIDS, as noted by higher reported rates of HIV infection, higher proportion of AIDS cases, and more deaths caused by complications of AIDS than whites and other ethnic groups. In addition, epidemiologic trends suggest that African Americans with HIV infection are more often diagnosed later in the course of HIV disease than whites. Numerous reasons account for this disparity, including the lack of perception of risk and knowledge about HIV transmission as well as a delays in HIV testing and diagnosis in the African-American community. Understanding the important considerations in the management of HIV infection in the African-American patient may create awareness among health care professionals and broaden the knowledge of HIV-infected patients within the African-American community. PMID:14588093

  18. Health and nutritional status of old-old African Americans.

    PubMed

    Bernard, M A; Anderson, C; Forgey, M

    1995-01-01

    This study reports the initial results of a baseline cross-sectional evaluation of the health and nutritional status of 58 old-old African Americans, 74 years of age and older, residing in low income housing complexes in metropolitan Oklahoma City. Although the population had a high overall functional status, cognitive status, and mood, there were a number of nutritional parameters suggestive of nutritional risk. In particular, 20% of subjects had relatively low serum albumin levels, 14% had serum cholesterol levels below 160 mg/dl, and a subset of the population reported low intake during 24 hour dietary recall. The National Center and Caucus on Black Aged report that 60% of African American elders live at or below the poverty level. These study findings suggest that the present cohort of African American elders may be at nutritional risk. PMID:7602459

  19. Poor Performance of the Chlamydia Rapid Test Device for the Detection of Asymptomatic Infections in South African Men: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Abbai-Shaik, N. S.; Reddy, T.; Govender, S.; Ramjee, G.

    2016-01-01

    Background. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no published reports on the diagnostic performance of the Chlamydia Rapid Test (CRT) Device for male urine samples. We evaluated the performance of the CRT Device when compared with that of the BD ProbeTec ET PCR Assay in a population of asymptomatic men. Methods. The study enrolled 100 men between June and July 2015. From each consenting male, 20–30 mL of urine was collected. Sensitivity and specificity of the rapid test compared to PCR were calculated. All analysis was performed in STATA version 13. Results. All men had valid rapid and PCR test results. The test showed a low sensitivity against PCR (20%) (95% CI 3.7–6.2%); however, an excellent specificity was observed (100%) (one sided 97.5% CI: 96.0–100). Conclusions. This test was not found to be suitable as a screening tool for genital Chlamydia infections in men. Our findings emphasize the need for more sensitive POC tests to be developed since the current approach for the management of STIs in Africa is confounded by poor sensitivity and specificity resulting in many infected individuals not being treated. PMID:27195171

  20. Overcoming barriers to health-care access: A qualitative study among African migrants in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lavinia; Brown, Katherine B; Hall, Brian J; Yu, Fan; Yang, Jingqi; Wang, Jason; Schrock, Joshua M; Bodomo, Adams B; Yang, Ligang; Yang, Bin; Nehl, Eric J; Tucker, Joseph D; Wong, Frank Y

    2016-10-01

    Guangzhou is China's third most populous city, and the region's burgeoning manufacturing economy has attracted many young African businessmen and entrepreneurs to the city. The aims of this study were to examine strategies that African migrants in Guangzhou have adopted in response to health-care barriers, and explore their perceptions of how to address their needs. Twenty-five semi-structured interviews and two focus groups were conducted among African migrants residing in Guangzhou, China. Facing multiple barriers to care, African migrants have adopted a number of suboptimal and unsustainable approaches to access health care. These included: using their Chinese friends or partners as interpreters, self-medicating, using personal connections to medical doctors, and travelling to home countries or countries that offer English-speaking doctors for health care. Health-care providers and health organisations in Guangzhou have not yet acquired sufficient cultural competence to address the needs of African migrants residing in the city. Introducing linguistically and culturally competent health-care services in communities concentrated with African migrants may better serve the population. With the growing international migration to China, it is essential to develop sustainable approaches to improving health-care access for international migrants, particularly those who are marginalised. PMID:26400191

  1. Racial differences between African Americans and Asian Americans in the effect of 6-n-propylthiouracil taste intensity and food liking on body mass index.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sung Eun

    2014-06-01

    Taste intensity to 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) has been demonstrated to affect food acceptance and food intake. Because most PROP status research has been performed among predominantly white subjects, research is needed to test the effects of PROP taste intensity on food acceptance and body weight among racial minorities. This study was conducted to examine racial differences in the effect of PROP taste intensity and food liking on body mass index between African Americans and Asian Americans. A cross-sectional design with a sample of 50 African Americans (25 women, 25 men) and 50 Asian Americans (23 women, 27 men) in the New York City area aged 18 to 55 years was used in this study. Weight and height were measured and PROP intensity was assessed using PROP filter paper disks. Subjects rated the intensity of 171.15 g/L (0.5 mol/L) sucrose, 29.22 g/L (0.5 mol/L) sodium chloride, 4.8 g/L (0.025 mol/L) citric acid, and 0.127 g/L (3.2×10⁻⁴ mol/L) quinine solutions and completed a questionnaire to report their food liking/disliking for 19 food items. Characteristics were compared using analysis of variance or χ² test. A multiple linear regression model was fit with the covariates PROP mean, race, sex, age, fat-foods liking, and sweet-foods liking to predict body mass index score. The proportion of total nontasters was 22%. There were no significant differences in the PROP status distribution between African Americans and Asian Americans and in food likings between tasters and nontasters. Significant differences in fat foods, sugar, and black coffee liking were observed among the subracial groups (ie, African Caribbean, African black, East Asian, and South Asian). Race, sex, and age significantly contributed to predict body mass index score. PMID:24418005

  2. African N Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekunda, M.; Galford, G. L.; Hickman, J. E.; Palm, C.

    2011-12-01

    Africa's smallholder agricultural systems face unique challenges in planning for reducing poverty, concurrent with adaptation and mitigation to climate change. At continental level, policy seeks to promote a uniquely African Green Revolution to increase crop yields and food production, and improve local livelihoods. However, the consequences on the environment and climate are not clear; these pro-economic development measures should be linked to climate change adaptation and mitigation measures, and research is required to help achieve these policy proposals by identifying options, and testing impacts. In particular, increased nitrogen (N) inputs are essential for increasing food production in Africa, but are accompanied by inevitable increases in losses to the environment. These losses appear to be low at input levels promoted in agricultural development programs, while the increased N inputs both increase current food production and appear to reduce the vulnerability of food production to changes in climate. We present field and remote sensing evidence from Malawi that subsidizing improved seed and fertilizers increases resilience to drought without adding excess N to the environment. In Kenya, field research identified thresholds in N2O losses, where emissions are very low at fertilization rates of less than 200 kg ha-1. Village-scale models have identified potential inefficiencies in the food production process where the largest losses of reactive N occur, and which could be targeted to reduce the amount of N released to the environment. We further review some on-going research activities and progress in Africa that compare different methods of managing resources that target resilience in food production and adaptation to climate change, using nutrient N as an indicator, while evaluating the effects of these resource management practices on ecosystems and the environment.

  3. Climate change induced risk analysis of Dar es Salaam city (Tanzania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topa, Maria Elena; Herslund, Lise; Cavan, Gina; Printz, Andreas; Simonis, Ingo; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Hellevik, Siri; Johns, Regina; Kibassa, Deusdedit; Kweka, Clara; Magina, Fredrick; Mangula, Alpha; Mbuya, Elinorata; Uhinga, Guido; Kassenga, Gabriel; Kyessi, Alphonce; Shemdoe, Riziki; Kombe, Wilbard

    2013-04-01

    CLUVA (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa; http://www.cluva.eu/) is a 3 years project, funded by the European Commission in 2010. The main objective of CLUVA is to develop context-centered methods and knowledge to be applied to African cities to assess vulnerabilities and increase knowledge on managing climate related risks. The project estimates the impacts of climate changes in the next 40 years at urban scale and downscales IPCC climate projections to evaluate specific threats to selected African test cities. These are mainly from floods, sea-level rise, droughts, heat waves, and desertification. The project evaluates and links: social vulnerability; urban green structures and ecosystem services; urban-rural interfaces; vulnerability of urban built environment and lifelines; and related institutional and governance dimensions of adaptation. The multi-scale and multi-disciplinary qualitative, quantitative and probabilistic approach of CLUVA is currently being applied to selected African test cities (Addis Ababa - Ethiopia; Dar es Salaam - Tanzania; Douala - Cameroun; Ouagadougou - Burkina Faso; St. Louis - Senegal). In particular, the poster will present preliminary findings for the Dar es Salaam case study. Dar es Salaam, which is Tanzania's largest coastal city, is exposed to floods, coastal erosion, droughts and heat waves, and highly vulnerable to impacts as a result of ineffective urban planning (about 70% unplanned settlements), poverty and lack of basic infrastructure (e.g. lack of or poor quality storm water drainage systems). Climate change could exacerbate the current situation increasing hazard-exposure alongside the impacts of development pressures which act to increase urban vulnerability for example because of informal (unregulated) urbanization. The CLUVA research team - composed of climate and environmental scientists, risk management experts, urban planners and social scientists from both European and African institutions - has

  4. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  5. Where Do Female Sex Workers Seek HIV and Reproductive Health Care and What Motivates These Choices? A Survey in 4 Cities in India, Kenya, Mozambique and South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Lafort, Yves; Greener, Ross; Roy, Anuradha; Greener, Letitia; Ombidi, Wilkister; Lessitala, Faustino; Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan; Beksinska, Mags; Gichangi, Peter; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Smit, Jenni A.; Chersich, Matthew; Delva, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Background A baseline cross-sectional survey among female sex workers (FSWs) was conducted in four cities within the context of an implementation research project aiming to improve FSWs’ access to HIV, and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services. The survey measured where FSWs seek HIV/SRH care and what motivates their choice. Methods Using respondent-driven sampling (RDS), FWSs were recruited in Durban, South Africa (n = 400), Tete, Mozambique (n = 308), Mombasa, Kenya (n = 400) and Mysore, India (n = 458) and interviewed. RDS-adjusted proportions were estimated by non-parametric bootstrapping, and compared across cities using post-hoc pairwise comparison tests. Results Across cities, FSWs most commonly sought care for the majority of HIV/SRH services at public health facilities, most especially in Durban (ranging from 65% for condoms to 97% for HIV care). Services specifically targeting FSWs only had a high coverage in Mysore for STI care (89%) and HIV testing (79%). Private-for-profit clinics were important providers in Mombasa (ranging from 17% for STI care and HIV testing to 43% for HIV care), but not in the other cities. The most important reason for the choice of care provider in Durban and Mombasa was proximity, in Tete ‘where they always go’, and in Mysore cost of care. Where available, clinics specifically targeting FSWs were more often chosen because of shorter waiting times, perceived higher quality of care, more privacy and friendlier personnel. Conclusion The place where care is sought for HIV/SRH services differs substantially between cities. Targeted services have limited coverage in the African cities compared to Mysore. Convenience appears more important for choosing the place of care than aspects of quality of care. The best model to improve access, linking targeted interventions with general health services, will need to be tailored to the specific context of each city. PMID:27494412

  6. The City as Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Stephen K.

    The author gives a rationale for utilizing the city as a place to learn. The city has many problems and although logistics require that we conduct most education in the school building, the author argues for putting out best brains to the task of bringing the city to the classroom and to exploiting the city as a classroom when appropriate.…

  7. The Struggles over African Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maseko, Pam; Vale, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this interview, African Language expert Pam Maseko speaks of her own background and her first encounter with culture outside of her mother tongue, isiXhosa. A statistical breakdown of South African languages is provided as background. She discusses Western (originally missionary) codification of African languages and suggests that this approach…

  8. Psychological Misdiagnosis of African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garretson, Deborah J.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews historical and current problems with making accurate psychological diagnoses of African Americans. Suggests that misdiagnosis is strongly related to pathologization of African-American culture itself. Explores diagnostic process, stereotypes of African-American psychopathology, cultural differences in values and life stressors, and…

  9. Results of baseline tests of the EVA Metro sedan, Citi-car, Jet Industries Electra-van, CDA town car, and Otis P-500 van

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, F. J.; Bozek, J. M.; Soltis, R. F.

    1976-01-01

    Five electric vehicles were tested at vehicle test tracks using the SAE. The tests provide range data at steady speeds and for several driving cycles. Most tests were conducted with lead-acid traction batteries. The Otis Van and the Copper Electric Town Car were also tested with lead-acid and nickel-zinc batteries. The tests showed a range increase of from 82 to 101 percent depending on vehicle, speed, and test cycle.

