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Sample records for african traditional religion

  1. Traditional African Religion: A Resource Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, William E.

    This resource unit is based on research conducted by Lynn Mitchell and Ernest Valenzuela, experienced classroom teachers of African history and culture. The unit consists of an introduction by Mr. Garland and two major parts. Part I is an annotated bibliography of selected sources on various aspects of traditional African Religion useful in…

  2. The Teaching of African Traditional Religion in Primary Schools in Zimbabwe: Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marashe, Joel; Ndamba, Gamuchirai Tsitsiozashe; Chireshe, Excellent

    2009-01-01

    Zimbabwe's Education Ministry recommended the teaching of African Traditional Religion in recognition of its multi-religious society. This study sought to establish the extent to which African Traditional Religion is taught in primary schools, the challenges faced by teachers, and opportunities for promoting its teaching. A descriptive survey…

  3. Understanding traditional African healing

    PubMed Central

    MOKGOBI, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of traditional healers as well as the role of traditional healers in their communities are discussed. In conclusion, the services of traditional healers go far beyond the uses of herbs for physical illnesses. Traditional healers serve many roles which include but not limited to custodians of the traditional African religion and customs, educators about culture, counselors, social workers and psychologists. PMID:26594664

  4. Religions in Africa: A Teaching Manual. African Outreach Series, No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, C. C.; Crummey, Donald

    The wide variety of religious practices in Africa can be bewildering to outsiders. Although most of the world's religions have been introduced to Africa, this handbook focuses upon three categories of religious belief: traditional African religions, Christianity, and Islam. The book is arranged in three parts. Part 1, "Background Information,"…

  5. African Oral Tradition Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Doris

    1985-01-01

    Presents the basic principles of two systems for notating African music and dance: Labanotation (created to record and analyze movements) and Greenotation (created to notate musical instruments of Africa and to parallel Labanotation whereby both music and dance are incorporated into one integrated score). (KH)

  6. Shinto: The Traditional Religion of Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Carol S.; Miley, Lois M.

    A lesson plan, divided into five learning activities, explores certain fundamental beliefs and practices associated with Shintoism, the ancient religion of the Japanese. It is designed for integration into a course on world cultures or global studies. The unit is organized to allow high school students an opportunity to observe the variety of ways…

  7. African Historical Religions: A Conceptual and Ethnical Foundation for "Western Religions."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, E. Curtis

    This paper attempts to set the record straight with regard to the following assumptions: (1) the Africans of the antiquities of Ethiopia and Egypt were black people; and (2) the same black people developed the foundation that provides the basis for the so-called major Western religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. There are two parts to…

  8. “You Must Know Where You Come From”: South African Youths' Perceptions of Religion in Time of Social Change

    PubMed Central

    Brittian, Aerika S.; Lewin, Nina; Norris, Shane A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined South African youths' perceptions of religion during a period of social and economic transition. In-depth interviews were conducted with 55 Black South African youth (age 18) living in the Johannesburg-Soweto metropolitan area. Data were analyzed in a manner consistent with grounded theory methodology and structural coding. Beliefs about the function of religion were captured by the following themes: provides support, connection to the past, moral compass, promotes healthy development, and intersections between African traditional practices and Christian beliefs. Themes are discussed and directions for future research are presented. In addition, applications of the current research and implications for promoting youths' resilience are offered. PMID:24932064

  9. "You Must Know Where You Come From": South African Youths' Perceptions of Religion in Time of Social Change.

    PubMed

    Brittian, Aerika S; Lewin, Nina; Norris, Shane A

    2013-11-01

    This study examined South African youths' perceptions of religion during a period of social and economic transition. In-depth interviews were conducted with 55 Black South African youth (age 18) living in the Johannesburg-Soweto metropolitan area. Data were analyzed in a manner consistent with grounded theory methodology and structural coding. Beliefs about the function of religion were captured by the following themes: provides support, connection to the past, moral compass, promotes healthy development, and intersections between African traditional practices and Christian beliefs. Themes are discussed and directions for future research are presented. In addition, applications of the current research and implications for promoting youths' resilience are offered. PMID:24932064

  10. Religion and suicide: Buddhism, Native American and African religions, Atheism, and Agnosticism.

    PubMed

    Lizardi, D; Gearing, R E

    2010-09-01

    Research has repeatedly demonstrated that religiosity can potentially serve as a protective factor against suicidal behavior. A clear understanding of the influence of religion on suicidality is required to more fully assess for the risk of suicide. The databases PsycINFO and MEDLINE were used to search peer-reviewed journals prior to 2008 focusing on religion and suicide. Articles focusing on suicidality across Buddhism, Native American and African religions, as well as on the relationship among Atheism, Agnosticism, and suicide were utilized for this review. Practice recommendations are offered for conducting accurate assessment of religiosity as it relates to suicidality in these populations. Given the influence of religious beliefs on suicide, it is important to examine each major religious group for its unique conceptualization and position on suicide to accurately identify a client's suicide risk.

  11. Religion, health and medicine in African Americans: implications for physicians.

    PubMed

    Levin, Jeff; Chatters, Linda M; Taylor, Robert Joseph

    2005-02-01

    Recent years have seen a burgeoning of research and writing on the connections between religion and health. The very best of this work comes from epidemiologic studies of African Americans. This paper summarizes results of these investigations, including findings identifying effects of religious participation on both physical and mental health outcomes. Evidence mostly supports a protective religious effect on morbidity and mortality and on depressive symptoms and overall psychological distress among African Americans. This paper also carefully discusses what the results of these studies mean and do not mean, an important consideration due to frequent misinterpretations of findings on this topic. Because important distinctions between epidemiologic and clinical studies tend to get glossed over, reports of religion-health associations oftentimes draw erroneous conclusions that foster unrealistic expectations about the role of faith and spirituality in health and healing. Finally, implications are discussed for clinical practice, medical education and public health.

  12. Religion, health and medicine in African Americans: implications for physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Jeff; Chatters, Linda M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph

    2005-01-01

    Recent years have seen a burgeoning of research and writing on the connections between religion and health. The very best of this work comes from epidemiologic studies of African Americans. This paper summarizes results of these investigations, including findings identifying effects of religious participation on both physical and mental health outcomes. Evidence mostly supports a protective religious effect on morbidity and mortality and on depressive symptoms and overall psychological distress among African Americans. This paper also carefully discusses what the results of these studies mean and do not mean, an important consideration due to frequent misinterpretations of findings on this topic. Because important distinctions between epidemiologic and clinical studies tend to get glossed over, reports of religion-health associations oftentimes draw erroneous conclusions that foster unrealistic expectations about the role of faith and spirituality in health and healing. Finally, implications are discussed for clinical practice, medical education and public health. PMID:15712787

  13. Incorporating Spirituality and Religion into the Treatment of African American Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd-Franklin, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the process of incorporating spirituality and religion into the treatment of African American clients. It addresses religious diversity within the African American community. The roles of spirituality and religion as survival and coping mechanisms for overcoming racism, adversity, and loss are emphasized. The cases presented…

  14. Importance of Religion and Spirituality in the Lives of African Americans, Caribbean Blacks and Non-Hispanic Whites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the importance of spirituality and religion in daily life (i.e., only religion, only spirituality, both religion and spirituality, and neither religion nor spirituality) among a nationally representative sample of African Americans, Caribbean Blacks and non-Hispanic Whites. A majority in each group felt they were both important…

  15. African Traditional Pedagogy in a Modern Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Milton N.; Coulibaly, Medjomo

    1985-01-01

    This study identified pedagogical principles of African traditional education and then tested for their use today in schools located in rural villages of the Ivory Coast. Results showed that the 10 major principles identified are employed today in teaching and learning in that country. (RM)

  16. Religion, Spirituality, and Career Development in African American College Students: A Qualitative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantine, Madonna G.; Miville, Marie L.; Warren, Anika K.; Gainor, Kathy A.; Lewis-Coles, Ma'at E. L.

    2006-01-01

    The authors explored through semistructured interviews the interrelationships of religion, spirituality, and career development in a sample of 12 African American undergraduate students. Using consensual qualitative research methodology (C. E. Hill, B. J. Thompson, & E. N. Williams, 1997), they identified 6 primary domains or themes related to…

  17. Stress among Black Women in a South African Township: The Protective Role of Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea

    2006-01-01

    Communities that have been exposed to high levels of stress and where religiosity is salient are ideal contexts in which to examine the role of religion in stress processes. The present study examines the protective function of religiosity among Black women in a South African township. The women (N = 172) were interviewed about sources of stress,…

  18. Extracting dirt from water: a strengths-based approach to religion for African American same-gender-loving men.

    PubMed

    Lassiter, Jonathan Mathias

    2014-02-01

    Religion is one of the most powerful and ubiquitous forces in African American same-gender-loving (SGL) men's lives. Research indicates that it has both positive and negative influences on the health behaviors and outcomes of this population. This paper presents a review of the literature that examines religion as a risk and protective factor for African American SGL men. A strengths-based approach to religion that aims to utilize its protective qualities and weaken its relation to risk is proposed. Finally, recommendations are presented for the use of a strengths-based approach to religion in clinical work and research.

  19. Dimensions of religion, depression symptomatology, and substance use among rural African American cocaine users.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Brooke E E; Stewart, Katharine E; Bryant, Keneshia J; Ounpraseuth, Songthip T

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown a relationship between depression, substance use, and religiosity but, few have investigated this relationship in a community sample of African Americans who use drugs. This study examined the relationship between dimensions of religion (positive and negative religious coping; private and public religious participation; religious preference; and God-, clergy-, and congregation-based religious support), depression symptomatology, and substance use among 223 African American cocaine users. After controlling for gender, employment, and age, greater congregation-based support and greater clergy-based support were associated with fewer reported depressive symptoms. In addition, greater congregation-based support was associated with less alcohol use. PMID:24564561

  20. Oral Tradition and African History: An Example from Southeastern Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekechi, Felix K.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the revolution in African historical study that took place in the 1950s and 1960s. Points out that oral traditions have become a vital part of the new African historiography. Gives an example of utilizing the oral tradition by looking at the history of Nigeria. Identifies some problems in using this method. (KO)

  1. Religion/spirituality in African-American culture: an essential aspect of psychiatric care.

    PubMed

    Carter, James H

    2002-05-01

    There is an astonishing diversity of religious beliefs and practices in the history of African Americans that influences the presentation, diagnosis, and management of both physical and mental disorders. The majority of African Americans, however, are evangelical Christians with religious experiences originating in the regions of ancient Africa (Cush, Punt, and to a great extent, Egypt), as well as black adaptation of Hebraic, Jewish, Christian, and Islamic beliefs and rituals. Consequently, more than 60 of the nation's 125 medical schools offer classes in spirituality and health. Although there is a lack of empirical evidence that religion improves health outcomes, physicians should understand patients as a biopsychosocial-spiritual whole. Asking about religion/spirituality during a health assessment can help the physician determine whether religious/spiritual factors will influence the patient's medical decisions and compliance. Two psychiatric case histories of African Americans are presented in which religion/spirituality significantly influenced treatment decisions and results. Neither of these patients suffered major debilitating medical comorbidity.

  2. Religion/spirituality in African-American culture: an essential aspect of psychiatric care.

    PubMed

    Carter, James H

    2002-05-01

    There is an astonishing diversity of religious beliefs and practices in the history of African Americans that influences the presentation, diagnosis, and management of both physical and mental disorders. The majority of African Americans, however, are evangelical Christians with religious experiences originating in the regions of ancient Africa (Cush, Punt, and to a great extent, Egypt), as well as black adaptation of Hebraic, Jewish, Christian, and Islamic beliefs and rituals. Consequently, more than 60 of the nation's 125 medical schools offer classes in spirituality and health. Although there is a lack of empirical evidence that religion improves health outcomes, physicians should understand patients as a biopsychosocial-spiritual whole. Asking about religion/spirituality during a health assessment can help the physician determine whether religious/spiritual factors will influence the patient's medical decisions and compliance. Two psychiatric case histories of African Americans are presented in which religion/spirituality significantly influenced treatment decisions and results. Neither of these patients suffered major debilitating medical comorbidity. PMID:12069218

  3. Religion, Ritual, and Healing among Urban Black South Africans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    du Toit, Brian M.

    1980-01-01

    Research carried out among urban residents in a satellite city in South Africa shows that while nearly all the subjects were members of Christian churches and attended church services, traditional supernatural beliefs and ritual practices were common. (Author/GC)

  4. "You Must Know Where You Come From": South African Youths' Perceptions of Religion in Time of Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brittian, Aerika S.; Lewin, Nina; Norris, Shane A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined South African youths' perceptions of religion during a period of social and economic transition. In-depth interviews were conducted with 55 Black South African youth (age 18) living in the Johannesburg-Soweto metropolitan area. Data were analyzed in a manner consistent with grounded theory methodology and structural…

  5. Religion and Spirituality in the Meaning-Making and Coping Experiences of African American Women: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattis, Jacqueline S.

    2002-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the ways in which African American women use religion/spirituality to cope and to construct meaning in times of adversity. Content analysis of the narratives of a sample of African American women respondents (n = 23) revealed a set of eight nonoverlapping themes that explicate religiosity/spirituality's role in…

  6. The influence of traditional religion on fertility regulation among the Kassena-Nankana of northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adongo, P B; Phillips, J F; Binka, F N

    1998-03-01

    This article presents findings from a study of the influence of traditional religion on reproductive preferences of Kassena-Nankana lineage heads in northern Ghana. Seven reproductive preference questions were administered to nine lineage heads who are primary practitioners of the cult of soothsaying. With the assistance of soothsayers, interviews were repeated in conjunction with the invocation of religious rites in order to determine the views of ancestral spirits on the seven questions. Pairs of lineage head and ancestral interviews are compared to determine the role of traditional religion in shaping male reproductive preferences. Interview pairs reflect a shared preference for sons, large compounds, and a growing lineage. Findings nonetheless show that some ancestral spirits want small families, some even wanting fewer children than corresponding lineage heads. Spiritual consultations are nondogmatic and open to external ideas and influences, suggesting that family planning introduction will not encounter systematic religious opposition among the Kassena-Nankana. PMID:9561667

  7. The influence of traditional religion on fertility regulation among the Kassena-Nankana of northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adongo, P B; Phillips, J F; Binka, F N

    1998-03-01

    This article presents findings from a study of the influence of traditional religion on reproductive preferences of Kassena-Nankana lineage heads in northern Ghana. Seven reproductive preference questions were administered to nine lineage heads who are primary practitioners of the cult of soothsaying. With the assistance of soothsayers, interviews were repeated in conjunction with the invocation of religious rites in order to determine the views of ancestral spirits on the seven questions. Pairs of lineage head and ancestral interviews are compared to determine the role of traditional religion in shaping male reproductive preferences. Interview pairs reflect a shared preference for sons, large compounds, and a growing lineage. Findings nonetheless show that some ancestral spirits want small families, some even wanting fewer children than corresponding lineage heads. Spiritual consultations are nondogmatic and open to external ideas and influences, suggesting that family planning introduction will not encounter systematic religious opposition among the Kassena-Nankana.

  8. The Principles and Content of African Traditional Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeyemi, Michael B.; Adeyinka, Augustus A.

    2003-01-01

    The type of education prevalent in Africa before the coming of Western civilisation was generally known as African traditional education or indigenous education of the various communities. Most recent works on new perspectives in African education, vis-a-vis the role and impact of Christian missions from the West include those of Coetzee and Roux…

  9. African Traditional Education: A Method of Dissseminating Cultural Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boateng, Felix

    1983-01-01

    Describes how the philosophical foundations of traditional African education, including oral literature, secret societies and other religious practices, served as a vehicle for intergenerational communication. Warns educational planners in contemporary Africa that a rejection of African heritage will create confusion, loss of identity, and a break…

  10. Perceptions of the Religion--Health Connection among African Americans in the Southeastern United States: Sex, Age, and Urban/Rural Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Cheryl L.; Schulz, Emily; Wynn, Theresa A.

    2009-01-01

    Extensive literature reviews suggest that religiousness is positively associated with health. Much less understood is the particular nature of the religion-health connection. Religion and the church play a central role in the lives of many African Americans. This study used a mixed-methods approach to examine perceptions of the religion-health…

  11. African Oral Traditions: Riddles Among The Haya of Northwestern Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishengoma, Johnson M.

    2005-05-01

    This study argues for the integration of African oral traditions and other elements of traditional learning into the modern school curriculum. It thus contributes to supporting the increased relevance of education to local communities. In particular, using the example of riddles collected from one of the main ethnic groups in Northwestern Tanzania, the Haya people, the present study challenges the views of those social and cultural anthropologists who hold that African riddles have no substantially meaningful educational value. Instead, it is maintained that riddles make an important contribution to children's full participation in the social, cultural, political, and economic life of African communities, especially by fostering critical thinking and transmitting indigenous knowledge.

  12. African Oral Traditions: Riddles Among the Haya of Northwestern Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishengoma, Johnson M.

    2005-01-01

    This study argues for the integration of African oral traditions and other elements of traditional learning into the modern school curriculum. It thus contributes to supporting the increased relevance of education to local communities. In particular, using the example of riddles collected from one of the main ethnic groups in Northwestern…

  13. Voodoo Dolls, Charms, and Spells in the Classroom: Teaching, Screening, and Deconstructing the Misrepresentation of the African Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuber, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    "New Orleans voodoo," also called "créole voodoo," is an amalgamation of an honoring of the spirits of the dead, a respect for the elderly and the spiritual life, African knowledge of herbs and charms, and European elements of Catholicism. It is a religion of ancestor worship that is unknown to us, and that we are not…

  14. Academic Medicine Meets Traditional African Healing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindow, Megan

    2008-01-01

    Cyril Naidoo, who directs the department of family medicine at the University of KwaZulu-Natal's Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, conducts workshops to traditional healers on how to help patients with AIDS and HIV. In Dr. Naidoo's workshop, the group discusses how to counsel patients about HIV and AIDS, how to refer them for testing, and then…

  15. Role of religion in cancer coping among African Americans: A qualitative examination

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Cheryl L.; Caplan, Lee; Schulz, Emily; Blake, Victor; Southward, Penny; Buckner, Ayanna; Lawrence, Hope

    2013-01-01

    The present study used qualitative methods to examine if and how African Americans with cancer use religiosity in coping. Patients (N=23) were recruited from physician offices and completed 1–1.5 hour interviews. Themes that emerged included but were not limited to control over one’s illness, emotional response, importance of social support, role of God as a healer, relying on God, importance of faith for recovery, prayer and scripture study, and how one makes sense of the illness. Participants had a great deal to say about the role of religion in coping. These themes may have utility for development of support interventions if they can be operationalized and intervened upon. PMID:19337932

  16. Celebrating African-American Traditions: Justice and Peace Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inkel, Maxine

    1993-01-01

    Suggests Kwanzaa activities for family members, students, teachers, and/or children related to the African tradition of Nguzo Saba (the Seven Principles): Umoja (unity), Kujichagulia (self-determination), Ujima (collective work and responsibility), Ujamma (cooperative economics), Nia (purpose), Kuumba (creativity), and Imani (faith). (AC)

  17. A study of the influence of protective factors as a resource to African American males in traditional batterers' interventions.

    PubMed

    Jones, Norma Gray

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between protective factors and the responses of African American males in traditional batterers' interventions. African American male batterers have been viewed as responding poorly to batterers' interventions and were reported in the literature as at risk for dropout and treatment failure. This research proposed that there were culturally related protective factors that enhanced traditional interventions for African American males, increasing their potential for changing abusive behaviors. This within-group study used secondary data to examine the influence of protective factors on the responses of 268 active duty Navy African American males. They were a sub-sample of 861 males randomly assigned to one of four different interventions for batterers. The interventions included a cognitive behavioral men's group, couple's group, safety and stabilization group, and a control group. Each of their cases had been officially substantiated by the Navy for assault of their spouses. The measures for the protective factors of religion, self-esteem, and family support were drawn from the original study's self-report measurement tool. The results of the statistical analyses were found to be significant. The protective factors performed as social controls for reducing certain types of abusive behaviors. Little research has been conducted on the influence of cultural factors on batterers intervention outcome for African Americans. This study established a strong support for further research.

  18. ‘It’s my inner strength’: Spirituality, religion and HIV in the lives of young African American men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Michael L.; Arnold, Emily; Rebchook, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) account for 48% of 13–29 year old HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in the USA. It is important to develop an effective HIV prevention approach that is grounded in the context of young men’s lives. Towards this goal, we conducted 31 interviews with 18–30 year old YBMSM in the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Area. This paper examines the roles of religion and spirituality in YBMSM’s lives, which is central in the lives of many African Americans. Six prominent themes emerged: (1) childhood participation in formal religious institutions; (2) the continued importance of spirituality among YBMSM; (3) homophobia and stigmatisation in traditional black churches; (4) tension between being an MSM and Christian; (5) religion and spirituality’s impact on men’s sense of personal empowerment and coping abilities; and (6) treatment of others and building compassion. Findings suggest that integrating spiritual practice into HIV prevention may help programmes be more culturally grounded, thereby attracting more men and resonating with their experiences and values. In addition, faith-based HIV/AIDS ministries that support HIV-positive YBMSM may be particularly helpful. Finally, targeting pastors and other church leaders through anti-stigma curricula is crucial. PMID:21824017

  19. 'It's my inner strength': spirituality, religion and HIV in the lives of young African American men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Foster, Michael L; Arnold, Emily; Rebchook, Gregory; Kegeles, Susan M

    2011-10-01

    Young black men who have sex with men account for 48% of 13-29-year-old HIV-positive men who have sex with men in the USA. It is important to develop an effective HIV prevention approach that is grounded in the context of young men's lives. Towards this goal, we conducted 31 interviews with 18-30-year-old men who have sex with men in the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Area. This paper examines the roles of religion and spirituality in men who have sex with men's lives, which is central in the lives of many African Americans. Six prominent themes emerged: (1) childhood participation in formal religious institutions, (2) the continued importance of spirituality among men who have sex with men, (3) homophobia and stigmatisation in traditional black churches, (4) tension between being a man who has sex with men and being a Christian, (5) religion and spirituality's impact on men's sense of personal empowerment and coping abilities and (6) treatment of others and building compassion. Findings suggest that integrating spiritual practice into HIV prevention may help programmes be more culturally grounded, thereby attracting more men and resonating with their experiences and values. In addition, faith-based HIV/AIDS ministries that support HIV-positive men who have sex with men may be particularly helpful. Finally, targeting pastors and other church leaders through anti-stigma curricula is crucial.

  20. The Relationship between African Traditional Cosmology and Students' Acquisition of a Science Process Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jegede, Olugbemiro J.; Okebukola, Peter Akinsola

    1991-01-01

    The supposition that observational skills can be influenced by students' belief in traditional African cosmology, beliefs, and superstitions was investigated. Students with a high level of belief in African traditional cosmology made fewer correct observations on the Traditional Cosmology Test (TCT) and the Test of Observational Skills (TOS) as…

  1. Pest management strategies in traditional agriculture: an African perspective.

    PubMed

    Abate, T; van Huis, A; Ampofo, J K

    2000-01-01

    African agriculture is largely traditional--characterized by a large number of smallholdings of no more than one ha per household. Crop production takes place under extremely variable agro-ecological conditions, with annual rainfall ranging from 250 to 750 mm in the Sahel in the northwest and in the semi-arid east and south, to 1500 to 4000 mm in the forest zones in the central west. Farmers often select well-adapted, stable crop varieties, and cropping systems are such that two or more crops are grown in the same field at the same time. These diverse traditional systems enhance natural enemy abundance and generally keep pest numbers at low levels. Pest management practice in traditional agriculture is a built-in process in the overall crop production system rather than a separate well-defined activity. Increased population pressure and the resulting demand for increased crop production in Africa have necessitated agricultural expansion with the concomitant decline in the overall biodiversity. Increases in plant material movement in turn facilitated the accidental introduction of foreign pests. At present about two dozen arthropod pests, both introduced and native, are recognized as one of the major constraints to agricultural production and productivity in Africa. Although yield losses of 0% to 100% have been observed on-station, the economic significance of the majority of pests under farmers' production conditions is not adequately understood. Economic and social constraints have kept pesticide use in Africa the lowest among all the world regions. The bulk of pesticides are applied mostly against pests of commercial crops such as cotton, vegetables, coffee, and cocoa, and to some extent for combating outbreaks of migratory pests such as the locusts. The majority of African farmers still rely on indigenous pest management approaches to manage pest problems, although many government extension programs encourage the use of pesticides. The current pest management

  2. Perspectives and Practices of Xhosa-Speaking African Traditional Healers when Managing Psychosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mzimkulu, Kanyiswa G.; Simbayi, Leickness C.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate perspectives and practices of Xhosa-speaking African traditional healers, known as "amagqirha", in managing psychosis. Four traditional healers, 3 male and one female, were chosen to take part in the study through their association with psychosis patients undergoing treatment at a South African psychiatric…

  3. Perceptions of the religion--health connection among African Americans in the southeastern United States: sex, age, and urban/rural differences.

    PubMed

    Holt, Cheryl L; Schulz, Emily; Wynn, Theresa A

    2009-02-01

    Extensive literature reviews suggest that religiousness is positively associated with health. Much less understood is the particular nature of the religion-health connection. Religion and the church play a central role in the lives of many African Americans. This study used a mixed-methods approach to examine perceptions of the religion-health connection among African Americans in urban and rural areas. Four hundred participants were randomly selected and interviewed by telephone, answering open-ended questions about their perceptions of the role of religiousness in their health. Data were analyzed using an open-coding technique. Codes were arranged into families involving the role of a higher power, health behavior, physical factors, social support, mental health, and contextual factors in determining physical health, as well as the potential negative role of religiousness. Quantitative analysis revealed the stronger presence of themes among women, older participants, and those in rural counties. Applications for theory and health promotion are discussed.

  4. Modern African Art: Getting beyond the Traditional To Recognize Contemporaneous Aesthetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kader, Themina

    College students in art history courses study African art more frequently than in the past. Textbooks and videos, however, do not reflect the realities of creative expression today in Africa. Rather, African art dwells on the traditional arts of the west and southern regions of Africa. This paper focuses on eastern and southern sub-Saharan Africa…

  5. Religion, Idealism, and African American Autobiography in the Northern Plains: Era Bell Thompson's "American Daughter"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Kevin; Weins, Leah

    2003-01-01

    Era Bell Thompson's "American Daughter", published in 1946 by the University of Chicago Press, is an autobiographical account of an African American woman who comes of age on the plains of North Dakota in the early twentieth century. It deserves to read and included in Great Plains studies because it recounts one of the rarest of American…

  6. The African Educational Evolution: From Traditional Training to Formal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosweunyane, Dama

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to critically examine the approaches that were employed by Africans in their knowledge, skills and attitudes acquisition before, after and during colonialisation of the continent. The paper looks at three distinctive epochs from which the perfect understanding of how learning in Africa transformed could be concluded. It is…

  7. The Relationship between African Traditional Cosmology and Students' Acquisition of a Science Process Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jegede, Olugbemiro J.; Okebukola, Peter Akinsola

    This study investigated the influence of students' belief in traditional African cosmology, beliefs, and superstitions on observation skills. Data was collected from 319 science students with a mean age of 16.9 years from one Nigerian University. Instruments used were the Traditional Cosmology Test and the Test of Observational Skills. The results…

  8. Traditional Medicines in Africa: An Appraisal of Ten Potent African Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Mahomoodally, M. Fawzi

    2013-01-01

    The use of medicinal plants as a fundamental component of the African traditional healthcare system is perhaps the oldest and the most assorted of all therapeutic systems. In many parts of rural Africa, traditional healers prescribing medicinal plants are the most easily accessible and affordable health resource available to the local community and at times the only therapy that subsists. Nonetheless, there is still a paucity of updated comprehensive compilation of promising medicinal plants from the African continent. The major focus of the present review is to provide an updated overview of 10 promising medicinal plants from the African biodiversity which have short- as well as long-term potential to be developed as future phytopharmaceuticals to treat and/or manage panoply of infectious and chronic conditions. In this endeavour, key scientific databases have been probed to investigate trends in the rapidly increasing number of scientific publications on African traditional medicinal plants. Within the framework of enhancing the significance of traditional African medicinal plants, aspects such as traditional use, phytochemical profile, in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies and also future challenges pertaining to the use of these plants have been explored. PMID:24367388

  9. Traditional medicines in Africa: an appraisal of ten potent african medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Mahomoodally, M Fawzi

    2013-01-01

    The use of medicinal plants as a fundamental component of the African traditional healthcare system is perhaps the oldest and the most assorted of all therapeutic systems. In many parts of rural Africa, traditional healers prescribing medicinal plants are the most easily accessible and affordable health resource available to the local community and at times the only therapy that subsists. Nonetheless, there is still a paucity of updated comprehensive compilation of promising medicinal plants from the African continent. The major focus of the present review is to provide an updated overview of 10 promising medicinal plants from the African biodiversity which have short- as well as long-term potential to be developed as future phytopharmaceuticals to treat and/or manage panoply of infectious and chronic conditions. In this endeavour, key scientific databases have been probed to investigate trends in the rapidly increasing number of scientific publications on African traditional medicinal plants. Within the framework of enhancing the significance of traditional African medicinal plants, aspects such as traditional use, phytochemical profile, in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies and also future challenges pertaining to the use of these plants have been explored.

  10. Art and Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shusterman, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Since the nineteenth century's interest in "art for art's sake," many thinkers have argued that art would supplant traditional religion as the spiritual locus of the increasingly secular society of Western modernity. If art can capture the sort of spirituality, idealism, and expressive community of traditional religions but without being ensnared…

  11. Beyond shamanism: the relevance of African traditional medicine in global health policy.

    PubMed

    Aginam, Obijiofor

    2007-06-01

    This article explores the tension between African traditional medicine and orthodox medicine, and argues for a cosmopolitan and inclusive health policy that integrates ethnomedical therapies into the core framework of global health architecture. The paper argues that age-old traditional therapies in Africa are relegated to the peripheries of orthodox health policy. The paper briefly discusses the accelerating pace of globalization of intellectual property rights (patents) as a factor that would continue to perpetrate bio-piracy and threaten traditional herbal therapies with extinction. The search for an inclusive global health policy opens a new vista in the interaction of traditional and orthodox medicine. The paper concludes that a sustained relegation of African traditional medicine to the margins of orthodox health policy is a phenomenon that would likely project the globalization of public health as predatory, discriminatory and unfair.

