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Sample records for african test cities

  1. City Children in African Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    A descriptive study identified titles and features of children's books set in an African city. Data were collected from various reviews of children's literature for titles published since 1980. In addition, the Cooperative Children's Book Center's log list of acquired titles for Africa from 1990 to 1996 was reviewed. Results showed that authors…

  2. Pilot Survey of Young African American Males in Four Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris (Louis) and Associates, Inc., New York, NY.

    A pilot survey was conducted to explore why some young African American men living in cities stay in high school and why others drop out. Between October 1993 and March 1994, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 360 young black men aged 17 to 22, randomly drawn from census tracts in New York (New York), Chicago (Illinois), Los Angeles…

  3. [Imitative urbanisation and the outward growth of African cities].

    PubMed

    Badibanga, A

    1985-01-01

    The city with its modern infrastructure and surrounding squatter settlements is exogenous to Africa because of its organization, location, and original functions. Cities were founded in the colonial era and still are not often situated in the center of national territories but rather near a port, a border, or a source of raw materials. A primary purpose of cities was the exogenous 1 of providing a link between land and sea, raw materials and distant markets. The city of the natives was haphazardly constructed at the periphery of the European city. The barrier it once provided between African and colonist now serves to separate mass and elite. Shanty towns, 1 of the worst urban plagues and the most perfect reflection of the absolute poverty of some parts of African cities, seem to surge spontaneously in the immediate outskirts of cities. Neither their size nor their rapid growth was foreseen by urban planners. Urban overpopulation due to rapid natural increase and immigration resulting from the excessive openness to the exterior is the major problem of African urbanization in the late 20th century. According to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the population of cities with 5000 or more inhabitants increased from 23 million in 1960 to 75 million in 1980. Urbanization is increasing in Africa at the rate of 10%/year. Among the many causes of this dizzying urban growth, the rural exodus is 1 of the most important and itself is caused by a multitude of economic, social, and political factors. The principal economic cause is the difficulty of earning cash in the countryside and the presumed availability of employment in cities. Natural and geographic factors such as alternating rainy and dry seasons and serious droughts also favor abandonment of the countryside, at least temporarily. Famine resulting from food deficits caused by the disturbed equilibrium between population and resources and the diversion of arable lands to cash crops also favors massive

  4. South African Cities: A Social Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western, John

    1986-01-01

    Traces the history of the development of cities in South Africa, paying special attention to the development of urban social controls. Three eras are identified: (1) mercantilism, (2) imperialism, and (3) apartheid. Concludes that enormous human costs are entailed by these attempts at social engineering. (JDH)

  5. Social Support Factors as Moderators of Community Violence Exposure Among Inner-City African American Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammack, Phillip L.; Richards, Maryse H.; Luo, Zupei; Edlynn, Emily S.; Roy, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    Using both surveys and the experience sampling method (ESM), community violence exposure, social support factors, and depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed longitudinally among inner-city African American adolescents. Moderator models were tested to determine protective factors for youth exposed to community violence. Several social…

  6. Astronomy as Practiced in the West African City of Timbuktu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medupe, Thebe Rodney

    Islam was introduced to West Africa over a millennium ago as a result of trade with North Africa and other parts of the Middle East. Islamic scholarship thrived in the city of Timbuktu in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. During this time West African scholars studied and taught mathematics, Quranic studies, and astronomy among other subjects. Until recently, the detail of what astronomy was known and practiced was not known. As an example of the content of material taught in the madrassas in West Africa, I present an outline of the content of two manuscripts written in the seventeenth century by Timbuktu scholars Muḥammad (or Aḥmad) b. Muḥammad Baghayu‛u b. Muḥammad Kūrdu and Abū l-‛Abbās Aḥmad b. al-Ḥājj R-mām-y-n al-Tuwātī al-Ghallāwī.

  7. Neuropsychological screening tests in African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Lampley-Dallas, V. T.

    2001-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests are instruments used to diagnose a variety of cognitive conditions. This article will review a few of the brief scales commonly used in screening for dementia. It will also discuss the properties of and problems with some of the brief scales that are commonly used to screen African Americans for dementia, highlighting the various biases. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is the most widely known and utilized cognitive impairment instrument in the United States. Whether or not it is biased to race after adjusting the scores for educational attainment remains controversial. The Blessed Information-Memory-Concentration Test (BIMC), Blessed Orientation-Memory-Concentration Test (BOMC), Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ), and Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (NCSE) are other screening tests used to diagnose dementia. Some of these tests have been found to misclassify many more African Americans as demented compared to the proportion of whites that are misclassified. The Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG) is the only brief neuropsychological scale designed to actually diagnose early dementia, but it is not known if it is biased for African Americans. PMID:11560287

  8. Extreme events evaluation over African cities with regional climate simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucchignani, Edoardo; Mercogliano, Paola; Simonis, Ingo; Engelbrecht, Francois

    2013-04-01

    The warming of the climate system in recent decades is evident from observations and is mainly related to the increase of anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations (IPCC, 2012). Given the expected climate change conditions on the African continent, as underlined in different publications, and their associated socio-economic impacts, an evaluation of the specific effects on some strategic African cities on the medium and long-term is of crucial importance with regard to the development of adaptation strategies. Assessments usually focus on averages climate properties rather than on variability or extremes, but often these last ones have more impacts on the society than averages values. Global Coupled Models (GCM) are generally used to simulate future climate scenarios as they guarantee physical consistency between variables; however, due to the coarse spatial resolution, their output cannot be used for impact studies on local scales, which makes necessary the generation of higher resolution climate change data. Regional Climate Models (RCM) describe better the phenomena forced by orography or by coastal lines, or that are related to convection. Therefore they can provide more detailed information on climate extremes that are hard to study and even harder to predict because they are, by definition, rare and obey different statistical laws. The normal bias of the RCM to represent the local climatology is reduced using adequate statistical techniques based on the comparison of the simulated results with long observational time series. In the framework of the EU-FP7 CLUVA (Climate Change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa) project, regional projections of climate change at high resolution (about 8 km), have been performed for selected areas surrounding five African cities. At CMCC, the regional climate model COSMO-CLM has been employed: it is a non-hydrostatic model. For each domain, two simulations have been performed, considering the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 emission

  9. World City/Regional City: Latinos and African-Americans in Chicago and St. Louis. JSRI Working Paper No. 46.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanueva, Margaret; Erdman, Brian; Howlett, Larry

    This paper traces the effects of economic restructuring through comparative socioeconomic profiles of African American and Latinos in the Midwest, with a focus on Chicago and Kansas City. Globalization has been associated with deindustrialization, relocation of jobs to developing countries with cheaper labor, and expansion of the service sector. A…

  10. Asymptomatic Malaria in Refugees Living in a Non-Endemic South African City

    PubMed Central

    Tsoka-Gwegweni, Joyce M.; Okafor, Uchenna

    2014-01-01

    Background Asymptomatic malaria infection in refugees is both a threat to the lives of the individuals and the public in the host country. Although South Africa has been experiencing an unprecedented influx of refugees since 1994, data on malaria infection among refugees is lacking. Such information is critical since South Africa is among the countries that have planned to eliminate malaria. The objective of this study was to determine prevalence of asymptomatic malaria infection among a refugee population living in a city of KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. Methods and Findings A survey was conducted on adult refugee participants who attended a faith-based facility offering social services in a city of KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. The participants were screened for the presence of malaria using rapid diagnostic tests and microscopy. Demographic data for the participants were obtained using a closed ended questionnaire. Data was obtained for 303 participants consisting of 51.5% females and 47.5% males, ranging from 19 to 64 years old. More than 95% of them originated from sub-Saharan African countries. Two hundred and ninety participants provided a blood sample for screening of malaria. Of these, 3.8% tested positive for rapid diagnostic test and 5.9% for microscopy. The majority of malaria infections were due to Plasmodium falciparum. Conclusions The study confirms the presence of asymptomatic malaria infections among a refugee population residing in a city of KwaZulu-Natal province that is not endemic for malaria. The results have important implications for both public health and malaria control in South Africa, particularly since the country has decided to eliminate malaria by 2018. To achieve this goal, South Africa needs to expand research, surveillance and elimination activities to include non-endemic areas, particularly with high refugee populations. We further recommend use of powerful diagnostic tests such as PCR for these interventions. PMID

  11. An HIV Testing Intervention in African American Churches: Pilot Study Findings

    PubMed Central

    Berkley-Patton, Jannette; Thompson, Carole Bowe; Moore, Erin; Hawes, Starlyn; Simon, Stephen; Goggin, Kathy; Martinez, David; Berman, Marcie; Booker, Alexandria

    2016-01-01

    Background African Americans are disproportionately burdened by HIV. The African American church is an influential institution with potential to increase reach of HIV prevention interventions in Black communities. Purpose This study examined HIV testing rates in African American churches in the Taking It to the Pews pilot project. Using a community-engaged approach, church leaders delivered religiously-tailored HIV education and testing materials/activities (e.g., sermons, brochures/bulletins, testimonials) to church and community members. Methods Four African American churches (N=543 participants) located in the Kansas City metropolitan area were randomized to intervention and comparison groups. Receipt of an HIV test was assessed at baseline and 6 months. Results Findings indicated intervention participants were 2.2 times more likely to receive an HIV test than comparisons at 6 months. Church leaders delivered about 2 tools per month. Conclusions Church-based HIV testing interventions are feasible and have potential to increase HIV testing rates in African American communities. PMID:26821712

  12. Developmental Influences and Gang Awareness among African-American Inner City Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadwallader, Tom W.; Cairns, Robert B.

    2002-01-01

    A study of 489 African American first-, fourth-, and seventh-grade students examined children's knowledge of gangs. Findings indicated that students are well aware of gang activities in their neighborhoods and can readily name the groups present in their inner-city environment. Students' awareness of gangs increases with age and may represent a…

  13. Inner-City African American Parental Involvement in Elementary Schools: Getting beyond Urban Legends of Apathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Adil, Jaleel K.; Farmer, Alvin David, Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Parental involvement in schools is a national priority for both educators and researchers to promote the successful schooling of contemporary youth. Contemporary parental involvement research has produced some promising findings, but parental involvement efforts with inner-city African Americans are currently limited by problems of research…

  14. Knowing is not enough: a qualitative report on HIV testing among heterosexual African-American men.

    PubMed

    Bond, Keosha T; Frye, Victoria; Taylor, Raekiela; Williams, Kim; Bonner, Sebastian; Lucy, Debbie; Cupid, Malik; Weiss, Linda; Koblin, Beryl A

    2015-01-01

    Despite having higher rates of HIV testing than all other racial groups, African-Americans continue to be disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic in the United States. Knowing one's status is the key step to maintaining behavioral changes that could stop the spread of the virus, yet little is known about the individual- and socio-structural-level barriers associated with HIV testing and communication among heterosexual African-American men. To address this and inform the development of an HIV prevention behavioral intervention for heterosexual African-American men, we conducted computerized, structured interviews with 61 men, focus group interviews with 25 men in 5 different groups, and in-depth qualitative interviews with 30 men living in high HIV prevalence neighborhoods in New York City. Results revealed that HIV testing was frequent among the participants. Even with high rates of testing, the men in the study had low levels of HIV knowledge; perceived little risk of HIV; and misused HIV testing as a prevention method. Factors affecting HIV testing, included stigma, relationship dynamics and communication, and societal influences, suggesting that fear, low perception of risk, and HIV stigma may be the biggest barriers to HIV testing. These results also suggest that interventions directed toward African-American heterosexual men must address the use of "testing as prevention" as well as correct misunderstandings of the window period and the meaning of HIV test results, and interventions should focus on communicating about HIV. PMID:25298014

  15. Knowing is not enough: a qualitative report on HIV testing among heterosexual African-American men

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Keosha T.; Frye, Victoria; Taylor, Raekiela; Williams, Kim; Bonner, Sebastian; Lucy, Debbie; Cupid, Malik; Weiss, Linda; Koblin, Beryl A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite having higher rates of HIV testing than all other racial groups, African-Americans continue to be disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic in the United States. Knowing one’s status is the key step to maintaining behavioral changes that could stop the spread of the virus, yet little is known about the individual- and socio-structural-level barriers associated with HIV testing and communication among heterosexual African-American men. To address this and inform the development of an HIV prevention behavioral intervention for heterosexual African-American men, we conducted computerized, structured interviews with 61 men, focus group interviews with 25 men in 5 different groups, and in-depth qualitative interviews with 30 men living in high HIV prevalence neighborhoods in New York City. Results revealed that HIV testing was frequent among the participants. Even with high rates of testing, the men in the study had low levels of HIV knowledge; perceived little risk of HIV; and misused HIV testing as a prevention method. Factors affecting HIV testing, included stigma, relationship dynamics and communication, and societal influences, suggesting that fear, low perception of risk, and HIV stigma may be the biggest barriers to HIV testing. These results also suggest that interventions directed toward African-American heterosexual men must address the use of “testing as prevention” as well as correct misunderstandings of the window period and the meaning of HIV test results, and interventions should focus on communicating about HIV. PMID:25298014

  16. Knowing is not enough: a qualitative report on HIV testing among heterosexual African-American men.

    PubMed

    Bond, Keosha T; Frye, Victoria; Taylor, Raekiela; Williams, Kim; Bonner, Sebastian; Lucy, Debbie; Cupid, Malik; Weiss, Linda; Koblin, Beryl A

    2015-01-01

    Despite having higher rates of HIV testing than all other racial groups, African-Americans continue to be disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic in the United States. Knowing one's status is the key step to maintaining behavioral changes that could stop the spread of the virus, yet little is known about the individual- and socio-structural-level barriers associated with HIV testing and communication among heterosexual African-American men. To address this and inform the development of an HIV prevention behavioral intervention for heterosexual African-American men, we conducted computerized, structured interviews with 61 men, focus group interviews with 25 men in 5 different groups, and in-depth qualitative interviews with 30 men living in high HIV prevalence neighborhoods in New York City. Results revealed that HIV testing was frequent among the participants. Even with high rates of testing, the men in the study had low levels of HIV knowledge; perceived little risk of HIV; and misused HIV testing as a prevention method. Factors affecting HIV testing, included stigma, relationship dynamics and communication, and societal influences, suggesting that fear, low perception of risk, and HIV stigma may be the biggest barriers to HIV testing. These results also suggest that interventions directed toward African-American heterosexual men must address the use of "testing as prevention" as well as correct misunderstandings of the window period and the meaning of HIV test results, and interventions should focus on communicating about HIV.

  17. Urban morphological determinants of temperature regulating ecosystem services in African cities: the case of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavan, Gina; Lindley, Sarah; Kibassa, Deusdedit; Shemdoe, Riziki; Capuano, Paolo; De Paola, Francesco; Renner, Florian; Pauleit, Stephan

    2013-04-01

    ., 2012). Mean temperatures in the climate zone are estimated to increase by at least 1°C between 1971-2000 and 2021-2050(CSIR, 2012). Dar es Salaam is represented using around 1700 UMT units mapped across 43 UMT categories for the year 2008. Modelled surface temperature profiles for the city are presented, including an assessment of the potential impact of changing green structure cover within selected UMT categories. Provisional recommendations are made concerning the potential contribution of green structures as a climate adaptation response to the increasing temperatures in Dar es Salaam, which could be relevant for other African cities in similar climate zones. References Cavan, G., Lindley, S., Yeshitela, K., Nebebe, A., Woldegerima, T., Shemdoe, R., Kibassa, D., Pauleit, S., Renner, R., Printz, A., Buchta, K., Coly, A., Sall, F., Ndour, N. M., Ouédraogo, Y., Samari, B. S., Sankara, B. T., Feumba, R. A., Ngapgue, J. N., Ngoumo, M. T., Tsalefac, M., Tonye, E. (2012) CLUVA deliverable D2.7 Green infrastructure maps for selected case studies and a report with an urban green infrastructure mapping methodology adapted to African cities. http://www.cluva.eu/deliverables/CLUVA_D2.7.pdf. Accessed 18/12/12. CSIR (2012) CLUVA deliverable D1.5 Regional climate change simulations available for the selected areas http://www.cluva.eu/deliverables/CLUVA_D1.5.pdf. Accessed 8/1/13. Giugni, M., Adamo, P., Capuano, P., De Paola, F., Di Ruocco, A., Giordano, S., Iavazzo, P., Sellerino, M., Terracciano, S., Topa, M. E. (2012) CLUVA deliverable D.1.2 Hazard scenarios for test cities using available data. http://www.cluva.eu/deliverables/CLUVA_D1.2.pdf. Accessed 8/1/13

  18. Bridging barriers to clinic-based HIV testing with new technology: translating self-implemented testing for African American youth.

    PubMed

    Catania, J A; Dolcini, M M; Harper, G W; Dowhower, D P; Dolcini-Catania, L G; Towner, S L; Timmons, A; Motley, D N; Tyler, D H

    2015-12-01

    Numerous barriers to clinic-based HIV testing exist (e.g., stigmatization) for African American youth. These barriers may be addressed by new technology, specifically HIV self-implemented testing (SIT). We conducted a series of formative phase 3 translation studies (49 face-to-face interviews, 9 focus groups, 1 advisory panel review) among low-income African American youth (15-19 years) and providers of adolescent services in two US cities to identify potential translation difficulties of the OraQuick SIT. Based on content analysis, we found that providers and African American youth viewed SITs positively compared to clinic-based testing. Data suggest that SITs may reduce social stigma and privacy concerns and increase convenience and normalization of HIV testing. Challenges with SIT implementation include difficulties accessing confirmatory testing, coping with adverse outcomes, and instructional materials that may be inappropriate for low socioeconomic status (SES) persons. Study results underscore the need for translation studies to identify specific comprehension and implementation problems African American youth may have with oral SITs. PMID:26622910

  19. Exploring HIV knowledge, risk and protective factors among west African forced migrants in New York City.

    PubMed

    Akinsulure-Smith, Adeyinka M

    2014-06-01

    Because of ongoing political and social instability throughout the continent, many Africans have become forced migrants. Unlike immigrants who choose to migrate, forced migrants flee their countries in search of safety and often endure multiple traumatic events during their migration. They are often unprepared for new risks in their adopted country. There is a high incidence of newly-diagnosed HIV cases among West African immigrants in the New York City metropolitan area, but little research to date to understand why this might occur. In order to gain insight, the current pilot study explored HIV knowledge, risk and protective behaviors among 52 West African-born forced migrants in New York City. HIV risk behavior came primarily from unprotected heterosexual activities. While most participants were very knowledgeable about HIV transmission and risk factors, almost half reported that they had not used condoms during sexual activities in the past 6 months. Women were more knowledgeable about HIV transmission, yet reported significantly more STDs than men. Many participants did not know about HIV/AIDS treatments and could not identify HIV/AIDS services and resources within their immigrant communities. Factors influencing HIV risk and protective behaviors among this population are identified and discussed. Suggestions for future research and strategies to reduce risky behaviors while enhancing protective ones among forced West African migrants are highlighted.

  20. Behavioural Precursors and HIV Testing Behaviour among African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhrig, Jennifer D.; Davis, Kevin C.; Rupert, Doug; Fraze, Jami

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether there is an association between knowledge, attitudes and beliefs, reported intentions to get an HIV test, and reported HIV testing behaviour at a later date among a sample of African American women. Design: Secondary analysis of data collected from October 2007 through March 2008 for a randomized controlled experiment…

  1. Blood lead levels in South African inner-city children

    SciTech Connect

    von Schirnding, Y.; Bradshaw, D. ); Fuggle, R. ); Stokol, M. )

    1991-08-01

    Little is known about childhood lead absorption in South Africa. In this study a cross-sectional analytic survey was carried out to determine the blood lead levels and associated risk factors for inner-city, first-grade schoolchildren. Blood lead analyses, hematological and anthropometric measurements were conducted, and a pretested questionnaire was administered to parents to identify risk factors for lead exposure. In detailed environmental study, daily air and dust samples were collected over a period of 1 year from several sites in the study area, contemporaneously with the blood and questionnaire surveys. Spatial and temporal variations in atmospheric lead were determined. It was found that 13% of mixed race children, but no white children, had blood lead levels {ge} 25 {mu}g/dL, the US action level. Air lead levels averaged around 1 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, and dust lead levels ranged from 410 to 3620 ppm. Environmental lead levels were significantly elevated near heavy traffic, where Environmental Protection Agency standards were exceeded mainly during winter months. Baseline exposure was of significance in influencing blood lead levels of children attending schools in direct proximity to heavy traffic, where blood lead levels were elevated irrespective of other influencing factors. Primary and secondary preventive measures are urgently needed in South Africa to reduce environmental lead exposure.

  2. The Effect of Social Problem Solving Skills in the Relationship between Traumatic Stress and Moral Disengagement among Inner-City African American High School Students.

    PubMed

    Coker, Kendell L; Ikpe, Uduakobong N; Brooks, Jeannie S; Page, Brian; Sobell, Mark B

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between traumatic stress, social problem solving, and moral disengagement among African American inner-city high school students. Participants consisted of 45 (25 males and 20 females) African American students enrolled in grades 10 through 12. Mediation was assessed by testing for the indirect effect using the confidence interval derived from 10,000 bootstrapped resamples. The results revealed that social problem-solving skills have an indirect effect on the relationship between traumatic stress and moral disengagement. The findings suggest that African American youth that are negatively impacted by trauma evidence deficits in their social problem solving skills and are likely to be at an increased risk to morally disengage. Implications for culturally sensitive and trauma-based intervention programs are also provided.

  3. African Psychology and Black Personality Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Joseph A.

    1987-01-01

    The following instruments for measuring Black personality use the world view and cultural orientations of Africa have been developed and are described: (1) the Black Personality Questionnaire; (2) the Black Preference Inventory; (3) the Black Opinion Scale; (4) the Themes of Black Awareness Test; (5) the Themes Concerning Blacks Test; and (6) the…

  4. Explanatory models of obesity of inner-city African-American adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Ashcraft, Pamela F

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological inquiry was to construct an explanatory model of illness in inner-city African-American adolescent males using Kleinman's Explanatory Model of Illness as a framework. Thirteen males were enrolled in this study. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were used to explore adolescents' perspectives regarding the nature, cause, prevention and responses to obesity; their perception of self; and meanings they attach to obesity with particular emphasis on existing attitudes, expectations, and values. Data analysis was achieved through a process of inductive content analysis. Findings, future research and clinical implications are discussed.

  5. Barriers to smoking cessation in inner-city African American young adults.

    PubMed

    Stillman, Frances A; Bone, Lee; Avila-Tang, Erika; Smith, Katherine; Yancey, Norman; Street, Calvin; Owings, Kerry

    2007-08-01

    The prevalence of tobacco use among urban African American persons aged 18 to 24 years not enrolled in college is alarmingly high and a challenge for smoking cessation initiatives. Recent data from inner-city neighborhoods in Baltimore, Md, indicate that more than 60% of young adults smoke cigarettes. We sought to describe community-level factors contributing to this problem. Data from focus groups and surveys indicate that the sale and acquisition of "loosies" are ubiquitous and normative and may contribute to the high usage and low cessation rates.

  6. Strategies to Improve HIV Testing in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Kenya, Sonjia; Okoro, Ikenna; Wallace, Kiera; Carrasquillo, Olveen; Prado, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Only 17% of Miami-Dade County residents are African American, yet this population accounts for 59% of the county’s HIV-related mortality. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend annual testing for persons at increased risk for HIV, but 40% of African Americans have never been tested. OraQuick®, the first FDA-approved home-based HIV rapid test (HBHRT), has the potential to increase testing rates; however, there are concerns about HBHRT in vulnerable populations. We conducted focus groups in an underserved Miami neighborhood to obtain community input regarding HBHRT as a potential mechanism to increase HIV testing in African Americans. We queried HIV knowledge, attitudes toward research, and preferred intervention methods. Several HIV misconceptions were identified and participants expressed support for HIV research and introducing HBHRT into the community by culturally appropriate individuals trained to provide support. We concluded that community health workers paired with HBHRT were a promising strategy to increase HIV testing in this population. PMID:26066691

  7. Strategies to Improve HIV Testing in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Kenya, Sonjia; Okoro, Ikenna; Wallace, Kiera; Carrasquillo, Olveen; Prado, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Only 17% of Miami-Dade County residents are African American, yet this population accounts for 59% of the county's HIV-related mortality. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend annual testing for persons at increased risk for HIV, but 40% of African Americans have never been tested. OraQuick® (OraSure Technologies, Inc., Bethlehem, PA), the first US Food and Drug Administration-approved home-based HIV rapid test (HBHRT), has the potential to increase testing rates; however, there are concerns about HBHRT in vulnerable populations. We conducted focus groups in an underserved Miami neighborhood to obtain community input regarding HBHRT as a potential mechanism to increase HIV testing in African Americans. We queried HIV knowledge, attitudes toward research, and preferred intervention methods. Several HIV misconceptions were identified, and participants expressed support for HIV research and introducing HBHRT into the community by culturally appropriate individuals trained to provide support. We concluded that community health workers paired with HBHRT were a promising strategy to increase HIV testing in this population. PMID:26066691

  8. A Tale of Two Cities: Access to Care and Services Among African-American Transgender Women in Oakland and San Francisco

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Taylor M.; Iwamoto, Mariko; Sakata, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: The San Francisco Bay Area attracts people from all over the country due to the perception of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) acceptance and affirmation. African-American transgender women are severely marginalized across society and as such have many unmet health and social service needs. This study sought to quantitatively assess unmet needs among African-American transgender women with a history of sex work by comparing residents of Oakland versus San Francisco. Methods: A total of 235 African-American transgender women were recruited from San Francisco (n=112) and Oakland (n=123) through community outreach and in collaboration with AIDS service organizations. Participants were surveyed regarding basic, health, and social needs and HIV risk behaviors. Pearson Chi-squared tests and a linear regression model examined associations between city of residence and unmet needs. Results: While participants from both cities reported unmet needs, Oakland participants had a greater number of unmet needs in receiving basic assistance, mental health treatment, and health care services. Oakland participants also reported less transgender community identification but higher social support from the family. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate the enormity of African-American transgender women's needs within the Bay Area. Greater resources are needed for social service provision targeting this marginalized group of people, particularly in Oakland. PMID:26788672

  9. Exploring child prostitution in a major city in the West African region.

    PubMed

    Hounmenou, Charles

    2016-09-01

    The study explored the characteristics of child prostitution in a major city in the West African region. A convenience sample of children in prostitution, specifically girls below age 18 (n=243), were recruited on 83 prostitution sites identified in Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso. A survey instrument, consisting of 71 closed-ended question items, was used to explore various variables including profile of children in prostitution, factors of vulnerability to prostitution; prostitution practices, compensations and related issues in child prostitution. The findings show that most children in prostitution in the city were from Burkina Faso (63%) and Nigeria (30%), two countries that do not share borders. Most native respondents practiced prostitution for survival and to support their families. In contrast, all the respondents from Nigeria practiced prostitution as victims of international sex trafficking. An important finding was that 77% of the children in prostitution surveyed were educated. Among the respondents, there were similarities in the major life events that contributed to their situation of prostitution. These life events include early separation with parents, sexual abuse, foster care, and forced marriage. Implications for policy, practice and research are discussed. PMID:27490517

  10. Exploring child prostitution in a major city in the West African region.

    PubMed

    Hounmenou, Charles

    2016-09-01

    The study explored the characteristics of child prostitution in a major city in the West African region. A convenience sample of children in prostitution, specifically girls below age 18 (n=243), were recruited on 83 prostitution sites identified in Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso. A survey instrument, consisting of 71 closed-ended question items, was used to explore various variables including profile of children in prostitution, factors of vulnerability to prostitution; prostitution practices, compensations and related issues in child prostitution. The findings show that most children in prostitution in the city were from Burkina Faso (63%) and Nigeria (30%), two countries that do not share borders. Most native respondents practiced prostitution for survival and to support their families. In contrast, all the respondents from Nigeria practiced prostitution as victims of international sex trafficking. An important finding was that 77% of the children in prostitution surveyed were educated. Among the respondents, there were similarities in the major life events that contributed to their situation of prostitution. These life events include early separation with parents, sexual abuse, foster care, and forced marriage. Implications for policy, practice and research are discussed.

  11. School-based Management of Chronic Asthma Among Inner-city African-American Schoolchildren in Dallas, Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Melanie; Johnson, Pauline; Neatherlin, Jacque; Millard, Mark W.; Lawrence, Gretchen

    1998-01-01

    Examined the efficacy of a school-based asthma management program to prevent exacerbation of symptoms in inner-city, African-American students. Students visited the school clinic twice daily for treatment with inhaled anti-inflammatory medication and measurement of respiratory peak flow rates. Regular use of inhaled anti-inflammatory medication…

  12. Living Circumstances of Suicide Mortality in a South African City: An Ecological Study of Differences across Race Groups and Sexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Stephanie; Laflamme, Lucie

    2005-01-01

    In this study the importance of living area circumstances for suicide mortality was explored. Suicide mortality was assessed across race and sex groups in a South African city and the influence of area-based compositional and sociophysical characteristics on suicide risk was considered. Suicide mortality rates are highest among Whites, in…

  13. Different Forms of Aggression among Inner-City African-American Children: Gender, Configurations, and School Social Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Hongling; Farmer, Thomas W.; Cairns, Beverley D.

    2003-01-01

    Using narrative reports of peer conflicts among a sample of African-American children and adolescents from inner-city schools, investigates the development and social functions of four types of aggressive behaviors. Results showed that low levels of social aggression and high levels of physical aggression were reported in peer conflicts. Distinct…

  14. Back-trajectory analysis of African dust outbreaks at a coastal city in southern Spain: Selection of starting heights and assessment of African and concurrent Mediterranean contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabello, M.; Orza, J. A. G.; Dueñas, C.; Liger, E.; Gordo, E.; Cañete, S.

    2016-09-01

    The present study uses a back-trajectory analysis at multiple heights for better interpretation of the impact of the African dust outbreaks in the coastal Mediterranean city of Málaga (Spain), the southernmost large city in Europe. Throughout a 3-year period, 363 days were identified as dusty days by atmospheric transport models. During these events, PM10, SO2, O3, temperature, AOD and Ångström exponent showed statistically significant differences compared to days with no African dust. It was found that under African dust events, the study site was influenced by Mediterranean air masses at the lowermost heights and by Atlantic advections at high altitudes, while African air masses mostly reached Málaga at intermediate levels. Specifically, the lowest heights at which air masses reached the study site after having resided over Africa are confined into the 1000-2000 m range. The decoupling between the lowest heights and the ones for dust transport may explain the presence of aged air masses at the time of the African outbreak. Additionally, with the aim of studying the influence of the air mass origin and history on air quality, a new procedure based on Principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed to determine which altitudes are best suited as starting points for back-trajectory calculations, as they maximize the differences in residence time over different areas. Its application to Málaga identifies three altitudes (750, 2250 and 4500 m) and a subsequent analysis of back-trajectories for African dust days provided the main source areas over Africa as well as further insight on the Mediterranean contribution.

  15. Influences on HIV Testing among Young African-American Men Who Have Sex with Men and the Moderating Effect of the Geographic Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashburn, Andrew J.; Peterson, John L.; Bakeman, Roger; Miller, Robin L.; Clark, Leslie F.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the influence of demographic characteristics, risk behaviors, knowledge, and psychosocial variables on HIV testing among a sample (n = 551) of young African-American men who have sex with men (MSM) from three cities--Atlanta (n = 241), Birmingham (n = 174), and Chicago (n = 136). Among the entire sample of young men, age,…

  16. Correlates of HIV Infection Among African American Women from 20 Cities in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Isa; Le, Binh; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Little research has been conducted to investigate multiple levels of HIV risk—individual risk factors, sex partner characteristics, and socioeconomic factors—among African American women, who, in 2010, comprised 64 % of the estimated 9,500 new infections in women. Respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit and interview women in 20 cities with high AIDS prevalence in the United States through the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System. We assessed individual risk factors, sex partner characteristics, and socioeconomic characteristics associated with being HIV-positive but unaware of the infection among African American women. Among 3,868 women with no previous diagnosis of HIV, 68 % had high school education or more and 84 % lived at or below the poverty line. In multivariable analysis, women who were 35 years or older, homeless, received Medicaid, whose last sex partner ever used crack cocaine or was an exchange sex partner were more likely to be HIV-positive-unaware. Developing and implementing strategies that address socioeconomic factors, such as homelessness and living in poverty, as well as individual risk factors, can help to maximize the effectiveness of the public health response to the HIV epidemic. PMID:24077972

  17. Performance of African American Preschool and Kindergarten Students on the Expressive Vocabulary Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas-Tate, Shurita; Washington, Julie; Craig, Holly; Packard, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the validity of the Expressive Vocabulary Test (EVT; K. Williams, 1997) for assessing the expressive vocabulary skills of African American students. Method/Results: One hundred sixty-five African American preschool and kindergarten students were administered the EVT. The mean EVT score for these African American students was…

  18. Isotopic characterization of the Precambrian carbonate aquifers under the city of Bangui (Central African Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huneau, Frederic; Djebebe-Ndjiguim, Chantal-Laure; Foto, Eric; Ito, Mari; Celle-Jeanton, Helene; Garel, Emilie; Mabingui, Joseph

    2013-04-01

    The city of Bangui, the capital of the Central African Republic, is located on the right bank of the Ubangi River which is the northernmost tributary of the Congo River. From its foundation in 1889 this city has always suffered from serious problems of water management. This is related to the specificity of the site configuration (steep hills surrounding a large swampy flat valley poorly drained) and to the urbanisation process responsible for the waterproofing of soils and the associated increased runoff processes under tropical humid condition.This paper presents the results of a geochemical and isotopic survey carried out in 2011 aiming at evaluating the type and chemical quality of the groundwater resources of the Bangui region. By combining geological, hydrogeochemical and isotopic data it appears that the underground of Bangui seems favourable to the development of a secured and sustainable water supply from groundwater provided that the conditions of exploitation would be constrained by the local authorities. The deep fractured (and locally kastified) Precambrian carbonate aquifers known as Bimbo and Fatima formations are identified as target resources considering the relatively good quality of the resource from the chemical point of view, and the semi-confined structure of the aquifer preventing the mixing with shallow aquifers already strongly impacted by domestic and industrial pollutions.

  19. Bridges to nowhere: hosts, migrants, and the chimera of social capital in three African cities.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, Sangeetha; Landau, Loren B

    2011-01-01

    Interest in migrant social networks and social capital has grown substantially over the past several decades. The relationship between “host” and “migrant” communities remains central to these scholarly debates. Recently urbanized cities in Africa, which include large numbers of “native-born” or internal migrants, challenge basic presumptions about host/migrant distinctions informing many of these discussions. Using comparable survey data from Johannesburg, Maputo, and Nairobi, we examine 1) the nature of social connectedness in terms of residence and nativity characteristics; and 2) the relationship between residence and nativity characteristics and three measures of trust within and across communities. Our findings suggest that the host/migrant distinction may not be particularly revealing in African cities where domestic mobility, social fragmentation and the absence of bridging institutions result in relatively low levels of trust both within and across communities. These findings underscore the need for new concepts to study “communities of strangers” and how people strategize their social mobility in urban contexts.

  20. A SNP test to identify Africanized honeybees via proportion of 'African' ancestry.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Nadine C; Harpur, Brock A; Lim, Julianne; Rinderer, Thomas E; Allsopp, Michael H; Zayed, Amro; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2015-11-01

    The honeybee, Apis mellifera, is the world's most important pollinator and is ubiquitous in most agricultural ecosystems. Four major evolutionary lineages and at least 24 subspecies are recognized. Commercial populations are mainly derived from subspecies originating in Europe (75-95%). The Africanized honeybee is a New World hybrid of A. m. scutellata from Africa and European subspecies, with the African component making up 50-90% of the genome. Africanized honeybees are considered undesirable for bee-keeping in most countries, due to their extreme defensiveness and poor honey production. The international trade in honeybees is restricted, due in part to bans on the importation of queens (and semen) from countries where Africanized honeybees are extant. Some desirable strains from the United States of America that have been bred for traits such as resistance to the mite Varroa destructor are unfortunately excluded from export to countries such as Australia due to the presence of Africanized honeybees in the USA. This study shows that a panel of 95 single nucleotide polymorphisms, chosen to differentiate between the African, Eastern European and Western European lineages, can detect Africanized honeybees with a high degree of confidence via ancestry assignment. Our panel therefore offers a valuable tool to mitigate the risks of spreading Africanized honeybees across the globe and may enable the resumption of queen and bee semen imports from the Americas.

  1. Attitudes towards couples-based HIV testing among MSM in three US cities.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Rob; Sullivan, Patrick S; Salazar, Laura F; Gratzer, Beau; Allen, Susan; Seelbach, Erick

    2011-04-01

    Couples-based voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT)--in which couples receive counseling and their HIV test results together--has been shown to be an effective strategy among heterosexual sero-discordant couples in Africa for reducing HIV transmission by initiating behavioral change. This study examined attitudes towards CVCT among men who have sex with men (MSM) in three US cities. Four focus group discussions (FGD) were held with MSM in Atlanta, Chicago, and Seattle. Although initially hesitant, participants reported an overwhelming acceptance of CVCT. CVCT was seen as a sign of commitment within a relationship and was reported to be more appropriate for men in longer-term relationships. CVCT was also seen as providing a forum for the discussion of risk-taking within the relationship. Our results suggest that there may be a demand for CVCT among MSM in the United States, but some modifications to the existing African CVCT protocol may be needed.

  2. Mass Testing and the Underdevelopment of Inner-City Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesch, Rick

    2000-01-01

    Mass testing as a phenomena of global educational restructuring exacerbates social class differences. This phenomenon is examined via inner-city Winnipeg's experience, cross-cultural educational literature, and the Manitoba government's tendency to reinforce the underdevelopment of core area regions. Emerging resistance to educational…

  3. Raven's Test Performance of Sub-Saharan Africans: Average Performance, Psychometric Properties, and the Flynn Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicherts, Jelte M.; Dolan, Conor V.; Carlson, Jerry S.; van der Maas, Han L. J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic review of published data on the performance of sub-Saharan Africans on Raven's Progressive Matrices. The specific goals were to estimate the average level of performance, to study the Flynn Effect in African samples, and to examine the psychometric meaning of Raven's test scores as measures of general intelligence.…

  4. Inner-city African American parental involvement in children's schooling: racial socialization and social support from the parent community.

    PubMed

    McKay, Mary McKernan; Atkins, Marc S; Hawkins, Tracie; Brown, Catherine; Lynn, Cynthia J

    2003-09-01

    Parents (n = 161) and teachers (n = 18) from an urban elementary school serving primarily African American children completed questionnaires regarding racial socialization, social support, and involvement in activities that support youth educational achievement at home and school. Parental reports of racism awareness, and contact with school staff were significantly correlated with parent reports of at-home involvement and at-school involvement. Parent reports of social support from the parent community were significantly related to at-home involvement only. Relative to teacher reports, parents reported more formal contacts with school staff, and higher levels of racism awareness, religiosity, and African American cultural pride. Teachers and parents agreed on school climate and parental levels of at-home and at-school involvement. The results suggest that racial socialization processes are related to parent involvement in children's schooling and that increased efforts are needed to bridge a cultural gap between parents and teachers in inner-city communities.

  5. A multi-level approach for promoting HIV testing within African American church settings.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Jennifer M

    2015-02-01

    The African American church is a community-based organization that is integral to the lives, beliefs, and behaviors of the African American community. Engaging this vital institution as a primary setting for HIV testing and referral would significantly impact the epidemic. The disproportionately high HIV incidence rate among African Americans dictates the national priority for promotion of early and routine HIV testing, and suggests engaging community-based organizations in this endeavor. However, few multilevel HIV testing frameworks have been developed, tested, and evaluated within the African American church. This article proposes one such framework for promoting HIV testing and referral within African American churches. A qualitative study was employed to examine the perceptions, beliefs, knowledge, and behaviors related to understanding involvement in church-based HIV testing. A total of four focus groups with church leaders and four in-depth interviews with pastors, were conducted between November 2012 and June 2013 to identify the constructs most important to supporting Philadelphia churches' involvement in HIV testing, referral, and linkage to care. The data generated from this study were analyzed using a grounded theory approach and used to develop and refine a multilevel framework for identifying factors impacting church-based HIV testing and referral and to ultimately support capacity building among African American churches to promote HIV testing and linkage to care.

  6. Delineation of flood-prone areas and the identification of residential hotspots for two African cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Risi, Raffaele; Jalayer, Fatemeh; De Paola, Francesco; Iervolino, Iunio; Giugni, Maurizio; Topa, Maria Elena; Yonas, Nebyou; Nebebe, Alemu; Woldegerima, Tekle; Yeshitela, Kumelachew; Kibassa, Deusdedit; Shemdoe, Riziki; Cavan, Gina; Lindley, Sarah; Renner, Florian; Printz, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    ., Nebebe, A., Woldegerima, T., Shemdoe, R., Kibassa, D., Pauleit, S., Renner, R., Printz, A., Buchta, K., Coly, A., Sall, F., Ndour, N. M., Ouédraogo, Y., Samari, B. S., Sankara, B. T., Feumba, R. A., Ngapgue, J. N., Ngoumo, M. T., Tsalefac, M., Tonye, E. (2012) Green infrastructure maps for selected case studies and a report with an urban green infrastructure mapping methodology adapted to African cities CLUVA project deliverable D2.7. Available at http://www.cluva.eu/deliverables/CLUVA_D2.7.pdf. Date last accessed, Dec. 18th 2012

  7. For People of African, Mediterranean, or Southeast Asian Heritage: Important Information about Diabetes Blood Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... p.m. eastern time, M-F For More Information American Diabetes Association National Heart, Lung, and Blood ... of African, Mediterranean, or Southeast Asian Heritage: Important Information about Diabetes Blood Tests Page Content On this ...

  8. City of North Bonneville, Washington: Geothermal Exploration production test well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-06-01

    Based on discussions with the City of North Bonneville, the production test well was drilled to a depth that would also explore for ground water temperatures near 130 F (54.4 C). Depth projections to a 130 F bottom hole temperature were made by assuming a constant ground water temperature rise greater than 50 C per kilometer, and by assuming that essentially homogeneous or equivalent conductive rock units would be encountered. Minimum water production requirements were not set, although the City determined that about 800 gpm would be acceptable. Larger upper casing diameters of 16 and 12 inches were installed in order to provide the future use of either a vertical turbine or submersible pump, as desired by the city. The scope of work included interpretation of well characteristics, evaluation of ground water as a geothermal resource, geologic analysis of data from drilling and testing, drilling supervision, daily drilling cost accounting, and preparation of a final report. The report includes geologic evaluation of the drilling and test data, ground water and geothermal potential.

  9. Spatiotemporal analysis of urban growth in three African capital cities: A grid-cell-based analysis using remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Hao; Estoque, Ronald C.; Murayama, Yuji

    2016-11-01

    Spatiotemporal analysis of urban growth patterns and dynamics is important not only in urban geography but also in landscape and urban planning and sustainability studies. Based on remote sensing-derived land-cover maps and LandScan population data of two time points (ca. 2000 and 2014), this study examines the spatiotemporal patterns and dynamics of the urban growth of three rapidly urbanizing African capital cities, namely, Bamako (Mali), Cairo (Egypt) and Nairobi (Kenya). A grid-cell-based analysis technique was employed to integrate the LandScan population and land-cover data, creating grid maps of population density and the density of each land-cover category. The results revealed that Bamako's urban (built-up) area has been expanding at a rate of 5.37% per year. Nairobi had a lower annual expansion rate (4.99%), but had a higher rate compared to Cairo (2.79%). Bamako's urban expansion was at the expense of its bareland and green spaces (i.e., cropland, grassland and forest), whereas the urban expansions of Cairo and Nairobi were at the cost of their bareland. In all three cities, there was a weak, but significant positive relationship between urban expansion (change in built-up density) and population growth (change in population density). Overall, this study provides an overview of the spatial patterns and dynamics of urban growth in these three African capitals, which might be useful in the context of urban studies and landscape and urban planning.

  10. African wild dogs test the 'survival of the fittest' paradigm.

    PubMed

    Pole, Alistair; Gordon, Iain J; Gorman, Martyn L

    2003-08-01

    Charles Darwin first used the term 'survival of the fittest' in the 5th edition of The origin of species. A literal interpretation implies that predators will selectively prey upon the weakest members of a population. We demonstrate that this is true for African wild dogs hunting impala. PMID:12952636

  11. Why African American College Students Miss the Perfect Test Score

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Ruben; Stokes, Dorothy

    2016-01-01

    Many African Americans were imbued with the cliché that they must work twice as hard as others to be a success in life. Entering college, students with this belief put extensive effort into earning top grades to ensure quality preparation for their chosen career; yet, some fail to earn top scores. Why? This is the million dollar question, but the…

  12. African wild dogs test the 'survival of the fittest' paradigm.

    PubMed

    Pole, Alistair; Gordon, Iain J; Gorman, Martyn L

    2003-08-01

    Charles Darwin first used the term 'survival of the fittest' in the 5th edition of The origin of species. A literal interpretation implies that predators will selectively prey upon the weakest members of a population. We demonstrate that this is true for African wild dogs hunting impala.

  13. Predicting discordance between self-reports of sexual behavior and incident sexually transmitted infections with African American female adolescents: results from a 4-city study.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jennifer L; Sales, Jessica M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Salazar, Laura F; Vanable, Peter A; Carey, Michael P; Brown, Larry K; Romer, Daniel; Valois, Robert F; Stanton, Bonita

    2012-08-01

    This study examined correlates of the discordance between sexual behavior self-reports and Incident Sexually Transmitted Infections. African American adolescent females (N = 964) from four U.S. cities were recruited for an HIV/STI prevention trial. Self-reported sexual behaviors, demographics, and hypothesized psychosocial antecedents of sexual risk behavior were collected at baseline, 6-, 12-, and 18-month follow-up assessments. Urine specimens were collected and tested for three prevalent STIs (chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomonas) at each assessment. Seventeen percent of participants with a laboratory-confirmed STI reported either lifetime abstinence or recent abstinence from vaginal sex (discordant self-report). Lower STI knowledge, belief that fewer peers were engaging in sex, and belief that more peers will wait until marriage to have sex were associated with discordant reports. Discordance between self-reported abstinence and incident STIs was marked among African American female adolescents. Lack of STI knowledge and sexual behavior peer norms may result in underreporting of sexual behaviors.

  14. This Test Is Unfair: African American and Latino High School Students' Perceptions of Standardized College Admission Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walpole, MaryBeth; McDonough, Patricia M.; Bauer, Constance J.; Gibson, Carolyn; Kanyi, Kamau T.; Toliver, Rita

    This qualitative study focused on African American and Latino high school students perceptions of standardized admission tests, including the Scholastic Assessment Tests (I and II) and the ACT Assessment. Students enrolled in college preparatory classes were interviewed about these tests individually and in focus groups in fall 1998 in their…

  15. Dating Violence Perpetration and/or Victimization and Associated Sexual Risk Behaviors among a Sample of Inner-City African American and Hispanic Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alleyne-Green, Binta; Coleman-Cowger, Victoria H.; Henry, David B.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of physical and psychological dating violence victimization and perpetration reported by inner-city African American and Hispanic adolescent girls as well as associated risky sexual behaviors among this population. Participants in this study were 10th- and 11th-grade female students from seven…

  16. Connectedness and Self-Regulation as Constructs of the Student Success Skills Program in Inner-City African American Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemberger, Matthew E.; Clemens, Elysia V.

    2012-01-01

    The authors evaluated a small-group counseling intervention, Student Success Skills, provided to 53 inner-city, 4th- and 5th-grade African American students. Compared with the control group, students who received the treatment reported significant changes in metacognitive skill and feelings of connectedness to school. Furthermore, treatment-group…

  17. Predictors of Self-Reported Physical Symptoms in Low-Income, Inner-City African American Women: The Role of Optimism, Depressive Symptoms, and Chronic Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Deborah J.; O'Connell, Cara; Gound, Mary; Heller, Laurie; Forehand, Rex

    2004-01-01

    In this study we examined the association of optimism and depressive symptoms with self-reported physical symptoms in 241 low-income, inner-city African American women with or without a chronic illness (HIV). Although optimism was not a unique predictor of self-reported physical symptoms over and above depressive symptoms, optimism interacted with…

  18. Growing up in a Dangerous Developmental Milieu: The Effects of Parenting Processes on Adjustment in Inner-City African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazsonyi, Alexander T.; Pickering, Lloyd E.; Bolland, John M.

    2006-01-01

    The current longitudinal study examined the protective effects of parenting processes on measures of adolescent adjustment (health-compromising and violent behaviors) in a sample of high-risk, inner-city, poor African American youth N = 2,867). Parenting processes played an important role in this dangerous developmental milieu. For male…

  19. An Afrocentric Approach to Group Social Skills Training with Inner-City African-American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Reginald; And Others

    Social Skills Training (SST) has become a popular and effective means of prevention and intervention with adolescent populations exhibiting behavioral difficulties. Early in their development many African-American youth are exposed to homicide, crime, and interpersonal violence. The acquisition of social skills is critical to the development of…

  20. Elderly African Immigrants in Minnesota: A Case Study of Needs Assessment in Eight Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darboe, Kebba; Ahmed, Lul S.

    2007-01-01

    Needs assessment is the process of identifying the gap between a target population's needs and its services. If a gap exists, a program can be designed to effectively respond to those needs. This article explores the needs of elderly African immigrants in Minnesota through the use of qualitative interviews. A convenience sampling was used to…

  1. School Day Eating Habits of Inner-City, African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDuffie, Thomas E.; George, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    School administrators and food providers need to better understand what factors drive young consumers' food choices in order to keep them as customers and avoid a potential backlash from parents, the community, and public policymakers. This article reports the findings of a study on African American adolescents and food, specifically, their…

  2. Latent Patterns of Risk Behavior in Urban African-American Middle School Students in Baltimore City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedden, Sarra L.; Whitaker, Damiya E.; von Thomsen, Sarah; Severtson, S. Geoffrey; Latimer, William W.

    2011-01-01

    Students who engage in high-risk behaviors, including early initiation of sexual intercourse, alcohol use, marijuana use, tobacco use, and externalizing behavior are vulnerable to a broad range of adverse outcomes as adults. Latent class analysis was used to determine whether varying patterns of risk behavior existed for 212 urban African-American…

  3. Performance of Elementary-Grade African American Students on the Gray Oral Reading Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Holly K.; Thompson, Connie A.; Washington, Julie A.; Potter, Stephanie L.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: African American students perform disproportionately more poorly on standardized reading assessments than their majority peers. Poor reading performances may be related to test biases inherent in standardized reading instruments. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the appropriateness of the Gray Oral Reading Tests-Third…

  4. Self-implemented HIV testing: perspectives on improving dissemination among urban African American youths.

    PubMed

    Catania, Joseph A; Dolcini, M Margaret; Harper, Gary W; Orellana, E Roberto; Tyler, Donald H; Timmons, April; Motley, Darnell; Dolcini-Catania, Luciano G; Towner, Senna L

    2015-07-01

    We examined the potential for increasing the reach of HIV testing to African American youths through the dissemination of oral-HIV testing. From 2012 through 2013 we examined the perceptions of alternatives to pharmacy dissemination of SITs in African American youths (5 focus groups) and service providers (4 focus groups), and conducted an ethnographic study of pharmacies (n = 10). Participants perceived significant advantages to delivering SITs through community health and services for adolescents (e.g., increased confidentiality, reduced stigma) over pharmacy dissemination. Given proper attention to fit, SIT dissemination could be facilitated through distribution by health and social service sites, and by improving elements of pharmacy dissemination.

  5. Self-Implemented HIV Testing: Perspectives on Improving Dissemination Among Urban African American Youths

    PubMed Central

    Dolcini, M. Margaret; Harper, Gary W.; Orellana, E. Roberto; Tyler, Donald H.; Timmons, April; Motley, Darnell; Dolcini-Catania, Luciano G.; Towner, Senna L.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the potential for increasing the reach of HIV testing to African American youths through the dissemination of oral-HIV testing. From 2012 through 2013 we examined the perceptions of alternatives to pharmacy dissemination of SITs in African American youths (5 focus groups) and service providers (4 focus groups), and conducted an ethnographic study of pharmacies (n = 10). Participants perceived significant advantages to delivering SITs through community health and services for adolescents (e.g., increased confidentiality, reduced stigma) over pharmacy dissemination. Given proper attention to fit, SIT dissemination could be facilitated through distribution by health and social service sites, and by improving elements of pharmacy dissemination. PMID:25905841

  6. Characterizing and explaining differences in cognitive test performance between African American and European American older adults

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Adrienne T. Aiken; Marsiske, Michael; Whitfield, Keith E.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined differences in cognitive performance of African American and European American older adults on cognitive and intellectual measures, and the extent to which literacy status or reading level was useful in explaining these group differences. African American elders performed more poorly than European American elders on twelve of thirteen cognitive tests administered, p < .05. After controlling for reading level achievement, differences in performance became non-significant for five of these twelve tests. Nonetheless, some differences persisted, suggesting that other potential mediators of race differences remain to be explored in future research. PMID:18189169

  7. Dating violence perpetration and/or victimization and associated sexual risk behaviors among a sample of inner-city African American and Hispanic adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Alleyne-Green, Binta; Coleman-Cowger, Victoria H; Henry, David B

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of physical and psychological dating violence victimization and perpetration reported by inner-city African American and Hispanic adolescent girls as well as associated risky sexual behaviors among this population. Participants in this study were 10th- and 11th-grade female students from seven inner-city Chicago public high schools. Participants were administered with the Safe Dates measures of physical violence victimization, physical violence perpetration, psychological abuse victimization, and psychological perpetration. Approximately half of the sample reported some psychological dating violence victimization and perpetration, and approximately one third reported some physical victimization and perpetration. Hispanic adolescents were significantly more likely to report psychological victimization, whereas African American adolescents were significantly more likely to report physical dating violence perpetration. Victimization was found to predict perpetration in this population, and adolescents who acknowledged being both victims and perpetrators of dating violence were more likely to report having had vaginal sex and a higher number of past-year sexual partners. Inner-city African American and Hispanic adolescent girls may be particularly vulnerable to dating violence victimization and perpetration, which may be due to a number of other social factors not explored within this study. Furthermore, African American adolescent girls continue to engage in behaviors that increase their risk for negative health outcomes, predominantly STIs, highlighting the need for effective interventions with this population.

  8. Can Home-Based HIV Rapid Testing Reduce HIV Disparities Among African Americans in Miami?

    PubMed

    Kenya, Sonjia; Okoro, Ikenna S; Wallace, Kiera; Ricciardi, Michael; Carrasquillo, Olveen; Prado, Guillermo

    2016-09-01

    Sixty percent of African Americans have had an HIV test, yet this population disproportionately contributes to AIDS mortality, suggesting that testing is not occurring early enough to achieve optimal outcomes. OraQuick, the first Food and Drug Administration-approved home-based HIV rapid test (HBHRT) could potentially increase testing rates. We assessed whether community health workers (CHWs) paired with HBRHT could improve HIV screening and health care access among African Americans in Miami, Florida. In October-November 2013, 60 African Americans were enrolled and randomized to the experimental condition, which received CHW assistance to complete HBHRT, or the control condition, which were instructed to complete HBHRT independently. Intervention participants were significantly (p ≤ .05) more likely than control participants to complete HBHRT and, if positive, get linked to HIV care (100% vs. 83%) χ(2) (1, N = 60) = 5.46, p ≤ .02. We concluded that CHW-assisted HBHRT may be a promising strategy to improve HIV testing and care among African Americans. PMID:27091604

  9. Negotiating markets for health: an exploration of physicians' engagement in dual practice in three African capital cities.

    PubMed

    Russo, Giuliano; McPake, Barbara; Fronteira, Inês; Ferrinho, Paulo

    2014-09-01

    Scarce evidence exists on the features, determinants and implications of physicians' dual practice, especially in resource-poor settings. This study considered dual practice patterns in three African cities and the respective markets for physician services, with the objective of understanding the influence of local determinants on the practice. Forty-eight semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted in the three cities to understand features of the practice and the respective markets. A survey was carried out in a sample of 331 physicians to explore their characteristics and decisions to work in public and private sectors. Descriptive analysis and inferential statistics were employed to explore differences in physicians' engagement in dual practice across the three locations. Different forms of dual practice were found to exist in the three cities, with public physicians engaging in private practice outside but also inside public facilities, in regulated as well as unregulated ways. Thirty-four per cent of the respondents indicated that they worked in public practice only, and 11% that they engaged exclusively in private practice. The remaining 55% indicated that they engaged in some form of dual practice, 31% 'outside' public facilities, 8% 'inside' and 16% both 'outside' and 'inside'. Local health system governance and the structure of the markets for physician services were linked to the forms of dual practice found in each location, and to their prevalence. Our analysis suggests that physicians' decisions to engage in dual practice are influenced by supply and demand factors, but also by how clearly separated public and private markets are. Where it is possible to provide little-regulated services within public infrastructure, less incentive seems to exist to engage in the formal private sector, with equity and efficiency implications for service provision. The study shows the value of analysing health markets to understand physicians' engagement in

  10. Negotiating markets for health: an exploration of physicians’ engagement in dual practice in three African capital cities

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Giuliano; McPake, Barbara; Fronteira, Inês; Ferrinho, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Scarce evidence exists on the features, determinants and implications of physicians’ dual practice, especially in resource-poor settings. This study considered dual practice patterns in three African cities and the respective markets for physician services, with the objective of understanding the influence of local determinants on the practice. Forty-eight semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted in the three cities to understand features of the practice and the respective markets. A survey was carried out in a sample of 331 physicians to explore their characteristics and decisions to work in public and private sectors. Descriptive analysis and inferential statistics were employed to explore differences in physicians’ engagement in dual practice across the three locations. Different forms of dual practice were found to exist in the three cities, with public physicians engaging in private practice outside but also inside public facilities, in regulated as well as unregulated ways. Thirty-four per cent of the respondents indicated that they worked in public practice only, and 11% that they engaged exclusively in private practice. The remaining 55% indicated that they engaged in some form of dual practice, 31% ‘outside’ public facilities, 8% ‘inside’ and 16% both ‘outside’ and ‘inside’. Local health system governance and the structure of the markets for physician services were linked to the forms of dual practice found in each location, and to their prevalence. Our analysis suggests that physicians’ decisions to engage in dual practice are influenced by supply and demand factors, but also by how clearly separated public and private markets are. Where it is possible to provide little-regulated services within public infrastructure, less incentive seems to exist to engage in the formal private sector, with equity and efficiency implications for service provision. The study shows the value of analysing health markets to understand

  11. Negotiating markets for health: an exploration of physicians' engagement in dual practice in three African capital cities.