  10. Reaching youth in the Central African Republic. Programme feature.

    PubMed

    Supe, G; Blankhart, D

    1996-01-01

    The Central African Republic's National Program for Sex Education of Youths of School Age has developed programs for students and out-of-school youth aimed at reducing the high incidence of adolescent pregnancy and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). One such program, Support to Youth for Responsible Sexuality, has targeted out-of-school youth 10-22 years of age from Bangui. The program operates from the Information Center for Sexual Health, established in 1994. Educational videos are shown at the center, followed by discussion groups. Peer counselors are available for young people who wish to discuss sexual concerns privately. The center also has a small health post staffed by a nurse who performs pregnancy tests and simple STD diagnoses. A troupe of children perform puppet shows (written by program participants) about reproductive health issues throughout the city. Videos on condom use produced by local youth are being shown at movie theaters before the main feature, and condoms are sold at these locations. A newsletter and radio programming are also used to reach out to adolescents with sexual health messages. Plans are underway to establish a mobile information center. Key to the success of this program has been collaboration with the local family planning association, a condom social marketing program, youth clubs, a woman's nongovernmental organization, private video parlors, United Nations agencies, and governmental ministries. PMID:12291988

  11. Surveillance of Transmitted HIV Drug Resistance Using Matched Plasma and Dried Blood Spot Specimens From Voluntary Counseling and Testing Sites in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 2007–2008

    PubMed Central

    Hien, Bui Thu; Wagar, Nick; Tram, Tran Hong; Giang, Le Truong; Yang, Chunfu; Wolfe, Mitchell I.; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Tuan, Nguyen Anh

    2012-01-01

    During 2007–2008, surveillance of transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance (TDR) was performed following World Health Organization guidance among clients with newly diagnosed HIV infection attending voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) sites in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. Moderate (5%–15%) TDR to nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) was observed among VCT clients aged 18–21 years. Follow-up surveillance of TDR in HCMC and other geographic regions of Vietnam is warranted. Data generated will guide the national HIV drug resistance surveillance strategy and support selection of current and future first-line antiretroviral therapy and HIV prevention programs. PMID:22544201

  12. The Genetic Structure and History of Africans and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Tishkoff, Sarah A.; Reed, Floyd A.; Friedlaender, Françoise R.; Ehret, Christopher; Ranciaro, Alessia; Froment, Alain; Hirbo, Jibril B.; Awomoyi, Agnes A.; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Juma, Abdalla T.; Kotze, Maritha J.; Lema, Godfrey; Moore, Jason H.; Mortensen, Holly; Nyambo, Thomas B.; Omar, Sabah A.; Powell, Kweli; Pretorius, Gideon S.; Smith, Michael W.; Thera, Mahamadou A.; Wambebe, Charles; Weber, James L.; Williams, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    Africa is the source of all modern humans, but characterization of genetic variation and of relationships among populations across the continent has been enigmatic. We studied 121 African populations, four African American populations, and 60 non-African populations for patterns of variation at 1327 nuclear microsatellite and insertion/deletion markers. We identified 14 ancestral population clusters in Africa that correlate with self-described ethnicity and shared cultural and/or linguistic properties. We observed high levels of mixed ancestry in most populations, reflecting historical migration events across the continent. Our data also provide evidence for shared ancestry among geographically diverse hunter-gatherer populations (Khoesan speakers and Pygmies). The ancestry of African Americans is predominantly from Niger-Kordofanian (~71%), European (~13%), and other African (~8%) populations, although admixture levels varied considerably among individuals. This study helps tease apart the complex evolutionary history of Africans and African Americans, aiding both anthropological and genetic epidemiologic studies. PMID:19407144

  13. When an African city runs out of fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Chauvin, H.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the wood-based energy requirements (mainly for cooking) of Ouagadougou, capital of Upper Volta. Locally-available forest resources are disappearing fast. The possibilities are explored of importing charcoal from the Ivory Coast and of creating more fuelwood plantations locally. (Refs. 20).

  14. A School Voucher Program for Baltimore City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lips, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Baltimore City's public school system is in crisis. Academically, the school system fails on any number of measures. The city's graduation rate is barely above 50 percent and students continually lag well behind state averages on standardized tests. Adding to these problems is the school system's current fiscal crisis, created by years of fiscal…

  15. Transforming New York City's Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholomew, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    In 2002, Michael Bloomberg, New York City's newly elected mayor, hoped to fix his city's public schools, which were widely perceived as plagued by a gamut of problems that ranged from low test scores to patronage-riddled schools and districts. A special bill approved by the New York State Legislature made Bloomberg solely accountable to the New…

  16. Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killoran, James, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    This journal issue addresses the issue of testing in the social studies classroom. The first article, "The Role of Testing" (Bragaw), focuses on the need for tests to reflect the objectives of the study completed. The varying functions of pop quizzes, weekly tests, and unit tests are explored. "Testing Thinking Processes" (Killoran, Zimmer, and…

  17. Gender as a Moderator of the Relation between Race-Related Stress and Mental Health Symptoms for African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Tawanda M.; Laseter, Adrian; Asiamah, David

    2009-01-01

    The present study tested gender as a moderator of the relationship between race-related stress and mental health symptoms among African American adults. Because African American women are exposed to stressors associated with race and gender, we hypothesized that African American women would have higher levels of race-related stress and more severe…

  18. "How can I tell?" Consequences of HIV status disclosure among couples in eastern African communities in the context of an ongoing HIV "test-and-treat" trial.

    PubMed

    Maeri, Irene; El Ayadi, Alison; Getahun, Monica; Charlebois, Edwin; Akatukwasa, Cecilia; Tumwebaze, Dennis; Itiakorit, Harriet; Owino, Lawrence; Kwarisiima, Dalsone; Ssemmondo, Emmanuel; Sang, Norton; Kabami, Jane; Clark, Tamara D; Petersen, Maya; Cohen, Craig R; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Kamya, Moses; Havlir, Diane; Camlin, Carol S

    2016-01-01

    People living with HIV/AIDS anticipate HIV-related stigma and fear disclosure to intimate partners. Yet, disclosure is critical to reducing HIV transmission and improving care engagement. This qualitative study characterized HIV disclosure experiences and normative beliefs among couples in communities participating in an HIV test-and-treat trial in Kenya and Uganda (Sustainable East Africa Research in Community Health, NCT#01864603). In-depth interviews were conducted with care providers (n = 50), leaders (n = 32) and members (n = 112) of eight communities. Data were analyzed using grounded theoretical approaches and Atlas.ti software. Findings confirmed gender differences in barriers to disclosure: while both men and women feared blame and accusation, women also feared violence and abandonment ("I did not tell my husband because [what if] I tell him and he abandons me at the last moment when I am in labor?"). Positive consequences included partner support for increased care-seeking and adherence ("My husband keeps on reminding me 'have you taken those drugs?'") Yet negative consequences included partnership dissolution, blame, and reports of violence ("some men beat their wives just because of that [bringing HIV medications home]"). Among HIV-infected individuals in discordant relationships, men more often reported supportive spouses ("we normally share [HIV-risk-reduction strategies] since I have been infected and she is HIV negative"), than did women ("my husband refused to use condoms and even threatened to marry another wife"). Care providers lent support for HIV-positive women who wanted to engage partners in testing but feared negative consequences: "They engaged the two of us in a session and asked him if we could all test." Findings demonstrate differing experiences and support needs of women and men living with HIV in eastern Africa, with HIV-positive women in discordant couples particularly vulnerable to negative consequences of disclosure

  19. The Other African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matory, J. Lorand

    Black North America is ethnically and culturally diverse. It contains many groups who do not call themselves or have not always called themselves "Negro,""Black,""African-American," and so forth, such as Louisiana Creoles of color and many of the Indian tribes east of the Mississippi. There are also numerous North American ethnic groups of African…

  20. African American rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Boyette, Jennings R; Stucker, Fred J

    2014-08-01

    Rhinoplasty in patients of African descent requires a patient-specific approach, because the goals and ideal proportions differ from the white nose. This article discusses approaches to surgical correction of common anatomic variations. In addition, common pitfalls are outlined. PMID:25049123

  1. Elective: African Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Kenneth V.

    The make-up of a course in African literature for high school students is discussed. It is pointed out that the course can be constructed on already familiar lines. High school students will be able to describe clearly, for example, the relationship between environment and character or the dilemma of characters caught between traditional values…

  2. Zinder: a city running dry.

    PubMed

    Price, T

    1993-01-01

    In the West African Sahel lies the old Hausa city of Zinder, Niger. Since the last few decades, it has constantly faced considerable population growth (19,300-119,8000 between 1960 and 1980) while its acute problems with the water supply are increasing. The dry regional climate compounds the problems. In the past, Zinder was a trade center between northern and sub-Saharan Africa as well as being the colonial capital of Niger (1911-26). Its economic and political position has fallen greatly with independence. Lower than average rainfall and the disastrous droughts of the 1970s and 1980s have seriously diminished the region's economic base, e.g., the average annual rainfall in 1930-60 was 535 mm, but by the 1980s, it was only 355 mm. Zinder sits on an elevated, rocky hill which is encircled by dry river valleys and there are no major permanent bodies of water in the vicinity. Impenetrable layers of stone prevent the digging of wells within the city, so the city depends on wells in nearby valleys. The reduced rainfall hinders replenishment of the aquifer, resulting in a drop in the availability of water for daily consumption from 6500 to 3500 sq m. Per capita water consumption in Zinder is much lower than the national average (55 1/day vs. about 100 1/day). The drought in 1992 caused per capita consumption to fall to 29 1/day, just barely above the minimal standards for private use in urban areas of 20 1/person/day. To further compound the problem, 20 villages in Zinder's environs, some villages with a population of 5000, people, rely on the same water system. Zinder serves as a refuge for the regional population in drought years and during the yearly dry season. Promised international financing cannot resolve Zinder's problems at a realistic cost. PMID:12287010

  3. Will "Combined Prevention" Eliminate Racial/Ethnic Disparities in HIV Infection among Persons Who Inject Drugs in New York City?

    PubMed

    Des Jarlais, Don; Arasteh, Kamyar; McKnight, Courtney; Feelemyer, Jonathan; Hagan, Holly; Cooper, Hannah; Campbell, Aimee; Tross, Susan; Perlman, David

    2015-01-01

    It has not been determined whether implementation of combined prevention programming for persons who inject drugs reduce racial/ethnic disparities in HIV infection. We examine racial/ethnic disparities in New York City among persons who inject drugs after implementation of the New York City Condom Social Marketing Program in 2007. Quantitative interviews and HIV testing were conducted among persons who inject drugs entering Mount Sinai Beth Israel drug treatment (2007-2014). 703 persons who inject drugs who began injecting after implementation of large-scale syringe exchange were included in the analyses. Factors independently associated with being HIV seropositive were identified and a published model was used to estimate HIV infections due to sexual transmission. Overall HIV prevalence was 4%; Whites 1%, African-Americans 17%, and Hispanics 4%. Adjusted odds ratios were 21.0 (95% CI 5.7, 77.5) for African-Americans to Whites and 4.5 (95% CI 1.3, 16.3) for Hispanics to Whites. There was an overall significant trend towards reduced HIV prevalence over time (adjusted odd ratio = 0.7 per year, 95% confidence interval (0.6-0.8). An estimated 75% or more of the HIV infections were due to sexual transmission. Racial/ethnic disparities among persons who inject drugs were not significantly different from previous disparities. Reducing these persistent disparities may require new interventions (treatment as prevention, pre-exposure prophylaxis) for all racial/ethnic groups. PMID:25965957

  4. Will "Combined Prevention" Eliminate Racial/Ethnic Disparities in HIV Infection among Persons Who Inject Drugs in New York City?