  12. Thinking about Religion from a Global Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahamson, Brant; Smith, Fred

    The Student Text begins with a comparison of Eastern and Western World Religions. The three interrelated Abrahamic faiths are compared with Hindu-Buddhist traditions. Subsequent chapter titles are: "New Religions,""Religion and Morality,""Religion and Science,""Religion and Human Life,""A Historical Perspective" and "Getting Together." An…

  13. Religion as a means to assure paternity.

    PubMed

    Strassmann, Beverly I; Kurapati, Nikhil T; Hug, Brendan F; Burke, Erin E; Gillespie, Brenda W; Karafet, Tatiana M; Hammer, Michael F

    2012-06-19

    The sacred texts of five world religions (Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism) use similar belief systems to set limits on sexual behavior. We propose that this similarity is a shared cultural solution to a biological problem: namely male uncertainty over the paternity of offspring. Furthermore, we propose the hypothesis that religious practices that more strongly regulate female sexuality should be more successful at promoting paternity certainty. Using genetic data on 1,706 father-son pairs, we tested this hypothesis in a traditional African population in which multiple religions (Islam, Christianity, and indigenous) coexist in the same families and villages. We show that the indigenous religion enables males to achieve a significantly (P = 0.019) lower probability of cuckoldry (1.3% versus 2.9%) by enforcing the honest signaling of menstruation, but that all three religions share tenets aimed at the avoidance of extrapair copulation. Our findings provide evidence for high paternity certainty in a traditional African population, and they shed light on the reproductive agendas that underlie religious patriarchy. PMID:22665788

  14. Religion as a means to assure paternity.

    PubMed

    Strassmann, Beverly I; Kurapati, Nikhil T; Hug, Brendan F; Burke, Erin E; Gillespie, Brenda W; Karafet, Tatiana M; Hammer, Michael F

    2012-06-19

    The sacred texts of five world religions (Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism) use similar belief systems to set limits on sexual behavior. We propose that this similarity is a shared cultural solution to a biological problem: namely male uncertainty over the paternity of offspring. Furthermore, we propose the hypothesis that religious practices that more strongly regulate female sexuality should be more successful at promoting paternity certainty. Using genetic data on 1,706 father-son pairs, we tested this hypothesis in a traditional African population in which multiple religions (Islam, Christianity, and indigenous) coexist in the same families and villages. We show that the indigenous religion enables males to achieve a significantly (P = 0.019) lower probability of cuckoldry (1.3% versus 2.9%) by enforcing the honest signaling of menstruation, but that all three religions share tenets aimed at the avoidance of extrapair copulation. Our findings provide evidence for high paternity certainty in a traditional African population, and they shed light on the reproductive agendas that underlie religious patriarchy.

  15. Religion as a means to assure paternity

    PubMed Central

    Strassmann, Beverly I.; Kurapati, Nikhil T.; Hug, Brendan F.; Burke, Erin E.; Gillespie, Brenda W.; Karafet, Tatiana M.; Hammer, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    The sacred texts of five world religions (Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism) use similar belief systems to set limits on sexual behavior. We propose that this similarity is a shared cultural solution to a biological problem: namely male uncertainty over the paternity of offspring. Furthermore, we propose the hypothesis that religious practices that more strongly regulate female sexuality should be more successful at promoting paternity certainty. Using genetic data on 1,706 father–son pairs, we tested this hypothesis in a traditional African population in which multiple religions (Islam, Christianity, and indigenous) coexist in the same families and villages. We show that the indigenous religion enables males to achieve a significantly (P = 0.019) lower probability of cuckoldry (1.3% versus 2.9%) by enforcing the honest signaling of menstruation, but that all three religions share tenets aimed at the avoidance of extrapair copulation. Our findings provide evidence for high paternity certainty in a traditional African population, and they shed light on the reproductive agendas that underlie religious patriarchy. PMID:22665788

  16. Using a Household Food Inventory to Assess the Availability of Traditional Vegetables among Resettled African Refugees

    PubMed Central

    Gichunge, Catherine; Somerset, Shawn; Harris, Neil

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted among household food preparers to examine the association between home availability and consumption of traditional vegetables among resettled African refugees living in Queensland, Australia. Home availability of traditional African vegetables was associated with age, having a vegetable garden, employment status, and having a supermarket in the local neighborhood. Food preparers from homes with low vegetable availability were less likely to consume the recommended number of vegetable servings. Barriers faced in the food environment included language, lack of availability of traditional vegetables and lack of transport. All of these aspects contributed to the study findings that both individual and food environment characteristics may play a role in access to and availability of food and vegetable consumption of resettled refugees. Consumption of traditional foods among the resettled refugees continues post resettlement. PMID:26797623

  17. Using a Household Food Inventory to Assess the Availability of Traditional Vegetables among Resettled African Refugees.

    PubMed

    Gichunge, Catherine; Somerset, Shawn; Harris, Neil

    2016-01-18

    A cross-sectional sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted among household food preparers to examine the association between home availability and consumption of traditional vegetables among resettled African refugees living in Queensland, Australia. Home availability of traditional African vegetables was associated with age, having a vegetable garden, employment status, and having a supermarket in the local neighborhood. Food preparers from homes with low vegetable availability were less likely to consume the recommended number of vegetable servings. Barriers faced in the food environment included language, lack of availability of traditional vegetables and lack of transport. All of these aspects contributed to the study findings that both individual and food environment characteristics may play a role in access to and availability of food and vegetable consumption of resettled refugees. Consumption of traditional foods among the resettled refugees continues post resettlement.

  18. Using a Household Food Inventory to Assess the Availability of Traditional Vegetables among Resettled African Refugees.

    PubMed

    Gichunge, Catherine; Somerset, Shawn; Harris, Neil

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted among household food preparers to examine the association between home availability and consumption of traditional vegetables among resettled African refugees living in Queensland, Australia. Home availability of traditional African vegetables was associated with age, having a vegetable garden, employment status, and having a supermarket in the local neighborhood. Food preparers from homes with low vegetable availability were less likely to consume the recommended number of vegetable servings. Barriers faced in the food environment included language, lack of availability of traditional vegetables and lack of transport. All of these aspects contributed to the study findings that both individual and food environment characteristics may play a role in access to and availability of food and vegetable consumption of resettled refugees. Consumption of traditional foods among the resettled refugees continues post resettlement. PMID:26797623

  19. African American Faculty at Traditionally White Institutions: The Impact of the "Adams" Case on Hiring Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Joseph H., Sr.

    1990-01-01

    The "Adams v. Richardson" case required states to redress inequalities in employment opportunities for African American faculty at traditionally White institutions (TWIs). Studies the impact of the litigation in nine states affected by "Adams" and finds evidence of some positive effect. Calls for greater court oversight of TWI faculty hiring. (AF)

  20. Post-Modern Career Assessment for Traditionally Disadvantaged South African Learners: Moving Away from the "Expert Opinion"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bischof, David; Alexander, Dinah

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the perceptions of learners from a disadvantaged community regarding the limitations and advantages of traditional and post-modern career assessment techniques in the South African context, when conducted in a group context. Through the use of traditional psychometric instruments, South African professionals are inclined to…

  1. The microbiota of Lafun, an African traditional cassava food product.

    PubMed

    Wilfrid Padonou, Sègla; Nielsen, Dennis S; Hounhouigan, Joseph D; Thorsen, Line; Nago, Mathurin C; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2009-07-31

    Lafun is a fermented cassava food product consumed in parts of West Africa. In the present work the microorganisms (aerobic bacteria (AB), lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts) associated with the fermentation of Lafun under traditional conditions have for the first time been studied using a combination of pheno- and genotypic methods. During Lafun fermentation the AB count ranged from 6-7 log(10) CFU/g at the beginning to 9 log(10) CFU/g at the end. Similarly, the number of LAB increased from 5 log(10) CFU/g to 9 log(10) CFU/g during the process while the yeast load increased from 3 log(10) CFU/g at the onset of the fermentation to 5-6 log(10) CFU/g at the end of the fermentation. A total of 168 isolates (31 AB, 88 LAB, and 49 yeasts) were isolated and identified by means of phenotypic tests, PCR-based methods and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The aerobic bacteria were mostly identified as belonging to the Bacillus cereus group (71%). The B. cereus isolates lacked the genetic determinant specific for cereulide producers but harboured several genes encoding the heat-labile toxins hemolysin BL and nonhemolytic enterotoxin as detected by PCR. The other aerobic bacteria isolated were Gram negative and identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pantoea agglomerans. The dominant LAB were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum (42% of LAB isolates) followed by Lactobacillus plantarum (30%) and Weissella confusa (18%). Seven isolates remained unidentified and constitute probably a novel LAB species. The predominant yeast species associated with Lafun fermentation were Saccharomyces cerevisiae (22% of yeast isolates), Pichia scutulata (20%), Kluyveromyces marxianus (18%), Hanseniaspora guilliermondii (12%), Pichia rhodanensis (8%) and Candida glabrata (8%) as well as Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida tropicalis and Trichosporon asahii at lower incidence (<5% each). PMID:19493582

  2. Secular Humanism vs. Religion? The Liberal Democratic Education Tradition and the Battle over Vouchers in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Todd Alan

    2007-01-01

    Since Mueller vs. Allen (1983), several legal decisions have attempted to clarify what is the appropriate relationship between religion and public education in a democratic society. During this time, the United States legal system has shifted, moving the historic "establishment clause" away from a strict "separationist" view…

  3. Culturally Competent Counseling for Religious and Spiritual African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore-Thomas, Cheryl; Day-Vines, Norma L.

    2008-01-01

    Religion and spirituality are deeply rooted in traditional African American culture. Data suggest that African American adolescents maintain higher baseline rates of religious activities and beliefs than their peers (Bachman, Johnston, & O'Malley, 2005; Smith, Faris, Denton, & Regnerus, 2003). Recognizing these data, this article examines…

  4. Knowledge and Uses of African Pangolins as a Source of Traditional Medicine in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Boakye, Maxwell Kwame; Pietersen, Darren William; Kotzé, Antoinette; Dalton, Desiré-Lee; Jansen, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Traditional medicine has been practised in Ghana for centuries with the majority of Ghanaians still patronising the services of traditional healers. Throughout Africa a large number of people use pangolins as a source of traditional medicine, however, there is a dearth of information on the use of animals in folk medicine in Ghana, in particular the use of pangolins. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalent use of pangolins and the level of knowledge of pangolin use among traditional healers in Ghana for the treatment of human ailments. Data was gathered from 48 traditional healers using semi-structured interviews on the traditional medicinal use of pangolin body parts in the Kumasi metropolis of Ghana. The cultural importance index, relative frequency of citation, informant agreement ratio and use agreement values were calculated to ascertain the most culturally important pangolin body part as well as the level of knowledge dissemination among traditional healers with regards pangolin body parts. Our study revealed that 13 body parts of pangolins are used to treat various medicinal ailments. Pangolin scales and bones were the most prevalent prescribed body parts and indicated the highest cultural significance among traditional healing practices primarily for the treatment of spiritual protection, rheumatism, financial rituals and convulsions. Despite being classified under Schedule 1 of Ghana’s Wildlife Conservation Act of 1971 (LI 685), that prohibits anyone from hunting or being in possession of a pangolin, our results indicated that the use of pangolins for traditional medicinal purposes is widespread among traditional healers in Ghana. A study on the population status and ecology of the three species of African pangolins occurring in Ghana is urgently required in order to determine the impact this harvest for traditional medical purposes has on their respective populations as current levels appear to be unmonitored and unsustainable. PMID

  5. Knowledge and uses of African pangolins as a source of traditional medicine in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Boakye, Maxwell Kwame; Pietersen, Darren William; Kotzé, Antoinette; Dalton, Desiré-Lee; Jansen, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Traditional medicine has been practised in Ghana for centuries with the majority of Ghanaians still patronising the services of traditional healers. Throughout Africa a large number of people use pangolins as a source of traditional medicine, however, there is a dearth of information on the use of animals in folk medicine in Ghana, in particular the use of pangolins. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalent use of pangolins and the level of knowledge of pangolin use among traditional healers in Ghana for the treatment of human ailments. Data was gathered from 48 traditional healers using semi-structured interviews on the traditional medicinal use of pangolin body parts in the Kumasi metropolis of Ghana. The cultural importance index, relative frequency of citation, informant agreement ratio and use agreement values were calculated to ascertain the most culturally important pangolin body part as well as the level of knowledge dissemination among traditional healers with regards pangolin body parts. Our study revealed that 13 body parts of pangolins are used to treat various medicinal ailments. Pangolin scales and bones were the most prevalent prescribed body parts and indicated the highest cultural significance among traditional healing practices primarily for the treatment of spiritual protection, rheumatism, financial rituals and convulsions. Despite being classified under Schedule 1 of Ghana's Wildlife Conservation Act of 1971 (LI 685), that prohibits anyone from hunting or being in possession of a pangolin, our results indicated that the use of pangolins for traditional medicinal purposes is widespread among traditional healers in Ghana. A study on the population status and ecology of the three species of African pangolins occurring in Ghana is urgently required in order to determine the impact this harvest for traditional medical purposes has on their respective populations as current levels appear to be unmonitored and unsustainable.

  6. Knowledge and uses of African pangolins as a source of traditional medicine in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Boakye, Maxwell Kwame; Pietersen, Darren William; Kotzé, Antoinette; Dalton, Desiré-Lee; Jansen, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Traditional medicine has been practised in Ghana for centuries with the majority of Ghanaians still patronising the services of traditional healers. Throughout Africa a large number of people use pangolins as a source of traditional medicine, however, there is a dearth of information on the use of animals in folk medicine in Ghana, in particular the use of pangolins. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalent use of pangolins and the level of knowledge of pangolin use among traditional healers in Ghana for the treatment of human ailments. Data was gathered from 48 traditional healers using semi-structured interviews on the traditional medicinal use of pangolin body parts in the Kumasi metropolis of Ghana. The cultural importance index, relative frequency of citation, informant agreement ratio and use agreement values were calculated to ascertain the most culturally important pangolin body part as well as the level of knowledge dissemination among traditional healers with regards pangolin body parts. Our study revealed that 13 body parts of pangolins are used to treat various medicinal ailments. Pangolin scales and bones were the most prevalent prescribed body parts and indicated the highest cultural significance among traditional healing practices primarily for the treatment of spiritual protection, rheumatism, financial rituals and convulsions. Despite being classified under Schedule 1 of Ghana's Wildlife Conservation Act of 1971 (LI 685), that prohibits anyone from hunting or being in possession of a pangolin, our results indicated that the use of pangolins for traditional medicinal purposes is widespread among traditional healers in Ghana. A study on the population status and ecology of the three species of African pangolins occurring in Ghana is urgently required in order to determine the impact this harvest for traditional medical purposes has on their respective populations as current levels appear to be unmonitored and unsustainable. PMID:25602281

  7. Perspectives on the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria from African traditional fermented foods and beverages

    PubMed Central

    Mokoena, Mduduzi Paul; Mutanda, Taurai; Olaniran, Ademola O.

    2016-01-01

    Diverse African traditional fermented foods and beverages, produced using different types of fermentation, have been used since antiquity because of their numerous nutritional values. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from these products have emerged as a welcome source of antimicrobials and therapeutics, and are accepted as probiotics. Probiotics are defined as live microbial food supplements which beneficially affect the host by improving the intestinal microbial balance. Currently, popular probiotics are derived from fermented milk products. However, with the growing number of consumers with lactose intolerance that are affected by dietary cholesterol from milk products, there is a growing global interest in probiotics from other food sources. The focus of this review is to provide an overview of recent developments on the applications of probiotic LAB globally, and to specifically highlight the suitability of African fermented foods and beverages as a viable source of novel probiotics. PMID:26960543

  8. Perspectives on the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria from African traditional fermented foods and beverages.

    PubMed

    Mokoena, Mduduzi Paul; Mutanda, Taurai; Olaniran, Ademola O

    2016-01-01

    Diverse African traditional fermented foods and beverages, produced using different types of fermentation, have been used since antiquity because of their numerous nutritional values. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from these products have emerged as a welcome source of antimicrobials and therapeutics, and are accepted as probiotics. Probiotics are defined as live microbial food supplements which beneficially affect the host by improving the intestinal microbial balance. Currently, popular probiotics are derived from fermented milk products. However, with the growing number of consumers with lactose intolerance that are affected by dietary cholesterol from milk products, there is a growing global interest in probiotics from other food sources. The focus of this review is to provide an overview of recent developments on the applications of probiotic LAB globally, and to specifically highlight the suitability of African fermented foods and beverages as a viable source of novel probiotics. PMID:26960543

  9. Religions in Fiction for Junior and Senior High Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knafle, June D.

    2001-01-01

    Examines current adolescent fiction of award-winning and widely read authors according to religious themes concerning Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Native American religions, African spirit religions, and the occult, supernatural, and New Age. Finds that the portrayal of religions and its adherents is very mixed, depending upon the religion.…

  10. In vitro testing of African traditional medicines for cytotoxic, immune modulatory and anti-HIV activities.

    PubMed

    Gqaleni, Nceba; Ngcobo, Mlungisi; Parboosing, Raveen; Naidoo, Anneta

    2012-01-01

    African Traditional Medicines (ATMs) serve as a major source of primary healthcare for African people. The reasons for their use range from easy access, affordability, beliefs in traditional systems and long term safety. ATMs have been used to treat individuals infected with HIV and therefore need scientific validation; a view supported by Traditional Health Practitioners (THPs). This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity, immune modulatory and anti-HIV activities of traditional multiple herbal preparations from local THPs. Ugambu, Ihashi, Product Nene, Product Blue, SPNa and SDKc ATM were supplied by local THPs. Changes in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) & glutathione (GSH) over 24 hours were measured using luminometry. Changes in 12 cytokines were assayed using an ELISA-based absorbance assay. Protective effects against HIV killing of MT-4 cells were tested using the XTT assay and antiviral activity was measured using an HIV-1 viral load assay. Cyclosporine and AZT were used as positive controls. Ugambu, Ihashi, Product Nene and SDKc induced a dose dependent toxicity on treated PBMCs by reducing ATP and GSH at high doses (p< 0.001). These medicinal preparations, along with SPNa, showed immunomodulatory activity by significantly (p< 0.001) changing the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Product Blue stimulated the levels of ATP and GSH in treated PBMCs at all doses however this product did not show any immunomodulatory activity on cytokine secretion when compared to control cells. Ugambu, Ihashi, Product Nene showed promising anti-HIV activity relative to AZT (p< 0.01). This study has shown that some of these traditional medicinal preparations have at least one or all the properties of immunostimulation, immunomodulation or antiretroviral effects. The mechanism of action of the shown activities should further be investigated.

  11. Perspectives of Indian traditional and allopathic professionals on religion/spirituality and its role in medicine: basis for developing an integrative medicine program.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, P; Dias, A; Rane, A; Shukla, A; Lakshmi, S; Ansari, B K M; Ramaswamy, R S; Reddy, A R; Tribulato, A; Agarwal, A K; Bhat, J; SatyaPrasad, N; Mushtaq, A; Rao, P H; Murthy, P; Koenig, H G

    2014-08-01

    Allopathic medical professionals in developed nations have started to collaborate with traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine (TCAM) to enquire on the role of religion/spirituality (r/s) in patient care. There is scant evidence of such movement in the Indian medical community. We aim to understand the perspectives of Indian TCAM and allopathic professionals on the influence of r/s in health. Using RSMPP (Religion, Spirituality and Medicine, Physician Perspectives) questionnaire, a cross-sectional survey was conducted at seven (five TCAM and two allopathic) pre-selected tertiary care medical institutes in India. Findings of TCAM and allopathic groups were compared. Majority in both groups (75% of TCAM and 84.6% of allopathic practitioners) believed that patients' spiritual focus increases with illness. Up to 58% of TCAM and allopathic respondents report patients receiving support from their religious communities; 87% of TCAM and 73% of allopaths believed spiritual healing to be beneficial and complementary to allopathic medical care. Only 11% of allopaths, as against 40% of TCAM, had reportedly received 'formal' training in r/s. Both TCAM (81.8%) and allopathic (63.7%) professionals agree that spirituality as an academic subject merits inclusion in health education programs (p = 0.0003). Inclusion of spirituality in the health care system is a need for Indian medical professionals as well as their patients, and it could form the basis for integrating TCAM and allopathic medical systems in India.

  12. Therapeutic Potential of a Drum and Dance Ceremony Based on the African Ngoma Tradition

    PubMed Central

    Vinesett, Ava L.; Price, Miurel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Ngoma ceremonies are used throughout Central and South Africa to help people address “difficult issues,” including medical illness. They are examples of ceremonies that use strong rhythms and dance for this purpose in indigenous cultures throughout the world. This study sought to modify an ngoma ceremony to make it appropriate for biomedical use and to determine its acceptance and potential for benefit for people living in the United States. Methods: The Congolese Zebola ceremony, an African healing practice, was modified to be religion-neutral and to involve only moderate exercise. Seventeen participants were recruited for the current study. Most participants were living with a chronic illness (n=15), and a few had no medical diagnoses (n=2). Participants spent 10 minutes in a focused activity, such as meditation, yoga, or prayer. They then danced to the Congolese rhythm Zebola for an hour and a half, with a rest every 20 minutes. Afterward, they indicated whether the experience was positive, neutral, or negative and wrote a narrative describing their experience and what they saw as strengths and weaknesses of the ceremony. They then participated in a focus group discussion. Data from the narrative and focus group discussion were coded, tabulated, and analyzed for themes. Results: Sixteen of seventeen participants found the ceremony to be a positive experience. None found the form uncomfortably foreign or disturbing. Participants described diverse benefits, including increased exercise tolerance, stress reduction, feelings of group support, and beneficial spiritual experiences. Conclusions: Further study of the modified ngoma ceremony is warranted. Global health programs should consider the potential benefits of transferring technologies in both directions rather than only from technologically advanced countries to less technologically advanced ones. PMID:26171652

  13. Inhibitory activities of omega-3 Fatty acids and traditional african remedies on keloid fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Olaitan, Peter B; Chen, I-Ping; Norris, James E C; Feinn, Richard; Oluwatosin, Odunayo M; Reichenberger, Ernst J

    2011-04-01

    Keloids develop when scar tissue responds to skin trauma with proliferative fibrous growths that extend beyond the boundaries of the original wound and progress for several months or years. Keloids most frequently occur in individuals of indigenous sub-Saharan African origin. The etiology for keloids is still unknown and treatment can be problematic as patients respond differently to various treatment modalities. Keloids have a high rate of recurrence following surgical excision. Some West African patients claim to have had successful outcomes with traditional African remedies-boa constrictor oil (BCO) and shea butter-leading the authors to investigate their effects on cultured fibroblasts. The effects of emulsions of BCO, fish oil, isolated omega-3 fatty acids, and shea butter were tested in comparison to triamcinolone regarding inhibition of cell growth in keloid and control fibroblast cultures. In a series of controlled studies, it was observed that fish oil and BCO were more effective than triamcinolone, and that cis-5, 8, 11, 14, 17-eicosapentaenoic acid was more effective than -linolenic acid. While cell counts in control cultures continuously decreased over a period of 5 days, cell counts in keloid cultures consistently declined between day 1 and day 3, and then increased between day 3 and day 5 for all tested reagents except for fish oil. These results suggest that oils rich in omega-3 fatty acids may be effective in reducing actively proliferating keloid fibroblasts. Additional studies are warranted to investigate whether oils rich in omega-3 fatty acids offer effective and affordable treatment for some keloid patients, especially in the developing world.

  14. Sick certificates issued by South African traditional health practitioners: current legislation, challenges and the way forward.

    PubMed

    Mbatha, Nompumelelo; Street, Renee Anne; Ngcobo, Mlungisi; Gqaleni, Nceba

    2012-03-01

    Traditional health practitioners (THPs) play a significant role in South African healthcare. However, the Basic Conditions of Employment Act (BCEA) does not consider sick notes issued by THPs to be valid. This creates a dilemma for employees, whose right to consult a practitioner of their choice is protected by the Constitution. We assessed the current legislation and highlight the challenges that employees face in selecting a healthcare system of their choice. The services of THPs represent an untapped capacity that can complement and strengthen healthcare services, especially in the workforce. The BCEA legislative technicality, coupled with the delayed establishment of the Interim THP Council, does not relieve the employer's burden of 'illegitimate' medical certificates issued by THPs. While seen as a dilemma for some employers, others have accommodated African cultural beliefs and accept THP-issued sick notes. Finalising the Interim THP Council will allow THP registration and oblige employers to honour sick notes issued by THPs. The empowerment of THPs to play a meaningful role in healthcare delivery is of national importance. PMID:22380899

  15. Potential pharmacokinetic interactions between antiretrovirals and medicinal plants used as complementary and African traditional medicines.

    PubMed

    Müller, Adrienne C; Kanfer, Isadore

    2011-11-01

    The use of traditional/complementary/alternate medicines (TCAMs) in HIV/AIDS patients who reside in Southern Africa is quite common. Those who use TCAMs in addition to antiretroviral (ARV) treatment may be at risk of experiencing clinically significant pharmacokinetic (PK) interactions, particularly between the TCAMs and the protease inhibitors (PIs) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). Mechanisms of PK interactions include alterations to the normal functioning of drug efflux transporters, such as P-gp and/or CYP isoenzymes, such a CYP3A4 that mediate the absorption and elimination of drugs in the small intestine and liver. Specific mechanisms include inhibition and activation of these proteins and induction via the pregnane X receptor (PXR). Several clinical studies and case reports involving ARV-herb PK interactions have been reported. St John's Wort, Garlic and Cat's Claw exhibited potentially significant interactions, each with a PI or NNRTI. The potential for these herbs to induce PK interactions with drugs was first identified in reports of in vitro studies. Other in vitro studies have shown that several African traditional medicinal (ATM) plants and extracts may also demonstrate PK interactions with ARVs, through effects on CYP3A4, P-gp and PXR. The most complex effects were exhibited by Hypoxis hemerocallidea, Sutherlandia frutescens, Cyphostemma hildebrandtii, Acacia nilotica, Agauria salicifolia and Elaeodendron buchananii. Despite a high incidence of HIV/AIDs in the African region, only one clinical study, between efavirenz and Hypoxis hemerocallidea has been conducted. However, several issues/concerns still remain to be addressed and thus more studies on ATMs are warranted in order for more meaningful data to be generated and the true potential for such interactions to be determined.

  16. Health care-seeking among Latino immigrants: blocked access, use of traditional medicine, and the role of religion.

    PubMed

    Ransford, H Edward; Carrillo, Frank R; Rivera, Yessenia

    2010-08-01

    Barriers to health care and use of cultural alternatives are studied from open-ended interviews of 96 Latino immigrants, 12 hometown association leaders, and five pastors and health outreach workers. Frequently mentioned barriers to approaching hospitals and clinics included problems in communication, establishing financial eligibility, and extremely long waits for service. We found frequent use of cultural alternatives, such as herbal medications, obtaining care from Mexican doctors, and some use of traditional healers. The role of religiosity is studied: prayer is viewed as fundamental to health, but the church is not perceived as an aid in physical health-seeking. Health care for Latino immigrants often involves a blend of mainstream and traditional medicine; the study discusses examples of respondents who navigate between the two systems within the interplay of culture and structure.

  17. Spirituality, Religion, and Peace Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantmeier, Edward J., Ed.; Lin, Jing, Ed.; Miller, John P., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Spirituality, Religion, and Peace Education" attempts to deeply explore the universal and particular dimensions of education for inner and communal peace. This co-edited book contains fifteen chapters on world spiritual traditions, religions, and their connections and relevance to peacebuilding and peacemaking. This book examines the teachings…

  18. Diversity in the World's Religions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carse, James

    1994-01-01

    There is no single element by which all religions can be compared. Often, we cannot understand a culture until we understand how its religious traditions differ from those of other cultures. Since many of the world's conflicts have religion at their center, resolution will require more widespread awareness of how misunderstandings occur. (MSE)

  19. Tamarindus indica L. (Fabaceae): patterns of use in traditional African medicine.

    PubMed

    Havinga, Reinout M; Hartl, Anna; Putscher, Johanna; Prehsler, Sarah; Buchmann, Christine; Vogl, Christian R

    2010-02-17

    To increase the understanding of the ethnopharmacology of a single species, elaboration of dispersed primary data is required. Tamarindus indica L. (Fabaceae), or tamarind, is a common tree, especially in West Africa, with a good potential to contribute to affordable local health care based on traditional medicine (TM). For this single species review, more than 60 references with detailed information on the ethnopharmacology of Tamarindus indica in the African context were selected. It showed that most prominently, the fruits are used as laxative or febrifuge throughout the Sahel and Soudan ecological zones. Tamarind bark and leaves are often involved in the treatment of wounds, especially in central West Africa. While the bark is used to treat diarrhoea in West Africa, the leaves are used for this purpose in East Africa. Our findings suggest a difference in the way tamarind is used between East and West Africa and we assess the similarities of its uses within those regions. This review demonstrates the capability of literature research to reveal knowledge by mining and compiling information from the growing body of primary ethnopharmacologic data, much of which is published in this journal. By creating a specific profile of tamarind in the context of traditional medicine throughout Africa, the authors contribute to the collection of current ethnobotanic species accounts on Tamarindus indica that tend to be qualitative and more general.

  20. Political will, traditional leaders and the fight against HIV/AIDS: a South African case study.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    "Political will" and leadership are increasingly considered key contextual influences on the outcomes of HIV/AIDS programmes in sub-Saharan Africa. Such debates tend to focus on the role of national leadership in shaping responses to the epidemic, with little attention to local leaders. Yet many of the settings in which HIV/AIDS flourishes are geographically distant from the reach of national leadership and policies. Furthermore, local leaders often play a key role in shaping how national policies and decisions are interpreted and implemented in local areas. Against this background, we present a case study of the impact of the leadership style of a traditional Chief on a community-based AIDS programme in a South African rural community, which sought to build community-level "AIDS competence", using the "empowerment via participation" approach. The case study involved 134 interviews and 57 focus groups conducted over three years. Thematic content analysis revealed a number of direct and indirect ways in which his leadership style impacted on project outcomes. Despite his strong support for the programme, the Chief's "traditional" attitudes towards women and youth, his celebration of polygamy, and his authoritarian governance style undermined the project's "empowerment via participation" agenda - especially the programme's attempts to reduce AIDS stigma, to build female and youth capacity to control their sexual health, and to encourage men to take responsibility for their role in tackling AIDS.