    PubMed

    Russo, Giuliano; McPake, Barbara; Fronteira, Inês; Ferrinho, Paulo

    2014-09-01

    Scarce evidence exists on the features, determinants and implications of physicians' dual practice, especially in resource-poor settings. This study considered dual practice patterns in three African cities and the respective markets for physician services, with the objective of understanding the influence of local determinants on the practice. Forty-eight semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted in the three cities to understand features of the practice and the respective markets. A survey was carried out in a sample of 331 physicians to explore their characteristics and decisions to work in public and private sectors. Descriptive analysis and inferential statistics were employed to explore differences in physicians' engagement in dual practice across the three locations. Different forms of dual practice were found to exist in the three cities, with public physicians engaging in private practice outside but also inside public facilities, in regulated as well as unregulated ways. Thirty-four per cent of the respondents indicated that they worked in public practice only, and 11% that they engaged exclusively in private practice. The remaining 55% indicated that they engaged in some form of dual practice, 31% 'outside' public facilities, 8% 'inside' and 16% both 'outside' and 'inside'. Local health system governance and the structure of the markets for physician services were linked to the forms of dual practice found in each location, and to their prevalence. Our analysis suggests that physicians' decisions to engage in dual practice are influenced by supply and demand factors, but also by how clearly separated public and private markets are. Where it is possible to provide little-regulated services within public infrastructure, less incentive seems to exist to engage in the formal private sector, with equity and efficiency implications for service provision. The study shows the value of analysing health markets to understand physicians' engagement in

  12. Responses of African-American Students on the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (Figural).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikka, Anjoo

    Sixty fourth, fifth, and sixth grade African American students (37 males and 23 females) at a public school in northeast Mississippi were administered the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking--Figural Form A (TTCT). Subjects were from 9 to 13 years old. The TTCT consists of 3 subtests: (1) picture construction (1 stimulus); (2) picture completion…

  13. Perceptions of teaching African American students who succeed during science testing: A hermeneutic phenomenological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Tevis Tramaine

    The purpose of this hermeneutic phenomenological research was to explore the perceptions of teachers as they instruct African American students who are successful on the North Carolina End-of-Grade Science test. The study identified thoughts, feelings, emotions, and challenges that teachers faced when instructing successful African American students from Title I schools in rural community classrooms. The research study analysis utilized NVivo10RTM software and identified common themes in the data. Five themes emerged from interviews with five fifth- and eighth-grade science teachers. Based on the teachers' perceptions, the findings revealed: (a) teachers experience an emotional journey in high poverty schools; (b) investments encompass sacrificing whatever is needed to help students become successful; (c) relationships should be developed between the teacher and student; (d) intentionality is a part of teachers' daily interaction with students; and (e) teachers encounter a challenging opportunity instructing African American students in science. This study provides valuable data in understanding the experiences of teachers as they instruct successful African American students and the challenges, obstacles, and triumphs teachers face when working with this population of students. The implications of the study suggest that educational leaders provide emotional support to help teachers manage the plethora of emotions experienced on a daily basis. Future study of successful teachers of African American students may further inform the dearth of literature surrounding the experience of successful teachers of minority students.

  14. The influence of intergroup comparisons on Africans' intelligence test performance in a job selection context.

    PubMed

    Klein, Olivier; Pohl, Sabine; Ndagijimana, Chantal

    2007-09-01

    Sub-Saharan Africans living in Belgium (N = 69) completed a culture-free intelligence test in a simulated job selection environment. Prior to testing, the authors instructed participants that Africans' average performance on this test was generally better (positive comparison), worse (negative comparison), or equal to Belgians' performance. In a control condition, no such information was given. Results indicated that, compared with the equal and control conditions, performance was lower when intergroup comparisons were negative. In the former condition, participants were also more likely to endorse external factors that may account for lower performance. The authors interpreted the findings in line with stereotype threat theory (C. M. Steele & J. Aronson, 1995). In the context of job selection, the validity of intelligence tests conducted with members of stigmatized groups may be affected by the salience of social stereotypes and intergroup social comparisons. PMID:17933401

  15. Characterizing the learning styles and testing the science-related attitudes of African American middle school students: Implications for the underrepresentation of African Americans in the sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perine, Donald Ray

    African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans and women are underrepresented among the population of scientists and science teachers in the United States. Specifically, the shortage of African Americans teaching math and science at all levels of the educational process and going into the many science-related fields is manifested throughout the entire educational and career structure of our society. This shortage exists when compared to the total population of African Americans in this country, the population of African American students, and to society's demand for more math and science teachers and professionals of all races. One suggestion to address this problem is to update curricular and instructional programs to accommodate the learning styles of African Americans from elementary to graduate school. There is little in the published literature to help us understand the learning styles of African American middle school students and how they compare to African American adults who pursue science careers. There is also little published data to help inform us about the relationship between learning styles of African American middle school students and their attitudes toward science. The author used a learning styles inventory instrument to identify the learning style preferences of the African American students and adults. The preferences identified describe how African American students and African American adult science professionals prefer to function, learn, concentrate, and perform in their educational and work activities in the areas of: (a) immediate environment, (b) emotionality, (c) sociological needs, and (d) physical needs. The learning style preferences for the students and adults were not significantly different in key areas of preference. A Test of Science-Related Attitudes (TOSRA) was used to measure seven distinct science-related attitudes of the middle school students. A comparison of the profile of the mean scores for the students in this study

  16. Sexual and geographic organisation of men who have sex with men in a large East African city: opportunities for outreach

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Michael W; Nyoni, Joyce; Bowen, Anne M; Williams, Mark L; Kashiha, John J

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To describe geographical and dispersion patterns of men who have sex with men (MSM)-related venues in a large East African city and their associations with times, participants and venue type. Methods Mapping of MSM sites in Dar es Salaam was carried out by community research workers who catalogued, observed and reported data on venue sites, formality, times of operation, type of participant, police or vigilante activity, length of operation and the degree to which it is known both in and outside the MSM and gay communities. Results There is a large and widely disseminated MSM/gay satellite cultures of at least 98 sites, which has some formal sites, but is largely informal and operates within mixed entertainment environments and at particular times (including some weekend-only locales) across the city. There is a mix of places for sexual contact, largely social venues and sex on location sites. Cruising appears to be limited to open spaces and parks, with no vehicular component and almost no internet component. They are widely disseminated across all suburbs and there is no central location for MSM activities. MSM sex workers (SWs) operate at a third of these sites. Conclusions There is a large number of ‘local’ MSM contact, social and sex sites and any work with MSM will have to include these less-formal and less-known sites. The widely disseminated nature of the MSM sites, however, also suggests that sexual networks may not be closely linked between sites. The climate of stigma, abuse and potential violence appear to be limiting the development of more formal sites. This pattern is probably typical of other large urban areas in East Africa and perhaps across sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). PMID:23180391

  17. Men Do Matter: Ethnographic Insights on the Socially Supportive Role of the African American Uncle in the Lives of Inner-City African American Male Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Joseph B., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the role of the African American uncle as a vital yet overlooked form of social support and social capital in the lives of adolescent African American male sons living in single-female-headed households. Research rarely examines the affective roles and functions of men in Black families; moreover, poor urban Black male youth…

  18. Drug use among inner-city African American women: the process of managing loss.

    PubMed

    Roberts, C A

    1999-09-01

    The grounded theory study described in this article investigated illicit drug use in the lives of 32 drug-using women living in two inner-city neighborhoods of a large metropolitan U.S. city. The underlying purpose was to describe the process of how life situations and events influenced the onset of drug use and changes in drug-using behaviors. Analysis of in-depth interviews revealed several themes. The basic social process, managing loss, was identified. Painful feelings of loss resulted from the separation of someone or something from the lives of participants and included death or desertion of a significant other, loss of child custody, and rejection by a significant other. Emotional, physical, and sexual abuse resulted in a loss of ability to give and receive love and trust in oneself or others. Losses resulted in an escalation of drug use. Findings have implications for interventions to assist women in dealing with drug use, violence in their lives, self-care, and parenting.

  19. Drug use among inner-city African American women: the process of managing loss.

    PubMed

    Roberts, C A

    1999-09-01

    The grounded theory study described in this article investigated illicit drug use in the lives of 32 drug-using women living in two inner-city neighborhoods of a large metropolitan U.S. city. The underlying purpose was to describe the process of how life situations and events influenced the onset of drug use and changes in drug-using behaviors. Analysis of in-depth interviews revealed several themes. The basic social process, managing loss, was identified. Painful feelings of loss resulted from the separation of someone or something from the lives of participants and included death or desertion of a significant other, loss of child custody, and rejection by a significant other. Emotional, physical, and sexual abuse resulted in a loss of ability to give and receive love and trust in oneself or others. Losses resulted in an escalation of drug use. Findings have implications for interventions to assist women in dealing with drug use, violence in their lives, self-care, and parenting. PMID:10558371

  20. Drug Use and Conflict in Inner-City African-American Relationships in the 2000s†

    PubMed Central

    Golub, Andrew; Dunlap, Eloise; Benoit, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Inner-city relationships face numerous challenges including illegal drug use and its consequences. The nature of this challenge, however, has changed dramatically with a shift from the crack subculture of the 1980s and early 1990s to the subsequent marijuana/blunts subculture. This study presents data concerning 95 inner-city relationships where illegal drug use was present from people who were interviewed in 2004-2006 and reinterviewed in 2008. Hard drug use was still problematic in the 2000s even with the passing of the crack epidemic and its associated behavioral norms. Hard drug (primarily crack) users reported drug use was a problem, reported Conflict over drugs, reported higher levels of Conflict than others and were the most likely to have broken up with their partner. On the other hand, the experiences and subcultural norms associated with marijuana use appeared to be much less detrimental to relationship harmony. Subjects who used marijuana but not hard drugs reported much less relationship Conflict. Indeed, many reported that they enjoyed using marijuana with their partner. These subcultural insights further the understanding that young adults have constructed a much more socially productive subculture regarding marijuana use than their predecessors had constructed around use of crack. PMID:21053755

  1. Precarious Projects: Conversions of (Biomedical) Knowledge in an East African City

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Ruth J.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the orientations of lay people in Kenya to science—specifically to biomedical knowledge about HIV—and their struggles to convert this knowledge into meaningful futures. In Kenya, the global response to the HIV-AIDS epidemic has resulted in a highly stratified landscape of intervention. Globally-funded treatment programs and clinical trials, focusing on HIV, channel transnational resources, expertise, and knowledge into specific sites—HIV clinics, NGOs, and research stations—inscribing these spaces as ‘global’ while leaving others decidedly ‘local.’ Rolled out in the form of ‘projects,’ these interventions offer resources and opportunities for a limited time only. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in the city of Kisumu, this article follows the circulation of biomedical knowledge through such projects and its conversion in ways beyond those imagined by policy-makers, as it meets the aspirations of city-dwellers and enters into local livelihoods. Mediated by nongovernmental organizations through workshops and certificates, this knowledge is both fragmentary and ephemeral. I explore the temporal and spatial implications of such knowledge for those who seek to attach themselves to it and shape their identities and futures in relation to it. PMID:24383753

  2. "I Feel Nervous... Very Nervous" Addressing Test Anxiety in Inner City Schools through Play and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobman, Carrie

    2014-01-01

    The intense focus on standardized tests has created a culture of anxiety in many inner-city schools. This article presents the findings of a case study of a test anxiety program that helped inner-city students and staffs deal more productively with anxiety through play, performance, and team building. According to the findings, the program created…

  3. HIV and the moral economy of survival in an East African City.

    PubMed

    Prince, Ruth

    2012-12-01

    Based on fieldwork in the city of Kisumu, Kenya, the article examines the survival of HIV-positive people on antiretroviral (ARV) medicines and situates this within broader moral economies of their lives-in matters of food, hunger, social relationships, and networks of care, including NGOs. Through locating survival at the level of individual adherence to medication, ARV programs medicalize it. Yet their focus on the intimate relation between medicine and food also opens up spaces in which the material conditions of life can be articulated. The article follows these spaces, from the clinic to the economy of NGO interventions and community-based groups, paying attention to how hunger and material needs are visible in some spaces and invisible in others, and to how people have learned to articulate their "needs." In this economy, HIV identities accrue moral and economic value, as through them people become visible to the flow of funds and the distribution of goods organized by NGOs.

  4. How do dual practitioners divide their time? The cases of three African capital cities.

    PubMed

    McPake, Barbara; Russo, Giuliano; Tseng, Fu-Min

    2014-12-01

    Health professionals dual practice has received increasing attention, particularly in the context of the universal health coverage movement. This paper explores the determinants of doctors' choices to become a dual practitioner and of dual practitioners' choices to allocate time to the private sector in the capital cities of Mozambique, Guinea Bissau and Cape Verde. The data are drawn from a survey conducted in 2012 among 329 physicians. We use a two-part model to analyse the decision of both public and private practitioners to become dual practitioners, and to allocate time between public and private sectors. We impute potential earnings in public and private practice by using nearest-neighbour propensity score matching. Our results show that hourly wage in the private sector, number of dependents, length of time as a physician, work outside city, and being a specialist with or without technology all have a positive association with the probability of being a dual physician, while number of dependents displays a negative sign. Level of salaries in the public sector are not associated with dual practice engagement, with important implications for attempts aimed at retaining professionals in the public sector through wage increases. As predicted by theory that recognises doctors' role in price setting, earnings rates are not significant predictors of private sector time allocation; personal characteristics of physicians appear more important, such as age, number of dependents, specialist without technology, specialist with technology, and three reasons for not working more hours in the private sector. Answers to questions about the factors that limit working hours in the private sector have significant predictive power, suggesting that type of employment in the private sector may be an underlying determinant of both dual practice engagement and time allocation decisions. PMID:25441323

  5. How do dual practitioners divide their time? The cases of three African capital cities.

    PubMed

    McPake, Barbara; Russo, Giuliano; Tseng, Fu-Min

    2014-12-01

    Health professionals dual practice has received increasing attention, particularly in the context of the universal health coverage movement. This paper explores the determinants of doctors' choices to become a dual practitioner and of dual practitioners' choices to allocate time to the private sector in the capital cities of Mozambique, Guinea Bissau and Cape Verde. The data are drawn from a survey conducted in 2012 among 329 physicians. We use a two-part model to analyse the decision of both public and private practitioners to become dual practitioners, and to allocate time between public and private sectors. We impute potential earnings in public and private practice by using nearest-neighbour propensity score matching. Our results show that hourly wage in the private sector, number of dependents, length of time as a physician, work outside city, and being a specialist with or without technology all have a positive association with the probability of being a dual physician, while number of dependents displays a negative sign. Level of salaries in the public sector are not associated with dual practice engagement, with important implications for attempts aimed at retaining professionals in the public sector through wage increases. As predicted by theory that recognises doctors' role in price setting, earnings rates are not significant predictors of private sector time allocation; personal characteristics of physicians appear more important, such as age, number of dependents, specialist without technology, specialist with technology, and three reasons for not working more hours in the private sector. Answers to questions about the factors that limit working hours in the private sector have significant predictive power, suggesting that type of employment in the private sector may be an underlying determinant of both dual practice engagement and time allocation decisions.

  6. Baseline correlates of insulin resistance in inner city high-BMI African-American children.

    PubMed

    Raman, Aarthi; Fitch, Mark D; Hudes, Mark L; Lustig, Robert H; Murray, Carolyn B; Ikeda, Joanne P; Fleming, Sharon E

    2008-09-01

    To characterize the influence of diet-, physical activity-, and self-esteem-related factors on insulin resistance in 8- 10-year-old African-American (AA) children with BMI greater than the 85th percentile who were screened to participate in a community-based type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) prevention trial. In 165 subjects, fasting glucose- and insulin-derived values for homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) assessed insulin resistance. Body fatness was calculated following bioelectrical impedance analysis, and fitness was measured using laps from a 20-m shuttle run. Child questionnaires assessed physical activity, dietary habits, and self-esteem. Pubertal staging was assessed using serum levels of sex hormones. Parent questionnaires assessed family demographics, family health, and family food and physical activity habits. Girls had significantly higher percent body fat but similar anthropometric measures compared with boys, whereas boys spent more time in high-intensity activities than girls. Scores for self-perceived behavior were higher for girls than for boys; and girls desired a more slender body. Girls had significantly higher insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), compared with boys (P < 0.01). Adjusting for age, sex, pubertal stage, socioeconomic index (SE index), and family history of diabetes, multivariate regression analysis showed that children with higher waist circumference (WC) (P < 0.001) and lower Harter's scholastic competence (SC) scale (P = 0.044) had higher insulin resistance. WC and selected self-esteem parameters predicted insulin resistance in high-BMI AA children. The risk of T2DM may be reduced in these children by targeting these factors.

  7. Does knowledge influence pap test screening among young African-American women?

    PubMed

    Bynum, Shalanda A; Guillaume, Daphnee A; Brandt, Heather M; Fletcher, Faith E

    2014-09-01

    Pap test screening among African-American women has substantially increased. However, African-American women continue to bear the burden of cervical cancer as compared to White women. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of Pap test knowledge on cervical screening history among young African-American women. Between January and April 2009, 320 women from historically black colleges and universities located in the southeastern United States who met study inclusion criteria completed an anonymous self-report questionnaire to assess their awareness, knowledge, and behaviors related to human papillomavirus and cervical cancer prevention and control. Seventy-six percent of women reported ever having a Pap test, 54 % reported having a Pap test less than 1 year ago, and 25 % reported ever having an abnormal Pap test result. The overall mean score on the six-point Pap test knowledge scale was 4.46 ± 1.02. Women who reported having an abnormal Pap test (4.96 ± 0.82) had significantly higher Pap test knowledge compared to those never having an abnormal result (4.49 ± 1.04), p < 0.01. No other differences were found. Efforts to improve Pap test knowledge among all women, including those with no prior abnormal Pap test history, are critical to cervical cancer prevention and control over the life course. Such efforts should include creating information that is relevant to the population and enables informed decision making about cervical health.

  8. Addressing criticisms of existing predictive bias research: cognitive ability test scores still overpredict African Americans' job performance.

    PubMed

    Berry, Christopher M; Zhao, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Predictive bias studies have generally suggested that cognitive ability test scores overpredict job performance of African Americans, meaning these tests are not predictively biased against African Americans. However, at least 2 issues call into question existing over-/underprediction evidence: (a) a bias identified by Aguinis, Culpepper, and Pierce (2010) in the intercept test typically used to assess over-/underprediction and (b) a focus on the level of observed validity instead of operational validity. The present study developed and utilized a method of assessing over-/underprediction that draws on the math of subgroup regression intercept differences, does not rely on the biased intercept test, allows for analysis at the level of operational validity, and can use meta-analytic estimates as input values. Therefore, existing meta-analytic estimates of key parameters, corrected for relevant statistical artifacts, were used to determine whether African American job performance remains overpredicted at the level of operational validity. African American job performance was typically overpredicted by cognitive ability tests across levels of job complexity and across conditions wherein African American and White regression slopes did and did not differ. Because the present study does not rely on the biased intercept test and because appropriate statistical artifact corrections were carried out, the present study's results are not affected by the 2 issues mentioned above. The present study represents strong evidence that cognitive ability tests generally overpredict job performance of African Americans.

  9. Beliefs About Asthma and Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Low-Income Inner-City African-American Adults

    PubMed Central

    George, Maureen; Birck, Kathleen; Hufford, David J; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Weaver, Terri E

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND The gap in asthma prevalence, morbidity, and mortality is increasing in low-income racial/ethnic minority groups as compared with Caucasians. In order to address these disparities, alternative beliefs and behaviors need to be identified. OBJECTIVE To identify causal models of asthma and the context of conventional prescription versus complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in low-income African-American (AA) adults with severe asthma. DESIGN Qualitative analysis of 28 in-depth interviews. PARTICIPANTS Twenty-six women and 2 men, aged 21 to 48, who self-identified as being AA, low-income, and an inner-city resident. APPROACH Transcripts of semi-structured in-depth qualitative interviews were inductively analyzed using the constant comparison approach. RESULTS Sixty-four percent of participants held biologically correct causal models of asthma although 100% reported the use of at least 1 CAM for asthma. Biologically based therapies, humoral balance, and prayer were the most popular CAM. While most subjects trusted prescription asthma medicine, there was a preference for integration of CAM with conventional asthma treatment. Complementary and alternative medicine was considered natural, effective, and potentially curative. Sixty-three percent of participants reported nonadherence to conventional therapies in the 2 weeks before the research interview. Neither CAM nor nonmedical causal models altered most individuals (93%) willingness to use prescription medication. Three possibly dangerous CAM were identified. CONCLUSIONS Clinicians should be aware of patient-generated causal models of asthma and use of CAM in this population. Discussing patients' desire for an integrated approach to asthma management and involving social networks are 2 strategies that may enhance patient-provider partnerships and treatment fidelity. PMID:16995890

  10. IMMUNOLOCALIZATION OF INHIBIN/ACTIVIN SUBUNITS AND STEROIDOGENIC ENZYMES IN THE TESTES OF AN ADULT AFRICAN ELEPHANT (LOXODONTA AFRICANA).

    PubMed

    Li, Qinglin; Lu, Lu; Weng, Qiang; Kawakami, Shigehisa; Saito, Eriko; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Yuki; Kaewmanee, Saroch; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2016-06-01

    In this case report, the authors investigated immunolocalization of inhibin α and inhibin/activin βA and βB subunits, as well as steroidogenic enzymes, in the testes of an African elephant. Testes were collected from a reproductively active male African elephant (24 yr old) at autopsy. Histologically, all types of spermatogenic cells including mature-phase spermatozoa were found in the seminiferous tubules. Positive immunostaining for inhibin α and inhibin/activin βA and βB subunits was observed in Sertoli and Leydig cells. In addition, P450scc, 3βHSD, P450c17, and P450arom were also detected in the cytoplasm of Leydig cells. These results suggested that Leydig cells of adult African elephant testes have the ability to synthesize progestin, androgen, and estrogen, whereas both Sertoli and Leydig cells appear as a major source of inhibin secretion in the male African elephant.

  11. HIV testing practices of South African township MSM in the era of expanded access to ART.

    PubMed

    Sandfort, Theo G M; Knox, Justin; Collier, Kate L; Lane, Tim; Reddy, Vasu

    2015-03-01

    While men who have sex with men (MSM) in Africa are at high risk for HIV infection, few of those already infected know their status. Effectively promoting frequent HIV testing-of increasing importance with the expanding accessibility of antiretroviral treatment-requires an understanding of the testing practices in this population. To understand men's HIV testing practices, including their behavior, experiences, and perceptions, we conducted in-depth interviews with 81 black South African MSM (ages 20-39), purposively recruited from four townships. Many men in the sample had tested for HIV. While ever having tested seemed to facilitate repeat testing, men still expressed a high level of discomfort with testing. It was common to test after having engaged in risky behavior, thus increasing anxiety about testing that was already present. Fear that they might test HIV positive caused some men to avoid testing until they were clearly sick, and others to avoid testing completely. HIV testing may increase in this population if it becomes a routine practice, instead of being driven by anxiety-inducing incidents. Mobilization through social support might facilitate frequent testing while education about current treatment options is needed.

  12. An ICT-Based Diabetes Management System Tested for Health Care Delivery in the African Context

    PubMed Central

    Takenga, Claude; Berndt, Rolf-Dietrich; Musongya, Olivier; Kitero, Joël; Katoke, Remi; Molo, Kakule; Kazingufu, Basile; Meni, Malikwisha; Vikandy, Mambo; Takenga, Henri

    2014-01-01

    The demand for new healthcare services is growing rapidly. Improving accessibility of the African population to diabetes care seems to be a big challenge in most countries where the number of care centers and medical staff is reduced. Information and communication technologies (ICT) have great potential to address some of these challenges faced by several countries in providing accessible, cost-effective, and high-quality health care services. This paper presents the Mobil Diab system which is a telemedical approach proposed for the management of long-term diseases. The system applies modern mobile and web technologies which overcome geographical barriers, and increase access to health care services. The idea of the system is to involve patients in the therapy process and motivate them for an active participation. For validation of the system in African context, a trial was conducted in the Democratic Republic of Congo. 40 Subjects with diabetes divided randomly into control and intervention groups were included in the test. Results show that Mobil Diab is suitable for African countries and presents a number of benefits for the population and public health care system. It improves clinical management and delivery of diabetes care services by enhancing access, quality, motivation, reassurance, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness. PMID:25136358

  13. HIV testing practices of South African township MSM in the era of expanded access to ART

    PubMed Central

    Sandfort, Theo G. M.; Knox, Justin; Collier, Kate L.; Lane, Tim; Reddy, Vasu

    2014-01-01

    While men who have sex with men (MSM) in Africa are at high risk for HIV infection, few of those already infected know their status. Effectively promoting frequent HIV testing—of increasing importance with the expanding accessibility of antiretroviral treatment—requires an understanding of the testing practices in this population. To understand men’s HIV testing practices, including their behavior, experiences, and perceptions, we conducted in-depth interviews with 81 black South African MSM (ages 20–39), purposively recruited from four townships. Many men in the sample had tested for HIV. While ever having tested seemed to facilitate repeat testing, men still expressed a high level of discomfort with testing. It was common to test after having engaged in risky behavior, thus increasing anxiety about testing that was already present. Fear that they might test HIV positive caused some men to avoid testing until they were clearly sick, and others to avoid testing completely. HIV testing may increase in this population if it becomes a routine practice, instead of being driven by anxiety-inducing incidents. Mobilization through social support might facilitate frequent testing while education about current treatment options is needed. PMID:25103866

  14. The hustle and bustle of city life: monitoring the effects of urbanisation in the African lesser bushbaby

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheun, Juan; Bennett, Nigel C.; Ganswindt, Andre; Nowack, Julia

    2015-10-01

    Urbanisation has become a severe threat to pristine natural areas, causing habitat loss and affecting indigenous animals. Species occurring within an urban fragmented landscape must cope with changes in vegetation type as well as high degrees of anthropogenic disturbance, both of which are possible key mechanisms contributing to behavioural changes and perceived stressors. We attempted to elucidate the effects of urbanisation on the African lesser bushbaby, Galago moholi, by (1) recording activity budgets and body condition (body mass index, BMI) of individuals of urban and rural populations and (2) further determining adrenocortical activity in both populations as a measure of stress via faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) levels, following successful validation of an appropriate enzyme immunoassay test system (adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge test). We found that both sexes of the urban population had significantly higher BMIs than their rural counterparts, while urban females had significantly higher fGCM concentrations than rural females. While individuals in the urban population fed mainly on provisioned anthropogenic food sources and spent comparatively more time resting and engaging in aggressive interactions, rural individuals fed almost exclusively on tree exudates and spent more time moving between food sources. Although interactions with humans are likely to be lower in nocturnal than in diurnal species, our findings show that the impact of urbanisation on nocturnal species is still considerable, affecting a range of ecological and physiological aspects.

  15. African-Americans' Test-taking Attitudes and Their Effect on Cognitive Ability Test Performance: Implications for Public Personnel Management Selection Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Patrick F.; Doverspike, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    Review of three research studies shows that some African Americans have negative perceptions of cognitive ability tests, including concerns that they may substantiate stereotypes. These attitudes may influence motivation, anxiety, and test performance. Training in test-taking skills and use of alternative testing formats are possible solutions.…

  16. GIS-based Identification of Urban Residential Hotspots to Flooding and the Quantification of the Uncertainties for two African Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalayer, Fatemeh; De Risi, Raffaele; De Paola, Francesco; Iervolino, Iunio; Giugni, Maurizio; Topa, Maria Elena; Yonas, Nebyou; Nebebe, Alemu; Kibassa, Deusdedit; Cavan, Gina; Renner, Florian; Lindley, Sarah

    2013-04-01

    . Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 16 (10):781-790, 2011. Pauleit, S. and Duhme, F. (2000). Assessing the environmental performance of land cover types for urban planning. Landscape and Urban Planning, 52 (1): 1-20. Gill, S.E., Handley, J.F., Ennos, A.R. Pauleit, S., Theuray, N., and Lindley, S.J. (2008). Characterising the urban environment of UK cities and towns: a template for landscape planning in a changing climate. Landscape and Urban Planning, 87: 210-222. Cavan, G., Lindley, S., Yeshitela, K., Nebebe, A., Woldegerima, T., Shemdoe, R., Kibassa, D., Pauleit, S., Renner, R., Printz, A., Buchta, K., Coly, A., Sall, F., Ndour, N. M., Ouédraogo, Y., Samari, B. S., Sankara, B. T., Feumba, R. A., Ngapgue, J. N., Ngoumo, M. T., Tsalefac, M., Tonye, E. (2012) Green infrastructure maps for selected case studies and a report with an urban green infrastructure mapping methodology adapted to African cities CLUVA project deliverable D2.7. Available at http://www.cluva.eu/deliverables/CLUVA_D2.7.pdf. Date last accessed, Dec. 18th 2012

  17. Testing the theory of reasoned action in explaining sexual behavior among African American young teen girls.

    PubMed

    Doswell, Willa M; Braxter, Betty J; Cha, Eunseok; Kim, Kevin H

    2011-12-01

    This study tested the Theory of Reasoned Action to examine the prediction of early sexual behavior among African American young teen girls. Baseline data from a longitudinal randomized clinical trial were used. Between 2001 and 2005, 198 middle-school girls aged 11 to 14 years were recruited. As girls aged, they held more permissive attitudes toward engaging in early sexual behavior and had a higher intention to engage in early sexual behavior. Intention was a significant predictor to explain sexual behavior among the girls. There is a need to develop strategies that promote intention related to delay and prevention of early sexual behavior.

  18. Hydrologic data from a deep test well, City of Sarasota, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sutcliffe, Horace

    1979-01-01

    The city of Sarasota drilled a test well to a depth of 3,513 feet at the city 's wastewater-treatment facility in downtown Sarasota, Fla. The test well was drilled to determine the feasibility of disposing of liquid waste from the city 's secondary treatment plant. Drilling of the test well began in July 1973 and was completed in November 1974. A conventional circulation mud-rotary drilling method was used to a depth of 1 ,146 feet below land surface and a reverse circulation air-lift method was used to a depth of 3,513 feet. The greatest chloride concentration of water withdrawn from the test well was 31,000 milligrams per liter. The test well, uncased and open to dolomitic limestone between 2,006 and 3,513 feet, yielded 392 gallons per minute with a drawdown of approximately 100 feet. (Kosco-USGS)

  19. A Matter of Vocabulary II: Low-Income African American Children's Performance on the Expressive Vocabulary Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Allyssa; Champion, Tempii B.

    2010-01-01

    The "Expressive Vocabulary Test" (EVT) has recently been found culturally fair for an economically mixed sample of African American children, and others have argued that it is fairer for such participants than the "Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III" (PPVT-III). In this study, the authors sought to replicate these findings with an exclusively…

  20. Is the Moratorium over? African American Psychology Professionals' Views on Intelligence Testing in Response to Changes to Federal Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Scott; Mitchell, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Collectively, advocates for the well-being of African American children have long called for a moratorium on the use of intelligence testing for the placement of children in special education. With the 2004 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, intelligence testing is no longer required and in some states prohibited…

  1. Attacking the African American-White Achievement Gap on College Admissions Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettles, Michael T.; Millett, Catherine M.; Ready, Douglas D.

    2003-01-01

    The African American-white achievement gap exists even among the youngest children; African American students arrive at kindergarten considerably behind their white peers in measurable cognitive skills. Although the gap has narrowed somewhat over the past several decades, the average African American still scores below 75 percent of white students…

  2. Testing Black Students: Implications for Assessing Inner-City Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, LaMar P.

    1975-01-01

    Reviews some of the specific issues that underlie the testing controversy and suggests that it has become increasingly difficult to separate the issue of testing from the realities of a political situation which leaves black children at the mercy of a unified white majority that is often indifferent to their educational welfare. (Author/AM)

  3. Contribution of substance abuse and HIV infection to psychiatric distress in an inner-city African-American population.

    PubMed Central

    Nnadi, C. U.; Better, W.; Tate, K.; Herning, R. I.; Cadet, Jean Lud

    2002-01-01

    We used Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL90-R) to investigate psychiatric symptom severity in African-American drug-abusing individuals. Three hundred and seventeen African-American volunteers (52 control subjects; 265 drug users) were recruited, 19.2% of whom were HIV-positive. The impact of drug of choice or HIV status on mental distress was assessed. Symptomatic HIV-positive participants were excluded. The intake SCL90-R, Addiction Severity Index, and demographic data were subjected to regression analyses. Drug-abusing African Americans reported increased global distress, a finding that remained robust after we adjusted for HIV status, gender, age, and education. Drug of choice had no influence on the severity of global mental distress in our sample. Asymptomatic HIV-positive African Americans who abused drugs reported more distress than the HIV-negative drug users. Levels of global distress were similar in the HIV-negative and the HIV-positive controls. Subscales of the SCL90-R showed more symptom severity among drug-using, compared with nonusing, African Americans. Except for paranoia, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive subscales, other symptom dimensions were significantly elevated in HIV-positive, compared with HIV-negative, drug abusers. When taken together, these findings suggest that drug abuse can exacerbate the severity of mental distress in HIV-positive patients. Treatment of these patients may be more successful if both sets of needs are addressed with matched interventions. PMID:12069213

  4. Acceptability of a Community-Based Outreach HIV-Testing Intervention Using Oral Fluid Collection Devices and Web-Based HIV Test Result Collection Among Sub-Saharan African Migrants: A Mixed-Method Study

    PubMed Central

    Manirankunda, Lazare; Platteau, Tom; Albers, Laura; Fransen, Katrien; Vermoesen, Tine; Namanya, Fiona; Nöstlinger, Christiana

    2016-01-01

    Background Late human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnosis is common among sub-Saharan African migrants. To address their barriers to HIV testing uptake and improve timely HIV diagnoses and linkage to care, the outreach HIV testing intervention, “swab2know,” was developed. It combined a community-based approach with innovative testing methods: oral fluid self-sampling and the choice between Web-based HIV test result collections using a secured website or post-test counseling at a sexual health clinic. The sessions included an informational speech delivered by a physician of sub-Saharan African origin and testimonies by community members living with HIV. Objectives The objectives of this study were to evaluate the intervention’s acceptability among sub-Saharan African migrants and its potential to reach subgroups at higher risk for HIV infection and to identify facilitators and barriers for HIV testing uptake. Methods This mixed-method study combined qualitative (participant observations and informal interviews with testers and nontesters) and quantitative data (paper–pencil survey, laboratory data, and result collection files). Data were analyzed using a content analytical approach for qualitative and univariate analysis for quantitative data. Results A total of 10 testing sessions were organized in sub-Saharan African migrant community venues in the city of Antwerp, Belgium, between December 2012 and June 2013. Overall, 18.2% of all people present (N=780) underwent HIV testing; 29.8% of them tested for HIV for the first time, 22.3% did not have a general practitioner, and 21.5% reported 2 or more sexual partners (last 3 months). Overall, 56.3% of participants chose to collect their HIV test results via the protected website. In total, 78.9% collected their results. The qualitative analysis of 137 participant observation field notes showed that personal needs and Internet literacy determined the choice of result collection method. Generally, the oral

  5. Testing pathways linking exposure to community violence and sexual behaviors among African American youth.

    PubMed

    Voisin, Dexter R; Hotton, Anna L; Neilands, Torsten B

    2014-09-01

    Exposure to community violence and HIV sexual risks are two major public health concerns among youth. This study tests various pathways linking exposure to community violence and sexual behaviors among African American adolescents. Using a sample of 563 (61% females) African American youth attending high school we examined whether problematic psychological symptoms, low school engagement, and/or negative perceptions of peer norms about safer sex functioned as pathways linking exposure to community violence and sexual behaviors. Major findings indicated that, for boys, the relationship between exposure to community violence and sexual début and sexual risk behaviors were linked by aggression. In addition, the relationship between exposure to community violence and sexual risk behaviors were linked by negative perceptions of peer attitudes about safer sex. For girls, the relationship between exposure to community violence and sexual début was linked by aggression and negative perceptions of peer attitudes about safer sex. These findings provide support for pathways linking exposure to community violence to sexual behaviors.

  6. Diurnal and intra-urban particle concentrations in relation to windspeed and stability during the dry season in three African cities.

    PubMed

    Eliasson, I; Jonsson, P; Holmer, B

    2009-07-01

    The spatial and temporal variations of PM(2.5), PM(10) and TSP in three African cities of different sizes (Dar es Salaam, Ouagadougou and Gaborone) were investigated using portable particle counters. Three different areas (downtown, green residential and traditional residential) and a reference site were designated in each of the cities in order to detect intra-urban and temporal variability. Morning, noon and night measurements were conducted in the urban areas while observations at reference stations were made continuously over the field periods. A clear diurnal pattern in particle concentrations was found in inland Gaborone and Ouagadougou, with morning and night peaks where the latter was the highest. However, in coastal Dar es Salaam the night peak was almost absent due to delayed stabilisation of the air. Particle concentrations at the Ouagadougou reference station were extreme. The direct contribution of vehicle emissions are of secondary importance since the PM(2.5)/PM(10) ratios are low (0.1-0.3). Much of the particles are supposed to be soil particles that are entrained in the air by daytime high windspeeds followed by nighttime subsidence as the air is stabilised and windspeed decreases. However, in all three cities, resuspension are important as areas with a network of unpaved roads showed the highest concentrations of suspended particles. Generally, the central business district had the lowest concentrations of particulate matter. PMID:18607763

  7. Diurnal and intra-urban particle concentrations in relation to windspeed and stability during the dry season in three African cities.

    PubMed

    Eliasson, I; Jonsson, P; Holmer, B

    2009-07-01

    The spatial and temporal variations of PM(2.5), PM(10) and TSP in three African cities of different sizes (Dar es Salaam, Ouagadougou and Gaborone) were investigated using portable particle counters. Three different areas (downtown, green residential and traditional residential) and a reference site were designated in each of the cities in order to detect intra-urban and temporal variability. Morning, noon and night measurements were conducted in the urban areas while observations at reference stations were made continuously over the field periods. A clear diurnal pattern in particle concentrations was found in inland Gaborone and Ouagadougou, with morning and night peaks where the latter was the highest. However, in coastal Dar es Salaam the night peak was almost absent due to delayed stabilisation of the air. Particle concentrations at the Ouagadougou reference station were extreme. The direct contribution of vehicle emissions are of secondary importance since the PM(2.5)/PM(10) ratios are low (0.1-0.3). Much of the particles are supposed to be soil particles that are entrained in the air by daytime high windspeeds followed by nighttime subsidence as the air is stabilised and windspeed decreases. However, in all three cities, resuspension are important as areas with a network of unpaved roads showed the highest concentrations of suspended particles. Generally, the central business district had the lowest concentrations of particulate matter.

  8. The Tests Are Written for the Dogs: "The Journal of Negro Education", African American Children, and the Intelligence Testing Movement in Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, V. P.

    2007-01-01

    Since its founding in April 1932, "The Journal of Negro Education" has published articles, reports, and reviews examining the results of intelligence and other mental tests given to African Americans. In these studies, historically social scientists contributing to the "JNE" sought to clarify what these intelligence tests were actually measuring,…

  9. Why Take an HIV Test? Concerns, Benefits, and Strategies to Promote HIV Testing among Low-Income Heterosexual African American Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Scyatta A.; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Harris, Muriel J.; Townsend, Tiffany G.; Miller, Kim S.

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative study examined perceptions of HIV testing and strategies to enhance HIV testing among HIV-negative African American heterosexual young adults (ages 18-25 years). Twenty-six focus groups (13 male groups, 13 female groups) were conducted in two low-income communities (urban and rural). All sessions were audio-recorded and transcribed.…

  10. A Longitudinal Study of Depressive Symptoms and Marijuana Use in a Sample of Inner-City African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repetto, Paula B.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2008-01-01

    The association between marijuana use and depressive symptoms was examined longitudinally in a sample of 622 African American youth, interviewed on six occasions, using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM). We considered whether depressive symptoms predicted changes in marijuana use and vice versa from high school through the transition into young…

  11. Academic Achievement of African American Boys: A City-Wide, Community-Based Investigation of Risk and Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fantuzzo, John; LeBoeuf, Whitney; Rouse, Heather; Chen, Chin-Chih

    2012-01-01

    In light of persistent Black-White achievement gaps for boys, this study examined publicly monitored risks believed to be associated with being behind academically for an entire subpopulation of African American boys in a large urban public school district. Also examined were indicators of academic engagement hypothesized to mediate the relations…

  12. Assessing Anxiety Sensitivity in Inner-City African American Children: Psychometric Properties of the Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Sharon F.; Cooley, Michele R.; Campbell, Karren D. M.; Benoit, Mike Z.; Stansbury, Rodney

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI; Silverman et al., 1991) in a sample of urban African American elementary school children. One hundred forty-four 4th- and 5th-grade children completed the CASI as part of a larger project. In contrast to prior research with community samples, CASI…

  13. Contraceptive Use and Uptake of HIV-Testing among Sub-Saharan African Women

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Jayleen K. L.; Asaolu, Ibitola O.; Gibson, Steven J.; Ehiri, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Despite improved availability of simple, relatively inexpensive, and highly effective antiretroviral treatment for HIV/AIDS, the disease remains a major public health challenge for women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Given the numerous barriers in access to care for women in this region, every health issue that brings them into contact with the health system should be optimized as an opportunity to integrate HIV/AIDS prevention. Because most non-condom forms of modern contraception require a clinical appointment for use, contraception appointments could provide a confidential opportunity for access to HIV counseling, testing, and referral to care. This study sought to investigate the relationship between contraceptive methods and HIV testing among women in SSA. Data from the Demographic and Health Survey from four African countries—Congo, Mozambique, Nigeria, and Uganda—was used to examine whether modern (e.g., pills, condom) or traditional (e.g., periodic abstinence, withdrawal) forms of contraception were associated with uptake of HIV testing. Data for the current analyses were restricted to 35,748 women with complete information on the variables of interest. Chi-square tests and logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between uptake of HIV testing and respondents' baseline characteristics and contraceptive methods. In the total sample and in Mozambique, women who used modern forms of contraception were more likely to be tested for HIV compared to those who did not use contraception. This positive association was not demonstrated in Congo, Nigeria, or Uganda. That many women who access modern contraception are not tested for HIV in high HIV burden areas highlights a missed opportunity to deliver an important intervention to promote maternal and child health. Given the increasing popularity of hormonal contraception methods in low-income countries, there is an urgent need to integrate HIV counseling, testing, and treatment into family

  14. Do neuropsychological test norms from African Americans in the United States generalize to a Zambian population?

    PubMed

    Hestad, Knut A; Menon, J Anitha; Serpell, Robert; Kalungwana, Lisa; Mwaba, Sidney O C; Kabuba, Norma; Franklin, Donald R; Umlauf, Anya; Letendre, Scott; Heaton, Robert K

    2016-01-01

    Healthy Zambian adults (N = 324) were evaluated to determine to what degree a Western neuropsychological (NP) test battery, with African American norms adjusted for age, gender, and education could be used in healthy Zambians, including 157 men (48.46%) and 167 women (51.54%) with an average age of 38.48 (SD = 12.80) years and an average education level of 11.02 (SD = 2.58) years. The NP battery included tests of attention/working memory, executive function, verbal fluency, processing speed, verbal and visual episodic memory, and fine motor skills. The Zambian Achievement Test (ZAT) and the U.S. Wide Range Achievement Test-4 (WRAT-4) reading subtest also were administered to assess literacy and quality of education. Similar to findings in Western countries, the Zambian results show substantial age and education effects on most tests and smaller, less consistent effects of gender. Beyond the basic demographic effects, urban/rural background had small effects on some cognitive variables, and the ZAT (but not WRAT-4) reading level was a robust predictor of performance on many NP tests, even when other background characteristics were controlled. Women in the United States tend to outperform men on tests of processing speed and episodic memory. However, Zambian women showed modest but statistically significant disadvantages versus their male counterparts. The results show that tests developed in the United States may be used in Zambia. Nevertheless, development and use of local cultural norms remains very important and is a must. New demographically corrected norms were developed for the cohort that was examined. PMID:26146950

  15. [Analysis of the biological effect of city smog extract. V. Comparative investigations on the effect of city smog extracts on DNA synthesis of Syrian hamster kidney and embryonic cells and of African green monkey kidney cells in vitro (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Krampitz, G; Seemayer, N

    1979-01-01

    We analysed the effect of two samples of city smog extract from Bochum and Duisburg on DNA synthesis of mammalian cells in vitro. As a test system we used tissue cultures of kidney and embryonic cells from the Syrian golden hamster and monkey kidney cells from Cercopithecus aethiops. DNA synthesis of cells was measured by autoradiography using 3H-Thymidine. Both samples of city smog extract exerted a dose-dependent decrease of the rate of DNA synthesis in tissue culture cells. These alterations of nucleic acid metabolism were expressed by a reduction of DNA-synthesizing cells and by a delay of entrance of cells in DNA synthesis. High concentrations of city smog extracts induced a large number of cell necroses. Monkey kidney cells were more sensitive to the toxic action than hamster cells. Furthermore the city smog extract from Duisburg showed a stronger toxic effect than the extract from Bochum.

  16. A Comprehensive Test of the Health Belief Model in the Prediction of Condom Use among African American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winfield, Evelyn B.; Whaley, Arthur L.

    2002-01-01

    Tested an expanded version of the Health Belief Model (HBM) in predicting condom use among heterosexual African American college students. Overall, only the core HBM explained a significant amount of variance in condom use. Perceived barriers and gender significantly predicted condom use. Perceived barriers mediated the correlation between gender…

  17. Environmental effects of dredging program: Leachate testing of Hamlet City Lake, North Carolina, sediment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, J.M.; Myers, T.E.; Price, C.B.

    1992-11-01

    Sediment leaching studies of Hamlet City Lake, Hamlet, NC, were conducted in laboratories at the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. The purpose of these studies was to provide quantitative information on the potential for leachate impacts on groundwaters if dredged material from Hamlet City Lake were placed in a confined disposal facility (CDF) or under disposal conditions similar to land-farming. The study involved three elements: batch leach tests, column leach tests, and simulations using the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model. Batch tests were conducted to determine intrinsic leaching characteristics of solids in Hamlet City Lake sediment. Column tests were conducted as a physical analog of continuous flow leaching in a CDF. HELP model simulations were conducted to simulate the generation of leachate by infiltration and to evaluate the relative effectiveness of a disposal site liner. Results of this study showed that, under disposal conditions similar to land-farming, organic contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and total recoverable petroleum hydrocarbons (TRPHs) will decrease in concentration as the result of volatilization and or biodegradation.... Dredged material, Leachate, Permeameter, Hamlet city lake, Leaching, Heavy metals, Mass transport.

  18. Evaluation of Madison Park PLATO Training on August 2000 BPS City Algebra Test Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Christopher F.

    This report presents empirical findings from the analysis of the performance of 85 students from Madison Park High School, Boston, Massachusetts, on the Boston Public Schools City Algebra Test (BPSCAT) in June and August 2000, and how their participation in Jobs for Youths Boston PLATO computer-based instruction in the intervening months may have…

  19. In vitro testing of African traditional medicines for cytotoxic, immune modulatory and anti-HIV activities.

    PubMed

    Gqaleni, Nceba; Ngcobo, Mlungisi; Parboosing, Raveen; Naidoo, Anneta

    2012-01-01

    African Traditional Medicines (ATMs) serve as a major source of primary healthcare for African people. The reasons for their use range from easy access, affordability, beliefs in traditional systems and long term safety. ATMs have been used to treat individuals infected with HIV and therefore need scientific validation; a view supported by Traditional Health Practitioners (THPs). This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity, immune modulatory and anti-HIV activities of traditional multiple herbal preparations from local THPs. Ugambu, Ihashi, Product Nene, Product Blue, SPNa and SDKc ATM were supplied by local THPs. Changes in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) & glutathione (GSH) over 24 hours were measured using luminometry. Changes in 12 cytokines were assayed using an ELISA-based absorbance assay. Protective effects against HIV killing of MT-4 cells were tested using the XTT assay and antiviral activity was measured using an HIV-1 viral load assay. Cyclosporine and AZT were used as positive controls. Ugambu, Ihashi, Product Nene and SDKc induced a dose dependent toxicity on treated PBMCs by reducing ATP and GSH at high doses (p< 0.001). These medicinal preparations, along with SPNa, showed immunomodulatory activity by significantly (p< 0.001) changing the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Product Blue stimulated the levels of ATP and GSH in treated PBMCs at all doses however this product did not show any immunomodulatory activity on cytokine secretion when compared to control cells. Ugambu, Ihashi, Product Nene showed promising anti-HIV activity relative to AZT (p< 0.01). This study has shown that some of these traditional medicinal preparations have at least one or all the properties of immunostimulation, immunomodulation or antiretroviral effects. The mechanism of action of the shown activities should further be investigated.

  20. Diagnostic Accuracy of Molecular Amplification Tests for Human African Trypanosomiasis—Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Boer, Kimberly R.; Dyserinck, Heleen C.; Büscher, Philippe; Schallig, Henk D. H. F.; Leeflang, Mariska M. G.

    2012-01-01

    Background A range of molecular amplification techniques have been developed for the diagnosis of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT); however, careful evaluation of these tests must precede implementation to ensure their high clinical accuracy. Here, we investigated the diagnostic accuracy of molecular amplification tests for HAT, the quality of articles and reasons for variation in accuracy. Methodology Data from studies assessing diagnostic molecular amplification tests were extracted and pooled to calculate accuracy. Articles were included if they reported sensitivity and specificity or data whereby values could be calculated. Study quality was assessed using QUADAS and selected studies were analysed using the bivariate random effects model. Results 16 articles evaluating molecular amplification tests fulfilled the inclusion criteria: PCR (n = 12), NASBA (n = 2), LAMP (n = 1) and a study comparing PCR and NASBA (n = 1). Fourteen articles, including 19 different studies were included in the meta-analysis. Summary sensitivity for PCR on blood was 99.0% (95% CI 92.8 to 99.9) and the specificity was 97.7% (95% CI 93.0 to 99.3). Differences in study design and readout method did not significantly change estimates although use of satellite DNA as a target significantly lowers specificity. Sensitivity and specificity of PCR on CSF for staging varied from 87.6% to 100%, and 55.6% to 82.9% respectively. Conclusion Here, PCR seems to have sufficient accuracy to replace microscopy where facilities allow, although this conclusion is based on multiple reference standards and a patient population that was not always representative. Future studies should, therefore, include patients for which PCR may become the test of choice and consider well designed diagnostic accuracy studies to provide extra evidence on the value of PCR in practice. Another use of PCR for control of disease could be to screen samples collected from rural areas and test in reference

  1. Welfare Reform in the mid-2000s: How African-American and Hispanic Families in Three Cities are Faring

    PubMed Central

    Cherlin, Andrew; Frogner, Bianca; Ribar, David; Moffitt, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a sample of 538 African American and Hispanic women who were receiving TANF in 1999, 416 of whom left the program by 2005. The Hispanic women consisted of a Mexican-origin group and a second group that was primarily Puerto Rican and Dominican. Combining the experiences of the employed and the non-employed welfare leavers, we find at best a modest decline in the average poverty rate among African American welfare leavers between 1999 and 2005. Mexican-origin and other Hispanic leavers showed larger average declines in poverty. Among just the welfare leavers who were employed in 2005, the averages for women in all racial-ethnic groups showed increases in household income and declines in poverty. Among those who were not employed, African-Americans had experienced a decline in household income and were further below the poverty line than in 1999, whereas Hispanic women had experienced modest declines or slight increases in their household incomes. PMID:20046222

  2. Testing the Factor Structure of a Scale to Assess African American Acculturation: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Robert J.; Brown, Tiffany L.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Snowden, Lonnie; Hines, Alice

    2009-01-01

    Research has pointed to the important role that acculturation plays in understanding a range of physical health behaviors as well as psychological functioning, but only a few studies have attempted to establish reliable and valid measures of African American acculturation. The scale developed by Snowden and Hines (1999) to assess African American…

  3. Testing a Culture-Specific Extension of Objectification Theory regarding African American Women's Body Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Taneisha S.; Fischer, Ann R.; Tokar, David M.; Yoder, Janice D.

    2008-01-01

    Objectification theory has emphasized objectification in terms of body shape and size. African American women may expect to be evaluated on additional physical attributes such as skin tone. Therefore, we extended previous research on objectification theory by adding separate measures of skin-tone concerns in a survey of 117 African American women.…

  4. A Qualitative Study of Barriers to the Utilization of HIV Testing Services Among Rural African American Cocaine Users

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Patricia B.; Stewart, Katharine E.; Curran, Geoffrey M.; Booth, Brenda M.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study is about barriers to the utilization of HIV testing as perceived by African Americans who have recently used cocaine and who live in the rural Delta region of Arkansas. Affordability, physical accessibility, and geographic availability were not perceived as barriers to HIV testing in this sample, yet acceptability was still perceived as poor. Acceptability due to social mores and norms was a major barrier. Many said testing was unacceptable because of fear of social costs. Many were confident of being HIV-negative based on risky assumptions about testing and the notification process. Small-town social and sexual networks added to concerns about reputation and risk. System approaches may fail if they focus solely on improving access to HIV services but do not take into consideration deeply internalized experiences of rural African Americans as well as involvement of the community in developing programs and services. PMID:24039279

  5. "You Must Do the Test to Know Your Status": Attitudes to HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing for Adolescents among South African Youth and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPhail, Catherine Lorne; Pettifor, Audrey; Coates, Tom; Rees, Helen

    2008-01-01

    Reduced HIV risk behavior and increased use of care and support services have been demonstrated among adults accessing HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT). The impact of VCT on adolescents is, however, not known. Focus group discussions were held with adolescents and parents in two South African townships to establish the perceptions of and…

  6. Developing and testing lay literature about breast cancer screening for African American women.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Elizabeth Ann; Coon, Sharon; Mohrmann, Carolyn; Hardin, Susan; Stewart, Beth; Gibson, Regina Shoate; Cantrell, Mary; Lord, Janet; Heard, Jeanne

    2003-01-01

    Written materials about breast cancer screening for African American women with low literacy skills are needed. Available materials were not at or below third-grade reading levels, were not culturally sensitive, and were not accurate in illustrating correct breast self-examination (BSE) techniques. Focus groups representing the target population helped the authors design a pamphlet describing how to perform BSE and a motivational picture book to help women overcome barriers to screening. The authors chose a food theme for the cover of the pamphlet written at a third-grade level and suggested a photographic version. In the motivational book, two women address barriers to screening and replace myths and fears with facts and actions. Data from 162 women showed that they learned from both the photographic and illustrated versions. Women in the photographic group found significantly more lumps in the silicone models, so the authors chose that version to use in final testing. Finally, nurses pretested a group of patients before they reviewed the materials and post-tested another group after they reviewed them. The group who had reviewed the materials had greater knowledge of and intent to follow the guidelines and received higher scores on BSE techniques.

  7. The Perceptions of Standardized Tests, Academic Self-Efficacy, and Academic Performance of African American Graduate Students: a Correlational and Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrah, Arleezah K.

    2012-01-01

    The academic performance of African American students continues to be a concern for educators, researchers, and most importantly their community. This issue is particularly prevalent in the standardized test scores of African American students where they score on average one or more standard deviations below their Caucasian and Asian American…

  8. Inner-City African-American Women’s Adolescence as Stressful Life Events: Understanding Substance Abusing Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Small, La Fleur F.; Dunlap, Eloise

    2013-01-01

    Lula Beatty (2003:59) asks, “What makes a black woman, voluntarily take a substance into her body which alters her perceptions and feelings of well-being?” This research examines African American women’s substance abuse as a response to stressful life events grounded in adolescence, drawing in part on the cognitive-transactional approach and distal stressor model to discuss the effects of stressors on mental health and substance abusing behavior. Most respondents viewed their adolescent experiences and the associated stress as tribulations or lessons to be lived through, rather than a signal of needed change in their social, cultural, and ecological life circumstances. The effect of exposure to constant stressors early in the life course coupled with proximal stressors often resulted in negative active responses to stress (i.e. substance abuse) and continued stunted emotional growth. Thus, our findings indicate that the experience of African American women as adolescents contributes to understanding substance abuse amongst this population. These findings further help develop the cognitive-transactional model, while adding to the distal stressors and life process model as a way of considering gender, race, and structural forces. PMID:23843768

  9. Demographically corrected norms for African Americans and Caucasians on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test 64-Card Version.

    PubMed

    Norman, Marc A; Moore, David J; Taylor, Michael; Franklin, Donald; Cysique, Lucette; Ake, Chris; Lazarretto, Deborah; Vaida, Florin; Heaton, Robert K

    2011-08-01

    Memory and executive functioning are two important components of clinical neuropsychological (NP) practice and research. Multiple demographic factors are known to affect performance differentially on most NP tests, but adequate normative corrections, inclusive of race/ethnicity, are not available for many widely used instruments. This study compared demographic contributions for widely used tests of verbal and visual learning and memory (Brief Visual Memory Test-Revised, Hopkins Verbal Memory Test-Revised) and executive functioning (Stroop Color and Word Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-64) in groups of healthy Caucasians (n = 143) and African Americans (n = 103). Demographic factors of age, education, gender, and race/ethnicity were found to be significant factors on some indices of all four tests. The magnitude of demographic contributions (especially age) was greater for African Americans than for Caucasians on most measures. New, demographically corrected T-score formulas were calculated for each race/ethnicity. The rates of NP impairment using previously published normative standards significantly overestimated NP impairment in African Americans. Utilizing the new demographic corrections developed and presented herein, NP impairment rates were comparable between the two race/ethnicities and were unrelated to the other demographic characteristics (age, education, gender) in either race/ethnicity group. Findings support the need to consider extended demographic contributions to neuropsychological test performance in clinical and research settings.

  10. Aerobic exercise attenuates blood pressure reactivity to cold pressor test in normotensive, young adult African-American women.

    PubMed

    Bond, V; Mills, R M; Caprarola, M; Vaccaro, P; Adams, R G; Blakely, R; Roltsch, M; Hatfield, B; Davis, G C; Franks, B D; Fairfax, J; Banks, M

    1999-01-01

    Exaggerated blood pressure reactivity to behavioral stress has been observed in the African-American population, and such a pressor response is believed to play a role in hypertension. Regular aerobic exercise has been shown to exert an anti-hypertensive effect, and this may alter the blood pressure hyperreactivity observed in African Americans. To test the hypothesis that aerobic exercise attenuates pressor reactivity in African Americans, we studied eight healthy aerobically-trained normotensive African-American females and five similar sedentary females. The stress stimuli consisted of the cold pressor test with the foot immersed in ice water for two minutes. The aerobic exercise training protocol consisted of six weeks of jogging at 60-70% of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), three days/week for 35 min/exercise session. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance, and forearm blood flow were measured. Manifestation of a training effect was illustrated by a 24.1 +/- 0.2% increase in VO2peak (26.9 +/- 1.2 mL x kg(-1) min(-1) vs 35.4 +/- 1.6 mL x kg(-1) min(-1)) (P<.05). Within the exercise-trained group there was a 6.3 +/- .15% decrease in systolic pressure (129 +/- 4.6 mm Hg vs. 121 +/- 5.4 mm Hg) (P<.05), and a 5.0 +/- .05% decrement in mean arterial blood pressure (99 +/- 3.3 mm Hg vs 94 +/- 3.6 mm Hg) (P<.05) during the cold pressor test. Pressor reactivity to cold stress did not change in the untrained group. Measures of heart rate, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance, and forearm blood flow were unaltered during conditions of the cold pressor test. We conclude that aerobic exercise attenuates the blood pressure reactivity to behavioral stress in young, adult normotensive African-American females. A lifestyle change such as exercising may play a role in reducing the risk of hypertension in African-American women. PMID:10355479

  11. City of North Bonneville, Washington: Geothermal Exploration Project, production test well, Phase II. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    Based on discussions with the City of North Bonneville, the production test well was drilled to a depth that would also explore for ground water temperatures near 130/sup 0/F (54.4/sup 0/C). Depth projections to a 130/sup 0/F bottom hole temperature were made by assuming a constant ground water temperature rise greater than 50/sup 0/C per kilometer, and by assuming that essentially homogeneous or equivalent conductive rock units would be encountered. Minimum water production requirements were not set, although the City determined that about 800 gpm would be acceptable. Large upper casing diameters of 16 and 12 inches were installed in order to provide the future use of either a vertical turbine or submersible pump, as desired by the city. The scope of work included interpretation of well characteristics, evaluation of ground water as a geothermal resource, geologic analysis of data from drilling and testing, drilling supervision, daily drilling cost accounting, and preparation of a final report. The report includes geologic evaluation of the drilling and test data, ground water and geothermal potential.