    PubMed Central

    Des Jarlais, Don; Arasteh, Kamyar; McKnight, Courtney; Feelemyer, Jonathan; Hagan, Holly; Cooper, Hannah; Campbell, Aimee; Tross, Susan; Perlman, David

    2015-01-01

    It has not been determined whether implementation of combined prevention programming for persons who inject drugs reduce racial/ethnic disparities in HIV infection. We examine racial/ethnic disparities in New York City among persons who inject drugs after implementation of the New York City Condom Social Marketing Program in 2007. Quantitative interviews and HIV testing were conducted among persons who inject drugs entering Mount Sinai Beth Israel drug treatment (2007–2014). 703 persons who inject drugs who began injecting after implementation of large-scale syringe exchange were included in the analyses. Factors independently associated with being HIV seropositive were identified and a published model was used to estimate HIV infections due to sexual transmission. Overall HIV prevalence was 4%; Whites 1%, African-Americans 17%, and Hispanics 4%. Adjusted odds ratios were 21.0 (95% CI 5.7, 77.5) for African-Americans to Whites and 4.5 (95% CI 1.3, 16.3) for Hispanics to Whites. There was an overall significant trend towards reduced HIV prevalence over time (adjusted odd ratio = 0.7 per year, 95% confidence interval (0.6–0.8). An estimated 75% or more of the HIV infections were due to sexual transmission. Racial/ethnic disparities among persons who inject drugs were not significantly different from previous disparities. Reducing these persistent disparities may require new interventions (treatment as prevention, pre-exposure prophylaxis) for all racial/ethnic groups. PMID:25965957

  5. African Ancestry Is Associated with Asthma Risk in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Pino-Yanes, María; Wade, Michael S.; Pérez-Méndez, Lina; Kittles, Rick A.; Wang, Deli; Papaiahgari, Srinivas; Ford, Jean G.; Kumar, Rajesh; Garcia, Joe G. N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Asthma is a common complex condition with clear racial and ethnic differences in both prevalence and severity. Asthma consultation rates, mortality, and severe symptoms are greatly increased in African descent populations of developed countries. African ancestry has been associated with asthma, total serum IgE and lower pulmonary function in African-admixed populations. To replicate previous findings, here we aimed to examine whether African ancestry was associated with asthma susceptibility in African Americans. In addition, we examined for the first time whether African ancestry was associated with asthma exacerbations. Methodology/Principal Findings After filtering for self-reported ancestry and genotype data quality, samples from 1,117 self-reported African-American individuals from New York and Baltimore (394 cases, 481 controls), and Chicago (321 cases followed for asthma exacerbations) were analyzed. Genetic ancestry was estimated based on ancestry informative markers (AIMs) selected for being highly divergent among European and West African populations (95 AIMs for New York and Baltimore, and 66 independent AIMs for Chicago). Among case-control samples, the mean African ancestry was significantly higher in asthmatics than in non-asthmatics (82.0±14.0% vs. 77.8±18.1%, mean difference 4.2% [95% confidence interval (CI):2.0–6.4], p<0.0001). This association remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders (odds ratio: 4.55, 95% CI: 1.69–12.29, p = 0.003). African ancestry failed to show an association with asthma exacerbations (p = 0.965) using a model based on longitudinal data of the number of exacerbations followed over 1.5 years. Conclusions/Significance These data replicate previous findings indicating that African ancestry constitutes a risk factor for asthma and suggest that elevated asthma rates in African Americans can be partially attributed to African genetic ancestry. PMID:22235241

  6. Increasing Autism Awareness in Inner-City Churches: A Brief Report.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Norah; Van Hecke, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Autism diagnosis rates trail significantly in the African American community. This pre-test post-test pilot study evaluated an African American inner-city church health ambassadors (HAs) autism spectrum disorder (ASD) awareness training session. The participants included 12 HAs who attended the 1 hour training session organized by the National Baptist Convention, USA, Inc. Results of surveys showed higher mean scores post training for (1) HA attitudes about the potential for children to improve with applied behavior analysis therapy; (2) HA self-efficacy for having information about ASD screening materials; (3) strategies HAs could use to help parents/caregivers of children with developmental delays and challenging behaviors; (4) HA confidence in referrals for children with signs of ASD; (5) HA knowledge of measures to take to maximize a child's chance of receiving an ASD evaluation; and (6) HA comfort for talking to parents about children with challenging behaviors. Several of these effects were maintained 3 months later. Findings underscore the usefulness of the intervention for increasing the dissemination of knowledge about ASD and the opportunity to positively affect ASD screening, early intervention, and policy standards applicable to this vulnerable population. PMID:25981127

  7. The Relationship between African Traditional Cosmology and Students' Acquisition of a Science Process Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jegede, Olugbemiro J.; Okebukola, Peter Akinsola

    1991-01-01

    The supposition that observational skills can be influenced by students' belief in traditional African cosmology, beliefs, and superstitions was investigated. Students with a high level of belief in African traditional cosmology made fewer correct observations on the Traditional Cosmology Test (TCT) and the Test of Observational Skills (TOS) as…

  8. Stereotype Threat Effects on African American Children in an Urban Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserberg, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether a diagnostic testing condition leads to stereotype threat effects for African American children (n = 198) at an urban elementary school. Results indicated that presenting a reading test as diagnostic of abilities hindered the performance of African American children aware of racial stereotypes but not of those…

  9. The impact of anticipated HIV stigma on delays in HIV testing behaviors: findings from a community-based sample of men who have sex with men and transgender women in New York City.

    PubMed

    Golub, Sarit A; Gamarel, Kristi E

    2013-11-01

    Treatment as prevention (TaSP) is a critical component of biomedical interventions to prevent HIV transmission. However, its success is predicated on testing and identifying undiagnosed individuals to ensure linkage and retention in HIV care. Research has examined the impact of HIV-associated stigma on HIV-positive individuals, but little work has explored how anticipated HIV stigma-the expectation of rejection or discrimination against by others in the event of seroconversion-may serve as a barrier to HIV testing behaviors. This study examined the association between anticipated stigma and HIV testing behaviors among a sample of 305 men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women living in New York City. Participants' mean age was 33.0; 65.5% were racial/ethnic minority; and 50.2% earned <$20,000 per year. Overall, 32% of participants had not had an HIV test in the past 6 months. Anticipated stigma was negatively associated with risk perception. In multivariate models, anticipated stigma, risk perception, and younger age were significant predictors of HIV testing behaviors. Anti-HIV stigma campaigns targeting HIV-negative individuals may have the potential to significantly impact social norms around HIV testing and other biomedical strategies, such pre-exposure prophylaxis, at a critical moment for the redefinition of HIV prevention. PMID:24138486

  10. Jerusalem: City of Dreams, City of Sorrows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricks, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Jerusalem is more than an intriguing global historical city; it is a classroom for liberal learning and international understanding. It had never been a city of one language, one religion and one culture. Looking at the origins of Jerusalem's name indicates its international and multicultural nature. While Israelis designate Jerusalem as their…

  11. “It's The Skin You're In”: African-American Women Talk About Their Experiences of Racism. An Exploratory Study to Develop Measures of Racism for Birth Outcome Studies

    PubMed Central

    Nuru-Jeter, Amani; Dominguez, Tyan Parker; Hammond, Wizdom Powell; Leu, Janxin; Skaff, Marilyn; Egerter, Susan; Jones, Camara P.; Braveman, Paula

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Stress due to experiences of racism could contribute to African-American women's adverse birth outcomes, but systematic efforts to measure relevant experiences among childbearing women have been limited. We explored the racism experiences of childbearing African-American women to inform subsequent development of improved measures for birth outcomes research. Methods Six focus groups were conducted with a total of 40 socioeconomically diverse African-American women of childbearing age in four northern California cities. Results Women reported experiencing racism (1) throughout the lifecourse, with childhood experiences seeming particularly salient and to have especially enduring effects (2) directly and vicariously, particularly in relation to their children; (3) in interpersonal, institutional, and internalized forms; (4) across different life domains; (5) with active and passive responses; and (6) with pervasive vigilance, anticipating threats to themselves and their children. Conclusions This exploratory study's findings support the need for measures reflecting the complexity of childbearing African-American women's racism experiences. In addition to discrete, interpersonal experiences across multiple domains and active/passive responses, which have been measured, birth outcomes research should also measure women's childhood experiences and their potentially enduring impact, perceptions of institutionalized racism and internalized negative stereotypes, vicarious experiences related to their children, vigilance in anticipating future racism events, as well as the pervasiveness and chronicity of racism exposure, all of which could be sources of ongoing stress with potentially serious implications for birth outcomes. Measures of racism addressing these issues should be developed and formally tested. PMID:18463971

  12. What Is Clean Cities?

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-08-01

    This Clean Cities Program fact sheet describes the purpose and scope of this DOE program. Clean Cities facilitates the use of alternative and advanced fuels and vehicles to displace petroleum in the transportation sector.

  13. Shooting for Excellence: African American and Youth Culture in New Century Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahiri, Jabari

    Two African American teachers teach English in the same inner-city high school. One teacher is successful--her students read, interact, and strive for success. The other teacher's students are frequently disruptive or are asleep. This book probes deep into the causes of classroom success and failure, as well as other issues that affect American…

  14. Being There in Spirit, Fire, and Mind: Expressive Roles among Nonresidential African American Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Wizdom Powell; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Brooks, Cassandra; Bell, Lee

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This exploratory qualitative study examined factors contributing to expressive father role negotiation, salience, and commitment in a sample of nonresidential African American fathers (n = 18). Method: Two focus groups were conducted between 2000 and 2001 in a Midwestern city to understand factors that strengthen and diminish bonds…

  15. Developing a Cancer Prevention Programme for African-American Daughters and Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annang, Lucy; Spencer, S. Melinda; Jackson, Dawnyéa; Rosemond, Tiara N.; Best, Alicia L.; Williams, Leah R.; Carlos, Bethany

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe how nominal group technique was used to inform the development of a breast and cervical cancer awareness programme for African-American adult daughters and mothers. Design: A qualitative approach using nominal group technique. Setting: A mid-sized city in the Southern USA. Method: Nominal group technique was used with 30…

  16. Literacy and Identity: Reflections of Six African American Males in an Adult Literacy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drayton, Brendaly Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This multiple case study explored how the literate experiences of six African American men influenced their perceptions of and engagement with a community-based adult basic education and literacy (ABEL) program in a large northeastern city. The theoretical framework included a social practices view of literacy and a constructivist view of…

  17. Threatened and Placed at Risk: High Achieving African American Males in Urban High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Ebony O.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the risk and protective factors of 11 high-achieving African American males attending 4 urban charter high schools in a Midwestern city to determine what factors account for their resilience and success in mathematics courses, and in high school more generally. This research was guided by a Phenomenological Variant of…

  18. Toddler Feeding: Expectations and Experiences of Low-Income African American Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horodynski, Mildred A.; Brophy-Herb, Holly; Henry, Michelle; Smith, Katharine A.; Weatherspoon, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain maternal expectations and experiences with mealtimes and feeding of toddlers among low-income African American mothers in two mid- to large-size cities in the United States. Design: Qualitative focus group study. Setting: Two Early Head Start programme sites in a Midwestern state which serve low income families. Method:…

  19. The Role of Community in Meeting the Needs of African-American HIV Affected Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Sally

    2002-01-01

    Assessed the service needs of HIV-affected families in an inner city African American community with a high HIV/AIDS seroprevalence. Data from focus group interviews indicated a lack of family-sensitive HIV/AIDS community services. Participants noted the problem with stigma and identified community awareness and education as critical to serving…

  20. Poverty and Depressed Mood among Urban African-American Adolescents: A Family Stress Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammack, Phillip L.; Robinson, W. LaVome; Crawford, Isiaah; Li, Susan T.

    2004-01-01

    We examined the role of family stress as a mediator of the relationship between poverty and depressed mood among 1,704 low-income, inner-city African-American adolescents. Nearly half of participants (47%) reported clinically significant levels of depressive symptoms. Being female, reporting higher levels of family stress, and scoring higher on a…

  1. Reversing the Demise and Preventing the Apocalypse: Using Alternative Programs To Help African American Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Walter

    1995-01-01

    Describes the Agriculture-Science Project, a program designed for inner-city African-American males to improve science grades, increase awareness of good health/safety practices, and increase awareness of science/health careers. Notes summer program results revealing significant differences in educational climate between summer and regular school,…

  2. Political Mothering: Latina and African American Mothers in the Struggle for Educational Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuentes, Emma

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the process and impact of women organizing for educational justice in Northern California by documenting the efforts of a committed group of mothers who sought to address the disproportionate underachievement of Latino and African American students within their city's high school. Using a combined methodology of…

  3. Relative Spousal Earnings and Marital Happiness among African American and White Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furdyna, Holly E.; Tucker, M. Belinda; James, Angela D.