  1. Comparative Religions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, M. R.

    The two week course on comparative religions for secondary grade students consists of nine mini-packets. Course objectives for each student are to write a paragraph explaining the fundamental doctrines and concepts of the world religions that he chooses to study and to list the name and address of specific places of worship in the county in which…

  2. Who We Are: (In)visible African American Women Setting Traditions of Excellence and Paving Paths for Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Bryant, Camille

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this lecture is to provide the voice and visibility of African American women who have upheld the tradition of excellence set by Amy Morris Homans in the development of physical education in higher education for women and set pathways to transition our field to be more inclusive and diverse and have served as transformative leaders…

  3. Risks to birds traded for African traditional medicine: a quantitative assessment.

    PubMed

    Williams, Vivienne L; Cunningham, Anthony B; Kemp, Alan C; Bruyns, Robin K

    2014-01-01

    Few regional or continent-wide assessments of bird use for traditional medicine have been attempted anywhere in the world. Africa has the highest known diversity of bird species used for this purpose. This study assesses the vulnerability of 354 bird species used for traditional medicine in 25 African countries, from 205 genera, 70 families, and 25 orders. The orders most represented were Passeriformes (107 species), Falconiformes (45 species), and Coraciiformes (24 species), and the families Accipitridae (37 species), Ardeidae (15 species), and Bucerotidae (12 species). The Barn owl (Tyto alba) was the most widely sold species (seven countries). The similarity of avifaunal orders traded is high (analogous to "morphospecies", and using Sørensen's index), which suggests opportunities for a common understanding of cultural factors driving demand. The highest similarity was between bird orders sold in markets of Benin vs. Burkina Faso (90%), but even bird orders sold in two geographically separated countries (Benin vs. South Africa and Nigeria vs. South Africa) were 87% and 81% similar, respectively. Rabinowitz's "7 forms of rarity" model, used to group species according to commonness or rarity, indicated that 24% of traded bird species are very common, locally abundant in several habitats, and occur over a large geographical area, but 10% are rare, occur in low numbers in specific habitats, and over a small geographical area. The order with the highest proportion of rare species was the Musophagiformes. An analysis of species mass (as a proxy for size) indicated that large and/or conspicuous species tend to be targeted by harvesters for the traditional medicine trade. Furthermore, based on cluster analyses for species groups of similar risk, vultures, hornbills, and other large avifauna, such as bustards, are most threatened by selective harvesting and should be prioritised for conservation action. PMID:25162700

  4. Risks to Birds Traded for African Traditional Medicine: A Quantitative Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Vivienne L.; Cunningham, Anthony B.; Kemp, Alan C.; Bruyns, Robin K.

    2014-01-01

    Few regional or continent-wide assessments of bird use for traditional medicine have been attempted anywhere in the world. Africa has the highest known diversity of bird species used for this purpose. This study assesses the vulnerability of 354 bird species used for traditional medicine in 25 African countries, from 205 genera, 70 families, and 25 orders. The orders most represented were Passeriformes (107 species), Falconiformes (45 species), and Coraciiformes (24 species), and the families Accipitridae (37 species), Ardeidae (15 species), and Bucerotidae (12 species). The Barn owl (Tyto alba) was the most widely sold species (seven countries). The similarity of avifaunal orders traded is high (analogous to “morphospecies”, and using Sørensen's index), which suggests opportunities for a common understanding of cultural factors driving demand. The highest similarity was between bird orders sold in markets of Benin vs. Burkina Faso (90%), but even bird orders sold in two geographically separated countries (Benin vs. South Africa and Nigeria vs. South Africa) were 87% and 81% similar, respectively. Rabinowitz's “7 forms of rarity” model, used to group species according to commonness or rarity, indicated that 24% of traded bird species are very common, locally abundant in several habitats, and occur over a large geographical area, but 10% are rare, occur in low numbers in specific habitats, and over a small geographical area. The order with the highest proportion of rare species was the Musophagiformes. An analysis of species mass (as a proxy for size) indicated that large and/or conspicuous species tend to be targeted by harvesters for the traditional medicine trade. Furthermore, based on cluster analyses for species groups of similar risk, vultures, hornbills, and other large avifauna, such as bustards, are most threatened by selective harvesting and should be prioritised for conservation action. PMID:25162700

  5. Risks to birds traded for African traditional medicine: a quantitative assessment.

    PubMed

    Williams, Vivienne L; Cunningham, Anthony B; Kemp, Alan C; Bruyns, Robin K

    2014-01-01

    Few regional or continent-wide assessments of bird use for traditional medicine have been attempted anywhere in the world. Africa has the highest known diversity of bird species used for this purpose. This study assesses the vulnerability of 354 bird species used for traditional medicine in 25 African countries, from 205 genera, 70 families, and 25 orders. The orders most represented were Passeriformes (107 species), Falconiformes (45 species), and Coraciiformes (24 species), and the families Accipitridae (37 species), Ardeidae (15 species), and Bucerotidae (12 species). The Barn owl (Tyto alba) was the most widely sold species (seven countries). The similarity of avifaunal orders traded is high (analogous to "morphospecies", and using Sørensen's index), which suggests opportunities for a common understanding of cultural factors driving demand. The highest similarity was between bird orders sold in markets of Benin vs. Burkina Faso (90%), but even bird orders sold in two geographically separated countries (Benin vs. South Africa and Nigeria vs. South Africa) were 87% and 81% similar, respectively. Rabinowitz's "7 forms of rarity" model, used to group species according to commonness or rarity, indicated that 24% of traded bird species are very common, locally abundant in several habitats, and occur over a large geographical area, but 10% are rare, occur in low numbers in specific habitats, and over a small geographical area. The order with the highest proportion of rare species was the Musophagiformes. An analysis of species mass (as a proxy for size) indicated that large and/or conspicuous species tend to be targeted by harvesters for the traditional medicine trade. Furthermore, based on cluster analyses for species groups of similar risk, vultures, hornbills, and other large avifauna, such as bustards, are most threatened by selective harvesting and should be prioritised for conservation action.

  6. Lead poisoning from metallic teapots traditionally used by North African populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, D.; Claeys, F.; Sykes, C.; Noefnet, Y.

    2003-05-01

    When children are found in Brussels with high blood lead level (PbB), over 200 μg/l, the LICB conducts an environmental study to determine the source of lead responsible for the intoxication. The study consists in filling a risk questionnaire, followed by a family interview and an investigation of the housing. Standard samples of lead sources are collected (dust, paint chips and water). If this first investigation is negative, further investigations are carried out. In one particular case of lead intoxication, which concerned in a family of Moroccan origin, no standard source could be identified. Our case study finally concluded that tea infusions prepared in a traditional North-African metallic teapot had caused lead poisoning. This investigation began with a single intoxication case of a young child (age 18 months, PbB 495 μg/l). However, it quickly appeared that 18 other members of his family had also been contaminated (PbB 3 ranged from 155 to 455 μg/l). Faced with this relative unknown lead hazard, the LICB decided to collect and analyse the leachability and content in lead of this kind of vessel (8 teapots from different origin were tested). The lead contents measured in the metallic teapots ranged from 3.2% to 84%. The lead concentrations found in brewed tea varied from 230 to 5070 μg/l in function of the lead teapot content and of number of daily preparation.

  7. African-American Voices in Young Adult Literature: Tradition, Transition, Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karen Patricia, Ed.

    This book contains a collection of 14 original essays. The purpose of the book is to inform teachers, librarians, and other professionals working with young people about aspects of African-American literature and to stimulate further thinking about this literature. After an introduction, chapters in the book are: (1) "African-American Young Adult…

  8. Traditional Healing, Biomedicine and the Treatment of HIV/AIDS: Contrasting South African and Native American Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Flint, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Traditional healing remains an important aspect of many people’s engagement with healthcare and, in this, responses to the treatment of HIV/AIDS are no different. However, given the gravity of the global HIV/AIDS pandemic, there has been much debate as to the value of traditional healing in this respect. Accordingly, this paper explores the extent to which meaningful accommodation between the biomedical and traditional sectors is possible (and/or even desirable). It does this through a consideration of Native American and South African experiences, looking at how the respective groups, in which medical pluralism is common, have addressed the issue of HIV/AIDS. The paper points to the importance of developing “culturally appropriate” forms of treatment that emphasise complementary rather than adversarial engagement between the traditional and biomedical systems and how policymakers can best facilitate this. PMID:25903057

  9. Traditional healing, biomedicine and the treatment of HIV/AIDS: contrasting south african and native American experiences.

    PubMed

    Flint, Adrian

    2015-04-20

    Traditional healing remains an important aspect of many people's engagement with healthcare and, in this, responses to the treatment of HIV/AIDS are no different. However, given the gravity of the global HIV/AIDS pandemic, there has been much debate as to the value of traditional healing in this respect. Accordingly, this paper explores the extent to which meaningful accommodation between the biomedical and traditional sectors is possible (and/or even desirable). It does this through a consideration of Native American and South African experiences, looking at how the respective groups, in which medical pluralism is common, have addressed the issue of HIV/AIDS. The paper points to the importance of developing "culturally appropriate" forms of treatment that emphasise complementary rather than adversarial engagement between the traditional and biomedical systems and how policymakers can best facilitate this.

  10. Religion as a Natural Phenomenon

    SciTech Connect

    Dennett, Daniel

    2006-02-15

    Religion is a costly human activity that has evolved over the millennia. Why does it exist and how does it foster such powerful allegiances? To undertake a serious scientific study of religious practices and attitudes we must set aside a traditional exemption from scrutiny which religions have enjoyed. Religious adherents may not welcome this attention, but we should press ahead with it, since if we don't come to understand religion as a natural phenomenon, our attempts to deal with the problems that loom in the twenty-first century will likely be counterproductive.

  11. Religion as a Natural Phenomenon

    ScienceCinema

    Dennett, Daniel [Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

    2016-07-12

    Religion is a costly human activity that has evolved over the millennia. Why does it exist and how does it foster such powerful allegiances? To undertake a serious scientific study of religious practices and attitudes we must set aside a traditional exemption from scrutiny which religions have enjoyed. Religious adherents may not welcome this attention, but we should press ahead with it, since if we don't come to understand religion as a natural phenomenon, our attempts to deal with the problems that loom in the twenty-first century will likely be counterproductive.

  12. Characteristics and phylogeny of Bacillus cereus strains isolated from Maari, a traditional West African food condiment.

    PubMed

    Thorsen, Line; Kando, Christine Kere; Sawadogo, Hagrétou; Larsen, Nadja; Diawara, Bréhima; Ouédraogo, Georges Anicet; Hendriksen, Niels Bohse; Jespersen, Lene

    2015-03-01

    , while the remaining isolates (PanC type IV) were detected in ash, at 48-72h fermentation and in the final product. This work sheds light on the succession and pathogenic potential of B. cereus species in traditional West African food condiment and clarifies their phylogenetic relatedness to B. cereus biovar anthracis. Future implementation of GMP and HACCP and development of starter cultures for controlled Maari fermentations will help to ensure a safe product.

  13. Predicting Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revell, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the influence of liberal ideas on the capacity for Religious Education (RE) to consider religions critically in a climate of increasing government intervention in education. It finds that criticality in some areas of RE is absent or limited but that in key areas criticality is evident if not always deeply embedded. It…

  14. Religion Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Argues that nowhere is it more important to address religious diversity than in the public schools--the principal institution charged with enabling Americans to live with their deepest differences. Discusses the First Amendment and how the American press is handling religion. Addresses religious liberty in schools and religious liberty rights of…

  15. Unpacking the new proposed regulations for South African traditional health practitioners.

    PubMed

    Street, Renee Anne

    2016-04-01

    South Africa (SA) has legislation that regulates almost all of its healthcare systems. The Traditional Health Practitoners Act finally provides legitimisation of an overwhelmingly popular indigenous healthcare system. However, as a consequence of the legal acknowledgement of traditional health practitioners, traditional medicine products must now also be brought under regulatory measures. If traditional medicines are to be prescribed, marketed and sold as part of a healthcare system recognised under SA law, they must meet the same stringent standards. PMID:27032840

  16. Tradition, globalisation and language dilemma in education: African options for the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rwantabagu, Hermenegilde

    2011-08-01

    This paper addresses the dilemma of language in education in African countries with particular reference to Burundi. African languages are still marginalised by colonial languages such as French and English. Looking at other African countries in general and at the case of Burundi in detail, an analysis is made of the adopted policies aimed at promoting the use of the mother tongue as a basis for knowledge acquisition and cultural integration. Burundi has gone through a series of educational reforms both before and after gaining independence in 1962, with French and Kirundi competing as curricular teaching languages. After the integration of Burundi into the East African Community in July 2007, English and Kiswahili were added to the curriculum, complicating education policies. This article places particular emphasis on the contextual challenges that tend to impair the full implementation of the adopted policy reforms. The paper concludes by advocating for a multilingual approach in which the indigenous mother tongue serves as the basis for the acquisition of other languages in the curriculum.

  17. Tradition and Modernization: Siting Philosophy for Children within the African Outlook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndofirepi, Amasa Philip; Cross, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In this philosophical paper, we investigate the project of doing philosophy with children in Africa. While the philosophy for children program has its roots in the Anglo-Saxon world, we contend that it can sit well in Africa if given an African outlook. We challenge Eurocentric specialists, who are attempting a wholesale introduction of the…

  18. Religion, bioethics and nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Marsha D

    2009-07-01

    This article calls nursing to engage in the study of religions and identifies six considerations that arise in religious studies and the ways in which religious faith is expressed. It argues that whole-person care cannot be realized, neither can there be a complete understanding of bioethics theory and decision making, without a rigorous understanding of religious-ethical systems. Because religious traditions differ in their cosmology, ontology, epistemology, aesthetic, and ethical methods, and because religious subtraditions interact with specific cultures, each religion and subtradition has something distinctive to offer to ethical discourse. A brief example is drawn from Native American religions, specifically their view of ;speech' and ;words'. Although the example is particular to an American context, it is intended to demonstrate a more general principle that an understanding of religion per se can yield new insights for bioethics. PMID:19528097

  19. Religion, bioethics and nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Marsha D

    2009-07-01

    This article calls nursing to engage in the study of religions and identifies six considerations that arise in religious studies and the ways in which religious faith is expressed. It argues that whole-person care cannot be realized, neither can there be a complete understanding of bioethics theory and decision making, without a rigorous understanding of religious-ethical systems. Because religious traditions differ in their cosmology, ontology, epistemology, aesthetic, and ethical methods, and because religious subtraditions interact with specific cultures, each religion and subtradition has something distinctive to offer to ethical discourse. A brief example is drawn from Native American religions, specifically their view of ;speech' and ;words'. Although the example is particular to an American context, it is intended to demonstrate a more general principle that an understanding of religion per se can yield new insights for bioethics.

  20. The Origins of Religion: Cosmology and Cultivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Mary Evelyn

    1998-01-01

    Brings religion and natural science into a new whole, as the basis of religious trust and faith. Characterizes religion as mediating between nature and the individual, and provides examples from the major religious traditions. Explains the challenge of knowing the universe by linking the inner self with the natural world. (Author/SD)

  1. Science and Religion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Numbers, Ronald L.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews the history of science and religion in the United States, examining: (1) science and religion in the colonies; (2) science and scripture in the early republic; (3) the Darwinian debates; and (4) science and religion in modern America. (JN)

  2. Religion in School: Experience of a Study of the Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metlik, I. V.

    1992-01-01

    Presents observations concerning religion study in 150 Moscow schools. Reports that, although there are still some extracurricular activities promoting traditional former Soviet atheistic ideology, religion is now taught openly. Indicates that religion and atheism also are being studied on a scientific-philosophical basis. Examines how various…

  3. Recent Observations on Religion Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nogueira-Godsey, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Thirteen years have passed since the Minister of Education, Kader Asmal, implemented the National Policy on Religion and Education in 2003 (South African Government 2003). The policy provided a new framework to promote diversity by educating young people about the religions of others as well as respect towards freedom of religious expression, a…

  4. "I Want to Be African": In Search of a Black Radical Tradition/African-American Vernacularized Paradigm for "Students' Right to Their Own Language," Critical Literacy, and "Class Politics"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kynard, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    By revisiting the work of the Black Caucus and the radical rhetorics connected to Black Power and the black radical tradition, in this essay the author hopes to rebuild a frame where the picture of an African-American-vernacularized paradigm for critical literacy and social justice can emerge. She revisits the twinning of "Black Power/Black…

  5. Religion, morality, evolution.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Paul

    2012-01-01

    How did religion evolve? What effect does religion have on our moral beliefs and moral actions? These questions are related, as some scholars propose that religion has evolved to enhance altruistic behavior toward members of one's group. I review here data from survey studies (both within and across countries), priming experiments, and correlational studies of the effects of religion on racial prejudice. I conclude that religion has powerfully good moral effects and powerfully bad moral effects, but these are due to aspects of religion that are shared by other human practices. There is surprisingly little evidence for a moral effect of specifically religious beliefs.

  6. Religion and mental health

    PubMed Central

    Behere, Prakash B.; Das, Anweshak; Yadav, Richa; Behere, Aniruddh P.

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, the relation between religion and mental health and vice versa has been described. From primitive times different religions have different beliefs and systems of worshipping. Every religion with their belief system has implications on mental health and illness. We described how Hindu system of beliefs and rituals may have an effect in causation of various mental illnesses. It is also described how religion can help an individual to sustain one's life in various domains. The relationship between different religion and symptomatology is described. The impact and outcome of religion on mental health have been highlighted. PMID:23858253

  7. Contradictions in consciousness or variations in tradition: Hindu women in the South African diaspora.

    PubMed

    Singh, A

    1995-10-01

    The introductory section of this paper reviews previous studies of the Indian diaspora to show their lack of attention to gender issues. While ideals of Hindu fundamentalism and social conditions imposed by caste are unlikely to be recreated in South Africa, it is proposed that Hindu women in South Africa are custodians of Hindu values. The paper goes on to present a brief history of middle and upper-class Hindu women in South Africa to place them within the context of the Indian diaspora. After describing the fieldwork and methodology (data were gathered from extensive interviews with 20 women representing the four major linguistic groups currently living in Durban), some of the distinctive characteristics of women's experiences and the problems these present because they are either contradictions or variations of conditions in India are discussed. The study then demonstrates that the individual choices made by the women are inconsistent with the apartheid notions of unambiguous social boundaries and also challenge the opposing Marxist perspective that ethnic consciousness is false. It is concluded that cultural adornments and self-imposed limitations on travel and socialization publicize status and ethnic identity and continuity with tradition. Hindu women in South Africa emphasize this continuity through personal beliefs or through the way they present themselves in public.

  8. Religion as Belief versus Religion as Fact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutch, Steven I.

    2002-01-01

    Makes the case that religions perceive their doctrines not as opinions or subjective personal preferences, but as demonstrable facts, supported by historical documentation, experience, observation, and logical inference. Asserts that when scientists deal with issues like creationism, the widespread failure to understand how religions regard their…

  9. Teaching World Religions without Teaching "World Religions"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locklin, Reid B.; Tiemeier, Tracy; Vento, Johann M.

    2012-01-01

    Tomoko Masuzawa and a number of other contemporary scholars have recently problematized the categories of "religion" and "world religions" and, in some cases, called for its abandonment altogether as a discipline of scholarly study. In this collaborative essay, we respond to this critique by highlighting three attempts to teach world religions…

  10. College Students' Beliefs and Values Regarding Spirituality and Religion at a Selected Great Plains University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuler, Brian S.

    2013-01-01

    The debate over religion and spirituality in higher education and their relevance to higher education is continual. Rockenback (2011) outlined the relevance in asserting that because religion and spirituality are part of the whole person, they are also part of the traditional value of the whole person. This traditional value of religion and…

  11. Geology and religion in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Ana; Simoes, Ana; Diogo, Maria Paula; Mota, Teresa Salomé

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the relationship between geology and religion in Portugal by focusing on three case studies of naturalists who produced original research and lived in different historical periods, from the eighteenth to the twentieth century. Whereas in non-peripheral European countries religious themes and even controversies between science and religion were dealt with by scientists and discussed in scientific communities, in Portugal the absence of a debate between science and religion within scientific and intellectual circles is particularly striking. From the historiographic point of view, in a country such as Portugal, where Roman Catholicism is part of the religious and cultural tradition, the influence of religion in all aspects of life has been either taken for granted by those less familiar with the national context or dismissed by local intellectuals, who do not see it as relevant to science. The situation is more complex than these dichotomies, rendering the study of this question particularly appealing from the historiographic point of view, geology being by its very nature a well-suited point from which to approach the theme. We argue that there is a long tradition of independence between science and religion, agnosticism and even atheism among local elites. Especially from the eighteenth century onwards, they are usually portrayed as enlightened minds who struggled against religious and political obscurantism. Religion—or, to be more precise, the Roman Catholic Church and its institutions—was usually identified with backwardness, whereas science was seen as the path to progress; consequently men of science usually dissociated their scientific production from religious belief.

  12. Religion-related stigma and discrimination experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender students at a South African rural-based university.

    PubMed

    Mavhandu-Mudzusi, Azwihangwisi Helen; Sandy, Peter Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the stigma and discrimination experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender students at a rural university in South Africa. Twenty lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender students recruited through snowball sampling participated in this study. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used as a framework for data analysis. Findings indicate that religion-related stigma and discrimination are common at a rural-based university in South Africa. Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender students are typically ascribed a range of labels, including 'sinners', 'devils' and 'demon possessed'. They are also exposed to a number of discriminatory acts, such as the denial of financial and healthcare services and threats of and/or actual rape. Study participants reported attempts to convert lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender students' sexual orientation which involved the use of intervention in the form of prayers. Derogatory labelling and associated discriminatory acts, for example the threat of rape, led many students to conceal their sexual identity, not attend specific classes, terminate their studies and even attempt suicide. Universities should develop policies to promote greater social inclusion and the acceptance of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender students. Policies should also specify the steps or approaches to be taken in addressing discriminatory practices.

  13. African Literature: The Bonds of Tradition Versus the Winds of Change. A Critical Review and Selective Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Virginia P.

    This paper suggests basic points of literary and historical background necessary for the study of African literature and provides an annotated bibliography of literary and historical references. The first part of the paper lists threads of historical significance often found in African literature: the division of Africa into colonies in the…

  14. Attitudes to malaria, traditional practices and bednets (mosquito nets) as vector control measures: a comparative study in five west African countries.

    PubMed

    Aikins, M K; Pickering, H; Greenwood, B M

    1994-04-01

    Five West African communities were visited to assess the knowledge of the cause of malaria and to document traditional ways of treating and preventing the infection. Knowledge of the cause of malaria was low in the five communities visited. People were more concerned about mosquitoes being a nuisance than a cause of the infection. Various herbs were used as mosquito repellents. Malaria was treated by a number of traditional practices, including herbal remedies. Bednets were used to a varying extent, from 44% Ghana to 86% Gambia, in each community to protect against mosquito bites but also for other purposes such as privacy, decoration and protection from roof debris dropping on the bed.

  15. Jaina Religion and Psychiatry*

    PubMed Central

    Gada, Manilal

    2015-01-01

    Jaina religion has existed for thousands of years. Lord Mahavir was the last of the 24 Tirthankaras, 23 having preceded him. The principals of Jaina religion teach us: (1) Self-control, which includes: (a) Control over physiological instinct of hunger and sex; (b) control over desires; (c) control over emotions; (2) meditation; (3) introspection; (4) concentration; and (5) healthy interpersonal relationship. The principles of Jaina Religion can contribute to Positive Mental Health. PMID:25838725

  16. Intersections of Spirituality, Religion and Gender in Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trousdale, Ann M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the intersections of spirituality, religion and gender in contemporary children's books published in the United States. Background for the discussion includes a history of religion in children's literature and the history of women's roles in the Christian tradition. Representative works of realistic fiction--historical and…

  17. An Ethnographic Eye on Religion in Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berglund, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    There are many pitfalls associated with teaching about religions. One such pitfall entails the risk of presenting religions as stereotypical monolithic systems; that is, all who belong to a particular religious tradition think and act in the same way. I like to call this sort of stereotyping the "robotic tendency" because it has a habit…

  18. Ideologies of Religion and Diversity in Australian Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    In many multicultural democracies, education has a Christian history. However, teaching religion has ideological variation. Progressives teach about many religions, while conservatives favor (often exclusive) instruction into one tradition. Australian secular education controversially prioritizes faith-forming instruction (mostly Christian). In…

  19. Dismantling reified African culture through localised homosexualities in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nyanzi, Stella

    2013-01-01

    Uganda's Anti-Homosexuality Bill of 2009 aimed at protecting the cherished culture of the people against emergent threats to the traditional heterosexual family. The Bill's justification, however, lay in myopic imaginings of a homogenous African-ness and pedestrian oblivion to pluralities within African sexualities. This paper revisits the debate that homosexuality is 'un-African'. Rhetoric analysis of the Anti-Homosexuality Bill exposes how dominant discourses of law, medicine, religion, geography and culture reinforce the view that homosexuality is foreign to Africa. Based on ethnography in contemporary Uganda, I explore how self-identified same-sex-loving individuals simultaneously claim their African-ness and their homosexuality. Their strategies include ethnic belonging, membership to kinship structures, making connections with pre-colonial histories of homosexuality, civic participation in democratic processes, national identity, organising of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex and questioning support groups, language and nomenclature, visibility and voice in local communal activities, solidarity and adherence to cultural rituals. In present-day Uganda, same-sex-loving men, women and transgender people variously assert their African-ness.

  20. Dismantling reified African culture through localised homosexualities in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nyanzi, Stella

    2013-01-01

    Uganda's Anti-Homosexuality Bill of 2009 aimed at protecting the cherished culture of the people against emergent threats to the traditional heterosexual family. The Bill's justification, however, lay in myopic imaginings of a homogenous African-ness and pedestrian oblivion to pluralities within African sexualities. This paper revisits the debate that homosexuality is 'un-African'. Rhetoric analysis of the Anti-Homosexuality Bill exposes how dominant discourses of law, medicine, religion, geography and culture reinforce the view that homosexuality is foreign to Africa. Based on ethnography in contemporary Uganda, I explore how self-identified same-sex-loving individuals simultaneously claim their African-ness and their homosexuality. Their strategies include ethnic belonging, membership to kinship structures, making connections with pre-colonial histories of homosexuality, civic participation in democratic processes, national identity, organising of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex and questioning support groups, language and nomenclature, visibility and voice in local communal activities, solidarity and adherence to cultural rituals. In present-day Uganda, same-sex-loving men, women and transgender people variously assert their African-ness. PMID:23767462

  1. Ethical quandaries in spiritual healing and herbal medicine: a critical analysis of the morality of traditional medicine advertising in southern African urban societies.

    PubMed

    Munyaradzi, Mawere

    2011-01-01

    This paper critically examines the morality of advertising by practitioners in spiritual healing and herbal medicine heretofore referred to as traditional medicine, in southern African urban societies. While the subject of traditional medicine has been heavily contested in medical studies in the last few decades, the monumental studies on the subject have emphasised the place of traditional medicine in basic health services. Insignificant attention has been devoted to examine the ethical problems associated with traditional medicine advertising. Critical look at the worthiness of some advertising strategies used by practitioners in traditional medicine in launching their products and services on market thus has been largely ignored. Yet, though advertising is key to helping traditional medicine practitioners' products and services known by prospective customers, this research registers a number of morally negative effects that seem to outweigh the merits that the activity brings to prospective customers. The paper adopts southern African urban societies, and in particular Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe as particular references. The choice of the trio is not accidental, but based on the fact that these countries have in the last few decades been flooded with traditional medicine practitioners/traditional healers from within the continent and from abroad. Most of these practitioners use immoral advertising strategies in communicating to the public the products and services they offer. It is against this background that this paper examines the morality of advertising strategies deployed by practitioners in launching their products and services. To examine the moral worthiness of the advertising strategies used by traditional medical practitioners, I used qualitative analysis of street adverts as well as electronic and print media. From the results obtained through thematic content analysis, the paper concludes that most of the practitioners in traditional

  2. Ethical quandaries in spiritual healing and herbal medicine: a critical analysis of the morality of traditional medicine advertising in southern African urban societies.

    PubMed

    Munyaradzi, Mawere

    2011-01-01

    This paper critically examines the morality of advertising by practitioners in spiritual healing and herbal medicine heretofore referred to as traditional medicine, in southern African urban societies. While the subject of traditional medicine has been heavily contested in medical studies in the last few decades, the monumental studies on the subject have emphasised the place of traditional medicine in basic health services. Insignificant attention has been devoted to examine the ethical problems associated with traditional medicine advertising. Critical look at the worthiness of some advertising strategies used by practitioners in traditional medicine in launching their products and services on market thus has been largely ignored. Yet, though advertising is key to helping traditional medicine practitioners' products and services known by prospective customers, this research registers a number of morally negative effects that seem to outweigh the merits that the activity brings to prospective customers. The paper adopts southern African urban societies, and in particular Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe as particular references. The choice of the trio is not accidental, but based on the fact that these countries have in the last few decades been flooded with traditional medicine practitioners/traditional healers from within the continent and from abroad. Most of these practitioners use immoral advertising strategies in communicating to the public the products and services they offer. It is against this background that this paper examines the morality of advertising strategies deployed by practitioners in launching their products and services. To examine the moral worthiness of the advertising strategies used by traditional medical practitioners, I used qualitative analysis of street adverts as well as electronic and print media. From the results obtained through thematic content analysis, the paper concludes that most of the practitioners in traditional

  3. Ethical quandaries in spiritual healing and herbal medicine: A critical analysis of the morality of traditional medicine advertising in southern African urban societies

    PubMed Central

    Munyaradzi, Mawere

    2011-01-01

    This paper critically examines the morality of advertising by practitioners in spiritual healing and herbal medicine heretofore referred to as traditional medicine, in southern African urban societies. While the subject of traditional medicine has been heavily contested in medical studies in the last few decades, the monumental studies on the subject have emphasised the place of traditional medicine in basic health services. Insignificant attention has been devoted to examine the ethical problems associated with traditional medicine advertising. Critical look at the worthiness of some advertising strategies used by practitioners in traditional medicine in launching their products and services on market thus has been largely ignored. Yet, though advertising is key to helping traditional medicine practitioners’ products and services known by prospective customers, this research registers a number of morally negative effects that seem to outweigh the merits that the activity brings to prospective customers. The paper adopts southern African urban societies, and in particular Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe as particular references. The choice of the trio is not accidental, but based on the fact that these countries have in the last few decades been flooded with traditional medicine practitioners/traditional healers from within the continent and from abroad. Most of these practitioners use immoral advertising strategies in communicating to the public the products and services they offer. It is against this background that this paper examines the morality of advertising strategies deployed by practitioners in launching their products and services. To examine the moral worthiness of the advertising strategies used by traditional medical practitioners, I used qualitative analysis of street adverts as well as electronic and print media. From the results obtained through thematic content analysis, the paper concludes that most of the practitioners in traditional

  4. Electing Comparative Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinger, Kathy Wildman

    2012-01-01

    If world religions courses are created at all in public school districts, they often are designed to encourage cultural fluency and tolerance. It is a teachable moment for the teacher to witness in an hour these far-flung students moving beyond tolerance to collaboration. Taking on a world religions program typically is viewed as a risky…

  5. Suicide and religion.

    PubMed

    Cook, Christopher C H

    2014-01-01

    Much of the evidence that religion provides a protective factor against completed suicide comes from cross-sectional studies. This issue of the Journal includes a report of a new prospective study. An understanding of the relationship between spirituality, religion and suicide is important in assessing and caring for those at risk.