  12. Environmental Domains and Range-Limiting Mechanisms: Testing the Abundant Centre Hypothesis Using Southern African Sandhoppers

    PubMed Central

    Baldanzi, Simone; McQuaid, Christopher D.; Cannicci, Stefano; Porri, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    Predicting shifts of species geographical ranges is a fundamental challenge for conservation ecologists given the great complexity of factors involved in setting range limits. Distributional patterns are frequently modelled to “simplify” species responses to the environment, yet the central mechanisms that drive a particular pattern are rarely understood. We evaluated the distributions of two sandhopper species (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Talitridae), Talorchestia capensis and Africorchestia quadrispinosa along the Namibian and South African coasts, encompassing three biogeographic regions influenced by two different oceanographic systems, the Benguela and Agulhas currents. We aimed to test whether the Abundant Centre Hypothesis (ACH) can explain the distributions of these species’ abundances, sizes and sex ratios and examined which environmental parameters influence/drive these distributions. Animals were collected during a once-off survey at 29 sites over c.3500 km of coastline. The ACH was tested using a non-parametric constraint space analysis of the goodness of fit of five hypothetical models. Distance Based Linear Modelling (DistLM) was performed to evaluate which environmental traits influenced the distribution data. Abundance, size and sex ratio showed different patterns of distribution. A ramped model fitted the abundance (Ramped North) and size (Ramped South) distribution for A. quadrispinosa. The Inverse Quadratic model fitted the size distribution of T. capensis. Beach slope, salinity, sand temperature and percentage of detritus found on the shore at the time of collection played important roles in driving the abundance of A. quadrispinosa. T. capensis was mainly affected by salinity and the morphodynamic state of the beach. Our results provided only some support for the ACH predictions. The DistLM confirmed that the physical state of the beach is an important factor for sandy beach organisms. The effect of salinity and temperature suggest metabolic

  13. Concordant and Discordant Reports on Shared Sexual Behaviors and Condom Use Among African American Serodiscordant Couples in Four Cities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the concordance of reported shared sexual behaviors, including condom use, among 535 heterosexual, African American, serodiscordant couples and identifies factors that might predict discordant reports. Percentages of agreement, Kappa and McNemar’s statistics and conditional probability indices are used to measure concordance. Logistic regression models identify predictors of couples’ discordant sexual reports. Analyses revealed Kappa statistics for reporting anal sex, fellatio and cunnilingus indicated moderate to substantial agreement. The effects of demographics and the couples’ relationship contexts on concordance of reported sexual behaviors were found to vary somewhat by gender and type of sexual behavior. Findings showed that concordance of reporting between the couples was consistent for the past 90 and 30 days. Findings from this paper provide new scientific insights into the knowledge base of self-reported couples’ data and suggest that these data can be used to evaluate their accuracy and serve as a proxy for validity. PMID:20499151

  14. Attitudes Toward HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) Among African American Men Who Have Sex With Men: Concerns Underlying Reluctance to Test.

    PubMed

    St Lawrence, Janet S; Kelly, Jeffrey A; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Owczarzak, Jill; Amirkhanian, Yuri A; Sitzler, Cheryl

    2015-06-01

    Contemporary antiretroviral therapy (ART) can produce viral suppression of HIV, maintain health, and prevent onward HIV transmission from infected persons to their sexual partners, giving rise to the concept of treatment as prevention. Successful implementation of test-and-treat strategies rests on the early detection of HIV infection through voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) followed by entry and retention in care, ART initiation and adherence, and subsequent viral suppression. In the United States, African American men who have sex with men (MSM) bear a disproportionate burden of HIV and have high rates of undetected and untreated HIV infection. However, little research has examined racial minority MSM's views about HIV testing. In this study, in-depth interviews were conducted with 96 key informants knowledgeable about racial minority MSM as well as 100 African American MSM community members in Milwaukee, Cleveland, and Miami. Most men in the sample were aware of the availability of testing and knew testing locations, but many voiced great personal ambivalence about being tested, feared knowing their HIV status, expressed concern about stigma and loss of confidentiality, and held beliefs indicative of medical mistrust. Participants did not spontaneously cite benefits of being tested, risk reduction behavior changes made as a consequence of testing, nor the benefits of testing to get early medical care for HIV infection. There is a gap between the public health field's perception of testing benefits and the beliefs about testing held by racial minority MSM in this sample. To increase the desired outcomes from VCT for minority MSM, VCT promotion should address the concerns of African American MSM and underscore the benefits of early entry into medical care.

  15. Attitudes Toward HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) Among African American Men Who Have Sex with Men: Concerns Underlying Reluctance to Test

    PubMed Central

    St. Lawrence, Janet S.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Owczarzak, Jill; Amirkhanian, Yuri A.; Sitzler, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary antiretroviral therapy (ART) can produce viral suppression of HIV, maintain health, and prevent onward HIV transmission from infected persons to their sexual partners, giving rise to the concept of treatment as prevention. Successful implementation of test-and-treat strategies rests on the early detection of HIV infection through voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) followed by entry and retention in care, ART initiation and adherence, and subsequent viral suppression. In the United States, African American men who have sex with men (MSM) bear a disproportionate burden of HIV and have high rates of undetected and untreated HIV infection. However, little research has examined racial minority MSM’s views about HIV testing. In this study, in-depth interviews were conducted with 96 key informants knowledgeable about racial minority MSM as well as 100 African American MSM community members in Milwaukee, Cleveland, and Miami. Most men in the sample were aware of the availability of testing and knew testing locations, but many voiced great personal ambivalence about being tested, feared knowing their HIV status, expressed concern about stigma and loss of confidentiality, and held beliefs indicative of medical mistrust. Participants did not spontaneously cite benefits of being tested, risk reduction behavior changes made as a consequence of testing, nor the benefits of testing to get early medical care for HIV infection. There is a gap between the public health field’s perception of testing benefits and the beliefs about testing held by racial minority MSM in this sample. To increase the desired outcomes from VCT for minority MSM, VCT promotion should address the concerns of African American MSM and underscore the benefits of early entry into medical care. PMID:26010312

  16. Testing the Efficacy of Global Biodiversity Hotspots for Insect Conservation: The Case of South African Katydids

    PubMed Central

    Bazelet, Corinna S.; Thompson, Aileen C.; Naskrecki, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The use of endemism and vascular plants only for biodiversity hotspot delineation has long been contested. Few studies have focused on the efficacy of global biodiversity hotspots for the conservation of insects, an important, abundant, and often ignored component of biodiversity. We aimed to test five alternative diversity measures for hotspot delineation and examine the efficacy of biodiversity hotspots for conserving a non-typical target organism, South African katydids. Using a 1° fishnet grid, we delineated katydid hotspots in two ways: (1) count-based: grid cells in the top 10% of total, endemic, threatened and/or sensitive species richness; vs. (2) score-based: grid cells with a mean value in the top 10% on a scoring system which scored each species on the basis of its IUCN Red List threat status, distribution, mobility and trophic level. We then compared katydid hotspots with each other and with recognized biodiversity hotspots. Grid cells within biodiversity hotspots had significantly higher count-based and score-based diversity than non-hotspot grid cells. There was a significant association between the three types of hotspots. Of the count-based measures, endemic species richness was the best surrogate for the others. However, the score-based measure out-performed all count-based diversity measures. Species richness was the least successful surrogate of all. The strong performance of the score-based method for hotspot prediction emphasizes the importance of including species’ natural history information for conservation decision-making, and is easily adaptable to other organisms. Furthermore, these results add empirical support for the efficacy of biodiversity hotspots in conserving non-target organisms. PMID:27631131

  17. Testing the Efficacy of Global Biodiversity Hotspots for Insect Conservation: The Case of South African Katydids.

    PubMed

    Bazelet, Corinna S; Thompson, Aileen C; Naskrecki, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The use of endemism and vascular plants only for biodiversity hotspot delineation has long been contested. Few studies have focused on the efficacy of global biodiversity hotspots for the conservation of insects, an important, abundant, and often ignored component of biodiversity. We aimed to test five alternative diversity measures for hotspot delineation and examine the efficacy of biodiversity hotspots for conserving a non-typical target organism, South African katydids. Using a 1° fishnet grid, we delineated katydid hotspots in two ways: (1) count-based: grid cells in the top 10% of total, endemic, threatened and/or sensitive species richness; vs. (2) score-based: grid cells with a mean value in the top 10% on a scoring system which scored each species on the basis of its IUCN Red List threat status, distribution, mobility and trophic level. We then compared katydid hotspots with each other and with recognized biodiversity hotspots. Grid cells within biodiversity hotspots had significantly higher count-based and score-based diversity than non-hotspot grid cells. There was a significant association between the three types of hotspots. Of the count-based measures, endemic species richness was the best surrogate for the others. However, the score-based measure out-performed all count-based diversity measures. Species richness was the least successful surrogate of all. The strong performance of the score-based method for hotspot prediction emphasizes the importance of including species' natural history information for conservation decision-making, and is easily adaptable to other organisms. Furthermore, these results add empirical support for the efficacy of biodiversity hotspots in conserving non-target organisms. PMID:27631131

  18. Adapting the Andersen model to a francophone West African immigrant population: hepatitis B screening and linkage to care in New York City.

    PubMed

    Blanas, Demetri A; Nichols, Kim; Bekele, Mulusew; Shankar, Hari; Bekele, Saba; Jandorf, Lina; Izzeldin, Saria; Ndiaye, Daouda; Traore, Adama; Bassam, Motahar; Perumalswami, Ponni V

    2015-02-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is highly endemic in West Africa and immigration from this region to the United States has greatly increased over the past quarter century. Using the Andersen Model as a conceptual framework, this study qualitatively examines francophone West African immigrants' perceptions of factors affecting access to HBV screening and linkage-to-care in New York City. Four focus groups were conducted with 39 purposefully selected participants. The focus groups were conducted in French, audio-recorded, translated into English, transcribed, analyzed, and coded for major themes. Participants identified increasing knowledge of HBV and opportunities to access care in a culturally-sensitive manner that decreases fatalism and avoids generating stigma as priorities. They also emphasized the importance of engaging religious establishments and social networks and employing the Internet to disseminate HBV-relevant information. Cost and health insurance are identified as future challenges that will need to be addressed in a health care environment in which undocumented immigrants are ineligible for health insurance. The qualitative analysis in this study highlights the recursive and interdependent nature of the Andersen Model, and a modification of the model is proposed that is intended to inform examinations of other minority communities' access to health care.

  19. Taking Action Together: A YMCA-based protocol to prevent Type-2 Diabetes in high-BMI inner-city African American children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Associated with a tripling in obesity since 1970, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in children has risen 9-10 fold. There is a critical need of protocols for trials to prevent T2DM in children. Methods/Design This protocol includes the theory, development, evaluation components and lessons learned from a novel YMCA-based T2DM prevention intervention designed specifically for high-BMI African American children from disadvantaged, inner-city neighborhoods of Oakland, California. The intervention was developed on the basis of: review of epidemiological and intervention studies of pediatric T2DM; a conceptual theory (social cognitive); a comprehensive examination of health promotion curricula designed for children; consultation with research, clinical experts and practitioners and; input from community partners. The intervention, Taking Action Together, included culturally sensitive and age-appropriate programming on: healthy eating; increasing physical activity and, improving self esteem. Discussion Evaluations completed to date suggest that Taking Action Together may be an effective intervention, and results warrant an expanded evaluation effort. This protocol could be used in other community settings to reduce the risk of children developing T2DM and related health consequences. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01039116. PMID:20492667

  20. Designing and pilot-testing a church-based community program to reduce obesity among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Cowart, Luvenia W; Biro, Diana J; Wasserman, Timothy; Stein, Ruth Federman; Reider, Lindsey R; Brown, Betty

    2010-01-01

    Obesity raises the risk for many chronic diseases and poor health outcomes. African Americans have the highest rates of excess weight in the nation, and standard weight management programs have not worked well with this population. The Genesis Health Project, a community-designed, culturally competent intervention to reduce obesity and promote healthy lifestyles, represents a successful partnership among Syracuse University, local Black churches, and several sponsors to empower families of color to adopt and sustain positive health practices across the lifespan. This article describes the Phase I design and pilot-testing of this demonstration project, and reports the results of the first-year nutrition education/exercise-fitness program. Participant feedback indicates notable shifts toward healthier food choices, cooking methods, and exercise habits, as well as increased motivation, improved health indicators, and revamped church menus. Lessons learned from this project can be helpful in developing other community/faith-based health promotion programs for African Americans.

  1. Learning to Talk Like the Test: Guiding Speakers of African American Vernacular English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Lapp, Diane

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we focus on instructional support for 91 students who speak African American Vernacular English and who are at high risk for not passing the required state exams. We profile the instruction that was provided and the results from that instruction, providing examples of how students' language was scaffolded such that they could…

  2. Evaluation of Pharmacy-Based HIV Testing in a High-Risk New York City Community.

    PubMed

    Amesty, Silvia; Crawford, Natalie D; Nandi, Vijay; Perez-Figueroa, Rafael; Rivera, Alexis; Sutton, Madeline; Weidle, Paul J; Willis, Leigh; Smith, Dawn K; Hernandez, Carolyn; Harripersaud, Katherine; Fuller Lewis, Crystal

    2015-08-01

    Blacks/Hispanics face limited access to HIV testing. We examined in-pharmacy HIV testing among customers in pharmacies participating in a nonprescription syringe program in New York City. Participants were recruited in two pharmacies to complete a survey and receive an optional HIV test. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were performed to examine associations of demographics and risk behaviors with receiving in-pharmacy HIV testing. Most participants were male (55%), black (80%), had used hard drugs (88%), and 39.5% received in-pharmacy HIV testing. Being female (AOR=2.24; 95%CI 1.24-4.05), having multiple sex partners (AOR=1.20; 95% CI 1.06-1.35), having an HIV test more than 12 months ago (AOS=4.06; CI 1.85-8.91), injecting drugs in last 3 months (AOR=2.73; 95% CI 1.31-5.69) and having continuous care (AOR=0.32; 95% CI 0.17-0.58) were associated with receiving in-pharmacy HIV test. These data provide evidence of in-pharmacy HIV testing reaching persons at risk of HIV. HIV testing in pharmacies may complement existing strategies.

  3. Testing the Pareto against the lognormal distributions with the uniformly most powerful unbiased test applied to the distribution of cities.

    PubMed

    Malevergne, Yannick; Pisarenko, Vladilen; Sornette, Didier

    2011-03-01

    Fat-tail distributions of sizes abound in natural, physical, economic, and social systems. The lognormal and the power laws have historically competed for recognition with sometimes closely related generating processes and hard-to-distinguish tail properties. This state-of-affair is illustrated with the debate between Eeckhout [Amer. Econ. Rev. 94, 1429 (2004)] and Levy [Amer. Econ. Rev. 99, 1672 (2009)] on the validity of Zipf's law for US city sizes. By using a uniformly most powerful unbiased (UMPU) test between the lognormal and the power-laws, we show that conclusive results can be achieved to end this debate. We advocate the UMPU test as a systematic tool to address similar controversies in the literature of many disciplines involving power laws, scaling, "fat" or "heavy" tails. In order to demonstrate that our procedure works for data sets other than the US city size distribution, we also briefly present the results obtained for the power-law tail of the distribution of personal identity (ID) losses, which constitute one of the major emergent risks at the interface between cyberspace and reality. PMID:21517562

  4. Testing the Pareto against the lognormal distributions with the uniformly most powerful unbiased test applied to the distribution of cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malevergne, Yannick; Pisarenko, Vladilen; Sornette, Didier

    2011-03-01

    Fat-tail distributions of sizes abound in natural, physical, economic, and social systems. The lognormal and the power laws have historically competed for recognition with sometimes closely related generating processes and hard-to-distinguish tail properties. This state-of-affair is illustrated with the debate between Eeckhout [Amer. Econ. Rev.SCIEAS0002-828210.1257/0002828043052303 94, 1429 (2004)] and Levy [Amer. Econ. Rev.SCIEAS0002-828210.1257/aer.99.4.1672 99, 1672 (2009)] on the validity of Zipf’s law for US city sizes. By using a uniformly most powerful unbiased (UMPU) test between the lognormal and the power-laws, we show that conclusive results can be achieved to end this debate. We advocate the UMPU test as a systematic tool to address similar controversies in the literature of many disciplines involving power laws, scaling, “fat” or “heavy” tails. In order to demonstrate that our procedure works for data sets other than the US city size distribution, we also briefly present the results obtained for the power-law tail of the distribution of personal identity (ID) losses, which constitute one of the major emergent risks at the interface between cyberspace and reality.

  5. Differential Item Functioning of the Boston Naming Test in Cognitively Normal African American and Caucasian Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pedraza, Otto; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Smith, Glenn E.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Willis, Floyd B.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Lucas, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Scores on the Boston Naming Test (BNT) are frequently lower for African American when compared to Caucasian adults. Although demographically-based norms can mitigate the impact of this discrepancy on the likelihood of erroneous diagnostic impressions, a growing consensus suggests that group norms do not sufficiently address or advance our understanding of the underlying psychometric and sociocultural factors that lead to between-group score discrepancies. Using item response theory and methods to detect differential item functioning (DIF), the current investigation moves beyond comparisons of the summed total score to examine whether the conditional probability of responding correctly to individual BNT items differs between African American and Caucasian adults. Participants included 670 adults age 52 and older who took part in Mayo's Older Americans and Older African Americans Normative Studies. Under a 2-parameter logistic IRT framework and after correction for the false discovery rate, 12 items where shown to demonstrate DIF. Six of these 12 items (“dominoes,” “escalator,” “muzzle,” “latch,” “tripod,” and “palette”) were also identified in additional analyses using hierarchical logistic regression models and represent the strongest evidence for race/ethnicity-based DIF. These findings afford a finer characterization of the psychometric properties of the BNT and expand our understanding of between-group performance. PMID:19570311

  6. HIV Testing Implementation in Two Urban Cities: Practice, Policy, and Perceived Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Hallmark, Camden J.; Skillicorn, Jennifer; Giordano, Thomas P.; Davila, Jessica A.; McNeese, Marlene; Rocha, Nestor; Smith, Avemaria; Cooper, Stacey; Castel, Amanda D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although funding has supported the scale up of routine, opt-out HIV testing in the US, variance in implementation mechanisms and barriers in high-burden jurisdictions remains unknown. Methods We conducted a survey of health care organizations in Washington, DC and Houston/Harris County to determine number of HIV tests completed in 2011, policy and practices associated with HIV testing, funding mechanisms, and reported barriers to testing in each jurisdiction and to compare results between jurisdictions. Results In 2012, 43 Houston and 35 DC HIV-testing organizations participated in the survey. Participants represented 85% of Department of Health-supported testers in DC and 90% of Department of Health-supported testers in Houston. The median number of tests per organization was 568 in DC and 1045 in Houston. Approximately 50% of organizations in both DC and Houston exclusively used opt-in consent and most conducted both pre- and post-test counseling with HIV testing (80% of organizations in DC, 70% in Houston). While the most frequent source of funding in DC was the Department of Health, Houston organizations primarily billed the patient or third-party payers. Barriers to testing most often reported were lack of funding, followed by patient discomfort/refusal with more barriers reported in DC. Conclusions Given unique policies, resources and programmatic contexts, DC and Houston have taken different approaches to support routine testing. Many organizations in both cities reported opt-in consent approaches and pre-test counseling, suggesting 2006 national HIV testing recommendations are not being followed consistently. Addressing the barriers to testing identified in each jurisdiction may improve expansion of testing. PMID:25310462

  7. Development and testing of a 25-item patient satisfaction scale for black South African diabetic outpatients.

    PubMed

    Westaway, M S; Rheeder, P; van Zyl, D G; Seager, J R

    2002-08-01

    Although there is general agreement that patient satisfaction is an integral component of service quality, there is a paucity of South African research on reliable and valid satisfaction measures and the effects of health status on satisfaction. A 25-item patient satisfaction scale was developed and tested for evaluating the quality of health care for black diabetic outpatients. It was hypothesised that: (1) the underlying dimensions of patient satisfaction were interpersonal and organisational; and (2) patients in poor health would be less satisfied with the quality of their care than patients in good health. The questionnaire was administered to 263 black outpatients from Pretoria Academic Hospital and Kalafong Hospital. Factor analysis was conducted on the patient satisfaction scale and three factors, accounting for 71% of the variance, were extracted. The major items on Factor I were helpfulness, communication, support and consideration, representing the interpersonal dimension. Factors II and III were mainly concerned with service logistics and technical expertise, with the emphasis on waiting time, follow-up and thoroughness of examination. The three factors had excellent reliability coefficients, ranging between 0.82 (technical), 0.85 (logistics) and 0.98 (interpersonal). Multiple analyses of co-variance showed that patients in poor general health were significantly less satisfied with the logistical (p = 0.004) and technical (p = 0.007) quality of their care than patients in good health; patients in poor mental health were significantly less satisfied with the interpersonal quality of their care (p = 0.05) than patients in good mental health. These findings provided support for both hypotheses and suggested that patients in poor health attend to different aspects of their care than patients in good health. Of more importance to clinical practice, the results endorsed the need for a multidisciplinary health team comprising nurse/social worker (Factor I

  8. Attitudes and anticipated reactions to genetic testing for cancer among patients in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Urraca, Nora; Parra, Dionisio; Villa, Antonio R; Lisker, Rubén; Carnevale, Alessandra

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the attitudes toward cancer predictive genetic testing in a group of non-high-risk women and men and to analyze the factors that may influence their intention to use these tests. We studied a sample of 859 outpatient women and men attending the four tertiary care hospitals of the ISSSTE (Institute of Social Security and Services for Government Employees) in Mexico City. Subjects between the ages of 30 and 74 years with no present or past history of cancer were asked to answer a questionnaire through face-to-face interview. Two different questionnaires were designed, one for women and the other for men, regarding genetic testing of a high-risk gene for breast and prostate cancer, respectively. Descriptive statistics and univariate comparisons were carried out using chi-square test, Wilcoxon's signed rank test, and Friedman test. Multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression technique. Results showed that the majority of women attended clinics for regular check-ups and for performing screening tests to detect breast cancer, and men did not follow this pattern regarding prostate cancer. Women were more motivated to get genetic testing, more aware about its benefits, and more concerned about having cancer than men.

  9. Inverter Load Rejection Over-Voltage Testing: SolarCity CRADA Task 1a Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, A.; Hoke, A.; Chakraborty, S.; Chebahtah, J.; Wang, T.; Zimmerly, B.

    2015-02-01

    Various interconnection challenges exist when connecting distributed PV into the electrical distribution grid in terms of safety, reliability, and stability of electric power systems. One of the urgent areas for additional research - as identified by inverter manufacturers, installers, and utilities - is the potential for transient over-voltage from PV inverters. In one stage of a cooperative tests were repeated a total of seven times. The maximum over-voltage measured in any test did not exceed 200% of nominal, and typical over-voltage levels were significantly lower. The total voltage duration and the maximum continuous time above each threshold are presented here, as well as the time to disconnect for each test. Finally, we present a brief investigation into the effect of DC input voltage as well as a series of no-load tests. This report describes testing conducted at NREL to determine the duration and magnitude of transient over-voltages created by several commercial PV inverters during load-rejection conditions. For this work, a test plan that is currently under development by the Forum on Inverter Grid Integration Issues (FIGII) has been implemented in a custom test setup at NREL. Through a cooperative research and development agreement, NREL is working with SolarCity to address two specific types of transient overvoltage: load rejection overvoltage (LRO) and ground fault overvoltage (GFO). Additional partners in this effort include the Hawaiian Electric Companies, Northern Plains Power Technologies, and the Electric Power Research Institute.

  10. Barriers and missed opportunities to HIV testing among injection drug users in two Mexico – US border cities

    PubMed Central

    MOYER, L. B.; BROUWER, K. C.; BRODINE, S. K.; RAMOS, R.; LOZADA, R.; CRUZ, M. FIRESTONE; MAGIS-RODRIGUEZ, C.; STRATHDEE, S. A.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction and Aims Despite increasing HIV prevalence in cities along the Mexico – US border, HIV testing among high-risk populations remains low. We sought to identify barriers associated with HIV testing among injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, the two largest Mexican border cities located across from San Diego, California and El Paso, Texas, respectively. Design and Methods In 2005, 222 IDUs in Tijuana and 205 IDUs in Ciudad Juarez were recruited by respondent-driven sampling and administered a questionnaire to collect socio-demographic, behavioural and HIV testing history data. Blood samples were provided for serological testing of HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis. Results Only 38% and 30% of respondents in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, respectively, had ever had an HIV test. The factors associated independently with never having been tested for HIV differed between the two sites, except for lack of knowledge on HIV transmission, which was associated independently in both locales. Importantly, 65% of those who had never been tested for HIV in both cities experienced at least one missed opportunity for voluntary testing, including medical visits, drug treatment and spending time in jail. Discussion and Conclusions Among this high-risk IDU population we found HIV testing to be low, with voluntary testing in public and private settings utilised inadequately. These findings underscore the need to expand voluntary HIV education and testing and to integrate it into services and locales frequented by IDUs in these Mexico –US border cities. PMID:18034380

  11. Cognitive Testing of PAINReportIt® in Adult African Americans with Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Aruna; Suarez, Marie L.; Ferrans, Carol E.; Molokie, Robert; Kim, Young Ok; Wilkie, Diana J.

    2013-01-01

    PAINReportIt,® a computerized version of Melzack’s (© 1970) McGill Pain Questionnaire, presents pain measurement items to responders in serial display screens accompanied by pop-up screens. In this study, we used cognitive interviews to examine further validity of PAINReportIt® with 25 African Americans with sickle cell disease. The specific aims were to determine if the questions in the PAINReportIt® program were relevant to and understood by African Americans with SCD and to describe the nature of the pain they experienced. Most study participants were enthusiastic and able to use the tool as intended, appreciated the comprehensiveness, detail, and multidimensionality of its pain data. For some screens, two to six participants’ responses suggested some question understanding and interpretation issues, inability to retrieve the requested information, or technical issues. Their responses indicated that screens lacked sufficient specificity for the temporal nature of pain recurrent over a lifetime. The program captured both nociceptive and neuropathic aspects of sickle cell pain, and provided detailed information on the location, intensity, quality and pattern of pain experienced by participants. We recommend that future revisions to the PAINReportIt® program address the temporal issues of measuring recurrent pain, resolve technological issues related to pop-ups, and simplify difficult words to better match the typical health literacy levels of patients. These revisions could further enhance the technological aspects, usability, and cultural appropriateness of the tool for African Americans with SCD. PMID:20431356

  12. Food insecurity, overweight and obesity among low-income African-American families in Baltimore City: Associations with food-related perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Vedovato, Gabriela M.; Surkan, Pamela J.; Jones-Smith, Jessica; Steeves, Elizabeth Anderson; Han, Eunkyung; Trude, Angela C.B.; Kharmats, Anna Y.; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between food insecurity, excess body weight, psychosocial factors and food behaviors among low-income African-American (AA) families. Design Cross-sectional survey of participants in the baseline evaluation of the B’More Healthy Communities for Kids (BHCK) obesity prevention trial. We collected data on socioeconomic factors, food source destinations, acquiring food, preparation methods, psychosocial factors, beliefs and attitudes, participation in food assistance programs, anthropometry and food security. We used principal component analysis to identify patterns of food source destinations and logistic regression to examine associations. Setting Fourteen low-income, predominantly AA neighborhoods in Baltimore City. Subjects 298 adult caregiver-child (10–14 years old) dyads. Results 41.6% of households had some level of food insecurity, and 12.4% experienced some level of hunger. Food insecure participants with hunger were significantly more likely to be unemployed and to have lower incomes. We found high rates of excess body weight (overweight and obese) among adults and children (82.8% and 37.9% food insecure without hunger; 89.2% and 45.9% with hunger, respectively), although there were no significant differences by security status. Food source usage patterns, food acquisition, preparation, knowledge, self-efficacy and intentions did not differ by food security. Food security was associated with perceptions that healthy foods are affordable and convenient. Greater caregiver body satisfaction was associated with food insecurity and excess body weight. Conclusions In this setting, obesity and food insecurity are major problems. For many food insecure families, perceptions of healthy foods may serve as additional barriers to their purchase and consumption. PMID:26441159

  13. Pre-exposure to food temptation reduces subsequent consumption: A test of the procedure with a South-African sample.

    PubMed

    Duh, Helen Inseng; Grubliauskiene, Aiste; Dewitte, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that the consumption of unhealthy Westernized diet in a context of poverty and resultant food insecurity may have contributed to South-Africa's status of the third fattest country in the World. Considering that a number of South-Africans are reported to have experienced, or are still experiencing food insecurity, procedures which have been shown to reduce the consumption of unhealthy food in higher income countries may be ineffective in South-Africa. We thus tested the robustness of the so called pre-exposure procedure in South-Africa. We also tested the moderating role of childhood poverty in the pre-exposure procedure. With the pre-exposure procedure, a respondent is exposed to a tempting unhealthy food (e.g. candy) in a context that is designed such that eating the food interferes with a task goal. The typical result is that this procedure spills over and reduces consumption of similar tempting food later on. An experimental study conducted in a South-African laboratory showed that the pre-exposure effect is robust even with a sample, where food insecurity prevails. Childhood poverty did not moderate the effect. This study proves that behavioral procedures aimed at reducing the consumption of unhealthy food would be valuable in less rich non-Western countries. Further testing of the robustness of the pre-exposure effect is however recommended in other poorer food insecure countries. PMID:26505288

  14. Distinguishing between phonological difference and disorder in children who speak African-American Vernacular English: an experimental testing instrument.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, L D; Anderson, R T

    1998-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of an experimental articulation testing instrument for differentiating child speakers of African-American Vernacular English (AAVE) with atypical and typical phonologies. Twenty-six AAVE-speaking children between the ages of 5:0 and 6:6 participated in the study. Based on their phonological skills in AAVE, the children were divided into two groups: typical and atypical. The experimental procedure was administered to each child and group performance on the instrument was contrasted. Significant group differences were observed thus suggesting that the experimental testing instrument can differentiate between AAVE-speaking children with typical and atypical phonological development between the ages tested. Observed error patterns are described and suggestions for further research are discussed. PMID:9697042

  15. Quantitative geochemical modelling using leaching tests: application for coal ashes produced by two South African thermal processes.

    PubMed

    Hareeparsad, Shameer; Tiruta-Barna, Ligia; Brouckaert, Chris J; Buckley, Chris A

    2011-02-28

    The present work focuses on the reactivity of coal fly ash in aqueous solutions studied through geochemical modelling. The studied coal fly ashes originate from South African industrial sites. The adopted methodology is based on mineralogical analysis, laboratory leaching tests and geochemical modelling. A quantitative modelling approach is developed here in order to determine the quantities of different solid phases composing the coal fly ash. It employs a geochemical code (PHREEQC) and a numerical optimisation tool developed under MATLAB, by the intermediate of a coupling program. The experimental conditions are those of the laboratory leaching test, i.e. liquid/solid ratio of 10 L/kg and 48 h contact time. The simulation results compared with the experimental data demonstrate the feasibility of such approach, which is the scope of the present work. The perspective of the quantitative geochemical modelling is the waste reactivity prediction in different leaching conditions and time frames. This work is part of a largest research project initiated by Sasol and Eskom companies, the largest South African coal consumers, aiming to address the issue of waste management of coal combustion residues and the environmental impact assessment of coal ash disposal on land.

  16. Analysis of motorcycle exhaust regular testing data--a case study of Taipei City.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Chi; Chen, Lu-Yen; Jeng, Fu-Tien

    2009-06-01

    In Taiwan, a continuous increase in the number of motorcycles has made exhaust pollution one of the major emission sources of air pollutants. The regular testing program carried out by the Republic of China Environmental Protection Agency was designed to reduce air pollutant emissions by enhancing maintenance and repair. During the execution period, abundant testing results were accumulated to discuss pollutant emissions from motorcycles. Exhaust testing data of motorcycles in Taipei City from 1996 to 2005 were chosen as the basic data to survey changes in motorcycle exhaust. Effects of motorcycle age and mileage on exhaust pollution were studied. The introduction of advanced emission standards enhances the elimination of high-emitting motorcycles. The testing data indicate that the testing rate rose from approximately 50 to 70% and the failure rate changed from approximately 15 to 10%. The operation cycles of two-stroke motorcycles make them high-emitting vehicles. Concentrations of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons are higher in two-stroke motorcycle exhaust than that in four-stroke motorcycles. In contrast, the concentration of carbon dioxide produced from complete oxidation processes is lower in exhaust from two-stroke motorcycles. Therefore, failure rates of two-stroke motorcycles are higher than those of four-stroke motorcycles and were also observed to deactivate more easily. On the basis of analytical results of testing data, we found that failure rates show a gradually increasing trend for motorcycles older than 3 yr or used for mileages greater than 10,000 km, and failure rates are highly correlated to the age/mileage of motorcycles. We reason that the accumulation of age or mileage means accumulating usage time of engines and emission control systems. Concentrations of pollutant emissions would increase because of engine wear and emission control system deactivation. After discussing changes of failure rates and pollutant emissions, some suggestions are

  17. The Process of Customization of the "Metropolitan Achievement Test" (MAT-6) in Mathematics for New York City Public School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taleporos, Betsy; And Others

    In the spring of 1986, New York City began using the Metropolitan Achievement Test-6 (MAT-6) series to assess achievement in mathematics as part of a continuing end-of-year testing program. During the first two years of the program, appropriate levels of the shelf version of MAT-6 (Forms L and M) were administered to second through eighth graders.…

  18. Test of socioeconomic causation of secular trend: stature changes among favored and oppressed South Africans are parallel.

    PubMed

    Henneberg, M; van den Berg, E R

    1990-12-01

    Secular trends in body height, however common, run at different rates and even in opposite directions in various populations. The standard explanation is that direction and tempo of the trend are reflections of changes in the socioeconomic situation. The aim of this work is to test this hypothesis by examining trends in different socioeconomic groups living in the same country. Our observations on affluent South Africans of European extraction (AE) and on Polish medical students are compared with the data on statures of other affluent and poor peoples from the two countries measured at various dates during the 19th and 20th centuries. The trend among native Southern Africans is erratic (Tobias: South African Journal of Medical Science 40:145-164, 1975), but the overall direction is positive with a slow rate (0.24 cm/decade for 72 Negroid male groups and 0.48 cm/d for 28 Khoisan male samples). Magnitude of the trend among adult AE (0.41 cm/d for females, 0.59 for males) does not differ significantly from that among natives. The trend was absent in the data for 10-year-old AE boys and girls. The rate of trend among AE is much lower than that in their countries of origin (mainly Holland and Britain). The trend among AE medical students is markedly weaker than the trend among Polish medical students (1.21 cm/d), who in turn parallel Polish general conscripts (1.24 cm/d). It follows that the explanation of the secular trend as being an ecosensitive response of individuals to changing levels of well-being is insufficient. PMID:2275483

  19. Test of socioeconomic causation of secular trend: stature changes among favored and oppressed South Africans are parallel.

    PubMed

    Henneberg, M; van den Berg, E R

    1990-12-01

    Secular trends in body height, however common, run at different rates and even in opposite directions in various populations. The standard explanation is that direction and tempo of the trend are reflections of changes in the socioeconomic situation. The aim of this work is to test this hypothesis by examining trends in different socioeconomic groups living in the same country. Our observations on affluent South Africans of European extraction (AE) and on Polish medical students are compared with the data on statures of other affluent and poor peoples from the two countries measured at various dates during the 19th and 20th centuries. The trend among native Southern Africans is erratic (Tobias: South African Journal of Medical Science 40:145-164, 1975), but the overall direction is positive with a slow rate (0.24 cm/decade for 72 Negroid male groups and 0.48 cm/d for 28 Khoisan male samples). Magnitude of the trend among adult AE (0.41 cm/d for females, 0.59 for males) does not differ significantly from that among natives. The trend was absent in the data for 10-year-old AE boys and girls. The rate of trend among AE is much lower than that in their countries of origin (mainly Holland and Britain). The trend among AE medical students is markedly weaker than the trend among Polish medical students (1.21 cm/d), who in turn parallel Polish general conscripts (1.24 cm/d). It follows that the explanation of the secular trend as being an ecosensitive response of individuals to changing levels of well-being is insufficient.

  20. Test data from the chloride-monitor well at Sun City Center, Hillsborough County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sinclair, William C.

    1979-01-01

    A test well drilled for Southwest Florida Water Management District at Sun City Center in Hillsborough County, will serve to monitor the interface between freshwater in the aquifer and the underlying chloride water. The sulfate content of the water in the aquifer at the well site exceeds 250 mg/L below a depth of about 700 feet. Wells for domestic and public supply in the area bottom at less than 500 feet and are separated from the sulfate water by about 100 feet of poorly-permeable limestone. The freshwater-chloride water interface is quite sharp and occurs at a depth of 1,410 feet. The chloride water is similar in composition to seawater but nearly twice as saline. (Woodard-USGS).

  1. Hydrogeologic data from a test well at Kathryn Abbey Hanna Park, City of Jacksonville, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, D.P.; Johnson, R.A.; Baker, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    A 2,026-foot test well was drilled at Hanna Park, City of Jacksonville, Florida, to obtain hydrogeologic data. Drill cuttings and water samples were collected, and water-level measurements and lithologic and geophysical logs were made. The well is constructed with 6-inch diameter casing from land surface to a depth of 1,892 feet and cement grouted in place. The remainder is open hole. The uppermost 411 feet of material penetrated by the well consists of sand, clayey sand, phosphatic sandy clay, coquina, sandy limestone, and dolostone. In the remainder of the hole, the material consists of limestone and dolostone, which comprise the Floridan aquifer in the area. (USGS)

  2. Measuring Financial Literacy: Developing and Testing a Measurement Instrument with a Selected Group of South African Military Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwella, E.; van Nieuwenhuyzen, Bernard J.

    2014-01-01

    Are South Africans financially literate, and how can this be measured? Until 2009 there was no South African financial literacy measure and, therefore, the aim was to develop a South African measurement instrument that is scientific, socially acceptable, valid and reliable. To achieve this aim a contextual and conceptual analysis of financial…

  3. An assessment of African test sites in the context of a global network of quality-assured reference standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Xiong, X.; Angal, A.; Choi, T.

    2009-01-01

    The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Infrared and Visible Optical Sensors (IVOS) subgroup members established a set of CEOS-endorsed globally distributed reference standard test sites for the postlaunch calibration of space-based optical imaging sensors. This paper discusses the top five African pseudo-invariant sites (Libya 4, Mauritania 1/2, Algeria 3, Libya 1, and Algeria 5) that were identified by the IVOS subgroup. This paper focuses on monitoring the long-term radiometric stability of the Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensors using near-simultaneous and cloud-free image pairs acquired from launch to December 2008 over the five African desert sites. Residual errors and coefficients of determination were also generated to support the quality assessment of the calibration differences between the two sensors. An effort was also made to evaluate the relative stability of these sites for long-term monitoring of the optical sensors. ??2009 IEEE.

  4. Pubertal timing and sexual risk behaviors among rural African American male youth: testing a model based on life history theory.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Steven M; Cho, Junhan; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Allen, Kimberly A; Beach, Steven R H; Simons, Ronald L; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2015-04-01

    Life History Theory (LHT), a branch of evolutionary biology, describes how organisms maximize their reproductive success in response to environmental conditions. This theory suggests that challenging environmental conditions will lead to early pubertal maturation, which in turn predicts heightened risky sexual behavior. Although largely confirmed among female adolescents, results with male youth are inconsistent. We tested a set of predictions based on LHT with a sample of 375 African American male youth assessed three times from age 11 to age 16. Harsh, unpredictable community environments and harsh, inconsistent, or unregulated parenting at age 11 were hypothesized to predict pubertal maturation at age 13; pubertal maturation was hypothesized to forecast risky sexual behavior, including early onset of intercourse, substance use during sexual activity, and lifetime numbers of sexual partners. Results were consistent with our hypotheses. Among African American male youth, community environments were a modest but significant predictor of pubertal timing. Among those youth with high negative emotionality, both parenting and community factors predicted pubertal timing. Pubertal timing at age 13 forecast risky sexual behavior at age 16. Results of analyses conducted to determine whether environmental effects on sexual risk behavior were mediated by pubertal timing were not significant. This suggests that, although evolutionary mechanisms may affect pubertal development via contextual influences for sensitive youth, the factors that predict sexual risk behavior depend less on pubertal maturation than LHT suggests. PMID:25501863

  5. Test marketing of new smokeless tobacco products in four U.S. cities

    PubMed Central

    Biener, Lois; Clark, Pamela I.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction This exploratory study was designed to assess the availability, price, and point-of-purchase marketing strategies for new smokeless tobacco products in 4 test market areas. Methods A random sample of 50 gas stations, convenience and food stores, and tobacco shops was selected in each of 4 test market areas. Pairs of observers visited each store, recorded product information, and engaged vendors in conversation about product demand. Results Snus was available in 64% of the stores, but availability and price differed by brand. Point-of-purchase marketing also varied by brand on a variety of dimensions and all brands appeared to be marketed primarily to smokers. Camel Snus was described by store attendants as having the highest demand and was also the most expensive of the observed products. In light of the number of test market cities and intensity of promotion at retail locations, Camel Snus was the most intensively marketed product. Discussion The results appear to reflect differences in marketing strategy by American snus manufacturers. These strategies may help to predict future marketing of snus and other tobacco products and may provide a baseline for later assessments of product acceptance. PMID:19917598

  6. Data for ground-water test hole near Butte City, Central Valley aquifer project, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, James J.; Page, R.W.; Bertoldi, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    This report provides preliminary data for the third of seven test holes drilled as part of the Central Valley Aquifer Project which is part of the National Regional Aquifer Systems Analysis Program. The test hole was drilled in the SW 1/4 NE 1/4 sec. 32, T. 19 N., R. 1 W., Glenn County, California, about one-half mile south of the town of Butte City. Drilled to a depth of 1,432 feet below land surface, the hole is cased to a depth of 82 feet and equipped with three piezometer tubes to depths of 592 feet, 968 feet, and 1,330 feet. A 5-foot well screen is at the bottom of each piezometer. Each screened interval has a cement plug above and below it to isolate it from other parts of the aquifer , and the well bore is filled between the plugs with sediment. Nine cores and 49 sidewall cores were recovered. Laboratory tests were made for mineralogy, hydraulic conductivity, porosity , consolidation, grain-size distribution, Atterberg limits, X-ray diffraction, and chemical quality of water. Geophysical and thermal gradient logs were made. The hole is sampled periodically for chemical analysis and measured for water level in the three tapped zones. This report presents methods used to obtain field samples, laboratory procedures, and the data obtained. (USGS)

  7. Culturally sensitive oral health educational materials for older African Americans.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, Ann; Evans, Lois K

    2007-11-01

    Oral diseases disproportionately affect older Americans from minority populations. Approaches to reducing such disparities include increasing community-based interventions that target vulnerable older adults. To help in developing and implementing such programs, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services suggests using the MAP-IT technique, from a strategic planning guide to address public health issues in the community. This approach served as the method of investigation for the Take Charge of Your Oral Health educational program, a health promotion initiative targeting older African Americans. This paper describes the development and evaluation of the program. A total of 111 African American elders from 7 senior sites in Philadelphia participated in the program. A 6-item pre-test and post-test indicated a significant improvement in mean test scores from baseline (p,.001). The program demonstrated merit in improving oral health knowledge among community-residing, inner city, older African Americans.

  8. Testing the stages model in the adaptive radiation of cichlid fishes in East African Lake Tanganyika

    PubMed Central

    Muschick, Moritz; Nosil, Patrik; Roesti, Marius; Dittmann, Marie Theres; Harmon, Luke; Salzburger, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive radiation (AR) is a key process in the origin of organismal diversity. However, the evolution of trait disparity in connection with ecological specialization is still poorly understood. Available models for vertebrate ARs predict that diversification occurs in the form of temporal stages driven by different selective forces. Here, we investigate the AR of cichlid fishes in East African Lake Tanganyika and use macroevolutionary model fitting to evaluate whether diversification happened in temporal stages. Six trait complexes, for which we also provide evidence of their adaptiveness, are analysed with comparative methods: body shape, pharyngeal jaw shape, gill raker traits, gut length, brain weight and body coloration. Overall, we do not find strong evidence for the ‘stages model’ of AR. However, our results suggest that trophic traits diversify earlier than traits implicated in macrohabitat adaptation and that sexual communication traits (i.e. coloration) diversify late in the radiation. PMID:25274371

  9. Phase 2 and 3 Slim Hole Drilling and Testing at the Lake City, California Geothermal Field

    SciTech Connect

    Dick Benoit; David Blackwell; Joe Moore; Colin Goranson

    2005-10-27

    During Phases 2 and 3 of the Lake City GRED II project two slim holes were cored to depths of 1728 and 4727 ft. Injection and production tests with temperature and pressure logging were performed on the OH-1 and LCSH-5 core holes. OH-1 was permanently modified by cementing an NQ tubing string in place below a depth of 947 ft. The LCSH-1a hole was drilled in Quaternary blue clay to a depth of 1727 ft and reached a temperature of 193 oF at a depth of 1649 ft. This hole failed to find evidence of a shallow geothermal system east of the Mud Volcano but the conductive temperature profile indicates temperatures near 325 oF could be present below depth of 4000 ft. The LCSH-5 hole was drilled to a depth of 4727 ft and encountered a significant shallow permeability between depths of 1443 and 1923 ft and below 3955 ft. LCSH-5 drilled impermeable Quaternary fanglomerate to a depth of 1270 ft. Below 1270 ft the rocks consist primarily of Tertiary sedimentary rocks. The most significant formation deep in LCSH-5 appears to be a series of poikoilitic mafic lava flows below a depth of 4244 ft that host the major deep permeable fracture encountered. The maximum static temperature deep in LCSH-5 is 323 oF and the maximum flowing temperature is 329 oF. This hole extended the known length of the geothermal system by ¾ of a mile toward the north and is located over ½ mile north of the northernmost hot spring. The OH-1 hole was briefly flow tested prior to cementing the NQ rods in place. This flow test confirmed the zone at 947 ft is the dominant permeability in the hole. The waters produced during testing of OH-1 and LCSH-5 are generally intermediate in character between the deep geothermal water produced by the Phipps #2 well and the thermal springs. Geothermometers applied to deeper fluids tend to predict higher subsurface temperatures with the maximum being 382 oF from the Phipps #2 well. The Lake City geothermal system can be viewed as having shallow (elevation > 4000 ft and

  10. A method to estimate the environmental impact of an electric city car during six months of testing in an Italian city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donateo, T.; Ingrosso, F.; Licci, F.; Laforgia, D.

    2014-12-01

    The present investigation describes the results of a research project (P.R.I.M.E.) aimed at testing the performance and the environmental impact of an electric city car in Italian cities. The vehicle considered in the project is the Daimler AG Smart ForTwo Electric Drive. A Smart ED vehicle was tested at the University of Salento for six months over different driving conditions (routes, traffic, use of auxiliaries). A data acquisition system has been designed on purpose and assembled on board to provide information about driving cycle and energy flows. The system was also used to evaluate the losses of energy during recharges due to the battery cooling system. The experimental tests were used to identify the average, minimum and maximum consumption of electricity in the Smart ED in Lecce according to driving conditions and in particular according to the usage of auxiliaries. The measured data of electric consumption have been used to quantify the emissions of CO2 and pollution of the vehicle using information about the Italian electricity production mix of each recharging event and the emissions factors of the Italian power plants with an innovative and comprehensive methodology.

  11. Simulations Show Diagnostic Testing For Malaria In Young African Children Can Be Cost-Saving Or Cost-Effective

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Victoria; Njau, Joseph; Li, Shang; Kachur, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Malaria imposes a substantial global disease burden. It disproportionately affects sub-Saharan Africans, particularly young children. In an effort to improve disease management, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended in 2010 that countries test children younger than age five who present with suspected malaria fever to confirm the diagnosis instead of treating them presumptively with antimalarial drugs. Costs and concerns about the overall health impact of such diagnostic testing for malaria in children remain barriers to full implementation. Using data from national Malaria Indicator Surveys, we estimated two-stage microsimulation models for Angola, Tanzania, and Uganda to assess the policy’s cost-effectiveness. We found that diagnostic testing for malaria in children younger than five is cost-saving in Angola. In Tanzania and Uganda the cost per life-year gained is $5.54 and $94.28, respectively. The costs projected for Tanzania and Uganda are less than the WHO standard of $150 per life-year gained. Our results were robust under varying assumptions about cost, prevalence of malaria, and behavior, and they strongly suggest the pursuit of policies that facilitate full implementation of testing for malaria in children younger than five. PMID:26153315

  12. Neuropsychological Testing in a Rural African School-Age Population: Evaluating Contributions to Variability in Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitsao-Wekulo, Patricia K.; Holding, Penny A.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Abubakar, Amina; Connolly, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of a number of neuropsychological tests adapted for use in sub-Saharan Africa. A total of 308 school-age children in a predominantly rural community completed the tests. These tests were developed to assess skills similar to those measured by assessments of cognitive development published for use…

  13. "It's Better Not to Know": Perceived Barriers to HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing among Sub-Saharan African Migrants in Belgium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manirankunda, Lazare; Loos, Jasna; Alou, Therese Assebide; Colebunders, Robert; Nostlinger, Christiana

    2009-01-01

    This study explored perceptions, needs, and barriers of sub-Saharan African migrants in relation to HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT). Using an inductive qualitative methodological approach, data were obtained from focus group discussions. Results showed that participants were in principle in favor of VCT. However, they indicated that…

  14. Gender Differences in Rates of Depressive Symptoms among Low-Income, Urban, African American Youth: A Test of Two Mediational Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Kathryn E.; Lyons, Aoife L.; Finkelstein, Jo-Ann S.; Conway, Kathryn M.; Reynolds, Linda K.; O'Koon, Jeffrey H.; Waitkoff, Gregory R.; Hicks, Kira J.

    2004-01-01

    The present study tested for gender differences in depressive symptoms in a sample of 622 low-income, urban, African American adolescents. Results indicate that adolescent girls in this sample were significantly more likely to endorse depressive symptoms than were boys. To examine possible explanations for this gender difference, 2 variables were…

  15. Personality Similarity and Work-Related Outcomes among African-American Nursing Personnel: A Test of the Supplementary Model of Person-Environment Congruence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, David V.; Bedeian, Arthur G.

    1995-01-01

    Data from 206 nursing service employees (171 African American) and a 5-factor taxonomy of personality were used to test effects of personality similarity on job satisfaction, performance, and tenure. Tenure was significantly predicted by satisfaction and similarity in conscientiousness. No association was found between personality similarity and…

  16. A Preliminary Investigation of Second- and Fourth-Grade African American Students' Performance on the Gray Oral Reading Test-Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, Tempii B.; Rosa-Lugo, Linda I.; Rivers, Kenyatta O.; McCabe, Allyssa

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Research has established that African American (AA) children are lagging behind other children in their reading skills. A number of factors have been proposed to account for the literacy gap; however no single factor has entirely explained this disparity. This investigation examined the appropriateness of the Gray Oral Reading Test-Fourth…

  17. 1974-75 Philadelphia City-Wide Testing Program; February 1975 Achievement Testing Program. School Performance Distributions: Kindergarten through Grade Twelve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosswald, Jules

    This is a report of pupil performance in Philadelphia schools based upon the February 1975 Philadelphia City-Wide Testing Program involving all pupils in kindergarten through grade 12. School performance distributions show the combined percentages of pupils in each school scoring within various national percentile rank ranges. The performance…

  18. High Stakes Testing of African-American Male Student Performance on Middle School Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murrell-Heydorf, Tanya

    2011-01-01

    The driving force behind high-stakes-testing may be attributed to the issue of education reform. In the last decade, high-stakes testing has generated intense controversy among educators and parents. The use of high-stakes testing in making decisions about student promotion and graduation is both controversial and significant. The purpose of the…

  19. Development and testing of meteorology and air dispersion models for Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, M. D.; Brown, M. J.; Cruz, X.; Sosa, G.; Streit, G.

    Los Alamos National Laboratory and Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo are completing a joint study of options for improving air quality in Mexico City. We have modified a three-dimensional, prognostic, higher-order turbulence model for atmospheric circulation (HOTMAC) and a Monte Carlo dispersion and transport model (RAPTAD) to treat domains that include an urbanized area. We used the meteorological model to drive models which describe the photochemistry and air transport and dispersion. The photochemistry modeling is described in a separate paper. We tested the model against routine measurements and those of a major field program. During the field program, measurements included: (1) lidar measurements of aerosol transport and dispersion, (2) aircraft measurements of winds, turbulence, and chemical species aloft, (3) aircraft measurements of skin temperatures, and (4) Tethersonde measurements of winds and ozone. We modified the meteorological model to include provisions for time-varying synoptic-scale winds, adjustments for local wind effects, and detailed surface-coverage descriptions. We developed a new method to define mixing-layer heights based on model outputs. The meteorology and dispersion models were able to provide reasonable representations of the measurements and to define the sources of some of the major uncertainties in the model-measurement comparisons.

  20. HIV testing behaviors and attitudes among community recruited methamphetamine users in a South African township

    PubMed Central

    Meade, Christina S.; Towe, Sheri L.; Watt, Melissa H.; Hobkirk, Andrea; Skinner, Donald; Myers, Bronwyn; Kimani, Stephen M.; Pieterse, Desiree

    2015-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine users in South Africa are at high risk for HIV infection and transmission, but little is known about HIV testing in this population. Methods We examined HIV testing behaviors and attitudes in 362 methamphetamine users recruited using chain referral sampling from one peri-urban community. Results Many (44%) had not been HIV tested in the past year. HIV testing was associated with positive testing attitudes, less AIDS stigma, and greater methamphetamine stigma. Among participants who reported HIV infection (8%), less than half were linked to care. Conclusions Findings highlight the need to identify barriers to HIV service uptake for methamphetamine users. PMID:24858393

  1. Determining the effects and challenges of incorporating genetic testing into primary care management of hypertensive patients with African ancestry.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, C R; Abul-Husn, N S; Ellis, S; Ramos, M A; Negron, R; Suprun, M; Zinberg, R E; Sabin, T; Hauser, D; Calman, N; Bagiella, E; Bottinger, E P

    2016-03-01

    People of African ancestry (Blacks) have increased risk of kidney failure due to numerous socioeconomic, environmental, and clinical factors. Two variants in the APOL1 gene are now thought to account for much of the racial disparity associated with hypertensive kidney failure in Blacks. However, this knowledge has not been translated into clinical care to help improve patient outcomes and address disparities. GUARDD is a randomized trial to evaluate the effects and challenges of incorporating genetic risk information into primary care. Hypertensive, non-diabetic, adults with self-reported African ancestry, without kidney dysfunction, are recruited from diverse clinical settings and randomized to undergo APOL1 genetic testing at baseline (intervention) or at one year (waitlist control). Providers are educated about genomics and APOL1. Guided by a genetic counselor, trained staff return APOL1 results to patients and provide low-literacy educational materials. Real-time clinical decision support tools alert clinicians of their patients' APOL1 results and associated risk status at the point of care. Our academic-community-clinical partnership designed a study to generate information about the impact of genetic risk information on patient care (blood pressure and renal surveillance) and on patient and provider knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. GUARDD will help establish the effective implementation of APOL1 risk-informed management of hypertensive patients at high risk of CKD, and will provide a robust framework for future endeavors to implement genomic medicine in diverse clinical practices. It will also add to the important dialog about factors that contribute to and may help eliminate racial disparities in kidney disease. PMID:26747051

  2. Perceptions of family history and genetic testing and feasibility of pedigree development among African Americans with hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Pettey, Christina M; McSweeney, Jean C; Stewart, Katharine E; Price, Elvin T; Cleves, Mario A; Heo, Seongkum; Souder, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Background Pedigree development, family history, and genetic testing are thought to be useful in improving outcomes of chronic illnesses such as hypertension (HTN). However, the clinical utility of pedigree development is still unknown. Further, little is known about African Americans’ (AAs’) perceptions of family history and genetic testing. Aims This study examined the feasibility of developing pedigrees for AAs with HTN and explored perceptions of family history and genetic research among AAs with HTN. Methods The US Surgeon General’s My Family Health Portrait was administered, and 30–60 minute in-person individual interviews were conducted. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze pedigree data. Interview transcripts were analyzed with content analysis and constant comparison. Results Twenty-nine AAs with HTN were recruited from one free clinic (15 women, 14 men; mean age 49 years, SD 9.6). Twenty-six (90%) reported their family history in sufficient detail to develop a pedigree. Perceptions of family history included knowledge of HTN in the family, culturally influenced family teaching about HTN, and response to family history of HTN. Most participants agreed to future genetic testing and DNA collection because they wanted to help others; some said they needed more information and others expressed a concern for privacy. Conclusion The majority of AAs in this sample possessed extensive knowledge of HTN within their family and were able to develop a three generation pedigree with assistance. The majority were willing to participate in future genetic research. PMID:25322748

  3. HIV testing in primary care: feasibility and acceptability of provider initiated HIV testing and counseling for sub-Saharan African migrants.