    2008-01-01

    The distinctive economic histories of African American and White wives suggest that involvement in household income production holds contextually situated unique meanings for these groups. Yet research has not addressed racial differences in the effects of relative earnings on marital well-being. Surveying 431 employed wives in 21 U.S. cities, we…

  4. Understanding traditional African healing

    PubMed Central

    MOKGOBI, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of traditional healers as well as the role of traditional healers in their communities are discussed. In conclusion, the services of traditional healers go far beyond the uses of herbs for physical illnesses. Traditional healers serve many roles which include but not limited to custodians of the traditional African religion and customs, educators about culture, counselors, social workers and psychologists. PMID:26594664

  5. African horse sickness.

    PubMed

    Zientara, S; Weyer, C T; Lecollinet, S

    2015-08-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a devastating disease of equids caused by an arthropod-borne virus belonging to the Reoviridae family, genus Orbivirus. It is considered a major health threat for horses in endemic areas in sub-Saharan Africa. African horse sickness virus (AHSV) repeatedly caused large epizootics in the Mediterranean region (North Africa and southern Europe in particular) as a result of trade in infected equids. The unexpected emergence of a closely related virus, the bluetongue virus, in northern Europe in 2006 has raised fears about AHSV introduction into Europe, and more specifically into AHSV-free regions that have reported the presence of AHSV vectors, e.g. Culicoides midges. North African and European countries should be prepared to face AHSV incursions in the future, especially since two AHSV serotypes (serotypes 2 and 7) have recently spread northwards to western (e.g. Senegal, Nigeria, Gambia) and eastern Africa (Ethiopia), where historically only serotype 9 had been isolated. The authors review key elements of AHS epidemiology, surveillance and prophylaxis. PMID:26601437

  6. An African-American family with dystonia.

    PubMed

    Puschmann, Andreas; Xiao, Jianfeng; Bastian, Robert W; Searcy, Jill A; LeDoux, Mark S; Wszolek, Zbigniew K

    2011-08-01

    The genetic cause of late-onset focal and segmental dystonia remains unknown in most individuals. Recently, mutations in Thanatos-associated protein domain containing, apoptosis associated protein 1 (THAP1) have been described in DYT6 dystonia and associated with some cases of familial and sporadic late-onset dystonia in Caucasians. We are not aware of any previous descriptions of familial dystonia in African-Americans or reports of THAP1 mutations in African-Americans. Herein, we characterize an African-American (AA) kindred with late-onset primary dystonia, clinically and genetically. The clinical phenotype included cervical, laryngeal and hand-forearm dystonia. Symptoms were severe and disabling for several family members, whereas others only displayed mild signs. There were no accompanying motor or cognitive signs. In this kindred, age of onset ranged from 45 to 50 years and onset was frequently sudden, with symptoms developing within weeks or months. DYT1 was excluded as the cause of dystonia in this kindred. The entire genomic region of THAP1, including non-coding regions, was sequenced. We identified 13 sequence variants in THAP1, although none co-segregated with dystonia. A novel THAP1 variant (c.-237-3G>T/A) was found in 3/84 AA dystonia patient alleles and 3/212 AA control alleles, but not in 5870 Caucasian alleles. In summary, although previously unreported, familial primary dystonia does occur in African-Americans. Genetic analysis of the entire genomic region of THAP1 revealed a novel variant that was specific for African-Americans. Therefore, genetic testing for dystonia and future studies of candidate genes must take genetic background into consideration. PMID:21601506

  7. An African-American Family with Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Puschmann, Andreas; Xiao, Jianfeng; Bastian, Robert W.; Searcy, Jill A.; LeDoux, Mark S.; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.

    2011-01-01

    The genetic cause of late-onset focal and segmental dystonia remains unknown in most individuals. Recently, mutations in Thanatos-associated protein domain containing, apoptosis associated protein 1 (THAP1) have been described in DYT6 dystonia and associated with some cases of familial and sporadic late-onset dystonia in Caucasians. We are not aware of any previous descriptions of familial dystonia in African Americans or reports of THAP1 mutations in African Americans. Herein, we characterize an African-American (AA) kindred with late-onset primary dystonia, clinically and genetically. The clinical phenotype included cervical, laryngeal and hand-forearm dystonia. Symptoms were severe and disabling for several family members, whereas others only displayed mild signs. There were no accompanying motor or cognitive signs. In this kindred, age of onset ranged from 45 to 50 years and onset was frequently sudden, with symptoms developing within weeks or months. DYT1 was excluded as the cause of dystonia in this kindred. The entire genomic region of THAP1, including non-coding regions, was sequenced. We identified 13 sequence variants in THAP1, although none co-segregated with dystonia. A novel THAP1 variant (c.-237-3G>T/A) was found in 3/84 AA dystonia patient alleles and 3/212 AA control alleles, but not in 5,870 Caucasian alleles. In summary, although previously unreported, familial primary dystonia does occur in African Americans. Genetic analysis of the entire genomic region of THAP1 revealed a novel variant that was specific for African Americans. Therefore, genetic testing for dystonia and future studies of candidate genes must take genetic background into consideration. PMID:21601506

  8. CITY III Director's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Envirometrics, Inc., Washington, DC.

    CITY III is a computer-assisted simulation game which allows the participants to make decisions affecting various aspects of the economic, governmental, and social sectors of a simulated urban area. The game director selects one of five possible starting city configurations, may set a number of conditions in the city before the start of play, and…

  9. Correlates of African American Men's Sexual Schemas

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Dawn A.; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; St. Lawrence, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Sexual schemas are cognitive representations of oneself as a sexual being and aid in the processing of sexually relevant information. We examined the relationship between sociosexuality (attitudes about casual sex), masculine ideology (attitudes toward traditional men and male roles), and cultural centrality (strength of identity with racial group) as significant psychosocial and sociocultural predictors in shaping young, heterosexual African American men's sexual schemas. A community sample (n=133) of men in a southeastern city of the United States completed quantitative self-report measures examining their attitudes and behavior related to casual sex, beliefs about masculinity, racial and cultural identity, and self-views of various sexual aspects of themselves. Results indicated that masculine ideology and cultural centrality were both positively related to men's sexual schemas. Cultural centrality explained 12 % of the variance in level of sexual schema, and had the strongest correlation of the predictor variables with sexual schema (r=.36). The need for more attention to the bidirectional relationships between masculinity, racial/cultural identity, and sexual schemas in prevention, intervention, and public health efforts for African American men is discussed. PMID:24031118

  10. East African Rift Valley, Kenya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This rare, cloud free view of the East African Rift Valley, Kenya (1.5N, 35.5E) shows a clear view of the Turkwell River Valley, an offshoot of the African REift System. The East African Rift is part of a vast plate fracture which extends from southern Turkey, through the Red Sea, East Africa and into Mozambique. Dark green patches of forests are seen along the rift margin and tea plantations occupy the cooler higher ground.

  11. Infrequent HIV Testing and Late HIV Diagnosis Are Common Among A Cohort of Black Men Who Have Sex with Men (BMSM) in Six US Cities

    PubMed Central

    Mannheimer, S.; Wang, L.; Wilton, L.; Tieu, H.V.; del Rio, C.; Buchbinder, S.; Fields, S.; Glick, S.; Cummings, V.; Eshleman, S.H.; Koblin, B.; Mayer, K.H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective US guidelines recommend at least annual HIV testing for those at risk. This analysis assessed frequency and correlates of infrequent HIV testing and late diagnosis among black men who have sex with men (BMSM). Methods HIV testing history was collected at enrollment from participants in HPTN 061, an HIV prevention trial for at-risk US BMSM. Two definitions of late HIV diagnosis were assessed: CD4 cell count <200 cells/mm3 or <350 cells/mm3 at diagnosis. Results HPTN 061 enrolled 1553 BMSM. HIV testing questions were completed at enrollment by 1284 (98.7%) of 1301 participants with no prior HIV diagnosis; 272 (21.2%) reported no HIV test in prior 12 months (infrequent testing); 155 of whom (12.1% of the 1284 with testing data) reported never testing. Infrequent HIV testing was associated with: not seeing a medical provider in the prior 6 months (relative risk [RR]: 1.08, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.03–1.13), being unemployed (RR 1.04, CI: 1.01–1.07), and having high internalized HIV stigma (RR: 1.03, CI: 1.0–1.05). New HIV diagnoses were more likely among infrequent testers compared to men tested in the prior year (18.4% vs. 4.4%; OR: 4.8, 95% CI: 3.2–7.4). Among men with newly diagnosed HIV, 33 (39.3%) had a CD4 cell count <350 cells/mm;3 including 17 (20.2%) with CD4 <200 cells/mm.3 Conclusions Infrequent HIV testing, undiagnosed infection, and late diagnosis were common among BMSM in this study. New HIV diagnoses were more common among infrequent testers, underscoring the need for additional HIV testing and prevention efforts among US BMSM. PMID:25197830

  12. Environment, Health and Climate: Impact of African aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liousse, C.; Doumbia, T.; Assamoi, E.; Galy-Lacaux, C.; Baeza, A.; Penner, J. E.; Val, S.; Cachier, H.; Xu, L.; Criqui, P.

    2012-12-01

    Fossil fuel and biofuel emissions of particles in Africa are expected to significantly increase in the near future, particularly due to rapid growth of African cities. In addition to biomass burning emissions prevailing in these areas, air quality degradation is then expected with important consequences on population health and climatic/radiative impact. In our group, we are constructing a new integrated methodology to study the relations between emissions, air quality and their impacts. This approach includes: (1) African combustion emission characterizations; (2) joint experimental determination of aerosol chemistry from ultrafine to coarse fractions and health issues (toxicology and epidemiology). (3) integrated environmental, health and radiative modeling. In this work, we show some results illustrating our first estimates of African anthropogenic emission impacts: - a new African anthropogenic emission inventory adapted to regional specificities on traffic, biofuel and industrial emissions has been constructed for the years 2005 and 2030. Biomass burning inventories were also improved in the frame of AMMA (African Monsoon) program. - carbonaceous aerosol radiative impact in Africa has been modeled with TM5 model and Penner et al. (2011) radiative code for these inventories for 2005 and 2030 and for two scenarios of emissions : a reference scenario, with no further emission controls beyond those achieved in 2003 and a ccc* scenario including planned policies in Kyoto protocol and regulations as applied to African emission specificities. In this study we will show that enhanced heating is expected with the ccc* scenarios emissions in which the OC fraction is relatively lower than in the reference scenario. - results of short term POLCA intensive campaigns in Bamako and Dakar in terms of aerosol chemical characterization linked to specific emissions sources and their inflammatory impacts on the respiratory tract through in vitro studies. In this study, organic

  13. African Genetic Ancestry is Associated with Sleep Depth in Older African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Indrani; Matthews, Karen A.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Strollo, Patrick J.; Causer, Victoria; Reis, Steven E.; Hall, Martica H.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: The mechanisms that underlie differences in sleep characteristics between European Americans (EA) and African Americans (AA) are not fully known. Although social and psychological processes that differ by race are possible mediators, the substantial heritability of sleep characteristics also suggests genetic underpinnings of race differences. We hypothesized that racial differences in sleep phenotypes would show an association with objectively measured individual genetic ancestry in AAs. Design: Cross sectional. Setting: Community-based study. Participants: Seventy AA adults (mean age 59.5 ± 6.7 y; 62% female) and 101 EAs (mean age 60.5 ± 7 y, 39% female). Measurements and Results: Multivariate tests were used to compare the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and in-home polysomnographic measures of sleep duration, sleep efficiency, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), and indices of sleep depth including percent visually scored slow wave sleep (SWS) and delta EEG power of EAs and AAs. Sleep duration, efficiency, and sleep depth differed significantly by race. Individual % African ancestry (%AF) was measured in AA subjects using a panel of 1698 ancestry informative genetic markers and ranged from 10% to 88% (mean 67%). Hierarchical linear regression showed that higher %AF was associated with lower percent SWS in AAs (β (standard error) = −4.6 (1.5); P = 0.002), and explained 11% of the variation in SWS after covariate adjustment. A similar association was observed for delta power. No association was observed for sleep duration and efficiency. Conclusion: African genetic ancestry is associated with indices of sleep depth in African Americans. Such an association suggests that part of the racial differences in slow-wave sleep may have genetic underpinnings. Citation: Halder I, Matthews KA, Buysse DJ, Strollo PJ, Causer V, Reis SE, Hall MH. African genetic ancestry is associated with sleep depth in older African Americans. SLEEP 2015;38(8):1185–1193

  14. Genome-wide association of anthropometric traits in African- and African-derived populations.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sun J; Chiang, Charleston W K; Palmer, Cameron D; Tayo, Bamidele O; Lettre, Guillaume; Butler, Johannah L; Hackett, Rachel; Adeyemo, Adebowale A; Guiducci, Candace; Berzins, Ilze; Nguyen, Thutrang T; Feng, Tao; Luke, Amy; Shriner, Daniel; Ardlie, Kristin; Rotimi, Charles; Wilks, Rainford; Forrester, Terrence; McKenzie, Colin A; Lyon, Helen N; Cooper, Richard S; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Hirschhorn, Joel N

    2010-07-01

    Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified common variants that are associated with a variety of traits and diseases, but most studies have been performed in European-derived populations. Here, we describe the first genome-wide analyses of imputed genotype and copy number variants (CNVs) for anthropometric measures in African-derived populations: 1188 Nigerians from Igbo-Ora and Ibadan, Nigeria, and 743 African-Americans from Maywood, IL. To improve the reach of our study, we used imputation to estimate genotypes at approximately 2.1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and also tested CNVs for association. No SNPs or common CNVs reached a genome-wide significance level for association with height or body mass index (BMI), and the best signals from a meta-analysis of the two cohorts did not replicate in approximately 3700 African-Americans and Jamaicans. However, several loci previously confirmed in European populations showed evidence of replication in our GWA panel of African-derived populations, including variants near IHH and DLEU7 for height and MC4R for BMI. Analysis of global burden of rare CNVs suggested that lean individuals possess greater total burden of CNVs, but this finding was not supported in an independent European population. Our results suggest that there are not multiple loci with strong effects on anthropometric traits in African-derived populations and that sample sizes comparable to those needed in European GWA studies will be required to identify replicable associations. Meta-analysis of this data set with additional studies in African-ancestry populations will be helpful to improve power to detect novel associations. PMID:20400458

  15. Social Environment and Sexual Risk-Taking among Gay and Transgender African American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Robin; Bernadini, Stephen; Jemmott, John B.