  6. World Religions. Senior Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Dept. of Education, Toronto.

    This curriculum guide provides a general view of the various considerations governing a senior year or high school course in world religions. An early section on objectives sets out some of the aims of a course in world religions. It states that the particular aim should be the development of a sympathetic understanding of the meaning of different…

  7. Religion and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Sheridan P.

    Counseling psychology has neglected elderly adults. Developmental transitions from gainful employment to retirement or from active parenthood to former parenthood can be difficult. For older adults, religion can be a useful means for organizing the self-concept and developing a context of meaning for one's life in an effective way. Religion can…

  8. Overview of religions.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Nicky

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview of 9 religions: Christianity, Judaism, Jehovah's Witnesses, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, Christian Science, Islam, Hinduism, Sikhism, and Buddhism. Basic information on the origins, language, naming practices, diet, personal hygiene, and dress requirements is provided. For additional information, Web sites for each of these religions are also provided. PMID:15255273

  9. Overview of religions.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Nicky

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview of 9 religions: Christianity, Judaism, Jehovah's Witnesses, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, Christian Science, Islam, Hinduism, Sikhism, and Buddhism. Basic information on the origins, language, naming practices, diet, personal hygiene, and dress requirements is provided. For additional information, Web sites for each of these religions are also provided.

  10. Explaining moral religions.

    PubMed

    Baumard, Nicolas; Boyer, Pascal

    2013-06-01

    Moralizing religions, unlike religions with morally indifferent gods or spirits, appeared only recently in some (but not all) large-scale human societies. A crucial feature of these new religions is their emphasis on proportionality (between deeds and supernatural rewards, between sins and penance, and in the formulation of the Golden Rule, according to which one should treat others as one would like others to treat oneself). Cognitive science models that account for many properties of religion can be extended to these religions. Recent models of evolved dispositions for fairness in cooperation suggest that proportionality-based morality is highly intuitive to human beings. The cultural success of moralizing movements, secular or religious, could be explained based on proportionality.

  11. Explaining moral religions.

    PubMed

    Baumard, Nicolas; Boyer, Pascal

    2013-06-01

    Moralizing religions, unlike religions with morally indifferent gods or spirits, appeared only recently in some (but not all) large-scale human societies. A crucial feature of these new religions is their emphasis on proportionality (between deeds and supernatural rewards, between sins and penance, and in the formulation of the Golden Rule, according to which one should treat others as one would like others to treat oneself). Cognitive science models that account for many properties of religion can be extended to these religions. Recent models of evolved dispositions for fairness in cooperation suggest that proportionality-based morality is highly intuitive to human beings. The cultural success of moralizing movements, secular or religious, could be explained based on proportionality. PMID:23664451

  12. Tradition, tradition

    PubMed Central

    Rockman, Howard A.

    2012-01-01

    Starting with this issue, the Editorial duties for the JCI move to Duke University and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. As we begin our five-year tenure at the helm of this prestigious journal, the tradition of excellence that these two schools typically display on the basketball court now enters the editorial boardroom. PMID:22378046

  13. Faith of Our Forefathers: Religion and the Founding of the American Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutson, James

    1998-01-01

    Includes extracts from texts at the Library of Congress exhibit that explores the role of religion and its relation to the nation during its formative years. Topics include persecution; Jews; Quakers; Roman Catholics; the Great Awakening and evangelicalism; the American Revolution; religion and government; African Americans; and Mormons.…

  14. The Impact of Religion on Women Empowerment as a Millennium Development Goal in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Njoh, Ambe J.; Akiwumi, Fenda A.

    2012-01-01

    The study examines the impact of religion on women empowerment. Three religions, indigenous African, Islam and Christianity, comprising Africa's triple heritage, are considered. The hypothesized relationships are confirmed. Christianity correlates with each of the four Development Targets specified for women empowerment under the third of the…

  15. Screening of plants used by Southern African traditional healers in the treatment of dysmenorrhoea for prostaglandin-synthesis inhibitors and uterine relaxing activity.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, K; Jäger, A K; Raidoo, D M; van Staden, J

    1999-01-01

    Plants used by Southern African traditional healers for the treatment of menstrual pains were screened for prostaglandin-synthesis inhibitors and the ability to reduce isolated uterine muscle contraction using the cyclooxygenase and in vitro uterine bioassays respectively. Prostaglandins are synthesized from arachidonic acid and the enzyme that drives this reaction is cyclooxygenase. The excessive production of prostaglandins by the myometrium and endometrium induces uterine contractions. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase and hence of the prostaglandin biosynthetic pathway may lead to relief of menstrual pain. Ten plants used by traditional healers for menstrual pains were assayed for cyclooxygenase inhibitory activity. Several plant extracts exhibited high inhibitory activity in the assay. The highest activities were obtained with ethanolic extracts of Siphonochilus aethiopicus, Cenchrus ciliaris and Solanum mauritianum. Generally ethanolic extracts gave higher activity than the aqueous extracts. None of the ethanolic plant extracts were able to relax or reduce the contractions of the precontracted guinea pig uterus. PMID:10075117

  16. Methodological issues in the psychology of religion: toward another paradigm?

    PubMed

    Belzen, Jacob A; Hood, Ralph W

    2006-01-01

    Recent evaluations have identified the psychology of religion as a field in crisis and have called for a new multilevel interdisciplinary paradigm. However, a critical meta-perspective on methods reveals a broad range of methodologies, each appropriate for particular levels of complexity in the psychology of religion. No single methodology is appropriate for every level, nor can higher levels of complexity be explained by data from lower levels. The authors identify the different types of research practiced in the psychology of religion and critically discuss philosophical presuppositions involved in two major methodological traditions, the empiricist-analytical and the hermeneutical, often identified as quantitative and qualitative traditions, respectively.

  17. Religion and body weight in an underserved population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Religions prominence in some underserved groups that bear a disproportionate burden of the obesity epidemic (e.g. rural, Southern, minority) may play an important role in body weight. Data (1662 African American and Caucasian adults aged 18+) from a representative U.S. sample of a predominately rura...

  18. Science and religion: implications for science educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, Michael J.

    2010-03-01

    A religious perspective on life shapes how and what those with such a perspective learn in science; for some students a religious perspective can hinder learning in science. For such reasons Staver's article is to be welcomed as it proposes a new way of resolving the widely perceived discord between science and religion. Staver notes that Western thinking has traditionally postulated the existence and comprehensibility of a world that is external to and independent of human consciousness. This has led to a conception of truth, truth as correspondence, in which our knowledge corresponds to the facts in this external world. Staver rejects such a conception, preferring the conception of truth as coherence in which the links are between and among independent knowledge claims themselves rather than between a knowledge claim and reality. Staver then proposes constructivism as a vehicle potentially capable of resolving the tension between religion and science. My contention is that the resolution between science and religion that Staver proposes comes at too great a cost—both to science and to religion. Instead I defend a different version of constructivism where humans are seen as capable of generating models of reality that do provide richer and more meaningful understandings of reality, over time and with respect both to science and to religion. I argue that scientific knowledge is a subset of religious knowledge and explore the implications of this for science education in general and when teaching about evolution in particular.

  19. Haemonchotolerance in West African Dwarf goats: contribution to sustainable, anthelmintics-free helminth control in traditionally managed Nigerian dwarf goats.

    PubMed

    Chiejina, Samuel N; Behnke, Jerzy M; Fakae, Barineme B

    2015-01-01

    West African Dwarf (WAD) goats are extremely important in the rural village economy of West Africa, but still little is known about their biology, ecology and capacity to cope with gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections. Here, we summarise the history of this breed and explain its economic importance in rural West Africa. We review recent work showing that Nigerian WAD goats are highly trypanotolerant and resist infections with Haemonchus contortus more effectively than other breeds of domestic goat (haemonchotolerance). We believe that haemonchotolerance is largely responsible for the generally low level GIN infections and absence of clinical haemonchosis in WADs under field conditions, and has contributed to the relatively successful and sustainable, anthelmintics-free, small-scale system of goat husbandry in Nigeria's humid zone, and is immunologically based and genetically controlled. If haemonchotolerance can be shown to be genetically controlled, it should be possible to exploit the underlying genes to improve GIN resistance among productive fibre and milk producing breeds of goats, most of which are highly susceptible to nematode infections. Genetic resistance to GIN and trypanosome infections would obviate the need for expensive chemotherapy, mostly unaffordable to small-holder farmers in Africa, and a significant cost of goat husbandry in more developed countries. Either introgression of resistance alleles into susceptible breeds by conventional breeding, or transgenesis could be used to develop novel parasite-resistant, but highly productive breeds, or to improve the resistance of existing breeds, benefitting the local West African rural economy as well as global caprine livestock agriculture.

  20. Haemonchotolerance in West African Dwarf goats: contribution to sustainable, anthelmintics-free helminth control in traditionally managed Nigerian dwarf goats

    PubMed Central

    Chiejina, Samuel N.; Behnke, Jerzy M.; Fakae, Barineme B.

    2015-01-01

    West African Dwarf (WAD) goats are extremely important in the rural village economy of West Africa, but still little is known about their biology, ecology and capacity to cope with gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections. Here, we summarise the history of this breed and explain its economic importance in rural West Africa. We review recent work showing that Nigerian WAD goats are highly trypanotolerant and resist infections with Haemonchus contortus more effectively than other breeds of domestic goat (haemonchotolerance). We believe that haemonchotolerance is largely responsible for the generally low level GIN infections and absence of clinical haemonchosis in WADs under field conditions, and has contributed to the relatively successful and sustainable, anthelmintics-free, small-scale system of goat husbandry in Nigeria’s humid zone, and is immunologically based and genetically controlled. If haemonchotolerance can be shown to be genetically controlled, it should be possible to exploit the underlying genes to improve GIN resistance among productive fibre and milk producing breeds of goats, most of which are highly susceptible to nematode infections. Genetic resistance to GIN and trypanosome infections would obviate the need for expensive chemotherapy, mostly unaffordable to small-holder farmers in Africa, and a significant cost of goat husbandry in more developed countries. Either introgression of resistance alleles into susceptible breeds by conventional breeding, or transgenesis could be used to develop novel parasite-resistant, but highly productive breeds, or to improve the resistance of existing breeds, benefitting the local West African rural economy as well as global caprine livestock agriculture. PMID:25744655

  1. Phytase-producing capacity of yeasts isolated from traditional African fermented food products and PHYPk gene expression of Pichia kudriavzevii strains.

    PubMed

    Greppi, Anna; Krych, Łukasz; Costantini, Antonella; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Hounhouigan, D Joseph; Arneborg, Nils; Cocolin, Luca; Jespersen, Lene

    2015-07-16

    Phytate is known as a strong chelate of minerals causing their reduced uptake by the human intestine. Ninety-three yeast isolates from traditional African fermented food products, belonging to nine species (Pichia kudriavzevii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Clavispora lusitaniae, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Millerozyma farinosa, Candida glabrata, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii and Debaryomyces nepalensis) were screened for phytase production on solid and liquid media. 95% were able to grow in the presence of phytate as sole phosphate source, P. kudriavzevii being the best growing species. A phytase coding gene of P. kudriavzevii (PHYPk) was identified and its expression was studied during growth by RT-qPCR. The expression level of PHYPk was significantly higher in phytate-medium, compared to phosphate-medium. In phytate-medium expression was seen in the lag phase. Significant differences in gene expression were detected among the strains as well as between the media. A correlation was found between the PHYPk expression and phytase extracellular activity. PMID:25910031

  2. Religion and morality.

    PubMed

    McKay, Ryan; Whitehouse, Harvey

    2015-03-01

    The relationship between religion and morality has long been hotly debated. Does religion make us more moral? Is it necessary for morality? Do moral inclinations emerge independently of religious intuitions? These debates, which nowadays rumble on in scientific journals as well as in public life, have frequently been marred by a series of conceptual confusions and limitations. Many scientific investigations have failed to decompose "religion" and "morality" into theoretically grounded elements; have adopted parochial conceptions of key concepts-in particular, sanitized conceptions of "prosocial" behavior; and have neglected to consider the complex interplay between cognition and culture. We argue that to make progress, the categories "religion" and "morality" must be fractionated into a set of biologically and psychologically cogent traits, revealing the cognitive foundations that shape and constrain relevant cultural variants. We adopt this fractionating strategy, setting out an encompassing evolutionary framework within which to situate and evaluate relevant evidence. Our goals are twofold: to produce a detailed picture of the current state of the field, and to provide a road map for future research on the relationship between religion and morality.

  3. Ethnic vs. Evangelical Religions: Beyond Teaching the World Religion Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tishken, Joel E.

    2000-01-01

    Offers background information on the formation of comparative religion. Demonstrates that the world religion approach is inadequate by examining case studies of Mithraism, Santeria, Mormonism, and Baha'i to illustrate the shortcomings of this approach. Advocates the use of an ethnic versus evangelical religion approach to teaching global…

  4. Religion: more money, more morals.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Konika; Bloom, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Between 500 BCE and 300 BCE, religions worldwide underwent a dramatic shift, emphasizing morality and asceticism for the first time. A new study suggests that the emergence of this new type of religion can be explained by increases in prosperity.

  5. Religion in the Elementary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirman, Joseph M.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the teaching of religion in the elementary classroom. Suggests activities and discusses cautions and concerns, dealing with absolutism, using religious literature, and parental rights. Compares teaching about religion with teaching for religious observance. (CMK)

  6. Neutrality between Government and Religion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.

    1996-01-01

    The overall guiding principle of neutrality between government and religion masks a tension that exists between free exercise of religion and establishment of religion. Reviews the development and current status of "Lemon" as a test for neutrality; proposes a new test for neutrality, evenhandedness, that is common to both the Free Exercise and…

  7. World Religions: A Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilzer, Robert J., Jr.; And Others

    This curriculum guide is for a semester length elective course on the world's major religions designed to be used at the 10th grade level in the Newtown Public Schools, Newton, Connecticut. It reviews each religion's origins, historical developments, sacred literature, beliefs, values, and practices while emphasizing the impact of religion on…

  8. Cytotoxic Activity of Crude Extracts as well as of Pure Components from Jatropha Species, Plants Used Extensively in African Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Aiyelaagbe, Olapeju O.; Hamid, Amao A.; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Schröder, Heinz C.; Müller, Werner E. G.

    2011-01-01

    Extracts from Jatropha curcas, a plant used in African traditional medicine for various diseases, were tested for cytotoxic activity. The root extracts strongly reduced cell growth of tumor cells in vitro, a result consistent with the knowledge of the application of these plant extracts in traditional medicine, especially to cure/ameliorate cancer. A selection of pure diterpenoids existing in extracts from Jatropha species and isolated from J. curcas, for example, curcusone C, curcusone D, multidione, 15-epi-4Z-jatrogrossidentadion, 4Z-jatrogrossidentadion, 4E-jatrogrossidentadion, 2-hydroxyisojatrogrossidion, and 2-epi-hydroxyisojatrogrossidion, were likewise tested, and they also showed strong cytotoxic activity. It turned out that these extracts are highly active against L5178y mouse lymphoma cells and HeLa human cervix carcinoma cells, while they cause none or only very low activity against neuronal cell, for example, PC12. These data underscore that extracts from J. curcas or pure secondary metabolites from the plant are promising candidates to be anticancer drug, combined with low neuroactive effects. PMID:21754941

  9. Religion: Origins and Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, John K.

    2004-01-01

    We present the purpose of study of the origins and development of affect-relevant and religion-relevant hypotheses, and conjectured prediction of proto-religious sequences in pre-human anthropoids and primitive human cultures. We anticipate more comprehensive study of modern cultural outcomes of these origins and developments.

  10. Students' Attitudes toward Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebedev, S. D.

    2008-01-01

    The problem of the study of religion in the system of secular education hinges on the "reproduction of religiousness" in the secular school and, more broadly, in Russian society space, via the process of mass education. It is the prospect of expanded reproduction of religious consciousness, of religious psychology and practices as a possible…

  11. Physics and Religion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finegold, Leonard; Thomson-Hohl, Timothy; Tyagi, Som

    2010-02-01

    Aspects of religion with science/religion have been covered in the pages of Physics Today and Physics News. They reflect wide student interest in these topics. For a decade, two physicists and a campus minister have taught a writing-intensive course ``Issues in Science and Religion'' Physics/Sociology 137. Here we outline our course (open to all students), to encourage others contemplating similar courses. Many students escape an exposure to the basics of science, and so we capture them. We discuss inter alia relativity and uncertainties (both quantum and classical, which fascinate students), including their controversial relationships with religion. One of us (LF), as a biophysicist, was asked to cover evolution, which topic has proved to be rather popular: Various scientific organizations have publicly defended evolution against intelligent design and creationism. To keep the quality of the course, we have restricted enrollment. Here we discuss only the science/physics part of the course. Visiting speakers (covering the gamut from religious to non-religious) have included a Vatican astronomer, a Sloan survey cosmologist, the director of SETI, a neuropsychologist, a sociologist, historians of science and theologians. )

  12. Children's Books about Religion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dole, Patricia Pearl

    Created to promote a mutual understanding and acceptance among various faiths and cultures throughout the world, this book is an annotated bibliography of religious children's books. It has almost 700 critical evaluations of books with distinct religious themes for children from preschool to middle school. Chapters are: (1) "Religion"; (2) "God";…

  13. Religion on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Conrad; DeBerg, Betty A.; Porterfield, Amanda

    Case studies at four colleges explored students religious studies, values, and practices. Observations and interviews show that both the practice and the study of religion are thriving and supported by campus cultures. The chapters are: (1) Introduction; (2) West University (Betty A. Deberg); (3) South University (Conrad Cherry); (4) East…

  14. Religion in SETI Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pay, R.

    The prospect of millions of civilizations in the Galaxy raises the probability of receiving communications in the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI). However, much depends on the average lifetime of planetary civilizations. For a lifetime of 500 years, an optimistic forecast would predict about 65 civilizations in the Galaxy at any one time, separated by 5,000 light years. No prospect of communication. For a lifetime of 10 million years, over a million civilizations would be spaced 180 light years apart. Communication among them is feasible. This indicates that extraterrestrial communications depend on civilizations achieving long term stability, probably by evolving a global religion that removes sources of religious strife. Stability also requires an ethic supporting universal rights, nonviolence, empathy and cooperation. As this ethic will be expressed in the planet-wide religion, it will lead to offers of support to other civilizations struggling to gain stability. As stable civilizations will be much advanced scientifically, understanding the religious concepts that appear in their communications will depend on how quantum mechanics, biological evolution, and the creation of the universe at a point in time are incorporated into their religion. Such a religion will view creation as intentional rather than accidental (the atheistic alternative) and will find the basis for its natural theology in the intention revealed by the physical laws of the universe.

  15. Science, Religion, and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, Warren A.

    1999-01-01

    Liberal theologians and some scientists subscribe to integrationist theories of science and religion. Late 20th-century developments in quantum mechanics, cosmology, chaos theory, and ecology have rendered nature more mysterious and open to religious interpretation than to deterministic approaches. Students should learn how science connects to…

  16. Religion and addiction.

    PubMed

    Gostečnik, Christian; Cvetek, Mateja; Poljak, Saša; Repič, Tanja; Cvetek, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Religion with its rituals can become an object of addiction, especially when a child while growing up experiences neglect and abuse. It is also very common that such individuals transfer their feelings of anger, rage and sometimes even true hatred to God. Then God becomes the substitute for their displaced vengeance (upon those who abused them as children).

  17. Religion, spirituality, and mental health: current controversies and future directions.

    PubMed

    Dein, Simon; Cook, Christopher C H; Koenig, Harold

    2012-10-01

    Although studies examining religion, spirituality, and mental health generally indicate positive associations, there is a need for more sophisticated methodology, greater discrimination between different cultures and traditions, more focus on situated experiences of individuals belonging to particular traditions, and, in particular, greater integration of theological contributions to this area. We suggest priorities for future research based on these considerations.

  18. Microbiological and chemical changes during the fermentation of African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) to produce afitin, iru and sonru, three traditional condiments produced in Benin.

    PubMed

    Azokpota, P; Hounhouigan, D J; Nago, M C

    2006-04-01

    African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) was processed to produce afitin, iru and sonru, three different types of condiment from Benin. Whereas the fermentation of African locust bean to produce afitin is carried out for 24 h without using any additive, the fermentation for iru and sonru production takes place for 48 h with adding respectively "iku-iru" and "yanyanku" two traditional malvacene bean-based (Hibiscus sabdariffa) additives. The main microorganisms involved in the fermentation of the three condiments were Bacillus spp., although Staphylococcus spp. was found in lower number. The use of additive seems to enhance the initial Bacillus counts in iru and sonru, but also a slightly higher Staphylococcus count was observed. The number of staphylococci did not exceed 10(2) cfu/g and it was below the detection level at the end of the fermentation (24 h) in afitin; it reached a level of about 10(6) cfu/g at 12-18 h in iru and sonru followed by a decrease to about 5 x 10(4) cfu/g after 48 h of fermentation. The final pH and total basic volatile nitrogen content of iru and sonru are higher than those of afitin. Proximate composition changes are similar in both fermenting iru and sonru, but different in afitin, the latter showing a slight decrease of proteins of about 5% whereas for iru and sonru they increased to about 6%. Ash, crude fat and fibre contents also increased during the fermentation in the three products whereas total carbohydrates decreased significantly. Due to their long fermentation time, iru and sonru are very soft products as they are preferred by some consumers whereas afitin is preferred with cotyledons having less soft texture.

  19. Ideas and Resources for Teaching about Religions in Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodin, Wesley J.; Dilzer, Robert J., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Describes current secondary school courses about religions which are incorporated into the social studies curriculum. Course titles include Religion in Human Culture, Religions of Man, Great Religions, Comparative Religions, History of Religions, and the Bible as Literature. (KC)

  20. Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    1989-11-01

    The Central African Republic contains 242,000 square miles, which rolling terrain almost 2000 feet above sea level. The climate is tropical, and it has a population of 2.8 million people with a 2.5% growth rate. There are more than 80 ethnic groups including Baya 34%, Banda 28%, Sara 10%, Mandja 9%, Mboum 9%, and M'Baka 7%. The religions are traditional African 35%, protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, and Muslim 15%, and the languages are French and Sangho. The infant mortality rate is 143/1000, with expectancy at 49 years and a 40% literacy rate. The work force of 1 million is 70% agricultural, industry 6% and commerce and service 6% and government 3%. The government consists of a president assisted by cabinet ministers and a single party. Natural resources include diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, and oil, and major industries are beverages, textiles, and soap. Agricultural products feature coffee, cotton, peanuts, tobacco, food crops and livestock. Most of the population live in rural areas and most of the 80 ethnic groups have their own language. This is one of the world's least developed countries, with a per capita income of $375/year. The main problems with development are the poor transportation infrastructure, and the weak internal and international marketing systems. The US and various international organizations have aided in agriculture development, health programs, and family planning. US investment is mainly in diamond and gold mining, and although oil drilling has been successful it is not economically feasible at current prices.

  1. Antiplasmodial activity and cytotoxicity of plants used in West African traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria.

    PubMed

    Ménan, Hervé; Banzouzi, Jean-Théophile; Hocquette, Antoine; Pélissier, Yves; Blache, Yves; Koné, Moussa; Mallié, Michèle; Assi, Laurent Aké; Valentin, Alexis

    2006-04-21

    Eighteen plants originating from Ivory Coast were selected by ethnobotanical survey as plants commonly used by traditional healers for the treatment of malaria. Extracts of these plants were tested on two strains of Plasmodium falciparum: FcM29-Cameroon (chloroquine-resistant strain) and a Nigerian chloroquine-sensitive strain. The powdered plants were used to prepare three kinds of extracts: by decoction in water, in ethanol (95%) and in pentane. A radioactive micromethod allowed the evaluation of the antiplasmodial in vitro activity of the extracts on P. falciparum. Concentrations inhibiting 50% of the parasite growth (IC50) ranged from 18 microg/ml to more than 500 microg/ml for aqueous and ethanol extracts and from 4.3 microg/ml to more than 500 microg/ml for pentane extracts. Cytotoxicity was estimated on A375 melanoma cells and a cytotoxicity/antiplasmodial index (CAR) was calculated for each extract, ranging from 1 to 10. The pentane extracts of Cola caricaefolia and Uvaria afzelii, which revealed the strongest antiplasmodial activity had CAR values of about 10.

  2. Hidden Education among African Americans during Slavery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundaker, Grey

    2007-01-01

    Background/Context: Historical studies examine aspects of African American education in and out of school in detail (Woodson 1915, 1933, Bullock 1970, Anderson 1988, Morris 1982, Rachal 1986, Rose 1964, Webber 1978, Williams 2005). Scholars of African American literacy have noted ways that education intersects other arenas such as religion and…

  3. Common-Sense Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennett, Daniel C.

    2006-01-01

    According to surveys, most of the people in the world say that religion is very important in their lives. Many would say that without it, their lives would be meaningless. It is tempting just to take them at their word, to declare that nothing more is to be said-- and to tiptoe away. Who would want to interfere with whatever it is that gives their…

  4. Religion and Lunar Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, V.

    1969: The Eagle lands on the Moon. A moment that would not only mark the highest scientific achievement of all times, but would also have significant religious impli- cations. While the island of Bali lodges a protest at the United Nations against the US for desecrating a sacred place, Hopi Indians celebrate the fulfilment of an ancient prophecy that would reveal the "truth of the Sacred Ways". The plaque fastened to the Eagle - "We Came in Peace for All Mankind" would have contained the words "under God" as directed by the US president, if not for an assistant administrator at NASA that did not want to offend any religion. In the same time, Buzz Aldrin takes the Holy Communion on the Moon, and a Bible is left there by another Apollo mission - not long after the crew of Apollo 8 reads a passage from Genesis while circling the Moon. 1998: Navajo Indians lodge a protest with NASA for placing human ashes aboard the Lunar Prospector, as the Moon is a sacred place in their religion. Past, present and fu- ture exploration of the Moon has significant religious and spiritual implications that, while not widely known, are nonetheless important. Is lunar exploration a divine duty, or a sacrilege? This article will feature and thoroughly analyse the examples quoted above, as well as other facts, as for instance the plans of establishing lunar cemeteries - welcomed by some religions, and opposed by others.

  5. Religion and Morality

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between religion and morality has long been hotly debated. Does religion make us more moral? Is it necessary for morality? Do moral inclinations emerge independently of religious intuitions? These debates, which nowadays rumble on in scientific journals as well as in public life, have frequently been marred by a series of conceptual confusions and limitations. Many scientific investigations have failed to decompose “religion” and “morality” into theoretically grounded elements; have adopted parochial conceptions of key concepts—in particular, sanitized conceptions of “prosocial” behavior; and have neglected to consider the complex interplay between cognition and culture. We argue that to make progress, the categories “religion” and “morality” must be fractionated into a set of biologically and psychologically cogent traits, revealing the cognitive foundations that shape and constrain relevant cultural variants. We adopt this fractionating strategy, setting out an encompassing evolutionary framework within which to situate and evaluate relevant evidence. Our goals are twofold: to produce a detailed picture of the current state of the field, and to provide a road map for future research on the relationship between religion and morality. PMID:25528346

  6. Deterioration of traditional dietary custom increases the risk of lifestyle-related diseases in young male Africans

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) is rapidly increasing worldwide. To investigate the spread of MS risks and its relationship with eating habits including fish intake, we carried out a health examination for young and middle-aged men. Methods The subjects were 97 healthy men (20 to 50 years) living in Mwanza, located on the shore of Lake Victoria in Tanzania. The health examination was conducted according to the basic protocol of WHO-CARDIAC (Cardiovascular Diseases and Alimentary Comparison) Study. This survey included anthropometric measurements, a dietary questionnaire, blood pressure measurement, and blood and 24-hour urine (24U) collection. Excretions of sodium, potassium and taurine (Tau) in 24U were estimated as the biomarkers of salt, vegetable and fish product intakes respectively. Results In this survey, 62.5 % of the young and 63.3% of the middle-aged adults had MS risks. The most prevalent MS risk factor was increased blood pressure (50.0% of young adults and 53.1% of the middle-aged). Tau excretions in 24U and n-3 fatty acid levels in plasma were significantly lower in young adults than those in the middle-aged (both P < 0.05). The eating frequencies of non-traditional foods such as donuts and ice cream showed negative correlations with age (r = -0.282, P < 0.01 and r = -0.246, P < 0.05), while salt intake positively correlated with age (r = 0.236, P < 0.05). Tau excretion in 24U was inversely correlated with atherosclerosis index (r = -0.306, P < 0.01) and fasting blood glucose (r = -0.284, P < 0.05). Conclusions Young adults in Mwanza had a decreased frequency of eating habit of fish products compared with the middle-aged as indicated by Tau excretion in 24U and n-3 fatty acid level in the plasma, and over half of young adults had one or more MS risks just as the middle-aged. The change in food habit of lowered fish intake and raised exotic food intake might be concluded to increase MS risks in young men. PMID:20804610

  7. African Aesthetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abiodun, Rowland

    2001-01-01

    No single traditional discipline can adequately supply answers to the many unresolved questions in African art history. Because of the aesthetic, cultural, historical, and, not infrequently, political biases, already built into the conception and development of Western art history, the discipline of art history as defined and practiced in the West…

  8. Grief, consolation, and religions: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Klass, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Consolation is grief's traditional amelioration, but contemporary bereavement theory lacks a conceptual framework to include it. The article begins to develop that framework. The article argues that grief is inter-subjective, even at the biological level. Consolation and grief happen in the same inter-subjective space. Material from the histories of several religions sets the article in a cross-cultural and historical environment. The article examines consolation in interpersonal relationships, and then moves to consolation in cultural/religious resources that range from the literal image of God as an idealized parent to the abstract architecture of Brahm's Requiem. The most common consolation in the histories of religions comes within continuing bonds that are accessed in a wide variety of beliefs, rituals, and devotional objects. The article closes by briefly drawing the connection between consolation and faith.