    PubMed

    Loos, Jasna; Manirankunda, Lazare; Hendrickx, Kristin; Remmen, Roy; Nöstlinger, Christiana

    2014-02-01

    Provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) is recommended to reduce late HIV diagnoses, common among Sub-Saharan African migrants (SAM) residing in Europe. Primary care represents an ideal entry point for PITC. To support Flemish general practitioners (GPs), we developed a culturally sensitive PITC tool. Over a 12-week period, 65 GPs implemented PITC to assess acceptability and feasibility of PITC. The qualitative evaluation showed high acceptability among physicians. Routine PITC was challenged by physicians' personal discomfort, assumptions of patients' sexual risk, perceived incoherence with reasons for consultation, and time pressure. The best opportunity for PITC was an indicated blood analysis for other medical reasons. Counseling skills improved during the implementation, but participants still advocated for reduced counseling requirements. PITC proved to be feasible in primary care settings, but the up-scaling requires a reformulation of counseling guidelines, a policy stipulating the role of GPs in the prevention-care continuum, and an investment in (continuous) training. PMID:24450280

  4. H.U.B city steps: methods and early findings from a community-based participatory research trial to reduce blood pressure among african americans

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been recognized as an important approach to develop and execute health interventions among marginalized populations, and a key strategy to translate research into practice to help reduce health disparities. Despite growing interest in the CBPR approach, CBPR initiatives rarely use experimental or other rigorous research designs to evaluate health outcomes. This behavioral study describes the conceptual frameworks, methods, and early findings related to the reach, adoption, implementation, and effectiveness on primary blood pressure outcomes. Methods The CBPR, social support, and motivational interviewing frameworks are applied to test treatment effects of a two-phased CBPR walking intervention, including a 6-month active intervention quasi experimental phase and 12-month maintenance randomized controlled trial phase to test dose effects of motivational interviewing. A community advisory board helped develop and execute the culturally-appropriate intervention components which included social support walking groups led by peer coaches, pedometer diary self-monitoring, monthly diet and physical activity education sessions, and individualized motivational interviewing sessions. Although the study is on-going, three month data is available and reported. Analyses include descriptive statistics and paired t tests. Results Of 269 enrolled participants, most were African American (94%) females (85%) with a mean age of 43.8 (SD = 12.1) years. Across the 3 months, 90% of all possible pedometer diaries were submitted. Attendance at the monthly education sessions was approximately 33%. At the 3-month follow-up 227 (84%) participants were retained. From baseline to 3-months, systolic BP [126.0 (SD = 19.1) to 120.3 (SD = 17.9) mmHg; p < 0.001] and diastolic BP [83. 2 (SD = 12.3) to 80.2 (SD = 11.6) mmHg; p < 0.001] were significantly reduced. Conclusions This CBPR study highlights implementation factors and signifies

  5. Efficacy of an HIV testing campaign's messages for African American women.

    PubMed

    Uhrig, Jennifer D; Davis, Kevin C; Fraze, Jami; Goetz, Joshua; Rupert, Doug

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a Web-based randomized controlled experiment to test the efficacy of the Take Charge. Take the Test. (TCTT) campaign messages. The experiment had two conditions: (a) exposure to campaign messages and (b) no exposure. Participants completed a baseline assessment, exposure condition participants were exposed to campaign materials for 2 weeks, and all participants completed a follow-up survey at 2- and 6-weeks postbaseline. Multivariate results indicate that exposure to TCTT messages was associated with increases in key knowledge items targeted by the campaign, intentions to get tested for HIV, and increases in peer-to-peer communication about getting an HIV test.

  6. Understanding Alcohol Consumption and Its Correlates among African American Youths in Public Housing: A Test of Problem Behavior Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombe, Margaret; Yu, Mansoo; Nebbitt, Von; Earl, Tara

    2011-01-01

    African American youths are overrepresented in urban public housing developments characterized by violence, poverty, and alternative market activities. Using Jessor and Jessor's problem behavior theory (PBT), the authors examined alcohol use and its correlates in a sample of African American youths from three public housing developments (N = 403).…

  7. Poverty and the Development of African American Children: Testing an Adaptation of McLoyd's Theoretical Model with the NLSY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nievar, M. Angela; Luster, Tom

    Based on McLoyd's (1990) model of African American children's development, this study examined the linkages between poverty, maternal psychological distress, marital conflict, the home environment, and children's outcomes among a sample of 805 African American 4- to 9-year-olds whose families were interviewed in 1992 as part of the National…

  8. False Positivity of Non-Targeted Infections in Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests: The Case of Human African Trypanosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Gillet, Philippe; Mumba Ngoyi, Dieudonné; Lukuka, Albert; Kande, Viktor; Atua, Benjamin; van Griensven, Johan; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Jacobs, Jan; Lejon, Veerle

    2013-01-01

    Background In endemic settings, diagnosis of malaria increasingly relies on the use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). False positivity of such RDTs is poorly documented, although it is especially relevant in those infections that resemble malaria, such as human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). We therefore examined specificity of malaria RDT products among patients infected with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. Methodology/Principal Findings Blood samples of 117 HAT patients and 117 matched non-HAT controls were prospectively collected in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Reference malaria diagnosis was based on real-time PCR. Ten commonly used malaria RDT products were assessed including three two-band and seven three-band products, targeting HRP-2, Pf-pLDH and/or pan-pLDH antigens. Rheumatoid factor was determined in PCR negative subjects. Specificity of the 10 malaria RDT products varied between 79.5 and 100% in HAT-negative controls and between 11.3 and 98.8% in HAT patients. For seven RDT products, specificity was significantly lower in HAT patients compared to controls. False positive reactions in HAT were mainly observed for pan-pLDH test lines (specificities between 13.8 and 97.5%), but also occurred frequently for the HRP-2 test line (specificities between 67.9 and 98.8%). The Pf-pLDH test line was not affected by false-positive lines in HAT patients (specificities between 97.5 and 100%). False positivity was not associated to rheumatoid factor, detected in 7.6% of controls and 1.2% of HAT patients. Conclusions/Significance Specificity of some malaria RDT products in HAT was surprisingly low, and constitutes a risk for misdiagnosis of a fatal but treatable infection. Our results show the importance to assess RDT specificity in non-targeted infections when evaluating diagnostic tests. PMID:23638201

  9. Greenhouse gas network design using backward Lagrangian particle dispersion modelling - Part 2: Sensitivity analyses and South African test case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickless, A.; Ziehn, T.; Rayner, P. J.; Scholes, R. J.; Engelbrecht, F.

    2015-02-01

    This is the second part of a two-part paper considering a measurement network design based on a stochastic Lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM) developed by Marek Uliasz, in this case for South Africa. A sensitivity analysis was performed for different specifications of the network design parameters which were applied to this South African test case. The LPDM, which can be used to derive the sensitivity matrix used in an atmospheric inversion, was run for each candidate station for the months of July (representative of the Southern Hemisphere winter) and January (summer). The network optimisation procedure was carried out under a standard set of conditions, similar to those applied to the Australian test case in Part 1, for both months and for the combined 2 months, using the incremental optimisation (IO) routine. The optimal network design setup was subtly changed, one parameter at a time, and the optimisation routine was re-run under each set of modified conditions and compared to the original optimal network design. The assessment of the similarity between network solutions showed that changing the height of the surface grid cells, including an uncertainty estimate for the ocean fluxes, or increasing the night-time observation error uncertainty did not result in any significant changes in the positioning of the stations relative to the standard design. However, changing the prior flux error covariance matrix, or increasing the spatial resolution, did. Large aggregation errors were calculated for a number of candidate measurement sites using the resolution of the standard network design. Spatial resolution of the prior fluxes should be kept as close to the resolution of the transport model as the computing system can manage, to mitigate the exclusion of sites which could potentially be beneficial to the network. Including a generic correlation structure in the prior flux error covariance matrix led to pronounced changes in the network solution. The genetic

  10. The Process of Adaptation of a Community-Level, Evidence-Based Intervention for HIV-Positive African American Men Who Have Sex with Men in Two Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Beatrice E.; Galbraith, Jennifer S.; Lund, Sharon M.; Hamilton, Autumn R.; Shankle, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the process of adapting a community-level, evidence-based behavioral intervention (EBI), Community PROMISE, for HIV-positive African American men who have sex with men (AAMSM). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Map of the Adaptation Process (MAP) guided the adaptation process for this new target population by two…

  11. Sexually Transmitted Infection Related Stigma and Shame Among African American Male Youth: Implications for Testing Practices, Partner Notification, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lippman, Sheri A.; Philip, Susan; Bernstein, Kyle; Neilands, Torsten B.; Lightfoot, Marguerita

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A self-administered, street intercept survey was conducted in order to examine the relation of stigma and shame associated with sexually transmitted infections (STI) to STI testing practices, partner notification, and partner-delivered treatment among young African American men (n=108) in a low-income, urban community in San Francisco with high STI burden. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that increasing STI-related stigma was significantly associated with a decreased odds of STI testing, such that every standard deviation increase in stigma score was associated with 0.62 decreased odds of having been tested (aOR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.38–1.00), controlling for age. STI stigma was also significantly associated with a decreased willingness to notify non-main partners of an STI (aOR: 0.64 95% CI: 0.41–0.99). Participants with higher levels of stigma and shame were also significantly less likely to be willing to deliver STI medication to a partner (stigma aOR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.37–0.88; shame aOR 0.53 95% CI: 0.34–0.83). Findings suggest that STI-related stigma and shame, common in this population, could undermine STI testing, treatment, and partner notification programs. The medical establishment, one of the institutional factors to have reinforced this culture of stigma, must aid efforts to reduce its effects through providing integrated services, reframing sexual health in campaigns, educating clients, and providing wider options to aid disclosure and partner notification practices. PMID:25133501

  12. Relative risk of Alzheimer disease and age-at-onset distributions, based on APOE genotypes among elderly African Americans, Caucasians, and Hispanics in New York City.

    PubMed Central

    Tang, M. X.; Maestre, G.; Tsai, W. Y.; Liu, X. H.; Feng, L.; Chung, W. Y.; Chun, M.; Schofield, P.; Stern, Y.; Tycko, B.; Mayeux, R.

    1996-01-01

    Apolipoprotein-E epsilon 4 (APOE-epsilon 4) has been consistently associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) and may be responsible for an earlier age at onset. We have previously reported a diminished association between APOE-epsilon 4 and AD in African Americans. Using a new method, which allows inclusion of censored information, we compared relative risks by APOE genotypes in an expanded collection of cases and controls from three ethnic groups in a New York community. The relative risk for AD associated with APOE-epsilon 4 homozygosity was increased in all ethnic groups (African American relative risk [RR]=3.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.5-5.9; Caucasian RR=7.3, 95% CI=2.5-21.6; and Hispanic RR=2.5, 95% CI=1.1-5.7), compared with those with APOE-epsilon 3/epsilon 3 genotypes. The risk was also increased for APOE-epsilon 4 heterozygous Caucasians (RR=2.9, 95% CI=1.7-5.1) and Hispanics (RR=1.6, 95% CI=1.1-2.3), but not for African Americans (RR=0.6, 95% Ci=0.4-0.9). The age distribution of the proportion of Caucasians and Hispanics without AD was consistently lower for APOE-epsilon 4 homozygous and APOE-epsilon 4 heterozygous individuals than for those with other APOE genotypes. In African Americans this relationship was observed only in APOE-epsilon 4 homozygotes. These results confirm that APOE genotypes influence the RR of AD in Caucasians and Hispanics. Differences in risk among APOE-epsilon 4 heterozygote African Americans suggest that other genetic or environmental factors may modify the effect of APOE-epsilon 4 in some populations. PMID:8644717

  13. Relative risk of Alzheimer disease and age-at-onset distributions, based on APOE genotypes among elderly African Americans, caucasians, and hispanics in New York City

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, M.X.; Liu, X.H.; Stern, Y.

    1996-03-01

    Apolipoprotein-E {epsilon}4 (APOE-{epsilon}4) has been consistently associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) and may be responsible for an earlier age at onset. We have previously reported a diminished association between APOE-{epsilon}4 and AD in African Americans. Using a new method, which allows inclusion of censored information, we compared relative risks by APOE genotypes in an expanded collection of cases and controls from three ethnic groups in a New York community. The relative risk for AD associated with APOE-{epsilon}4 homozygosity was increased in all ethnic groups (African American relative risk [RR] = 3.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5-5.9; Caucasian RR = 7.3, 95% CI = 2.5-21.6; and Hispanic RR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.1-5.7), compared with those with APOE-{epsilon}3/{epsilon}3 genotypes. The risk was also increased for APOE-{epsilon}4 heterozygous Caucasians (RR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.7-5.1) and Hispanics (RR = 1.6,95% CI = 1.1-2.3), but not for African Americans (RR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.4-0.9). The age distribution of the proportion of Caucasians and Hispanics without AD was consistently lower for APOE-{epsilon}4 homozygous and APOE-{epsilon}4 heterozygous individuals than for those with other APOE genotypes. In African Americans this relationship was observed only in APOE-{epsilon}4 homozygotes. These results confirm that APOE genotypes influence the RR of AD in Caucasians and Hispanics. Differences in risk among APOE-{epsilon}4 heterozygote African Americans suggest that other genetic or environmental factors may modify the effect of APOE-{epsilon}4 in some populations. 58 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Effects of a Pilot Church-Based Intervention to Reduce HIV Stigma and Promote HIV Testing Among African Americans and Latinos.

    PubMed

    Derose, Kathryn P; Griffin, Beth Ann; Kanouse, David E; Bogart, Laura M; Williams, Malcolm V; Haas, Ann C; Flórez, Karen R; Collins, Deborah Owens; Hawes-Dawson, Jennifer; Mata, Michael A; Oden, Clyde W; Stucky, Brian D

    2016-08-01

    HIV-related stigma and mistrust contribute to HIV disparities. Addressing stigma with faith partners may be effective, but few church-based stigma reduction interventions have been tested. We implemented a pilot intervention with 3 Latino and 2 African American churches (4 in matched pairs) in high HIV prevalence areas of Los Angeles County to reduce HIV stigma and mistrust and increase HIV testing. The intervention included HIV education and peer leader workshops, pastor-delivered sermons on HIV with imagined contact scenarios, and HIV testing events. We surveyed congregants at baseline and 6 month follow-up (n = 1235) and found statistically significant (p < 0.05) reductions in HIV stigma and mistrust in the Latino intervention churches but not in the African American intervention church nor overall across matched African American and Latino pairs. However, within matched pairs, intervention churches had much higher rates of HIV testing (p < 0.001). Stigma reduction and HIV testing may have synergistic effects in community settings.

  15. Fracture hydraulic conductivity in the Mexico City clayey aquitard: Field piezometer rising-head tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, Carlos; Ortega-Guerrero, Adrián

    A regional lacustrine aquitard covers the main aquifer of the metropolitan area of Mexico City. The aquitard's hydraulic conductivity (K') is fundamental for evaluating the natural protection of the aquifer against a variety of contaminants present on the surface and its hydraulic response. This study analyzes the distribution and variation of K' in the plains of Chalco, Texcoco and Mexico City (three of the six former lakes that existed in the Basin of Mexico), on the basis of 225 field-permeability tests, in nests of existing piezometers located at depths of 2-85 m. Tests were interpreted using the Hvorslev method and some by the Bouwer-Rice method. Results indicate that the distribution of K' fits log-Gaussian regression models. Dominant frequencies for K' in the Chalco and Texcoco plains range between 1E-09 and 1E-08 m/s, with similar population means of 1.19E-09 and 1.7E-09 m/s, respectively, which are one to two orders of magnitude higher than the matrix conductivity. In the Mexico City Plain the population mean is near by one order of magnitude lower; K'=2.6E-10 m/s. The contrast between the measured K' and that of the matrix is attributed to the presence of fractures in the upper 25-40 m, which is consistent with the findings of previous studies on solute migration in the aquitard. Un imperméable régional d'origine lacustre recouvre le principal aquifère de la zone urbaine de la ville de Mexico. La conductivité hydraulique K' de cet imperméable est fondamentale pour évaluer la protection naturelle de l'aquifère, contre les différents contaminants présents en surface, et sa réponse hydraulique. Cette étude analyse et les variations de K' dans les plaines de Chalco, Texcoco et Mexico (trois des six anciens lacs qui existaient dans le Bassin de Mexico), sur la base de 225 essais de perméabilité sur le terrain, réalisés en grappes dans des piézomètres existants entre 2 et 85 m de profondeur. Les essais ont été interprétés avec la m

  16. Four Effects of the High-Stakes Testing Movement on African American K-12 Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Gail L.; Allen, Tawannah G.

    2012-01-01

    In order to ensure that American students are competitive with students in other countries, since the 1980s, U.S. policymakers have been trying to improve the K-12 public school system. Recent reform efforts have led to the current high-stakes testing movement, which measures student achievement and school effectiveness mainly by standardized test…

  17. Agent based models for testing city evacuation strategies under a flood event as strategy to reduce flood risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, Neiler; Sanchez, Arlex; Nokolic, Igor; Vojinovic, Zoran

    2016-04-01

    This research explores the uses of Agent Based Models (ABM) and its potential to test large scale evacuation strategies in coastal cities at risk from flood events due to extreme hydro-meteorological events with the final purpose of disaster risk reduction by decreasing human's exposure to the hazard. The first part of the paper corresponds to the theory used to build the models such as: Complex adaptive systems (CAS) and the principles and uses of ABM in this field. The first section outlines the pros and cons of using AMB to test city evacuation strategies at medium and large scale. The second part of the paper focuses on the central theory used to build the ABM, specifically the psychological and behavioral model as well as the framework used in this research, specifically the PECS reference model is cover in this section. The last part of this section covers the main attributes or characteristics of human beings used to described the agents. The third part of the paper shows the methodology used to build and implement the ABM model using Repast-Symphony as an open source agent-based modelling and simulation platform. The preliminary results for the first implementation in a region of the island of Sint-Maarten a Dutch Caribbean island are presented and discussed in the fourth section of paper. The results obtained so far, are promising for a further development of the model and its implementation and testing in a full scale city

  18. Influence of prey dispersion on territory and group size of African lions: a test of the resource dispersion hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Valeix, Marion; Loveridge, Andrew J; MacDonald, David W

    2012-11-01

    Empirical tests of the resource dispersion hypothesis (RDH), a theory to explain group living based on resource heterogeneity, have been complicated by the fact that resource patch dispersion and richness have proved difficult to define and measure in natural systems. Here, we studied the ecology of African lions Panthera leo in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe, where waterholes are prey hotspots, and where dispersion of water sources and abundance of prey at these water sources are quantifiable. We combined a 10-year data set from GPS-collared lions for which information of group composition was available concurrently with data for herbivore abundance at waterholes. The distance between two neighboring waterholes was a strong determinant of lion home range size, which provides strong support for the RDH prediction that territory size increases as resource patches are more dispersed in the landscape. The mean number of herbivore herds using a waterhole, a good proxy of patch richness, determined the maximum lion group biomass an area can support. This finding suggests that patch richness sets a maximum ceiling on lion group size. This study demonstrates that landscape ecology is a major driver of ranging behavior and suggests that aspects of resource dispersion limit group sizes.

  19. Role of religious involvement and spirituality in functioning among African Americans with cancer: testing a mediational model

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Cheryl L.; Wang, Min Qi; Caplan, Lee; Schulz, Emily; Blake, Victor; Southward, Vivian L.

    2013-01-01

    The present study tested a mediational model of the role of religious involvement, spirituality, and physical/emotional functioning in a sample of African American men and women with cancer. Several mediators were proposed based on theory and previous research, including sense of meaning, positive and negative affect, and positive and negative religious coping. One hundred patients were recruited through oncologist offices, key community leaders and community organizations, and interviewed by telephone. Participants completed an established measure of religious involvement, the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being Scale (FACIT-SP-12 version 4), the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the Meaning in Life Scale, the Brief RCOPE, and the SF-12, which assesses physical and emotional functioning. Positive affect completely mediated the relationship between religious behaviors and emotional functioning. Though several other constructs showed relationships with study variables, evidence of mediation was not supported. Mediational models were not significant for the physical functioning outcome, nor were there significant main effects of religious involvement or spirituality for this outcome. Implications for cancer survivorship interventions are discussed. PMID:21222026

  20. Clinically significant anaerobic bacteria isolated from patients in a South African academic hospital: antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, S; Perovic, O; Richards, G A; Duse, A G

    2011-09-27

    BACKGROUND. Increasing resistance to some antimicrobial agents among anaerobic bacteria has made susceptibility patterns less predictable. METHOD. This was a prospective study of the susceptibility data of anaerobic organisms isolated from clinical specimens from patients with suspected anaerobic infections from June 2005 until February 2007. Specimens were submitted to the microbiology laboratory at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital, where microscopy, culture and susceptibility testing were performed the using E test® strip minimum inhibitory concentration method. Results were interpreted with reference to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines for amoxicillin-clavulanate, clindamycin, metronidazole, penicillin, ertapenem, cefoxitin, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol and piperacillin-tazobactam. RESULTS. One hundred and eighty anaerobic isolates were submitted from 165 patients. The most active antimicrobial agents were chloramphenicol (100% susceptible), ertapenem (97.2%), piperacillin-tazobactam (99.4%) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (96.7%). Less active were metronidazole (89.4%), cefoxitin (85%), clindamycin (81.7%), ceftriaxone (68.3%) and penicillin (33.3%). CONCLUSION. Susceptibility testing should be performed periodically to identify emerging trends in resistance and to modify empirical treatment of anaerobic infections.

  1. Trends in access to water supply and sanitation in 31 major sub-Saharan African cities: an analysis of DHS data from 2000 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background By 2050, sub-Saharan Africa’s (SSA) urban population is expected to grow from 414 million to over 1.2 billion. This growth will likely increase challenges to municipalities attempting to provide access to water supply and sanitation (WS&S). This study aims to characterize trends in access to WS&S in SSA cities and identify factors affecting those trends. Methods DHS data collected between 2000 and 2012 were used for this analysis of thirty-one cities in SSA. Four categories of household access to WS&S were studied using data from demographic and health surveys – these included: 1) household access to an improved water supply, 2) household’s time spent collecting water, 3) household access to improved sanitation, and 4) households reporting to engage in open defecation. An exploratory analysis of these measures was then conducted to assess the relationship of access to several independent variables. Results Among the 31 cities, there was wide variability in coverage levels and trends in coverage with respect to the four categories of access. The majority of cities were found to be increasing access in the categories of improved water supply and improved sanitation (65% and 83% of cities, respectively), while fewer were making progress in reducing the amount of time spent collecting water and reducing open defecation (50% and 38% of cities, respectively). Additionally, the prevalence of open defecation in study cities was found to be, on average, increasing. Conclusions Based on DHS data, cities appeared to be making the most progress in gaining access to WS&S along metrics which reflect specified targets of the Millennium Development Goals. Nearly half of the cities, however, did not make progress in reducing open defecation or the time spent collecting water. This may reflect that the MDGs have led to a focus on “improved” services while other measures, potentially more relevant to the extreme poor, are being neglected. This study highlights

  2. ‘Getting tested is almost like going to the Salem witch trials’: Discordant discourses between western public health messages and sociocultural expectations surrounding HIV testing among East African immigrant women

    PubMed Central

    DE JESUS, Maria; CARRETE, Claudia; MAINE, Cathleen; NALLS, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Washington, DC has the highest AIDS diagnosis rate in the United States and Black women are disproportionately affected. Although HIV testing is the first entryway into vital treatment services, evidence reveals that foreign-born blacks have a lower rate of recent HIV testing than U.S.-born blacks. To date, however, there are no studies that examine the culture-specific perceptions of HIV testing among East African immigrant women (who comprise a large share of Black Africans in DC) to better understand their potential barriers to testing. Adopting the PEN-3 cultural model as our theoretical framework, the main objective of this study was to examine East African women’s HIV testing perceptions and partner communication norms. Between October 2012 and March 2013, trained interviewers conducted a total of 25 interviews with East African women in the Washington DC Metropolitan area. For triangulation purposes, data collection consisted of both in-depth, semi-structured interviews and cognitive interviews, in which participants were administered a quantitative survey and assessed on how they interpreted items. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed a systematic pattern of discordant responses across participants. While they were aware of messages related to western public health discourse surrounding HIV testing (e.g., Everyone should get tested for HIV; One should talk to one’s spouse about HIV testing), divergent sociocultural expectations rooted in cultural and religious beliefs prevailed (e.g., Getting an HIV test brings shame to the person who got tested and to one’s family; it implies one is engaging in immoral behavior; One should not talk with one’s spouse about HIV testing; doing so breaks cultural norms). Implications of using a culture-centered model to examine the role of sociocultural expectations in HIV prevention research and to develop culturally responsive prevention strategies are discussed. PMID:25616443

  3. "Getting tested is almost like going to the Salem witch trials": discordant discourses between Western public health messages and sociocultural expectations surrounding HIV testing among East African immigrant women.

    PubMed

    De Jesus, Maria; Carrete, Claudia; Maine, Cathleen; Nalls, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Washington, DC, has the highest AIDS diagnosis rate in the USA, and Black women are disproportionately affected. Although HIV testing is the first entryway into vital treatment services, evidence reveals that foreign-born blacks have a lower rate of recent HIV testing than US-born blacks. To date, however, there are no studies that examine the culture-specific perceptions of HIV testing among East African immigrant women (who comprise a large share of Black Africans in DC) to better understand their potential barriers to testing. Adopting the PEN-3 cultural model as our theoretical framework, the main objective of this study was to examine East African women's HIV testing perceptions and partner communication norms. Between October 2012 and March 2013, trained interviewers conducted a total of 25 interviews with East African women in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. For triangulation purposes, data collection consisted of both in-depth, semi-structured interviews and cognitive interviews, in which participants were administered a quantitative survey and assessed on how they interpreted items. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed a systematic pattern of discordant responses across participants. While they were aware of messages related to Western public health discourse surrounding HIV testing (e.g., Everyone should get tested for HIV; One should talk to one's spouse about HIV testing), divergent sociocultural expectations rooted in cultural and religious beliefs prevailed (e.g., Getting an HIV test brings shame to the person who got tested and to one's family; it implies one is engaging in immoral behavior; One should not talk with one's spouse about HIV testing; doing so breaks cultural norms). Implications of using a culture-centered model to examine the role of sociocultural expectations in HIV prevention research and to develop culturally responsive prevention strategies are discussed.

  4. "Getting tested is almost like going to the Salem witch trials": discordant discourses between Western public health messages and sociocultural expectations surrounding HIV testing among East African immigrant women.

    PubMed

    De Jesus, Maria; Carrete, Claudia; Maine, Cathleen; Nalls, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Washington, DC, has the highest AIDS diagnosis rate in the USA, and Black women are disproportionately affected. Although HIV testing is the first entryway into vital treatment services, evidence reveals that foreign-born blacks have a lower rate of recent HIV testing than US-born blacks. To date, however, there are no studies that examine the culture-specific perceptions of HIV testing among East African immigrant women (who comprise a large share of Black Africans in DC) to better understand their potential barriers to testing. Adopting the PEN-3 cultural model as our theoretical framework, the main objective of this study was to examine East African women's HIV testing perceptions and partner communication norms. Between October 2012 and March 2013, trained interviewers conducted a total of 25 interviews with East African women in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. For triangulation purposes, data collection consisted of both in-depth, semi-structured interviews and cognitive interviews, in which participants were administered a quantitative survey and assessed on how they interpreted items. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed a systematic pattern of discordant responses across participants. While they were aware of messages related to Western public health discourse surrounding HIV testing (e.g., Everyone should get tested for HIV; One should talk to one's spouse about HIV testing), divergent sociocultural expectations rooted in cultural and religious beliefs prevailed (e.g., Getting an HIV test brings shame to the person who got tested and to one's family; it implies one is engaging in immoral behavior; One should not talk with one's spouse about HIV testing; doing so breaks cultural norms). Implications of using a culture-centered model to examine the role of sociocultural expectations in HIV prevention research and to develop culturally responsive prevention strategies are discussed. PMID:25616443

  5. “911” among West African immigrants in New York City: A qualitative study of parents’ disciplinary practices and their perceptions of child welfare authorities

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Andrew; Akinsulure-Smith, Adeyinka; Chu, Tracy; Keatley, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Immigrant parents’ perceptions of child protective services may have important implications for their engagement in public institutions that are central to their children’s well being. The current study examined West African immigrants’ perceptions of child welfare authorities and the role of disciplining and monitoring in these communities’ meaning making. A multiethnic group of 59 West African immigrants (32 parents and 27 adolescent children) living in the United States were interviewed in 18 focus groups and eight individual interviews between December 2009 and July 2010. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach; strategies for rigor included triangulation (multiple interview formats, varied composition of groups, multiple coders for each transcript), verification (follow-up interviewing, feedback to community-based organizations), and auditability. Primary among parents’ concerns were “911” (used to refer to the police and child protective authorities), the loss of collective child monitoring networks, and threats to their children posed by “American” values and neighborhood violence. Children were concerned with parents’ close monitoring that resulted in boredom and a sense that parents did not recognize them for adhering to their families’ values. Feedback from CBOs suggested that parents got their information about child protective policies from children but that although misinformed they were accurate in their negative assessment of contact. Not unlike in other urban populations, West African immigrants’ disciplinary tactics are instrumental, oriented towards protecting their children from the multiple dangers perceived in their surroundings, but may also put them at risk for contact with child protective services. Results suggest that “911” results from a “loss spiral” (Hobfoll, 1989) that begins as West Africans resettle without collective child monitoring networks, leading to increased concern for their

  6. "911" Among West African immigrants in New York City: a qualitative study of parents' disciplinary practices and their perceptions of child welfare authorities.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Andrew; Akinsulure-Smith, Adeyinka; Chu, Tracy; Keatley, Eva

    2012-08-01

    Immigrant parents' perceptions of child protective services may have important implications for their engagement in public institutions that are central to their children's well being. The current study examined West African immigrants' perceptions of child welfare authorities and the role of disciplining and monitoring in these communities' meaning making. A multiethnic group of 59 West African immigrants (32 parents and 27 adolescent children) living in the United States were interviewed in 18 focus groups and eight individual interviews between December 2009 and July 2010. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach; strategies for rigor included triangulation (multiple interview formats, varied composition of groups, multiple coders for each transcript), verification (follow-up interviewing, feedback to community-based organizations), and auditability. Primary among parents' concerns were "911" (used to refer to the police and child protective authorities), the loss of collective child monitoring networks, and threats to their children posed by "American" values and neighborhood violence. Children were concerned with parents' close monitoring that resulted in boredom and a sense that parents did not recognize them for adhering to their families' values. Feedback from CBOs suggested that parents got their information about child protective policies from children but that although misinformed they were accurate in their negative assessment of contact. Not unlike in other urban populations, West African immigrants' disciplinary tactics are instrumental, oriented toward protecting their children from the multiple dangers perceived in their surroundings, but may also put them at risk for contact with child protective services. Results suggest that "911" results from a "loss spiral" (Hobfoll, 1989) that begins as West Africans resettle without collective child monitoring networks, leading to increased concern for their children's safety, and interacting with

  7. HIV testing among sexually active Hispanic/Latino MSM in Miami-Dade County and New York City: opportunities for increasing acceptance and frequency of testing.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Heather A; Belcher, Lisa; O'Donnell, Lydia; Fernandez, M Isabel; Spikes, Pilgrim S; Flores, Stephen A

    2014-11-01

    HIV testing behavior is important in understanding the high rates of undiagnosed infection among Hispanic/Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). Correlates of repeat/recent testing (within the past year and ≥5 tests during lifetime) and test avoidance (never or >5 years earlier) were examined among 608 sexually active Hispanic/Latino MSM (Miami-Dade County and New York City). Those who reported repeat/recent testing were more likely to have incomes over $30,000, speak English predominately, and have visited and disclosed same-sex behavior to a health care provider (HCP) in the past year. Those who were classified as test avoiders were less likely to have incomes over $10,000 and to have seen an HCP in the past year. The main reason for not testing (in both groups) was fear of HIV positivity; however, twice as many test avoiders considered this their main reason, and more test avoiders had confidentiality concerns. Results suggest that messages to encourage testing among Hispanic/Latino MSM may be most effective if past testing patterns and reasons for not testing are considered. HCPs can play an important role by consistently offering HIV tests to MSM and tailoring messages based on prior testing histories.

  8. HIV testing among sexually active Hispanic/Latino MSM in Miami-Dade County and New York City: opportunities for increasing acceptance and frequency of testing.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Heather A; Belcher, Lisa; O'Donnell, Lydia; Fernandez, M Isabel; Spikes, Pilgrim S; Flores, Stephen A

    2014-11-01

    HIV testing behavior is important in understanding the high rates of undiagnosed infection among Hispanic/Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). Correlates of repeat/recent testing (within the past year and ≥5 tests during lifetime) and test avoidance (never or >5 years earlier) were examined among 608 sexually active Hispanic/Latino MSM (Miami-Dade County and New York City). Those who reported repeat/recent testing were more likely to have incomes over $30,000, speak English predominately, and have visited and disclosed same-sex behavior to a health care provider (HCP) in the past year. Those who were classified as test avoiders were less likely to have incomes over $10,000 and to have seen an HCP in the past year. The main reason for not testing (in both groups) was fear of HIV positivity; however, twice as many test avoiders considered this their main reason, and more test avoiders had confidentiality concerns. Results suggest that messages to encourage testing among Hispanic/Latino MSM may be most effective if past testing patterns and reasons for not testing are considered. HCPs can play an important role by consistently offering HIV tests to MSM and tailoring messages based on prior testing histories. PMID:24920606

  9. Depth-dependent groundwater quality sampling at City of Tallahassee test well 32, Leon County, Florida, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McBride, William S.; Wacker, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    A test well was drilled by the City of Tallahassee to assess the suitability of the site for the installation of a new well for public water supply. The test well is in Leon County in north-central Florida. The U.S. Geological Survey delineated high-permeability zones in the Upper Floridan aquifer, using borehole-geophysical data collected from the open interval of the test well. A composite water sample was collected from the open interval during high-flow conditions, and three discrete water samples were collected from specified depth intervals within the test well during low-flow conditions. Water-quality, source tracer, and age-dating results indicate that the open interval of the test well produces water of consistently high quality throughout its length. The cavernous nature of the open interval makes it likely that the highly permeable zones are interconnected in the aquifer by secondary porosity features.

  10. Antenatal Syphilis Screening Using Point-of-Care Testing in Sub-Saharan African Countries: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kuznik, Andreas; Lamorde, Mohammed; Nyabigambo, Agnes; Manabe, Yukari C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Untreated syphilis in pregnancy is associated with adverse clinical outcomes for the infant. Most syphilis infections occur in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where coverage of antenatal screening for syphilis is inadequate. Recently introduced point-of-care syphilis tests have high accuracy and demonstrate potential to increase coverage of antenatal screening. However, country-specific cost-effectiveness data for these tests are limited. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of antenatal syphilis screening for 43 countries in SSA and estimate the impact of universal screening on stillbirths, neonatal deaths, congenital syphilis, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted. Methods and Findings The decision analytic model reflected the perspective of the national health care system and was based on the sensitivity (86%) and specificity (99%) reported for the immunochromatographic strip (ICS) test. Clinical outcomes of infants born to syphilis-infected mothers on the end points of stillbirth, neonatal death, and congenital syphilis were obtained from published sources. Treatment was assumed to consist of three injections of benzathine penicillin. Country-specific inputs included the antenatal prevalence of syphilis, annual number of live births, proportion of women with at least one antenatal care visit, per capita gross national income, and estimated hourly nurse wages. In all 43 sub-Saharan African countries analyzed, syphilis screening is highly cost-effective, with an average cost/DALY averted of US$11 (range: US$2–US$48). Screening remains highly cost-effective even if the average prevalence falls from the current rate of 3.1% (range: 0.6%–14.0%) to 0.038% (range: 0.002%–0.113%). Universal antenatal screening of pregnant women in clinics may reduce the annual number of stillbirths by up to 64,000, neonatal deaths by up to 25,000, and annual incidence of congenital syphilis by up to 32,000, and

  11. Self-Reported Tuberculosis Disease and Tuberculin Skin Testing in the New York City House Ballroom Community

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Suzanne M.; Murrill, Chris; Sanchez, Travis; Liu, Kai-lih; Finlayson, Teresa; Guilin, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to describe the history of tuberculosis disease and tuberculin skin testing among the New York City House Ballroom community—a social network of diverse sexual and gender identities or expressions. Methods. Members of the House Ballroom community were convenience sampled, surveyed, and tested for HIV in 2004. We identified characteristics associated with history of tuberculosis, tuberculin skin testing, and test positivity and described the timing of skin testing. Results. Of 504 participants, 1.4% (n=7) reported a history of tuberculosis and 81.1% (n=404 of 498) had received a tuberculin skin test. Of those tested, 16 (4%) had positive results, which indicated latent infection, and 68% had received a test in the 2 years prior to the survey. Participants with health insurance were more likely and those with little education were less likely to have received a skin test. HIV-infected participants (16%) were not more likely to have received a tuberculin skin test compared with non-HIV-infected individuals. Foreign-born participants and self-identified heterosexuals and bisexuals were more likely to have had positive skin tests. Conclusions. Self-reported history of tuberculosis was high among the House Ballroom community. Although many community members had a recent skin test, further efforts should target services to those who are HIV infected, have low education, lack health insurance, or are foreign born. PMID:18048796

  12. Correlates of HIV and STI testing among Latino men who have sex with men in New York City.

    PubMed

    Spadafino, Joseph T; Martinez, Omar; Levine, Ethan C; Dodge, Brian; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Fernandez, M Isabel

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the extent to which sociodemographic, personal, and behavioral factors are associated with human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) testing among a diverse group of Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) in New York City. The triangulation approach was used to synthesize data from 176 MSM who completed an in-person or phone questionnaire about substance use, alcohol consumption, sexual behaviors, and HIV/STI testing history and 40 participants who participated in focus groups. Correlates of testing significant in univariable analyses (p < .05) were entered into multivariable logistic regression models. Over half (57.9%) of study subjects tested for HIV in the previous 12 months and 60.2% tested for STIs in the previous 12 months. Age and education were positively correlated with HIV testing in multivariable analysis. No significant correlates of STI testing were identified. Spanish-speaking only subjects were less likely to get tested for HIV and STI; however, this association was not significant. Our study demonstrates the need for further study of predictors of STI testing as well as the potential role of language barriers and education in routine testing for HIV. Social and behavioral factors may intensify these obstacles. Future research and interventions should address the role of language barriers and perceived issues of immigration status in the decision to get tested.

  13. [Positive breathalyzer test: factors associated with drinking and driving in the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Campos, Valdir Ribeiro; Salgado, Rogério de Souza; Rocha, Mariela Campos

    2013-01-01

    Few researches in Brazil have focused on factors associated with drinking and driving. The current study presents data on the prevalence and characteristics of individuals that drive under the influence of alcohol (DUI) in nine regions of the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A total of 1,656 drivers were interviewed, of whom 1,254 (76%) agreed to answer a structured questionnaire and submit to the breathalyzer test. The breathalyzer test was positive in 15% of these drivers. The logistic regression model predicted 1.5 times higher odds of a positive breathalyzer test in drivers over 31 years of age and 4.5 times higher in individuals that reported at least weekly alcohol consumption. In addition, drivers in the Barreiro region showed two-fold odds of a positive breathalyzer test. Focused studies with sobriety checkpoints can monitor DUI behavior, drivers' characteristics, and traffic risks, meanwhile orienting public policies to prevent drinking and driving. PMID:23370024

  14. [Positive breathalyzer test: factors associated with drinking and driving in the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Campos, Valdir Ribeiro; Salgado, Rogério de Souza; Rocha, Mariela Campos

    2013-01-01

    Few researches in Brazil have focused on factors associated with drinking and driving. The current study presents data on the prevalence and characteristics of individuals that drive under the influence of alcohol (DUI) in nine regions of the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A total of 1,656 drivers were interviewed, of whom 1,254 (76%) agreed to answer a structured questionnaire and submit to the breathalyzer test. The breathalyzer test was positive in 15% of these drivers. The logistic regression model predicted 1.5 times higher odds of a positive breathalyzer test in drivers over 31 years of age and 4.5 times higher in individuals that reported at least weekly alcohol consumption. In addition, drivers in the Barreiro region showed two-fold odds of a positive breathalyzer test. Focused studies with sobriety checkpoints can monitor DUI behavior, drivers' characteristics, and traffic risks, meanwhile orienting public policies to prevent drinking and driving.

  15. Incidence of prostatic calcification in blacks in Washington, D.C., and selected African cities. Correlation of specimen roentgenographs and pathologic findings. Cooperative Prostatic Research Group.

    PubMed

    Kovi, J; Rao, M S; Heshmat, M Y; Akberzie, M E; Jackson, M A; Ogunmuyiwa, T A

    1979-10-01

    The incidence of calcification in the prostate gland of black men from Washington, D.C., and from Ibadan, Nigeria, and Accra, Ghana, West Africa, was assessed in a total of 874 consecutive, unselected prostate specimens removed at autopsy during a five-year period (1973--1978). In the combined series there was a significant positive association between prostatic calcification and age (p less than 0.001). The frequency of calcification was significantly higher in the Washington, D.C. series than in the West African series at all age levels (p less than 0.001). This difference most likely reflects the different dietary patterns of the two population groups.

  16. "HIV is still real": Perceptions of HIV testing and HIV prevention among black men who have sex with men in New York City.

    PubMed

    Nanín, José; Osubu, Tokes; Walker, Ja'Nina; Powell, Borris; Powell, Donald; Parsons, Jeffrey

    2009-06-01

    Rising HIV infection rates have been recently occurring among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) in the United States. As a result, promoting HIV testing among members of this population is now considered a priority among local and federal health officials. A study was conducted to explore concerns about HIV testing among BMSM in New York City. In early 2006, data were gathered from focus groups with 29 BMSM. Discussions revealed factors affecting HIV testing, including stigma, sexuality, religion, race, and class, emphasizing responsibility, testing concerns, and media influences, among others. Recommendations were submitted to New York City health officials to inform HIV testing and prevention efforts.

  17. AIDS in black and white: the influence of newspaper coverage of HIV/AIDS on HIV/AIDS testing among African Americans and White Americans, 1993-2007.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Robin; Hornik, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of newspaper coverage of HIV/AIDS on HIV testing behavior in a U.S. population. HIV testing data were taken from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's National Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System from 1993 to 2007 (N = 265,557). The authors content-analyzed news stories from 24 daily newspapers and 1 wire service during the same time period. The authors used distributed lagged regression models to estimate how well HIV/AIDS newspaper coverage predicted later HIV testing behavior. Increases in HIV/AIDS newspaper coverage were associated with declines in population-level HIV testing. Each additional 100 HIV/AIDS-related newspaper stories published each month was associated with a 1.7% decline in HIV testing levels in the subsequent month. This effect differed by race, with African Americans exhibiting greater declines in HIV testing subsequent to increased news coverage than did Whites. These results suggest that mainstream newspaper coverage of HIV/AIDS may have a particularly deleterious effect on African Americans, one of the groups most affected by the disease. The mechanisms driving the negative effect deserve further investigation to improve reporting on HIV/AIDS in the media.

  18. Sexual HIV/HSV-2 risk among drug users in New York City: an HIV testing and counseling intervention.

    PubMed

    Pantin, Marlene; Leonard, Noelle R; Hagan, Holly

    2013-04-01

    Undiagnosed and untreated sexually transmitted infections are highly prevalent among users of heroin, crack, cocaine, and amphetamines. Between 2008 and 2009, 58 heroin, cocaine, and crack users in New York City who reported unprotected vaginal and anal sex with more than one partner in the past 30 days were enrolled in an HIV testing and counseling intervention. Four weeks post intervention, increases were found for condom use and STI knowledge. Reductions were noted for safe-sex risk fatigue, number of same-and opposite-sex partners, and days when drugs were injected. Brief but intense counseling interventions can reduce HIV risk among high-risk populations.

  19. Development of a novel, ecologically oriented virtual reality measure of executive function: the Multitasking in the City Test.

    PubMed

    Jovanovski, Diana; Zakzanis, Konstantine; Campbell, Zachariah; Erb, Suzanne; Nussbaum, David

    2012-01-01

    A novel virtual reality executive function task (Multitasking in the City Test [MCT]) was developed with the aim of investigating planning and multitasking with ecological validity in mind in a normal population. Thirty healthy participants (21 females) completed a neuropsychological test battery that included the MCT along with standardized tests of executive and other cognitive functions. The sample performed within normal limits on the standardized tests. The MCT was performed successfully, although specific types of errors occurred frequently. Spearman correlation coefficients were computed between the various test measures. Only the plan score from the MCT was significantly associated with one of the executive function tests administered (Modified Six Elements Test), suggesting that both variables may be measuring a similar construct. Statistically significant correlations were also found between the MCT and the Trail-Making Test Part A and Judgment of Line Orientation, suggesting that "basic" cognitive functions such as information-processing speed and visuospatial skills are being tapped on the MCT. Preliminary evidence from this study suggested that the MCT may be an ecologically valid method of evaluating executive functioning. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  20. Comparative Intradermal Tuberculin Testing of Free-Ranging African Buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) Captured for Ex Situ Conservation in the Kafue Basin Ecosystem in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor; Matandiko, Wigganson; Nambota, Andrew; Muma, John Bwalya; Mweene, Aaron Simanyengwe; Munyeme, Musso

    2011-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is endemic in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) in some National Parks in Southern Africa, whilst no studies have been conducted on BTB on buffalo populations in Zambia. The increased demand for ecotourism and conservation of the African buffalo on private owned game ranches has prompted the Zambian Wildlife Authority (ZAWA) and private sector in Zambia to generate a herd of "BTB-free buffaloes" for ex situ conservation. In the present study, 86 African buffaloes from four different herds comprising a total of 530 animals were investigated for the presence of BTB for the purpose of generating "BTB free" buffalo for ex-situ conservation. Using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT) the BTB status at both individual animal and herd level was estimated to be 0.0% by the CIDT technique. Compared to Avian reactors only, a prevalence of 5.8% was determined whilst for Bovine-only reactors a prevalence of 0.0% was determined. These results suggest the likelihood of buffalo herds in the Kafue National Park being free of BTB.

  1. SiHLEWeb.com: Development and Usability Testing of an Evidence-Based HIV/STI Prevention Website for Female African-American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Danielson, Carla Kmett; McCauley, Jenna L.; Gros, Kirstin Stauffacher; Jones, Andrea M.; Barr, Simone C.; Borkman, April L.; Bryant, Brittany G.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    African-American adolescent girls are at disproportionate risk for HIV infection. Although numerous evidence-based risk-reduction interventions exist, dissemination and implementation resources remain limited, and prevention services remain notably inaccessible to the very populations at highest risk for HIV infection. Internet delivery of HIV risk-reduction programming has promise as a mechanism for extending the reach of existing prevention efforts and overcoming barriers associated with traditional service delivery. This article: (1) details the development process for the creation of SiHLEWeb, a web-adapted version of an evidence-based, culturally-informed HIV prevention program traditionally delivered to female African-American adolescents via an in-person group format; and (2) presents findings from quantitative and qualitative usability testing conducted among 18 African-American girls (13–18). Results suggest that users found the website improved knowledge and learning, was helpful, efficient to use, and generally attractive. Users reported some concerns about website navigation. Implications for internet delivery of health prevention programming are discussed. PMID:25167865

  2. SiHLEWeb.com: Development and usability testing of an evidence-based HIV prevention website for female African-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Danielson, Carla Kmett; McCauley, Jenna L; Gros, Kirstin Stauffacher; Jones, Andrea M; Barr, Simone C; Borkman, April L; Bryant, Brittany G; Ruggiero, Kenneth J

    2016-06-01

    African-American adolescent girls are at disproportionate risk for HIV infection. Although numerous evidence-based risk-reduction interventions exist, dissemination and implementation resources remain limited, and prevention services remain notably inaccessible to the very populations at highest risk for HIV infection. Internet delivery of HIV risk-reduction programming has promise as a mechanism for extending the reach of existing prevention efforts and overcoming barriers associated with traditional service delivery. This article (1) details the development process for the creation of SiHLEWeb, a web-adapted version of an evidence-based, culturally informed HIV prevention program traditionally delivered to female African-American adolescents via an in-person group format, and (2) presents findings from quantitative and qualitative usability testing conducted among 18 African-American girls (13-18 years). Results suggest that users found the website improved knowledge and learning, was helpful, efficient to use, and generally attractive. Users reported some concerns about website navigation. Implications for Internet delivery of health prevention programming are discussed.

  3. Social and Proximate Determinants of the Frequency of Condom Use Among African, Caribbean, and Other Black People in a Canadian City: Results from the BLACCH Study.

    PubMed

    Baidoobonso, Shamara; Bauer, Greta R; Speechley, Kathy Nixon; Lawson, Erica

    2016-02-01

    African, Caribbean, and other Black (ACB) people are a priority group for HIV prevention in Canada, but little is known about condom use in this population. This exploratory community-based research project addresses this gap in knowledge. 125 sexually active ACB people completed a questionnaire covering condom use and social determinants of health. The data were analyzed using ordinal logistic regression and mediation analyses. 20.5 % of sexually active ACB adults used condoms consistently. Male gender, wealth, unstable immigration classes, and unsecure employment statuses were independently associated with more frequent condom use. Proximate determinants mediating these relationships included: not having a cohabiting regular partner, not disliking condoms, and having a history of unwanted sex. The proximate determinants mediated 85.7-97.6 % of the effects of the social determinants. These results link social context and proximate factors with condom use. They can be used to design evidence-informed interventions for ACB people.

  4. The Relationship Between the Social Environment and Lifestyle-Related Physical Activity in a Low-Income African American Inner-City Southern Neighborhood.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Lori; Gustat, Jeanette; Becker, Adam B

    2015-10-01

    The social ecological model was used to examine individual, interpersonal, and neighborhood characteristics related to lifestyle-related physical activity (PA) in a low-income African American (AA) population in New Orleans, Louisiana. Interviewers administered surveys to randomly-sampled household participants from three low-income, AA neighborhoods in New Orleans, Louisiana. Questions included the social and physical environment, physical activity, interpersonal factors, demographics, height and weight. Logistic regression multivariable models were built predicting whether the respondent met PA guidelines, controlling for neighborhood. Females were less as likely to engage in lifestyle-related PA compared to males (OR 0.46, CI 0.30-0.70). Support specific for PA was correlated with engaging in lifestyle-related PA (OR 1.45, CI 1.14-1.83). The individual and social environment should be considered for increasing PA in AA. Interventions targeting the AA population could consider ways of enhancing social support for PA.

  5. Testing of the 15-inch air-sparged hydrocyclone for fine coal flotation at the Homer City preparation plant

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.D.; Yi, Y.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Battista, J.J.

    1993-12-31

    Previous plant testing had been limited to the processing of minus 100 mesh classifier overflow (Upper Freeport Coal {approximately} 20% ash) with the 6-inch air-sparged hydrocyclone (ASH-6C) as reported at Coal Prep 92. The ASH-6C unit was found to provide separation efficiencies equivalent, or superior, to separations with the ASH-2C system. During the summer of 1992 the construction of the first 15-inch air-sparged hydrocyclone prototype was completed by the Advanced Processing Technologies, Inc. Installation at the Homer City Coal Preparation Plant was accomplished and testing began in October 1992. The ASH-15C unit can operate at a flowrate as high as 1,000 gpm. Experimental results are reported with respect to capacity, combustible recovery and clean coal quality.

  6. TESTING POPULATION-SPECIFIC QUANTITATIVE TRAIT ASSOCIATIONS FOR CLINICAL OUTCOME RELEVANCE IN A BIOREPOSITORY LINKED TO ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORDS: LPA AND MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN AFRICAN AMERICANS.

    PubMed

    Dumitrescu, Logan; Diggins, Kirsten E; Goodloe, Robert; Crawford, Dana C

    2016-01-01

    Previous candidate gene and genome-wide association studies have identified common genetic variants in LPA associated with the quantitative trait Lp(a), an emerging risk factor for cardiovascular disease. These associations are population-specific and many have not yet been tested for association with the clinical outcome of interest. To fill this gap in knowledge, we accessed the epidemiologic Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES III) and BioVU, the Vanderbilt University Medical Center biorepository linked to de-identified electronic health records (EHRs), including billing codes (ICD-9-CM) and clinical notes, to test population-specific Lp(a)-associated variants for an association with myocardial infarction (MI) among African Americans. We performed electronic phenotyping among African Americans in BioVU≥40 years of age using billing codes. At total of 93 cases and 522 controls were identified in NHANES III and 265 cases and 363 controls were identified in BioVU. We tested five known Lp(a)-associated genetic variants (rs1367211, rs41271028, rs6907156, rs10945682, and rs1652507) in both NHANES III and BioVU for association with myocardial infarction. We also tested LPA rs3798220 (I4399M), previously associated with increased levels of Lp(a), MI, and coronary artery disease in European Americans, in BioVU. After meta-analysis, tests of association using logistic regression assuming an additive genetic model revealed no significant associations (p<0.05) for any of the five LPA variants previously associated with Lp(a) levels in African Americans. Also, I4399M rs3798220 was not associated with MI in African Americans (odds ratio = 0.51; 95% confidence interval: 0.16 - 1.65; p=0.26) despite strong, replicated associations with MI and coronary artery disease in European American genome-wide association studies. These data highlight the challenges in translating quantitative trait associations to clinical outcomes in diverse populations

  7. TESTING POPULATION-SPECIFIC QUANTITATIVE TRAIT ASSOCIATIONS FOR CLINICAL OUTCOME RELEVANCE IN A BIOREPOSITORY LINKED TO ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORDS: LPA AND MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN AFRICAN AMERICANS.

    PubMed

    Dumitrescu, Logan; Diggins, Kirsten E; Goodloe, Robert; Crawford, Dana C

    2016-01-01

    Previous candidate gene and genome-wide association studies have identified common genetic variants in LPA associated with the quantitative trait Lp(a), an emerging risk factor for cardiovascular disease. These associations are population-specific and many have not yet been tested for association with the clinical outcome of interest. To fill this gap in knowledge, we accessed the epidemiologic Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES III) and BioVU, the Vanderbilt University Medical Center biorepository linked to de-identified electronic health records (EHRs), including billing codes (ICD-9-CM) and clinical notes, to test population-specific Lp(a)-associated variants for an association with myocardial infarction (MI) among African Americans. We performed electronic phenotyping among African Americans in BioVU≥40 years of age using billing codes. At total of 93 cases and 522 controls were identified in NHANES III and 265 cases and 363 controls were identified in BioVU. We tested five known Lp(a)-associated genetic variants (rs1367211, rs41271028, rs6907156, rs10945682, and rs1652507) in both NHANES III and BioVU for association with myocardial infarction. We also tested LPA rs3798220 (I4399M), previously associated with increased levels of Lp(a), MI, and coronary artery disease in European Americans, in BioVU. After meta-analysis, tests of association using logistic regression assuming an additive genetic model revealed no significant associations (p<0.05) for any of the five LPA variants previously associated with Lp(a) levels in African Americans. Also, I4399M rs3798220 was not associated with MI in African Americans (odds ratio = 0.51; 95% confidence interval: 0.16 - 1.65; p=0.26) despite strong, replicated associations with MI and coronary artery disease in European American genome-wide association studies. These data highlight the challenges in translating quantitative trait associations to clinical outcomes in diverse populations

  8. Expanded HIV testing coverage is associated with decreases in late HIV diagnoses, New York City, 2003 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Ransome, Yusuf; Terzian, Arpi; Addison, Diane; Braunstein, Sarah; Myers, Julie; Abraham, Bisrat; Nash, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Objective Expanded HIV testing coverage could result in earlier diagnosis of HIV, along with reduced morbidity, mortality, and onward HIV transmission. Design Longitudinal analysis of aggregate, population-based surveillance data within New York City (NYC) ZIP codes. Methods We examined new HIV diagnoses and recent HIV testing to examine whether changes in recent HIV testing coverage (last 12 months) were associated with changes in late HIV diagnosis rates within NYC ZIP codes during 2003–2010, a period of expansion of HIV testing in NYC. Results Overall, recent HIV testing coverage increased from 23% to 31% during 2003–2010, while the rate of late HIV diagnoses decreased from 14.9 per 100,000 to 10.6 per 100,000 population. Within ZIP codes, each 10% absolute increase in recent HIV testing coverage was associated with a 2.5 per 100,000 absolute decrease in the late HIV diagnosis rate. ZIP codes with the largest changes in HIV testing coverage among men were more likely to have the largest (top quartile) declines in late HIV diagnosis rates among men (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]men=4.0; 95%CI=1.5–10.8), as compared with ZIP codes with no or small changes in HIV testing coverage. However, this association was not significant for women (aORwomen=1.4 95% CI=0.50–4.3). Significant geographic disparities in late HIV diagnosis rates persisted in 2009/10. Conclusions Increases in recent HIV testing coverage may have reduced late HIV diagnoses among men. Persistent geographic disparities underscore the need for continued expansion of HIV testing to promote earlier HIV diagnosis. PMID:26091296

  9. Benefits of a self-management program in low-income African-American women with systemic lupus erythematosus: results of a pilot test.

    PubMed

    Drenkard, C; Dunlop-Thomas, C; Easley, K; Bao, G; Brady, T; Lim, S S

    2012-12-01

    Minorities with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are at high risk of poor disease outcomes and may face challenges in effectively self-managing multiple health problems. The Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) is an evidence-based intervention that improves the health of people with chronic illnesses. Although the CDSMP is offered by organizations throughout the United States and many countries around the world, it has not been tested among SLE patients. We pilot tested the benefits of the CDSMP in low-income African American patients with SLE. CDSMP workshops were delivered to 49 African American women with SLE who received medical care at a public lupus clinic in Atlanta, Georgia, US. We compared pre-post CDSMP changes (from baseline to 4 months after the start of the intervention) in health status, self-efficacy and self-management behaviors using self-reported measures. Additionally, we assessed health care utilization changes using electronic administrative records in the 6-month periods before and after the intervention. We observed significant improvements post-intervention in the SF-36 physical health component summary (mean change = 2.4, p = 0.032); self-efficacy (mean change = 0.5, p = 0.035); and several self-management behaviors: cognitive symptoms management (mean change = 0.3, p = 0.036); communication with physicians (mean change = 0.4, p = 0.01); and treatment adherence (mean change = 0.4, p = 0.01). The median number of outpatient visits decreased from 3 to 1 (p < .0001). The CDSMP is a promising intervention for low-income African Americans with SLE. It is an inexpensive program with growing availability around the world that should be further evaluated as a resource to improve patient-centered outcomes and decrease health service utilization among SLE patients. PMID:22936126

  10. Mental health concerns among African immigrants.

    PubMed

    Venters, Homer; Adekugbe, Olayinka; Massaquoi, Jacob; Nadeau, Cheryl; Saul, Jack; Gany, Francesca

    2011-08-01

    African immigrants represent a rapidly expanding group of immigrants in the United States. In New York City, Africans constitute the fastest growing segment of immigrants but the needs and practices of African immigrants in the U.S. remain poorly understood. A community based organization (CBO) serving African immigrants in Staten Island, NY began a health screening program in 2008 with the goal of promoting access to primary care. Over 18 months, 296 visits were recorded at African Refuge health screenings, representing a total of 87 people who averaged just over 3 visits per person. The screenings identified mental health among the top three medical problems of clients but referral to mental health services was rare. Dedicated services are required to better screen for mental health concerns and refer African immigrants to mental health care.