    2014-01-01

    More prevention effort is required as the HIV epidemic increases among gay and transgender African American youth. Using ecological systems theory and an integrative model of behaviour change, this study examines the sexual behaviour of gay and transgender African American young people as embedded within the unique social and structural environments affecting this population. Also examined is the important role played by mobile technology in the social and sexual lives of individuals. Seven focus groups were conducted with 54 African American young adults in a northeastern U.S. city. The findings provide a rich examination of the social and sexual lives of gay and transgender African American youth, focusing on the social environment and the impact of the environment on sexual risk behaviour. PMID:23889233

  16. Sufis on parade: the performance of Black, African, and Muslim identities.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Zain

    2009-01-01

    For over twenty years, West African Muslims from the Murid Sufi Brotherhood have organized the annual Cheikh Amadou Bamba Day parade in New York City. It is a major site where they redefine the boundaries of their African identities, cope with the stigma of blackness, and counteract an anti-Muslim backlash. Rather than viewing religion as a subset of ethnicity, this study shows how African Murids interrogate the meanings of religion, race and ethnicity as intersecting constructs. National flags from Senegal, Islamic chants, and banners advocating Black solidarity all indicate a negotiation of terms. Clothes worn during the parade act as symbols and afford them another opportunity to work out these borderlands, especially in contradistinction to African American converts who follow a slightly different course. This article examines how their religious procession creates a Murid cosmopolitanism, allowing them a space in which to reconcile multiple belongings. PMID:20681085

  17. Culturally Grounded Stress Reduction and Suicide Prevention for African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, W. LaVome; Case, Mary H.; Whipple, Christopher R.; Gooden, Adia S.; Lopez-Tamayo, Roberto; Lambert, Sharon F.; Jason, Leonard A.

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is an often-overlooked manifestation of violence among African American youth that has become more prevalent in the last two decades. This article reports on the process used to culturally adapt a cognitive-behavioral coping with stress prevention intervention for African American adolescents. We implemented this adapted school-based suicide prevention intervention with 758 African American 9th, 10th and 11th grade students at four high schools in a large Midwestern city. The findings presented are preliminary. The adolescents in this sample endorsed high levels of suicide risk, with females endorsing significantly more suicide risk than males. Those receiving the prevention intervention evidenced an 86% relative suicide risk reduction, compared to the standard care control participants. The presented model of adaptation and resulting culturally-grounded suicide prevention intervention significantly reduced suicide risk among African American adolescents. Clinical, research and policy implications are discussed. PMID:27517094

  18. Prevalence of the ApoE Arg145Cys Dyslipidemia At-risk Polymorphism in African-derived Populations

    PubMed Central

    Abou Ziki, Maen D.; Strulovici-Barel, Yael; Hackett, Neil R.; Rodriguez-Flores, Juan L.; Mezey, Jason G.; Salit, Jacqueline; Radisch, Sharon; Hollmann, Charleen; Chouchane, Lotfi; Malek, Joel; Zirie, Mahmoud A.; Jayyuosi, Amin; Gotto, Antonio M.; Crystal, Ronald G.

    2013-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), a protein component of blood lipid particles, plays an important role in lipid transport. Different mutations in the ApoE gene have been associated with various clinical phenotypes. In an initiated study of Qataris, we observed that 17% of the African-derived genetic subgroup were heterozygotes for a rare Arg145Cys (R145C) variant that functions as a dominant trait with incomplete penetrance associated with type III hyperlipoproteinemia. Based on this observation, we hypothesized that the R145C polymorphism may be common in African-derived populations. The prevalence of the R145C variant was assessed worldwide in the 1000 Genomes Project (1000G) and in 1012 Caucasians and 1226 African-Americans in New York City. The 1000G data demonstrated that the R145C polymorphism is rare in non-African derived populations, but present in 5–12% of sub-Saharan African-derived populations. The R145C polymorphism was also rare in New York City Caucasians (1/1012, 0.1%), but strikingly, 53 (4.3%) of 1226 New York City African-Americans were R145C heterozygotes. Lipid profiles of the Qatari and New York R145C were compared to controls. Qatari R145C had higher triglyceride levels compared to Qatari controls (p<0.007) and NY African-Americans R145C had an average of 52% higher fasting triglyceride levels compared to NY African-American controls (p<0.002). Based on these observations, there are likely millions of people worldwide derived from Sub-Saharan Africans that are ApoE R145C. In conclusion, while larger epidemiologic studies are necessary to determine the long-term consequences of this polymorphism, the available evidence suggests it is a common cause of a mild triglyceride dyslipidemia. PMID:24239320

  19. A Teacher's Guide to African Narratives. Studies in African Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Sara Talis

    This guide is designed to help secondary school teachers include African literature in their classes. It furnishes English and social studies teachers with a foundation for teaching African literature by offering critical commentary on the texts themselves. A synthesis of anthropological and historical material is presented to help both teachers…

  20. Applications of a Rapid and Sensitive Dengue DUO Rapid Immunochromatographic Test Kit as a Diagnostic Strategy during a Dengue Type 2 Epidemic in an Urban City

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Hsin-I; Hsu, Hsiang-Chin; Wu, Chi-Jung; Lin, Chih-Hao; Chang, Chia-Ming; Tu, Yi-Fang; Hsieh, Chih-Chia; Chi, Chih-Hsien; Sung, Tzu-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Dengue infection is a major health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. A prospective observational study in a university-affiliated hospital was conducted between August 2015 and September 2015. Patients who visited the emergency department (ED) with a presentation of any symptoms of dengue were eligible for the dengue non-structural protein 1 (NS1), IgM/IgG rapid immunochromatographic tests and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to evaluate the performance of the rapid tests. Considering the RT-PCR as the gold standard for the dengue diagnosis, the ideal primary results of sensitivity (80–100%), specificity (60–84%), positive predicted value(75%-95%), and negative predicted value (70–100%) suggested that the NS1-based test with or without a combination of IgM and IgG tests have good diagnostic performances in detecting dengue infections, even in the afebrile or elderly populations. PMID:27415767

  1. Applications of a Rapid and Sensitive Dengue DUO Rapid Immunochromatographic Test Kit as a Diagnostic Strategy during a Dengue Type 2 Epidemic in an Urban City.

    PubMed

    Shih, Hsin-I; Hsu, Hsiang-Chin; Wu, Chi-Jung; Lin, Chih-Hao; Chang, Chia-Ming; Tu, Yi-Fang; Hsieh, Chih-Chia; Chi, Chih-Hsien; Sung, Tzu-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Dengue infection is a major health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. A prospective observational study in a university-affiliated hospital was conducted between August 2015 and September 2015. Patients who visited the emergency department (ED) with a presentation of any symptoms of dengue were eligible for the dengue non-structural protein 1 (NS1), IgM/IgG rapid immunochromatographic tests and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to evaluate the performance of the rapid tests. Considering the RT-PCR as the gold standard for the dengue diagnosis, the ideal primary results of sensitivity (80-100%), specificity (60-84%), positive predicted value(75%-95%), and negative predicted value (70-100%) suggested that the NS1-based test with or without a combination of IgM and IgG tests have good diagnostic performances in detecting dengue infections, even in the afebrile or elderly populations. PMID:27415767

  2. Reversing the standard direction: Science emerging from the lives of African American students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiler, Gale

    2001-11-01

    Recognizing the persistent science achievement gap between inner-city African American students and students from mainstream, White society, this article suggests that the imposition of external standards on inner-city schools will do little to ameliorate this gap because such an approach fails to address the significance of the social and cultural lives of the students. Instead, it is suggested that the use of critical ethnographic research would enable educators to learn from the students how science education can change to meet their aims and interests. The article includes a report on how a science lunch group in an inner-city high school forged a community based on respect and caring and how this community afforded African American male teens the opportunity to participate in science in new ways.

  3. Knowledge about Inquiry: A study in South African high schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaigher, Estelle; Lederman, Norman; Lederman, Judith

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports a study on South African learners' knowledge about scientific inquiry using the Views About Scientific Inquiry (VASI) Questionnaire. The sample consisted of 105 grade 11 learners from 7 schools across the socio-economic spectrum in a South African city. A rubric for scoring the VASI Questionnaire was developed and refined during the process of coding and is presented. Results showed that the learners held more informed views than that reported in previous international studies, except for particularly naive views regarding multiple methods of investigation. The results are discussed in terms of the Revised National Curriculum Statement (RNCS) that was taught from 2003 to 2010 in South African schools. This curriculum was founded on outcomes-based principles, valuing process skills rather than content. The study found that examples provided in the RNCS document correspond closely to the aspects of inquiry as described by the National Research Council. It is argued that the RNCS contributed to the more informed views about inquiry found among South African learners in this study.

  4. African-American Sacred Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, A. Peter

    1991-01-01

    The history of African-American sacred music is traced from the time of slavery to the present interest in gospel music. The religious music of African Americans is geared toward liberation themes. It is important that this music does not dilute its power through cross-over with other music forms. (SLD)

  5. HIV among African American Gay and Bisexual Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS ... with men—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2014 . HIV Surveillance Special Report 2016;15. Accessed ...

  6. Building a responsive network of support and advocacy for older African American homeless women through developmental action research.

    PubMed

    Washington, Olivia G M; Moxley, David P; Garriott, Lois; Crystal, Jennifer P

    2009-10-01

    This paper describes the Leaving Homelessness Intervention Research Project (LHIRP), a multimodal intervention that addresses the structural barriers and personal issues older African American women face in overcoming homelessness in a large mid-western city of the United States. The project incorporates a developmental action research design in partnership with homeless and formerly homeless women. Through developmental testing of interventions, LHIRP identifies promising practices at the individual, group life, intentional community, and city levels. The paper offers a rationale for the integration of both developmental research and action research, particularly community-based participatory inquiry. The authors document the nature of the helping network, identify and describe the project's aims, organizing framework, and methods that document the lived experience of homelessness. Action research strategies that support the design and intervention activities are described, as are the tools used to test promising practices that are useful in helping older women transition and remain out of homelessness. The paper identifies the knowledge products of the intervention project including lexicon, theory, and frameworks, considers the vicious cycle that serves as an advanced organizer of relevant intervention, illuminates core principles, and examines the importance of the web of affiliation that the project seeks to form among participants, staff, and technical assistants. PMID:19929159

  7. African oil plays

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, A.J. )

    1989-09-01

    The vast continent of Africa hosts over eight sedimentary basins, covering approximately half its total area. Of these basins, only 82% have entered a mature exploration phase, 9% have had little or no exploration at all. Since oil was first discovered in Africa during the mid-1950s, old play concepts continue to bear fruit, for example in Egypt and Nigeria, while new play concepts promise to become more important, such as in Algeria, Angola, Chad, Egypt, Gabon, and Sudan. The most exciting developments of recent years in African oil exploration are: (1) the Gamba/Dentale play, onshore Gabon; (2) the Pinda play, offshore Angola; (3) the Lucula/Toca play, offshore Cabinda; (4) the Metlaoui play, offshore Libya/Tunisia; (5) the mid-Cretaceous sand play, Chad/Sudan; and (6) the TAG-I/F6 play, onshore Algeria. Examples of these plays are illustrated along with some of the more traditional oil plays. Where are the future oil plays likely to develop No doubt, the Saharan basins of Algeria and Libya will feature strongly, also the presalt of Equatorial West Africa, the Central African Rift System and, more speculatively, offshore Ethiopia and Namibia, and onshore Madagascar, Mozambique, and Tanzania.