  9. Teaching Justice and Teaching Justly: Reflections on Teaching World Religions at a Jesuit Liberal Arts College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmalz, Mathew N.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines how the teaching of world religions at Catholic Christians institutions can contribute to teaching justice and teaching justly. The paper compares central issues engaged by History of Religions as a discipline with those addressed within the Jesuit tradition of higher education as it developed in the wake of the Second Vatican…

  10. The Antislavery Movement in Early America: Religion, Social Environment and Slave Manumissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budros, Art

    2005-01-01

    Although traditional explanations of the historic slave manumission movement during the early Republic have stressed religion, rival ones have emphasized broader environmental forces. However, the literature has offered non-systematic conceptualizations of religion and impressionistic empirical analyses of the facilitators of liberations. In…

  11. Providing Culturally Relevant Mental Health Services: Collaboration between Psychology and the African American Church.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queener, John E.; Martin, Juanita K.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a model of collaboration between psychologists and the African American church, discussing the connection between African psychology and religion, examining barriers to and strategies for collaboration between psychologists and the African American church, and describing the collaborative model called the African American Counseling Team.…

  12. Teachers Torn over Religion, Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    When science teachers in a small Pennsylvania town were asked to read a statement to their classes that introduced students to the concept of "intelligent design," they refused, citing legal and professional obligations. This article discusses teacher's views on religion and evolution and how their opinions influenced religion's place in science…

  13. The Science and Religion Wars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singham, Mano

    2000-01-01

    The recent flap over the Kansas State Board of Education's decision to drop knowledge of evolution theory from its science standards has rekindled the perennial science/religion debate in education. This article examines mutual relationships of three knowledge structures (science, mainstream religion, and fringe beliefs) and the middle-ground's…

  14. Perception in Art and Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillenberger, John

    1976-01-01

    Religion in America has always existed as a method for achieving a desired moral purpose. Religion existing for its own sake as glorification of God through utilization of God-given senses, can, like art, lead to new perceptions of self and the world which cannot be born by being consciously created. (RW)

  15. Teaching Religion and Material Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carp, Richard M.

    2007-01-01

    Because religions discipline and interpret bodies; create and define sacred spaces; generate, adore and study images in all media; regulate the intake of food; structure temporal experience; and in general interpenetrate and are permeated by the cultural landscapes in which they exist, religious studies must engage material religion and religious…

  16. "Good sex" and religion: a feminist overview.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Mary E; Jung, Patricia Beattie

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an overview of both the processes and the results of an international, interdisciplinary, and interreligious feminist study of "good sex" that resulted in a volume by the same name. We argue that religion (including its secular equivalent, i.e., global capitalism) remains a powerfully influential cultural force that shapes people's lives, in general, and sanctifies their beliefs, in particular, about what makes for good sex. This review seeks to expand conversations about sex in the bedroom and other private arenas (like the confessional) into more public venues and to demonstrate the connections between power, pleasure, and justice. The need to deconstruct religious traditions so as to critically analyze their structures and components is recognized. Several examples of how feminist scholars and activists are retrieving female-friendly religious insights from both their traditions and more transgressive communities of resistance are provided. This article also points to several ways that religious sexual scripts and norms might be reconstructed. Topics addressed include discussions of how to understand footbinding, the tendency of "forbidden" fruit to prove most erotic, whether sexual entanglements are spiritually dangerous distractions, and ways in which religion can make motherhood "compulsory." We examine both the ways in which equating sexual activity with reproductive activity have obscured the value of women's sexual delight and the risks to many women and children of an unqualified validation of sexual pleasure. Both the ambivalence of religious teachings about sexuality and the difficulties posed by monolithic portrayals of religious traditions are identified. PMID:19308841

  17. The Politics of Religion: Modernity, Nationhood and Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibata, Masako

    2008-01-01

    While religion in Japan is traditionally linked to nationhood and nation-building, the post-war period has seen Shinto consciously invoked to restore a sense of national identity through a focus on Japan's victimhood. In this context, there is a focus on the Yasukuni Shrine, dedicated to the war dead and an icon of contemporary Japanese cultural…

  18. More than Mere Law: Freedom of Religion or Belief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holsinger, Ellen S.

    2012-01-01

    Article 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights establishes that all people, simply because they are human, enjoy the right to freedom of religion and that governments have the obligation to ensure the protection of that right. Yet we witness a world increasingly divided by religious tradition. The failures of many governments to ensure…

  19. Punjabi Childrearing in Britain: Development of Identity, Religion and Bilingualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dosanjh, J. S.; Ghuman, Paul A. S.

    1997-01-01

    Interviewed two generations of Punjabi mothers living in Britain. Found that while second-generation Punjabis are changing some traditional mores (equal treatment of boys and girls, modified system of arranged marriage), they are also eager to transmit the core values (religion, mother tongue, familial spirit) of their culture and want their…

  20. Religion in American Textbooks: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppewal, Donald

    This section, from a larger report describing a project designed to systematically investigate how religious and traditional values are represented in today's public school curricula, presents a review of the literature focusing on studies that have analyzed the treatment of religion and values in elementary and secondary textbooks. This survey is…

  1. Christianity's Response to the Discovery of Extraterrestrial Intelligent Life: Insights from Science and Religion and the Sociology of Religion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertka, Constance M.

    The question of whether or not extraterrestrial life exists and its potential impact for religions, especially Christianity, is an ancient one addressed in numerous historical publications. The contemporary discussion has been dominated by a few notable scientists from the SETI and astrobiology communities, and by a few Christian theologians active in the science and religion field. This discussion amounts to scientists outside of the faith tradition predicting the demise of Christianity if extraterrestrial intelligent life is discovered and theologians within the tradition predicting the enrichment and reformulation of Christian doctrine. Missing from this discussion is insight drawn more broadly from the science and religion field and from the sociology of religion. A consideration of how possibilities for relating science and religion are reflected in the US public's varied acceptance of the theory of evolution; the growth of Christianity in the Global South; and a revised theory of secularization which inversely correlates religiosity to existential security, gives credence to the proposal that the response from those outside of academia would be much more varied and uncertain.

  2. Islam and the History of Religions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shippee, Arthur W.

    1990-01-01

    Considers the difficulties presented when studying the Islamic religion through the current approach to history of religions and offers reasons for this phenomena. Examines the academic methodology in studying the history of religion, and traces its evolution. Examines major scholarly figures in the study of religion field. (RW)

  3. Social Studies. Language Arts: Comparative World Religions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John A.

    The elective (7-9) course in world religions outlined in this guide is designed to fit the quinmester organization of schools. The course is described as a study of world religions, focusing on religion as an institution in society. It includes effects of religion on people, governments, and internal relations. The guide is divided according to:…

  4. Ambivalent Sexism and Religion: Connected Through Values.

    PubMed

    Mikołajczak, Małgorzata; Pietrzak, Janina

    2014-01-01

    Sexist attitudes do not exist in a limbo; they are embedded in larger belief systems associated with specific hierarchies of values. In particular, manifestations of benevolent sexism (Glick and Fiske 1996, 1997, 2001) can be perceived as a social boon, not a social ill, both because they are experienced as positive, and because they reward behaviors that maintain social stability. One of the strongest social institutions that create and justify specific hierarchies of values is religion. In this paper, we examine how the values inherent in religious beliefs (perhaps inadvertently) propagate an unequal status quo between men and women through endorsement of ideologies linked to benevolent sexism. In a survey with a convenience sample of train passengers in Southern and Eastern Poland (N = 180), we investigated the relationship between Catholic religiosity and sexist attitudes. In line with previous findings (Gaunt 2012; Glick et al. 2002a; Taşdemir and Sakallı-Uğurlu 2010), results suggest that religiosity can be linked to endorsement of benevolent sexism. This relationship was mediated in our study by the values of conservatism and openness to change (Schwartz 1992): religious individuals appear to value the societal status quo, tradition, and conformity, which leads them to perceive women through the lens of traditional social roles. Adhering to the teachings of a religion that promotes family values in general seems to have as its byproduct an espousal of prejudicial attitudes toward specific members of the family.

  5. Religion, Guilt, and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faiver, Christopher M.; O'Brien, Eugene M.; Ingersoll, R. Elliott

    2000-01-01

    Article reviews the constructs of religion, guilt, and mental health, and explores relationships between these constructs as they pertain to the counseling profession. General therapeutic approaches are identified and summarized for counseling practice. (Author/JDM)

  6. Gender Differences in the Association Between Religion/Spirituality and Simultaneous Polysubstance Use (SPU).

    PubMed

    Acheampong, Abenaa B; Lasopa, Sonam; Striley, Catherine W; Cottler, Linda B

    2016-10-01

    While religion/spirituality strongly protects against drug use (Cheney et al. in J Drug Issues 44(1):94-113, 2014), little is known about gender differences in the association of religion/spirituality on simultaneous polysubstance use (SPU) among those who use prescription opioids. Data come from a community-based study that recruited community members from the St Louis area (N = 632). Participants were asked whether they used prescription opioids when not prescribed for them or in ways other than prescribed in the past 12 months. Religion/spirituality was categorized as high, medium, or low based on personal views on the importance of religion and spirituality, attendance at religious services, and advice seeking from religious leaders. SPU was defined as non-medical use of opioids simultaneously with use of cocaine, alcohol, ecstasy, or marijuana. Multivariate logistic regression determined the association between religion/spirituality, demographic variables, and SPU. Men with high levels of religion/spirituality had 63 % decreased odds of SPU compared with men with low levels. Other variables associated with SPU in men were four or more arrests (AOR 2.21), multiple sex partners (AOR 2.11), and opioid use without a prescription (AOR 3.04). Women with high or medium levels of religion/spirituality had 58 and 62 % decreased odds of SPU compared with women with low levels. Variables that predicted SPU in women also included 4+ arrests (AOR 5.00) and never being married (AOR 2.13). Being African-American was associated with decreased odds of SPU in women (AOR 0.32). Overall, a high level of religion/spirituality was associated with lower odds of SPU. Gender differences in this association were evident, whereas women with even a medium level of religion/spirituality had significantly decreased odds of SPU. Future drug prevention and interventions should consider the relevance of religion/spirituality in SPU.

  7. Religion and spirituality among bisexual Black men in the USA

    PubMed Central

    JEFFRIES, WILLIAM L.; DODGE, BRIAN; SANDFORT, THEO G. M.

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, religion has been a major source of institutional support and well-being for Black people in the USA. However, when juxtaposed against sexuality, religion's positive effect upon the lives of non-heterosexual individuals is questionable. Research suggests that non-heterosexuals often abandon structured religion for spirituality due to the homonegativity perpetuated through religious institutions. Although studies have examined religion and spirituality among gays and lesbians, few have examined their roles in the lives of bisexuals. In this study, we analyzed qualitative interviews from 28 bisexual Black men who resided in New York City. In addition to church attendance, participants expressed belonging to religious communities through activities such as music ministry. Despite rejection because of their bisexuality, some participants saw other religious individuals as being accepting of them. Others discussed the church as a place where non-heterosexuals interacted, often for meeting sexual partners. Participants evoked beliefs in God in coping with adverse life experiences; some linked faith to family and sexual responsibilities. Drawing upon relevant literature, we discuss the implications of religion and spirituality for the quality of life of bisexual Black men in the USA. PMID:18568870

  8. 'Mixed' religion relationships and well-being in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    McAloney, Kareena

    2014-08-01

    Religion plays a pivotal role in intergroup and interpersonal relationships in Northern Ireland, and individuals traditionally marry within their own religious group. However, 'mixed' marriages between Catholics and Protestants do occur and present an interesting, yet under researched, dynamic within this divided society. Both religion and committed relationships have been associated with physical and psychological health, but little is known about how divergence in religious beliefs within relationships impacts on health. A secondary data analysis of the Northern Ireland cohort of the Understanding Society: the UK Household Longitudinal Study was conducted to investigate the impact of mixed religion relationships on physical and psychological well-being in Northern Ireland. Less than 10% of relationships were mixed religion relationships, and being in a mixed relationship was associated with poorer mental health but not with physical health. Mixed religion relationships in Northern Ireland are relatively uncommon in Northern Ireland, but are an important form of intergroup contact, as such it is important to fully understand the implications for the individuals involved and develop mechanisms to support those individuals psychological well-being.

  9. Understanding and addressing religion among people with mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Pargament, Kenneth I; Lomax, James W

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews recent advances in the domain of psychiatry and religion that highlight the double-edged capacity of religion to enhance or damage health and well-being, particularly among psychiatric patients. A large body of research challenges stereotyped views of religion as merely a defense or passive way of coping, and indicates that many people look to religion as a vital resource which serves a variety of adaptive functions, such as self-regulation, attachment, emotional comfort, meaning, and spirituality. There is, however, a darker side to religious life. Researchers and theorists have identified and begun to study problematic aspects of religiousness, including religiously-based violence and religious struggles within oneself, with others, and with the divine. Religious problems can be understood as a by-product of psychiatric illness (secondary), a source of psychiatric illness (primary), or both (complex). This growing body of knowledge underscores the need to attend more fully to the potentially constructive and destructive roles of religion in psychiatric diagnosis, assessment, and treatment. In fact, initial evaluative studies of the impact of spiritually integrated treatments among a range of psychiatric populations have shown promising results. The article concludes with a set of recommendations to advance future research and practice, including the need for additional psychiatric studies of people from diverse cultures and religious traditions. PMID:23471791

  10. Religion and spirituality in psychotherapy: a practice-friendly review of research.

    PubMed

    Post, Brian C; Wade, Nathaniel G

    2009-02-01

    The role of religion and spirituality in psychotherapy has received growing attention in the last two decades, with a focus on understanding the ways that religion and spirituality relate to therapists, clients, and treatment methods. The authors reviewed recent empirical research on religion and spirituality in psychotherapy to inform practitioners about effective ways to incorporate the sacred into their clinical work. Three main areas are covered: religion/spirituality and therapists, religion/spirituality and clients, and religious/spiritual interventions. Research indicates that therapists are open to religious/spiritual issues, that clients want to discuss these matters in therapy, and that the use of religious/spiritual interventions for some clients can be an effective adjunct to traditional therapy interventions.

  11. Introducing the Astley-Francis Theology of Religions Index: Construct Validity among 13- to 15-Year-Old Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astley, Jeff; Francis, Leslie J.

    2016-01-01

    The "theology of religions" is concerned with the interpretation and evaluation of the divergent truth-claims and views of salvation that are asserted or implied by different religious traditions. This study proposes a new multi-choice index that distinguishes between six current positions within the theology of religions, characterised…

  12. [A brief discussion on the effect of religion and feudal superstitions on China's population growth].

    PubMed

    Chen, G

    1983-05-29

    According to Marxism, population development is subject to the determination of production means under certain social and historical conditions, but it is also influenced by ideology, religions, and other factors. China is a country with numerous religions and traditional superstitions. Their impact on China's population growth cannot be underestimated. All religions and feudal superstitions have a role in the increase of the population, and they oppose birth control and abortion. Similarly, traditional feudal concepts of having more children for good fortune, ancestral worship, and filial piety also encouraged early marriage and having more children, and they have contributed to population growth. On the contrary, "individualism" practiced by Buddhist monks and nuns, the "sacred war" believed by Islamic people, and the offering of human sacrifices by many primitive religions, and the murdering of baby twins have served to reduce the population. Most of the religions and feudal superstitions are in favor of increasing the population. The popularity of Buddhism in the past was caused by an oversupply of the labor force. Many farmers became Buddhist monks as a way to earn a living. Since liberation, unhealthy religions and feudal superstitions have been prohibited but their everlasting infulence upon the people cannot be ignored. Uncontrolled population growth is harmful to the nation's economy and improvement of people's livelihood. In family planning work, attention should also be given to the prevention of interference from religions and feudal superstitions in people's ideology. PMID:12159370

  13. Religion, Spirituality, and Schizophrenia: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sandeep; Davuluri, Triveni; Chakrabarti, Subho

    2014-01-01

    Religion and spirituality exert a significant role in the lives of many individuals, including people with schizophrenia. However, the contribution of religion and spirituality to various domains (psychopathology, explanatory models, treatment seeking, treatment adherence, outcome, etc.) has not received much attention. In this article, we review the exiting data with regards to the relationship of religion, spirituality, and various domains in patients with schizophrenia. Available evidence suggests that for some patients, religion instills hope, purpose, and meaning in their lives, whereas for others, it induces spiritual despair. Patients with schizophrenia also exhibit religious delusions and hallucinations. Further, there is some evidence to suggest that religion influences the level of psychopathology. Religion and religious practices also influence social integration, risk of suicide attempts, and substance use. Religion and spirituality also serves as an effective method of coping with the illness. Religion also influences the treatment compliance and outcome in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:24860209

  14. Traditional African Dance Education as Curriculum Reimagination in Postcolonial Zimbabwe: A Rethink of Policy and Practice of Dance Education in the Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonye, Jairos; Moyo, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the teaching and learning of traditional dance at primary school level in Zimbabwe as a key aspect of postcolonial curriculum reimagination within the broader project of reclaiming a nation's heritage. The paper used the survey design to determine how a cohort of primary school teachers understood traditional dance and how they…

  15. Reinventing Religion: Jewish Religion Textbooks in Russian Gymnasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Eliyana R.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines 10 textbooks used in Jewish religion classes in Russian high schools in the final decades of the 19th century. The textbooks reveal an expectation of a low level of Hebrew background, an interest in promoting the practice of prayer, and two distinct approaches to teaching Judaism. While some of the books introduce students to…

  16. Religion Journalists' Perceptions of Religion News and Its Audience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddenbaum, Judith M.

    A study surveyed newspapers that print religious news to determine the kinds of coverage their religion journalists provide and to determine the type of audience for which they write. Mail surveys were completed by 141 daily newspapers with circulations ranging from under 10,000 to over 100,000. All but 13 respondents provided a working definition…

  17. Prosociality and religion: History and experimentation.

    PubMed

    Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Norenzayan et al. are praised for choosing to deal with significant questions in the understanding of religion. They are then criticized for refusing to define religion and for relying on problematic theoretical concepts. The authors discuss Abrahamic religions as the best-known prosocial religions, but the evidence shows that the case does not fit their conceptual framework. Finally, an extension of the authors' ideas about the meaning of priming effects is proposed.

  18. Prosociality and religion: History and experimentation.

    PubMed

    Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Norenzayan et al. are praised for choosing to deal with significant questions in the understanding of religion. They are then criticized for refusing to define religion and for relying on problematic theoretical concepts. The authors discuss Abrahamic religions as the best-known prosocial religions, but the evidence shows that the case does not fit their conceptual framework. Finally, an extension of the authors' ideas about the meaning of priming effects is proposed. PMID:26948749

  19. Teaching Religion in the Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    This paper argues that religion should be taught as a separate class in the public schools. Reasons for teaching religion include: (1) religious believes affect human behavior in strong observable ways; (2) churches abound in number throughout the United States; (3) different religions tend to teach a somewhat common core of values while values…

  20. Professionalization of Catholic High School Religion Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Timothy J.; Hudson, William J.

    This paper assesses religion teaching as a profession in light of selected characteristics that scholars agree are common to all professions. Evidence was drawn primarily from church documents and survey data from "The Next Generation: A Study of Catholic High School Religion Teachers." The findings indicate that religion teaching meets two of the…

  1. The "Make Your Own Religion" Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauman, Chad M.; Hege, Brent A. R.; Kleckley, Russell; Willsky-Ciollo, Lydia; Lopez, Davina C.

    2016-01-01

    The "Make Your Own Religion" class project was designed to address a perceived need to introduce more theoretical thinking about religion into a typical religion survey course, and to do so in such a way that students would experience the wonder of theoretical discovery, and through or because of that discovery hopefully both better…

  2. Life Interpretation and Religion among Icelandic Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnarsson, Gunnar J.

    2009-01-01

    Does religion play any specific part in Icelandic teenagers' life interpretation? This paper examines Icelandic teenagers' talk about religion and presents some of the findings in interviews with teenagers in a qualitative research project. The focus is especially on how three individuals express themselves about the influence of religion on their…

  3. Lynn White Jr. and the greening-of-religion hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Bron; Van Wieren, Gretel; Zaleha, Bernard Daley

    2016-10-01

    Lynn White Jr.'s "The Historical Roots of Our Ecologic Crisis," which was published in Science in 1967, has played a critical role in precipitating interdisciplinary environmental studies. Although White advances a multifaceted argument, most respondents focus on his claim that the Judeo-Christian tradition, especially Christianity, has promoted anthropocentric attitudes and environmentally destructive behaviors. Decades later, some scholars argue contrarily that Christianity in particular and the world's predominant religions in general are becoming more environmentally friendly, known as the greening-of-religion hypothesis. To test these claims, we conducted a comprehensive review of over 700 articles-historical, qualitative, and quantitative-that are pertinent to them. Although definitive conclusions are difficult, we identified many themes and dynamics that hinder environmental understanding and mobilization, including conservative theological orientations and beliefs about the role of divine agency in preventing or promoting natural events, whether the religion is an Abrahamic tradition or originated in Asia. On balance, we found the thrust of White's thesis is supported, whereas the greening-of-religion hypothesis is not. We also found that indigenous traditions often foster proenvironmental perceptions. This finding suggests that indigenous traditions may be more likely to be proenvironmental than other religious systems and that some nature-based cosmologies and value systems function similarly. Although we conclude White's thesis and subsequent claims are largely born out, additional research is needed to better understand under what circumstances and communication strategies religious or other individuals and groups may be more effectively mobilized to respond to contemporary environmental challenges.

  4. Lynn White Jr. and the greening-of-religion hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Bron; Van Wieren, Gretel; Zaleha, Bernard Daley

    2016-10-01

    Lynn White Jr.'s "The Historical Roots of Our Ecologic Crisis," which was published in Science in 1967, has played a critical role in precipitating interdisciplinary environmental studies. Although White advances a multifaceted argument, most respondents focus on his claim that the Judeo-Christian tradition, especially Christianity, has promoted anthropocentric attitudes and environmentally destructive behaviors. Decades later, some scholars argue contrarily that Christianity in particular and the world's predominant religions in general are becoming more environmentally friendly, known as the greening-of-religion hypothesis. To test these claims, we conducted a comprehensive review of over 700 articles-historical, qualitative, and quantitative-that are pertinent to them. Although definitive conclusions are difficult, we identified many themes and dynamics that hinder environmental understanding and mobilization, including conservative theological orientations and beliefs about the role of divine agency in preventing or promoting natural events, whether the religion is an Abrahamic tradition or originated in Asia. On balance, we found the thrust of White's thesis is supported, whereas the greening-of-religion hypothesis is not. We also found that indigenous traditions often foster proenvironmental perceptions. This finding suggests that indigenous traditions may be more likely to be proenvironmental than other religious systems and that some nature-based cosmologies and value systems function similarly. Although we conclude White's thesis and subsequent claims are largely born out, additional research is needed to better understand under what circumstances and communication strategies religious or other individuals and groups may be more effectively mobilized to respond to contemporary environmental challenges. PMID:27604414

  5. The use of Traditional Medicine by Ghanaians in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Barimah, Kofi B; van Teijlingen, Edwin R

    2008-01-01

    Background Research into health and health-care seeking behaviour amongst immigrant populations suggests that culturally-based behaviours change over time towards those prevalent in the host culture. Such acculturation of immigrant groups occurs as part of the interaction of immigrants with mainstream culture. This study examined the acculturation of Ghanaian immigrants in Greater Toronto Area (Canada) focusing particularly on attitudes towards and usage of Ghanaian traditional medicine (TRM). Methods The study used both quantitative and qualitative methods. Structured questionnaire interviews were conducted with a sample of Ghanaians in active collaboration with the Ghanaian-Canadian Association in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). A total of 512 questionnaire interviews were conducted. In addition, three focus groups of nine participants each were conducted with a sub-sample of Ghanaians in Canada. Results Both the questionnaire and the focus groups indicated that nearly 73% of the Ghanaian immigrants in Canada have a positive attitude toward Ghanaian TRM. This is in comparison with less than 30% who have changed their attitude for various reasons. Some of the attraction of TRM lies in its holistic origin. Ghanaians in the GTA have been pursuing 'integration' and 'assimilation' in their acculturation in Canada. Some have given up or modified some of their attitudes and opinions toward TRM to embrace the 'modern' or 'civilized' way of living. Conclusion There is the need for health care providers and other stakeholders to be aware of the influence of religion on African immigrants during their acculturation process. Although modernity is said to be founded on the 'ruthless undermining of tradition', there is no evidence to suggest that Ghanaian traditional religion has been undermined to such an extent that there is a major change in attitudes towards TRM. PMID:18558002

  6. Has Political Science Ignored Religion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettell, Steven

    2012-01-01

    A common complaint from political scientists involved in the study of religion is that religious issues have been largely overlooked by political science. Through a content analysis of leading political science and sociology journals from 2000 to 2010, this article considers the extent of this claim. The results show that political science…

  7. Rethinking Religion in Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Adria R.

    2011-01-01

    A great deal of discussion of religious music in schools has been generated in our field. As we become increasingly sensitive to the diverse interests of the multiple stakeholders in public schools, issues of political correctness and pedagogical goals are raised. The author poses questions about religion and music education. To generate a…

  8. Teaching about Religion with Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desjardins, Michel

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a particular teaching strategy that involves using food playfully in the classroom in order to change the mood, generate different forms of learning, and prod students to connect food and religion. I offer a rationale for teaching with food, then provide an application from a university course on Gnosticism. My goal is to…

  9. World Religions for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Dorothy Arnett

    This teaching and resource guide contains ideas appropriate for teaching junior and senior high school students about the following religions: Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Shintoism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Individual sections discuss general approaches to teaching the religious philosophies and rituals, and exemplary…

  10. How to Talk about Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunzman, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Given the prevalence of religion talk in today's world, another form of fluency is needed. Civic multilingualism is the ability to converse across different religious and ethical perspectives in search of understanding, compromise, and common ground. According to the author, this may represent the greatest social challenge of the 21st century.…

  11. Coming Out à l'oriental: Maghrebi-French performances of gender, sexuality, and religion.

    PubMed

    Provencher, Denis M

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I examine issues of gender, sexuality, and religion for North African (Maghrebi)-French men in contemporary France. I introduce performance artist-photographer "2Fik," one of the Maghrebi-French research subjects from my 2010 fieldwork, and examine excerpts of his particular coming out story to his parents and situate it in relation to recent work on homosexuality in the housing projects of France's banlieues [suburban neighborhoods] (Chaumont, 2009; Naït-Balk, 2009). The interviewee's narrative interweaves a variety of discourses and imagery that help distinguish his experience from those found in those publications as well as in recent scholarship on sexuality, citizenship, and transnationalism (Cruz-Malavé & Manalansan, 2000; Hayes, 2000; Leap & Boellstorff, 2004; Patton & Sánchez-Eppler, 2000; Provencher, 2007a). I argue that 2Fik's story and photography provide him a unique voice that draws on feminist and queer perspectives--informed by both reformed Islam and contemporary Western values--to "decline" (Rosello, 1998) and rewrite longstanding stereotypes of Islam in France. In fact, by acting as a "citizen-photographer" (Möller, 2010), 2Fik successfully declines stereotypes including the absent Muslim father, the veiled woman, and the symbolic violence associated with heteronormativity and traditional masculinity in Maghrebi-French families.

  12. Coming Out à l'oriental: Maghrebi-French performances of gender, sexuality, and religion.

    PubMed

    Provencher, Denis M

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I examine issues of gender, sexuality, and religion for North African (Maghrebi)-French men in contemporary France. I introduce performance artist-photographer "2Fik," one of the Maghrebi-French research subjects from my 2010 fieldwork, and examine excerpts of his particular coming out story to his parents and situate it in relation to recent work on homosexuality in the housing projects of France's banlieues [suburban neighborhoods] (Chaumont, 2009; Naït-Balk, 2009). The interviewee's narrative interweaves a variety of discourses and imagery that help distinguish his experience from those found in those publications as well as in recent scholarship on sexuality, citizenship, and transnationalism (Cruz-Malavé & Manalansan, 2000; Hayes, 2000; Leap & Boellstorff, 2004; Patton & Sánchez-Eppler, 2000; Provencher, 2007a). I argue that 2Fik's story and photography provide him a unique voice that draws on feminist and queer perspectives--informed by both reformed Islam and contemporary Western values--to "decline" (Rosello, 1998) and rewrite longstanding stereotypes of Islam in France. In fact, by acting as a "citizen-photographer" (Möller, 2010), 2Fik successfully declines stereotypes including the absent Muslim father, the veiled woman, and the symbolic violence associated with heteronormativity and traditional masculinity in Maghrebi-French families. PMID:21740212

  13. Religion and cancer: examining the possible connections.

    PubMed

    Crane, Jacquelyn N

    2009-01-01

    Numerous sound scientific studies (cross-sectional and longitudinal) have found a positive correlation between religion and physical and mental health. In particular, there is evidence that demonstrates that religion helps cancer patients better adjust to and cope with their disease, at least psychologically. However, some research suggests that mediating factors associated with religion may explain the positive effects of religion on health. This article argues that even if this is the case, there is still intrinsic value to religion in that the mediators themselves are strongly connected to religion, and therefore religion is important to the patient in terms of coping, support, hope, and meaning. This has possible important implications for clinical practice.

  14. African American Female Offender's Use of Alternative and Traditional Health Services After Re-Entry: Examining the Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations.