  11. City Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markle, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    This article provides information on the evolution of the building material, concrete, and suggests hands-on activities that allow students to experience concrete's qualities, test the heat absorbency of various ground surface materials, discover how an area's geology changes, and search for city fossils. A reproducible activity sheet is included.…

  12. Enhanced Statistical Tests for GWAS in Admixed Populations: Assessment using African Americans from CARe and a Breast Cancer Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Zaitlen, Noah; Lettre, Guillaume; Chen, Gary K.; Tandon, Arti; Kao, W. H. Linda; Ruczinski, Ingo; Fornage, Myriam; Siscovick, David S.; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Larkin, Emma; Lange, Leslie A.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Yang, Qiong; Akylbekova, Ermeg L.; Musani, Solomon K.; Divers, Jasmin; Mychaleckyj, Joe; Li, Mingyao; Papanicolaou, George J.; Millikan, Robert C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; John, Esther M.; Bernstein, Leslie; Zheng, Wei; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Nyante, Sarah J.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Ingles, Sue A.; Press, Michael F.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Deming, Sandra L.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Palmer, Cameron D.; Buxbaum, Sarah; Ekunwe, Lynette; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Henderson, Brian E.; Myers, Simon; Haiman, Christopher A.; Reich, David; Patterson, Nick; Wilson, James G.; Price, Alkes L.

    2011-01-01

    While genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have primarily examined populations of European ancestry, more recent studies often involve additional populations, including admixed populations such as African Americans and Latinos. In admixed populations, linkage disequilibrium (LD) exists both at a fine scale in ancestral populations and at a coarse scale (admixture-LD) due to chromosomal segments of distinct ancestry. Disease association statistics in admixed populations have previously considered SNP association (LD mapping) or admixture association (mapping by admixture-LD), but not both. Here, we introduce a new statistical framework for combining SNP and admixture association in case-control studies, as well as methods for local ancestry-aware imputation. We illustrate the gain in statistical power achieved by these methods by analyzing data of 6,209 unrelated African Americans from the CARe project genotyped on the Affymetrix 6.0 chip, in conjunction with both simulated and real phenotypes, as well as by analyzing the FGFR2 locus using breast cancer GWAS data from 5,761 African-American women. We show that, at typed SNPs, our method yields an 8% increase in statistical power for finding disease risk loci compared to the power achieved by standard methods in case-control studies. At imputed SNPs, we observe an 11% increase in statistical power for mapping disease loci when our local ancestry-aware imputation framework and the new scoring statistic are jointly employed. Finally, we show that our method increases statistical power in regions harboring the causal SNP in the case when the causal SNP is untyped and cannot be imputed. Our methods and our publicly available software are broadly applicable to GWAS in admixed populations. PMID:21541012

  13. Laboratory testing of airborne brake wear particle emissions using a dynamometer system under urban city driving cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagino, Hiroyuki; Oyama, Motoaki; Sasaki, Sousuke

    2016-04-01

    To measure driving-distance-based mass emission factors for airborne brake wear particulate matter (PM; i.e., brake wear particles) related to the non-asbestos organic friction of brake assembly materials (pads and lining), and to characterize the components of brake wear particles, a brake wear dynamometer with a constant-volume sampling system was developed. Only a limited number of studies have investigated brake emissions under urban city driving cycles that correspond to the tailpipe emission test (i.e., JC08 or JE05 mode of Japanese tailpipe emission test cycles). The tests were performed using two passenger cars and one middle-class truck. The observed airborne brake wear particle emissions ranged from 0.04 to 1.4 mg/km/vehicle for PM10 (particles up to 10 μm (in size), and from 0.04 to 1.2 mg/km/vehicle for PM2.5. The proportion of brake wear debris emitted as airborne brake wear particles was 2-21% of the mass of wear. Oxygenated carbonaceous components were included in the airborne PM but not in the original friction material, which indicates that changes in carbon composition occurred during the abrasion process. Furthermore, this study identified the key tracers of brake wear particles (e.g., Fe, Cu, Ba, and Sb) at emission levels comparable to traffic-related atmospheric environments.

  14. ACT Test Performance by Advanced Placement Students in Memphis City Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mo, Lun; Yang, Fang; Hu, Xiangen; Calaway, Florance; Nickey, John

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated the extent to which taking specific types of Advanced Placement (AP) courses and the number of courses taken predicts the likelihood of passing subject benchmarks and earning a score of 19 on the composite score on the ACT test, and examined the role gender plays in the projection. They found evidence that taking an AP…

  15. Former Principals' Perceptions of the Effectiveness of the Educational Leadership Constituent Council (ELCC) Standards on Raising the Performance of African American Males on the State High School Graduation Test (GHSGT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ficklin, Henry Clay

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of former principals on the effect of the Educational Leadership Constituent Council (ELCC) standards in raising the performance of African American males on standardized tests, specifically the State High School Graduation Test (SHSGT) in a southern school district. Since the…

  16. HIV Incidence Estimates Using the Limiting Antigen Avidity EIA Assay at Testing Sites in Kiev City, Ukraine: 2013-2014

    PubMed Central

    Kruglov, Yuri; Yurchenko, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate HIV incidence and highlight the characteristics of persons at greatest risk of HIV in the Ukraine capital, Kiev. Method Residual samples from newly-diagnosed persons attending the Kiev City AIDS Centre were tested for evidence of recent HIV infection using an avidity assay. Questions on possible risk factors for HIV acquisition and testing history were introduced. All persons (≥16yrs) presenting for an HIV test April’13–March’14 were included. Rates per 100,000 population were calculated using region-specific denominators. Results During the study period 6370 individuals tested for HIV. Of the 467 individuals newly-diagnosed with HIV, 21 had insufficient samples for LAg testing. Of the remaining 446, 39 (8.7%) were classified as recent with an avidity index <1.5ODn, 10 were reclassified as long-standing as their viral load was <1000 copies/mL, resulting in 29 (6.5%) recent HIV infections. The only independent predictor for a recent infection was probable route of exposure, with MSM more likely to present with a recent infection compared with heterosexual contact [Odds Ratio 8.86; 95%CI 2.65–29.60]. We estimated HIV incidence at 21.5 per 100,000 population, corresponding to 466 new infections. Using population estimates for MSM and PWID, incidence was estimated to be between 2289.6 and 6868.7/100,000 MSM, and 350.4 for PWID. Conclusion A high proportion of persons newly-infected remain undiagnosed, with MSM disproportionally affected with one in four newly-HIV-diagnosed and one in three recently-HIV-infected. Our findings should be used for targeted public health interventions and health promotion. PMID:27276170

  17. The Paternal Landscape along the Bight of Benin – Testing Regional Representativeness of West-African Population Samples Using Y-Chromosomal Markers

    PubMed Central

    Larmuseau, Maarten H. D.; Vessi, Andrea; Jobling, Mark A.; Van Geystelen, Anneleen; Primativo, Giuseppina; Biondi, Gianfranco; Martínez-Labarga, Cristina; Ottoni, Claudio; Decorte, Ronny; Rickards, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Patterns of genetic variation in human populations across the African continent are still not well studied in comparison with Eurasia and America, despite the high genetic and cultural diversity among African populations. In population and forensic genetic studies a single sample is often used to represent a complete African region. In such a scenario, inappropriate sampling strategies and/or the use of local, isolated populations may bias interpretations and pose questions of representativeness at a macrogeographic-scale. The non-recombining region of the Y-chromosome (NRY) has great potential to reveal the regional representation of a sample due to its powerful phylogeographic information content. An area poorly characterized for Y-chromosomal data is the West-African region along the Bight of Benin, despite its important history in the trans-Atlantic slave trade and its large number of ethnic groups, languages and lifestyles. In this study, Y-chromosomal haplotypes from four Beninese populations were determined and a global meta-analysis with available Y-SNP and Y-STR data from populations along the Bight of Benin and surrounding areas was performed. A thorough methodology was developed allowing comparison of population samples using Y-chromosomal lineage data based on different Y-SNP panels and phylogenies. Geographic proximity turned out to be the best predictor of genetic affinity between populations along the Bight of Benin. Nevertheless, based on Y-chromosomal data from the literature two population samples differed strongly from others from the same or neighbouring areas and are not regionally representative within large-scale studies. Furthermore, the analysis of the HapMap sample YRI of a Yoruban population from South-western Nigeria based on Y-SNPs and Y-STR data showed for the first time its regional representativeness, a result which is important for standard population and forensic genetic applications using the YRI sample. Therefore, the uniquely

  18. Correlates of requesting home HIV self-testing kits on online social networks among African-American and Latino men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Chiu, ChingChe J; Young, Sean D

    2016-01-01

    High levels of HIV stigma are one of the main difficulties in engaging African-American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) in HIV testing. The availability of home HIV test and the possibility of self-testing in private may improve uptake and counteract stigma. This paper sought to determine the correlates of requesting home HIV test kits among a sample of MSM social media users. The odds of participants requesting a test kit were significantly associated with using social networks to seek sexual partners (aOR: 2.47, 95% CI: 1.07-6.06) and thinking it is easier to use social networks for seeking sexual partners (1.87, 1.2-3.12), uncertain HIV status (4.29, 1.37-14.4), and having sex under the influence of alcohol (2.46, 1.06-5.77). Participants who had not been tested for more than 6 months were more likely to request a test kit than those who were tested in the past 6 months (2.53, 1.02-6.37). Participants who frequently talked to others about having sex with men online were less likely to request a test kit (0.73, 0.56-0.92). By reaching people over social media and offering them access to test kits, we were able to reach at-risk individuals who were uncertain about their HIV status and had not been regularly tested. The findings of the study will help to inform future HIV testing interventions. PMID:26444956

  19. Correlates of requesting home HIV self-testing kits on online social networks among African-American and Latino men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Chiu, ChingChe J; Young, Sean D

    2016-01-01

    High levels of HIV stigma are one of the main difficulties in engaging African-American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) in HIV testing. The availability of home HIV test and the possibility of self-testing in private may improve uptake and counteract stigma. This paper sought to determine the correlates of requesting home HIV test kits among a sample of MSM social media users. The odds of participants requesting a test kit were significantly associated with using social networks to seek sexual partners (aOR: 2.47, 95% CI: 1.07-6.06) and thinking it is easier to use social networks for seeking sexual partners (1.87, 1.2-3.12), uncertain HIV status (4.29, 1.37-14.4), and having sex under the influence of alcohol (2.46, 1.06-5.77). Participants who had not been tested for more than 6 months were more likely to request a test kit than those who were tested in the past 6 months (2.53, 1.02-6.37). Participants who frequently talked to others about having sex with men online were less likely to request a test kit (0.73, 0.56-0.92). By reaching people over social media and offering them access to test kits, we were able to reach at-risk individuals who were uncertain about their HIV status and had not been regularly tested. The findings of the study will help to inform future HIV testing interventions.

  20. Early African Hominids: Pedagogic Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, James L.

    1984-01-01

    By studying early African hominids, students can learn about the interactive testing and creative aspects of scientific thinking and sharpen their geographical skills. It is impossible to study this topic without giving prominence to space and time. (RM)

  1. Do floral syndromes predict specialization in plant pollination systems? An experimental test in an "ornithophilous" African Protea.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, Anna L; Johnson, Steven D; Nol, Erica

    2004-07-01

    We investigated whether the "ornithophilous" floral syndrome exhibited in an African sugarbush, Protea roupelliae (Proteaceae), reflects ecological specialization for bird-pollination. A breeding system experiment established that the species is self-compatible, but dependent on visits by pollinators for seed set. The cup-shaped inflorescences were visited by a wide range of insect and bird species; however inflorescences from which birds, but not insects, were excluded by wire cages set few seeds relative to open-pollinated controls. One species, the malachite sunbird (Nectarinia famosa), accounted for more than 80% of all birds captured in P. roupelliae stands and carried the largest protea pollen loads. A single visit by this sunbird species was enough to increase seed set considerably over unvisited, bagged inflorescences. Our results show that P. roupelliae is largely dependent on birds for pollination, and thus confirm the utility of floral syndromes for generating hypotheses about the ecology of pollination systems.

  2. HIV Testing Trends and Correlates among Young Asian and Pacific Islander Men Who Have Sex with Men in Two U.S. Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Do, Tri D.; Hudes, Esther S.; Proctor, Kristopher; Han, Chung-Sook; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2006-01-01

    We sought to determine the prevalence, trends, and correlates of recent HIV testing (within the past year) among young Asian and Pacific Islander men who have sex with men (API MSM) in two U.S. cities. We conducted serial, cross-sectional, interviewer-administered surveys of 908 API MSM aged 15-25 years, sampled from randomly selected…

  3. Testing the relationships between energy consumption, CO2 emissions, and economic growth in 24 African countries: a panel ARDL approach.

    PubMed

    Asongu, Simplice; El Montasser, Ghassen; Toumi, Hassen

    2016-04-01

    This study complements existing literature by examining the nexus between energy consumption (EC), CO2 emissions (CE), and economic growth (GDP; gross domestic product) in 24 African countries using a panel autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach. The following findings are established. First, there is a long-run relationship between EC, CE, and GDP. Second, a long-term effect from CE to GDP and EC is apparent, with reciprocal paths. Third, the error correction mechanisms are consistently stable. However, in cases of disequilibrium, only EC can be significantly adjusted to its long-run relationship. Fourth, there is a long-run causality running from GDP and CE to EC. Fifth, we find causality running from either CE or both CE and EC to GDP, and inverse causal paths are observable. Causality from EC to GDP is not strong, which supports the conservative hypothesis. Sixth, the causal direction from EC to GDP remains unobservable in the short term. By contrast, the opposite path is observable. There are also no short-run causalities from GDP, or EC, or EC, and GDP to EC. Policy implications are discussed.

  4. Performance and Passing Rate Differences of African American and White Prospective Teachers on Praxis[TM] Examinations: A Joint Project of the National Education Association (NEA) and Educational Testing Service (ETS). Research Report. ETS RR-11-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettles, Michael T.; Scatton, Linda H.; Steinberg, Jonathan H.; Tyler, Linda L.

    2011-01-01

    This report focuses on two aspects of teacher supply and quality: (a) the under-representation of racial/ethnic minorities, especially African Americans in the teaching pool, and (b) teacher candidates' performance on licensure assessments, including general skills tests in reading, writing, and mathematics (known as Praxis I[R]) and selected…

  5. Educational Needs and Barriers for African Refugee Students in Manitoba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanu, Yatta

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the educational needs and barriers for diverse African refugee students in two inner-city high schools in Manitoba. Forty African refugee students, two principals, eight teachers, four parents, and four community leaders participated in the study. Five focus groups, individual interviews, and school and classroom…

  6. Knowledge about Inquiry: A Study in South African High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaigher, Estelle; Lederman, Norman; Lederman, Judith

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a study on South African learners' knowledge about scientific inquiry using the Views About Scientific Inquiry (VASI) Questionnaire. The sample consisted of 105 grade 11 learners from 7 schools across the socio-economic spectrum in a South African city. A rubric for scoring the VASI Questionnaire was developed and refined…

  7. Clinical versus Rapid Molecular HIV Diagnosis in Hospitalized African Infants: A Randomized Controlled Trial Simulating Point-of-Care Infant Testing

    PubMed Central

    McCollum, Eric D.; Preidis, Geoffrey A.; Maliwichi, Madalitso; Olson, Dan; McCrary, L. Madeline; Kazembe, Peter N.; van der Horst, Charles; Hoffman, Irving; Hosseinipour, Mina C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Many African infants fail to receive their diagnostic HIV molecular test results and subsequently, antiretroviral therapy (ART). To determine whether a point-of-care molecular HIV test increases ART access for hospitalized Malawian infants, we simulated a point-of-care test using rapid HIV RNA polymerase chain reaction (Rapid PCR) and compared patient outcomes to an optimized standard care that included assessment with the World Health Organization (WHO) clinical algorithm for HIV infection plus a DNA PCR with a turnaround time of several weeks (standard care). Design Randomized controlled trial. Methods Hospitalized HIV-exposed Malawian infants <12 months old were randomized into Rapid PCR or standard care. Rapid PCR infants obtained molecular test results within 48 hours to facilitate immediate ART, similar to a point-of-care test. Standard care infants meeting clinical criteria were also offered inpatient ART. The primary outcome was appropriate in-hospital ART for DNA or RNA PCR-confirmed HIV-infected infants. Results 300 infants were enrolled. A greater proportion of HIV-infected infants receiving Rapid PCR, versus standard care, started inpatient ART (72.3% vs 47.8%, p=0.016). Among molecular test-negative infants, 26.9% receiving standard care unnecessarily initiated inpatient ART, versus 0.0% receiving Rapid PCR (p<0.001). Rapid PCR modestly reduced the median days to ART (3.0 vs 6.5, p=0.001) but did not influence outpatient follow-up for HIV-infected infants (78.1% vs 82.4%, P = 0.418). Conclusions Rapid PCR, versus an optimized standard care, increased the proportion of hospitalized HIV-infected infants initiating ART and reduced ART exposure in molecular test-negative infants, without meaningfully impacting time to ART initiation or follow-up rates. PMID:24326604

  8. African Aesthetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abiodun, Rowland

    2001-01-01

    No single traditional discipline can adequately supply answers to the many unresolved questions in African art history. Because of the aesthetic, cultural, historical, and, not infrequently, political biases, already built into the conception and development of Western art history, the discipline of art history as defined and practiced in the West…

  9. "African Connection."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Cathy; And Others

    This interdisciplinary unit provides students in grades kindergarten through seventh grade an opportunity to understand diversity through a study of Africa as a diverse continent. The project is designed to provide all elementary students with cultural enrichment by exposing them to African music, art, storytelling, and movement. This project can…

  10. Building functional cities.

    PubMed

    Henderson, J Vernon; Venables, Anthony J; Regan, Tanner; Samsonov, Ilia

    2016-05-20

    The literature views many African cities as dysfunctional with a hodgepodge of land uses and poor "connectivity." One driver of inefficient land uses is construction decisions for highly durable buildings made under weak institutions. In a novel approach, we model the dynamics of urban land use with both formal and slum dwellings and ongoing urban redevelopment to higher building heights in the formal sector as a city grows. We analyze the evolution of Nairobi using a unique high-spatial resolution data set. The analysis suggests insufficient building volume through most of the city and large slum areas with low housing volumes near the center, where corrupted institutions deter conversion to formal sector usage. PMID:27199420

  11. Rational case management of malaria with a rapid diagnostic test, Paracheck Pf®, in antenatal health care in Bangui, Central African Republic

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Both treatment and prevention strategies are recommended by the World Health Organization for the control of malaria during pregnancy in tropical areas. The aim of this study was to assess use of a rapid diagnostic test for prompt management of malaria in pregnancy in Bangui, Central African Republic. Methods A cohort of 76 pregnant women was screened systematically for malaria with ParacheckPf® at each antenatal visit. The usefulness of the method was analysed by comparing the number of malaria episodes requiring treatment in the cohort with the number of prescriptions received by another group of pregnant women followed-up in routine antenatal care. Results In the cohort group, the proportion of positive ParacheckPf® episodes during antenatal clinics visits was 13.8%, while episodes of antimalarial prescriptions in the group which was followed-up routinely by antenatal personnel was estimated at 26.3%. Hence, the relative risk of the cohort for being prescribed an antimalarial drug was 0.53. Therefore, the attributable fraction of presumptive treatment avoided by systematic screening with ParacheckPf® was 47%. Conclusions Use of a rapid diagnostic test is useful, affordable and easy for adequate treatment of malaria in pregnant women. More powerful studies of the usefulness of introducing the test into antenatal care are needed in all heath centres in the country and in other tropical areas. PMID:22734602

  12. Testing the Accuracy of Aerial Surveys for Large Mammals: An Experiment with African Savanna Elephants (Loxodonta africana)

    PubMed Central

    Schlossberg, Scott; Chase, Michael J.; Griffin, Curtice R.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate counts of animals are critical for prioritizing conservation efforts. Past research, however, suggests that observers on aerial surveys may fail to detect all individuals of the target species present in the survey area. Such errors could bias population estimates low and confound trend estimation. We used two approaches to assess the accuracy of aerial surveys for African savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana) in northern Botswana. First, we used double-observer sampling, in which two observers make observations on the same herds, to estimate detectability of elephants and determine what variables affect it. Second, we compared total counts, a complete survey of the entire study area, against sample counts, in which only a portion of the study area is sampled. Total counts are often considered a complete census, so comparing total counts against sample counts can help to determine if sample counts are underestimating elephant numbers. We estimated that observers detected only 76% ± SE of 2% of elephant herds and 87 ± 1% of individual elephants present in survey strips. Detectability increased strongly with elephant herd size. Out of the four observers used in total, one observer had a lower detection probability than the other three, and detectability was higher in the rear row of seats than the front. The habitat immediately adjacent to animals also affected detectability, with detection more likely in more open habitats. Total counts were not statistically distinguishable from sample counts. Because, however, the double-observer samples revealed that observers missed 13% of elephants, we conclude that total counts may be undercounting elephants as well. These results suggest that elephant population estimates from both sample and total counts are biased low. Because factors such as observer and habitat affected detectability of elephants, comparisons of elephant populations across time or space may be confounded. We encourage survey teams to

  13. What’s God got to do with it? Engaging African American faith-based institutions in HIV prevention

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Amy; Cornwall, Alexandra; Thomas, Gladys; Waller, Pastor Alyn; Friend, Rafiyq; Broadnax, Pastor Jay; Flanigan, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    African Americans are disproportionately infected and affected by HIV/AIDS. Although faith-based institutions play critical leadership roles in the African American community, the faith-based response to HIV/AIDS has historically been lacking. We explore recent successful strategies of a citywide HIV/AIDS awareness and testing campaign developed in partnership with 40 African American faith-based institutions in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, a city with some of the United State’s highest HIV infection rates. Drawing on important lessons from the campaign and subsequent efforts to sustain the campaign’s momentum with a citywide HIV testing, treatment and awareness program, we provide a roadmap for engaging African American faith communities in HIV prevention that include partnering with faith leaders; engaging the media to raise awareness, destigmatising HIV/AIDS and encouraging HIV testing; and conducting educational and HIV testing events at houses of worship. African American faith based institutions have a critical role to play in raising awareness about the HIV/AIDS epidemic and for reducing racial disparities in HIV infection. PMID:23379422

  14. Comparing Perceived and Test-Based Knowledge of Cancer Risk and Prevention among Hispanic and African Americans: An Example of Community Participatory Research

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Loretta; Bazargan, Mohsen; Lucas-Wright, Anna; Vadgama, Jaydutt V.; Vargas, Roberto; Smith, James; Otoukesh, Salman; Maxwell, Annette E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Most theoretical formulations acknowledge that knowledge and awareness of cancer screening and prevention recommendations significantly influence health behaviors. This study compares perceived knowledge of cancer prevention and screening with test-based knowledge in a community sample. We also examine demographic variables and self-reported cancer screening and prevention behaviors as correlates of both knowledge scores, and consider whether cancer related knowledge can be accurately assessed using just a few, simple questions in a short and easy-to-complete survey. Methods We used a community-partnered participatory research approach to develop our study aims and a survey. The study sample was composed of 180 predominantly African American and Hispanic community individuals who participated in a full-day cancer prevention and screening promotion conference in South Los Angeles, California, on July 2011. Participants completed a self-administered survey in English or Spanish at the beginning of the conference. Results Our data indicate that perceived and test-based knowledge scores are only moderately correlated. Perceived knowledge score shows a stronger association with demographic characteristics and other cancer related variables than the test-based score. Thirteen out of twenty variables that are examined in our study showed a statistically significant correlation with the perceived knowledge score, however, only four variables demonstrated a statistically significant correlation with the test-based knowledge score. Conclusion Perceived knowledge of cancer prevention and screening was assessed with fewer items than test-based knowledge. Thus, using this assessment could potentially reduce respondent burden. However, our data demonstrate that perceived and test-based knowledge are separate constructs. PMID:23530303

  15. The Alignment of Software Testing Skills of IS Students with Industry Practices--A South African Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Elsje; Zadirov, Alexander; Feinberg, Sean; Jayakody, Ruwanga

    2004-01-01

    Software testing is a crucial component in the development of good quality systems in industry. For this reason it was considered important to investigate the extent to which the Information Systems (IS) syllabus at the University of Cape Town (UCT) was aligned with accepted software testing practices in South Africa. For students to be effective…

  16. Lateralisation in agonistic encounters: do mirror tests reflect aggressive behaviour? A study on a West African cichlid.

    PubMed

    Scherer, U; Buck, M; Schuett, W

    2016-09-01

    In this study, population level lateralisation and the suitability of mirror tests as a test of natural aggressive behaviour in male rainbow kribs Pelvicachromis pulcher was investigated. Aggressive behaviour in live agonistic trials correlated positively with behaviours towards a mirror image and no visual lateralisation was detected. PMID:27329496

  17. Decentralization of CD4 testing in resource-limited settings: 7 years of experience in six African countries.

    PubMed

    Marinucci, F; Medina-Moreno, S; Paterniti, A D; Wattleworth, M; Redfield, R R

    2011-05-01

    Improving access to CD4 testing in resource-limited settings can be achieved through both centralized and decentralized testing networks. Decentralized testing models are more suitable for countries where the HIV epidemic affects a large portion of rural populations. Timely access to accurate CD4 results is crucial at the primary level of the health system. For the past 7 years, the Institute of Human Virology of the University of Maryland School of Medicine has implemented a flexible and sustainable three-phase model: (1) site assessment and improvement, (2) appropriate technology selection with capacity building through practical training and laboratory mentoring, and (3) quality management system strengthening and monitoring, to support accessibility to reliable CD4 counting at the point of service. CD4 testing capacity was established in 122 of 229 (53%) laboratories supported in Nigeria, Uganda, Kenya, Zambia, Tanzania, and Rwanda. Among those in rural settings, 46% (69/151) had CD4 testing available at site level, with a functioning flow cytometer installed at 28% (8/29) and 50% (61/122) of level 1 and level 2 sites, respectively. To strengthen local capacity, a total of 1,152 laboratory technicians were trained through 188 training sessions provided both on-site and at central locations. The overall quality of CD4 total testing procedure was assessed at 76% (92/121) of the laboratories, with 25% (23/92), 34% (31/92), and 33% (30/92) of them reporting excellent, good, and satisfactory performance. Balancing country-specific factors with the location of the clinic, number of patients, and the expected workload, was crucial in adapting this flexible model for decentralizing CD4 testing. The close collaboration with local governments and private vendors was key to successfully expanding access to CD4 testing within the framework of HIV care and treatment programs and for the sustainability of medical laboratories in resource-limited settings. PMID:21495181

  18. Influence of naturally unilateral cryptorchidism on the histomorphometry of the testes and daily sperm production in West African Dwarf goats.

    PubMed

    Okpe, G C; Ezeasor, D N

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative histology of the descended testis of unilateral cryptorchid bucks was compared with testis of normal bucks to evaluate the reproductive potentials of the scrotal testis in unilateral cryptorchids, using light microscopy techniques. The contralateral scrotal testes of the unilateral cryptorchids and the testes of the normal bucks contained profiles of seminiferous epithelium and each showed histological evidence of normal activity. The mean heights, lengths, lumen diameter, diameter of the seminiferous tubules were significantly higher in the contralateral scrotal testes when compared to the retained testes of the unilateral cryptorchid bucks (P<0.05). Population of spermatogenic cells per testis, and ratio of germ cells to Sertoli cells were not significantly different between both groups. The percentage of the testes occupied by various germ cells did not differ between the scrotal testis of the cryptorchid bucks and those of the normal bucks. The volume occupied by the seminiferous tubules and Leydig cells in the contralateral scrotal testis of the unilateral cryptorchid bucks were significantly greater than those of the testis of normal bucks (P<0.05). From the findings, it appears that the spermatogenic efficiency of the scrotal testes of the unilateral cryptorchid bucks was significantly higher than those of the normal bucks. PMID:27656223

  19. Influence of naturally unilateral cryptorchidism on the histomorphometry of the testes and daily sperm production in West African Dwarf goats

    PubMed Central

    Okpe, G. C.; Ezeasor, D. N.

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative histology of the descended testis of unilateral cryptorchid bucks was compared with testis of normal bucks to evaluate the reproductive potentials of the scrotal testis in unilateral cryptorchids, using light microscopy techniques. The contralateral scrotal testes of the unilateral cryptorchids and the testes of the normal bucks contained profiles of seminiferous epithelium and each showed histological evidence of normal activity. The mean heights, lengths, lumen diameter, diameter of the seminiferous tubules were significantly higher in the contralateral scrotal testes when compared to the retained testes of the unilateral cryptorchid bucks (P<0.05). Population of spermatogenic cells per testis, and ratio of germ cells to Sertoli cells were not significantly different between both groups. The percentage of the testes occupied by various germ cells did not differ between the scrotal testis of the cryptorchid bucks and those of the normal bucks. The volume occupied by the seminiferous tubules and Leydig cells in the contralateral scrotal testis of the unilateral cryptorchid bucks were significantly greater than those of the testis of normal bucks (P<0.05). From the findings, it appears that the spermatogenic efficiency of the scrotal testes of the unilateral cryptorchid bucks was significantly higher than those of the normal bucks. PMID:27656223

  20. African American's Perceptions of Psychotherapy and Psychotherapists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Vetta L. Sanders; Akbar, Maysa D.; Bazile, Anita

    The attitudes and beliefs about utilization of mental health services of 201 African Americans, 18 years and older, are explored. One hundred and thirty-four females and 66 males participated in mixed sex focus groups conducted in an urban, Midwestern city. Discussion probes addressed participant perceptions of psychotherapists and psychotherapy,…

  1. Obesity and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  2. Analysis of non-regulated vehicular emissions by extractive FTIR spectrometry: tests on a hybrid car in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, F.; Grutter, M.; Jazcilevich, A.; González-Oropeza, R.

    2006-07-01

    A methodology to acquire valuable information on the chemical composition and evolution of vehicular emissions is presented. The analysis of the gases is performed by passing a constant flow of a sample gas from the tail-pipe into a 10 L multi-pass cell. The absorption spectra within the cell are obtained using an FTIR spectrometer at 0.5 cm-1 resolution along a 13.1 m optical path. Additionally, the total flow from the exhaust is continuously measured from a differential pressure sensor on a Pitot tube installed at the exit of the exhaust. This configuration aims to obtain a good speciation capability by coadding spectra during 30 s and reporting the emission (in g/km) of key and non-regulated pollutants, such as CO2, CO, NO, SO2, NH3, HCHO, NMHC, during predetermined driving routines. The advantages and disadvantages of increasing the acquisition frequency, as well as the effect of other parameters such as spectral resolution, cell volume and flow rate, are discussed. With the aim of testing and evaluating the proposed technique, experiments were performed on a dynamometer running FTP-75 and typical driving cycles of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) on a Toyota Prius hybrid vehicle. This car is an example of recent automotive technology to reach the market dedicated to reduce emissions and therefore pressing the need of low detection techniques. This study shows the potential of the proposed technique to measure and report in real time the emissions of a large variety of pollutants, even from a super ultra-low emission vehicle (SULEV). The emissions of HC's, NOx, CO and CO2 obtained here are similar to experiments performed in other locations with the same vehicle model. Some differences suggest that an inefficient combustion process and type of gasoline used in the MCMA may be partly responsible for lower CO2 and higher CO and NO emission factors. Also, a fast reduction of NO emission to very low values is observed after cold ignition, giving rise to

  3. Education Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaked, Haim

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, several cities in Israel have labeled themselves "Education Cities," concentrating on education as their central theme. Employing qualitative techniques, this article aims to describe, define, and conceptualize this phenomenon as it is being realized in three such cities. Findings show that Education Cities differ from…

  4. Effects of atrazine on CYP19 gene expression and aromatase activity in testes and on plasma sex steroid concentrations of male African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis).

    PubMed

    Hecker, Markus; Park, June-Woo; Murphy, Margaret B; Jones, Paul D; Solomon, Keith R; Van Der Kraak, Glen; Carr, James A; Smith, Ernest E; du Preez, Louis; Kendall, Ronald J; Giesy, John P

    2005-08-01

    Some investigators have suggested that the triazine herbicide atrazine can cause demasculinization of male amphibians via upregulation of the enzyme aromatase. Male adult African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) were exposed to three nominal concentrations of atrazine (1, 25, or 250 microg atrazine/l) for 36 days, and testicular aromatase activity and CYP19 gene expression, as well as concentrations of the plasma sex steroids testosterone (T) and 17beta-estradiol (E2), and gonad size (GSI) were measured. There were no effects on any of the parameters measured, with the exception of plasma T concentrations. Plasma T concentrations in X. laevis exposed to the greatest concentration of atrazine were significantly less (p = 0.034) than those in untreated frogs. Both CYP19 gene expression and aromatase activities were low regardless of treatment, and neither parameter correlated with the other. We conclude that aromatase enzyme activity and gene expression were at basal levels in X. laevis from all treatments, and that the tested concentrations of atrazine did not interfere with steroidogenesis through an aromatase-mediated mechanism of action.

  5. Local residents trained as 'influence agents' most effective in persuading African couples on HIV counseling and testing.

    PubMed

    Lambdin, Barrot Hopkins; Kanweka, William; Inambao, Mubiana; Mwananyanda, Lawrence; Shah, Heena Dinesh; Linton, Sabriya; Wong, Frank; Luisi, Nicole; Tichacek, Amanda; Kalowa, James; Chomba, Elwyn; Allen, Susan

    2011-08-01

    Couples in sub-Saharan Africa are the largest group in the world at risk for HIV infection. Couples counseling and testing programs have been shown to reduce HIV transmission, but such programs remain rare in Africa. Before couples counseling and testing can become the norm, it is essential to increase demand for the services. We evaluated the effectiveness of several promotional strategies during a two-year program in Kitwe and Ndola, Zambia. The program attracted more than 7,600 couples through the use of radio broadcasts, billboards, and other strategies. The most effective recruiting technique was the use of local residents trained as "influence agents" to reach out to friends, neighbors, and others in their sphere of influence.

  6. Informed consent for HIV testing in a South African hospital: is it truly informed and truly voluntary?

    PubMed Central

    Abdool Karim, Q; Abdool Karim, S S; Coovadia, H M; Susser, M

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess informed consent to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing in a perinatal HIV transmission study in a major referral hospital serving a largely Black population in South Africa. METHODS: First-time antenatal clinic attenders who were randomly selected from those enrolled in the perinatal HIV study (n = 56) answered questionnaires before and after counseling. RESULTS: Knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention, high at the outset, was little improved after counseling. The acceptance rate for HIV testing was high. Despite assurances that participation was voluntary, 88% of the women said they felt compelled to participate in the study. CONCLUSIONS: Informed consent in this setting was truly informed but not truly voluntary. PMID:9551007

  7. Racial differences in beliefs about genetic screening among patients at inner-city neighborhood health centers.

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Richard K.; Tabbarah, Melissa; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Raymund, Mahlon; Jewell, Ilene K.; Wilson, Stephen A.; Ricci, Edmund M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genetic testing has the potential to identify persons at high risk for disease. Given the history of racial disparities in screening, early detection and accessing treatment, understanding racial differences in beliefs about genetics is essential to preventing disparities in some conditions. METHODS: In 2004, a sample of older adult patients from four inner-city health centers was surveyed to assess beliefs about genetic determinants of disease, genetic testing and religion. Logistic regression determined which beliefs were associated with race. RESULTS: Of the 314 respondents, 50% were African Americans. Most respondents thought that sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis and diabetes are primarily genetic. African Americans were more likely than Caucasians to believe that genetic testing will lead to racial discrimination (Odds ratio (OR): 3.02, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.5-6.0) and to think that all pregnant women should have genetic tests (OR=3.8, 95% CI: 1.7-8.6). African Americans were more likely to believe that God's Word is the most important source for moral decisions (OR: 3.6, 95% CI :1.5-8.7). CONCLUSION: African Americans and Caucasians differ in beliefs about genetic testing and the basis for moral decision-making. Acknowledging and understanding these differences may lead to better medical care. PMID:16573301

  8. Identification of sVSG117 as an Immunodiagnostic Antigen and Evaluation of a Dual-Antigen Lateral Flow Test for the Diagnosis of Human African Trypanosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Lauren; Fleming, Jennifer; Sastry, Lalitha; Mehlert, Angela; Wall, Steven J.; Ferguson, Michael A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense relies mainly on the Card Agglutination Test for Trypanosomiasis (CATT). There is no immunodiagnostic for HAT caused by T. b. rhodesiense. Our principle aim was to develop a prototype lateral flow test that might be an improvement on CATT. Methodology/Principle Findings Pools of infection and control sera were screened against four different soluble form variant surface glycoproteins (sVSGs) by ELISA and one, sVSG117, showed particularly strong immunoreactivity to pooled infection sera. Using individual sera, sVSG117 was shown to be able to discriminate between T. b. gambiense infection and control sera by both ELISA and lateral flow test. The sVSG117 antigen was subsequently used with a previously described recombinant diagnostic antigen, rISG65, to create a dual-antigen lateral flow test prototype. The latter was used blind in a virtual field trial of 431 randomized infection and control sera from the WHO HAT Specimen Biobank. Conclusion/Significance In the virtual field trial, using two positive antigen bands as the criterion for infection, the sVSG117 and rISG65 dual-antigen lateral flow test prototype showed a sensitivity of 97.3% (95% CI: 93.3 to 99.2) and a specificity of 83.3% (95% CI: 76.4 to 88.9) for the detection of T. b. gambiense infections. The device was not as good for detecting T. b. rhodesiense infections using two positive antigen bands as the criterion for infection, with a sensitivity of 58.9% (95% CI: 44.9 to 71.9) and specificity of 97.3% (95% CI: 90.7 to 99.7). However, using one or both positive antigen band(s) as the criterion for T. b. rhodesiense infection improved the sensitivity to 83.9% (95% CI: 71.7 to 92.4) with a specificity of 85.3% (95% CI: 75.3 to 92.4). These results encourage further development of the dual-antigen device for clinical use. PMID:25033401

  9. Straight Talk: HIV Prevention for African-American Heterosexual Men: Theoretical Bases and Intervention Design

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Victoria; Bonner, Sebastian; Williams, Kim; Henny, Kirk; Bond, Keosha; Lucy, Debbie; Cupid, Malik; Smith, Stephen; Koblin, Beryl A.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, racial disparities in HIV/AIDS are stark. Although African Americans comprise an estimated 14% of the U.S. population, they made up 52% of new HIV cases among adults and adolescents diagnosed in 2009. Heterosexual transmission is now the second leading cause of HIV in the United States. African Americans made up a full two-thirds of all heterosexually acquired HIV/AIDS cases between 2005 and 2008. Few demonstrated efficacious HIV prevention interventions designed specifically for adult, African-American heterosexual men exist. Here, we describe the process used to design a theory-based HIV prevention intervention to increase condom use, reduce concurrent partnering, and increase HIV testing among heterosexually active African-American men living in high HIV prevalence areas of New York City. The intervention integrated empowerment, social identity, and rational choices theories and focused on four major content areas: HIV/AIDS testing and education; condom skills training; key relational and behavioral turning points; and masculinity and fatherhood. PMID:23016501

  10. Straight talk: HIV prevention for African-American heterosexual men: theoretical bases and intervention design.

    PubMed

    Frye, Victoria; Bonner, Sebastian; Williams, Kim; Henny, Kirk; Bond, Keosha; Lucy, Debbie; Cupid, Malik; Smith, Stephen; Koblin, Beryl A

    2012-10-01

    In the United States, racial disparities in HIV/AIDS are stark. Although African Americans comprise an estimated 14% of the U.S. population, they made up 52% of new HIV cases among adults and adolescents diagnosed in 2009. Heterosexual transmission is now the second leading cause of HIV in the United States. African Americans made up a full two-thirds of all heterosexually acquired HIV/AIDS cases between 2005 and 2008. Few demonstrated efficacious HIV prevention interventions designed specifically for adult, African-American heterosexual men exist. Here, we describe the process used to design a theory-based HIV prevention intervention to increase condom use, reduce concurrent partnering, and increase HIV testing among heterosexually active African-American men living in high HIV prevalence areas of New York City. The intervention integrated empowerment, social identity, and rational choices theories and focused on four major content areas: HIV/AIDS testing and education; condom skills training; key relational and behavioral turning points; and masculinity and fatherhood.

  11. African American community leaders' policy recommendations for reducing racial disparities in HIV infection, treatment and care: results from a community-based participatory research project in Philadelphia, PA

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Amy; Sanders, Julia; Carson, Lee; Thomas, Gladys; Cornwall, Alexandra; Towey, Caitlin; Lee, Hwajin; Tasco, Marian; Shabazz-El, Waheedah; Yolken, Annajane; Smith, Tyrone; Bell, Gary; Feller, Sophie; Smith, Erin; James, George; Dunston, Brenda Shelton; Green, Derek

    2015-01-01

    African Americans account for 45% of new HIV infections in the United States. Little empirical research investigates African American community leaders' normative recommendations for addressing these disparities. Philadelphia's HIV infection rate is five times the national average, nearly 70% of new infections are among African Americans, and 2% of African Americans in Philadelphia are living with HIV/AIDS. Using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, we convened focus groups among 52 African American community leaders from diverse backgrounds to solicit normative recommendations for reducing Philadelphia's racial disparities in HIV infection. Leaders recommended: 1) Philadelphia's city government should raise awareness about HIV/AIDS with media campaigns featuring local leaders; 2) Local HIV prevention interventions should address social and structural factors influencing HIV risks rather than focus exclusively on mode of HIV transmission; 3) Resources should be distributed to the most heavily impacted neighborhoods of Philadelphia; and 4) Faith institutions should play a critical role in HIV testing, treatment and prevention efforts. We developed a policy memo highlighting these normative recommendations for how to enhance local HIV prevention policy. This policy memo led to Philadelphia City Council hearings about HIV/AIDS in October 2010 and subsequently informed local HIV/AIDS prevention policy and development of local HIV prevention interventions. This CBPR case study offers important lessons for effectively engaging community leaders in research to promote HIV/AIDS policy change. PMID:24879446

  12. Rainfall monitoring based on microwave links from cellular telecommunication networks: First results from a West African test bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doumounia, Ali; Gosset, Marielle; Cazenave, Frederic; Kacou, Modeste; Zougmore, François

    2014-08-01

    Rainfall monitoring based on commercial terrestrial microwave links is tested for the first time in Burkina Faso, in Sahelian West Africa. In collaboration with one national cellular phone operator, Telecel Faso, the attenuation on a 29 km long microwave link operating at 7 GHz was monitored at 1 s time rate for the monsoon season 2012. The time series of attenuation is transformed into rain rates and compared with rain gauge data. The method is successful in quantifying rainfall: 95% of the rainy days are detected. The correlation with the daily rain gauge series is 0.8, and the season bias is 6%. The correlation at the 5 min time step within each event is also high. These results demonstrate the potential interest of exploiting national and regional wireless telecommunication networks for monitoring rainfall in Africa, where operational rain gauge networks are degrading and the hydrometeorological risk increasing.

  13. Association between health status and the performance of excessively variable spirometry tests in a population-based study in six U. S. cities

    SciTech Connect

    Eisen, E.A.; Dockery, D.W.; Speizer, F.E.; Fay, M.E.; Ferris, B.G. Jr.

    1987-12-01

    The relationship between 6 chronic respiratory symptoms and the performance of an excessively variable FEV1 (test failure) was examined among 8,522 white adults in 6 U.S. cities. A total of 747 (8.9%) performed an excessively variable FEV1 according to the American Thoracic Society criterion. After adjusting for smoking, age, and city of residence in 6 separate logistic regression models, the odds ratios for FEV1 failure among men were 2.32, 1.39, 1.40, 1.82, 2.61, 1.92 for moderate breathlessness, chronic cough, phlegm, wheeze, asthma, and recurrent chest illness, respectively. Among women, FEV1 failure was significantly associated with moderate breathlessness, chronic phlegm, wheeze, and asthma with odds ratios of 1.55, 1.45, 1.62, and 1.95, respectively. When all symptoms were evaluated simultaneously in a single logistic regression model, only breathlessness and asthma remained associated with FEV1 failure; odds ratio = 1.97 for asthma and 2.03 for breathlessness among men and 1.53 for both asthma and breathlessness among women. The 11-yr mortality experience of subjects with test failure, as defined by 2 different criteria, was compared to that of the quartile of the cohort with the highest cross-sectional test results. After adjusting for age, gender, and smoking, the relative risks of mortality were 1.62 and 1.98 for subjects with an FEV1 failure as defined by the ATS and 6-Cities criteria, respectively, and 1.99 and 1.90 for the groups with FVC failure as defined by the 2 criteria. Thus, test failure is almost as strong a predictor of mortality as poor FEV1.

  14. Testing and validating a modified CTAB DNA extraction method to enable molecular parentage analysis of fertilized eggs and larvae of an emerging South African aquaculture species, the dusky kob Argyrosomus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Mirimin, L; Roodt-Wilding, R

    2015-03-01

    This study describes the successful implementation of a modified cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) protocol to isolate genomic DNA and amplify 14 microsatellite markers from fertilized eggs and larvae of an emerging South African farmed marine fish species, the dusky kob Argyrosomus japonicus. To test and validate the efficiency of this method, genetic data were utilized to resolve parentage and kinship of first-generation (F1) offspring produced in mass-spawning events of wild broodstock fish in a commercial hatchery.

  15. Bioaccumulation monitoring and toxicity testing in streams and groundwater wells at the US Department of Energy Kansas City Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Peterson, M.J.; Ashwood, T.L.

    1992-03-01

    The Kansas City Plant (KCP) is part of a federal complex located in south Kansas City, Missouri. The plant, operated by Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division for the US Department of Energy (DOE), occupies 137 of the 300 acres covered by the complex. Blue River and its tributary Indian Creek receive surface water runoff, discharges permitted under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), and groundwater from the complex. Indian Creek also receives runoff from residential and commercial facilities and discharges from a sewage treatment plant upstream from the KCP. Blue River, a tributary of the Missouri River, receives runoff from an urban area, including a large landfill downstream from the KCP. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been detected in outfall 002 and in soils in various locations around the KCP. The Missouri Department of Conservation (MDC) found that both carp and channel catfish collected from the Blue River were contaminated with PCBs and chlordane; however, the source of this contamination was not identified. Trichlorethene (TCE) and 1,2-dichloroethene (DCE) are present in some wells adjacent to the Blue River, both TCE and DCE have been detected in outfall 001. To assess the biological significance of PCB and chlorinated solvent contamination from the KCP and to determine whether the KCP was a significant source of PCB contamination in fish, two separate studies were conducted by staff members of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report presents the results of these studies.

  16. Diversity among African Pygmies

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez Rozzi, Fernando V.; Sardi, Marina L.

    2010-01-01

    Although dissimilarities in cranial and post-cranial morphology among African pygmies groups have been recognized, comparative studies on skull morphology usually pull all pygmies together assuming that morphological characters are similar among them and different with respect to other populations. The main aim of this study is to compare cranial morphology between African pygmies and non-pygmies populations from Equatorial Africa derived from both the Eastern and the Western regions in order to test if the greatest morphological difference is obtained in the comparison between pygmies and non-pygmies. Thirty three-dimensional (3D) landmarks registered with Microscribe in four cranial samples (Western and Eastern pygmies and non-pygmies) were obtained. Multivariate analysis (generalized Procrustes analysis, Mahalanobis distances, multivariate regression) and complementary dimensions of size were evaluated with ANOVA and post hoc LSD. Results suggest that important cranial shape differentiation does occur between pygmies and non-pygmies but also between Eastern and Western populations and that size changes and allometries do not affect similarly Eastern and Western pygmies. Therefore, our findings raise serious doubt about the fact to consider African pygmies as a homogenous group in studies on skull morphology. Differences in cranial morphology among pygmies would suggest differentiation after divergence. Although not directly related to skull differentiation, the diversity among pygmies would probably suggest that the process responsible for reduced stature occurred after the split of the ancestors of modern Eastern and Western pygmies. PMID:21049030

  17. Africans in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Ayanna; Spangler, Earl

    This book introduces African-American history and culture to children. The first Africans in America came from many different regions and cultures, but became united in this country by being black, African, and slaves. Once in America, Africans began a long struggle for freedom which still continues. Slavery, the Civil War, emancipation, and the…

  18. Therapy with African Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwadiora, Emeka

    1996-01-01

    Informs helping professionals about the unique history and challenges of African families to guide them toward providing ethnically sensitive psychological services to African immigrant families in need. African families undergo great stress when faced with the alienation of being Black and African in a Euro-American culture. (SLD)

  19. African Outreach Workshop 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Nancy J.

    This report discusses the 1974 African Outreach Workshop planned and coordinated by the African Studies Program at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Its major aim was to assist teachers in developing curriculum units on African using materials available in their local community. A second aim was for the African Studies Program to…

  20. Urban Middle School African American Girls' Attitudes toward Physical Education and Out-of-School Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this two-part study were (1) to investigate urban middle school African American girls' physical activity levels and their relationships to attitudes and, (2) to explore urban middle school African American girls' attitude toward physical education. A total of (N = 649) African American girls from 14 New York City middle…

  1. A Call to Action to Raise Achievement for African American Students. Student Achievement Policy Brief #1: African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    One out of every six public school students in the U.S. is African American. The achievement of African American students as a group will have a significant impact on the nation's economic strength and social well-being. This brief looks at the performance of African American students on state reading and mathematics tests and considers the policy…

  2. African Perceptions of Female Attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Coetzee, Vinet; Faerber, Stella J.; Greeff, Jaco M.; Lefevre, Carmen E.; Re, Daniel E.; Perrett, David I.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about mate choice preferences outside Western, educated, industrialised, rich and democratic societies, even though these Western populations may be particularly unrepresentative of human populations. To our knowledge, this is the first study to test which facial cues contribute to African perceptions of African female attractiveness and also the first study to test the combined role of facial adiposity, skin colour (lightness, yellowness and redness), skin homogeneity and youthfulness in the facial attractiveness preferences of any population. Results show that youthfulness, skin colour, skin homogeneity and facial adiposity significantly and independently predict attractiveness in female African faces. Younger, thinner women with a lighter, yellower skin colour and a more homogenous skin tone are considered more attractive. These findings provide a more global perspective on human mate choice and point to a universal role for these four facial cues in female facial attractiveness. PMID:23144734

  3. Sexual risk taking in relation to sexual identification, age, and education in a diverse sample of African American men who have sex with men (MSM) in New York City.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Melvin C; Halkitis, Perry N; Storholm, Erik D; Kupprat, Sandra A; Siconolfi, Daniel E; Jones, Donovan; Steen, Jeff T; Gillen, Sara; McCree, Donna Hubbard

    2013-03-01

    HIV disproportionately affects African American men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. To inform this epidemiological pattern, we examined cross-sectional sexual behavior data in 509 African American MSM. Bivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the extent to which age, education,and sexual identity explain the likelihood of engaging in sex with a partner of a specific gender and the likelihood of engaging in unprotected sexual behaviors based on partner gender. Across all partner gender types,unprotected sexual behaviors were more likely to be reported by men with lower education. Younger, non-gay identified men were more likely to engage in unprotected sexual behaviors with transgender partners, while older, non-gay identified men were more likely to engage in unprotected sexual behaviors with women. African American MSM do not represent a monolithic group in their sexual behaviors, highlighting the need to target HIV prevention efforts to different subsets of African American MSM communities as appropriate.

  4. Patterns of lifetime and recent HIV testing among men who have sex with men in New York City who use Grindr.

    PubMed

    Rendina, H Jonathon; Jimenez, Ruben H; Grov, Christian; Ventuneac, Ana; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2014-01-01

    Rates of HIV infection continue to rise for men who have sex with men (MSM), and may be partially due to lack of testing among groups at risk for HIV. Mobile applications have demonstrated promise to identify at-risk MSM, though more research is needed to address testing patterns among this population. We conducted an online survey of 1,351 MSM in the New York City (NYC) area recruited from Grindr and analyzed predictors of lifetime and past-year testing using Pearson's chi-squared statistic, Fisher's exact tests, and logistic regression. A majority (90 %) of men had been tested within their lifetimes, and most (71 %) had been tested within the prior year. Among those who had never been tested (n = 135), one-third had engaged in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in the prior 3 months and nearly one-third identified themselves as HIV-negative rather than unknown. Older age, reporting an HIV-negative (versus unknown) status, and recent UAI were independently associated with lifetime testing. Greater proportions of men who had recently engaged in UAI reported testing within the past year compared with those who had not engaged in UAI. Overall, rates of testing among MSM in this sample exceeded those of the general population, including the general population in NYC. A greater proportion of this sample had never tested compared to a population-based sample of NYC MSM, though a higher percentage had also tested in the past year. This study demonstrated that 1 in 10 NYC men using Grindr and 1 in 5 who were 18-24 years of age had never received an HIV test in their lives. Using the existing infrastructure and popularity of mobile technology such as Grindr to identify and link men to information regarding HIV testing may be a useful strategy for prevention. PMID:23925515

  5. Patterns of Lifetime and Recent HIV Testing Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in New York City Who Use Grindr

    PubMed Central

    Rendina, H. Jonathon; Jimenez, Ruben H.; Grov, Christian; Ventuneac, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Rates of HIV infection continue to rise for men who have sex with men (MSM), and may be partially due to lack of testing among groups at risk for HIV. Mobile applications have demonstrated promise to identify at-risk MSM, though more research is needed to address testing patterns among this population. We conducted an online survey of 1,351 MSM in the New York City (NYC) area recruited from Grindr and analyzed predictors of lifetime and past-year testing using Pearson’s chi-squared statistic, Fisher’s exact tests, and logistic regression. A majority (90 %) of men had been tested within their lifetimes, and most (71 %) had been tested within the prior year. Among those who had never been tested (n = 135), one-third had engaged in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in the prior 3 months and nearly one-third identified themselves as HIV-negative rather than unknown. Older age, reporting an HIV-negative (versus unknown) status, and recent UAI were independently associated with lifetime testing. Greater proportions of men who had recently engaged in UAI reported testing within the past year compared with those who had not engaged in UAI. Overall, rates of testing among MSM in this sample exceeded those of the general population, including the general population in NYC. A greater proportion of this sample had never tested compared to a population-based sample of NYC MSM, though a higher percentage had also tested in the past year. This study demonstrated that 1 in 10 NYC men using Grindr and 1 in 5 who were 18–24 years of age had never received an HIV test in their lives. Using the existing infrastructure and popularity of mobile technology such as Grindr to identify and link men to information regarding HIV testing may be a useful strategy for prevention. PMID:23925515

  6. Patterns of lifetime and recent HIV testing among men who have sex with men in New York City who use Grindr.

    PubMed

    Rendina, H Jonathon; Jimenez, Ruben H; Grov, Christian; Ventuneac, Ana; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2014-01-01

    Rates of HIV infection continue to rise for men who have sex with men (MSM), and may be partially due to lack of testing among groups at risk for HIV. Mobile applications have demonstrated promise to identify at-risk MSM, though more research is needed to address testing patterns among this population. We conducted an online survey of 1,351 MSM in the New York City (NYC) area recruited from Grindr and analyzed predictors of lifetime and past-year testing using Pearson's chi-squared statistic, Fisher's exact tests, and logistic regression. A majority (90 %) of men had been tested within their lifetimes, and most (71 %) had been tested within the prior year. Among those who had never been tested (n = 135), one-third had engaged in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in the prior 3 months and nearly one-third identified themselves as HIV-negative rather than unknown. Older age, reporting an HIV-negative (versus unknown) status, and recent UAI were independently associated with lifetime testing. Greater proportions of men who had recently engaged in UAI reported testing within the past year compared with those who had not engaged in UAI. Overall, rates of testing among MSM in this sample exceeded those of the general population, including the general population in NYC. A greater proportion of this sample had never tested compared to a population-based sample of NYC MSM, though a higher percentage had also tested in the past year. This study demonstrated that 1 in 10 NYC men using Grindr and 1 in 5 who were 18-24 years of age had never received an HIV test in their lives. Using the existing infrastructure and popularity of mobile technology such as Grindr to identify and link men to information regarding HIV testing may be a useful strategy for prevention.

  7. The Analysis of Exhaust Gas Thermal Energy Recovery Through a TEG Generator in City Traffic Conditions Reproduced on a Dynamic Engine Test Bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkisz, Jerzy; Fuc, Pawel; Lijewski, Piotr; Ziolkowski, Andrzej; Wojciechowski, Krzysztof T.

    2015-06-01

    We present an analysis of thermal energy recovery through a proprietary thermoelectric generator (TEG) in an actual vehicle driving cycle reproduced on a dynamic engine test bed. The tests were performed on a 1.3-L 66-kW diesel engine. The TEG was fitted in the vehicle exhaust system. In order to assess the thermal energy losses in the exhaust system, advanced portable emission measurement system research tools were used, such as Semtech DS by Sensors. Aside from the exhaust emissions, the said analyzer measures the exhaust mass flow and exhaust temperature, vehicle driving parameters and reads and records the engine parameters. The difficulty related to the energy recovery measurements under actual traffic conditions, particularly when passenger vehicles and TEGs are used, spurred the authors to develop a proprietary method of transposing the actual driving cycle as a function V = f( t) onto the engine test bed, opn which the driving profile, previously recorded in the city traffic, was reproduced. The length of the cycle was 12.6 km. Along with the motion parameters, the authors reproduced the parameters of the vehicle and its transmission. The adopted methodology enabled high repeatability of the research trials while still ensuring engine dynamic states occurring in the city traffic.

  8. Factors associated with breast and cervical cancer screening behavior among African immigrant women in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Harcourt, Nonyelum; Ghebre, Rahel G; Whembolua, Guy-Lucien; Zhang, Yan; Warfa Osman, S; Okuyemi, Kolawole S

    2014-06-01

    Immigrant populations in the United States (US) have lower cancer screening rates compared to none immigrant populations. The purpose of this study was to assess the rates of cancer screening and examine factors associated with cancer screening behavior among African immigrant women in Minnesota. A cross sectional survey of a community based sample was conducted among African immigrants in the Twin Cities. Cancer screening outcome measures were mammography and Papanicolau smear test. The revised theoretical model of health care access and utilization and the behavioral model for vulnerable populations were utilized to assess factors associated with cancer screening. Only 61 and 52% of the age eligible women in the sample had ever been screened for breast and cervical cancer respectively. Among these women, duration of residence in the US and ethnicity were significant determinants associated with non-screening. Programs to enhance screening rates among this population must begin to address barriers identified by the community.

  9. Development of an Empirically Based Preventive Intervention for Depression in Preadolescent African American Girls.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Sophia; Brown, Tasha M; Katsonga-Phiri, Tiamo; Bouris, Alida; Grant, Kathryn E; Keenan, Kate

    2016-05-01

    We describe the development, feasibility, and acceptability of a novel preventive intervention for depression in African American girls living in urban poverty. Our approach targeted individual and interpersonal vulnerabilities that have been shown to confer risk for depression in samples of African American girls living in low-income, urban settings, including suppression of negative emotion and lack of assertiveness with peers, memory for positive emotion, active coping, and family connection. Focus groups and an open trial were conducted to refine the goals and mechanisms for skill building. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) of the new program (Cities Mother-Daughter Project) was conducted with 3rd-5th grade students from Chicago Public Schools (CPS). Three cycles of screening, randomization, and deployment were conducted to assess feasibility, satisfaction, and usability. Results indicate that feasibility was weak; whereas, satisfaction and usability were high. Future directions for testing efficacy are discussed. PMID:26846917

  10. [Cointegration test and variance decomposition for the relationship between economy and environment based on material flow analysis in Tangshan City Hebei China].