  8. Bioenergy and African transformation.

    PubMed

    Lynd, Lee R; Sow, Mariam; Chimphango, Annie Fa; Cortez, Luis Ab; Brito Cruz, Carlos H; Elmissiry, Mosad; Laser, Mark; Mayaki, Ibrahim A; Moraes, Marcia Afd; Nogueira, Luiz Ah; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem H

    2015-01-01

    Among the world's continents, Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern bioenergy production in Africa. Here we consider bioenergy as an enabler for development, and provide an overview of modern bioenergy technologies with a comment on application in an Africa context. Experience with bioenergy in Africa offers evidence of social benefits and also some important lessons. In Brazil, social development, agricultural development and food security, and bioenergy development have been synergistic rather than antagonistic. Realizing similar success in African countries will require clear vision, good governance, and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, and business models to myriad local circumstances. Strategies for integrated production of food crops, livestock, and bioenergy are potentially attractive and offer an alternative to an agricultural model featuring specialized land use. If done thoughtfully, there is considerable evidence that food security and economic development in Africa can be addressed more effectively with modern bioenergy than without it. Modern bioenergy can be an agent of African transformation, with potential social benefits accruing to multiple sectors and extending well beyond energy supply per se. Potential negative impacts also cut across sectors. Thus, institutionally inclusive multi-sector legislative structures will be more effective at maximizing the social benefits of bioenergy compared to institutionally exclusive, single-sector structures. PMID:25709714

  9. Obesity Predicts Differential Response to Cancer Prevention Interventions among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone, Lucia A.; James, Aimee S.; Allicock, Marlyn; Campbell, Marci K.

    2010-01-01

    "Wellness for African Americans Through Churches" was a randomized trial that tested the effectiveness of tailored print and video (TPV) and/or lay health advisors (LHA) at increasing recreational physical activity (RPA), fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption, and colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in African American churches. Baseline data…

  10. Neighborhoods, Social Support, and African American Adolescents' Mental Health Outcomes: A Multilevel Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurd, Noelle M.; Stoddard, Sarah A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored how neighborhood characteristics may relate to African American adolescents' internalizing symptoms via adolescents' social support and perceptions of neighborhood cohesion. Participants included 571 urban, African American adolescents (52% female; "M" age = 17.8). A multilevel path analysis testing both direct and indirect…

  11. Understanding Parenting Stress among Young, Low-Income, African-American, First-Time Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yiting; Fine, Mark A.; Ispa, Jean; Thornburg, Kathy R.; Sharp, Elizabeth; Wolfenstein, Miriam

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a theoretical model that examined the extent to which cognitive readiness to parent, perceived difficult child temperament, observed parenting behaviors, and positive coping styles predicted parenting stress among young, low-income, first-time, African-American mothers. One hundred and twenty African-American,…

  12. Spelling in African American Children: The Case of Final Consonant Devoicing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treiman, Rebecca; Bowman, Margo

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of dialect variation on children's spelling by using devoicing of final /d/ in African American Vernacular English (AAVE) as a test case. In line with the linguistic interference hypothesis, African American 6-year-olds were significantly poorer at spelling the final "d" of words such as "salad"…

  13. Writing Differences in Teacher Performance Assessments: An Investigation of African American Language and Edited American English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szpara, Michelle Y.; Wylie, E. Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Differential performance results occur when a specific population subgroup achieves a passing rate which is significantly lower than that of the normative reference group. African Americans do less well, in general, on all types of assessments, including constructed-response tests. The present study examined the writing styles of African American…

  14. Another Look at HIV in African American Women: The Impact of Psychosocial and Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jipguep, Marie-Claude; Sanders-Phillips, Kathy; Cotton, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    This study tested a conceptual model that integrates structural and psychological determinants of HIV prevention for African American women. The sample consisted of African American mothers (N = 129) of children in Head Start programs. Higher levels of perceived stress were associated with higher levels of HIV risk; higher levels of perceived…

  15. Long-Term Effects of the Strong African American Families Program on Youths' Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Murry, Velma McBride; Brown, Anita C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective:This report extends earlier accounts by addressing the effects of the Strong African American Families (SAAF) program across 65 months. Two hypotheses were tested: (a) Rural African American youths randomly assigned to participate in SAAF would demonstrate lower rates of alcohol use than would control youths more than 5 years later, and…

  16. Social Movement Tactics, Organizational Change and the Spread of African-American Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas, Fabio

    2006-01-01

    Social movement research suggests that protest is effective because it de-legitimizes existing policies and imposes costs on power holders. The author tests this hypothesis with data on African-American student protest and the creation of departments of African-American Studies. The author finds that nondisruptive protest, such as rallies and…

  17. Mexico City Aerosol Transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, P. A.; Eichinger, W. E.; Prueger, J.; Holder, H. L.

    2007-12-01

    A radiative impact study was conducted in Mexico City during MILAGRO/MIRAGE campaign in March of 2006. On a day when the predominant wind was from the north to the south, authors measured radiative properties of the atmosphere in six locations across the city ranging from the city center, through the city south limits and the pass leading out of the city (causing pollutants to funnel through the area). A large change in aerosol optical properties has been noticed. The aerosol optical depth has generally increased outside of the city and angstrom coefficient has changed significantly towards smaller values. Aerosol size distribution was calculated using SkyRadPack. The total optical depths allowed coincidental lidar data to calculate total extinction profiles for all the locations for 1064nm.

  18. The role of building learning cities in the rejuvenation of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biao, Idowu; Esaete, Josephine; Oonyu, Joseph

    2013-09-01

    Although Africa has been home to famous ancient cities in the past, its modern conurbation areas are poor living spaces characterised by squalor, poor planning and human misery. The authors of this paper argue that the learning city concept, still almost unknown in Africa, holds enormous potential for redressing the dysfunctional state of things and for guiding future orderly development of African cities. There have been timid attempts at operationalising the learning city concept, for example in the Western Cape (South Africa) between 2004 and 2006, in Gaborone (Botswana) between 2008 and 2010, and in Lagos State (Nigeria) from 2007 onwards. Furthermore, two African governments, namely those of Nigeria (2005) and South Africa (2006), joined the global "Cities Alliance" partnership, which operates a "Cities without slums action plan". However, many of these projects have not been successful, and the authors of this article identify five factors which have stood in the way of their proper take-off. Based on this analysis, the authors then propose a model for future learning city projects in Africa. It is a process model that uses critical awareness-building promoted by civil society organisations and government and harnesses the pressure of other social dynamics such as ethnic culture clusters. The authors then offer three policy recommendations and conclude by expressing their hope that the learning city concept will take hold and unfold its potential in Africa in the foreseeable future.

  19. The power law distribution for lower tail cities in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devadoss, Stephen; Luckstead, Jeff; Danforth, Diana; Akhundjanov, Sherzod

    2016-01-01

    The city size distribution for lower tail cities has received scant attention because a small portion of the population lives in rural villages, particularly in developed countries, and data are not readily available for small cities. However, in developing countries much of the population inhabits rural areas. The purpose of this study is to test whether power law holds for small cities in India by using the most recent and comprehensive Indian census data for the year 2011. Our results show that lower tail cities for India do exhibit a power law.

  20. Power laws, discontinuities and regional city size distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garmestani, A.S.; Allen, C.R.; Gallagher, C.M.

    2008-01-01

    Urban systems are manifestations of human adaptation to the natural environment. City size distributions are the expression of hierarchical processes acting upon urban systems. In this paper, we test the entire city size distributions for the southeastern and southwestern United States (1990), as well as the size classes in these regions for power law behavior. We interpret the differences in the size of the regional city size distributions as the manifestation of variable growth dynamics dependent upon city size. Size classes in the city size distributions are snapshots of stable states within urban systems in flux. ?? 2008.

  1. Participant Adherence Indicators Predict Changes in Blood Pressure, Anthropometric Measures, and Self-Reported Physical Activity in a Lifestyle Intervention: HUB City Steps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Jessica L.; Landry, Alicia S.; Zoellner, Jamie M.; Connell, Carol; Madson, Michael B.; Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Yadrick, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this secondary analysis was to evaluate the utility of several participant adherence indicators for predicting changes in clinical, anthropometric, dietary, fitness, and physical activity (PA) outcomes in a lifestyle intervention, HUB City Steps, conducted in a southern, African American cohort in 2010. HUB City Steps was a…

  2. Assimilation Differences among Africans in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodoo, F. Nii-Amoo

    1997-01-01

    Census data (1990) indicate that male African immigrants earn more than their Caribbean-born counterparts or native-born African Americans, but controlling for relevant earnings-related endowments erases the African advantage and elevates Caribbean earnings above those of the other groups. Also, African (but not Caribbean) university degree…

  3. Successfully Educating Our African-American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moncree-Moffett, Kareem

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this empirical study was to explore the lived experiences of African American retired female teachers who have prior experience with educating urban African American students in public schools. Also explored are the experiences of active African American female teachers of urban African American students and comparisons are…

  4. Stereotype or reality: another look at alcohol and drug use among African American children.

    PubMed Central

    Bass, L E; Kane-Williams, E

    1993-01-01

    The Center for Substance Abuse Prevention's Division of Communications Programs launched its Urban Youth Public Education Campaign in late 1990 to target African American youth in 14 cities with prevention messages about alcohol and other drugs. During the market research phase of the campaign, the Center sought to determine the extent inner city African American children are impacted by alcohol and other drugs and how widespread the use of these substances is among younger children. Is it rampant and universal, as some press accounts have it, or are the images portrayed by the news media, by popular movies, and by other communication outlets fueling harmful stereotypes? The campaign's market research consisted of in-depth reviews of the literature, of personal communications, conference proceedings, grant and contract reports, monographs, newspaper and magazine articles, and of national survey results, and the analysis of findings from focus groups conducted with 143 African American children living in several urban environments. Although information and conclusions gleaned from the market research revealed a longstanding trend of comparatively lower rates of alcohol and drug use by African American youth, also disclosed was a need for an expanded framework to address the problems of substance abuse within the African American community. An expanded framework acknowledges the dimension of substance use and abuse but also addresses three other dimensions--involvement, exposure, and victimization--that unfold as having major significance for this population of youth who live in urban, high-risk environments. PMID:8210277

  5. A question of trust: user-centered design requirements for an informatics intervention to promote the sexual health of African-American youth

    PubMed Central

    Veinot, Tiffany C; Campbell, Terrance R; Kruger, Daniel J; Grodzinski, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Objective We investigated the user requirements of African-American youth (aged 14–24 years) to inform the design of a culturally appropriate, network-based informatics intervention for the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Materials and Methods We conducted 10 focus groups with 75 African-American youth from a city with high HIV/STI prevalence. Data analyses involved coding using qualitative content analysis procedures and memo writing. Results Unexpectedly, the majority of participants’ design recommendations concerned trust. Youth expressed distrust towards people and groups, which was amplified within the context of information technology-mediated interactions about HIV/STI. Participants expressed distrust in the reliability of condoms and the accuracy of HIV tests. They questioned the benevolence of many institutions, and some rejected authoritative HIV/STI information. Therefore, reputational information, including rumor, influenced HIV/STI-related decision making. Participants’ design requirements also focused on trust-related concerns. Accordingly, we developed a novel trust-centered design framework to guide intervention design. Discussion Current approaches to online trust for health informatics do not consider group-level trusting patterns. Yet, trust was the central intervention-relevant issue among African-American youth, suggesting an important focus for culturally informed design. Our design framework incorporates: intervention objectives (eg, network embeddedness, participation); functional specifications (eg, decision support, collective action, credible question and answer services); and interaction design (eg, member control, offline network linkages, optional anonymity). Conclusions Trust is a critical focus for HIV/STI informatics interventions for young African Americans. Our design framework offers practical, culturally relevant, and systematic guidance to designers to reach this underserved group

  6. Rationale, design, and baseline findings from HIPP: A randomized controlled trial testing a home-based, individually-tailored physical activity print intervention for African American women in the Deep South.