    PubMed

    Oser, Carrie B; Bunting, Amanda M; Pullen, Erin; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle

    2016-01-01

    This is the first known study to use the Gelberg-Andersen Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations to predict African American women's use of three types of health services (alternative, hospitalization, and ambulatory) in the 18 months after release from prison. In the multivariate models, the most robust predictors of all three types of service utilization were in the vulnerable theoretical domains. Alternative health services were predicted by ethnic community membership, higher religiosity, and HIV/HCV. Hospitalizations were predicted by the lack of barriers to health care and disability. Ambulatory office visits were predicted by more experiences of gendered racism, a greater number of physical health problems, and HIV/HCV. Findings highlight the importance of cultural factors and HIV/HCV in obtaining both alternative and formal health care during community re-entry. Clinicians and policymakers should consider the salient role that the vulnerable domain plays in offender's accessing health services.

  15. African American Female Offender's Use of Alternative and Traditional Health Services After Re-Entry: Examining the Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations.

    PubMed

    Oser, Carrie B; Bunting, Amanda M; Pullen, Erin; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle

    2016-01-01

    This is the first known study to use the Gelberg-Andersen Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations to predict African American women's use of three types of health services (alternative, hospitalization, and ambulatory) in the 18 months after release from prison. In the multivariate models, the most robust predictors of all three types of service utilization were in the vulnerable theoretical domains. Alternative health services were predicted by ethnic community membership, higher religiosity, and HIV/HCV. Hospitalizations were predicted by the lack of barriers to health care and disability. Ambulatory office visits were predicted by more experiences of gendered racism, a greater number of physical health problems, and HIV/HCV. Findings highlight the importance of cultural factors and HIV/HCV in obtaining both alternative and formal health care during community re-entry. Clinicians and policymakers should consider the salient role that the vulnerable domain plays in offender's accessing health services. PMID:27133515

  16. Parenting Behaviors and Preschool Children's Social and Emotional Skills: A Question of the Consequential Validity of Traditional Parenting Constructs for Low-Income African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWayne, C. M.; Owsianik, M.; Green, L. E.; Fantuzzo, J. W.

    2008-01-01

    Few researchers have questioned the validity of traditional parenting dimensions (based largely on Baumrind's [Baumrind, D. (1967). Child care practices anteceding three patterns of preschool behavior. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 75, 43-88; Baumrind, D. (1971). Current patterns of parental authority. Developmental Psychology, 4, 1-103] work)…

  17. A Place Called Homecoming: Memories of Celebration and Tradition by Successful African-American Graduates of Lincoln University in Missouri from 1935 to 1945

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarther, Shirley Marie; Davis, Donna M.; Caruthers, Loyce

    2012-01-01

    It was the second week in October, 2010. This year was like many in the past, where for decades, everyone convenes to continue traditions and preparations that have centered on a single, special event. This special event or celebration contextualizes the academic and social experiences of successful graduates of one HBCU located in Jefferson City,…

  18. Does Science Rule out Religion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blythe, Kim

    2013-01-01

    In the author's opinion, if teachers do not bridge the boundaries between science and religion in the primary school, then many children are going to find it difficult to think about questions on topics such as "how Earth came to be" once they are in secondary schools, where they appear to be required to think in subject boxes for most of the day.…

  19. Science, religion and difficult dialectics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, David E.

    2010-03-01

    Discussing themes from my paper Scientists at play in a field of the Lord, three forum participants identify and discuss continuing social and epistemological issues which continue to challenge effective evolution education. I extend these themes and further amplify the vexing nature of an effective dialectic regarding evolution, especially for Creationists. By doing so, I offer that a full dialectic regarding evolution in classrooms requires quite a bit more explicit historicizing of both the nature of science and religion.

  20. Religion replenishes self-control.

    PubMed

    Rounding, Kevin; Lee, Albert; Jacobson, Jill A; Ji, Li-Jun

    2012-06-01

    Researchers have proposed that the emergence of religion was a cultural adaptation necessary for promoting self-control. Self-control, in turn, may serve as a psychological pillar supporting a myriad of adaptive psychological and behavioral tendencies. If this proposal is true, then subtle reminders of religious concepts should result in higher levels of self-control. In a series of four experiments, we consistently found that when religious themes were made implicitly salient, people exercised greater self-control, which, in turn, augmented their ability to make decisions in a number of behavioral domains that are theoretically relevant to both major religions and humans' evolutionary success. Furthermore, when self-control resources were minimized, making it difficult for people to exercise restraint on future unrelated self-control tasks, we found that implicit reminders of religious concepts refueled people's ability to exercise self-control. Moreover, compared with morality- or death-related concepts, religion had a unique influence on self-control.

  1. Religion, Senescence, and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Van Ness, Peter H.; Larson, David B.

    2015-01-01

    The authors review epidemiological and survey research relevant to the relationships between religiousness/spirituality and mental health in people at the end of life, with the end of helping psychiatrists, psychologists, and other mental health professionals dealing with older Americans. They give special attention to well-being, religious coping, cognitive dysfunction, anxiety, depression, and suicide, and consider the extent to which hope is a mediator of the purported salutary effects of religiousness. Studies were selected from the comprehensive and systematic review of 20th-century scientific literature concerning religion and health. Authors also review current studies relevant to religion and end-of-life issues. Religious persons reported generally higher levels of well-being. The review also found fairly consistent inverse associations of religiousness with rates of depression and suicide. There was some negative association between religious participation and cognitive dysfunction, but the association with anxiety was inconsistent, with some studies showing a correlation between higher levels of religion and anxiety. Religion’s effects on mental health are generally protective in direction but modest in strength. PMID:12095898

  2. Religion as a Support Factor for Women of Color Pursuing Science Degrees: Implications for Science Teacher Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceglie, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the influence of religion as a support factor for a group of Latina and African-American women majoring in science. The current project is a part of a larger study that investigated persistence factors of underrepresented woman who were enrolled as science majors at United States colleges and universities. This paper focuses on…

  3. Religion in families 1999 to 2009: A relational spirituality framework

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, Annette

    2011-01-01

    This review examines the role of religion, for better and worse, in marital and parent-child relationships according to peer reviewed studies from 1999–2009. A conceptual framework labeled “relational spirituality” is used to: (a) organize the breadth of findings into the three stages of the formation, maintenance, and transformation of family relationships, and (b) illustrate three in-depth sets of mechanisms to delve into unique ways religion may shape family bonds. Topics include union formation, fertility, spousal roles, marital satisfaction and conflict, divorce, domestic violence, infidelity, pregnancy, parenting children, parenting adolescents, and coping with family distress. Conclusions emphasize moving beyond markers of general religiousness and identifying specific spiritual beliefs and practices that could prevent or intensify problems in traditional and nontraditional families. PMID:22102761

  4. Lived religion: implications for nursing ethics.

    PubMed

    Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl

    2009-07-01

    This article explores how ethics and religion interface in everyday life by drawing on a study examining the negotiation of religious and spiritual plurality in health care. Employing methods of critical ethnography, namely, interviews and participant observation, data were collected from patients, health care providers, administrators and spiritual care providers. The findings revealed the degree to which 'lived religion' was intertwined with 'lived ethics' for many participants; particularly for people from the Sikh faith. For these participants, religion was woven into everyday life, making distinctions between public and private, secular and sacred spaces improbable. Individual interactions, institutional resource allocation, and social discourses are all embedded in social relationships of power that prevent religion from being a solely personal or private matter. Strategies for the reintegration of religion into nursing ethics are: adjusting professional codes and theories of ethics to reflect the influence of religion; and the contribution of critical perspectives, such as postcolonial feminism, to the understanding of lived ethics.

  5. Lived religion: implications for nursing ethics.

    PubMed

    Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl

    2009-07-01

    This article explores how ethics and religion interface in everyday life by drawing on a study examining the negotiation of religious and spiritual plurality in health care. Employing methods of critical ethnography, namely, interviews and participant observation, data were collected from patients, health care providers, administrators and spiritual care providers. The findings revealed the degree to which 'lived religion' was intertwined with 'lived ethics' for many participants; particularly for people from the Sikh faith. For these participants, religion was woven into everyday life, making distinctions between public and private, secular and sacred spaces improbable. Individual interactions, institutional resource allocation, and social discourses are all embedded in social relationships of power that prevent religion from being a solely personal or private matter. Strategies for the reintegration of religion into nursing ethics are: adjusting professional codes and theories of ethics to reflect the influence of religion; and the contribution of critical perspectives, such as postcolonial feminism, to the understanding of lived ethics. PMID:19528098

  6. The effect of extended grazing time and supplementary forage on the dry matter intake and foraging behaviour of cattle kept under traditional african grazing systems.

    PubMed

    Smith, D G; Cuddeford, D; Pearson, R A

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was carried out at Alemaya University in Ethiopia to investigate the effect of night kraaling on the dry matter intake (DMI), live weight gain (LWG) and foraging behaviour of Ogaden cattle. Three groups of four animals were given either 7 h access to pasture per day, simulating traditional grazing (TG) practice; extended grazing (EG) access for 11 h per day; or traditional grazing access plus a nocturnal forage supplement (TF). Live weight gain, DMI and foraging behaviour were measured during the late dry season (EP1) and the wet season (EP2). None of the treatments had any significant effect on either DMI or LWG during EP1 or EP2. Extending pasture access time from 7 h to 11 h did not significantly increase the amount time spent grazing, but grazing intensity was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced during the non-common grazing hours. Step rate was significantly lower (p < 0.01) during EP2 than during EP1 and bites per step were significantly higher (p < 0.001) during EP2 than EP1, indicating that animals had to travel a shorter distance before selecting material to eat during the wet season (EP2). Providing supplementary forage (TF) had no significant effect on any measured parameter. In this study neither of the two low-cost methods (EG and TF) of improving access to forage had any beneficial effect on cattle productivity. It is concluded that, under the prevailing conditions, the traditional grazing practices of this part of Ethiopia do provide sufficient pasture access time to achieve daily voluntary food intake.

  7. Understanding African American's religious beliefs and organ donation intentions.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Dana H Z; Klammer, Susan M Gerbensky; Perryman, Jennie P; Thompson, Nancy J; Arriola, Kimberly R Jacob

    2014-12-01

    African Americans are overrepresented on the organ transplant waiting list and underrepresented among organ and tissue donors. One of the most highly noted reasons for lack of donation is the perception that donation is contrary to religious beliefs. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to explore the complexities of religion (beliefs, religiosity, and religious involvement) and its association with willingness to donate and the written expression of donation intentions. Findings from a sample of 505 African American participants suggest that religion is a multidimensional construct and results differ depending on how the construct is measured and operationalized.

  8. Teaching Religion, Teaching Truth: Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives. Religion, Education and Values. Volume 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astley, Jeff, Ed.; Francis, Leslie J., Ed.; Robbins, Mandy, Ed.; Selcuk, Mualla, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Religious educators today are called upon to enable young people to develop as fully-rounded human beings in a multicultural and multi-faith world. It is no longer sufficient to teach about the history of religions: religion is not relegated to the past. It is no longer sufficient to teach about the observable outward phenomena of religions:…

  9. An Introduction to West African Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taiwo, Oladele

    Intended to provide help for those interested in studying West African literature, this book is divided into three parts. Part One provides background information: the various African oral traditions are discussed, related to the way of life of the people, and examined for the extent to which they form the basis of present West African literary…

  10. African American Teaching and the Matriarchal Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffries, Rhonda Baynes

    This paper discusses the role of matriarchs in African-American culture, explaining that traditionally, African-American matriarchs arise from a combination of African norms and American social positions that naturally forces them to assume leadership conditions. The roles these women assume are a response to the desire to survive in a society…

  11. In vitro fermentation studies for selection and evaluation of Bacillus strains as starter cultures for the production of okpehe, a traditional African fermented condiment.

    PubMed

    Oguntoyinbo, Folarin A; Sanni, Abiodun I; Franz, Charles M A P; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H

    2007-01-25

    Selected Bacillus and Enterococcus strains, isolated from traditional okpehe fermentations, were studied for their suitability as starter cultures in laboratory-scale fermentations of Prosopis africana seeds for the production of okpehe, a traditional fermented vegetable product of Nigeria. The strains were selected on the basis of highest proteolytic activity, as determined with the APIZYM (BioMerieux) test. The choice of starter strains was narrowed to Bacillus subtilis strains BFE 5301 and BFE 5372. These were determined as the best starter combination because of rapid growth, high amylolytic and proteolytic activities, high levels of polyglutamic acid production by strain BFE 5372, as well as bacteriocin production by strain BFE 5301. Other mixed culture fermentations did not yield sensorically acceptable products. Although a monoculture fermentation, using only B. subtilis strain BFE 5372, produced okpehe with very good sensory characteristics, the growth of B. cereus could be detected after 48 h fermentation, indicating that this starter did not sufficiently contribute to product safety. Mixed culture fermentation with the combination of bacteriocin-producing starter B. subtilis BFE 5301 and the non-bacteriocin-producing B. subtilis BFE 5372, produced a product with good sensory characteristics, in which growth of B. cereus was delayed. The bacteriocin produced by B. subtilis strain BFE 5301 was identified as subtilisin, using subtilisin-specific primers and PCR amplification of the subtilisin gene. The bacteriocin was heat-stable at 100 degrees C for 10 min and exhibited highest activity at pH values lower or equal to pH 6.0. The bacteriocin was sensitive to the proteolytic enzymes trypsin and alpha-chymotrypsin at concentrations of 10 mg/ml.

  12. Modeling the decline of religion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiener, Richard; Yaple, Haley; Abrams, Daniel

    2011-03-01

    People claiming no religious affiliation constitute the fastest growing ``religious'' minority in many countries throughout the world. Here we use a minimal model of competition between social groups to explain historical data on the growth of religious non-affiliation in 85 regions around the world. We also describe numerical experiments that support the validity of the model. According to the model, for societies in which the perceived utility of not adhering is greater than the utility of adhering, religion will be driven toward extinction. This work was funded by Northwestern University and The James S. McDonnell Foundation.

  13. [Religion and brain functioning (part 1): are our mental structures designed for religion?].

    PubMed

    Kornreich, C; Neu, D

    2010-01-01

    Religions are seen everywhere in the world. Two main theories are competing to explain this phenomenon. The first one is based on the assumption that our cognitive structures are predisposing us to nurture religious beliefs. Religion would then be a by-product of mental functions useful for survival. Examples of these mental functions are children credulity, anthropomorphism and teleology. The second one hypothesizes that religion is maintained trough direct adaptation benefits occurring in cooperation exchanges. In particular, religion could function as an insurance mechanism given by the religious group. It is likely that both theories are complementary and useful to explain why religion is a universal phenomenon in the human species.

  14. Assortative sociality, limited dispersal, infectious disease and the genesis of the global pattern of religion diversity

    PubMed Central

    Fincher, Corey L; Thornhill, Randy

    2008-01-01

    Why are religions far more numerous in the tropics compared with the temperate areas? We propose, as an answer, that more religions have emerged and are maintained in the tropics because, through localized coevolutionary races with hosts, infectious diseases select for three anticontagion behaviours: in-group assortative sociality; out-group avoidance; and limited dispersal. These behaviours, in turn, create intergroup boundaries that effectively fractionate, isolate and diversify an original culture leading to the genesis of two or more groups from one. Religion is one aspect of a group's culture that undergoes this process. If this argument is correct then, across the globe, religion diversity should correlate positively with infectious disease diversity, reflecting an evolutionary history of antagonistic coevolution between parasites and hosts and subsequent religion genesis. We present evidence that supports this model: for a global sample of traditional societies, societal range size is reduced in areas with more pathogens compared with areas with few pathogens, and in contemporary countries religion diversity is positively related to two measures of parasite stress. PMID:18664438

  15. Assortative sociality, limited dispersal, infectious disease and the genesis of the global pattern of religion diversity.

    PubMed

    Fincher, Corey L; Thornhill, Randy

    2008-11-22

    Why are religions far more numerous in the tropics compared with the temperate areas? We propose, as an answer, that more religions have emerged and are maintained in the tropics because, through localized coevolutionary races with hosts, infectious diseases select for three anticontagion behaviours: in-group assortative sociality; out-group avoidance; and limited dispersal. These behaviours, in turn, create intergroup boundaries that effectively fractionate, isolate and diversify an original culture leading to the genesis of two or more groups from one. Religion is one aspect of a group's culture that undergoes this process. If this argument is correct then, across the globe, religion diversity should correlate positively with infectious disease diversity, reflecting an evolutionary history of antagonistic coevolution between parasites and hosts and subsequent religion genesis. We present evidence that supports this model: for a global sample of traditional societies, societal range size is reduced in areas with more pathogens compared with areas with few pathogens, and in contemporary countries religion diversity is positively related to two measures of parasite stress.

  16. Esoteric healing traditions: a conceptual overview.

    PubMed

    Levin, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents, for the first time, a comprehensive scholarly examination of the history and principles of major traditions of esoteric healing. After a brief conceptual overview of esoteric religion and healing, summaries are provided of eight major esoteric traditions, including descriptions of beliefs and practices related to health, healing, and medicine. These include what are termed the kabbalistic tradition, the mystery school tradition, the gnostic tradition, the brotherhoods tradition, the Eastern mystical tradition, the Western mystical tradition, the shamanic tradition, and the new age tradition. Next, commonalities across these traditions are summarized with respect to beliefs and practices related to anatomy and physiology; nosology and etiology; pathophysiology; and therapeutic modalities. Finally, the implications of this survey of esoteric healing are discussed for clinicians, biomedical researchers, and medical educators.

  17. Evaluation of pharmacological activities, cytotoxicity and phenolic composition of four Maytenus species used in southern African traditional medicine to treat intestinal infections and diarrhoeal diseases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Microbial infections and resulting inflammation and oxidative stress are common pathogenesis of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disorders. In South Africa, several species of the genus Maytenus are used in traditional medicine to treat various infectious diseases. Most of the previous work on this genus was focused on nonpolar extracts from the root and bark. In this study, leaf extracts of polar extracts of Maytenus peduncularis, Maytenus procumbens, Maytenus senegalensis and Maytenus undata were evaluated for antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities to determine their efficacy as therapeutic agents in GIT disorders. Methods Phenolic-enriched leaf extracts and fractions were prepared by extracting with acidified 70% methanol and solvent-solvent fractionation. The activities of the fractions against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis as well as clinical isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans were determined using a serial microplate dilution method. Antioxidant activities were determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging and linoleic acid peroxidation inhibitory assays. The phenolic composition as well as the cytotoxicity against Vero cell lines of the crude extracts was evaluated using various standard protocols. Results The antimicrobial activities were concentrated in the non-polar fractions of hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate (MICs 19–312 μg/ml). The crude extracts and polar fractions (butanol and water) had moderate to poor antimicrobial activity (MICs 312 to above 2500 μg/ml). The crude extracts and polar fractions had good antioxidant activity (EC50 values varied from 1.22 to 607 μg/ml, 1.71 to 312 μg/ml and 23 to 284 μg/ml for DPPH, ABTS and OH respectively. Linoleic acid peroxidation inhibition EC50 values of

  18. Religion. Essay on Teaching Able Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVault, Mary T.; McIlhiney, David B.

    The Department of Religion at Phillips Exeter Academy (New Hampshire) offers more than a dozen courses, loosely grouped under the headings of scripture, theology, ethics, comparative religion, and philosophy. Approximately half of the enrollment in this department is in the area of biblical studies, where a close scrutiny is provided of either the…

  19. A Catholic Perspective on Religion and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raddell, William

    2002-01-01

    Explains why Catholics are free to believe in evolution and Catholic educators are free to teach evolution. Catholics do not take a fundamentalist approach to the interpretation of scripture. Argues that science and religion are compatible, and that religion has much to offer science in terms of moral issues. (NB)

  20. Teaching about Religion in Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piediscalzi, Nicholas, Ed.; Collie, William E., Ed.

    Sixteen articles written by various authors are contained in this book about teaching religion in public schools. Developed for both elementary and secondary programs, the articles detail current practices. Models and units of study are suggested for teaching religion in different subject areas, including language arts, humanities, and social…

  1. The Religion Journalism of James Gordon Bennett.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddenbaum, Judith M.

    A study was conducted to examine the journalism work of James Gordon Bennett, who founded the "New York Herald" in the 1830s, and to determine the nature of his coverage of religion before, during, and after the "Moral War" waged in 1840 against Bennett's popular newspaper. In addition, the study analyzed what Bennett's religion coverage reveals…

  2. Religion and Spirituality Along the Suicidal Path

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colucci, Erminia; Martin, Graham

    2008-01-01

    The inner experience of spiritual and religious feelings is an integral part of the everyday lives of many individuals. For over 100 years the role of religion as a deterrent to suicidal behavior has been studied in various disciplines. We attempt to systematize the existing literature investigating the relationship between religion/spirituality…

  3. Getting Religion Right in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Charles C.

    2011-01-01

    Contrary to culture-war rhetoric from the Right, there is more student religious expression and more study about religion in public schools today than at any time in the last 100 years. And contrary to dire warnings from the Left, much of the religion that goes to school these days arrives through the First Amendment door. Of course, this isn't to…

  4. American Indian Religion: Past, Present, Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Omer C.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the basic concept of American Indian religion after briefly comparing fundamental religious concepts of several civilizations. Discusses the historical and current roles of medicine men, the belief in supernatural forces, the effect of missionary zeal on American Indian religions, and the appearance of Christian elements in traditional…

  5. Future Directions in the Sociology of Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Christian, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The sociology of religion today faces new and remarkable opportunities to contribute interesting and important knowledge and understanding about the role of religion in social, political, economic and cultural life for scholarly and public audiences. But in order to meet and capitalize successfully upon those opportunities, the field at present…

  6. Religion, Ethnicity and Language Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liyanage, Indika; Birch, Gary; Grimbeek, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies (Liyanage, 2003a, 2003b, 2004) by one of the authors indicated that ethnicity and religion jointly predict the metacognitive, cognitive and social affective strategies of ESL learners in Sri Lanka. The current study further examines which of these two variables (ethnicity or religion) is more important in determining the…

  7. European Religious Education and European Civil Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gearon, Liam

    2012-01-01

    This paper challenges a foundational conjecture of the Religion in Education Dialogue or Conflict (REDCo) project, that increased interest in religion in public and political life as manifested particularly in education is evidence of counter-secularisation. The paper argues that rather than representing counter-secularisation, such developments…

  8. Religion, Democratic Community, and Education: Two Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Souza, Mario Osbert

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the mediating role that education plays between religion and democratic community. The paper is situated in the Canadian context and examines this mediation through two questions: First, what is the relationship between religion and education and what is the contribution of this relationship to and within a pluralist society?…

  9. Religion in the Poetry of Langston Hughes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culp, Mary Beth

    1987-01-01

    Religious feeling is always interdependent with racial feeling in the poetry of Langston Hughes. He views religion in the larger context of black culture, presenting it variously as a source of strength for the oppressed, an opiate of the people, the religion of slavery, and an obstacle to emancipation. (BJV)

  10. International Religion Indexes: Government Regulation, Government Favoritism, and Social Regulation of Religion*

    PubMed Central

    Grim, Brian J.; Finke, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The study of religion is severely handicapped by a lack of adequate cross-national data. Despite the prominence of religion in international events and recent theoretical models pointing to the consequences of regulating religion, cross-national research on religion has been lacking. We strive to fill this void by developing measurement models and indexes for government regulation, government favoritism, and social regulation of religion. The indexes rely on data from an extensive coding of the 2003 International Religious Freedom Report for 196 countries and territories. Using a series of tests to evaluate the new data and indexes, we find that the measures developed are highly reliable and valid. The three indexes will allow researchers and others to measure the government’s subsidy and regulation of religion as well as the restrictions placed on religion by social and cultural forces beyond the state. PMID:25484633

  11. The Impact of Al-Islam on the African American Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumumba, Hakeem

    2003-01-01

    This article explores different aspects of the Islamic religion, or Al-Islam, including the beliefs and religious practices of Muslims; the historical relationship among Africa, African Americans, and Al-Islam; and the current and future implications for African Americans. (Contains 25 references.) (GCP)

  12. A Multidimensional Look at Religious Involvement and Psychological Well Being among Urban Elderly African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Charlotte; Mintz, Laurie B.; Mobley, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Although the importance of religion in the lives of older African Americans is well documented, this is the 1st study to examine the relations between religious involvement and psychological well-being among a sample comprised exclusively of older African Americans. Eighty six participants completed multidimensional measures of religious…

  13. Faith-Based Adult Learning Initiatives for Diabetes Education in the African American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaillard, Trudy

    2006-01-01

    Historically, religion and spirituality have been major influences in the social, cultural, and political lives of African Americans. Spirituality is deeply embedded into their rich cultural heritage, and it is intertwined into all aspects of their life, including beliefs about health and illness. For African Americans, health and illness are a…

  14. Religion, spirituality and therapy: implications for training.

    PubMed

    Elkonin, Diane; Brown, Ottilia; Naicker, Samantha

    2014-02-01

    Religion and spirituality are recognized coping resources but are neglected in psychological training and practice. However, religion and spirituality can be successfully used to cope with psychological disorders, prevent unhealthy behaviors and promote resilience. This study explored and described two questions regarding the concepts of the terminology religion and spirituality, and the perceptions of the use of religion and spirituality in therapy. Purposive sampling was utilized in a qualitative study of 15 registered psychologists, and data were analyzed using Tesch's model of qualitative content analysis. The concepts religion and spirituality appear difficult to define but the importance of their use as coping mechanisms in their own and their clients' lives was recognized. These findings have implications for professional training.

  15. Religion and bioethics: toward an expanded understanding.

    PubMed

    Brody, Howard; Macdonald, Arlene

    2013-04-01

    Before asking what U.S. bioethics might learn from a more comprehensive and more nuanced understanding of Islamic religion, history, and culture, a prior question is, how should bioethics think about religion? Two sets of commonly held assumptions impede further progress and insight. The first involves what "religion" means and how one should study it. The second is a prominent philosophical view of the role of religion in a diverse, democratic society. To move beyond these assumptions, it helps to view religion as lived experience as well as a body of doctrine and to see that religious differences and controversies should be welcomed in the public square of a diverse democratic society rather than merely tolerated.

  16. Religion and Suicide Risk: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Ryan E; Oquendo, Maria A; Stanley, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Although religion is reported to be protective against suicide, the empirical evidence is inconsistent. Research is complicated by the fact that there are many dimensions to religion (affiliation, participation, doctrine) and suicide (ideation, attempt, completion). We systematically reviewed the literature on religion and suicide over the last 10 years (89 articles) with a goal of identifying what specific dimensions of religion are associated with specific aspects of suicide. We found that religious affiliation does not necessarily protect against suicidal ideation, but does protect against suicide attempts. Whether religious affiliation protects against suicide attempts may depend on the culture-specific implications of affiliating with a particular religion, since minority religious groups can feel socially isolated. After adjusting for social support measures, religious service attendance is not especially protective against suicidal ideation, but does protect against suicide attempts, and possibly protects against suicide. Future qualitative studies might further clarify these associations.

  17. The African-American History of Martha's Vineyard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weintraub, Elaine

    1993-01-01

    Reports on research into African American history and experiences in Martha's Vineyard (Massachusetts). Examines primary sources and oral traditions of African American cultural and social history from 1703 to the present. Discusses African American sailors, race relations, and contributions by African American individuals to the community. (CFR)

  18. Elective: African Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Kenneth V.

    The make-up of a course in African literature for high school students is discussed. It is pointed out that the course can be constructed on already familiar lines. High school students will be able to describe clearly, for example, the relationship between environment and character or the dilemma of characters caught between traditional values…

  19. Religion and the rainbow struggle: does religion factor into attitudes toward homosexuality and same-sex civil unions in Brazil?

    PubMed

    Ogland, Curtis P; Verona, Ana Paula

    2014-01-01

    The provision of civil liberties to LGBT persons has become part of a global movement in societies across the world. In Brazil, a recent judicial ruling for the first time established the right for homosexual couples to enter into civil unions, despite the presence of widespread disapproval of homosexuality among the population and opposition from prominent religious groups. Picking up on this issue, the following study examines whether religion may factor into the attitudes Brazilians hold toward homosexuality and same-sex civil unions. Using data from the Brazilian Social Research Survey, we find that the most restrictive views toward homosexuality and the strongest opposition to same-sex civil unions are most prevalent among devoted followers of historical Protestant, Pentecostal, and Catholic faith traditions, whereas adherents of Afro-Brazilian and spiritist religions, as well as those with no religious commitment, are inclined to assume a more tolerant moral posture toward such issues. The findings point to religion as a potential influence in future public policy initiatives and social movements involving LGBT issues in Brazil. PMID:24914634

  20. Religion and the rainbow struggle: does religion factor into attitudes toward homosexuality and same-sex civil unions in Brazil?

    PubMed

    Ogland, Curtis P; Verona, Ana Paula

    2014-01-01

    The provision of civil liberties to LGBT persons has become part of a global movement in societies across the world. In Brazil, a recent judicial ruling for the first time established the right for homosexual couples to enter into civil unions, despite the presence of widespread disapproval of homosexuality among the population and opposition from prominent religious groups. Picking up on this issue, the following study examines whether religion may factor into the attitudes Brazilians hold toward homosexuality and same-sex civil unions. Using data from the Brazilian Social Research Survey, we find that the most restrictive views toward homosexuality and the strongest opposition to same-sex civil unions are most prevalent among devoted followers of historical Protestant, Pentecostal, and Catholic faith traditions, whereas adherents of Afro-Brazilian and spiritist religions, as well as those with no religious commitment, are inclined to assume a more tolerant moral posture toward such issues. The findings point to religion as a potential influence in future public policy initiatives and social movements involving LGBT issues in Brazil.