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    The material flow account of Tangshan City was established by material flow analysis (MFA) method to analyze the periodical characteristics of material input and output in the operation of economy-environment system, and the impact of material input and output intensities on economic development. Using econometric model, the long-term interaction mechanism and relationship among the indexes of gross domestic product (GDP) , direct material input (DMI), domestic processed output (DPO) were investigated after unit root hypothesis test, Johansen cointegration test, vector error correction model, impulse response function and variance decomposition. The results showed that during 1992-2011, DMI and DPO both increased, and the growth rate of DMI was higher than that of DPO. The input intensity of DMI increased, while the intensity of DPO fell in volatility. Long-term stable cointegration relationship existed between GDP, DMI and DPO. Their interaction relationship showed a trend from fluctuation to gradual ste adiness. DMI and DPO had strong, positive impacts on economic development in short-term, but the economy-environment system gradually weakened these effects by short-term dynamically adjusting indicators inside and outside of the system. Ultimately, the system showed a long-term equilibrium relationship. The effect of economic scale on economy was gradually increasing. After decomposing the contribution of each index to GDP, it was found that DMI's contribution grew, GDP's contribution declined, DPO's contribution changed little. On the whole, the economic development of Tangshan City has followed the traditional production path of resource-based city, mostly depending on the material input which caused high energy consumption and serous environmental pollution.

  11. [Cointegration test and variance decomposition for the relationship between economy and environment based on material flow analysis in Tangshan City Hebei China].

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    The material flow account of Tangshan City was established by material flow analysis (MFA) method to analyze the periodical characteristics of material input and output in the operation of economy-environment system, and the impact of material input and output intensities on economic development. Using econometric model, the long-term interaction mechanism and relationship among the indexes of gross domestic product (GDP) , direct material input (DMI), domestic processed output (DPO) were investigated after unit root hypothesis test, Johansen cointegration test, vector error correction model, impulse response function and variance decomposition. The results showed that during 1992-2011, DMI and DPO both increased, and the growth rate of DMI was higher than that of DPO. The input intensity of DMI increased, while the intensity of DPO fell in volatility. Long-term stable cointegration relationship existed between GDP, DMI and DPO. Their interaction relationship showed a trend from fluctuation to gradual ste adiness. DMI and DPO had strong, positive impacts on economic development in short-term, but the economy-environment system gradually weakened these effects by short-term dynamically adjusting indicators inside and outside of the system. Ultimately, the system showed a long-term equilibrium relationship. The effect of economic scale on economy was gradually increasing. After decomposing the contribution of each index to GDP, it was found that DMI's contribution grew, GDP's contribution declined, DPO's contribution changed little. On the whole, the economic development of Tangshan City has followed the traditional production path of resource-based city, mostly depending on the material input which caused high energy consumption and serous environmental pollution. PMID:27112026

  12. The reliability and validity of a questionnaire testing parents’ support for improving the diet of African American girls ages 9–12 yrs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of overweight in African American (AA) girls is higher than other ethnic groups. Increasing physical activity (PA) or decreasing energy intake is the goal of obesity prevention programs. Identifying factors that influence PA behavior is an important step in developing successful obesi...

  13. A Correlation Study of Exemplary Exurban African American Achievement in Standardized Testing and the Relationship of Parental Household Size in a Southeastern Public School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittington, David H.

    2012-01-01

    This study included a literature review of juried research studies of student achievement factors that affect African American achievements tracked in the No Child Left Behind Legislative Act. Statistical correlation analyses were performed to determine if the absence or presence of one or two-parents in the household affected student achievement…

  14. A Test of the Tripartite Model of Career Indecision of Brown and Krane for African Americans Incorporating Emotional Intelligence and Positive Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Marie S.; Lockman, Jennifer D.; Boling, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Brown and Krane have posited a tripartite model of career indecision, which includes three higher order factors: negative affect, poor vocational identity development, and lack of career information. The purpose of this study was to examine the adequacy of their tripartite model of career indecision for African American students, considering that…

  15. Coupled barrier island-resort model: 2. Tests and predictions along Ocean City and Assateague Island National Seashore, Maryland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, D. E.; Werner, B. T.

    2008-03-01

    The fate of coastlines and their human settlements under the effects of global climate change will depend critically on the nonlinear dynamics of and feedbacks between shoreline processes and human agency. This hypothesis is explored on the barrier island coastline of Ocean City and Assateague Island National Seashore, Maryland, using a model-coupling natural coastal processes, including erosion, accretion, island overwash, alongshore sediment transport, dune growth and migration, inlet migration and ebb tidal delta growth to economics of tourist resort development through storm damage and beach and dune replenishment. Initiating the model in 1845, the RMS difference between model and measurements of the shoreline position in 2001 is 84.97 m compared to a net onshore migration of 472.2 m and the RMS difference between modeled and measured hotel room density in 2001 is 2950 rooms km-1 compared to a net gain of 28,824 rooms km-1. Simulations to year 3400 for a rate of sea level rise of 3.5 mm a-1 show a steady state barrier island position 158 m further offshore and 0.54 m lower in elevation compared to its natural counterpart. Changing the rate of sea level rise to 10.5 mm a-1 increases these differences to 288 m and 0.76 m. Changing storminess by increasing the standard deviation of storm size 50% diminishes coupling between resorts and barriers, bringing the natural and coupled attractors into near coincidence. These results suggest that predicted increases in the rate of sea level rise will lead to enhanced vulnerability for Ocean City.

  16. A Multivariate Test of an Expanded Andersen Health Care Utilization Model for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Use in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Barner, Jamie; Bohman, Tom; Richards, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The objectives of this study were (1) to determine which Andersen Model variables [predisposing, enabling, and need (PEN)] are related to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use by African Americans in the past 12 months; and (2) to determine whether the addition of disease states to the Model will explain significant variation in CAM use in the past 12 months. Design The 2002 National Health Interview Survey was used with 4256 African American adults (n = 23,828,268 weighted) selected as the study population. The dependent variable, CAM Past 12 Months, represented participants' use of at least 1 of 17 CAM modalities during the past 12 months. The Andersen Model variables [predisposing (e.g., age); enabling (e.g., insurance); and need (e.g., medical conditions)] and prevalent disease states (≥10%) comprised the independent variables. Logistic regression analyses, incorporating the sampling weights, were employed. Results Among predisposing factors, CAM use was associated with middle-aged to older, more educated, and female African Americans. Region (Northeast less likely than South) was the only significant enabling factor. Need factors had the most frequent relationships, with more medical conditions, more physician visits, better health status, prescription and over-the-counter medication use, more frequent exercise, and having activities of daily living limitations being associated with CAM use. After adjusting for PEN factors, the disease states of pain/aching joints, recurring pain, and migraine were related to CAM use. Conclusions African American CAM users are middle-aged to older, female, educated, and have more medical conditions (especially pain-related). Users report higher utilization of “traditional” care (e.g., physician visits), indicating that CAM is likely a complement to conventional treatment in this population. Health care providers should use these factors as prompts for inquiring about CAM use in African

  17. The TG/HDL-C ratio does not predict insulin resistance in overweight women of African descent: a study of South African, African American and West African women.

    PubMed

    Knight, Michael G; Goedecke, Julia H; Ricks, Madia; Evans, Juliet; Levitt, Naomi S; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K; Sumner, Anne E

    2011-01-01

    Women of African descent have a high prevalence of diseases caused by insulin resistance. To positively impact cardiometabolic health in Black women, effective screening tests for insulin resistance must be identified. Recently, the TG/HDL-C ratio has been recommended as a tool to predict insulin resistance in overweight people. While the ratio predicts insulin resistance in White women, it is ineffective in African American women. As there are no data for African women, we tested the ability of the TG/HDL-C ratio to predict insulin resistance in Black women from South Africa, West Africa and the United States. For comparison, the ratio was also tested in White women from South Africa. Participants were 801 women (157 Black South African, 382 African American, 119 West African, 143 White South African, age 36 +/- 9y [mean +/- SD]). Standardized scores were created from log-transformed homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance values from each population. Participants in the upper third of their population distribution were classified as insulin-resistant. To predict insulin resistance by the TC/HDL-C ratio, area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC-ROC) curve was used and criteria were: 0.50 for no discrimination and > or = 0.70 for acceptable. Seventy-one percent of the Black women were overweight vs 51% of White women (P<.01). In overweight White women, AUC-ROC curve for prediction of insulin resistance by TG/HDL-C was 0.76 +/- 0.06, but below the 0.70 threshold in each group of overweight Black women (Black South African: 0.64 +/- 0.06, African American: 0.66 +/- 0.03, and West African: 0.63 +/- 0.07). Therefore, TG/HDL-C does not predict insulin resistance in overweight African American women and this investigation extends that finding to overweight Black South African and West African women. Resources to identify effective markers of insulin resistance are needed to improve cardiometabolic health in women of African descent.

  18. The Ebola threat: China's response to the West African epidemic and national development of prevention and control policies and infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hao-Jun; Gao, Hong-Wei; Ding, Hui; Zhang, Bi-Ke; Hou, Shi-Ke

    2015-02-01

    There is growing concern in West Africa about the spread of the Ebola hemorrhagic fever virus. With the increasing global public health risk, a coordinated international response is necessary. The Chinese government is prepared to work in collaboration with West African countries to assist in the containment and control of the epidemic through the contribution of medical expertise and mobile laboratory testing teams. Nationally, China is implementing prevention programs in major cities and provinces, the distribution of Ebola test kits, and the deployment of a new national Ebola research laboratory.

  19. The Ebola threat: China's response to the West African epidemic and national development of prevention and control policies and infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hao-Jun; Gao, Hong-Wei; Ding, Hui; Zhang, Bi-Ke; Hou, Shi-Ke

    2015-02-01

    There is growing concern in West Africa about the spread of the Ebola hemorrhagic fever virus. With the increasing global public health risk, a coordinated international response is necessary. The Chinese government is prepared to work in collaboration with West African countries to assist in the containment and control of the epidemic through the contribution of medical expertise and mobile laboratory testing teams. Nationally, China is implementing prevention programs in major cities and provinces, the distribution of Ebola test kits, and the deployment of a new national Ebola research laboratory. PMID:25563862

  20. Twin Cities care system assessment: process, findings, and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Othieno, Joan

    2007-08-01

    The Twin Cities Care system lacks services that are most needed in the later stages of HIV disease. Services in highest demand included housing, transportation, and translation; available translations services are generally limited to Somali, Oromo, and Amharic, the languages most widely spoken by the three largest African immigrant and refugee groups in the Twin Cities. The care system is not well-integrated, and most of the work of moving clients within the system is done by case managers and care advocates. The main technical competencies identified by providers as lacking are understanding mental health from the perspective of African-born people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) and addressing sexual issues, especially with women. African providers with foreign certifications not recognized in the United States are not able to use their professional skills. African clients are not well-informed about HIV, and African women are more likely than men to seek and stay in care.

  1. Dynamic Site Characterization and Correlation of Shear Wave Velocity with Standard Penetration Test ` N' Values for the City of Agartala, Tripura State, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sil, Arjun; Sitharam, T. G.

    2014-08-01

    Seismic site characterization is the basic requirement for seismic microzonation and site response studies of an area. Site characterization helps to gauge the average dynamic properties of soil deposits and thus helps to evaluate the surface level response. This paper presents a seismic site characterization of Agartala city, the capital of Tripura state, in the northeast of India. Seismically, Agartala city is situated in the Bengal Basin zone which is classified as a highly active seismic zone, assigned by Indian seismic code BIS-1893, Indian Standard Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures, Part-1 General Provisions and Buildings. According to the Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi (2002), it is the highest seismic level (zone-V) in the country. The city is very close to the Sylhet fault (Bangladesh) where two major earthquakes ( M w > 7) have occurred in the past and affected severely this city and the whole of northeast India. In order to perform site response evaluation, a series of geophysical tests at 27 locations were conducted using the multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) technique, which is an advanced method for obtaining shear wave velocity ( V s) profiles from in situ measurements. Similarly, standard penetration test (SPT-N) bore log data sets have been obtained from the Urban Development Department, Govt. of Tripura. In the collected data sets, out of 50 bore logs, 27 were selected which are close to the MASW test locations and used for further study. Both the data sets ( V s profiles with depth and SPT-N bore log profiles) have been used to calculate the average shear wave velocity ( V s30) and average SPT-N values for the upper 30 m depth of the subsurface soil profiles. These were used for site classification of the study area recommended by the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP) manual. The average V s30 and SPT-N classified the study area as seismic site class D and E categories, indicating that

  2. FERTILITY INTENTIONS AND EARLY LIFE HEALTH STRESS AMONG WOMEN IN EIGHT INDIAN CITIES: TESTING THE REPRODUCTIVE ACCELERATION HYPOTHESIS.

    PubMed

    Kulathinal, Sangita; Säävälä, Minna

    2015-09-01

    In life history theory, early life adversity is associated with an accelerated reproductive tempo. In harsh and unpredictable conditions in developing societies fertility is generally higher and the reproductive tempo faster than in more secure environments. This paper examines whether differences in female anthropometry, particularly adult height, are associated with fertility intentions of women in urban environments in India. The study population consists of women aged 15-29 (N=4485) in slums and non-slums of eight Indian cities in the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) of 2005-2006. Adult height is taken as a proxy for early childhood health and nutritional condition. Fertility intentions are examined by using two variables: the desire to have a child or another child, and to have it relatively soon, as indicative of accelerated reproductive scheduling. Evidence supporting the acceleration hypothesis is found in two urban frames out of 26 examined in a two-staged multinomial logistic model. In three cases, the relationship between fertility intentions and height is the opposite than expected by the acceleration hypothesis: taller women have a higher predictive probability of desiring a(nother) child and/or narrower birth spacing. Potential explanations for the partly contradictory relationship between the childhood health indicator and fertility intentions are discussed. PMID:25115228

  3. Study on validity of a rapid diagnostic test kit versus light microscopy for malaria diagnosis in Ahmedabad city, India.

    PubMed

    Vyas, S; Puwar, B; Patel, V; Bhatt, G; Kulkarni, S; Fancy, M

    2014-04-01

    Light microscopy of blood smears for diagnosis of malaria in the field has several limitations, notably delays in diagnosis. This study in Ahmedabad in Gujarat State, India, evaluated the diagnostic performance of a rapid diagnostic test for malaria (SD Bioline Malaria Ag P.f/Pan) versus blood smear examination as the gold standard. All fever cases presenting at 13 urban health centres were subjected to rapid diagnostic testing and thick and thin blood smears. A total of 677 cases with fever were examined; 135 (20.0%) tested positive by rapid diagnostic test and 86 (12.7%) by blood smear. The sensitivity of the rapid diagnostic test for malaria was 98.8%, specificity was 91.5%, positive predictive value 63.0% and negative predictive value 99.8%. For detection of Plasmodium falciparum the sensitivity of rapid diagnostic test was 100% and specificity was 97.3%. The results show the acceptability of the rapid test as an alternative to light microscopy in the field setting.

  4. The African Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2012-01-01

    From student and faculty exchanges to joint research projects, U.S. universities maintain a broad spectrum of collaborative relationships with African universities. It's unclear how many U.S. colleges and universities have partnerships with African universities. The African Studies Association, an organization of scholars, doesn't keep that kind…

  5. Linguistic Imperialism: African Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Responds to an article on aspects of African language policy and discusses the following issues: multilingualism and monolingualism, proposed changes in language policy from the Organization for African Unity and South African initiatives, the language of literature, bilingual education, and whose interests English-language teaching is serving.…

  6. Adaptation of the African couples HIV testing and counseling model for men who have sex with men in the United States: an application of the ADAPT-ITT framework.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Patrick S; Stephenson, Rob; Grazter, Beau; Wingood, Gina; Diclemente, Ralph; Allen, Susan; Hoff, Colleen; Salazar, Laura; Scales, Lamont; Montgomery, Jeanne; Schwartz, Ann; Barnes, Jasper; Grabbe, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    To respond to the need for new HIV prevention services for men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States, and to respond to new data on the key role of main partnerships in US MSM epidemics, we sought to develop a new service for joint HIV testing of male couples. We used the ADAPT-ITT framework to guide our work. From May 2009 to July 2013, a multiphase process was undertaken to identify an appropriate service as the basis for adaptation, collect data to inform the adaptation, adapt the testing service, develop training materials, test the adapted service, and scale up and evaluate the initial version of the service. We chose to base our adaptation on an African couples HIV testing service that was developed in the 1980s and has been widely disseminated in low- and middle-income countries. Our adaptation was informed by qualitative data collections from MSM and HIV counselors, multiple online surveys of MSM, information gathering from key stakeholders, and theater testing of the adapted service with MSM and HIV counselors. Results of initial testing indicate that the adapted service is highly acceptable to MSM and to HIV counselors, that there are no evident harms (e.g., intimate partner violence, relationship dissolution) associated with the service, and that the service identifies a substantial number of HIV serodiscordant male couples. The story of the development and scale-up of the adapted service illustrates how multiple public and foundation funding sources can collaborate to bring a prevention adaptation from concept to public health application, touching on research, program evaluation, implementation science, and public health program delivery. The result of this process is an adapted couples HIV testing approach, with training materials and handoff from academic partners to public health for assessment of effectiveness and consideration of the potential benefits of implementation; further work is needed to optimally adapt the African couples

  7. Research Resources for the Study of African-American and Jewish Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gubert, Betty Kaplan

    1994-01-01

    Discusses New York City library resources for the study of African American and Jewish American relations. Highlights include library collections, access to materials, audio and visual materials, international newspapers, clippings, archives, children's books, and acquisitions. A list of the major libraries for the study of African American and…

  8. Taking Boys out of the Hood: Exile as a Parenting Strategy for African American Male Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Joseph B., Jr.; Van Brakle, Mischelle; St. Vil, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that inner-city neighborhood effects are correlated with school dropout, substance abuse, crime, violence, homicide, HIV risk related behaviors, and incarceration for adolescent African American males. Parents of adolescent African American males face many challenges as they try to keep their children safe in high-risk…

  9. Positive Individual and Social Behavior among Gang and Nongang African American Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Carl S.; Lerner, Richard M.; von Eye, Alexander; Bobek, Deborah L.; Balsano, Aida B.; Dowling, Elizabeth M.; Anderson, Pamela M.

    2003-01-01

    To explore potential bases of positive development among gang youth, attributes of positive individual and social behavior were assessed in individual interviews with 45 African American adolescent male members of inner-city Detroit gangs and 50 African American adolescent males from the same communities but involved in community-based…

  10. Gender Distrust and Intimate Unions among Low-Income Hispanic and African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estacion, Angela; Cherlin, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates levels of generalized distrust of men among low-income non-Hispanic African American, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Dominican and non-Hispanic White women in a three-city survey. The results reveal substantial variation. Hispanics' overall levels of distrust are found to be higher than levels for either African Americans or…

  11. Perceptions of Mate Selection for Marriage among African American, College-Educated, Single Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Rochelle

    2009-01-01

    This ethnographic study researched the perceptions of mate selection for marriage and the decisions of college-educated, African American mothers who bore children while single. Twenty-five senior-level African American students who attended a college in New York City participated in the study. There has been a significant change in the family…

  12. Grade-Related Changes in the Production of African American English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Holly K.; Washington, Julie A.

    2004-01-01

    This investigation examined grade as a source of systematic variation in the African American English (AAE) produced by students in preschool through fifth grades. Participants were 400 typically developing African American boys and girls residing in low- or middle-income homes in an urban-fringe community or midsize central city in the…

  13. Mexico City

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    ... Two small brighter patches within the hazy area indicate low fog. In the left-hand panel, the city basin appears significantly clearer, but ... very high altitudes, in contrast to the low-lying haze and fog near Mexico City. When the stereo retrieval determines that a location is ...

  14. Atypical Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this creative challenge, Surrealism and one-point perspective combine to produce images that not only go "beyond the real" but also beyond the ubiquitous "imaginary city" assignment often used to teach one-point perspective. Perhaps the difference is that in the "atypical cities challenge," an understanding of one-point perspective is a means…

  15. City Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dargan, Amanda; Zeitlin, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Today, fewer city blocks preserve the confidence of lifestyle and urban geography that sustain traditional games and outdoor play. Large groups of children choosing sides and organizing Red Rover games are no longer commonplace. Teachers must encourage free play; urban planners must build cities that are safe play havens. (MLH)

  16. African anthropogenic combustion emission inventory: specificities and uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekou, K.; Liousse, C.; Eric-michel, A.; Veronique, Y.; Thierno, D.; Roblou, L.; Toure, E. N.; Julien, B.

    2015-12-01

    Fossil fuel and biofuel emissions of gases and particles in Africa are expected to significantly increase in the near future, particularly due to the growth of African cities. In addition, African large savannah fires occur each year during the dry season, mainly for socio-economical purposes. In this study, we will present the most recent developments of African anthropogenic combustion emission inventories, stressing African specificities. (1)A regional fossil fuel and biofuel inventory for gases and particulates will be presented for Africa at a resolution of 0.25° x 0.25° from 1990 to 2012. For this purpose, the original database of Liousse et al. (2014) has been used after modification for emission factors and for updated regional fuel consumption including new emitter categories (waste burning, flaring) and new activity sectors (i.e. disaggregation of transport into sub-sectors including two wheel ). In terms of emission factors, new measured values will be presented and compared to litterature with a focus on aerosols. They result from measurement campaigns organized in the frame of DACCIWA European program for each kind of African specific anthropogenic sources in 2015, in Abidjan (Ivory Coast), Cotonou (Benin) and in Laboratoire d'Aérologie combustion chamber. Finally, a more detailed spatial distribution of emissions will be proposed at a country level to better take into account road distributions and population densities. (2) Large uncertainties still remain in biomass burning emission inventories estimates, especially over Africa between different datasets such as GFED and AMMABB. Sensitivity tests will be presented to investigate uncertainties in the emission inventories, applying methodologies used for AMMABB and GFED inventories respectively. Then, the relative importance of each sources (fossil fuel, biofuel and biomass burning inventories) on the budgets of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, black and organic carbon, and volatile

  17. One-year change in energy and macronutrient intakes of overweight and obese inner-city African American children: effect of community-based Taking Action Together type 2 diabetes prevention program.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sushma; Fleming, Sharon E

    2012-08-01

    Taking Action Together (TAT) was a controlled community-based intervention protocol developed to reduce risk of T2DM among low-income, high BMI, 9-10 year old African American children. A secondary hypothesis of this study was that there would be greater improvements in the treatment group in dietary intakes and physical activity. To evaluate the primary study objectives, multiple linear regression models were employed, with 1 year change in dietary variables as dependent variables. Intervention group status was the independent variable of interest and BMIz was included as a covariate in all analyses to adjust for group differences in baseline obesity status of the children. The findings from this analysis suggest that 1 year change in dietary intakes in boys was associated with group intervention status, with boys in the treatment group reducing their intakes of energy and fat to a significantly greater extent than boys in the control group. Differences in energy intakes were not significant, however, for girls. Based on the differences in gender response to our comprehensive TAT intervention, we conclude that interventions designed for and delivered only to African American girls might be more successful than those delivered in mixed gender settings.

  18. Prevalence of water pipe smoking in the city of Mashhad (North East of Iran) and its effect on respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function tests

    PubMed Central

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hossain; Farhang, Lila; Mahmoodinia, Mahbobeh; Boskabady, Morteza; Heydari, Gholam Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of water pipe (WP) smoking was studied using a standard questionnaire. Pulmonary function tests were also compared between WP smokers and non-smokers. Materials and Methods: The prevalence of WP smoking was studied using a standard questionnaire. Pulmonary function tests including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF), peak expiratory flow (PEF), maximal expiratory flow at 75%, 50%, and 25% of the FVC (MEF75,50,25) were compared between WP smokers and non-smokers. Results: A total of 673 individuals including 372 males and 301 females were interviewed. The number of WP smokers was 58 (8.6%) including 24 males (6.5%) and 34 females (11.3%). All pulmonary functional test (PFT) values in WP smokers were lower as compared to the non-smokers (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). The prevalence and severity of respiratory symptoms (RS) in WP smokers were higher than non-smokers (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). There were negative correlations between PFT values and positive correlation between RS and duration, rate, as well as total smoking (duration X rate) (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). Conclusion: In this study the prevalence of WP smoking in Mashhad city was evaluated for the first time. The results also showed a significant effect of WP smoking on PFT values and respiratory symptoms. PMID:25125810

  19. Testing the Efficacy of "INSIGHTS" on Student Disruptive Behavior, Classroom Management, and Student Competence in Inner City Primary Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClowry, Sandra Graham; Snow, David L.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Rodriguez, Eileen T.

    2010-01-01

    A prevention trial tested the efficacy of "INSIGHTS into Children's Temperament" as compared to a Read Aloud attention control condition in reducing student disruptive behavior and enhancing student competence and teacher classroom management. Participants included 116 first and second grade students, their parents, and their 42 teachers in six…

  20. Diving in or Guarding the Tower: Mina Shaughnessy's Resistance and Capitulation to High-Stakes Writing Tests at City College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molloy, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Mina Shaughnessy continues to exert powerful influences over Basic Writing practices, discourses and pedagogy thirty-five years after her death: Basic Writing remains in some ways trapped by Shaughnessy's legacy in what Min-Zhan Lu labeled as essentialism, accommodationism and linguistic innocence. High-stakes writing tests, a troubling hallmark…

  1. Asthma in inner cities.

    PubMed Central

    LeNoir, M. A.

    1999-01-01

    While the management of asthma has improved over the past two decades, the incidence of asthma in the inner city has not. The inner city, comprising a disproportionate number of people who live close to or below the poverty line, shows increased rates of morbidity and mortality from asthma. African Americans and Hispanic Americans are two to six times more likely to die from asthma than their white counterparts. When federally funded programs have targeted reducing morbidity and mortality in children from these populations, they have succeeded, but in a national study only 18 states had initiatives targeting asthma in low-income populations. This is tantamount to a public health crisis. Patients are not always properly diagnosed and are often without a regular source of health care, and symptoms are seen only in an acute context. Living conditions for the inner-city child have significant allergen triggers associated with house dust, cockroaches, cigarette smoke, chemical pollutants, and particulate matter. Viral infections, such as those caused by respiratory syncytial virus, are worse in crowded living conditions. The desirability of an increased public awareness of the seriousness of the disease and the need for chronic health care are issues that should be raised, through culturally relevant public means and in the knowledge that visual information is most effective. Physicians must understand the proper use of rescue and controller drugs, and asthma education must expand beyond doctors and nurses in their offices. The National Medical Association is committed to doing this aggressively, and community organizations, alliances, and coalitions must also aggressively follow. Public agencies must be lobbied to set high standards for proper asthma care and resources. With organizations acting in concert, the mortality and morbidity from asthma can be substantially prevented in the inner city. PMID:12653387

  2. Keeping the Faith: African American Faith Leaders’ Perspectives and Recommendations for Reducing Racial Disparities in HIV/AIDS Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Amy; Cornwall, Alexandra; Chute, Nora; Sanders, Julia; Thomas, Gladys; James, George; Lally, Michelle; Trooskin, Stacey; Flanigan, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    In Philadelphia, 66% of new HIV infections are among African Americans and 2% of African Americans are living with HIV. The city of Philadelphia has among the largest numbers of faith institutions of any city in the country. Although faith-based institutions play an important role in the African American community, their response to the AIDS epidemic has historically been lacking. We convened 38 of Philadelphia’s most influential African American faith leaders for in-depth interviews and focus groups examining the role of faith-based institutions in HIV prevention. Participants were asked to comment on barriers to engaging faith-based leaders in HIV prevention and were asked to provide normative recommendations for how African American faith institutions can enhance HIV/AIDS prevention and reduce racial disparities in HIV infection. Many faith leaders cited lack of knowledge about Philadelphia’s racial disparities in HIV infection as a common reason for not previously engaging in HIV programs; others noted their congregations’ existing HIV prevention and outreach programs and shared lessons learned. Barriers to engaging the faith community in HIV prevention included: concerns about tacitly endorsing extramarital sex by promoting condom use, lack of educational information appropriate for a faith-based audience, and fear of losing congregants and revenue as a result of discussing human sexuality and HIV/AIDS from the pulpit. However, many leaders expressed a moral imperative to respond to the AIDS epidemic, and believed clergy should play a greater role in HIV prevention. Many participants noted that controversy surrounding homosexuality has historically divided the faith community and prohibited an appropriate response to the epidemic; many expressed interest in balancing traditional theology with practical public health approaches to HIV prevention. Leaders suggested the faith community should: promote HIV testing, including during or after worship services

  3. Keeping the faith: African American faith leaders' perspectives and recommendations for reducing racial disparities in HIV/AIDS infection.

    PubMed

    Nunn, Amy; Cornwall, Alexandra; Chute, Nora; Sanders, Julia; Thomas, Gladys; James, George; Lally, Michelle; Trooskin, Stacey; Flanigan, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    In Philadelphia, 66% of new HIV infections are among African Americans and 2% of African Americans are living with HIV. The city of Philadelphia has among the largest numbers of faith institutions of any city in the country. Although faith-based institutions play an important role in the African American community, their response to the AIDS epidemic has historically been lacking. We convened 38 of Philadelphia's most influential African American faith leaders for in-depth interviews and focus groups examining the role of faith-based institutions in HIV prevention. Participants were asked to comment on barriers to engaging faith-based leaders in HIV prevention and were asked to provide normative recommendations for how African American faith institutions can enhance HIV/AIDS prevention and reduce racial disparities in HIV infection. Many faith leaders cited lack of knowledge about Philadelphia's racial disparities in HIV infection as a common reason for not previously engaging in HIV programs; others noted their congregations' existing HIV prevention and outreach programs and shared lessons learned. Barriers to engaging the faith community in HIV prevention included: concerns about tacitly endorsing extramarital sex by promoting condom use, lack of educational information appropriate for a faith-based audience, and fear of losing congregants and revenue as a result of discussing human sexuality and HIV/AIDS from the pulpit. However, many leaders expressed a moral imperative to respond to the AIDS epidemic, and believed clergy should play a greater role in HIV prevention. Many participants noted that controversy surrounding homosexuality has historically divided the faith community and prohibited an appropriate response to the epidemic; many expressed interest in balancing traditional theology with practical public health approaches to HIV prevention. Leaders suggested the faith community should: promote HIV testing, including during or after worship services and in

  4. A Comparison of African American Students' Self-Perceptions of School Competence with Their Performance on State-Mandated Achievement Tests and Normed Tests of Oral and Written Language and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon Pershey, Monica

    2011-01-01

    This study measured self-perceptions of school competence among 263 4th- and 6th-grade African American students who attended an academically challenged school district. Self-perceptions of school competence are defined as self-perceptions of ability, confidence, and school satisfaction. Results indicated that 4th-grade students had lesser…

  5. Prevalence and correlates of knowledge of male partner HIV testing and serostatus among African-American women living in high poverty, high HIV prevalence communities (HPTN 064)

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Larissa; Rompalo, Anne M.; Wang, Jing; Hughes, James; Adimora, Adaora A.; Hodder, Sally; Soto-Torres, Lydia E.; Frew, Paula M.; Haley, Danielle F.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of sexual partners' HIV infection can reduce risky sexual behaviors. Yet, there are no published studies to-date examining prevalence and characteristics associated with knowledge among African-American women living in high poverty communities disproportionately affected by HIV. Using the HIV Prevention Trial Network's (HPTN) 064 Study data, multivariable logistic regression was used to examine individual, partner, and partnership-level determinants of women's knowledge (n=1,768 women). Results showed that women's demographic characteristics alone did not account for the variation in serostatus awareness. Rather, lower knowledge of partner serostatus was associated with having two or more sex partners (OR=0.49, 95%CI: 0.37-0.65), food insecurity (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.49-0.94), partner age>35 (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.49-0.94), and partner concurrency (OR=0.63, 95%CI: 0.49-0.83). Access to financial support (OR=1.42, 95%CI: 1.05-1.92) and coresidence (OR=1.43, 95%CI: 1.05-1.95) were associated with higher knowledge of partner serostatus. HIV prevention efforts addressing African-American women's vulnerabilities should employ integrated behavioral, economic, and empowerment approaches. PMID:25160901

  6. African American Preschool Children's Physical Activity Levels in Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Bo; Reinhart-Lee, Tamara; Janisse, Heather; Brogan, Kathryn; Danford, Cynthia; Jen, K-L. C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels of urban inner city preschoolers while attending Head Start, the federally funded preschool program for children from low-income families. Participants were 158 African American children. Their physical activity during Head Start days was measured using programmed RT-3…

  7. The South African Experience: Beyond the CIDA Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruton, John M.

    2008-01-01

    The Community and Individual Development Association (CIDA) City Campus is presented by Heaton as an innovative African alternative to traditional business education. However, he considers the model in isolation from the unique educational and economic circumstances of postapartheid South Africa. As a response, this article goes beyond the CIDA…

  8. Testing sky brightness models against radial dependency: A dense two dimensional survey around the city of Madrid, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamorano, J.; Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Ocaña, F.; Pila-Díez, B.; Gómez Castaño, J.; Pascual, S.; Tapia, C.; Gallego, J.; Fernández, A.; Nievas, M.

    2016-09-01

    We present a study of the night sky brightness around the extended metropolitan area of Madrid using Sky Quality Meter (SQM) photometers. The map is the first to cover the spatial distribution of the sky brightness in the centre of the Iberian peninsula. These surveys are necessary to test the light pollution models that predict night sky brightness as a function of the location and brightness of the sources of light pollution and the scattering of light in the atmosphere. We describe the data-retrieval methodology, which includes an automated procedure to measure from a moving vehicle in order to speed up the data collection, providing a denser and wider survey than previous works with similar time frames. We compare the night sky brightness map to the nocturnal radiance measured from space by the DMSP satellite. We find that (i) a single source model is not enough to explain the radial evolution of the night sky brightness, despite the predominance of Madrid in size and population and (ii) that the orography of the region should be taken into account when deriving geo-specific models from general first-principles models. We show the tight relationship between these two luminance measures. This finding sets up an alternative roadmap to extended studies over the globe that will not require the local deployment of photometers or trained personnel.

  9. Multiple sclerosis susceptibility alleles in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Britt A.; Wang, Joanne; Taylor, Elise M.; Caillier, Stacy J.; Herbert, Joseph; Khan, Omar A.; Cross, Anne H.; De Jager, Philip L.; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine F.; Cree, Bruce C.A.; Hauser, Stephen L.; Oksenberg, Jorge R.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease characterized by complex genetics and multifaceted gene-environment interactions. Compared to whites, African Americans have a lower risk for developing MS, but African Americans with MS have a greater risk of disability. These differences between African Americans and whites may represent differences in genetic susceptibility and/or environmental factors. SNPs from 12 candidate genes have recently been identified and validated with MS risk in white populations. We performed a replication study using 918 cases and 656 unrelated controls to test whether these candidate genes are also associated with MS risk in African Americans. CD6, CLEC16a, EVI5, GPC5, and TYK2 contained SNPs that are associated with MS risk in the African American dataset. EVI5 showed the strongest association outside the MHC (rs10735781, OR = 1.233, 95% CI = 1.06–1.43, P value = 0.006). In addition, RGS1 appears to affect age of onset whereas TNFRSF1A appears to be associated with disease progression. None of the tested variants showed results that were statistically in-consistent with the effects established in whites. The results are consistent with shared disease genetic mechanisms among individuals of European and African ancestry. PMID:19865102

  10. The African superswell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyblade, Andrew A.; Robinson, Scott W.

    1994-01-01

    Maps of residual bathymetry in the ocean basins around the African continent reveal a broad bathymetric swell in the southeastern Atlantic Ocean with an amplitude of about 500 m. We propose that this region of anomalously shallow bathymetry, together with the contiguous eastern and southern African plateaus, form a superswell which we refer to as the African superswell. The origin of the African superswell is uncertain. However, rifting and volcanism in eastern Africa, as well as heat flow measurements in southern Africa and the southeastern Atlantic Ocean, suggest that the superswell may be attributed, at least in part, to heating of the lithosphere.

  11. Assessment of unsuspected exposure to drugs of abuse in children from a Mediterranean city by hair testing.

    PubMed

    Pichini, Simona; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Alvarez, Airam; Gottardi, Massimo; Marchei, Emilia; Svaizer, Fiorenza; Pellegrini, Manuela; Rotolo, Maria Concetta; Pacifici, Roberta

    2014-02-01

    Hair testing was used to investigate the prevalence of unsuspected exposure to drugs of abuse in a group of children presenting to an urban paediatric emergency department without suggestive signs or symptoms. Hair samples were obtained from 114 children between 24 months and 10 years of age attending the emergency room of Hospital del Mar in Barcelona, Spain. Hair samples from the accompanying parent were also collected. The samples were analyzed for the presence of opiates, cocaine, amphetamines, and cannabinoids by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Parental sociodemographics and possible drug of abuse history were recorded. Hair samples from twenty-three children (20.1%) were positive for cocaine (concentration range 0.15-3.81 ng/mg hair), those of thirteen children (11.4%) to cannabinoids (D9-THC concentration range 0.05-0.54 ng/mg hair), with four samples positive to codeine (0.1-0.25 ng/mg hair), one positive for 2.09 ng methadone per mg hair and one to 6-MAM (0.42 ng/mg hair) and morphine (0. 15 ng/mg hair) . In 69.5 and 69.2% of the positive cocaine and cannabinoids cases respectively, drugs was also found in the hair of accompanying parent. Parental sociodemographics were not associated with children exposure to drugs of abuse. However, the behavioural patterns with potential harmful effects for the child's health (e.g., tobacco smoking, cannabis, benzodiazepines and/or antidepressants use) were significantly higher in the parents of exposed children. In the light of the obtained results (28% overall children exposure to drugs of abuse) and in agreement with 2009 unsuspected 23% cocaine exposure in pre-school children from the same hospital, we support general hair screening to disclose exposure to drugs of abuse in children from risky environments to provide the basis for specific social and health interventions.

  12. Reversing the "Standard" Direction: Science Emerging from the Lives of African American Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiler, Gale

    2001-01-01

    Recognizes the persistent science achievement gap between inner-city African American students and students from the mainstream and suggests that the imposition of external standards on inner-city schools will do little to ameliorate this gap because such an approach fails to address the significance of the social and cultural lives of the…

  13. Assessment of Unsuspected Exposure to Drugs of Abuse in Children from a Mediterranean City by Hair Testing

    PubMed Central

    Pichini, Simona; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Alvarez, Airam; Gottardi, Massimo; Marchei, Emilia; Svaizer, Fiorenza; Pellegrini, Manuela; Rotolo, Maria Concetta; Pacifici, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Hair testing was used to investigate the prevalence of unsuspected exposure to drugs of abuse in a group of children presenting to an urban paediatric emergency department without suggestive signs or symptoms. Hair samples were obtained from 114 children between 24 months and 10 years of age attending the emergency room of Hospital del Mar in Barcelona, Spain. Hair samples from the accompanying parent were also collected. The samples were analyzed for the presence of opiates, cocaine, amphetamines, and cannabinoids by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Parental sociodemographics and possible drug of abuse history were recorded. Hair samples from twenty-three children (20.1%) were positive for cocaine (concentration range 0.15–3.81 ng/mg hair), those of thirteen children (11.4%) to cannabinoids (Δ9-THC concentration range 0.05–0.54 ng/mg hair), with four samples positive to codeine (0.1–0.25 ng/mg hair), one positive for 2.09 ng methadone per mg hair and one to 6-MAM (0.42 ng/mg hair) and morphine (0. 15 ng/mg hair) . In 69.5 and 69.2% of the positive cocaine and cannabinoids cases respectively, drugs was also found in the hair of accompanying parent. Parental sociodemographics were not associated with children exposure to drugs of abuse. However, the behavioural patterns with potential harmful effects for the child’s health (e.g., tobacco smoking, cannabis, benzodiazepines and/or antidepressants use) were significantly higher in the parents of exposed children. In the light of the obtained results (28% overall children exposure to drugs of abuse) and in agreement with 2009 unsuspected 23% cocaine exposure in pre-school children from the same hospital, we support general hair screening to disclose exposure to drugs of abuse in children from risky environments to provide the basis for specific social and health interventions. PMID:24566054

  14. Effects on Sexual Risk Behavior and STD Rate of Brief HIV/STD Prevention Interventions for African American Women in Primary Care Settings

    PubMed Central

    Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Jemmott, John B.; O’Leary, Ann

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We tested the efficacy of brief HIV/sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk-reduction interventions for African American women in primary care settings. Methods. In a randomized controlled trial, 564 African American women recruited at a Newark, NJ, inner-city women’s health clinic were assigned to a 20-minute one-on-one HIV/STD behavioral skill-building intervention, 200-minute group HIV/STD behavioral skill-building intervention, 20-minute one-on-one HIV/STD information intervention, 200-minute group HIV/STD information intervention, or 200-minute health intervention control group. Primary outcomes were self-reported sexual behaviors in the previous 3 months; secondary outcome was STD incidence. Results. At 12-month follow-up, participants in the skill-building interventions reported less unprotected sexual intercourse than did participants in the information interventions (Cohen’s d [d]=0.23, P=.02), reported a greater proportion of protected sexual intercourse than did information intervention participants (d=0.21, P=.05) and control participants (d=0.24, P=.03), and were less likely to test positive for an STD than were control participants (d=0.20, P=.03). Conclusions. This study suggests that brief single-session, one-on-one or group skill-building interventions may reduce HIV/STD risk behaviors and STD morbidity among inner-city African American women in primary care settings. PMID:17463391

  15. HIV-related stigma among African, Caribbean, and Black youth in Windsor, Ontario.

    PubMed

    Mihan, Robert; Kerr, Jelani; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor

    2016-01-01

    HIV-related stigma has been shown to undermine prevention, care, treatment, and the well-being of people living with HIV. A disproportion burden of HIV infection, as well as elevated levels of HIV-related stigma, is evidenced in sub-Saharan African (SSA) and African-diasporic populations. This study explores factors that influence HIV-related stigma among 16- to 25-year-old youth residing in a Canadian city who identify as African, Caribbean, or Black. Stigma, as rooted in cultural norms and beliefs and related social institutions, combined with insights from research on stigma in SSA and African-diasporic populations, guided the development of a path analytic structural equation model predicting levels of HIV-related stigmatizing attitudes. The model was tested using survey responses of 510 youth to estimate the direct and indirect influences of ethno-religious identity, religious service attendance, time in Canada, HIV/AIDS knowledge, HIV-testing history, sexual health service contact, and gender on HIV-related stigma. Statistically significant negative associations were found between levels of stigma and knowledge and HIV-testing history. Ethno-religious identity and gender had both direct and indirect effects on stigma. African-Muslim participants had higher levels of stigma, lower knowledge, and were less likely to have been tested for HIV infection than other ethno-religious groups. Male participants had higher levels of stigma and lower knowledge than women. Time in Canada had only indirect effects on stigma, with participants in Canada for longer periods having higher knowledge and less likely to have been tested than more recent arrivals. While the strength of the effect of knowledge on stigmatizing attitudes in this research is consistent with other research on stigma and evaluations of stigma-reduction programs, the path analytic results provide additional information about how knowledge and HIV-testing function as mediators of non

  16. High prevalence and incidence of HIV-1 in a counseling and testing center in the city of Itajaí, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Grinberg, Gorki; Giron, Leila Bertoni; Knoll, Rosalie Kupka; Galinskas, Juliana; Camargo, Michelle; Arif, Muhammad Shoaib; Samer, Sadia; Janini, Luiz Mario Ramos; Sucupira, Maria Cecilia Araripe; Diaz, Ricardo Sobhie

    2015-01-01

    Itajaí is a port city in southern Brazil with one of the highest incidence and mortality rates from AIDS in the country. The prevalence and incidence of HIV infection were investigated in 1085 of 3196 new HIV-1 infection cases evaluated in the counseling and testing center of Itajaí from January 2002 to August 2008. Recent infections were assessed using the BED™, and pol region sequencing was performed in 76 samples. The prevalence ranged from 3.08% to 6.17% among women and from 10.26% to 17.36% among men. A total of 17% of infections were classified as recent, with annual incidence varying from 1.6% to 4.8 per 100 patient/year among women and from 2.05% to 8.5 per 100 patient/year among men. Pol sequences were obtained from 38 randomly recent infections selected individuals: 71% were infected by subtype C, 24% B, 2% D, and 2% F1. Among 38 subjects with established infection, 76% were subtype C, and 24% B. Transmitted drug resistance was detected in 18.4% of recent infection subjects (7.8% to nucleoside analog reverse-transcriptase inhibitors, 5.2% to non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors, and 5.2% protease inhibitors) and 5.2% of subjects with established infection had nucleoside analog reverse-transcriptase inhibitors resistance. The high prevalence and incidence of HIV infection in this region is unprecedented in studies involving cases evaluated in the counseling and testing centers in Brazil.

  17. 16 Extraordinary African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    This collection for children tells the stories of 16 African Americans who helped make America what it is today. African Americans can take pride in the heritage of these contributors to society. Biographies are given for the following: (1) Sojourner Truth, preacher and abolitionist; (2) Frederick Douglass, abolitionist; (3) Harriet Tubman, leader…

  18. African Studies Computer Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    African studies computer resources that are readily available in the United States with linkages to Africa are described, highlighting those most directly corresponding to African content. Africanists can use the following four fundamental computer systems: (1) Internet/Bitnet; (2) Fidonet; (3) Usenet; and (4) dial-up bulletin board services. The…

  19. Understanding African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward Earl

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the socialization skills, self-esteem, and academic readiness of African American males in a school environment. Discussions with students and the School Perceptions Questionnaire provided data for this investigation. The intended targets for this investigation were African American students; however, there…

  20. Africans Away from Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, John Henrik

    Africans who were brought across the Atlantic as slaves never fully adjusted to slavery or accepted its inevitability. Resistance began on board the slave ships, where many jumped overboard or committed suicide. African slaves in South America led the first revolts against tyranny in the New World. The first slave revolt in the Caribbean occurred…

  1. Keeping African Masks Real

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddington, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Art is a good place to learn about our multicultural planet, and African masks are prized throughout the world as powerfully expressive artistic images. Unfortunately, multicultural education, especially for young children, can perpetuate stereotypes. Masks taken out of context lose their meaning and the term "African masks" suggests that there is…

  2. Educating African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American…

  3. Project RICE (Responsive Inner City Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattai, P. Rudy

    Project RICE (Responsive Inner City Education) prepared a cadre of 36 teachers drawn from majority and minority populations in 3 inner-city schools in Buffalo (New York) to complement mastery of subject matter with appropriate pedagogical styles. The project was designed to test the hypothesis that minority students in inner-city schools do not…

  4. African American community members sustain favorable blood pressure outcomes through 12-month telephone motivational interviewing (MI) maintenance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Community approaches offer promise for addressing disparities experienced by African Americans in hypertension prevalence, treatment, and control. HUB City Steps, a community-based participatory research lifestyle intervention, tracked participants through a 12-month MI maintenance phase following a...

  5. African horse sickness and African carnivores.

    PubMed

    Alexander, K A; Kat, P W; House, J; House, C; O'Brien, S J; Laurenson, M K; McNutt, J W; Osburn, B I

    1995-11-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a disease that affects equids, and is principally transmitted by Culicoides spp. that are biological vectors of AHS viruses (AHSV). The repeated spread of AHSV from sub-Saharan Africa to the Middle East, northern Africa and the Iberian peninsula indicate that a better understanding of AHS epizootiology is needed. African horse sickness has long been known to infect and cause mortality among domestic dogs that ingest virus contaminated meat, but it is uncertain what role carnivores play in transmission of the virus. We present evidence of widespread natural AHS infection among a diversity of African carnivore species. We hypothesize that such infection resulted from ingestion of meat and organs from AHS-infected prey species. The effect of AHS on the carnivores is unknown, as is their role in the maintenance cycle of the disease.

  6. City 2020+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to

  7. Diabetes in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, M

    2005-01-01

    African Americans have a high risk for type 2 diabetes. Genetic traits, the prevalence of obesity, and insulin resistance all contribute to the risk of diabetes in the African American community. African Americans have a high rate of diabetic complications, because of poor glycaemic control and racial disparities in health care in the USA. African Americans with diabetes may have an atypical presentation that simulates type 1 diabetes, but then their subsequent clinical course is typical of type 2 diabetes. Culturally sensitive strategies, structured disease management protocols, and the assistance of nurses, diabetic educators, and other health care professionals are effective in improving the outcome of diabetes in the African American community. PMID:16344294

  8. African bees to control African elephants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollrath, Fritz; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2002-11-01

    Numbers of elephants have declined in Africa and Asia over the past 30 years while numbers of humans have increased, both substantially. Friction between these two keystone species is reaching levels which are worryingly high from an ecological as well as a political viewpoint. Ways and means must be found to keep the two apart, at least in areas sensitive to each species' survival. The aggressive African bee might be one such method. Here we demonstrate that African bees deter elephants from damaging the vegetation and trees which house their hives. We argue that bees can be employed profitably to protect not only selected trees, but also selected areas, from elephant damage.

  9. Climate change induced risk analysis of Addis Ababa city (Ethiopia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalayer, Fatemeh; Herslund, Lise; Cavan, Gina; Printz, Andreas; Simonis, Ingo; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Hellevik, Siri; Fekade, Rebka; Nebebe, Alemu; Woldegerima, Tekle; Workalemahu, Liku; Workneh, Abraham; Yonas, Nebyou; Abebe Bekele, Essete; Yeshitela, Kumelachew

    2013-04-01

    CLUVA (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa; http://www.cluva.eu/) is a 3 years project, funded by the European Commission in 2010. Its objective is to develop context-centered methods to assess vulnerability and increase knowledge on managing climate related risks and to estimate the impacts of climate changes in the next 40 years at urban scale in Africa. The project downscales IPCC climate projections to evaluate threats to selected African test cities; mainly floods, sea-level rise, droughts, heat waves, desertification. It also evaluates and links: social vulnerability; urban green structures and ecosystem services; urban-rural interfaces; vulnerability of urban built environment and lifelines; and related institutional and governance dimensions of adaptation. CLUVA combines assessment approaches to investigate how cities, communities and households can resist and cope with, as well as recover from climate induced hazards. This multi-scale and multi-disciplinary qualitative, quantitative and probabilistic approach of CLUVA is currently being applied to selected African test cities (Addis Ababa - Ethiopia; Dar es Salaam - Tanzania; Douala - Cameroun; Ouagadougou - Burkina Faso; St. Louis - Senegal). In particular, the poster will report on the progresses of the Addis Ababa case study. Addis Ababa, the largest city in Ethiopia, is exposed to heat waves, drought, and, more recently, to flash floods. Due to undulating topography, poor waste management and the absence of sustainable storm water management, Addis Ababa is prone to severe flood events during the rainy seasons. Metropolitan Addis Ababa is crossed by several small watercourses. Torrential rains, very common during the rainy season, cause a sudden rise in the flow of these water courses, inundating and damaging the settlements along their banks and affecting the livelihood of the local population. The combination of climate change and development pressures are expected to exacerbate the

  10. Use and Misuse of Speech Diagnostics for African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baugh, John

    2015-01-01

    Many African American students have been tested using speech pathology diagnostics that are ill suited to their distinctive linguistic circumstances. Slave descendants of African origin share a unique linguistic heritage in contrast and comparison to every other immigrant group residing within America. In an effort to overcome the legacy of…

  11. High-Achieving, Low Socioeconomic Status African-American Males: A Comparative Perspective of Students at Three Urban High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randle, James P.

    2012-01-01

    A recent study by the Council of the Great City Schools reports that "the nation's young African-American males are in a state of crisis" and describes the situation as "a national catastrophe" (Lewis, Simon, Uzzell, Horwitz, & Casserly, 2010; Herbert, 2010). The report indicates that African-American males still lag…

  12. The Impact of Oakland Freedom School's Summer Youth Program on the Psychosocial Development of African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethea, Sharon L.

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation considers the program outcomes of one community youth project, Leadership Excellence Inc., Oakland Freedom Schools. Oakland Freedom Schools are culturally relevant 6-week summer Language Arts enrichment programs for primarily inner-city African American youth aged 5 to 14 years. In this study, 79 African American youth…

  13. Tecnical Note: Analysis of non-regulated vehicular emissions by extractive FTIR spectrometry: tests on a hybrid car in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, F.; Grutter, M.; Jazcilevich, A.; González-Oropeza, R.

    2006-11-01

    A methodology to acquire valuable information on the chemical composition and evolution of vehicular emissions is presented. The analysis of the gases is performed by passing a constant flow of a sample gas from the tail-pipe into a 10 L multi-pass cell. The absorption spectra within the cell are obtained using an FTIR spectrometer at 0.5 cm-1 resolution along a 13.1 m optical path. Additionally, the total flow from the exhaust is continuously measured from a differential pressure sensor on a textit{Pitot} tube installed at the exit of the exhaust. This configuration aims to obtain a good speciation capability by coadding spectra during 30 s and reporting the emission (in g/km) of both criteria and non-regulated pollutants, such as CO2, CO, NO, SO2, NH3, HCHO and some NMHC, during predetermined driving cycles. The advantages and disadvantages of increasing the measurement frequency, as well as the effect of other parameters such as spectral resolution, cell volume and flow rate, are discussed. To test and evaluate the proposed technique, experiments were performed on a dynamometer running FTP-75 and typical driving cycles for the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) on a Toyota Prius hybrid vehicle. This car is an example of recent marketed automotive technology dedicated to reduced emissions, increasing the need for sensitive detection techniques. This study shows the potential of the proposed technique to measure and report in real time the emissions of a large variety of pollutants, even from a super ultra-low emission vehicle (SULEV). The emissions of HC's, NOx, CO and CO2 obtained here were compared to experiments performed in other locations with the same model vehicle. The proposed technique provides a tool for future studies comparing in detail the emissions of vehicles using alternative fuels and emission control systems.

  14. Parental Endorsement of Spanking and Children’s Internalizing and Externalizing Problems in African American and Hispanic Families

    PubMed Central

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Kull, Melissa A.; Carrano, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed prospective, bidirectional associations between maternal endorsement of spanking and children’s internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in low-income urban African American and Hispanic (N = 592) families drawn from the Three City Study. Children in sample families were followed from early childhood through middle childhood with three sets of interviews and assessments at ages 3, 4, and 9 years. Cross-lagged path analyses tested longitudinal bidirectional associations between parental endorsement of spanking and children’s internalizing and externalizing problems, with multi-group comparisons employed to test group differences between race/ethnic groups. African American and Hispanic mothers showed similar endorsements of spanking. Results suggest that associations between spanking endorsement and child functioning were due primarily to parenting effects, with spanking predicting changes in children’s behaviors, rather than child evocative effects, with limited evidence of child behaviors predicting changes in parental spanking. Maternal spanking endorsement predicted short-term decreases in children’s internalizing problems in early childhood, but over the longer term spanking was associated with increased internalizing and externalizing problems for both African American and Hispanic children in middle childhood among economically disadvantaged families. PMID:24364363

  15. Rabies and African wild dogs in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kat, P W; Alexander, K A; Smith, J S; Munson, L

    1995-11-22

    Three packs of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) ranging to the north of the Masai Mara National Reserve in southwestern Kenya were monitored from 1988 to 1990. During a six week period (August 2-September 14, 1989), 21 of 23 members of one of these packs died. Histological examination of two brain samples revealed eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions (Negri bodies), supporting a diagnosis of rabies viral encephalitis. An additional brain sample tested positive for rabies with a fluorescent antibody test. Nucleotide sequence of the rabies viral N and G genes from isolates of four African wild dogs (including an individual from Tanzania) indicated that infection was with a viral variant common among domestic dogs in Kenya and Tanzania. A hypothesis linking African wild dog rabies deaths to researcher handling is evaluated and considered implausible.

  16. African ancestry protects against Alzheimer's disease-related neuropathology.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, D; Grinberg, L T; Alba, J G; Naslavsky, M S; Licinio, L; Farfel, J M; Suemoto, C K; de Lucena Ferretti, R E; Leite, R E P; de Andrade, M P; dos Santos, A C F; Brentani, H; Pasqualucci, C A; Nitrini, R; Jacob-Filho, W; Zatz, M

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies in dementia epidemiology have reported higher Alzheimer's disease rates in African-Americans when compared with White Americans. To determine whether genetically determined African ancestry is associated with neuropathological changes commonly associated with dementia, we analyzed a population-based brain bank in the highly admixed city of São Paulo, Brazil. African ancestry was estimated through the use of previously described ancestry-informative markers. Risk of presence of neuritic plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, small vessel disease, brain infarcts and Lewy bodies in subjects with significant African ancestry versus those without was determined. Results were adjusted for multiple environmental risk factors, demographic variables and apolipoprotein E genotype. African ancestry was inversely correlated with neuritic plaques (P=0.03). Subjects with significant African ancestry (n=112, 55.4%) showed lower prevalence of neuritic plaques in the univariate analysis (odds ratio (OR) 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55-0.95, P=0.01) and when adjusted for age, sex, APOE genotype and environmental risk factors (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.21-0.89, P=0.02). There were no significant differences for the presence of other neuropathological alterations. We show for the first time, using genetically determined ancestry, that African ancestry may be highly protective of Alzheimer's disease neuropathology, functioning through either genetic variants or unknown environmental factors. Epidemiological studies correlating African-American race/ethnicity with increased Alzheimer's disease rates should not be interpreted as surrogates of genetic ancestry or considered to represent African-derived populations from the developing nations such as Brazil.

  17. Significance of dietary folate intake, homocysteine levels and MTHFR 677 C>T genotyping in South African patients diagnosed with depression: test development for clinical application.

    PubMed

    Delport, Darnielle; Schoeman, Renata; van der Merwe, Nicole; van der Merwe, Lize; Fisher, Leslie R; Geiger, Dieter; Kotze, Maritha J

    2014-06-01

    Low folate intake in the presence of the functional MTHFR 677 C > T (rs1801133) polymorphism is an important cause of elevated homocysteine levels previously implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD) and many other chronic diseases. In this study the clinical relevance and inter-relationship of these aspects were evaluated in 86 South African patients diagnosed with MDD and 97 population-matched controls participating in a chronic diseases screening program. A questionnaire-based clinical and nutrition assessment was performed, homocysteine levels determined, and all study participants genotyped for MTHFR 677 C > T (rs1801133) using allele-specific TaqMan technology. The folate score was found to be significantly lower in the patient group compared to controls (p = 0.003) and correlated with increased body mass index (BMI), particularly in females with MDD (p = 0.009). BMI was significantly higher in the MDD patients compared with controls after adjustment for age and sex (p = 0.015), but this association was no longer significant after further adjustment for the level of folate intake in the diet. In MDD patients but not controls, the minor T-allele of MTHFR 677 C > T was associated with increased BMI (p = 0.032), which in turn correlated significantly with increased homocysteine levels. The significant association between BMI and homocysteine levels was observed in both the MDD patient (p = 0.049) and control (p = 0.018) study groups. The significantly higher homocysteine levels observed in MDD patients compared to controls after adjustment for age and sex (p = 0.030), therefore appears to be mediated by the effects of MTHFR 677 C > T and low folate intake on BMI. Detection of the low-penetrance MTHFR 677 C > T mutation reinforces the importance of folate intake above the recommended daily dose to prevent or restore dysfunction of the methylation pathway.