    PubMed

    Pekmezi, Dori; Ainsworth, Cole; Joseph, Rodney; Bray, Molly S; Kvale, Elizabeth; Isaac, Shiney; Desmond, Renee; Meneses, Karen; Marcus, Bess; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-03-01

    African American women report high rates of physical inactivity and related health disparities. In our previous formative research, we conducted a series of qualitative assessments to examine physical activity barriers and intervention preferences among African American women in the Deep South. These data were used to inform a 12-month Home-based, Individually-tailored Physical activity Print (HIPP) intervention, which is currently being evaluated against a wellness contact control condition among 84 post-menopausal African American women residing in the metropolitan area of Birmingham, Alabama. This paper reports the rationale, design and baseline findings of the HIPP trial. The accrued participants had an average age of 57 (SD=4.7), a BMI of 32.1kg/m(2) (SD=5.16) with more than half (55%) having a college education and an annual household income under $50,000 (53.6%). At baseline, participants reported an average of 41.5min/week (SD=49.7) of moderate intensity physical activity, and 94.1% were in the contemplation or preparation stages of readiness for physical activity. While social support for exercise from friends and family was low, baseline levels of self-efficacy, cognitive and behavioral processes of change, decisional balance, outcome expectations, and enjoyment appeared promising. Baseline data indicated high rates of obesity and low levels of physical activity, providing strong evidence of need for intervention. Moreover, scores on psychosocial measures suggested that such efforts may be well received. This line of research in technology-based approaches for promoting physical activity in African American women in the Deep South has great potential to address health disparities and impact public health. PMID:26944022

  7. An Experimental Assessment Program in an Inner City School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Marian D.; And Others

    This study is an effort to assess both the internal and external conditions of learning. The sample included 99 first graders in four classrooms of one inner city school in a large midwestern city. The assessment measure was a battery of tests selected from frequently used tests of visual perception, auditory discrimination, language, memory,…

  8. Negro, Black, Black African, African Caribbean, African American or what? Labelling African origin populations in the health arena in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Agyemang, Charles; Bhopal, Raj; Bruijnzeels, Marc

    2005-12-01

    Broad terms such as Black, African, or Black African are entrenched in scientific writings although there is considerable diversity within African descent populations and such terms may be both offensive and inaccurate. This paper outlines the heterogeneity within African populations, and discusses the strengths and limitations of the term Black and related labels from epidemiological and public health perspectives in Europe and the USA. This paper calls for debate on appropriate terminologies for African descent populations and concludes with the proposals that (1) describing the population under consideration is of paramount importance (2) the word African origin or simply African is an appropriate and necessary prefix for an ethnic label, for example, African Caribbean or African Kenyan or African Surinamese (3) documents should define the ethnic labels (4) the label Black should be phased out except when used in political contexts. PMID:16286485

  9. The Moral Environment in an Inner-City Boys' High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, David T.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the moral environment of an inner-city Catholic high school serving African American boys, examining how everyday patterns of interaction and unusual events combine to shape the school's ethos. The analysis discloses how daily conduct inside classrooms funds the larger school environment, highlighting how the school's adults encourage a…

  10. Risk Factors for Nonelective Hospitalization in Frail and Older Adult, Inner-City Outpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damush, Teresa M.; Smith, David M.; Perkins, Anthony J.; Dexter, Paul R.; Smith, Faye

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: In our study, we sought to improve the accuracy of predicting the risk of hospitalization and to identify older, inner-city patients who could be targeted for preventive interventions. Design and Methods: Participants (56% were African American) in a randomized trial were from a primary care practice and included 1,041 patients living in…

  11. Impact of Language Deficits on Maladaptive Behavior of Inner-City Early Adolescents: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcon, Rebecca A.

    This study examined language development as a precursor of maladaptive behavior in inner-city early adolescents. Participating were 256 adolescents from the graduation classes of 2000 and 2001 who had previously attended District of Columbia prekindergarten/Head Start and kindergarten. The sample was 98 percent African American and 56 percent…

  12. Characteristics of Health Educators Desired by Inner-City Health Clinic Patients: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, James; Sidani, Jaime

    2007-01-01

    A group (n = 170) of inner-city, predominantly African American, health clinic patients were asked to identify the characteristics they desired in a new clinic health educator. A plurality (44%) of the patients perceived a bachelor's degree would be a sufficient level of education. The vast majority of patients claimed the sex of the health…

  13. Aggression in Inner-City Early Elementary Classrooms: Individual and Peer-Group Configurations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estell, David B.; Cairns, Robert B.; Farmer, Thomas W.; Cairns, Beverley D.

    2002-01-01

    A 2-year study of 92 inner-city African American first-graders examined aggressive behavior patterns in relation to individual behavioral profiles, peer affiliations, and classroom social positions. Analysis uncovered considerable heterogeneity in relationships among overt aggression, popularity, and social network centrality. Two subsets of…

  14. Timing of First Childbirth and Young Women's Postsecondary Education in an Inner-City Minority Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between the timing of women's first childbirth and their postsecondary education using an inner-city minority cohort. The study sample (695 females) was drawn from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), an ongoing investigation of a panel of low-income minority children (94% African American) born in…

  15. Replicating a Teen HIV/STD Preventive Intervention in a Multicultural City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Diane M.; Hoppe, Marilyn J.; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Beadnell, Blair A.; Wilsdon, Anthony; Higa, Darrel; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Casey, Erin A.

    2007-01-01

    Although there are now several adolescent HIV and STD preventive interventions of demonstrated efficacy in the literature, little is understood about the portability of these interventions. This study replicated Stanton's Focus on Kids intervention, developed for inner city African American adolescents, in a different population, transferring it…

  16. Parents as "Help Labor": Inner-City Teachers' Narratives of Parent Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christianakis, Mary

    2011-01-01

    This article examines teachers' perceptions of parent involvement through the narratives of 15 racially and linguistically diverse teachers who worked together at Jefferson Elementary, an inner-city school in Northern California composed mostly of African-American, Latino, and Asian students. One overarching research question framed the…

  17. Early Adolescent Pathways of Antisocial Behaviors in Poor, Inner-City Neighborhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Nan S.; Lee, Beom S.; Bolland, John M.; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.; Sun, Fei

    2008-01-01

    The change and stability of antisocial behavior during adolescence has triggered interest in a number of social scientific disciplines. This article longitudinally examines pathways of antisocial behavior among predominantly African American adolescents residing in inner-city, poor neighborhoods. Data were collected from 354 youth (ages 12 through…

  18. Polymorphic Alu insertions in six Brazilian African-derived populations.

    PubMed

    Cotrim, Nelson Henderson; Auricchio, Maria Teresa B M; Vicente, João Pedro; Otto, Paulo A; Mingroni-Netto, Regina Célia

    2004-01-01

    At least 25 African-derived populations (quilombo remnants) are believed to exist in the Ribeira River Valley, located in the southern part of São Paulo State, Brazil. We studied four Alu polymorphic loci (APO, ACE, TPA25, and FXIIIB) in individuals belonging to six quilombo remnants in addition to individuals sampled from the city of São Paulo. The allelic frequencies observed in the quilombo remnants were similar to those previously observed in African-derived populations from Central and North America. Genetic variability indexes (Fst and Gst values) in our quilombos were higher than the reported values for the majority of other populations analyzed for the same kind of markers, but lower than the variability usually observed in Amerindian groups. The observed high degree of genetic differentiation may be due to genetic drift, especially the founder effect. Our results suggest that these populations behave genetically as semi-isolates. The degree of genetic variability within populations was larger than among them, a finding described in other studies. In the neighbor-joining tree, some of the Brazilian quilombos clustered with the African and African-derived populations (São Pedro and Galvão), others with the Europeans (Pilões, Maria Rosa, and Abobral). Pedro Cubas was placed in an isolated branch. Principal component analysis was also performed and confirmed the trends observed in the neighbor-joining tree. Overall, the quilombos showed a higher degree of gene flow than average when compared to other worldwide populations, but similar to other African-derived populations. PMID:15101052

  19. 26. 'CITY HOSPITAL, BLACKWELL'S ISLAND.' (Source: New York City Department ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. 'CITY HOSPITAL, BLACKWELL'S ISLAND.' (Source: New York City Department of Public Finance, Real Estate Owned by the City of New York under Jurisdiction of the Department of Public Charities, 1909.) - Island Hospital, Roosevelt Island, New York County, NY

  20. African swine fever.

    PubMed

    Penrith, Mary-Louise

    2009-03-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is a devastating haemorrhagic fever of pigs that causes up to 100% mortality, for which there is no vaccine. It is caused by a unique DNA virus that is maintained in an ancient cycle between warthogs and argasid ticks, making it the only known DNA arbovirus. ASF has a high potential for transboundary spread, and has twice been transported from Africa to other continents--Europe and subsequently the Caribbean and Brazil (1957, 1959) and the Caucasus (2007). It is also a devastating constraint for pig production in Africa. Research at Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute has made and is making important contributions to knowledge of this disease, focusing on the cycle in warthogs and tampans and transmission from that cycle to domestic pigs, resistance to its effects in domestic pigs, and the molecular genetic characterisation and epidemiology of the virus. PMID:19967933

  1. The African Millennium Villages

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Pedro; Palm, Cheryl; Sachs, Jeffrey; Denning, Glenn; Flor, Rafael; Harawa, Rebbie; Jama, Bashir; Kiflemariam, Tsegazeab; Konecky, Bronwen; Kozar, Raffaela; Lelerai, Eliud; Malik, Alia; Modi, Vijay; Mutuo, Patrick; Niang, Amadou; Okoth, Herine; Place, Frank; Sachs, Sonia Ehrlich; Said, Amir; Siriri, David; Teklehaimanot, Awash; Wang, Karen; Wangila, Justine; Zamba, Colleen

    2007-01-01

    We describe the concept, strategy, and initial results of the Millennium Villages Project and implications regarding sustainability and scalability. Our underlying hypothesis is that the interacting crises of agriculture, health, and infrastructure in rural Africa can be overcome through targeted public-sector investments to raise rural productivity and, thereby, to increased private-sector saving and investments. This is carried out by empowering impoverished communities with science-based interventions. Seventy-eight Millennium Villages have been initiated in 12 sites in 10 African countries, each representing a major agroecological zone. In early results, the research villages in Kenya, Ethiopia, and Malawi have reduced malaria prevalence, met caloric requirements, generated crop surpluses, enabled school feeding programs, and provided cash earnings for farm families. PMID:17942701

  2. Age-friendly cities of Europe.

    PubMed

    Green, Geoff

    2013-10-01

    This article summarizes how members of the European Healthy Cities Network have applied the 'healthy ageing' approach developed by the World Health Organization in their influential report on Active Ageing. Network Cities can be regarded as social laboratories testing how municipal strategies and interventions can help maintain the health and independence which characterise older people of the third age. Evidence of the orientation and scope of city interventions is derived from a series of Healthy Ageing Sub-Network symposia but principally from responses by 59 member cities to a General Evaluation Questionnaire covering Phase IV (2003-2008) of the Network. Cities elaborated four aspects of healthy ageing (a) raising awareness of older people as a resource to society (b) personal and community empowerment (c) access to the full range of services, and (d) supportive physical and social environments. In conclusion, the key message is that by applying healthy ageing strategies to programmes and plans in many sectors, city governments can potentially compress the fourth age of 'decrepitude and dependence' and expand the third age of 'achievement and independence' with more older people contributing to the social and economic life of a city. PMID:22993036

  3. Larger genetic differences within africans than between Africans and Eurasians.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ning; Chen, Feng-Chi; Ota, Satoshi; Jorde, Lynn B; Pamilo, Pekka; Patthy, Laszlo; Ramsay, Michele; Jenkins, Trefor; Shyue, Song-Kun; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2002-01-01

    The worldwide pattern of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variation is of great interest to human geneticists, population geneticists, and evolutionists, but remains incompletely understood. We studied the pattern in noncoding regions, because they are less affected by natural selection than are coding regions. Thus, it can reflect better the history of human evolution and can serve as a baseline for understanding the maintenance of SNPs in human populations. We sequenced 50 noncoding DNA segments each approximately 500 bp long in 10 Africans, 10 Europeans, and 10 Asians. An analysis of the data suggests that the sampling scheme is adequate for our purpose. The average nucleotide diversity (pi) for the 50 segments is only 0.061% +/- 0.010% among Asians and 0.064% +/- 0.011% among Europeans but almost twice as high (0.115% +/- 0.016%) among Africans. The African diversity estimate is even higher than that between Africans and Eurasians (0.096% +/- 0.012%). From available data for noncoding autosomal regions (total length = 47,038 bp) and X-linked regions (47,421 bp), we estimated the pi-values for autosomal regions to be 0.105, 0.070, 0.069, and 0.097% for Africans, Asians, Europeans, and between Africans and Eurasians, and the corresponding values for X-linked regions to be 0.088, 0.042, 0.053, and 0.082%. Thus, Africans differ from one another slightly more than from Eurasians, and the genetic diversity in Eurasians is largely a subset of that in Africans, supporting the out of Africa model of human evolution. Clearly, one must specify the geographic origins of the individuals sampled when studying pi or SNP density. PMID:12019240

  4. Seismic Site Classification and Correlation between Standard Penetration Test N Value and Shear Wave Velocity for Lucknow City in Indo-Gangetic Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbazhagan, P.; Kumar, Abhishek; Sitharam, T. G.