  1. Becoming Pilgrims: Engaging Theory through Practice in the Introductory World Religions Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Susan E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the use of the educational pilgrimage as an active learning strategy in the introductory world religions course. As we study pilgrimages from different religious traditions throughout the semester using Victor Turner as our theoretical guide, students also plan their own campus pilgrimage, paying homage to sites that help them…

  2. Religion and Spirituality. International Advances in Education: Global Initiatives for Equity and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowson, Martin, Ed.; Devenish, Stuart, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Religion and spirituality make critical contributions to an inclusive vision for the welfare of minorities, the marginalized and other disadvantaged groups in societies and cultures around the globe. Religious movements and spiritual traditions work to improve social outcomes for disenfranchised groups by enriching educational, political, and…

  3. Embodying Learning: Post-Cartesian Pedagogy and the Academic Study of Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lelwica, Michelle Mary

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the concept and practice of "embodied pedagogy" as an alternative to the Cartesian approach to knowledge that is tacitly embedded in traditional modes of teaching and learning about religion. My analysis highlights a class I co-teach that combines the study of Aikido (a Japanese martial art) with seminar-style discussions of…

  4. Discussing Women's Reproductive Health, Religion, Roles and Rights: Achieving Women's Empowerment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sousa, Isabela Cabral Felix de

    1995-01-01

    A health education program in Brazil trained 26 women as community health educators. Only four used their roles to foster social change. Discussing women's reproductive health in the context of religion and social values contributed to successful training; economic and political empowerment was hampered by perpetuation of traditional role…

  5. Balancing Critique and Commitment: A Synthetic Approach to Teaching Religion and the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Courses about religion and the environment should work toward a synthesis of critical thinking--teaching students to examine and question the interplay of environmental degradation, religious traditions, and new religious movements--and advocacy--helping students to embrace, articulate, and refine their own environmentalist commitments, in…

  6. U.S. Adolescent Religious Identity, the Media, and the "Funky" Side of Religion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Lynn Schofield

    2002-01-01

    Contends that television, film, and other forms of narrative fiction have often been understood as direct competitors to the traditional beliefs and values of organized religion. Analyzes several cases in which stories of the afterlife, supernatural, and paranormal in the entertainment media become an important context through which teens…

  7. Tearing down the Walls: Cyber Charter Schools and the Public Endorsement of Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cambre, Belinda M.

    2009-01-01

    States have the ability to regulate cyber charter schools just as they regulate traditional schools, private schools, and homeschooling. The situation becomes trickier in terms of religion. In homeschool settings, parents have the right to deliver religious education to their children. Under "Zelman v. Simmons-Harris" (2002), a cyber charter…

  8. Dress Codes in Post-Apartheid South African Workplaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Terri; Nodoba, Gaontebale

    2009-01-01

    There are many factors that influence dress code decision making in formal and informal business arenas. In South Africa, with its colonial and apartheid history followed by an exuberant resurgence of Africanism, factors such as diversity of race, ethnicity, religion, and culture play a critical role in lifestyle and worldview. These many and…

  9. The African American Church, Education and Self Determination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Roland W.

    2010-01-01

    This special issue on "The Role of Spirituality, Religion and the African American Church on Educational Outcomes" is extremely timely. Moreover, the fact that this conversation is taking place in "The Journal of Negro Education" ("JNE") demonstrates once again that the "JNE" has its finger firmly on the pulse of significant educational and…

  10. Explaining the success of karmic religions.

    PubMed

    White, Claire; Sousa, Paulo; Prochownik, Karolina

    2016-01-01

    One of the central claims of Norenzayan et al.'s article is that supernatural monitoring and intergroup competition have facilitated the rise of large-scale prosocial religions. Although the authors outline in detail how social instincts that govern supernatural monitoring are honed by cultural evolution and have given rise to Big Gods, they do not provide a clear explanation for the success of karmic religions. Therefore, to test the real scope of their model, Norenzayan et al. need to seriously engage with questions concerning the evolution of karmic prosocial religions.

  11. Explaining the success of karmic religions.

    PubMed

    White, Claire; Sousa, Paulo; Prochownik, Karolina

    2016-01-01

    One of the central claims of Norenzayan et al.'s article is that supernatural monitoring and intergroup competition have facilitated the rise of large-scale prosocial religions. Although the authors outline in detail how social instincts that govern supernatural monitoring are honed by cultural evolution and have given rise to Big Gods, they do not provide a clear explanation for the success of karmic religions. Therefore, to test the real scope of their model, Norenzayan et al. need to seriously engage with questions concerning the evolution of karmic prosocial religions. PMID:26948746

  12. The Relationship Between Religion and Counseling/Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Samuel W., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The article proposes that there are three possible relationships between religion and counseling/psychology: (1) religion and counseling are identical, (2) religion and counseling converge or overlap, and (3) religion and counseling are different and distinct. Examples of each combination are discussed, particularly in reference to the writings in…

  13. Geography of Religion at Slippery Rock State College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, Thomas J., Jr.

    The paper presents a course outline intended for use in a one semester geography of religion course on the college level. Geography of religion is interpreted to include all aspects of the impact of religion on cultural, political, and economic geography. Objectives are to emphasize distributional aspects of religion and religious phenomena,…

  14. The School and Religion: Do They Need One Another?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anisimova, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    Asserts that certain issues that are connected in some way to religion continue to endure. Reports on a study of 227 Russian teachers regarding their views toward religion, atheism, and religion's role in society. Concludes that Russian educators should define their attitudes toward churches and use religion to help improve society. (CFR)

  15. Nursing research on religion and spirituality through a social justice lens.

    PubMed

    Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl

    2014-01-01

    Critical theories such as postcolonial feminism and intersectionality can provide new and vital perspectives on the interplay between social justice, religion, spirituality, health, and nursing. Criticality prompts us to examine taken-for-granted assumptions, such as the neutrality and universality of spirituality, while analyzing social relations of power, including the racialization of religion and religious patriarchy, that may result in oppressive conditions and social exclusion. The argument is made that when refracted through critical, intersectional lenses, religious and spiritual traditions can be rich sources of theoretical foundations and practical services that could inform nursing's recent re/turn toward social justice.

  16. All God's children: religion, divorce, and child custody.

    PubMed

    Goldzband, M G

    2000-01-01

    Many young Americans, married and marriageable, are turning to more traditional or fundamentalist religions. Religiosity and ultra-strict morality often leads to attitudes that alter decision-making in marriage, divorce, and the disposition of the children of divorce. Judgmental pastoral counseling may affect these decisions even more. This paper discusses these issues, emphasizing the need for forensic psychiatrists involved in the custody arena to be aware of the religious, spiritual, irreligious, or even anti-religious feelings of the battling partners. It also presents detailed information about the four major American religions (Roman Catholicism, traditional Judaism, Mormonism, and Islam) that have specific doctrine, protocols, or customs affecting decisions in marriage, divorce, and child custody and visitation. This information is presented from the viewpoint of a child advocate. Mental health experts consulting in child custody must understand the backgrounds of the battling parents, including the religious pressures that well may adversely affect their interspousal disputes, particularly those over child custody. The experts must also recognize the attitudes of the religious communities in which the custodial parent may reside after divorce. Those attitudes may be rejecting of the children as well as of the divorced parent(s). Mental health experts may have a better chance to reach agreement between the battling parents if the experts reverse the historic reluctance of psychiatrists to evaluate and discuss the religious feelings and beliefs of their forensic evaluatees.

  17. Science and Religion: Acknowledging Student Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fysh, Robert; Lucas, Keith B.

    1998-01-01

    Reports part of a larger research study into the beliefs held by students, clergy, and teachers in a Lutheran secondary school concerning the relationship between science and religion. Contains 29 references. (DDR)

  18. Religion and Early Marriage in the United States: Evidence from the Add Health Study.

    PubMed

    Uecker, Jeremy

    2014-06-01

    Early marriage has important consequences for individuals in the United States. Several studies have linked religion to early marriage but have not examined this relationship in depth. Using data from Waves 1, 3, and 4 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, I conduct multilevel event-history analysis to examine how religion, at both individual and contextual levels, is associated with early marriage. Further, I test mediators of the religion-early marriage relationship. I find significant variation in early marriage by religious tradition, religious service attendance, religious salience, belief in scriptural inerrancy, and religious context in high school. The individual religious effects-but not the school context effects-are explained in part by differential attitudes toward marriage and cohabitation.

  19. Religion and Early Marriage in the United States: Evidence from the Add Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Uecker, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Early marriage has important consequences for individuals in the United States. Several studies have linked religion to early marriage but have not examined this relationship in depth. Using data from Waves 1, 3, and 4 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, I conduct multilevel event-history analysis to examine how religion, at both individual and contextual levels, is associated with early marriage. Further, I test mediators of the religion-early marriage relationship. I find significant variation in early marriage by religious tradition, religious service attendance, religious salience, belief in scriptural inerrancy, and religious context in high school. The individual religious effects—but not the school context effects—are explained in part by differential attitudes toward marriage and cohabitation. PMID:25045173

  20. DSM-III-R and religion.

    PubMed

    Post, S G

    1992-07-01

    The interpretation of religion in DSM-III-R contains considerable negative bias and contributes to unfair stereotypes of religious persons. Particularly new religious movements and religious conversion are unfairly interpreted under the DSM-III-R heading, 'Dissociative Disorder Not Otherwise Specified'. It is suggested that a more balanced and respectful interpretation of religion is needed in DSM-III-R, since psychiatry through its official nomenclature should not contribute to social intolerance of religious nonconformity.

  1. Neurotheology: The relationship between brain and religion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    “Neurotheology” refers to the multidisciplinary field of scholarship that seeks to understand the relationship between the human brain and religion. In its initial development, neurotheology has been conceived in very broad terms relating to the intersection between religion and brain sciences in general. The author's main objective is to introduce neurotheology in general and provides a basis for more detailed scholarship from experts in theology, as well as in neuroscience and medicine. PMID:24800050

  2. Religion and Education: A Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattheis, Duane J.

    1981-01-01

    Briefly attempts to answer the preceding article by Welch, Medeiros, and Tate. Maintains that parents are rejecting the "old liberal left" and demanding an education that includes traditional Judeo-Christian values. (Author/JM)

  3. Teaching Religion: Disrupting Students' Notions of Authoritative Texts and Placing Religion into an Interdisciplinary Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    This article argues the importance of including religion in the curriculum of undergraduate studies. Religion is, at its nexus, an ideology, a belief system that reverberates through literature and history. Such knowledge in itself is invaluable for students, introducing them to the difference between ideology and fact and to how ideology becomes…

  4. When Religion Becomes Deviance: Introducing Religion in Deviance and Social Problems Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrin, Robin D.

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on teaching new religious movements (NRMs), or cults, within deviance or social problems courses. Provides information about the conceptions and theories of deviance. Includes three illustrations of how to use deviant religions in a deviance course and offers insights into teaching religion as deviance. Includes references. (CMK)

  5. Religious Education and Freedom of Religion and Belief. Religion Education and Values. Volume 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Stephen, Ed.; Freathy, Rob, Ed.; Francis, Leslie J., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    What opportunities and challenges are presented to religious education across the globe by the basic human right of freedom of religion and belief? To what extent does religious education facilitate or inhibit "freedom of religion" in schools? What contribution can religious education make to freedom in the modern world? This volume provides…

  6. Religion in the Public Schools: Pluralism and Teaching about Religions. CRS Report for Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittier, Charles H.

    The growing movement for teaching about religion in the public schools, as distinguished from religious instruction or devotional exercises, reflects widespread concern regarding the phenomenon of religious illiteracy and the lack of knowledge or understanding of the significant role played by religion in U.S. life, past and present, and in world…

  7. No Religion Is an Island: Teaching World Religions to Adolescents in a Jewish Educational Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimer, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    What is the place of teaching about other world religions in a Jewish educational curriculum for adolescents? This article explores a course in world religions that has been taught at the Genesis Program at Brandeis University since 2001. Based on a participant observational study during 2002 and 2012, the author traces how the teachers construct…

  8. [Religion and brain functioning (part 1): are our mental structures designed for religion?].

    PubMed

    Kornreich, C; Neu, D

    2010-01-01

    Religions are seen everywhere in the world. Two main theories are competing to explain this phenomenon. The first one is based on the assumption that our cognitive structures are predisposing us to nurture religious beliefs. Religion would then be a by-product of mental functions useful for survival. Examples of these mental functions are children credulity, anthropomorphism and teleology. The second one hypothesizes that religion is maintained trough direct adaptation benefits occurring in cooperation exchanges. In particular, religion could function as an insurance mechanism given by the religious group. It is likely that both theories are complementary and useful to explain why religion is a universal phenomenon in the human species. PMID:20384052

  9. [Euthanasia through history and religion].

    PubMed

    Gajić, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Euthanasia represents an ethical, social, legal and medical issue, which is being disputed more and more frequently worldwide. In Serbia, it is illegal and punishable by law and subject to a prison sentence. Euthanasia verbatim, meaning "good death", refers to the practice of ending a life in order to relieve pain and suffering. It can be voluntary, when a person knowingly declares the wish to end life, and involuntary, when relatives and family make decisions on behalf of patients in coma. It can be active, when a person applies a medical procedure to end life and passive, when medical procedures which can extend a patient's life are not applied. EUTHANASIA THROUGH HISTORY: The term was known in old Greece, and Hippocrates mentioned it in his oath, which is now taken by all doctors in the world, by which they pledge not to apply a medicine which can lead to death of the patients, nor to give such counsel. Euthanasia had its most vigorous impetus in the mid-20th century when it was being carried out deliberately in Nazi Germany. All leading religions from Christianity, over Buddhism, to Islam, are directly or indirectly against any kind of euthanasia. EUTHANASIA TODAY: At the beginning of the 21st century, euthanasia was legalized in several most developed countries in the world, among them the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Switzerland, Japan, India and some American and Mexican federal states. The World Medical Association from 82 countries has condemned euthanasia, and called all medical workers who practice euthanasia to reconsider their attitudes and to stop this practice.

  10. Religion and suicide risk in lesbian, gay and bisexual Austrians.

    PubMed

    Kralovec, Karl; Fartacek, Clemens; Fartacek, Reinhold; Plöderl, Martin

    2014-04-01

    Religion is known to be a protective factor against suicide. However, religiously affiliated sexual minority individuals often report a conflict between religion and sexual identity. Therefore, the protective role of religion against suicide in sexual minority people is unclear. We investigated the effect of religion on suicide risk in a sample of 358 lesbian, gay and bisexual Austrians. Religion was associated with higher scores of internalized homophobia, but with fewer suicide attempts. Our data indicate that religion might be both a risk and a protective factor against suicidality in religiously affiliated sexual minority individuals.

  11. The African Cultural Astronomy Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urama, Johnson O.; Holbrook, Jarita C.

    2011-06-01

    Indigenous, endogenous, traditional, or cultural astronomy focuses on the many ways that people and cultures interact with celestial bodies. In most parts of Africa, there is very little or no awareness about modern astronomy. However, like ancient people everywhere, Africans wondered at the sky and struggled to make sense of it. The African Cultural Astronomy Project aims to unearth the body of traditional knowledge of astronomy possessed by peoples of the different ethnic groups in Africa and to consider scientific interpretations when appropriate for cosmogonies and ancient astronomical practices. Regardless of scientific validity, every scientist can relate to the process of making observations and creating theoretical mechanisms for explaining what is observed. Through linking the traditional and the scientific, it is believed that this would be used to create awareness and interest in astronomy in most parts of Africa. This paper discusses the vision, challenges and prospects of the African Cultural Astronomy Project in her quest to popularize astronomy in Africa.

  12. Religion and spirituality along the suicidal path.

    PubMed

    Colucci, Erminia; Martin, Graham

    2008-04-01

    The inner experience of spiritual and religious feelings is an integral part of the everyday lives of many individuals. For over 100 years the role of religion as a deterrent to suicidal behavior has been studied in various disciplines. We attempt to systematize the existing literature investigating the relationship between religion/spirituality and suicide in this paper. After an overview of the attitudes of the dominant religions (e.g., Catholicism, Islam, and Buddhism) toward suicide, the three main theories that have speculated regarding the link between religion and suicide are presented: "integration theory" (Durkheim, 1897/1997), "religious commitment theory" (Stack, 1983a; Stark, 1983), and "network theory" (Pescosolido & Georgianna, 1989). Subsequent to this theoretical introduction, we report on studies on religion/spirituality keeping the suicidal path as a reference: from suicidal ideation to nonlethal suicidal behavior to lethal suicidal behavior. Studies presenting indications of religious beliefs as a possible risk factor for suicidal behavior are also presented. The last section reviews possible intervention strategies for suicidal patients and suicide survivors. Indications for future research, such as more studies on nonreligious forms of spirituality and the use of qualitative methodology to achieve a better and deeper understanding of the spiritual dimension of suicidal behavior and treatment, are offered.

  13. Religion's evolutionary landscape: counterintuition, commitment, compassion, communion.

    PubMed

    Atran, Scott; Norenzayan, Ara

    2004-12-01

    Religion is not an evolutionary adaptation per se, but a recurring cultural by-product of the complex evolutionary landscape that sets cognitive, emotional, and material conditions for ordinary human interactions. Religion exploits only ordinary cognitive processes to passionately display costly devotion to counterintuitive worlds governed by supernatural agents. The conceptual foundations of religion are intuitively given by task-specific panhuman cognitive domains, including folkmechanics, folkbiology, and folkpsychology. Core religious beliefs minimally violate ordinary notions about how the world is, with all of its inescapable problems, thus enabling people to imagine minimally impossible supernatural worlds that solve existential problems, including death and deception. Here the focus is on folkpsychology and agency. A key feature of the supernatural agent concepts common to all religions is the triggering of an "Innate Releasing Mechanism," or "agency detector," whose proper (naturally selected) domain encompasses animate objects relevant to hominid survival--such as predators, protectors, and prey--but which actually extends to moving dots on computer screens, voices in wind, and faces on clouds. Folkpsychology also crucially involves metarepresentation, which makes deception possible and threatens any social order. However, these same metacognitive capacities provide the hope and promise of open-ended solutions through representations of counterfactual supernatural worlds that cannot be logically or empirically verified or falsified. Because religious beliefs cannot be deductively or inductively validated, validation occurs only by ritually addressing the very emotions motivating religion. Cross-cultural experimental evidence encourages these claims.

  14. “Church-Based Health Programs for Mental Disorders among African Americans: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Hankerson, Sidney H.; Weissman, Myrna M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective African Americans, compared to White Americans, underutilize traditional mental health services. A systematic review is presented of studies involving church-based health promotion programs (CBHPP) for mental disorders among African Americans to assess the feasibility of utilizing such programs to address racial disparities in mental health care. Methods A literature review of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and ATLA Religion databases was conducted to identify articles published between January 1, 1980 and December 31, 2009. Inclusion criteria included the following: studies were conducted in a church; primary objective(s) involved assessment, perceptions/attitudes, education, prevention, group support, or treatment for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV mental disorders or their correlates; number of participants was reported; qualitative and/or quantitative data were reported; and African Americans were the target population. Results Of 1,451 studies identified, 191 studies were eligible for formal review. Only eight studies met inclusion criteria for this review. The majority of studies focused on substance related disorders (n=5), were designed to assess the effects of a specific intervention (n=6), and targeted adults (n=6). One study focused on depression and was limited by a small sample size of seven participants. Conclusion Although CBHPP have been successful in addressing racial disparities for several chronic medical conditions, the published literature on CBHPP for mental disorders is extremely limited. More intensive research is needed to establish the feasibility and acceptability of utilizing church-based health programs as a possible resource for screening and treatment to improve disparities in mental health care for African Americans. PMID:22388529

  15. World Religions, Women and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Ursula

    1987-01-01

    Examines religious traditions--Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Islam, and Western Christianity--to see how women were taught and what knowledge was transmitted to them. Notes that women have always had some access to religious knowledge in informal ways but were excluded from formal education once sacred knowledge became transmitted in an…

  16. Development and validation of measures of religious involvement and the cancer experience among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Cheryl L.; Caplan, Lee; Schulz, Emily; Blake, Victor; Southward, Vivian L.; Buckner, Ayanna V.

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that African Americans diagnosed with cancer tend to use religion in coping, however less is known about the specific role that religion plays in the coping process. Based on previous qualitative work, five instruments were developed to assess the role of religious involvement in cancer coping: God as helper, God as healer, Faith in healing, Control over cancer, and New perspective. The instruments were administered to 100 African Americans with cancer. Each exhibited high internal reliability, and concurrent and discriminant validity. These instruments may have applied value for the development of church-based cancer support/survivorship interventions. PMID:19383653

  17. Religious coping methods of Taiwanese folk religion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi-Jung

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore religious coping methods employed by Taiwanese folk religious believers. This study applied qualitative research methods in data collection and data analysis by conducting semi-structured interviews with participants and analyzing the interview contents. We have identified fourteen coping methods that can be categorized into five different religious dimensions: belief, ritual, ethical, emotional and material. The findings not only expanded our knowledge about how believers of Taiwanese folk religion employ the religion to cope with difficulties but also discovered that some coping methods employed by them are also reported in Western countries, only in different forms.

  18. Finding brands and losing your religion?

    PubMed

    Cutright, Keisha M; Erdem, Tülin; Fitzsimons, Gavan J; Shachar, Ron

    2014-12-01

    Religion is a powerful force in many people's lives, impacting decisions about life, death, and everything in between. It may be difficult, then, to imagine that something as seemingly innocuous as the usage of brand name products might influence individuals' commitment to religion. However, we demonstrate across 6 studies that when brands are a highly salient tool for self-expression, individuals are less likely to report and demonstrate strong religious commitment. We suggest that a desire to maintain consistency among self-identities is one important driver of this relationship and find that the effect is mitigated when the perceived distance between brands and religious values is minimized.

  19. Help-Seeking Attitudes among African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    So, Dominicus W.; Gilbert, Stefanie; Romero, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, African American students display a low-rate of seeking mental health treatment. Issues such as mistrust of White therapists, attitudes toward mental health problems, and African American spirituality affect their help-seeking behavior. The present study examined a sample of 134 African American students at a Historically Black…

  20. Critiquing Borders: Teaching about Religions in a Postcolonial World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Steven W.

    2006-01-01

    In a postcolonial environment, our students will encounter multiple representations and diverse followers of various religions outside the classroom. Students need to think critically about the representations of all religions and recognize the humanity of all people. Too often, students leave courses discussing one or more world religions with an…

  1. Science, Religion, and Constructivism: Constructing and Understanding Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upadhyay, Bhaskar

    2010-01-01

    There have been debates about the place of religion in science and in what ways knowledge that is produced through religion can aid in the learning and teaching of science. The discord between science and religion is mainly focused on whose knowledge is better in describing and explaining the reality. Constructivist epistemology seems to give some…

  2. Religion as a Basis for Dialogue in Peace Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yablon, Yaacov Boaz

    2010-01-01

    Religion could play a positive role in intergroup relations. However, this potential is usually overlooked and religion is often perceived as divisive and polarizing, perhaps even a source of intergroup conflict. This study examined religion as a possible tool for achieving positive intergroup encounters. A randomized control trial research design…

  3. Religion and Family in the 1980s: Discovery and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Darwin L.; Cornwall, Marie

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed articles from journals in fields of family, religion, sociology, psychology, and therapy that examined both religion and the family. Review reveals pressing need for more serious theoretical and conceptual work that incorporates multidimensional approaches and is specifically designed to illuminate interrelationships between religion and…

  4. The World Religions Paradigm Time for a Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    The teaching of religions has long relied on the World Religions paradigm to guide curricula throughout education, which has led to a widening gap, on the one hand, between what is taught in schools and in universities and, on the other, between research and teaching. While the World Religions paradigm has allowed the inclusion of non-Christian…

  5. Religion in Chinese Education: From Denial to Cooperation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nanbu, Hirotaka

    2008-01-01

    In China, from the founding of the People's Republic of China to the beginning of the Cultural Revolution, it was thought that religion would disappear with the development of society and the freedom not to believe in religion was stressed. During the Cultural Revolution religion became the object of oppression. However, from the end of the…

  6. Including Religion in American History: Some Notes on Student Resistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbert, Kevin M.; Romanowski, Michael H.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the importance of teaching religion in U.S. history courses. Discusses problems that teachers encounter when teaching religion, addresses the issue of students resisting learning about religion in the history classroom, and explores how teachers can reduce this resistance. Includes references. (CMK)

  7. Addressing the Influence of Religion and Faith in American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romanowski, Michael H.; Talbert, Kevin M.

    2000-01-01

    Argues that academic study about religion is an essential part of a complete education, especially in social studies classes, since religion and faith play a significant role in people's motivations and actions. Discusses the legality and appropriateness of teaching about the role of religion. Describes specific activities that integrate the…

  8. The Counter Terrorist Classroom: Religion, Education, and Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gearon, Liam

    2013-01-01

    The article identifies international cases--from the United States, Europe, and the United Nations--of an emergent interface of religion, education, and security. This is manifest in the uses of religion in education to counter religious extremism, the notional "counter terrorist classroom." To avoid an over-association of extremism with religion,…

  9. Using the Shared Christian Praxis in an Elementary Religion Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palladino, John M.; Schroeder, Ann

    2002-01-01

    Describes how elementary teachers can design appropriate religion units that lead to authentic assessments. Explains how to design units of religion instruction using Thomas Groome's Shared Christian Praxis, combining it with the Catechism of the Catholic Church (1994) and the religion outcomes articulated by National Catholic Education…

  10. Religion, contraception, and method choice of married women in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Gyimah, Stephen Obeng; Adjei, Jones K; Takyi, Baffour K

    2012-12-01

    Using pooled data from the 1998 and 2003 Demographic and Health Surveys, this paper investigates the association between religion and contraceptive behavior of married women in Ghana. Guided by the particularized theology and characteristics hypotheses, multinomial logit and complementary log-log models are used to explore denominational differences in contraceptive adoption among currently married women and assess whether the differences could be explained through other characteristics. We found that while there were no differences between women of different Christian faiths, non-Christian women (Muslim and Traditional) were significantly more likely to have never used contraception compared with Christian women. Similar observations were made on current use of contraception, although the differences were greatly reduced in the multivariate models.

  11. Balancing water, religion and tourism on Redang Island, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Joshua B.; Nawaz, Rizwan; Fauzi, Rosmadi; Nawaz, Faiza; Sadek, Eran Sadek Said Md; Abd Latif, Zulkiflee; Blackett, Matthew

    2008-04-01

    Redang Island (Pulau Redang) is an island off of Peninsular Malaysia that is part of a Marine Park archipelago of corals and thousands of fish and invertebrates. The relatively isolated local community is generally centered on fishing, and Islam guides daily life. Recently, the tourism industry has expanded on the island. New hotels and resorts provide jobs, but also expose the locals to western culture and touristic behavior, which may clash with deeply traditional community values. Further, the tourism industry may be putting a strain on the natural resources, especially the quantity and quality of freshwater. The island village may become divided between those who support the tourism industry and those who do not. Here we present an exploratory investigation into the development environment culture dynamics of tourism, water and religion on Redang Island while building collaborations between universities of this Muslim state and the West.

  12. Ritual burns--the Buddhist tradition.

    PubMed

    Budny, P G; Regan, P J; Riley, P; Roberts, A H

    1991-08-01

    The mystical significance of fire is common to many cultures and religions. For the Buddhist community acts of self-mutilation by burning reflect a tradition for which the direct precedent is set in the ancient scriptures of the Lotus Sutra. Burns are produced by contact with incense and treated with oil and vegetable dressings. Two cases are presented and discussed with reference to early Buddhist beliefs.

  13. Education, Religion, and a Sustainable Planet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandenberg, Donald

    2008-01-01

    Religious pluralism led to the colonies' separation of church and state by 1776, to Mann's campaign for common schooling, and to the complete secularization of public schools by 1900. The dependence of Western theology upon untenable Greek metaphysics justifies an explanation that the evolutionary purpose of religion was to promote personal…

  14. The Greening of the World's Religions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Mary Evelyn; Grim, John

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the role that religion has played in dealing with environmental issues. For many years, environmental issues were considered to be the concern of scientists, lawyers, and policy makers. Now the ethical dimensions of the environmental crisis are becoming more evident. Until recently religious communities have been so…

  15. Darwin and Religion: Correcting the Caricatures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooke, John Hedley

    2010-01-01

    Much has been written on the subject of Darwinism and religion, but rather less on the development of Darwin's own thinking on religious matters and how it changed over time. What were his religious, or anti-religious, beliefs? Did he believe that his theory of evolution by natural selection was incompatible with belief in a Creator? Was it his…

  16. Science and Religion: Implications for Science Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    A religious perspective on life shapes how and what those with such a perspective learn in science; for some students a religious perspective can hinder learning in science. For such reasons Staver's article is to be welcomed as it proposes a new way of resolving the widely perceived discord between science and religion. Staver notes that Western…

  17. Science and Religion: What Is at Stake?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2010-01-01

    There are some who experience irreconcilable differences between their religious beliefs concerning a world created as is, on the one hand, and a scientific view of the world that has developed by means of natural evolution over billions of years, on the other hand. In this special issue, scholars from very different religions, backgrounds, and…

  18. Religion and the Schools: Emerging Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worona, Jay

    This publication offers a brief review of religion and school issues that emerged in U.S. courts in 1999. Included are prayer in public schools; teacher's free exercise rights limited by establishment clause; impermissible student lessons and activities; teaching of evolution/creation science; volunteer clergy counselors in the schools; aid to…

  19. Religion and Psychological Distress in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roemer, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    This study introduces data from a new random sample of Japanese adults. Findings show that reporting of distress symptoms are: (1. positively associated with a religious coping index (i.e., beliefs that religion or supernatural beings provide comfort, support or protection), (2. associated in different directions with ownership of different…

  20. Religion and Aging in a Longitudinal Panel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Dan; Palmore, Erdman

    1976-01-01

    Analysis of religious activities and attitudes in a longitudinal panel of 272 community residents showed there were several significant and substantial correlations between religion and happiness, feelings of usefulness, and adjustment; these correlations also tended to be stronger for older persons and tended to increase over time. (Author)

  1. Guidelines for Writing About Science and Religion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slabinski, Victor J.

    2007-11-01

    When scientists write about the relation between science and religion, I suggest they follow four principles: (1) Be accurate in statements of fact and in the use of terminology; (2) use examples that are germane to the issue at hand; (3) provide conclusions that follow logically from the given premises and discussion; and (4) acknowledge that the practice of science has its own dogma.