  18. Evaluation of a real-time PCR test for the detection and discrimination of theileria species in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Chaisi, Mamohale E; Janssens, Michiel E; Vermeiren, Lieve; Oosthuizen, Marinda C; Collins, Nicola E; Geysen, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay based on the cox III gene was evaluated for the simultaneous detection and discrimination of Theileria species in buffalo and cattle blood samples from South Africa and Mozambique using melting curve analysis. The results obtained were compared to those of the reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of Theileria spp. in mixed infections, and to the 18S rRNA qPCR assay results for the specific detection of Theileria parva. Theileria parva, Theileria sp. (buffalo), Theileria taurotragi, Theileria buffeli and Theileria mutans were detected by the cox III assay. Theileria velifera was not detected from any of the samples analysed. Seventeen percent of the samples had non-species specific melting peaks and 4.5% of the samples were negative or below the detection limit of the assay. The cox III assay identified more T. parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo) positive samples than the RLB assay, and also detected more T. parva infections than the 18S assay. However, only a small number of samples were positive for the benign Theileria spp. To our knowledge T. taurotragi has never been identified from the African buffalo, its identification in some samples by the qPCR assay was unexpected. Because of these discrepancies in the results, cox III qPCR products were cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis indicated extensive inter- and intra-species variations in the probe target regions of the cox III gene sequences of the benign Theileria spp. and therefore explains their low detection. The cox III assay is specific for the detection of T. parva infections in cattle and buffalo. Sequence data generated from this study can be used for the development of a more inclusive assay for detection and differentiation of all variants of the mildly pathogenic and benign Theileria spp. of buffalo and cattle.

  19. Barriers to breastfeeding among African American adolescent mothers.

    PubMed

    Brownell, Kim; Hutton, Laurencia; Hartman, Jacqueline; Dabrow, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to define the barriers to breastfeeding in the inner city African American adolescent mother. The study was conducted at Johnnie Ruth Clarke Health Center in St. Petersburg, Florida from October 1999 to February 2000. The study population included 25 African American adolescent mothers between the ages of 15 and 21 years. The results indicate that these mothers possess adequate knowledge about the benefits of breast milk. The greatest barriers to breastfeeding included pain, embarrassment, and lack of interest. These concerns are appropriate given their developmental stage; however, interventions are necessary to address these issues.

  20. The Cross-cultural Utility of Foreign- and Locally-derived Normative Data for Three WHO-endorsed Neuropsychological Tests for South African Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ferrett, Helen L.; Thomas, Kevin G. F.; Tapert, Susan F.; Carey, Paul D.; Conradie, Simone; Cuzen, Natalie L.; Stein, Dan J.; Fein, George

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation of neuropsychological tests may be hampered by confounding sociodemographic factors and by using inappropriate normative data. We investigated these factors in three tests endorsed by the World Health Organization: the Grooved Pegboard Test (GPT), the Children's Color Trails Test (CCTT), and the WHO/UCLA version of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). In a sample of 12-15-year-old, Afrikaans- and English-speaking adolescents from the Cape Town region of South Africa, analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) demonstrated that quality of education was the sociodemographic factor with the biggest influence on test performance, and that age also significantly influenced GPT and CCTT performance. Based on those findings, we provide appropriately stratified normative data for the age group in question. Comparisons between diagnostic interpretations made using foreign normative data versus those using the current local data demonstrate that it is imperative to use appropriately stratified normative data to guard against misinterpreting performance. PMID:24526566

  1. The cross-cultural utility of foreign- and locally-derived normative data for three WHO-endorsed neuropsychological tests for South African adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ferrett, Helen L; Thomas, Kevin G F; Tapert, Susan F; Carey, Paul D; Conradie, Simone; Cuzen, Natalie L; Stein, Dan J; Fein, George

    2014-06-01

    Interpretation of neuropsychological tests may be hampered by confounding sociodemographic factors and by using inappropriate normative data. We investigated these factors in three tests endorsed by the World Health Organization: the Grooved Pegboard Test (GPT), the Children's Color Trails Test (CCTT), and the WHO/UCLA version of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). In a sample of 12-15-year-old, Afrikaans- and English-speaking adolescents from the Cape Town region of South Africa, analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) demonstrated that quality of education was the sociodemographic factor with the biggest influence on test performance, and that age also significantly influenced GPT and CCTT performance. Based on those findings, we provide appropriately stratified normative data for the age group in question. Comparisons between diagnostic interpretations made using foreign normative data versus those using the current local data demonstrate that it is imperative to use appropriately stratified normative data to guard against misinterpreting performance. PMID:24526566

  2. Using Culturally Sensitive Media Messages to Reduce HIV-associated Sexual Behavior in High-risk African-American Adolescents: Results from a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sznitman, Sharon; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; Hennessy, Michael; Brown, Larry K.; Valois, Robert F.; Stanton, Bonita F.; Salazar, Laura F.; DiClemente, Ralph; Farber, Naomi; Romer, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To test the long-term effects of a mass media intervention that used culturally and developmentally appropriate messages to enhance HIV-preventive beliefs and behavior of high-risk African-American adolescents. Methods Television and radio messages were delivered over three years in two cities (Syracuse, NY and Macon, GA) that were randomly selected within each of two regionally matched city pairs with the other cities (Providence, RI and Columbia, SC) serving as controls. African American adolescents ages 14 to 17 (N = 1710), recruited in the four cities over a 16-month period, completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews at recruitment and again at 3, 6, 12 and 18-months post-recruitment to assess the long-term effects of the media program. To identify the unique effects of the media intervention, youth who completed at least one follow-up and who did not test positive for any of three sexually transmitted infections at recruitment or at 6 and 12-month follow-up were retained for analysis (N=1346). Results The media intervention reached virtually all of the adolescents in the trial and produced a range of effects including improved normative condom-use negotiation expectancies and increased sex refusal self-efficacy. Most importantly, older adolescents (ages 16-17) exposed to the media program exhibited a less risky age trajectory of unprotected sex than those in the non-media cities. Conclusions Culturally tailored mass media messages delivered consistently over time have the potential to reach a large audience of high-risk adolescents, to support changes in HIV-preventive beliefs, and to reduce HIV-associated risk behaviors among older youth. PMID:21856515

  3. Astronomy for African development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govender, Kevindran

    2011-06-01

    In recent years there have been a number of efforts across Africa to develop the field of astronomy as well as to reap benefit from astronomy for African people. This presentation will discuss the case of the SALT (Southern African Large Telescope) Collateral Benefits Programme (SCBP) which was set up to ensure societal benefit from astronomy. With African society as the target, the SCBP has embarked on various projects from school level education to public understanding of science to socio-economic development, the latter mainly being felt in the rural communities surrounding the South African Astronomical Observatory (home to SALT). A development plan for ``Astronomy in Africa'' will also be discussed. This plan has been drawn up with input from all over Africa and themed ``Astronomy for Education''. The Africa case stands as a good example for the IYA cornerstone project ``Developing Astronomy Globally'' which focuses on developing regions.

  4. African American Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... specific health concerns. Differences in the health of groups can result from Genetics Environmental factors Access to care Cultural factors On this page, you'll find links to health issues that affect African Americans.

  5. African American Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... accounted for 83.8% of Caucasian elderly suicides. • Firearms were the predominant method of suicide among African ... per 100,000 annually. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Vital Statistics System. Mortality Data. ...

  6. NeoCITIES: an experimental test-bed for quantifying the effects of cognitive aids on team performance in C2 situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellar, D. B.; Hall, David L.

    2009-05-01

    In this paper, we describe the design and development of the NeoCITIES Simulation task environment. The enhanced NeoCITIES environment allows repeatable experiments in which artifacts are introduced to improve team performance and measure quantities such as inference accuracy as a function of crisis tempo, data rate, decision complexity and individual factors such as induced stress. NeoCITIES was developed to study the effectiveness of cognitive artifacts within a simulated command and control environment. This paper describes the initial results of a human in the loop experiment to quantify the effects of data overload on human analyst performance. The experiment involves the introduction of cognitive aids to support improved team coordination and understanding of team-member interactions in a simulated extreme events scenario.

  7. Energy flows in a secondary city: a case study of Nakuru, Kenya

    SciTech Connect

    Milukas, M.V.

    1987-01-01

    Secondary cities are currently seen as an important focus for promoting a more spatially-equitable pattern of economic infrastructure in developing countries, but their energy needs have not been considered. To test the thesis of this work - that the present pattern of energy demand in secondary cities differs, in important ways, from that of primary cities - a case study was conducted in the East African city of Nakuru, Kenya. Energy supplies used in Nakuru fall into two categories: industrial sources (electricity and petroleum) and traditional sources (wood, charcoal, and agricultural residues). This analysis of Nakuru's use of industrial sources is introduced by a historical discussion of nationwide patterns of distribution, use, and pricing of electricity and petroleum products, and is followed by data gathered from Nakuru's suppliers of these energy sources. The portrait of energy use in Nakuru is completed with an analysis of the demand for traditional energy sources. Surveys were conducted to estimate the total quantities of charcoal, wood, and agricultural resides used in Nakuru. The cornerstone of this effort was a residential energy survey stratified according to income. Nakuru is shown to rely on biomass fuels (charcoal) to a much greater degree than Nairobi, thereby proving the thesis.

  8. Patient-Centered Community Diabetes Education Program Improves Glycemic Control in African-American Patients with Poorly Controlled Type 2 Diabetes: Importance of Point of Care Metabolic Measurements.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Trudy; Amponsah, Grace; Osei, Kwame

    2015-07-01

    African-Americans with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) have higher morbidity and mortality partly attributed to poor glucose control and lack of formal diabetes self-management education and support (DSMES) programs compared to Whites. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the clinical and metabolic parameters during DSMES vs. standard care in African-Americans with T2DM attending primary care inner city clinics. We recruited 124 African-American patients with T2DM, randomized into Group 1-DSMES (n = 58) and Group 2-standard care group (n = 38) for 6 months. Body weight, blood pressure, random blood sugars and point-of-care (POC) hemoglobin A1C (A1C) and lipids/lipoproteins were measured at 0, 3, and 6 months. At 6 months, Group 1 had significant reduction in A1C (8.2 ± 1.4% vs. 7.5 ± 1.5%, p = 0.02) and random glucose (190.4 ± 77.6 vs. 160.6 ± 59.8 mg/dl, p = 0.03). However, there were no changes in body weight, blood pressure, or lipids/lipoprotein levels. We found no significant changes in the clinical/metabolic parameters in Group 2. We concluded that DSMES, supplemented with POC testing, was associated with significant improvements in glycemic control without changes in body weight, blood pressure, or lipids/lipoproteins. We recommend the inclusion of DSMES with POC testing in managing African-American patients with T2DM attending inner city primary care clinics.

  9. African Traditional Pedagogy in a Modern Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Milton N.; Coulibaly, Medjomo

    1985-01-01

    This study identified pedagogical principles of African traditional education and then tested for their use today in schools located in rural villages of the Ivory Coast. Results showed that the 10 major principles identified are employed today in teaching and learning in that country. (RM)

  10. Bringing Jazz Back to Its Roots: Inner City Students Explore Their Musical Heritage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouillette, Liane

    2006-01-01

    This article looks at an inner city playwriting project that brought professional writers and artists into inner city classrooms to help students explore the cultural history of their community and begin to find their own voices as writers. This project was set up by Larry Hunter, an African American playwright who worked as a writer-in-residence…

  11. Parental Involvement (and Uninvolvement) at an Inner-City High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Terrinieka T.; Sanchez, Bernadette

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to understand the perceptions of parental involvement and parental uninvolvement at a predominantly African American inner-city high school. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 15 parents and 10 staff at an inner-city public high school. Five major themes emerged regarding the meanings of parental involvement at this…

  12. "In the Midst of Strange and Terrible Times": The New York City Draft Riots of 1863

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz, Barbara C.; Patterson, Jennifer Marques

    2005-01-01

    During the New York City Draft Riots the city's own inhabitants unleashed a torrent of violence and destruction that chiefly targeted African Americans. What originated as a protest against the enforcement of the Conscription Act quickly escalated into a riot that erupted at the volatile nineteenth century crossroads of race, class, and economic…

  13. Health parties for African American study recruitment.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Georgia Robins; York, Crystal; Madlensky, Lisa; Gibson, Kathi; Wasserman, Linda; Rosenthal, Eric; Barbier, Leslie; Newman, Vicky A; Tso, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    Innovative strategies are needed to increase minorities' research participation. Using existing social networks within the African American community, "home health parties" were tested as a way to recruit African American women to a breast cancer control study. Parties included social, educational, and recruitment components. All women attending health parties consented, completed a survey, and received the study's preliminary breast cancer risk assessment. There were no differences in rates of participation for subsequent study components between women recruited via parties versus other methods. Health parties are viable recruitment strategies, reduce barriers to participation, provide a supportive environment, and are relatively inexpensive. PMID:17020516

  14. Poor Performance of the Chlamydia Rapid Test Device for the Detection of Asymptomatic Infections in South African Men: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Abbai-Shaik, N S; Reddy, T; Govender, S; Ramjee, G

    2016-01-01

    Background. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no published reports on the diagnostic performance of the Chlamydia Rapid Test (CRT) Device for male urine samples. We evaluated the performance of the CRT Device when compared with that of the BD ProbeTec ET PCR Assay in a population of asymptomatic men. Methods. The study enrolled 100 men between June and July 2015. From each consenting male, 20-30 mL of urine was collected. Sensitivity and specificity of the rapid test compared to PCR were calculated. All analysis was performed in STATA version 13. Results. All men had valid rapid and PCR test results. The test showed a low sensitivity against PCR (20%) (95% CI 3.7-6.2%); however, an excellent specificity was observed (100%) (one sided 97.5% CI: 96.0-100). Conclusions. This test was not found to be suitable as a screening tool for genital Chlamydia infections in men. Our findings emphasize the need for more sensitive POC tests to be developed since the current approach for the management of STIs in Africa is confounded by poor sensitivity and specificity resulting in many infected individuals not being treated. PMID:27195171

  15. Waldorf Education in an Inner-City Public School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Ray; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reports on the achievement of the first Waldorf public elementary school in Milwaukee (Wisconsin). Early experience indicates that Waldorf pedagogy, with its emphasis on the natural rhythms of everyday life, is an effective model for predominantly African American children in an inner city. (SLD)

  16. English in the City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Greg

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the particular challenges, choices, and celebrations relevant to teaching in an urban setting. The speech of African American students is described as rich and reflective of the African American oral tradition. The article also discusses the meaning, rules and the evolution of African American English.

  17. African American and Latino Youth and Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome: Effects on School Violence and Interventions for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zyromski, Brett

    2007-01-01

    Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome (PTSD) is found more frequently in inner-city African American and Latino youth than in European American youth. Previous research on PTSD and its relationship with inner-city violence, minority youth, school violence and institutionalized oppression is examined. School counselor's roles and possible interventions…

  18. Spot urinary albumin-creatinine ratio predicts left ventricular hypertrophy in young hypertensive African-American men.

    PubMed

    Post, W S; Blumenthal, R S; Weiss, J L; Levine, D M; Thiemann, D R; Gerstenblith, G; Hill, M N

    2000-11-01

    Hypertensive patients with target organ damage are at increased cardiovascular risk, and should be treated most aggressively. The association between urinary albumin excretion and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in prior studies is inconsistent, and has not been described using a single, random spot urine specimen. Therefore, we evaluated the association between the urinary albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) and left ventricular (LV) mass and also tested the hypothesis that a simple random, single-void urine ACR would identify high risk young, hypertensive, African-American men. We measured echocardiographic LV mass and a random spot urinary ACR in 109 untreated, hypertensive, young, inner city, African-American men. The mean age was 41 +/- 6 years and the mean blood pressure (BP) was 157 +/- 19/107 +/- 13 mm Hg. Microalbuminuria (ACR 30 to 300 mg/g) was present in 22% of subjects. The ACR is higher in the men with LVH than in the men without LVH (P < .05). Increased ACR is a predictor of increased LV mass index (P < .003) using multiple linear regression. An ACR >30 mg/g has a sensitivity of 33% and a specificity of 82% for the diagnosis of echocardiographic LVH. In conclusion, elevated random spot ACR is a marker of increased LV mass, independent of BP, in young urban African-American men with hypertension, and may help to determine the aggressiveness of antihypertensive therapy in this high-risk group.

  19. The effects of a mass media HIV-risk reduction strategy on HIV-related stigma and knowledge among African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Jelani C; Valois, Robert F; DiClemente, Ralph J; Carey, Michael P; Stanton, Bonita; Romer, Daniel; Fletcher, Faith; Farber, Naomi; Brown, Larry K; Vanable, Peter A; Salazar, Laura F; Juzang, Ivan; Fortune, Thierry

    2015-03-01

    HIV-related stigma undermines HIV prevention, testing, and treatment. Multipronged risk-reduction strategies may reduce stigma among African American adolescents. To test the effectiveness of a risk-reduction strategy in addressing stigma, 1613 African American adolescents from four mid-sized cities participated in a randomized control trial. Participants received a sexual-risk reduction [Focus on Youth (FOY)] or general health curriculum [Promoting Health Among Teens (PHAT)]. Two cities received a culturally-tailored media intervention. Participants completed baseline, 3-, 6-, and 12-month surveys to measure HIV-related stigma and knowledge. Analysis of covariance tested for stigma and knowledge differences by media city status and curriculum/media city status (PHAT media vs. PHAT non-media, FOY media vs. FOY non-media; FOY media vs. PHAT media; FOY non-media vs. PHAT non-media) at each measurement. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) determined stigma and knowledge differences over time. Media participants demonstrated greater HIV-related knowledge (p<0.10) at 6 months and lower stigma at 3 months (p<0.10). FOY media participants had lower 3-month (p<0.05) and 12-month (p<0.10) stigma scores than non-media FOY participants. FOY media and non-media participants had greater knowledge than PHAT for all intervals after baseline. FOY media had lower stigma than PHAT media after baseline for all intervals after baseline. HLM indicated greater knowledge slopes for the media group (p<0.05). FOY media participants had greater knowledge slopes (p<0.05) relative to non-media FOY participants and media PHAT participants (p<0.01). A combination of a HIV risk-reduction curriculum and culturally-tailored media demonstrated some effectiveness in reducing stigma. Future use of media in HIV-prevention should include and evaluate effects on stigma.

  20. The effects of a mass media HIV-risk reduction strategy on HIV-related stigma and knowledge among African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Jelani C; Valois, Robert F; DiClemente, Ralph J; Carey, Michael P; Stanton, Bonita; Romer, Daniel; Fletcher, Faith; Farber, Naomi; Brown, Larry K; Vanable, Peter A; Salazar, Laura F; Juzang, Ivan; Fortune, Thierry

    2015-03-01

    HIV-related stigma undermines HIV prevention, testing, and treatment. Multipronged risk-reduction strategies may reduce stigma among African American adolescents. To test the effectiveness of a risk-reduction strategy in addressing stigma, 1613 African American adolescents from four mid-sized cities participated in a randomized control trial. Participants received a sexual-risk reduction [Focus on Youth (FOY)] or general health curriculum [Promoting Health Among Teens (PHAT)]. Two cities received a culturally-tailored media intervention. Participants completed baseline, 3-, 6-, and 12-month surveys to measure HIV-related stigma and knowledge. Analysis of covariance tested for stigma and knowledge differences by media city status and curriculum/media city status (PHAT media vs. PHAT non-media, FOY media vs. FOY non-media; FOY media vs. PHAT media; FOY non-media vs. PHAT non-media) at each measurement. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) determined stigma and knowledge differences over time. Media participants demonstrated greater HIV-related knowledge (p<0.10) at 6 months and lower stigma at 3 months (p<0.10). FOY media participants had lower 3-month (p<0.05) and 12-month (p<0.10) stigma scores than non-media FOY participants. FOY media and non-media participants had greater knowledge than PHAT for all intervals after baseline. FOY media had lower stigma than PHAT media after baseline for all intervals after baseline. HLM indicated greater knowledge slopes for the media group (p<0.05). FOY media participants had greater knowledge slopes (p<0.05) relative to non-media FOY participants and media PHAT participants (p<0.01). A combination of a HIV risk-reduction curriculum and culturally-tailored media demonstrated some effectiveness in reducing stigma. Future use of media in HIV-prevention should include and evaluate effects on stigma. PMID:25738952

  1. Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

  2. Health and nutritional status of old-old African Americans.

    PubMed

    Bernard, M A; Anderson, C; Forgey, M

    1995-01-01

    This study reports the initial results of a baseline cross-sectional evaluation of the health and nutritional status of 58 old-old African Americans, 74 years of age and older, residing in low income housing complexes in metropolitan Oklahoma City. Although the population had a high overall functional status, cognitive status, and mood, there were a number of nutritional parameters suggestive of nutritional risk. In particular, 20% of subjects had relatively low serum albumin levels, 14% had serum cholesterol levels below 160 mg/dl, and a subset of the population reported low intake during 24 hour dietary recall. The National Center and Caucus on Black Aged report that 60% of African American elders live at or below the poverty level. These study findings suggest that the present cohort of African American elders may be at nutritional risk.

  3. Overcoming barriers to health-care access: A qualitative study among African migrants in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lavinia; Brown, Katherine B; Hall, Brian J; Yu, Fan; Yang, Jingqi; Wang, Jason; Schrock, Joshua M; Bodomo, Adams B; Yang, Ligang; Yang, Bin; Nehl, Eric J; Tucker, Joseph D; Wong, Frank Y

    2016-10-01

    Guangzhou is China's third most populous city, and the region's burgeoning manufacturing economy has attracted many young African businessmen and entrepreneurs to the city. The aims of this study were to examine strategies that African migrants in Guangzhou have adopted in response to health-care barriers, and explore their perceptions of how to address their needs. Twenty-five semi-structured interviews and two focus groups were conducted among African migrants residing in Guangzhou, China. Facing multiple barriers to care, African migrants have adopted a number of suboptimal and unsustainable approaches to access health care. These included: using their Chinese friends or partners as interpreters, self-medicating, using personal connections to medical doctors, and travelling to home countries or countries that offer English-speaking doctors for health care. Health-care providers and health organisations in Guangzhou have not yet acquired sufficient cultural competence to address the needs of African migrants residing in the city. Introducing linguistically and culturally competent health-care services in communities concentrated with African migrants may better serve the population. With the growing international migration to China, it is essential to develop sustainable approaches to improving health-care access for international migrants, particularly those who are marginalised.

  4. Overcoming barriers to health-care access: A qualitative study among African migrants in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lavinia; Brown, Katherine B; Hall, Brian J; Yu, Fan; Yang, Jingqi; Wang, Jason; Schrock, Joshua M; Bodomo, Adams B; Yang, Ligang; Yang, Bin; Nehl, Eric J; Tucker, Joseph D; Wong, Frank Y

    2016-10-01

    Guangzhou is China's third most populous city, and the region's burgeoning manufacturing economy has attracted many young African businessmen and entrepreneurs to the city. The aims of this study were to examine strategies that African migrants in Guangzhou have adopted in response to health-care barriers, and explore their perceptions of how to address their needs. Twenty-five semi-structured interviews and two focus groups were conducted among African migrants residing in Guangzhou, China. Facing multiple barriers to care, African migrants have adopted a number of suboptimal and unsustainable approaches to access health care. These included: using their Chinese friends or partners as interpreters, self-medicating, using personal connections to medical doctors, and travelling to home countries or countries that offer English-speaking doctors for health care. Health-care providers and health organisations in Guangzhou have not yet acquired sufficient cultural competence to address the needs of African migrants residing in the city. Introducing linguistically and culturally competent health-care services in communities concentrated with African migrants may better serve the population. With the growing international migration to China, it is essential to develop sustainable approaches to improving health-care access for international migrants, particularly those who are marginalised. PMID:26400191

  5. African N Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekunda, M.; Galford, G. L.; Hickman, J. E.; Palm, C.

    2011-12-01

    Africa's smallholder agricultural systems face unique challenges in planning for reducing poverty, concurrent with adaptation and mitigation to climate change. At continental level, policy seeks to promote a uniquely African Green Revolution to increase crop yields and food production, and improve local livelihoods. However, the consequences on the environment and climate are not clear; these pro-economic development measures should be linked to climate change adaptation and mitigation measures, and research is required to help achieve these policy proposals by identifying options, and testing impacts. In particular, increased nitrogen (N) inputs are essential for increasing food production in Africa, but are accompanied by inevitable increases in losses to the environment. These losses appear to be low at input levels promoted in agricultural development programs, while the increased N inputs both increase current food production and appear to reduce the vulnerability of food production to changes in climate. We present field and remote sensing evidence from Malawi that subsidizing improved seed and fertilizers increases resilience to drought without adding excess N to the environment. In Kenya, field research identified thresholds in N2O losses, where emissions are very low at fertilization rates of less than 200 kg ha-1. Village-scale models have identified potential inefficiencies in the food production process where the largest losses of reactive N occur, and which could be targeted to reduce the amount of N released to the environment. We further review some on-going research activities and progress in Africa that compare different methods of managing resources that target resilience in food production and adaptation to climate change, using nutrient N as an indicator, while evaluating the effects of these resource management practices on ecosystems and the environment.

  6. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  7. Marin City Families First: Three Case Studies. Ruby and James: A Second Chance. Eleanor: Standing on My Own. Freda: The Value of Family. Child and Family Studies Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WestEd, San Francisco, CA.

    Marin City is an isolated African American community located in mostly affluent Marin County, California. Thirty-six percent of households in Marin City fall below the poverty line. This report provides three case studies from the Marin City Families First (MCFF) program, an intervention that aims to develop a model comprehensive child and family…

  8. Are There Racial Ethnic Differences in Indigent, Inner-City Clients With Dual-Diagnosis?

    PubMed Central

    Nejtek, Vicki A.; Kaiser, Kathryn; Vo, Hoa; Hilburn, Craig; Lea, Jemila; Vishwanatha, Jamboor

    2011-01-01

    Objective An exploratory, cross-sectional study examined personal, clinical, and treatment characteristics among non-Hispanic Caucasian, non-Hispanic African American, and Hispanic indigent, inner-city clients with co-occurring disorders. Methods Men and women, 20-50 years old who met DSM-IV criteria for concurrent mood and substance use disorders were eligible. Inpatients, persons in detoxification programs, or incarcerated inmates were excluded. Assessments covered sociodemographic characteristics, clinical diagnoses, substance use, psychosocial variables, health care utilization and treatment history. Results Two hundred volunteers were screened, and 145 were eligible to enroll. Racial ethnic group differences in the distribution of mood and substance use disorders and medical diseases were evident. Receiving psychiatric treatment and psychiatric medications significantly differed among racial ethnic groups with Caucasians more likely to receive these services than African Americans or Hispanics. African Americans and Hispanics were also more likely than Caucasians to test positive for their drug of choice and for other drugs as well. Serious medical illnesses were evident in about half of the sample, and the distributions of these illnesses significantly differed among racial ethnic groups. There were no significant differences in hospitalization or emergency room visits among racial ethnic groups. Conclusions Indigent, inner-city clients have multiple psychiatric and medical problems that warrant continuity of care. However, few doctor's visits for medical illnesses, lack of psychotropic medications, staggering unemployment, and homelessness were common in our sample. These results present healthcare and social service professionals with potentially serious treatment challenges. Better recognition and understanding of racial ethnic needs in those with co-occurring disorders are needed. PMID:22058662

  9. English as an African Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desai, Gaurav

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the role of the English language in postcolonial African literature, focusing on the politics of language, "Africanized" English, and the social languages used in Chinua Achebe's novels and concludes that English today is as much an African language as a British or American one. (Contains 37 references.) (MDM)

  10. The Struggles over African Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maseko, Pam; Vale, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this interview, African Language expert Pam Maseko speaks of her own background and her first encounter with culture outside of her mother tongue, isiXhosa. A statistical breakdown of South African languages is provided as background. She discusses Western (originally missionary) codification of African languages and suggests that this approach…

  11. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  12. "How can I tell?" Consequences of HIV status disclosure among couples in eastern African communities in the context of an ongoing HIV "test-and-treat" trial.

    PubMed

    Maeri, Irene; El Ayadi, Alison; Getahun, Monica; Charlebois, Edwin; Akatukwasa, Cecilia; Tumwebaze, Dennis; Itiakorit, Harriet; Owino, Lawrence; Kwarisiima, Dalsone; Ssemmondo, Emmanuel; Sang, Norton; Kabami, Jane; Clark, Tamara D; Petersen, Maya; Cohen, Craig R; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Kamya, Moses; Havlir, Diane; Camlin, Carol S

    2016-01-01

    People living with HIV/AIDS anticipate HIV-related stigma and fear disclosure to intimate partners. Yet, disclosure is critical to reducing HIV transmission and improving care engagement. This qualitative study characterized HIV disclosure experiences and normative beliefs among couples in communities participating in an HIV test-and-treat trial in Kenya and Uganda (Sustainable East Africa Research in Community Health, NCT#01864603). In-depth interviews were conducted with care providers (n = 50), leaders (n = 32) and members (n = 112) of eight communities. Data were analyzed using grounded theoretical approaches and Atlas.ti software. Findings confirmed gender differences in barriers to disclosure: while both men and women feared blame and accusation, women also feared violence and abandonment ("I did not tell my husband because [what if] I tell him and he abandons me at the last moment when I am in labor?"). Positive consequences included partner support for increased care-seeking and adherence ("My husband keeps on reminding me 'have you taken those drugs?'") Yet negative consequences included partnership dissolution, blame, and reports of violence ("some men beat their wives just because of that [bringing HIV medications home]"). Among HIV-infected individuals in discordant relationships, men more often reported supportive spouses ("we normally share [HIV-risk-reduction strategies] since I have been infected and she is HIV negative"), than did women ("my husband refused to use condoms and even threatened to marry another wife"). Care providers lent support for HIV-positive women who wanted to engage partners in testing but feared negative consequences: "They engaged the two of us in a session and asked him if we could all test." Findings demonstrate differing experiences and support needs of women and men living with HIV in eastern Africa, with HIV-positive women in discordant couples particularly vulnerable to negative consequences of disclosure

  13. Results of baseline tests of the EVA Metro sedan, Citi-car, Jet Industries Electra-van, CDA town car, and Otis P-500 van

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, F. J.; Bozek, J. M.; Soltis, R. F.

    1976-01-01

    Five electric vehicles were tested at vehicle test tracks using the SAE. The tests provide range data at steady speeds and for several driving cycles. Most tests were conducted with lead-acid traction batteries. The Otis Van and the Copper Electric Town Car were also tested with lead-acid and nickel-zinc batteries. The tests showed a range increase of from 82 to 101 percent depending on vehicle, speed, and test cycle.

  14. The gamma-interferon test: its usefulness in a bovine tuberculosis survey in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) in the Kruger National Park.

    PubMed

    Grobler, D G; Michel, Anita L; De Klerk, Lin-Mari; Bengis, R G

    2002-09-01

    A survey to determine the bovine tuberculosis status of buffalo herds north of the Olifants River in the Kruger National Park was conducted, using a new diagnostic approach. Diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection was accomplished using the gamma-interferon assay technique in 608 adult buffaloes out of a total of 29 discreet herds. The animals were immobilized in groups of 10-15, bled, individually marked and then revived and released on site. As soon as test results were available (after 26-36 h), the same buffalo herd was relocated by tracking the frequency of a radio-collar previously fitted to one adult cow per group during the initial operation. Bovine reactors were identified, darted and euthanased from the helicopter. Necropsy and culture findings of all culled buffaloes showed excellent correlation with the results of the ante-mortem gamma-interferon test. The survey revealed that over and above the two positive herds that had been identified during a previous survey carried out in 1996, there were three additional, but previously unidentified, infected herds in the region north of the Olifants River.

  15. The Genetic Structure and History of Africans and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Tishkoff, Sarah A.; Reed, Floyd A.; Friedlaender, Françoise R.; Ehret, Christopher; Ranciaro, Alessia; Froment, Alain; Hirbo, Jibril B.; Awomoyi, Agnes A.; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Juma, Abdalla T.; Kotze, Maritha J.; Lema, Godfrey; Moore, Jason H.; Mortensen, Holly; Nyambo, Thomas B.; Omar, Sabah A.; Powell, Kweli; Pretorius, Gideon S.; Smith, Michael W.; Thera, Mahamadou A.; Wambebe, Charles; Weber, James L.; Williams, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    Africa is the source of all modern humans, but characterization of genetic variation and of relationships among populations across the continent has been enigmatic. We studied 121 African populations, four African American populations, and 60 non-African populations for patterns of variation at 1327 nuclear microsatellite and insertion/deletion markers. We identified 14 ancestral population clusters in Africa that correlate with self-described ethnicity and shared cultural and/or linguistic properties. We observed high levels of mixed ancestry in most populations, reflecting historical migration events across the continent. Our data also provide evidence for shared ancestry among geographically diverse hunter-gatherer populations (Khoesan speakers and Pygmies). The ancestry of African Americans is predominantly from Niger-Kordofanian (~71%), European (~13%), and other African (~8%) populations, although admixture levels varied considerably among individuals. This study helps tease apart the complex evolutionary history of Africans and African Americans, aiding both anthropological and genetic epidemiologic studies. PMID:19407144

  16. Climate change induced risk analysis of Dar es Salaam city (Tanzania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topa, Maria Elena; Herslund, Lise; Cavan, Gina; Printz, Andreas; Simonis, Ingo; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Hellevik, Siri; Johns, Regina; Kibassa, Deusdedit; Kweka, Clara; Magina, Fredrick; Mangula, Alpha; Mbuya, Elinorata; Uhinga, Guido; Kassenga, Gabriel; Kyessi, Alphonce; Shemdoe, Riziki; Kombe, Wilbard

    2013-04-01

    CLUVA (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa; http://www.cluva.eu/) is a 3 years project, funded by the European Commission in 2010. The main objective of CLUVA is to develop context-centered methods and knowledge to be applied to African cities to assess vulnerabilities and increase knowledge on managing climate related risks. The project estimates the impacts of climate changes in the next 40 years at urban scale and downscales IPCC climate projections to evaluate specific threats to selected African test cities. These are mainly from floods, sea-level rise, droughts, heat waves, and desertification. The project evaluates and links: social vulnerability; urban green structures and ecosystem services; urban-rural interfaces; vulnerability of urban built environment and lifelines; and related institutional and governance dimensions of adaptation. The multi-scale and multi-disciplinary qualitative, quantitative and probabilistic approach of CLUVA is currently being applied to selected African test cities (Addis Ababa - Ethiopia; Dar es Salaam - Tanzania; Douala - Cameroun; Ouagadougou - Burkina Faso; St. Louis - Senegal). In particular, the poster will present preliminary findings for the Dar es Salaam case study. Dar es Salaam, which is Tanzania's largest coastal city, is exposed to floods, coastal erosion, droughts and heat waves, and highly vulnerable to impacts as a result of ineffective urban planning (about 70% unplanned settlements), poverty and lack of basic infrastructure (e.g. lack of or poor quality storm water drainage systems). Climate change could exacerbate the current situation increasing hazard-exposure alongside the impacts of development pressures which act to increase urban vulnerability for example because of informal (unregulated) urbanization. The CLUVA research team - composed of climate and environmental scientists, risk management experts, urban planners and social scientists from both European and African institutions - has

  17. Where Do Female Sex Workers Seek HIV and Reproductive Health Care and What Motivates These Choices? A Survey in 4 Cities in India, Kenya, Mozambique and South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Lafort, Yves; Greener, Ross; Roy, Anuradha; Greener, Letitia; Ombidi, Wilkister; Lessitala, Faustino; Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan; Beksinska, Mags; Gichangi, Peter; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Smit, Jenni A.; Chersich, Matthew; Delva, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Background A baseline cross-sectional survey among female sex workers (FSWs) was conducted in four cities within the context of an implementation research project aiming to improve FSWs’ access to HIV, and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services. The survey measured where FSWs seek HIV/SRH care and what motivates their choice. Methods Using respondent-driven sampling (RDS), FWSs were recruited in Durban, South Africa (n = 400), Tete, Mozambique (n = 308), Mombasa, Kenya (n = 400) and Mysore, India (n = 458) and interviewed. RDS-adjusted proportions were estimated by non-parametric bootstrapping, and compared across cities using post-hoc pairwise comparison tests. Results Across cities, FSWs most commonly sought care for the majority of HIV/SRH services at public health facilities, most especially in Durban (ranging from 65% for condoms to 97% for HIV care). Services specifically targeting FSWs only had a high coverage in Mysore for STI care (89%) and HIV testing (79%). Private-for-profit clinics were important providers in Mombasa (ranging from 17% for STI care and HIV testing to 43% for HIV care), but not in the other cities. The most important reason for the choice of care provider in Durban and Mombasa was proximity, in Tete ‘where they always go’, and in Mysore cost of care. Where available, clinics specifically targeting FSWs were more often chosen because of shorter waiting times, perceived higher quality of care, more privacy and friendlier personnel. Conclusion The place where care is sought for HIV/SRH services differs substantially between cities. Targeted services have limited coverage in the African cities compared to Mysore. Convenience appears more important for choosing the place of care than aspects of quality of care. The best model to improve access, linking targeted interventions with general health services, will need to be tailored to the specific context of each city. PMID:27494412

  18. Gender as a Moderator of the Relation between Race-Related Stress and Mental Health Symptoms for African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Tawanda M.; Laseter, Adrian; Asiamah, David

    2009-01-01

    The present study tested gender as a moderator of the relationship between race-related stress and mental health symptoms among African American adults. Because African American women are exposed to stressors associated with race and gender, we hypothesized that African American women would have higher levels of race-related stress and more severe…

  19. Pathways and Predictors of Antisocial Behaviors in African American Adolescents from Poor Neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Park, Nan S.; Lee, Beom S.; Sun, Fei; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.; Bolland, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Antisocial behavior among youth remains a serious personal and social problem in the United States. The purposes of this study were to (1) identify the shape and number of developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior in a sample of poor, inner-city African American youth, and (2) test predictors of group membership and the developmental course of antisocial behaviors. Using growth mixture modeling, we examined predictors of antisocial behavior pathways and the likelihood of arrest in a sample of 566 poor, urban African American adolescents (ages 11 to 16). Three distinct trajectory classes of antisocial behavior were identified over a period of six years: one low-risk group (low steady) and two high-risk groups (incremental and high starter). The conditional probabilities for being arrested during ages 14-16 were 0.18 for the low steady class, 0.68 for the incremental class, and 0.31 for high starter class. Prevention strategies for adolescents at high risk are discussed. PMID:20161497

  20. The Other African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matory, J. Lorand

    Black North America is ethnically and culturally diverse. It contains many groups who do not call themselves or have not always called themselves "Negro,""Black,""African-American," and so forth, such as Louisiana Creoles of color and many of the Indian tribes east of the Mississippi. There are also numerous North American ethnic groups of African…

  1. African Oral Tradition Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Doris

    1985-01-01

    Presents the basic principles of two systems for notating African music and dance: Labanotation (created to record and analyze movements) and Greenotation (created to notate musical instruments of Africa and to parallel Labanotation whereby both music and dance are incorporated into one integrated score). (KH)

  2. Elective: African Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Kenneth V.

    The make-up of a course in African literature for high school students is discussed. It is pointed out that the course can be constructed on already familiar lines. High school students will be able to describe clearly, for example, the relationship between environment and character or the dilemma of characters caught between traditional values…

  3. When an African city runs out of fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Chauvin, H.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the wood-based energy requirements (mainly for cooking) of Ouagadougou, capital of Upper Volta. Locally-available forest resources are disappearing fast. The possibilities are explored of importing charcoal from the Ivory Coast and of creating more fuelwood plantations locally. (Refs. 20).

  4. Limitations in the use of indices using glucose and insulin levels to predict insulin sensitivity: impact of race and gender and superiority of the indices derived from oral glucose tolerance test in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Pisprasert, Veeradej; Ingram, Katherine H; Lopez-Davila, Maria F; Munoz, A Julian; Garvey, W Timothy

    2013-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the utility of commonly used insulin sensitivity indices in nondiabetic European Americans (EAs) and African Americans (AAs). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Two-hundred forty nondiabetic participants were studied. Euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp was the gold standard approach to assess glucose disposal rates (GDR) normalized by lean body mass. The homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were calculated from fasting plasma glucose and insulin (FIL). Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed to determine Matsuda index, the simple index assessing insulin sensitivity (SI(is)OGTT), Avignon index, and Stomvoll index. Relationships among these indices with GDR were analyzed by multiple regression. RESULTS GDR values were similar in EA and AA subgroups; even so, AA exhibited higher FIL and were insulin-resistant compared with EA, as assessed by HOMA-IR, QUICKI, Matsuda index, SI(is)OGTT, Avignon index, and Stumvoll index. In the overall study population, GDR was significantly correlated with all studied insulin sensitivity indices (/r/ = 0.381-0.513); however, these indices were not superior to FIL in predicting GDR. Race and gender affected the strength of this relationship. In AA males, FIL and HOMA-IR were not correlated with GDR. In contrast, Matsuda index and SI(is)OGTT were significantly correlated with GDR in AA males, and Matsuda index was superior to HOMA-IR and QUICKI in AAs overall. CONCLUSIONS Insulin sensitivity indices based on glucose and insulin levels should be used cautiously as measures of peripheral insulin sensitivity when comparing mixed gender and mixed race populations. Matsuda index and SI(is)OGTT are reliable in studies that include AA males.

  5. The Relationship between African Traditional Cosmology and Students' Acquisition of a Science Process Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jegede, Olugbemiro J.; Okebukola, Peter Akinsola

    1991-01-01

    The supposition that observational skills can be influenced by students' belief in traditional African cosmology, beliefs, and superstitions was investigated. Students with a high level of belief in African traditional cosmology made fewer correct observations on the Traditional Cosmology Test (TCT) and the Test of Observational Skills (TOS) as…

  6. Stereotype Threat Effects on African American Children in an Urban Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserberg, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether a diagnostic testing condition leads to stereotype threat effects for African American children (n = 198) at an urban elementary school. Results indicated that presenting a reading test as diagnostic of abilities hindered the performance of African American children aware of racial stereotypes but not of those…

  7. Transforming New York City's Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholomew, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    In 2002, Michael Bloomberg, New York City's newly elected mayor, hoped to fix his city's public schools, which were widely perceived as plagued by a gamut of problems that ranged from low test scores to patronage-riddled schools and districts. A special bill approved by the New York State Legislature made Bloomberg solely accountable to the New…

  8. A School Voucher Program for Baltimore City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lips, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Baltimore City's public school system is in crisis. Academically, the school system fails on any number of measures. The city's graduation rate is barely above 50 percent and students continually lag well behind state averages on standardized tests. Adding to these problems is the school system's current fiscal crisis, created by years of fiscal…

  9. Will "Combined Prevention" Eliminate Racial/Ethnic Disparities in HIV Infection among Persons Who Inject Drugs in New York City?

    PubMed

    Des Jarlais, Don; Arasteh, Kamyar; McKnight, Courtney; Feelemyer, Jonathan; Hagan, Holly; Cooper, Hannah; Campbell, Aimee; Tross, Susan; Perlman, David

    2015-01-01

    It has not been determined whether implementation of combined prevention programming for persons who inject drugs reduce racial/ethnic disparities in HIV infection. We examine racial/ethnic disparities in New York City among persons who inject drugs after implementation of the New York City Condom Social Marketing Program in 2007. Quantitative interviews and HIV testing were conducted among persons who inject drugs entering Mount Sinai Beth Israel drug treatment (2007-2014). 703 persons who inject drugs who began injecting after implementation of large-scale syringe exchange were included in the analyses. Factors independently associated with being HIV seropositive were identified and a published model was used to estimate HIV infections due to sexual transmission. Overall HIV prevalence was 4%; Whites 1%, African-Americans 17%, and Hispanics 4%. Adjusted odds ratios were 21.0 (95% CI 5.7, 77.5) for African-Americans to Whites and 4.5 (95% CI 1.3, 16.3) for Hispanics to Whites. There was an overall significant trend towards reduced HIV prevalence over time (adjusted odd ratio = 0.7 per year, 95% confidence interval (0.6-0.8). An estimated 75% or more of the HIV infections were due to sexual transmission. Racial/ethnic disparities among persons who inject drugs were not significantly different from previous disparities. Reducing these persistent disparities may require new interventions (treatment as prevention, pre-exposure prophylaxis) for all racial/ethnic groups.

  10. “It's The Skin You're In”: African-American Women Talk About Their Experiences of Racism. An Exploratory Study to Develop Measures of Racism for Birth Outcome Studies

    PubMed Central

    Nuru-Jeter, Amani; Dominguez, Tyan Parker; Hammond, Wizdom Powell; Leu, Janxin; Skaff, Marilyn; Egerter, Susan; Jones, Camara P.; Braveman, Paula

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Stress due to experiences of racism could contribute to African-American women's adverse birth outcomes, but systematic efforts to measure relevant experiences among childbearing women have been limited. We explored the racism experiences of childbearing African-American women to inform subsequent development of improved measures for birth outcomes research. Methods Six focus groups were conducted with a total of 40 socioeconomically diverse African-American women of childbearing age in four northern California cities. Results Women reported experiencing racism (1) throughout the lifecourse, with childhood experiences seeming particularly salient and to have especially enduring effects (2) directly and vicariously, particularly in relation to their children; (3) in interpersonal, institutional, and internalized forms; (4) across different life domains; (5) with active and passive responses; and (6) with pervasive vigilance, anticipating threats to themselves and their children. Conclusions This exploratory study's findings support the need for measures reflecting the complexity of childbearing African-American women's racism experiences. In addition to discrete, interpersonal experiences across multiple domains and active/passive responses, which have been measured, birth outcomes research should also measure women's childhood experiences and their potentially enduring impact, perceptions of institutionalized racism and internalized negative stereotypes, vicarious experiences related to their children, vigilance in anticipating future racism events, as well as the pervasiveness and chronicity of racism exposure, all of which could be sources of ongoing stress with potentially serious implications for birth outcomes. Measures of racism addressing these issues should be developed and formally tested. PMID:18463971

  11. Understanding traditional African healing

    PubMed Central

    MOKGOBI, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of traditional healers as well as the role of traditional healers in their communities are discussed. In conclusion, the services of traditional healers go far beyond the uses of herbs for physical illnesses. Traditional healers serve many roles which include but not limited to custodians of the traditional African religion and customs, educators about culture, counselors, social workers and psychologists. PMID:26594664

  12. Primary care for young African American men.

    PubMed

    Rich, J A

    2001-01-01

    Young African American men in the inner city have higher rates of mortality and morbidity from potentially preventable causes than other American men of the same age. They suffer disproportionately high rates of preventable illness from violence, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV infection. These young men present with problems related to sexual concerns, mental health issues, substance abuse, and violence. They also report substantial risk-taking behaviors, including unprotected sex, substance use, and weapon carrying, as well as exposure to violence. Access to and use of preventive primary care services has been limited for these patients in the past because of financial barriers and competing social issues. Racism and historical oppression have created barriers of mistrust for young men of color. Factors that contribute to their adverse health status, as well as ways to address these problems, are discussed.

  13. Human African trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Lejon, Veerle; Bentivoglio, Marina; Franco, José Ramon

    2013-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness is a neglected tropical disease that affects populations in sub-Saharan Africa. The disease is caused by infection with the gambiense and rhodesiense subspecies of the extracellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei, and is transmitted to humans by bites of infected tsetse flies. The disease evolves in two stages, the hemolymphatic and meningoencephalitic stages, the latter being defined by central nervous system infection after trypanosomal traversal of the blood-brain barrier. African trypanosomiasis, which leads to severe neuroinflammation, is fatal without treatment, but the available drugs are toxic and complicated to administer. The choice of medication is determined by the infecting parasite subspecies and disease stage. Clinical features include a constellation of nonspecific symptoms and signs with evolving neurological and psychiatric alterations and characteristic sleep-wake disturbances. Because of the clinical profile variability and insidiously progressive central nervous system involvement, disease staging is currently based on cerebrospinal fluid examination, which is usually performed after the finding of trypanosomes in blood or other body fluids. No vaccine being available, control of human African trypanosomiasis relies on diagnosis and treatment of infected patients, assisted by vector control. Better diagnostic tools and safer, easy to use drugs are needed to facilitate elimination of the disease.

  14. African horse sickness.

    PubMed

    Zientara, S; Weyer, C T; Lecollinet, S

    2015-08-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a devastating disease of equids caused by an arthropod-borne virus belonging to the Reoviridae family, genus Orbivirus. It is considered a major health threat for horses in endemic areas in sub-Saharan Africa. African horse sickness virus (AHSV) repeatedly caused large epizootics in the Mediterranean region (North Africa and southern Europe in particular) as a result of trade in infected equids. The unexpected emergence of a closely related virus, the bluetongue virus, in northern Europe in 2006 has raised fears about AHSV introduction into Europe, and more specifically into AHSV-free regions that have reported the presence of AHSV vectors, e.g. Culicoides midges. North African and European countries should be prepared to face AHSV incursions in the future, especially since two AHSV serotypes (serotypes 2 and 7) have recently spread northwards to western (e.g. Senegal, Nigeria, Gambia) and eastern Africa (Ethiopia), where historically only serotype 9 had been isolated. The authors review key elements of AHS epidemiology, surveillance and prophylaxis. PMID:26601437

  15. An African-American family with dystonia.

    PubMed

    Puschmann, Andreas; Xiao, Jianfeng; Bastian, Robert W; Searcy, Jill A; LeDoux, Mark S; Wszolek, Zbigniew K

    2011-08-01

    The genetic cause of late-onset focal and segmental dystonia remains unknown in most individuals. Recently, mutations in Thanatos-associated protein domain containing, apoptosis associated protein 1 (THAP1) have been described in DYT6 dystonia and associated with some cases of familial and sporadic late-onset dystonia in Caucasians. We are not aware of any previous descriptions of familial dystonia in African-Americans or reports of THAP1 mutations in African-Americans. Herein, we characterize an African-American (AA) kindred with late-onset primary dystonia, clinically and genetically. The clinical phenotype included cervical, laryngeal and hand-forearm dystonia. Symptoms were severe and disabling for several family members, whereas others only displayed mild signs. There were no accompanying motor or cognitive signs. In this kindred, age of onset ranged from 45 to 50 years and onset was frequently sudden, with symptoms developing within weeks or months. DYT1 was excluded as the cause of dystonia in this kindred. The entire genomic region of THAP1, including non-coding regions, was sequenced. We identified 13 sequence variants in THAP1, although none co-segregated with dystonia. A novel THAP1 variant (c.-237-3G>T/A) was found in 3/84 AA dystonia patient alleles and 3/212 AA control alleles, but not in 5870 Caucasian alleles. In summary, although previously unreported, familial primary dystonia does occur in African-Americans. Genetic analysis of the entire genomic region of THAP1 revealed a novel variant that was specific for African-Americans. Therefore, genetic testing for dystonia and future studies of candidate genes must take genetic background into consideration. PMID:21601506

  16. An African-American Family with Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Puschmann, Andreas; Xiao, Jianfeng; Bastian, Robert W.; Searcy, Jill A.; LeDoux, Mark S.; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.

    2011-01-01

    The genetic cause of late-onset focal and segmental dystonia remains unknown in most individuals. Recently, mutations in Thanatos-associated protein domain containing, apoptosis associated protein 1 (THAP1) have been described in DYT6 dystonia and associated with some cases of familial and sporadic late-onset dystonia in Caucasians. We are not aware of any previous descriptions of familial dystonia in African Americans or reports of THAP1 mutations in African Americans. Herein, we characterize an African-American (AA) kindred with late-onset primary dystonia, clinically and genetically. The clinical phenotype included cervical, laryngeal and hand-forearm dystonia. Symptoms were severe and disabling for several family members, whereas others only displayed mild signs. There were no accompanying motor or cognitive signs. In this kindred, age of onset ranged from 45 to 50 years and onset was frequently sudden, with symptoms developing within weeks or months. DYT1 was excluded as the cause of dystonia in this kindred. The entire genomic region of THAP1, including non-coding regions, was sequenced. We identified 13 sequence variants in THAP1, although none co-segregated with dystonia. A novel THAP1 variant (c.-237-3G>T/A) was found in 3/84 AA dystonia patient alleles and 3/212 AA control alleles, but not in 5,870 Caucasian alleles. In summary, although previously unreported, familial primary dystonia does occur in African Americans. Genetic analysis of the entire genomic region of THAP1 revealed a novel variant that was specific for African Americans. Therefore, genetic testing for dystonia and future studies of candidate genes must take genetic background into consideration. PMID:21601506

  17. Toddler Feeding: Expectations and Experiences of Low-Income African American Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horodynski, Mildred A.; Brophy-Herb, Holly; Henry, Michelle; Smith, Katharine A.; Weatherspoon, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain maternal expectations and experiences with mealtimes and feeding of toddlers among low-income African American mothers in two mid- to large-size cities in the United States. Design: Qualitative focus group study. Setting: Two Early Head Start programme sites in a Midwestern state which serve low income families. Method:…

  18. Being There in Spirit, Fire, and Mind: Expressive Roles among Nonresidential African American Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Wizdom Powell; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Brooks, Cassandra; Bell, Lee

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This exploratory qualitative study examined factors contributing to expressive father role negotiation, salience, and commitment in a sample of nonresidential African American fathers (n = 18). Method: Two focus groups were conducted between 2000 and 2001 in a Midwestern city to understand factors that strengthen and diminish bonds…

  19. The Role of Community in Meeting the Needs of African-American HIV Affected Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Sally

    2002-01-01

    Assessed the service needs of HIV-affected families in an inner city African American community with a high HIV/AIDS seroprevalence. Data from focus group interviews indicated a lack of family-sensitive HIV/AIDS community services. Participants noted the problem with stigma and identified community awareness and education as critical to serving…

  20. Literacy and Identity: Reflections of Six African American Males in an Adult Literacy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drayton, Brendaly Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This multiple case study explored how the literate experiences of six African American men influenced their perceptions of and engagement with a community-based adult basic education and literacy (ABEL) program in a large northeastern city. The theoretical framework included a social practices view of literacy and a constructivist view of…

  1. Threatened and Placed at Risk: High Achieving African American Males in Urban High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Ebony O.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the risk and protective factors of 11 high-achieving African American males attending 4 urban charter high schools in a Midwestern city to determine what factors account for their resilience and success in mathematics courses, and in high school more generally. This research was guided by a Phenomenological Variant of…

  2. Reversing the Demise and Preventing the Apocalypse: Using Alternative Programs To Help African American Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Walter

    1995-01-01

    Describes the Agriculture-Science Project, a program designed for inner-city African-American males to improve science grades, increase awareness of good health/safety practices, and increase awareness of science/health careers. Notes summer program results revealing significant differences in educational climate between summer and regular school,…

  3. Political Mothering: Latina and African American Mothers in the Struggle for Educational Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuentes, Emma

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the process and impact of women organizing for educational justice in Northern California by documenting the efforts of a committed group of mothers who sought to address the disproportionate underachievement of Latino and African American students within their city's high school. Using a combined methodology of…

  4. Poverty and Depressed Mood among Urban African-American Adolescents: A Family Stress Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammack, Phillip L.; Robinson, W. LaVome; Crawford, Isiaah; Li, Susan T.

    2004-01-01

    We examined the role of family stress as a mediator of the relationship between poverty and depressed mood among 1,704 low-income, inner-city African-American adolescents. Nearly half of participants (47%) reported clinically significant levels of depressive symptoms. Being female, reporting higher levels of family stress, and scoring higher on a…

  5. Relative Spousal Earnings and Marital Happiness among African American and White Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furdyna, Holly E.; Tucker, M. Belinda; James, Angela D.

    2008-01-01

    The distinctive economic histories of African American and White wives suggest that involvement in household income production holds contextually situated unique meanings for these groups. Yet research has not addressed racial differences in the effects of relative earnings on marital well-being. Surveying 431 employed wives in 21 U.S. cities, we…

  6. Shooting for Excellence: African American and Youth Culture in New Century Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahiri, Jabari

    Two African American teachers teach English in the same inner-city high school. One teacher is successful--her students read, interact, and strive for success. The other teacher's students are frequently disruptive or are asleep. This book probes deep into the causes of classroom success and failure, as well as other issues that affect American…

  7. Developing a Cancer Prevention Programme for African-American Daughters and Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annang, Lucy; Spencer, S. Melinda; Jackson, Dawnyéa; Rosemond, Tiara N.; Best, Alicia L.; Williams, Leah R.; Carlos, Bethany

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe how nominal group technique was used to inform the development of a breast and cervical cancer awareness programme for African-American adult daughters and mothers. Design: A qualitative approach using nominal group technique. Setting: A mid-sized city in the Southern USA. Method: Nominal group technique was used with 30…

  8. Screening for Depression in African American Churches

    PubMed Central

    Hankerson, Sidney H.; Lee, Young A; Brawley, David K.; Braswell, Kenneth; Wickramaratne, Priya J.; Weissman, Myrna M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Substantial racial/ethnic disparities exist in the identification and management of major depression.1 Faith-Based Health Promotion interventions reduce disparities in health screenings for numerous medical conditions.2 However, the feasibility of systematically screening for depression in faith-based settings has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of using a validated instrument to screen for depression in African American churches. Methods Participants were recruited between October and November 2012 at three predominantly African American churches in New York City. A participatory research approach was used to determine screening days. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was administered to 122 participants. Positive depression screen was defined as a PHQ-9 score ≥10. Descriptive statistics were used to report sample characteristics, prevalence of participants who screened positive, and history of help seeking. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the association of positive depression screen and sociodemographic characteristics. Initial analyses were conducted in 2013, with additional analyses in 2014. Results The prevalence estimate for positive depression screen was 19.7%. More men (22.5%) screened positive than women (17.7%). Total household income was inversely related to positive depression screen. A similar percentage of respondents had previously sought help from primary care providers as from clergy. Conclusions It was feasible to screen for depression with the PHQ-9 in African American churches. The prevalence of positive depression screen was high, especially among black men. Churches may be an important setting in which to identify depressive symptoms in this underserved population. PMID:26232907

  9. East African Rift Valley, Kenya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This rare, cloud free view of the East African Rift Valley, Kenya (1.5N, 35.5E) shows a clear view of the Turkwell River Valley, an offshoot of the African REift System. The East African Rift is part of a vast plate fracture which extends from southern Turkey, through the Red Sea, East Africa and into Mozambique. Dark green patches of forests are seen along the rift margin and tea plantations occupy the cooler higher ground.