    2013-03-01

    Subsurface lithology and seismic site classification of Lucknow urban center located in the central part of the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB) are presented based on detailed shallow subsurface investigations and borehole analysis. These are done by carrying out 47 seismic surface wave tests using multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) and 23 boreholes drilled up to 30 m with standard penetration test (SPT) N values. Subsurface lithology profiles drawn from the drilled boreholes show low- to medium-compressibility clay and silty to poorly graded sand available till depth of 30 m. In addition, deeper boreholes (depth >150 m) were collected from the Lucknow Jal Nigam (Water Corporation), Government of Uttar Pradesh to understand deeper subsoil stratification. Deeper boreholes in this paper refer to those with depth over 150 m. These reports show the presence of clay mix with sand and Kankar at some locations till a depth of 150 m, followed by layers of sand, clay, and Kankar up to 400 m. Based on the available details, shallow and deeper cross-sections through Lucknow are presented. Shear wave velocity (SWV) and N-SPT values were measured for the study area using MASW and SPT testing. Measured SWV and N-SPT values for the same locations were found to be comparable. These values were used to estimate 30 m average values of N-SPT ( N 30) and SWV ( V {s/30}) for seismic site classification of the study area as per the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) soil classification system. Based on the NEHRP classification, the entire study area is classified into site class C and D based on V {s/30} and site class D and E based on N 30. The issue of larger amplification during future seismic events is highlighted for a major part of the study area which comes under site class D and E. Also, the mismatch of site classes based on N 30 and V {s/30} raises the question of the suitability of the NEHRP classification system for the study region. Further, 17 sets

  5. [West African childbirth traditions].

    PubMed

    Hallgren, R

    1983-11-01

    Religious and medical practices are steeped in the traditions of West African culture vis-a-vis childbirth. It is customary for delivery to occur with the woman squatting on the ground surrounded by sisters and female relatives, some of whom function as midwives. Midwives get paid only if delivery is successful. A stool is also often used in childbirth. The name given to a child in the Yoruba tribe in Nigeria has to refer to the circumstances of the individual's birth. The contact with the earth (as in the squatting position) has religious overtones--it indicates the fecundity of the earth, and the mother's contact with it. Infertility is considered the greatest tragedy in traditional African society. In Senegal, a childless woman pays a fertile one a certain sum in return for bearing her a child who would be raised as her own (this tradition is not unlike surrogate motherhood in Western countries). Men are never present at birth; however, in urban settings this practice is changing. The burial of the placenta and umbilical cord is thought to restore the woman's fertility and help heal her womb. This practice was even recorded in 19th century Sweden harkening back to heathen times. In Ghana, an infertile woman urinates on the ground where the placenta is buried in the belief that her fertility will be restored. The birth of twins is regarded as a great blessing, and as a sign of fertility; however, the inability of the mother to breast-feed both twins may result in the death of the weaker child. The harmony of nature, animals, and human beings is paramount in traditional West Africa religion and life, and undoubtedly Western culture could learn from some of these beliefs. PMID:6558064

  6. Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Salt Lake City, Utah, will host the 2002 Winter Olympic Games. The city is located on the southeastern shore of the Great Salt Lake and sits to the west of the Wasatch Mountains, which rise more than 3,500 meters (10,000 feet) above sea level. The city was first settled in 1847 by pioneers seeking relief from religious persecution. Today Salt Lake City, the capital of Utah, is home to more than 170,000 residents. This true-color image of Salt Lake City was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), flying aboard Landsat 7, on May 26, 2000. The southeastern tip of the Great Salt Lake is visible in the upper left of the image. The furrowed green and brown landscape running north-south is a portion of the Wasatch Mountains, some of which are snow-capped (white pixels). The greyish pixels in the center of the image show the developed areas of the city. A number of water reservoirs can be seen east of the mountain range. Salt Lake City International Airport is visible on the northwestern edge of the city. About 20 miles south of the airport is the Bingham Canyon Copper Mine (tan pixels), the world's largest open pit excavation. See also this MODIS image of Utah. Image courtesy NASA Landsat7 Science Team and USGS Eros Data Center

  7. The Industrial City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohl, Raymond

    1976-01-01

    This article, the sixth installment in Environment's "Looking Back" series, traces the woes of America's industrialized cities to the movement that developed cities primarily as centers for industrial enterprise rather than as places for people to live. Today's social ills, from pollution to poverty, developed from that movement. (BT)

  8. Walkout in Crystal City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrios, Greg

    2009-01-01

    When students take action, they create change that extends far beyond the classroom. In this article, the author, who was a former teacher from Crystal City, Texas, remembers the student walkout that helped launch the Latino civil rights movement 40 years ago. The Crystal City student walkout remains a high point in the history of student activism…

  9. CITY III Player's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Envirometrics, Inc., Washington, DC.

    CITY III is a computer-assisted simulation game in which participants make decisions affecting the economic, governmental, and social conditions of a simulated urban area. In CITY III, the computer stores all the relevant statistics for the area, updates data when changes are made, and prints out yearly reports. The computer also simulates…

  10. CITY III Operator's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Envirometrics, Inc., Washington, DC.

    CITY III is a computer-assisted simulation game of an urban system involving player operation of and interaction with economic, social, and government components. The role of operator in the game is to take the handwritten inputs (decisions) from the CITY III participants, process them, and return output which initiates the next round of…

  11. Innovation and the City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleiman, Neil; Forman, Adam; Ko, Jae; Giles, David; Bowles, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    With Washington trapped in budget battles and partisan gridlock, cities have emerged as the best source of government innovation. Nowhere is this more visible than in New York City. Since taking office in 2002, Mayor Bloomberg has introduced a steady stream of innovative policies, from a competition to recruit a new applied sciences campus and a…

  12. Reducing Adverse Impact: One City's Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Jeff

    Following a workshop on "Innovations in Employment Testing that Improve Validity and Reduce Adverse Impact," the City of Louisville (Kentucky) implemented a strategy to develop a comprehensive testing and recruiting program for police recruits. To improve candidate expectations and preparation, the following activities were undertaken: intense…

  13. Association Between Life Event Stressors and Low Birth Weight in African American and White Populations: Findings from the 2007 and 2010 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB) Surveys.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuan; Kershaw, Trace; Ettinger, Adrienne S; Higgins, Chandra; Lu, Michael C; Chao, Shin M

    2015-10-01

    We examined the association between life events stressors during pregnancy and low birth weight (LBW) among African Americans and Whites, while systematically controlling for potential confounders including individual characteristics and city-level variations and clustering. We analyzed data from 4970 women with singleton births who participated in the 2007 and 2010 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby Surveys. Multilevel logistic regression was used to assess the association between emotional, financial, spousal and traumatic stressors and LBW among African Americans and Whites. Potential confounders included were: the city-level Economic Hardship Index, maternal demographics, pre-pregnancy conditions, insurance, behavioral risk factors and social support. African Americans were significantly more likely to experience any domain of stressors during their pregnancy, compared to Whites (p < 0.001). Only the association between financial stressors and LBW was significantly different between African Americans and Whites (p for interaction = 0.015). Experience of financial stressors during pregnancy was significantly associated with LBW among African Americans (adjusted odds ratio = 1.49; 95 % confidence interval = 1.01-2.22) but not Whites. Differential impact of financial stressors during pregnancy may contribute to racial disparities in LBW between African Americans and Whites. We showed that financial life event stressors, but not other domains of stressors, were more likely to impact LBW among African Americans than Whites. Initiatives aimed at mitigating the negative impacts of financial stress during pregnancy may contribute to reducing disparities in birth outcomes between African Americans and Whites. PMID:25665895

  14. African women and AIDS: negotiating behavioral change.

    PubMed

    Ulin, P R

    1992-01-01

    Trends in the incidence of HIV/AIDS infection among women in Sub-Saharan Africa suggest this population is increasingly at risk. Many of the same factors that have predisposed rural African women to ill health in the past now increase their vulnerability to AIDS, including poverty and malnutrition, uncontrolled fertility, and complications of childbirth. As men travel out from rural communities to urban centers in search of employment, their sexual contacts multiply; many will acquire the HIV virus and carry it back to infect wives at home. Women, too, are leaving rural areas for the promise of a better life in cities and commercial centers along the way. Their struggle for economic survival and personal autonomy has led many to form relationships with new sexual partners, with a consequent increase in HIV seroprevalence among women once considered at low risk of infection. This paper argues that AIDS prevention campaigns have not yet taken into account the cultural, social, and economic constraints on most African women's ability to comply with advice to limit partners and use condoms. The author proposes a research agenda to explore the meaning of AIDS and AIDS prevention in the sociocultural context of women's lives. A better understanding of how women, themselves, perceive and respond to current attempts to prevent the transmission of AIDS is an increasingly critical factor in the intervention process. Most important, it is a necessary first step toward their effective participation with men in the development of culturally relevant strategies for protecting themselves and their families. PMID:1738858

  15. Evaluation of an Extended School Day Program for African American Males in the Context of Single Gender Schooling and Schoolwide Reform: A Case for Extending the School Day for African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fashola, Olatokunbo S.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of the 2nd-year evaluation of an after-school program designed for an extended school day program serving African American middle school students in the city of Baltimore, Maryland (ACCESS-West). This study describes the effects of schoolwide reform especially as it relates to single-gender schools, educating…

  16. Epileptiform seizures in captive African vultures.

    PubMed

    Mundy, P J; Foggin, C M

    1981-04-01

    African vultures are held in captivity at Salisbury, Johannesburg, and Durban, and in each place a number of birds showed epileptiform seizures. Of 17 griffon vultures (Gyps africanus and G. coprotheres) in Salisbury, three recovered and 11 died after one or more seizures. Of eight vultures of three other species, one Lappetfaced Vulture (Torgos tracheliotus) recovered and one Whiteheaded Vulture (Trigonoceps occipitalis) died. A variety of diagnostic tests, in particular levels of serum calcium and blood glucose, and histological examination of brains, has so far failed to reveal a cause. PMID:7241712

  17. Equipping African American Clergy to Recognize Depression.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Jean Spann; Morris, Edith; Collins, Charles W; Watson, Albert; Williams, Jennifer E; Ferguson, Bʼnai; Ruhlman, Deborah L

    2016-01-01

    Many African Americans (AAs) use clergy as their primary source of help for depression, with few being referred to mental health providers. This study used face-to-face workshops to train AA clergy to recognize the symptoms and levels of severity of depression. A pretest/posttest format was used to test knowledge (N = 42) about depression symptoms. Results showed that the participation improved the clergy's ability to recognize depression symptoms. Faith community nurses can develop workshops for clergy to improve recognition and treatment of depression. PMID:27610907

  18. Relationship of Pain and Ancestry in African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, John A.; Qi, Lihong; Garcia, Lorena; Younger, Jarred W.; Seldin, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Background African Americans are reported to be more sensitive to pain than European Americans. Pain sensitivity has been shown to be genetically linked in animal models and is likely to be in humans. Methods 11,239 self-identified African American post menopausal women enrolled in the Women’s Health Initiative had percentage African ancestry determined by ancestry informative markers, “Pain Construct” measurements and covariate information. They answered 5 questions about specific types and location of pain, such as joint, neck, low back, headache, and urinary. They also answered 2 questions which were used to derive a “Pain Construct”, a measure of general pain scored on a scale of 1 to 100. Associations were tested in linear regression models adjusting for age, self-reported medical conditions, neighborhood socio-economic status, education, and depression. Results In the unadjusted model of the 5 specific types of pain measures, greater pain perception was associated with a higher proportion of African ancestry. However, some of the specific types of pain measures were no longer associated with African ancestry after adjustment for other study covariates. The Pain Construct was statistically significantly associated with African ancestry in both the unadjusted [Beta = −0.132, 95% confidence interval (C I) = −099 – −0.164; r = −0.075, 95% CI −0.056 – −0.093] and the adjusted models (Beta = −0.069 95% CI = −0.04 – 0.10). Conclusions Greater African ancestry was associated with higher levels of self-reported pain although this accounted for only a minor fraction of the overall variation in the Pain Construct. PMID:25752262

  19. Condom Use by Hispanic and African American Teens and Young Adults Who Use Hormonal Contraception: Implications for HIV Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roye, Carol F.

    1997-01-01

    Examined the relationship between young Hispanic and African American womens' hormonal contraceptive use and condom use. Surveys of women at an inner-city health clinic investigated demographics, contraceptive practices, sexual behavior, condom use, and communication skills. Hormonal contraceptive use related to decreased condom use. Discussion…

  20. Measuring Attitudinal Change: A Sociolinguistic and Psycholinguistic Investigation into Perceptions of African American English and Academic English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latterman, Caroline Kennelly

    2013-01-01

    This experiment measured teachers' attitudes towards African American English and Academic English. Participants were graduate students of Education at a college in New York City. They completed a paper-and-pencil questionnaire that assessed their explicit attitudes towards the two varieties, as well as a Psycholinguistic Experiment that was…