  10. Correlates of African American Men's Sexual Schemas

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Dawn A.; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; St. Lawrence, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Sexual schemas are cognitive representations of oneself as a sexual being and aid in the processing of sexually relevant information. We examined the relationship between sociosexuality (attitudes about casual sex), masculine ideology (attitudes toward traditional men and male roles), and cultural centrality (strength of identity with racial group) as significant psychosocial and sociocultural predictors in shaping young, heterosexual African American men's sexual schemas. A community sample (n=133) of men in a southeastern city of the United States completed quantitative self-report measures examining their attitudes and behavior related to casual sex, beliefs about masculinity, racial and cultural identity, and self-views of various sexual aspects of themselves. Results indicated that masculine ideology and cultural centrality were both positively related to men's sexual schemas. Cultural centrality explained 12 % of the variance in level of sexual schema, and had the strongest correlation of the predictor variables with sexual schema (r=.36). The need for more attention to the bidirectional relationships between masculinity, racial/cultural identity, and sexual schemas in prevention, intervention, and public health efforts for African American men is discussed. PMID:24031118

  11. Telephone Surveys Underestimate Cigarette Smoking among African-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Landrine, Hope; Corral, Irma; Simms, Denise Adams; Roesch, Scott C.; Pichon, Latrice C.; Ake, Diane; Villodas, Feion

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study tested the hypothesis that data from random digit-dial telephone surveys underestimate the prevalence of cigarette smoking among African-American adults. Method: A novel, community-sampling method was used to obtain a statewide, random sample of N = 2118 California (CA) African-American/Black adults, surveyed door-to-door. This Black community sample was compared to the Blacks in the CA Health Interview Survey (N = 2315), a statewide, random digit-dial telephone survey conducted simultaneously. Results: Smoking prevalence was significantly higher among community (33%) than among telephone survey (19%) Blacks, even after controlling for sample differences in demographics. Conclusion: Telephone surveys underestimate smoking among African-Americans and probably underestimate other health risk behaviors as well. Alternative methods are needed to obtain accurate data on African-American health behaviors and on the magnitude of racial disparities in them. PMID:24350205

  12. African Genetic Ancestry is Associated with Sleep Depth in Older African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Indrani; Matthews, Karen A.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Strollo, Patrick J.; Causer, Victoria; Reis, Steven E.; Hall, Martica H.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: The mechanisms that underlie differences in sleep characteristics between European Americans (EA) and African Americans (AA) are not fully known. Although social and psychological processes that differ by race are possible mediators, the substantial heritability of sleep characteristics also suggests genetic underpinnings of race differences. We hypothesized that racial differences in sleep phenotypes would show an association with objectively measured individual genetic ancestry in AAs. Design: Cross sectional. Setting: Community-based study. Participants: Seventy AA adults (mean age 59.5 ± 6.7 y; 62% female) and 101 EAs (mean age 60.5 ± 7 y, 39% female). Measurements and Results: Multivariate tests were used to compare the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and in-home polysomnographic measures of sleep duration, sleep efficiency, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), and indices of sleep depth including percent visually scored slow wave sleep (SWS) and delta EEG power of EAs and AAs. Sleep duration, efficiency, and sleep depth differed significantly by race. Individual % African ancestry (%AF) was measured in AA subjects using a panel of 1698 ancestry informative genetic markers and ranged from 10% to 88% (mean 67%). Hierarchical linear regression showed that higher %AF was associated with lower percent SWS in AAs (β (standard error) = −4.6 (1.5); P = 0.002), and explained 11% of the variation in SWS after covariate adjustment. A similar association was observed for delta power. No association was observed for sleep duration and efficiency. Conclusion: African genetic ancestry is associated with indices of sleep depth in African Americans. Such an association suggests that part of the racial differences in slow-wave sleep may have genetic underpinnings. Citation: Halder I, Matthews KA, Buysse DJ, Strollo PJ, Causer V, Reis SE, Hall MH. African genetic ancestry is associated with sleep depth in older African Americans. SLEEP 2015;38(8):1185–1193

  13. Health Care Experiences and Perceived Barriers to Health Care Access: A Qualitative Study Among African Migrants in Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Katherine B.; Yu, Fan; Yang, Jingqi; Wang, Jason; Schrock, Joshua M.; Bodomo, Adams B.; Yang, Ligang; Yang, Bin; Nehl, Eric J.; Tucker, Joseph D.; Wong, Frank Y.

    2014-01-01

    Guangzhou, one of China's largest cities and a main trading port in South China, has attracted many African businessmen and traders migrating to the city for financial gains. Previous research has explored the cultural and economic roles of this newly emerging population; however, little is known about their health care experiences while in China. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were used to assess health care experiences and perceived barriers to health care access among African migrants in Guangzhou, China. Overall, African migrants experienced various barriers to accessing health care and were dissatisfied with local health services. The principal barriers to care reported included affordability, legal issues, language barriers, and cultural differences. Facing multiple barriers, African migrants have limited access to care in Guangzhou. Local health settings are not accustomed to the African migrant population, suggesting that providing linguistically and culturally appropriate services may improve access to care for the migrants. PMID:25294415

  14. Environment, Health and Climate: Impact of African aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liousse, C.; Doumbia, T.; Assamoi, E.; Galy-Lacaux, C.; Baeza, A.; Penner, J. E.; Val, S.; Cachier, H.; Xu, L.; Criqui, P.

    2012-12-01

    Fossil fuel and biofuel emissions of particles in Africa are expected to significantly increase in the near future, particularly due to rapid growth of African cities. In addition to biomass burning emissions prevailing in these areas, air quality degradation is then expected with important consequences on population health and climatic/radiative impact. In our group, we are constructing a new integrated methodology to study the relations between emissions, air quality and their impacts. This approach includes: (1) African combustion emission characterizations; (2) joint experimental determination of aerosol chemistry from ultrafine to coarse fractions and health issues (toxicology and epidemiology). (3) integrated environmental, health and radiative modeling. In this work, we show some results illustrating our first estimates of African anthropogenic emission impacts: - a new African anthropogenic emission inventory adapted to regional specificities on traffic, biofuel and industrial emissions has been constructed for the years 2005 and 2030. Biomass burning inventories were also improved in the frame of AMMA (African Monsoon) program. - carbonaceous aerosol radiative impact in Africa has been modeled with TM5 model and Penner et al. (2011) radiative code for these inventories for 2005 and 2030 and for two scenarios of emissions : a reference scenario, with no further emission controls beyond those achieved in 2003 and a ccc* scenario including planned policies in Kyoto protocol and regulations as applied to African emission specificities. In this study we will show that enhanced heating is expected with the ccc* scenarios emissions in which the OC fraction is relatively lower than in the reference scenario. - results of short term POLCA intensive campaigns in Bamako and Dakar in terms of aerosol chemical characterization linked to specific emissions sources and their inflammatory impacts on the respiratory tract through in vitro studies. In this study, organic

  15. A Structural Equation Model of HIV-Related Stigma, Racial Discrimination, Housing Insecurity and Wellbeing among African and Caribbean Black Women Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Logie, Carmen H.; Jenkinson, Jesse I. R.; Earnshaw, Valerie; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona R.

    2016-01-01

    African and Caribbean Black women in Canada have new HIV infection rates 7 times higher than their white counterparts. This overrepresentation is situated in structural contexts of inequities that result in social, economic and health disparities among African and Caribbean Black populations. Economic insecurity is a distal driver of HIV vulnerability, reducing access to HIV testing, prevention and care. Less is known about how economic insecurity indicators, such as housing security, continue to influence the lives of women living with HIV following HIV-positive diagnoses. The aim of this study was to test a conceptual model of the pathways linking HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, housing insecurity, and wellbeing (depression, social support, self-rated health). We implemented a cross-sectional survey with African and Caribbean Black women living with HIV in 5 Ontario cities, and included 157 participants with complete data in the analyses. We conducted structural equation modeling using maximum likelihood estimation to evaluate the hypothesized conceptual model. One-fifth (22.5%; n = 39) of participants reported housing insecurity. As hypothesized, racial discrimination had significant direct effects on: HIV-related stigma, depression and social support, and an indirect effect on self-rated health via HIV-related stigma. HIV-related stigma and housing insecurity had direct effects on depression and social support, and HIV-related stigma had a direct effect on self-rated health. The model fit the data well: χ2 (45, n = 154) = 54.28, p = 0.387; CFI = 0.997; TLI = 0.996; RMSEA = 0.016. Findings highlight the need to address housing insecurity and intersecting forms of stigma and discrimination among African and Caribbean Black women living with HIV. Understanding the complex relationships between housing insecurity, HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, and wellbeing can inform multi-level interventions to reduce stigma and enhance health. PMID

  16. Risk factors associated with the presence of positive reactions in the SCCIT test in water buffalo around two cities in Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Javed, M Tariq; Shahid, A Latif; Farooqi, Farooq A; Akhtar, M; Cardenas, Gabriel A; Wasiq, M; Cagiola, Monica

    2010-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to find out the association of certain risk factors with the positive SCCIT (single comparative cervical intradermal tuberculin) test in water buffaloes at Faisalabad and Okara, Pakistan. Seventy-six herds (697 buffaloes) at Faisalabad and 56 (395 buffaloes) at Okara were included in the study. The buffaloes were screened through SCCIT Test. Positive reaction to SCCIT test was recorded in 14% of herds and in 3% of buffaloes. The herds positive for this test were 18% when herds with less than 10 animals were excluded from the analysis and these were 19% when herds with less than 10 buffaloes were excluded. The results of logistic analysis (crude and adjusted) revealed the association of lactating status of buffaloes (OR=1.8) and the presence of cattle at the farm (OR=2-4) with positive SCCIT test. After controlling for the farm, the risk of a positive skin test was 1.5 times higher if we change the location of the animal. Similarly, the controlled analysis (for the farm, breed and other variables) revealed an increased risk (OR=1.1) of a positive skin test with the increase in cattle at the farm. The breed controlled stratified analysis showed the association of a number of cattle at the farm with a positive skin test. It can be concluded from the study that the prevalence of tuberculosis on the basis of a positive skin test is higher at herd level and lower at animal level. Further the risk of a positive skin test is higher when cattle are present at the farm.

  17. A Teacher's Guide to African Narratives. Studies in African Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Sara Talis

    This guide is designed to help secondary school teachers include African literature in their classes. It furnishes English and social studies teachers with a foundation for teaching African literature by offering critical commentary on the texts themselves. A synthesis of anthropological and historical material is presented to help both teachers…

  18. Social Environment and Sexual Risk-Taking among Gay and Transgender African American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Robin; Bernadini, Stephen; Jemmott, John B.

    2014-01-01

    More prevention effort is required as the HIV epidemic increases among gay and transgender African American youth. Using ecological systems theory and an integrative model of behaviour change, this study examines the sexual behaviour of gay and transgender African American young people as embedded within the unique social and structural environments affecting this population. Also examined is the important role played by mobile technology in the social and sexual lives of individuals. Seven focus groups were conducted with 54 African American young adults in a northeastern U.S. city. The findings provide a rich examination of the social and sexual lives of gay and transgender African American youth, focusing on the social environment and the impact of the environment on sexual risk behaviour. PMID:23889233

  19. Culturally Grounded Stress Reduction and Suicide Prevention for African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, W. LaVome; Case, Mary H.; Whipple, Christopher R.; Gooden, Adia S.; Lopez-Tamayo, Roberto; Lambert, Sharon F.; Jason, Leonard A.

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is an often-overlooked manifestation of violence among African American youth that has become more prevalent in the last two decades. This article reports on the process used to culturally adapt a cognitive-behavioral coping with stress prevention intervention for African American adolescents. We implemented this adapted school-based suicide prevention intervention with 758 African American 9th, 10th and 11th grade students at four high schools in a large Midwestern city. The findings presented are preliminary. The adolescents in this sample endorsed high levels of suicide risk, with females endorsing significantly more suicide risk than males. Those receiving the prevention intervention evidenced an 86% relative suicide risk reduction, compared to the standard care control participants. The presented model of adaptation and resulting culturally-grounded suicide prevention intervention significantly reduced suicide risk among African American adolescents. Clinical, research and policy implications are discussed. PMID:27517094

  20. Social environment and sexual risk-taking among gay and transgender African American youth.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Robin; Bernadini, Stephen; Jemmott, John B

    2013-01-01

    More prevention effort is required as the HIV epidemic increases among gay and transgender African American youth. Using ecological systems theory and an integrative model of behaviour change, this study examines the sexual behaviour of gay and transgender African American young people as embedded within the unique social and structural environments affecting this population. Also examined is the important role played by mobile technology in the social and sexual lives of individuals. Seven focus groups were conducted with 54 African American young adults in a northeastern US city. The findings provide a rich examination of the social and sexual lives of gay and transgender African American youth, focusing on the social environment and the impact of the environment on sexual-risk behaviour.

  1. Jerusalem: City of Dreams, City of Sorrows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricks, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Jerusalem is more than an intriguing global historical city; it is a classroom for liberal learning and international understanding. It had never been a city of one language, one religion and one culture. Looking at the origins of Jerusalem's name indicates its international and multicultural nature. While Israelis designate Jerusalem as their…

  2. A qualitative study of relationships among parenting strategies, social capital, the juvenile justice system, and mental health care for at-risk African American male youth.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Joseph B; Brakle, Mischelle Van

    2011-10-01

    For many poor, African American families living in the inner city, the juvenile justice system has become a de facto mental health service provider. In this article, longitudinal, ethnographic study methods were used to examine how resource-deprived, inner-city parents in a New York City community relied on the juvenile justice system to provide their African American male children with mental health care resources. The results of three case studies indicate that this strategy actually contributed to an escalation in delinquency among the youth. PMID:22067116

  3. What Is Clean Cities?

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-08-01

    This Clean Cities Program fact sheet describes the purpose and scope of this DOE program. Clean Cities facilitates the use of alternative and advanced fuels and vehicles to displace petroleum in the transportation sector.

  4. Knowledge about Inquiry: A study in South African high schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaigher, Estelle; Lederman, Norman; Lederman, Judith

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports a study on South African learners' knowledge about scientific inquiry using the Views About Scientific Inquiry (VASI) Questionnaire. The sample consisted of 105 grade 11 learners from 7 schools across the socio-economic spectrum in a South African city. A rubric for scoring the VASI Questionnaire was developed and refined during the process of coding and is presented. Results showed that the learners held more informed views than that reported in previous international studies, except for particularly naive views regarding multiple methods of investigation. The results are discussed in terms of the Revised National Curriculum Statement (RNCS) that was taught from 2003 to 2010 in South African schools. This curriculum was founded on outcomes-based principles, valuing process skills rather than content. The study found that examples provided in the RNCS document correspond closely to the aspects of inquiry as described by the National Research Council. It is argued that the RNCS contributed to the more informed views about inquiry found among South African learners in this study.

  5. Colonoscopy-specific fears in African Americans and Hispanics.

    PubMed

    Miller, Sarah J; Iztkowitz, Steven H; Redd, William H; Thompson, Hayley S; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis B; Jandorf, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Although fears of colonoscopy may deter African Americans and Hispanics from having a screening colonoscopy, little is known about these fears. This study examined the proportion of African Americans and Hispanics who experience colonoscopy-specific fears and identified factors associated with these fears. Data were collected at an academic hospital in New York City between 2008-2010. African Americans (N = 383) and Hispanics (N = 407) who received a recommendation for a screening colonoscopy completed a questionnaire that assessed: colonoscopy-specific fears, demographics, and psychological variables. Presence of colonoscopy-specific fears was endorsed by 79.5% of participants. Being female (p < 0.001), speaking English (p < 0.001), having greater perceived risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) (p < 0.01), greater worry about risk of CRC (p < 0.01), greater fear of CRC (p < 0.001) and lower levels of self-efficacy of having a colonoscopy (p < 0.01) were associated with greater colonoscopy-specific fears. Results can inform interventions designed to assuage fears in African Americans and Hispanics.

  6. Implementing an HIV Rapid Testing-Linkage-to-Care Project Among Homeless Individuals in Los Angeles County: A Collaborative Effort Between Federal, County, and City Government.

    PubMed

    Anaya, Henry D; Butler, Jaimi N; Knapp, Herschel; Chan, Kee; Conners, Erin E; Rumanes, Sophia F

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We developed and implemented an HIV rapid testing-linkage-to-care initiative between federal and local government. Methods. We used mixed methodology; HIV testing data were collected on-site, and qualitative data were collected via telephone. We used postintervention stakeholder and staff interviews to evaluate barriers and facilitators to this initiative. Results. We tested 817 individuals. We identified and confirmed 7 preliminary HIV positive individuals (0.86% seropositivity), 5 of whom were linked to care. Mean testing cost was $48.95 per client; cost per positive result was $5714. Conclusions. This initiative can be used as a template for other health departments and research teams focusing on homelessness and mitigation of the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

  7. Applications of a Rapid and Sensitive Dengue DUO Rapid Immunochromatographic Test Kit as a Diagnostic Strategy during a Dengue Type 2 Epidemic in an Urban City.

    PubMed

    Shih, Hsin-I; Hsu, Hsiang-Chin; Wu, Chi-Jung; Lin, Chih-Hao; Chang, Chia-Ming; Tu, Yi-Fang; Hsieh, Chih-Chia; Chi, Chih-Hsien; Sung, Tzu-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Dengue infection is a major health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. A prospective observational study in a university-affiliated hospital was conducted between August 2015 and September 2015. Patients who visited the emergency department (ED) with a presentation of any symptoms of dengue were eligible for the dengue non-structural protein 1 (NS1), IgM/IgG rapid immunochromatographic tests and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to evaluate the performance of the rapid tests. Considering the RT-PCR as the gold standard for the dengue diagnosis, the ideal primary results of sensitivity (80-100%), specificity (60-84%), positive predicted value(75%-95%), and negative predicted value (70-100%) suggested that the NS1-based test with or without a combination of IgM and IgG tests have good diagnostic performances in detecting dengue infections, even in the afebrile or elderly populations. PMID:27415767

  8. Applications of a Rapid and Sensitive Dengue DUO Rapid Immunochromatographic Test Kit as a Diagnostic Strategy during a Dengue Type 2 Epidemic in an Urban City

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Hsin-I; Hsu, Hsiang-Chin; Wu, Chi-Jung; Lin, Chih-Hao; Chang, Chia-Ming; Tu, Yi-Fang; Hsieh, Chih-Chia; Chi, Chih-Hsien; Sung, Tzu-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Dengue infection is a major health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. A prospective observational study in a university-affiliated hospital was conducted between August 2015 and September 2015. Patients who visited the emergency department (ED) with a presentation of any symptoms of dengue were eligible for the dengue non-structural protein 1 (NS1), IgM/IgG rapid immunochromatographic tests and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to evaluate the performance of the rapid tests. Considering the RT-PCR as the gold standard for the dengue diagnosis, the ideal primary results of sensitivity (80–100%), specificity (60–84%), positive predicted value(75%-95%), and negative predicted value (70–100%) suggested that the NS1-based test with or without a combination of IgM and IgG tests have good diagnostic performances in detecting dengue infections, even in the afebrile or elderly populations. PMID:27415767

  9. Reversing the standard direction: Science emerging from the lives of African American students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiler, Gale

    2001-11-01

    Recognizing the persistent science achievement gap between inner-city African American students and students from mainstream, White society, this article suggests that the imposition of external standards on inner-city schools will do little to ameliorate this gap because such an approach fails to address the significance of the social and cultural lives of the students. Instead, it is suggested that the use of critical ethnographic research would enable educators to learn from the students how science education can change to meet their aims and interests. The article includes a report on how a science lunch group in an inner-city high school forged a community based on respect and caring and how this community afforded African American male teens the opportunity to participate in science in new ways.

  10. African American Administrators and Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Dianne; Taylor, Janice D.; Burrell, Charlotte; Stewart, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the issues of African American participation in the administrative ranks of the academy. The authors find that African Americans tend to hold positions that are marginal in academic organizations, lacking power and influence, and that not much has changed over recent decades. Forces influencing this condition are explored,…

  11. African-American Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Lucinda

    This paper examines the history of African American children's literature, the present-day status of it, and ventures predictions about its future. The paper also considers the historic and social factors of the debate about whether an author who is not African American can write a book that will/should be accepted in this category of children's…

  12. African-American Sacred Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, A. Peter

    1991-01-01

    The history of African-American sacred music is traced from the time of slavery to the present interest in gospel music. The religious music of African Americans is geared toward liberation themes. It is important that this music does not dilute its power through cross-over with other music forms. (SLD)

  13. Africanization in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, M. Alice; Rubink, William L.; Patton, John C.; Coulson, Robert N.; Johnston, J. Spencer

    2005-01-01

    The expansion of Africanized honeybees from South America to the southwestern United States in <50 years is considered one of the most spectacular biological invasions yet documented. In the American tropics, it has been shown that during their expansion Africanized honeybees have low levels of introgressed alleles from resident European populations. In the United States, it has been speculated, but not shown, that Africanized honeybees would hybridize extensively with European honeybees. Here we report a continuous 11-year study investigating temporal changes in the genetic structure of a feral population from the southern United States undergoing Africanization. Our microsatellite data showed that (1) the process of Africanization involved both maternal and paternal bidirectional gene flow between European and Africanized honeybees and (2) the panmitic European population was replaced by panmitic mixtures of A. m. scutellata and European genes within 5 years after Africanization. The post-Africanization gene pool (1998–2001) was composed of a diverse array of recombinant classes with a substantial European genetic contribution (mean 25–37%). Therefore, the resulting feral honeybee population of south Texas was best viewed as a hybrid swarm. PMID:15937139

  14. The history of African trypanosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Steverding, Dietmar

    2008-01-01

    The prehistory of African trypanosomiasis indicates that the disease may have been an important selective factor in the evolution of hominids. Ancient history and medieval history reveal that African trypanosomiasis affected the lives of people living in sub-Saharan African at all times. Modern history of African trypanosomiasis revolves around the identification of the causative agents and the mode of transmission of the infection, and the development of drugs for treatment and methods for control of the disease. From the recent history of sleeping sickness we can learn that the disease can be controlled but probably not be eradicated. Current history of human African trypanosomiasis has shown that the production of anti-sleeping sickness drugs is not always guaranteed, and therefore, new, better and cheaper drugs are urgently required. PMID:18275594

  15. Review: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sachil

    2012-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) affects 5,700 000 people in the United States, with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) being responsible for between 30%-50% of acute admissions. Epidemiological studies and HF registries have found HFPEF patients to be older, hypertensive and to have a history of atrial fibrillation. These findings, however, may not be fully applicable to African Americans, as they have been poorly studied making up only a minority of the test subjects. This review article is intended to discuss the pathophysiology and epidemiology of HFPEF within African Americans, highlight the differences compared to Caucasian populations and review current treatment guidelines. Studies looking at African Americans in particular have shown them to be younger, female and have worse diastolic dysfunction compared to Caucasian populations. African Americans also have been shown to have a worse mortality outcome especially in patients without coronary artery disease. The treatment of HFPEF is primarily symptomatic with no survival benefit seen in randomized controlled trials. Mechanisms postulated for the worse prognosis in African Americans with HFPEF include: greater incidence of hypertension and diastolic dysfunction, undefined race-driven genetic predispositions or relative resistance to medications that treat HF in general. The biological predispositions may also be compounded by inequality of healthcare access; something still felt to exist today. Prospective studies and randomized controlled trials need to be conducted with particular emphasis on African American populations to fully elucidate this disease and to formulate race specific treatment outcomes for the future.

  16. Cancer statistics for African Americans.

    PubMed

    Ghafoor, Asma; Jemal, Ahmedin; Cokkinides, Vilma; Cardinez, Cheryll; Murray, Taylor; Samuels, Alicia; Thun, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    The American Cancer Society provides estimates on the number of new cancer cases and deaths, and compiles health statistics on African Americans in a biennial publication, Cancer Facts and Figures for African Americans. The compiled statistics include cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and lifestyle behaviors using the most recent data on incidence and survival from the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program, mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), and behavioral information from the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), and National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). It is estimated that 132,700 new cases of cancer and 63,100 deaths will occur among African Americans in the year 2003. Although African Americans have experienced higher incidence and mortality rates of cancer than whites for many years, incidence rates have declined by 2.7 percent per year in African-American males since 1992, while stabilizing in African-American females. During the same period, death rates declined by 2.1 percent and 0.4 percent per year among African-American males and females, respectively. The decrease in both incidence and death rates from cancer among African-American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. Nonetheless, African Americans still carry the highest cancer burden among US racial and ethnic groups. Most cancers detectable by screening are diagnosed at a later stage and survival rates are lower within each stage of disease in African Americans than in whites. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors is an active area of research.

  17. An Examination of School Attitude and Self-Esteem among African-American Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Esau, II

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this research investigation was to examine school attitudes and self-esteem among 48 African-American elementary school children. Based on achievement data on standardized testing, administered by a school district located within the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, African-American children were stratified in order to…

  18. Another Look at HIV in African American Women: The Impact of Psychosocial and Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jipguep, Marie-Claude; Sanders-Phillips, Kathy; Cotton, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    This study tested a conceptual model that integrates structural and psychological determinants of HIV prevention for African American women. The sample consisted of African American mothers (N = 129) of children in Head Start programs. Higher levels of perceived stress were associated with higher levels of HIV risk; higher levels of perceived…

  19. Neighborhoods, Social Support, and African American Adolescents' Mental Health Outcomes: A Multilevel Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurd, Noelle M.; Stoddard, Sarah A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored how neighborhood characteristics may relate to African American adolescents' internalizing symptoms via adolescents' social support and perceptions of neighborhood cohesion. Participants included 571 urban, African American adolescents (52% female; "M" age = 17.8). A multilevel path analysis testing both direct and indirect…

  20. Long-Term Effects of the Strong African American Families Program on Youths' Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Murry, Velma McBride; Brown, Anita C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective:This report extends earlier accounts by addressing the effects of the Strong African American Families (SAAF) program across 65 months. Two hypotheses were tested: (a) Rural African American youths randomly assigned to participate in SAAF would demonstrate lower rates of alcohol use than would control youths more than 5 years later, and…

  1. Spelling in African American Children: The Case of Final Consonant Devoicing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treiman, Rebecca; Bowman, Margo

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of dialect variation on children's spelling by using devoicing of final /d/ in African American Vernacular English (AAVE) as a test case. In line with the linguistic interference hypothesis, African American 6-year-olds were significantly poorer at spelling the final "d" of words such as "salad"…

  2. Obesity Predicts Differential Response to Cancer Prevention Interventions among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone, Lucia A.; James, Aimee S.; Allicock, Marlyn; Campbell, Marci K.

    2010-01-01

    "Wellness for African Americans Through Churches" was a randomized trial that tested the effectiveness of tailored print and video (TPV) and/or lay health advisors (LHA) at increasing recreational physical activity (RPA), fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption, and colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in African American churches. Baseline data…

  3. Methylphenidate Improves Aspects of Executive Function in African American Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazel-Fernandez, Leslie Ann; Klorman, Rafael; Wallace, James M.; Cook, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The undertreatment of ethnic minority children with ADHD prompted a study on the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on the executive functions of African American children with ADHD. Method: Nineteen African American children with ADHD are tested on the Tower of Hanoi (TOH) and the Paired Associates Learning Task (PAL) in a double-blind…

  4. Social Movement Tactics, Organizational Change and the Spread of African-American Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas, Fabio

    2006-01-01

    Social movement research suggests that protest is effective because it de-legitimizes existing policies and imposes costs on power holders. The author tests this hypothesis with data on African-American student protest and the creation of departments of African-American Studies. The author finds that nondisruptive protest, such as rallies and…

  5. Bioenergy and African transformation.

    PubMed

    Lynd, Lee R; Sow, Mariam; Chimphango, Annie Fa; Cortez, Luis Ab; Brito Cruz, Carlos H; Elmissiry, Mosad; Laser, Mark; Mayaki, Ibrahim A; Moraes, Marcia Afd; Nogueira, Luiz Ah; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem H

    2015-01-01

    Among the world's continents, Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern bioenergy production in Africa. Here we consider bioenergy as an enabler for development, and provide an overview of modern bioenergy technologies with a comment on application in an Africa context. Experience with bioenergy in Africa offers evidence of social benefits and also some important lessons. In Brazil, social development, agricultural development and food security, and bioenergy development have been synergistic rather than antagonistic. Realizing similar success in African countries will require clear vision, good governance, and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, and business models to myriad local circumstances. Strategies for integrated production of food crops, livestock, and bioenergy are potentially attractive and offer an alternative to an agricultural model featuring specialized land use. If done thoughtfully, there is considerable evidence that food security and economic development in Africa can be addressed more effectively with modern bioenergy than without it. Modern bioenergy can be an agent of African transformation, with potential social benefits accruing to multiple sectors and extending well beyond energy supply per se. Potential negative impacts also cut across sectors. Thus, institutionally inclusive multi-sector legislative structures will be more effective at maximizing the social benefits of bioenergy compared to institutionally exclusive, single-sector structures. PMID:25709714

  6. African oil plays

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, A.J. )

    1989-09-01

    The vast continent of Africa hosts over eight sedimentary basins, covering approximately half its total area. Of these basins, only 82% have entered a mature exploration phase, 9% have had little or no exploration at all. Since oil was first discovered in Africa during the mid-1950s, old play concepts continue to bear fruit, for example in Egypt and Nigeria, while new play concepts promise to become more important, such as in Algeria, Angola, Chad, Egypt, Gabon, and Sudan. The most exciting developments of recent years in African oil exploration are: (1) the Gamba/Dentale play, onshore Gabon; (2) the Pinda play, offshore Angola; (3) the Lucula/Toca play, offshore Cabinda; (4) the Metlaoui play, offshore Libya/Tunisia; (5) the mid-Cretaceous sand play, Chad/Sudan; and (6) the TAG-I/F6 play, onshore Algeria. Examples of these plays are illustrated along with some of the more traditional oil plays. Where are the future oil plays likely to develop No doubt, the Saharan basins of Algeria and Libya will feature strongly, also the presalt of Equatorial West Africa, the Central African Rift System and, more speculatively, offshore Ethiopia and Namibia, and onshore Madagascar, Mozambique, and Tanzania.

  7. Bioenergy and African transformation.

    PubMed

    Lynd, Lee R; Sow, Mariam; Chimphango, Annie Fa; Cortez, Luis Ab; Brito Cruz, Carlos H; Elmissiry, Mosad; Laser, Mark; Mayaki, Ibrahim A; Moraes, Marcia Afd; Nogueira, Luiz Ah; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem H

    2015-01-01

    Among the world's continents, Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern bioenergy production in Africa. Here we consider bioenergy as an enabler for development, and provide an overview of modern bioenergy technologies with a comment on application in an Africa context. Experience with bioenergy in Africa offers evidence of social benefits and also some important lessons. In Brazil, social development, agricultural development and food security, and bioenergy development have been synergistic rather than antagonistic. Realizing similar success in African countries will require clear vision, good governance, and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, and business models to myriad local circumstances. Strategies for integrated production of food crops, livestock, and bioenergy are potentially attractive and offer an alternative to an agricultural model featuring specialized land use. If done thoughtfully, there is considerable evidence that food security and economic development in Africa can be addressed more effectively with modern bioenergy than without it. Modern bioenergy can be an agent of African transformation, with potential social benefits accruing to multiple sectors and extending well beyond energy supply per se. Potential negative impacts also cut across sectors. Thus, institutionally inclusive multi-sector legislative structures will be more effective at maximizing the social benefits of bioenergy compared to institutionally exclusive, single-sector structures.

  8. Rationale, design, and baseline findings from HIPP: A randomized controlled trial testing a home-based, individually-tailored physical activity print intervention for African American women in the Deep South.

    PubMed

    Pekmezi, Dori; Ainsworth, Cole; Joseph, Rodney; Bray, Molly S; Kvale, Elizabeth; Isaac, Shiney; Desmond, Renee; Meneses, Karen; Marcus, Bess; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-03-01

    African American women report high rates of physical inactivity and related health disparities. In our previous formative research, we conducted a series of qualitative assessments to examine physical activity barriers and intervention preferences among African American women in the Deep South. These data were used to inform a 12-month Home-based, Individually-tailored Physical activity Print (HIPP) intervention, which is currently being evaluated against a wellness contact control condition among 84 post-menopausal African American women residing in the metropolitan area of Birmingham, Alabama. This paper reports the rationale, design and baseline findings of the HIPP trial. The accrued participants had an average age of 57 (SD=4.7), a BMI of 32.1 kg/m(2) (SD=5.16) with more than half (55%) having a college education and an annual household income under $50,000 (53.6%). At baseline, participants reported an average of 41.5 min/week (SD=49.7) of moderate intensity physical activity, and 94.1% were in the contemplation or preparation stages of readiness for physical activity. While social support for exercise from friends and family was low, baseline levels of self-efficacy, cognitive and behavioral processes of change, decisional balance, outcome expectations, and enjoyment appeared promising. Baseline data indicated high rates of obesity and low levels of physical activity, providing strong evidence of need for intervention. Moreover, scores on psychosocial measures suggested that such efforts may be well received. This line of research in technology-based approaches for promoting physical activity in African American women in the Deep South has great potential to address health disparities and impact public health.

  9. HIV among African American Gay and Bisexual Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS ... with men—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2014 . HIV Surveillance Special Report 2016;15. Accessed ...

  10. Successfully Educating Our African-American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moncree-Moffett, Kareem

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this empirical study was to explore the lived experiences of African American retired female teachers who have prior experience with educating urban African American students in public schools. Also explored are the experiences of active African American female teachers of urban African American students and comparisons are…

  11. A question of trust: user-centered design requirements for an informatics intervention to promote the sexual health of African-American youth

    PubMed Central

    Veinot, Tiffany C; Campbell, Terrance R; Kruger, Daniel J; Grodzinski, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Objective We investigated the user requirements of African-American youth (aged 14–24 years) to inform the design of a culturally appropriate, network-based informatics intervention for the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Materials and Methods We conducted 10 focus groups with 75 African-American youth from a city with high HIV/STI prevalence. Data analyses involved coding using qualitative content analysis procedures and memo writing. Results Unexpectedly, the majority of participants’ design recommendations concerned trust. Youth expressed distrust towards people and groups, which was amplified within the context of information technology-mediated interactions about HIV/STI. Participants expressed distrust in the reliability of condoms and the accuracy of HIV tests. They questioned the benevolence of many institutions, and some rejected authoritative HIV/STI information. Therefore, reputational information, including rumor, influenced HIV/STI-related decision making. Participants’ design requirements also focused on trust-related concerns. Accordingly, we developed a novel trust-centered design framework to guide intervention design. Discussion Current approaches to online trust for health informatics do not consider group-level trusting patterns. Yet, trust was the central intervention-relevant issue among African-American youth, suggesting an important focus for culturally informed design. Our design framework incorporates: intervention objectives (eg, network embeddedness, participation); functional specifications (eg, decision support, collective action, credible question and answer services); and interaction design (eg, member control, offline network linkages, optional anonymity). Conclusions Trust is a critical focus for HIV/STI informatics interventions for young African Americans. Our design framework offers practical, culturally relevant, and systematic guidance to designers to reach this underserved group

  12. Stereotype or reality: another look at alcohol and drug use among African American children.

    PubMed Central

    Bass, L E; Kane-Williams, E

    1993-01-01

    The Center for Substance Abuse Prevention's Division of Communications Programs launched its Urban Youth Public Education Campaign in late 1990 to target African American youth in 14 cities with prevention messages about alcohol and other drugs. During the market research phase of the campaign, the Center sought to determine the extent inner city African American children are impacted by alcohol and other drugs and how widespread the use of these substances is among younger children. Is it rampant and universal, as some press accounts have it, or are the images portrayed by the news media, by popular movies, and by other communication outlets fueling harmful stereotypes? The campaign's market research consisted of in-depth reviews of the literature, of personal communications, conference proceedings, grant and contract reports, monographs, newspaper and magazine articles, and of national survey results, and the analysis of findings from focus groups conducted with 143 African American children living in several urban environments. Although information and conclusions gleaned from the market research revealed a longstanding trend of comparatively lower rates of alcohol and drug use by African American youth, also disclosed was a need for an expanded framework to address the problems of substance abuse within the African American community. An expanded framework acknowledges the dimension of substance use and abuse but also addresses three other dimensions--involvement, exposure, and victimization--that unfold as having major significance for this population of youth who live in urban, high-risk environments. PMID:8210277

  13. Long term effects of community-based STI screening and mass media HIV prevention messages on sexual risk behaviors of African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sznitman, Sharon; Stanton, Bonita F; Vanable, Peter A; Carey, Michael P; Valois, Robert F; Brown, Larry K; DiClemente, Ralph; Hennessy, Michael; Salazar, Laura F; Romer, Daniel

    2011-11-01

    We examined the long-term effects of two interventions designed to reduce sexual risk behavior among African American adolescents. African American adolescents (N = 1383, ages 14-17) were recruited from community-based organizations over a period of 16 months in two northeastern and two southeastern mid-sized U.S. cities with high rates of sexually transmitted infection (STI). Participants were screened for three STIs (gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis) and completed an audio computer-assisted attitude, intention, and behavior self-interview. Youth who tested positive for an STI (8.3%) received treatment and risk reduction counseling. In addition, television and radio HIV-prevention messages were delivered during the recruitment period and 18 months of follow-up in one randomly selected city in each region. Analyses determined effects of the media program for those receiving a positive versus negative STI test result on number of sexual partners and occurrence of unprotected sex. Adolescents who tested STI-positive reduced their number of vaginal sex partners and the probability of unprotected sex over the first 6 months. However, in the absence of the mass media program, adolescents returned to their previously high levels of sexual risk behavior after 6 months. Adolescents who tested STI-positive and received the mass media program showed more stable reductions in unprotected sex. Community-based STI treatment and counseling can achieve significant, but short-lived reductions in sexual risk behavior among STI-positive youth. A culturally sensitive mass media program has the potential to achieve more stable reductions in sexual risk behavior and can help to optimize the effects of community-based STI screening.

  14. Negro, Black, Black African, African Caribbean, African American or what? Labelling African origin populations in the health arena in the 21st century

    PubMed Central

    Agyemang, C.; Bhopal, R.; Bruijnzeels, M.

    2005-01-01

    Broad terms such as Black, African, or Black African are entrenched in scientific writings although there is considerable diversity within African descent populations and such terms may be both offensive and inaccurate. This paper outlines the heterogeneity within African populations, and discusses the strengths and limitations of the term Black and related labels from epidemiological and public health perspectives in Europe and the USA. This paper calls for debate on appropriate terminologies for African descent populations and concludes with the proposals that (1) describing the population under consideration is of paramount importance (2) the word African origin or simply African is an appropriate and necessary prefix for an ethnic label, for example, African Caribbean or African Kenyan or African Surinamese (3) documents should define the ethnic labels (4) the label Black should be phased out except when used in political contexts. PMID:16286485

  15. Negro, Black, Black African, African Caribbean, African American or what? Labelling African origin populations in the health arena in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Agyemang, Charles; Bhopal, Raj; Bruijnzeels, Marc

    2005-12-01

    Broad terms such as Black, African, or Black African are entrenched in scientific writings although there is considerable diversity within African descent populations and such terms may be both offensive and inaccurate. This paper outlines the heterogeneity within African populations, and discusses the strengths and limitations of the term Black and related labels from epidemiological and public health perspectives in Europe and the USA. This paper calls for debate on appropriate terminologies for African descent populations and concludes with the proposals that (1) describing the population under consideration is of paramount importance (2) the word African origin or simply African is an appropriate and necessary prefix for an ethnic label, for example, African Caribbean or African Kenyan or African Surinamese (3) documents should define the ethnic labels (4) the label Black should be phased out except when used in political contexts. PMID:16286485

  16. African and African Caribbean users' perceptions of inpatient services.

    PubMed

    Secker, J; Harding, C

    2002-04-01

    It has been suggested that well-documented differences in African and African Caribbean people's contact with mental health services may stem from the organization, processes and practices of services themselves. This article presents the findings of a qualitative study which explored the inpatient experiences of a sample of African and African Caribbean people. Although some positive experiences were described, in the main, participants' accounts revolved around a sense of loss of control and around experiences of overt and implicit racism. Underpinning these experiences were relationships with staff that were perceived to be unhelpful. On the basis of both the positive and negative experiences described, we draw conclusions about the changes required to ensure that inpatient services more effectively meet the needs of this group.

  17. Polymorphic Alu insertions in six Brazilian African-derived populations.

    PubMed

    Cotrim, Nelson Henderson; Auricchio, Maria Teresa B M; Vicente, João Pedro; Otto, Paulo A; Mingroni-Netto, Regina Célia

    2004-01-01

    At least 25 African-derived populations (quilombo remnants) are believed to exist in the Ribeira River Valley, located in the southern part of São Paulo State, Brazil. We studied four Alu polymorphic loci (APO, ACE, TPA25, and FXIIIB) in individuals belonging to six quilombo remnants in addition to individuals sampled from the city of São Paulo. The allelic frequencies observed in the quilombo remnants were similar to those previously observed in African-derived populations from Central and North America. Genetic variability indexes (Fst and Gst values) in our quilombos were higher than the reported values for the majority of other populations analyzed for the same kind of markers, but lower than the variability usually observed in Amerindian groups. The observed high degree of genetic differentiation may be due to genetic drift, especially the founder effect. Our results suggest that these populations behave genetically as semi-isolates. The degree of genetic variability within populations was larger than among them, a finding described in other studies. In the neighbor-joining tree, some of the Brazilian quilombos clustered with the African and African-derived populations (São Pedro and Galvão), others with the Europeans (Pilões, Maria Rosa, and Abobral). Pedro Cubas was placed in an isolated branch. Principal component analysis was also performed and confirmed the trends observed in the neighbor-joining tree. Overall, the quilombos showed a higher degree of gene flow than average when compared to other worldwide populations, but similar to other African-derived populations.

  18. The African Millennium Villages

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Pedro; Palm, Cheryl; Sachs, Jeffrey; Denning, Glenn; Flor, Rafael; Harawa, Rebbie; Jama, Bashir; Kiflemariam, Tsegazeab; Konecky, Bronwen; Kozar, Raffaela; Lelerai, Eliud; Malik, Alia; Modi, Vijay; Mutuo, Patrick; Niang, Amadou; Okoth, Herine; Place, Frank; Sachs, Sonia Ehrlich; Said, Amir; Siriri, David; Teklehaimanot, Awash; Wang, Karen; Wangila, Justine; Zamba, Colleen

    2007-01-01

    We describe the concept, strategy, and initial results of the Millennium Villages Project and implications regarding sustainability and scalability. Our underlying hypothesis is that the interacting crises of agriculture, health, and infrastructure in rural Africa can be overcome through targeted public-sector investments to raise rural productivity and, thereby, to increased private-sector saving and investments. This is carried out by empowering impoverished communities with science-based interventions. Seventy-eight Millennium Villages have been initiated in 12 sites in 10 African countries, each representing a major agroecological zone. In early results, the research villages in Kenya, Ethiopia, and Malawi have reduced malaria prevalence, met caloric requirements, generated crop surpluses, enabled school feeding programs, and provided cash earnings for farm families. PMID:17942701

  19. The role of building learning cities in the rejuvenation of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biao, Idowu; Esaete, Josephine; Oonyu, Joseph

    2013-09-01

    Although Africa has been home to famous ancient cities in the past, its modern conurbation areas are poor living spaces characterised by squalor, poor planning and human misery. The authors of this paper argue that the learning city concept, still almost unknown in Africa, holds enormous potential for redressing the dysfunctional state of things and for guiding future orderly development of African cities. There have been timid attempts at operationalising the learning city concept, for example in the Western Cape (South Africa) between 2004 and 2006, in Gaborone (Botswana) between 2008 and 2010, and in Lagos State (Nigeria) from 2007 onwards. Furthermore, two African governments, namely those of Nigeria (2005) and South Africa (2006), joined the global "Cities Alliance" partnership, which operates a "Cities without slums action plan". However, many of these projects have not been successful, and the authors of this article identify five factors which have stood in the way of their proper take-off. Based on this analysis, the authors then propose a model for future learning city projects in Africa. It is a process model that uses critical awareness-building promoted by civil society organisations and government and harnesses the pressure of other social dynamics such as ethnic culture clusters. The authors then offer three policy recommendations and conclude by expressing their hope that the learning city concept will take hold and unfold its potential in Africa in the foreseeable future.

  20. Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    1989-11-01

    The Central African Republic contains 242,000 square miles, which rolling terrain almost 2000 feet above sea level. The climate is tropical, and it has a population of 2.8 million people with a 2.5% growth rate. There are more than 80 ethnic groups including Baya 34%, Banda 28%, Sara 10%, Mandja 9%, Mboum 9%, and M'Baka 7%. The religions are traditional African 35%, protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, and Muslim 15%, and the languages are French and Sangho. The infant mortality rate is 143/1000, with expectancy at 49 years and a 40% literacy rate. The work force of 1 million is 70% agricultural, industry 6% and commerce and service 6% and government 3%. The government consists of a president assisted by cabinet ministers and a single party. Natural resources include diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, and oil, and major industries are beverages, textiles, and soap. Agricultural products feature coffee, cotton, peanuts, tobacco, food crops and livestock. Most of the population live in rural areas and most of the 80 ethnic groups have their own language. This is one of the world's least developed countries, with a per capita income of $375/year. The main problems with development are the poor transportation infrastructure, and the weak internal and international marketing systems. The US and various international organizations have aided in agriculture development, health programs, and family planning. US investment is mainly in diamond and gold mining, and although oil drilling has been successful it is not economically feasible at current prices.

  1. Participant Adherence Indicators Predict Changes in Blood Pressure, Anthropometric Measures, and Self-Reported Physical Activity in a Lifestyle Intervention: HUB City Steps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Jessica L.; Landry, Alicia S.; Zoellner, Jamie M.; Connell, Carol; Madson, Michael B.; Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Yadrick, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this secondary analysis was to evaluate the utility of several participant adherence indicators for predicting changes in clinical, anthropometric, dietary, fitness, and physical activity (PA) outcomes in a lifestyle intervention, HUB City Steps, conducted in a southern, African American cohort in 2010. HUB City Steps was a…

  2. You Can Run, but You Can't Hide: The Intersection of Race and Class in Two Kansas City Schools, 1954-1974

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarther, Shirley Marie; Caruthers, Loyce E.; Davis, Donna M.

    2009-01-01

    As African American female Professors in the academy representing different socioeconomic backgrounds the authors explore the intersections of race and class in two Kansas City, Missouri schools from 1954-1974. They situate their stories within a brief description of the historical context of Kansas City and its struggle to integrate schools from…

  3. Power laws, discontinuities and regional city size distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garmestani, A.S.; Allen, C.R.; Gallagher, C.M.

    2008-01-01

    Urban systems are manifestations of human adaptation to the natural environment. City size distributions are the expression of hierarchical processes acting upon urban systems. In this paper, we test the entire city size distributions for the southeastern and southwestern United States (1990), as well as the size classes in these regions for power law behavior. We interpret the differences in the size of the regional city size distributions as the manifestation of variable growth dynamics dependent upon city size. Size classes in the city size distributions are snapshots of stable states within urban systems in flux. ?? 2008.

  4. Seismic Site Classification and Correlation between Standard Penetration Test N Value and Shear Wave Velocity for Lucknow City in Indo-Gangetic Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbazhagan, P.; Kumar, Abhishek; Sitharam, T. G.

    2013-03-01

    Subsurface lithology and seismic site classification of Lucknow urban center located in the central part of the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB) are presented based on detailed shallow subsurface investigations and borehole analysis. These are done by carrying out 47 seismic surface wave tests using multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) and 23 boreholes drilled up to 30 m with standard penetration test (SPT) N values. Subsurface lithology profiles drawn from the drilled boreholes show low- to medium-compressibility clay and silty to poorly graded sand available till depth of 30 m. In addition, deeper boreholes (depth >150 m) were collected from the Lucknow Jal Nigam (Water Corporation), Government of Uttar Pradesh to understand deeper subsoil stratification. Deeper boreholes in this paper refer to those with depth over 150 m. These reports show the presence of clay mix with sand and Kankar at some locations till a depth of 150 m, followed by layers of sand, clay, and Kankar up to 400 m. Based on the available details, shallow and deeper cross-sections through Lucknow are presented. Shear wave velocity (SWV) and N-SPT values were measured for the study area using MASW and SPT testing. Measured SWV and N-SPT values for the same locations were found to be comparable. These values were used to estimate 30 m average values of N-SPT ( N 30) and SWV ( V {s/30}) for seismic site classification of the study area as per the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) soil classification system. Based on the NEHRP classification, the entire study area is classified into site class C and D based on V {s/30} and site class D and E based on N 30. The issue of larger amplification during future seismic events is highlighted for a major part of the study area which comes under site class D and E. Also, the mismatch of site classes based on N 30 and V {s/30} raises the question of the suitability of the NEHRP classification system for the study region. Further, 17 sets

  5. Fighting for a Better World: Teaching in an Inner-City Day Care Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Judith Y.

    Based on a participant-observer's 14-month experience in the day care setting, this paper describes the curriculum implementation in an inner-city day care center--called "Banza" for purposes of this paper--in which both students and teachers come from working class or poor, African American, Caribbean, or Latino families. Through its monthly…

  6. Impact of Language Deficits on Maladaptive Behavior of Inner-City Early Adolescents: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcon, Rebecca A.

    This study examined language development as a precursor of maladaptive behavior in inner-city early adolescents. Participating were 256 adolescents from the graduation classes of 2000 and 2001 who had previously attended District of Columbia prekindergarten/Head Start and kindergarten. The sample was 98 percent African American and 56 percent…

  7. Timing of First Childbirth and Young Women's Postsecondary Education in an Inner-City Minority Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between the timing of women's first childbirth and their postsecondary education using an inner-city minority cohort. The study sample (695 females) was drawn from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), an ongoing investigation of a panel of low-income minority children (94% African American) born in…

  8. Characteristics of Health Educators Desired by Inner-City Health Clinic Patients: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, James; Sidani, Jaime

    2007-01-01

    A group (n = 170) of inner-city, predominantly African American, health clinic patients were asked to identify the characteristics they desired in a new clinic health educator. A plurality (44%) of the patients perceived a bachelor's degree would be a sufficient level of education. The vast majority of patients claimed the sex of the health…

  9. Replicating a Teen HIV/STD Preventive Intervention in a Multicultural City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Diane M.; Hoppe, Marilyn J.; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Beadnell, Blair A.; Wilsdon, Anthony; Higa, Darrel; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Casey, Erin A.

    2007-01-01

    Although there are now several adolescent HIV and STD preventive interventions of demonstrated efficacy in the literature, little is understood about the portability of these interventions. This study replicated Stanton's Focus on Kids intervention, developed for inner city African American adolescents, in a different population, transferring it…

  10. Family Functioning and School Success in At-Risk, Inner-City Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annunziata, Diane; Hogue, Aaron; Faw, Leyla; Liddle, Howard A.

    2006-01-01

    The relation between family functioning and school success was examined in 211 at risk, African American, inner city adolescents attending middle school (grades 6-8). Interviews with adolescents and caregivers yielded data on family cohesion, parental monitoring, and school engagement; school records provided data on grade point average. Results…

  11. Risk Factors for Nonelective Hospitalization in Frail and Older Adult, Inner-City Outpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damush, Teresa M.; Smith, David M.; Perkins, Anthony J.; Dexter, Paul R.; Smith, Faye

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: In our study, we sought to improve the accuracy of predicting the risk of hospitalization and to identify older, inner-city patients who could be targeted for preventive interventions. Design and Methods: Participants (56% were African American) in a randomized trial were from a primary care practice and included 1,041 patients living in…

  12. Equipping African American Clergy to Recognize Depression.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Jean Spann; Morris, Edith; Collins, Charles W; Watson, Albert; Williams, Jennifer E; Ferguson, Bʼnai; Ruhlman, Deborah L

    2016-01-01

    Many African Americans (AAs) use clergy as their primary source of help for depression, with few being referred to mental health providers. This study used face-to-face workshops to train AA clergy to recognize the symptoms and levels of severity of depression. A pretest/posttest format was used to test knowledge (N = 42) about depression symptoms. Results showed that the participation improved the clergy's ability to recognize depression symptoms. Faith community nurses can develop workshops for clergy to improve recognition and treatment of depression.

  13. Epileptiform seizures in captive African vultures.

    PubMed

    Mundy, P J; Foggin, C M

    1981-04-01

    African vultures are held in captivity at Salisbury, Johannesburg, and Durban, and in each place a number of birds showed epileptiform seizures. Of 17 griffon vultures (Gyps africanus and G. coprotheres) in Salisbury, three recovered and 11 died after one or more seizures. Of eight vultures of three other species, one Lappetfaced Vulture (Torgos tracheliotus) recovered and one Whiteheaded Vulture (Trigonoceps occipitalis) died. A variety of diagnostic tests, in particular levels of serum calcium and blood glucose, and histological examination of brains, has so far failed to reveal a cause. PMID:7241712

  14. Equipping African American Clergy to Recognize Depression.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Jean Spann; Morris, Edith; Collins, Charles W; Watson, Albert; Williams, Jennifer E; Ferguson, Bʼnai; Ruhlman, Deborah L

    2016-01-01

    Many African Americans (AAs) use clergy as their primary source of help for depression, with few being referred to mental health providers. This study used face-to-face workshops to train AA clergy to recognize the symptoms and levels of severity of depression. A pretest/posttest format was used to test knowledge (N = 42) about depression symptoms. Results showed that the participation improved the clergy's ability to recognize depression symptoms. Faith community nurses can develop workshops for clergy to improve recognition and treatment of depression. PMID:27610907

  15. African women and AIDS: negotiating behavioral change.

    PubMed

    Ulin, P R

    1992-01-01

    Trends in the incidence of HIV/AIDS infection among women in Sub-Saharan Africa suggest this population is increasingly at risk. Many of the same factors that have predisposed rural African women to ill health in the past now increase their vulnerability to AIDS, including poverty and malnutrition, uncontrolled fertility, and complications of childbirth. As men travel out from rural communities to urban centers in search of employment, their sexual contacts multiply; many will acquire the HIV virus and carry it back to infect wives at home. Women, too, are leaving rural areas for the promise of a better life in cities and commercial centers along the way. Their struggle for economic survival and personal autonomy has led many to form relationships with new sexual partners, with a consequent increase in HIV seroprevalence among women once considered at low risk of infection. This paper argues that AIDS prevention campaigns have not yet taken into account the cultural, social, and economic constraints on most African women's ability to comply with advice to limit partners and use condoms. The author proposes a research agenda to explore the meaning of AIDS and AIDS prevention in the sociocultural context of women's lives. A better understanding of how women, themselves, perceive and respond to current attempts to prevent the transmission of AIDS is an increasingly critical factor in the intervention process. Most important, it is a necessary first step toward their effective participation with men in the development of culturally relevant strategies for protecting themselves and their families. PMID:1738858

  16. Summer camp and self-esteem of school-age inner-city children.

    PubMed

    Readdick, Christine A; Schaller, G Robert

    2005-08-01

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that a session of summer camp would increase the self-esteem of economically disadvantaged, school-age children from New York's inner-city neighborhoods. This study was conducted at a small, coeducational residential summer camp in the Pocono Mountains designed for children ages 6-12 years from low-income areas of New York City. During each of four 12-day sessions, the Piers-Harris Children's Self-concept Scale was administered as a pretest and posttest to a sample of 68 children (36 boys and 32 girls; 33 African American, 34 Hispanic, and 1 Asian) of 742 attending camp for the sumnmer. Children scored significantly higher on the measure of self-esteem at the end of camp than at the beginning. Positive descriptions and ratings of self on popularity increased significantly. Observations and interviews with children suggested physical and social environmental features, such as contact with nature and having the same counselor as a previous year, may support self-esteem. Findings are discussed within a framework for biophilia, an innate urge to affiliate with nature which unfolds from earliest childhood on.

  17. Hepatitis C in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Saab, Sammy; Jackson, Christian; Nieto, Jose; Francois, Fritz

    2014-10-01

    The care of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in African Americans represents an opportunity to address a major health disparity in medicine. In all facets of HCV infection, African Americans are inexplicably affected, including in the prevalence of the virus, which is higher among them compared with most of the racial and ethnic groups. Ironically, although fibrosis rates may be slow, hepatocellular carcinoma and mortality rates appear to be higher among African Americans. Sustained viral response (SVR) rates have historically significantly trailed behind Caucasians. The reasons for this gap in SVR are related to both viral and host factors. Moreover, low enrollment rates in clinical trials hamper the study of the efficacy of anti-viral therapy. Nevertheless, the gap in SVR between African Americans and Caucasians may be narrowing with the use of direct-acting agents. Gastroenterologists, hepatologists, primary care physicians, and other health-care providers need to address modifiable risk factors that affect the natural history, as well as treatment outcomes, for HCV among African Americans. Efforts need to be made to improve awareness among health-care providers to address the differences in screening and referral patterns for African Americans.

  18. Evaluation of an Extended School Day Program for African American Males in the Context of Single Gender Schooling and Schoolwide Reform: A Case for Extending the School Day for African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fashola, Olatokunbo S.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of the 2nd-year evaluation of an after-school program designed for an extended school day program serving African American middle school students in the city of Baltimore, Maryland (ACCESS-West). This study describes the effects of schoolwide reform especially as it relates to single-gender schools, educating…

  19. A randomised controlled trial of stress reduction for hypertension in older African Americans.

    PubMed

    Schneider, R H; Staggers, F; Alxander, C N; Sheppard, W; Rainforth, M; Kondwani, K; Smith, S; King, C G

    1995-11-01

    We tested the short-term efficacy and feasibility of two stress education approaches toe the treatment of mild hypertension in older African Americans. This was a randomized, controlled, single-blind trial with 3 months of follow-up in primary care, inner-city health center. Of 213 African American men and women screened, 127 individuals (aged 55 to 85 years with initial diastolic pressure of 90 to 109 mm Hg, systolic pressure of < or = 189 mm Hg, and final baseline blood pressure of < or = 179/104 mm Hg) were selected. Of these, 16 did not complete follow-up blood pressure measurements. Mental and physical stress reduction approaches (Transcendental Meditation and progressive muscle relaxation) were compared with a lifestyle modification education control program and with each other. The primary outcome measures were changes in clinic diastolic and systolic pressures from baseline to final follow-up, measured by blinded observers. The secondary measures were linear blood pressure trends, changes in home blood pressure, and intervention compliance. Adjusted for significant baseline differences and compared with control, Transcendental Meditation reduced systolic pressure by 10.7 mm Hg (P < .0003) and diastolic pressure by 6.4 mm Hg (P <.00005). Progressive muscle relaxation lowered systolic pressure by 4.7 mm Hg (P = 0054) and diastolic pressure by 3.3 mm Hg (P <.02). The reductions in the Transcendental Meditation group were significantly greater than in the progressive muscle relaxation group for both systolic blood pressure (P = .02) and diastolic blood pressure (P = .03). Linear trend analysis confirmed these patterns.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Managing to Learn: Instructional Leadership in South African Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoadley, Ursula; Christie, Pam; Ward, Catherine L.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on an empirical study of the management of curriculum and instruction in South African secondary schools. Drawing on data collected from 200 schools in 2007, a series of regression analyses tested the relationship between various dimensions of leadership and student achievement gains over time. Whilst the research confirms…