  2. Brain Matters: Practicing Religion, Forming the Faithful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogue, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Religious practices have long drawn on the social sciences to broaden our understanding of how human beings develop, learn, relate, and are formed. While the religion and science conversations have not always been friendly, a growing number of theologians and scientists are engaged in promising dialogues where the interests of both parties…

  3. Provide History of Religion and God

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginex, Nicholas P.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for high school, college, and university educators to introduce their students to a history of mankind's development of religions and beliefs in God. Regarded as too sensitive a subject, students are deprived of learning how mankind has evolved ways to establish moral and righteous behavior to maintain harmony among competing…

  4. Childhood in a World without Religion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepanian, Elena

    1993-01-01

    Acknowledges the limited extend to which modern Soviet or Russian literature has dealt with the relationship of religion and children. Provides a bibliographic essay illustrating the religious deprivation of most Russian children, how they are becoming more religious, and how this is reflected in contemporary Russian literature. (CFR)

  5. School Choice and State Constitutions' Religion Clauses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komer, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    After the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in "Zelman v. Simmons-Harris," only state religion clauses represent a potential constitutional bar to the inclusion of religious options in properly designed school choice programs. The two most significant are compelled support clauses and Blaine Amendments. Both are frequently misinterpreted by state…

  6. The Relevance of Religion to the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, Warren A.

    1999-01-01

    Thanks to certain "common ground" statements, the study of religion may gain a legitimate place in the curriculum and help stem an exodus from public schools. Textbooks have obliterated economics' religious connections. Ignoring religious perspectives about the world is profoundly illiberal, politically unjust, and unconstitutional. Resources are…

  7. Religion and Mental Health: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerlin, Florence A., Comp.

    This annotated bibliography cites journal articles, reports, and books on religion and mental health published since 1970. The listing is intended to help psychologists, psychiatrists, clergymen, social workers, teachers, doctors and other professionals respond to requests for information and advice in areas spanning the common ground between…

  8. Humanities, Religion, and the Arts Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Howard, Ed.

    Intended as a basic resource in new primary sources for interdisciplinary studies, this book consists of twelve essays on contemporary culture, religion, and the arts. The authors, specialists in the humanities, are concerned with interdisciplinary investigation, including such issues as determining methods of study, methods of validating claims…

  9. Adolescent Satanism: Rebellion Masquerading as Religion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Shirley; Syron, Yvonne

    1995-01-01

    Describes adolescent satanic practices of affected families in three Southwestern states in a seven-year period. Counselors need to understand how satanism is related to religion, family dynamics, and adolescent rebellion. A systemic perspective is suggested. Counselors must be aware of their own biases to be able to help satanically involved…

  10. Medicine, ethics and religion: rational or irrational?

    PubMed

    Orr, R D; Genesen, L B

    1998-12-01

    Savulescu maintains that our paper, which encourages clinicians to honour requests for "inappropriate treatment" is prejudicial to his atheistic beliefs, and therefore wrong. In this paper we clarify and expand on our ideas, and respond to his assertion that medicine, ethics and atheism are objective, rational and true, while religion is irrational and false.

  11. Religion and spirituality: assessment and intervention.

    PubMed

    Doka, Kenneth J

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author explores the ways that an individual's spirituality influences responses to life-threatening illness and dying. He begins by differentiating between religion and spirituality, and then delineates the spiritual issues that arise in a life-threatening illness including the spiritual needs that arise in the final phases of illness. Recommendations for spiritual assessments and interventions are offered.

  12. Teaching the Dance of World Religions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sautter, Cia

    2005-01-01

    In the past decade, critical scholars such as Ronald Grimes and Talal Asad stated that there is a need to recognize the cultural and spiritual dimensions of religion, especially in an age of pluralism. While they call for an increased knowledge and application of techniques from anthropology, ethnology, and performance studies, what actually…

  13. The religion paradox: if religion makes people happy, why are so many dropping out?

    PubMed

    Diener, Ed; Tay, Louis; Myers, David G

    2011-12-01

    As we estimate here, 68% of human beings--4.6 billion people--would say that religion is important in their daily lives. Past studies have found that the religious, on average, have higher subjective well-being (SWB). Yet, people are rapidly leaving organized religion in economically developed nations where religious freedom is high. Why would people leave religion if it enhances their happiness? After controlling for circumstances in both the United States and world samples, we found that religiosity is associated with slightly higher SWB, and similarly so across four major world religions. The associations of religiosity and SWB were mediated by social support, feeling respected, and purpose or meaning in life. However, there was an interaction underlying the general trend such that the association of religion and well-being is conditional on societal circumstances. Nations and states with more difficult life conditions (e.g., widespread hunger and low life expectancy) were much more likely to be highly religious. In these nations, religiosity was associated with greater social support, respect, purpose or meaning, and all three types of SWB. In societies with more favorable circumstances, religiosity is less prevalent and religious and nonreligious individuals experience similar levels of SWB. There was also a person-culture fit effect such that religious people had higher SWB in religious nations but not in nonreligious nations. Thus, it appears that the benefits of religion for social relationships and SWB depend on the characteristics of the society. PMID:21806304

  14. The religion paradox: if religion makes people happy, why are so many dropping out?

    PubMed

    Diener, Ed; Tay, Louis; Myers, David G

    2011-12-01

    As we estimate here, 68% of human beings--4.6 billion people--would say that religion is important in their daily lives. Past studies have found that the religious, on average, have higher subjective well-being (SWB). Yet, people are rapidly leaving organized religion in economically developed nations where religious freedom is high. Why would people leave religion if it enhances their happiness? After controlling for circumstances in both the United States and world samples, we found that religiosity is associated with slightly higher SWB, and similarly so across four major world religions. The associations of religiosity and SWB were mediated by social support, feeling respected, and purpose or meaning in life. However, there was an interaction underlying the general trend such that the association of religion and well-being is conditional on societal circumstances. Nations and states with more difficult life conditions (e.g., widespread hunger and low life expectancy) were much more likely to be highly religious. In these nations, religiosity was associated with greater social support, respect, purpose or meaning, and all three types of SWB. In societies with more favorable circumstances, religiosity is less prevalent and religious and nonreligious individuals experience similar levels of SWB. There was also a person-culture fit effect such that religious people had higher SWB in religious nations but not in nonreligious nations. Thus, it appears that the benefits of religion for social relationships and SWB depend on the characteristics of the society.

  15. Like a prayer: the role of spirituality and religion for people living with HIV in the UK.

    PubMed

    Ridge, Damien; Williams, Ian; Anderson, Jane; Elford, Jonathan

    2008-04-01

    Over 40,000 people are now living with diagnosed HIV in the UK. There is, however, uncertainty about how people with HIV use religion or spirituality to cope with their infection. Adopting a modified grounded theory approach, we analysed individual and group interviews with the people most affected by HIV in the UK: black African heterosexual men and women and gay men (mostly white). For the majority of black African heterosexual men and women in our study, religion was extremely important. We found that gay men in the study were less religious than black Africans, although many were spiritual in some way. Black African individuals constructed their spiritual narratives as largely Christian or collective, while gay men described more individualistic or 'New Age' approaches. We developed a six-level heuristic device to examine the ways in which prayer and meditation were deployed in narratives to modulate subjective wellbeing. These were: (i) creating a dialogue with an absent counsellor; (ii) constructing a compassionate 'life scheme'; (iii) interrupting rumination; (iv) establishing mindfulness; (v) promoting positive thinking, and (vi) getting results. That people with HIV report specific subjective benefits from prayer or meditation presents a challenge to secular healthcare professionals and sociologists.

  16. Methodologic issues in research on religion and health.

    PubMed

    Flannelly, Kevin J; Ellison, Christopher G; Strock, Adrienne L

    2004-12-01

    This study examines several methodologic issues in research on religion and health, including the measurement of the concept of religion, research designs, sampling, and statistical controls for assessing the "net" effects of religion on health outcomes. It briefly discusses differences in analytical perspectives that have contributed to the debate about the effects of religion on health. The authors review some of the methodologic problems of past research in this area of study and address what needs to be done to enhance the quality of the research. The authors conclude that the research methodology used in studies of religion and health has improved over time and that it continues to do so.

  17. KSC kicks off African-American History Month

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Clothed in her traditional African garb, Michelle Amos, mistress of ceremonies, welcomes the audience on Feb. 3 at the kick-off of African-American History Month. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.

  18. African Mask-Making Workshop: Professional Development Experiences of Diverse Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C.; Montgomery, Sarah E.; Kirkland-Holmes, Gloria; Watson, Dwight C.; Ayesiga, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Diverse education professionals learned about African cultures in a workshop experience by making African masks using authentic symbolism. Analysis of reflections to evaluate the workshop for applicability to participants with and without African heritage showed that both groups expanded their cultural knowledge of traditional African ethnic…

  19. Perspectives:The Strength of a People: Exploring the Impact of History and Culture on African American Families Who Are Homeless

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Tabitha; Diamond-Berry, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    The authors share their perspective on how the history of African American's in the U.S., and an awareness of the role of African cultural traditions, can provide insight on working effectively with African American families.

  20. Religion, Ethnicity and Contraceptive Use among Reproductive age Women in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Obasohan, Phillips Edomwonyi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Religion and Ethnicity are the two most important factors that shape the behavioral pattern especially health seeking behaviors of the people of Nigeria. This study seeks to examine the mediatory effects of the linkage between ethnicity and religion with selected socio-demographic variables on the current use of contraception (CUC) among women of reproductive age in Nigeria. Methods: Nationally representative sample of 39,948 women of reproductive age (15-49 years) in the 2013 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) was used. Chi-square was used to analyze the bivariate relationship between exposure variables and CUC. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the odds ratio with the 95% confidence interval. Results: The prevalence of CUC was generally low for women of reproductive age in Nigeria, highest among the Yoruba women and lowest among the Hausa/Fulani/Kanuri/Seriberi (HFKS) women; highest among other Christian women and lowest for Muslim women and highest for Yoruba/other religion and lowest for women of Hausa/Fulani/Kanuri/Seriberi/Islam. The odds ratios showed that disparity across ethno-religious boundaries is significant. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Globally, and especially in sub-Saharan African countries, maternal mortality resulting from the abortion of unintended pregnancies pose a major challenge in health delivery system. In Nigeria, a cultural and religious heterogeneous society, current use of contraceptives by women of reproductive age is found not to be a matter of independent effects of ethnicity, religiosity and other socio-demographic variables but also dependent on the effects of interactions between the ethnicity and religion. PMID:27621987

  1. Pragmatic Features in Original Narratives Written by African American Students at Three Grade Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersting, Jessica M.; Anderson, Michele A.; Newkirk-Turner, Brandi L.; Nelson, Nickola W.

    2015-01-01

    African American English has a rich oral tradition, with identifiable features across all 5 systems of language--phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. This is an investigation of the extent to which pragmatic features of African American oral storytelling traditions are apparent in the written stories of African American…

  2. "Women ... Mourn and Men Carry on": African Women Storying Mourning Practices--A South African Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotze, Elmarie; Els, Lishje; Rajuili-Masilo, Ntsiki

    2012-01-01

    African mourning of loss of lives in South Africa has been shaped by discursive practices of both traditional African cultures and the sociopolitical developments under apartheid and in post-apartheid South Africa. This article reports on changes in mourning practices on the basis of a literature review and uses a collection of examples to…

  3. SAN JOSE, SUBCULTURES OF A "TRADITIONAL" COFFEE MUNICIPALITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WOLF, ERIC R.

    THIS ESSAY, A CHAPTER WITHIN A LARGER VOLUME OF CULTURAL-HISTORICAL FIELD STUDIES OF REGIONAL SUBCULTURES IN PUERTO RICO, DESCRIBES THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND ENVIRONMENTAL PATTERNS OF A "TRADITIONAL" COFFEE MUNICIPALITY. POLITICS, EDUCATION, RELIGION, SOCIAL CUSTOMS, AND OTHER GENERAL FEATURES OF THE CULTURE ARE DISCUSSED. ALSO DESCRIBED ARE THE…

  4. Late Feyerabend on materialism, mysticism, and religion.

    PubMed

    Martin, Eric C

    2016-06-01

    Feyerabend's interests in religion and mysticism grew through his career. In his later writings, Feyerabend's numerous critiques of scientific materialism are often accompanied by purported advantages of religious orientations and temperaments. These recommendations do not simply follow from his tolerant theoretical pluralism; they are more positive attempts to articulate distinctive aspects of human life satisfied by religion, but not by scientific materialism. Elevating the human need for mystery, reverence, and love, he contrasts these goods with the deliverances of monistic conceptions of science and reason. I bring attention to some of the common themes in these remarks to argue that they were integral with other parts of his philosophical project and that they could serve as helpful rejoinders to contemporary exhortations to science-based secularism from philosophers of science.

  5. Kosmische Katastrophen und der Ursprung der Religion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyle, F.

    This book is a German translation, by V. Delavre, from the English original "The origin of the Universe and the origin of religion", published in 1993. Contents: E. Sens: Die unterbrochene Musikstunde. Einleitung zur deutschen Ausgabe. C. Ryskamp: Einführung. R. N. Anshen: Vorwort. F. Hoyle: Kosmische Katastrophen und der Ursprung der Religion - Die Folgen der Respektabilität; Eiszeiten und Kometen; Die allgemeine Situation in den Nacheiszeiten; Kometen und der Ursprung der Religionen; Der Übergang zu Mittelalter und Neuzeit. Diskussionsbeiträge: Ruth Nanda Anshen, Freeman Dyson, Paul Oscar Kristeller, John Archibald Wheeler, James Schwartz, Roger Shinn, Milton Gatch, Philip Solomon, Norman Newell. F. Hoyle: Schlußwort. A. Tollmann: Nachwort zur deutschen Ausgabe.

  6. Religion as a determinant of marital stability.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, E L; Chiswick, C U

    1993-08-01

    Using data from the 1987-1988 National Survey of Families and Households, this paper studies the role of the religious composition of unions as a determinant of marital stability. With the exceptions of Mormons and individuals with no religious identification, stability is found to be remarkably similar across the various types of homogamous unions. Consistent with the notion that religion is a complementary marital trait, interfaith unions have generally higher rates of dissolution than intrafaith unions. The destabilizing effect of out-marriage varies inversely with the similarity in beliefs and practices of the two religions as well as with the mutual tolerance embodied in their respective doctrines. The results also suggest that religious compatibility between spouses at the time of marriage has a large influence on marital stability, rivaling in magnitude that of age at marriage and, at least for Protestants and Catholics, dominating any adverse effects of differences in religious background.

  7. Projecting WEIRD features on ancient religions.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Pascal; Baumard, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The proposed narrative relies on an anachronistic projection of current religions onto prehistorical and historical cultures that were not concerned with prosocial morality or with public statement of belief. Prosocial morality appeared in wealthier post-Axial environments. Public demonstrations of belief are possible and advantageous when religious diversity starts interacting with coalitional recruitment dynamics in large-scale societies, a typical feature of modern, so-called WEIRD societies. PMID:26948751

  8. The cultural evolution of prosocial religions.

    PubMed

    Norenzayan, Ara; Shariff, Azim F; Gervais, Will M; Willard, Aiyana K; McNamara, Rita A; Slingerland, Edward; Henrich, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We develop a cultural evolutionary theory of the origins of prosocial religions and apply it to resolve two puzzles in human psychology and cultural history: (1) the rise of large-scale cooperation among strangers and, simultaneously, (2) the spread of prosocial religions in the last 10-12 millennia. We argue that these two developments were importantly linked and mutually energizing. We explain how a package of culturally evolved religious beliefs and practices characterized by increasingly potent, moralizing, supernatural agents, credible displays of faith, and other psychologically active elements conducive to social solidarity promoted high fertility rates and large-scale cooperation with co-religionists, often contributing to success in intergroup competition and conflict. In turn, prosocial religious beliefs and practices spread and aggregated as these successful groups expanded, or were copied by less successful groups. This synthesis is grounded in the idea that although religious beliefs and practices originally arose as nonadaptive by-products of innate cognitive functions, particular cultural variants were then selected for their prosocial effects in a long-term, cultural evolutionary process. This framework (1) reconciles key aspects of the adaptationist and by-product approaches to the origins of religion, (2) explains a variety of empirical observations that have not received adequate attention, and (3) generates novel predictions. Converging lines of evidence drawn from diverse disciplines provide empirical support while at the same time encouraging new research directions and opening up new questions for exploration and debate. PMID:26785995

  9. The cultural evolution of prosocial religions.

    PubMed

    Norenzayan, Ara; Shariff, Azim F; Gervais, Will M; Willard, Aiyana K; McNamara, Rita A; Slingerland, Edward; Henrich, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We develop a cultural evolutionary theory of the origins of prosocial religions and apply it to resolve two puzzles in human psychology and cultural history: (1) the rise of large-scale cooperation among strangers and, simultaneously, (2) the spread of prosocial religions in the last 10-12 millennia. We argue that these two developments were importantly linked and mutually energizing. We explain how a package of culturally evolved religious beliefs and practices characterized by increasingly potent, moralizing, supernatural agents, credible displays of faith, and other psychologically active elements conducive to social solidarity promoted high fertility rates and large-scale cooperation with co-religionists, often contributing to success in intergroup competition and conflict. In turn, prosocial religious beliefs and practices spread and aggregated as these successful groups expanded, or were copied by less successful groups. This synthesis is grounded in the idea that although religious beliefs and practices originally arose as nonadaptive by-products of innate cognitive functions, particular cultural variants were then selected for their prosocial effects in a long-term, cultural evolutionary process. This framework (1) reconciles key aspects of the adaptationist and by-product approaches to the origins of religion, (2) explains a variety of empirical observations that have not received adequate attention, and (3) generates novel predictions. Converging lines of evidence drawn from diverse disciplines provide empirical support while at the same time encouraging new research directions and opening up new questions for exploration and debate.

  10. The Afro-American Gospel Choir: Achieving a Positive Campus Climate for African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Myron L.; Moore, Cynthia

    2004-01-01

    For African American students, matriculation at a predominantly White institution of higher education can be quite intimidating. Religion is important in providing comfort and encouragement for many of these students. This article describes the Afro-American gospel choir at the University of Alabama and its role in providing a more positive campus…

  11. Beyond the Officially Sacred, Donor and Believer: Religion and Organ Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Messina, E

    2015-09-01

    Religious concerns might represent an important issue when donation for transplantation is discussed. Even if no religious tradition formally forbids organ donation and transplantation, members of the same religious group may have differing and often conflicting opinions in their own interpretation of how their religion encourages and/or supports organ donation and transplantation, as discussed in this article. It also should be considered that even if a religion refuses to define concrete rules about organ donation and transplantation, there are a great number of factors that may influence the decision-making process. Examples may include negative perceptions of the cutting and removal of organs or ignorance about the transplantation system, both of which would influence the decision-making process concerning transplantation. Knowledge of these facts may provide useful information, perhaps increasing transplant numbers.

  12. Religion, Sexuality, and Internalized Homonegativity: Confronting Cognitive Dissonance in the Abrahamic Religions.

    PubMed

    Meladze, Pikria; Brown, Jac

    2015-10-01

    This research was aimed at investigating how religious beliefs and internalized shame predicted homonegativity. An online survey, which consisted of a self-report questionnaire assessing religious orientation, internalized shame, and internalized homonegativity, was completed by 133 Caucasian and Asian gay men. The respondents also were asked to write a short answer in which they had to explain how they integrated their religion and sexual practices. The quantitative analyses of data demonstrated no significant difference in internalized homonegativity among the two cultural groups. Internalized homonegativity was predicted by the main Abrahamic faiths (i.e. Christianity, Islam, and Judaism) and internalized shame. Qualitative analysis showed that gay men who adhere to a monotheistic religious faith follow a different path to reconciling their religion and homosexuality compared to gay men who adhere to Philosophical/New Age religions or to gay men who have no religious faith. The implications of these findings as well as directions for future research studies were discussed. PMID:25772199

  13. [Religion and brain functioning (part 2): does religion have a positive impact on mental health?].

    PubMed

    Kornreich, C; Aubin, H-J

    2012-01-01

    Religion's impact on mental health has been largely studied, but results are often difficult to interpret due to methodological concerns: definition of religion and of spirituality ; measuring issues ; identification of specific components such as social dimension, cognitive schemas influencing world perception and meditating behaviors such as prayers. Furthermore, correlations between religious dimensions and mental health variables are too often considered as evidence of causality. Despite all those methodological problems, it appears that religiosity, defined as a global concept encompassing all aspects of religious life, might be a protective factor against several mental health problems, namely substance abuse, depression, suicide and anxiety disorders. This protective property isn't likely due to religions per se, but to associated components: risky behaviors' prevention due to shared moral standards, social support, sense of meaning, purposefulness and control, and meditation habits, exercising an inhibiting influence on chronic stress. PMID:22812054

  14. Religion, Sexuality, and Internalized Homonegativity: Confronting Cognitive Dissonance in the Abrahamic Religions.

    PubMed

    Meladze, Pikria; Brown, Jac

    2015-10-01

    This research was aimed at investigating how religious beliefs and internalized shame predicted homonegativity. An online survey, which consisted of a self-report questionnaire assessing religious orientation, internalized shame, and internalized homonegativity, was completed by 133 Caucasian and Asian gay men. The respondents also were asked to write a short answer in which they had to explain how they integrated their religion and sexual practices. The quantitative analyses of data demonstrated no significant difference in internalized homonegativity among the two cultural groups. Internalized homonegativity was predicted by the main Abrahamic faiths (i.e. Christianity, Islam, and Judaism) and internalized shame. Qualitative analysis showed that gay men who adhere to a monotheistic religious faith follow a different path to reconciling their religion and homosexuality compared to gay men who adhere to Philosophical/New Age religions or to gay men who have no religious faith. The implications of these findings as well as directions for future research studies were discussed.

  15. The effects of traditional family values on the coming out process of gay male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Newman, B S; Muzzonigro, P G

    1993-01-01

    The development of a gay or lesbian identity (often referred to as the coming out process) has been widely studied in adults; however, few studies have examined the process in gay adolescents. Even among these studies, little research has investigated the effects of race or family values on the coming out process. A small sample of African-American, Hispanic/Latino, Asian/Eurasian, and Caucasian gay male adolescents participated in this survey study. Coming out was operationalized in three stages: sensitization; awareness with confusion, denial, guilt, and shame; and acceptance. The majority of respondents reported feeling different from other boys as children. The average age of first crush on another boy was 12.7 years; average age for realizing they were gay was 12.5 years. Most respondents reported feeling confused during their first awareness that they were gay. Denial of identity was a coping strategy for about half the sample. Traditional family values played a greater role in predicting coming out experiences than did race. Families were categorized as having high or low traditional values based upon (1) the importance of religion, (2) emphasis on marriage, (3) emphasis on having children, and (4) whether a non-English language was spoken in the home. Families with a strong emphasis on traditional values were perceived as less accepting of homosexuality than were the low traditional families. Those who work with adolescents need to be aware that some will recognize their sexual orientation as gay, lesbian, or bisexual during this time of their lives. These youth need support in the coming out process because they may encounter stigmatization and disapproval not only from the larger society, but also from their families, peers, and sometimes the gay community itself. PMID:8456611

  16. "African Connection."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Cathy; And Others

    This interdisciplinary unit provides students in grades kindergarten through seventh grade an opportunity to understand diversity through a study of Africa as a diverse continent. The project is designed to provide all elementary students with cultural enrichment by exposing them to African music, art, storytelling, and movement. This project can…

  17. Uptake of breast screening is influenced by current religion and religion of upbringing.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Dermot; Kinnear, Heather; Rosato, Michael; Mairs, Adrian; Hall, Clare

    2013-12-01

    Research has shown that individuals with a current religious affiliation are more likely to use preventive health services. The aim of this study was to determine whether breast screening uptake in Northern Ireland is higher amongst women with a current affiliation to an organised religion and, for those with no current affiliation, to examine whether their religion of upbringing is associated with uptake of breast screening. The Northern Ireland Longitudinal Study (NILS) was used to link Census and national breast screening data for 37,211 women invited for routine breast screening between 2001 and 2004. Current religious affiliation, religion of upbringing and other demographic and socio-economic characteristics were as defined on the Census form. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between religion affiliation and attendance. Uptake of breast screening is about 25% lower for those without a current religious affiliation. There are modest differences between Catholics and Protestants, with the latter about 11% more likely to attend for screening. For those with no current religion, the religion of upbringing appears to positively influence attendance rates. These differences remain after adjustment for all of the socio-demographic and socio-economic factors that have been shown to influence uptake rates of breast screening in the UK to date. Record linkage is an efficient way to examine equity across demographic characteristics that are not routinely available. The lower uptake amongst those with no religious affiliation may mean that screening services may find it difficult to maintain or improve uptake rate in an increasingly secularised society.

  18. African female sexuality and the heterosexual form.

    PubMed

    Mcfadden, P

    1994-03-01

    All women find sexuality problematical, especially women living in countries that were colonized or colonized others. The stereotype of repressed sexuality in Victorian England found its antithesis in the stereotype of promiscuous African sexuality which had to be "civilized" and controlled through religion and repression. Colonizing nations have seen the discourse on sexuality move from the private to the public domain, while Africa maintains its silence on the subject. Sexuality is a difficult topic because it embraces the most intimate and individual of our human emotions, thus, it is difficult even to voice sexual preferences to a lifetime partner. In addition, especially in Africa, sexuality is a very gender-specific social construct. Africans foster heterosexuality through socialization from early childhood and discourage any sign of sexual stimulation in their children. After teaching that humans are "naturally" heterosexual, Africans teach their children that marriage is essential for the moral uprightness of society, although most Africans are, in fact, raised in many types of alternative families. Critique of the heterosexual form is literally nonexistent in African feminist genre because African sexuality is really male sexuality. When people assert that an African culture exists, they really mean that patriarchal constructs about maleness and femaleness pervade the continent. Women are not expected to experience sexual satisfaction, and, indeed, the practice of female genital mutilation assures that they will never experience sexual pleasure. This practice assures that female sexuality exists only through men. It represents a misogynist point of view about the female body and is equally repulsive whether it takes the form of "excision" of a part of the clitoris or removal of all of the external genitalia. This practice controls female sexuality by depriving women of the opportunity to masturbate or to engage in homosexual relations. The resulting option

  19. Spirituality, religion and health outcomes research: findings from the Center on Religion and the Professions.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Brick

    2009-01-01

    The Spirituality and Health Research Project of the MU Center on Religion and the Professions is investigating the relationships that exist among religion, spirituality, and health for persons with heterogeneous medical conditions. Pilot studies indicate that spirituality and congregational support are related to health outcomes, but religious practices are not. Additional research indicates that spiritual experiences are related to diminished right parietal functioning (through meditation/ prayer or brain injury), which is associated with decreased sense of the self. Implications for health professionals are discussed.

  20. [Health Communication: Preventing the Spread of Ebola Virus Disease in the Portuguese Spoken African Countries--Methodology KISS & KEYWORDS].

    PubMed

    Santiago, Isabel De; Miguel, José Pereira; Antunes, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    In this work, Health Communication is considered as an important discipline in medicine and health sciences for his role as true determinant of health. We highlight their contribution to health promotion and disease prevention. Thus, the Health Communication Plan (PCS): Preventing the spread of Ebola virus disease in the Portuguese Speaking African Countries - KISS & KEYWORDS methodology is a tool that aims to minimize the risk of infection by Ebola virus in the Portuguese Speaking African Countries and also train for a general improvement of health conditions of the local populations. In the PCS design are especially considered the social and cultural contexts of the target populations, especially the customs, traditions and religion. Health Communication is considered as an Essential Function of Public Health and its main is to provide a population-based approach. The target of communication actions are population groups in addition to the individual communication, target-audiences are people without access to the media, in Guinea Bissau, Cape Verde and Sao Tome and Principe. Under the communication plan uses the methodology, models and practices both by media professionals as health. A proximity approach and cultural mediation, previously identified key facts, are defined objectives; outlines to the Plan in concrete and its implementation methodology (target-audience and following intervention, materials to be used and key-messages and partners to mobilize) following the World Health Organisation standards.

  1. [Health Communication: Preventing the Spread of Ebola Virus Disease in the Portuguese Spoken African Countries--Methodology KISS & KEYWORDS].

    PubMed

    Santiago, Isabel De; Miguel, José Pereira; Antunes, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    In this work, Health Communication is considered as an important discipline in medicine and health sciences for his role as true determinant of health. We highlight their contribution to health promotion and disease prevention. Thus, the Health Communication Plan (PCS): Preventing the spread of Ebola virus disease in the Portuguese Speaking African Countries - KISS & KEYWORDS methodology is a tool that aims to minimize the risk of infection by Ebola virus in the Portuguese Speaking African Countries and also train for a general improvement of health conditions of the local populations. In the PCS design are especially considered the social and cultural contexts of the target populations, especially the customs, traditions and religion. Health Communication is considered as an Essential Function of Public Health and its main is to provide a population-based approach. The target of communication actions are population groups in addition to the individual communication, target-audiences are people without access to the media, in Guinea Bissau, Cape Verde and Sao Tome and Principe. Under the communication plan uses the methodology, models and practices both by media professionals as health. A proximity approach and cultural mediation, previously identified key facts, are defined objectives; outlines to the Plan in concrete and its implementation methodology (target-audience and following intervention, materials to be used and key-messages and partners to mobilize) following the World Health Organisation standards. PMID:26061502

  2. Public perceptions of incompatibility between "science and religion".

    PubMed

    Baker, Joseph O

    2012-04-01

    Narratives of conflict regarding the connections between science and religion receive considerable attention in multiple forums of public discourse. These discussions tend to focus on philosophical, abstract, and/or polemical, rather than empirical issues. Data from a 2007 national survey indicate that a relatively small proportion of American adults perceive incompatibility between science and religion. Those who do are divided evenly into groups privileging science and privileging religion. These groups are markedly different with regard to sociodemographic and religious characteristics. Overall, I advocate a theoretical perspective on "science and religion" that is culturally constructionist, but methodologically empiricist.

  3. An emerging field in religion and reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Gaydos, Laura M; Smith, Alexandria; Hogue, Carol J R; Blevins, John

    2010-12-01

    Separate from scholarship in religion and medicine, a burgeoning field in religion and population health, includes religion and reproductive health. In a survey of existing literature, we analyzed data by religious affiliation, discipline, geography and date. We found 377 peer-reviewed articles; most were categorized as family planning (129), sexual behavior (81), domestic violence (39), pregnancy (46), HIV/AIDS (71), and STDs (61). Most research occurred in North America (188 articles), Africa (52), and Europe (47). Article frequency increased over time, from 3 articles in 1980 to 38 articles in 2008. While field growth is evident, there is still no cohesive "scholarship" in religion and reproductive health.

  4. What is truth? A course in science and religion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brancazio, Peter J.

    1994-10-01

    Are science and religion independent or conflicting systems of thought? This question was the focus of a course on science and religion given at Brooklyn College. The class explored the underlying metaphysical assumptions, sources of knowledge, and methodologies of science and religion from philosophical and historical perspectives. The conclusion is that science and religion are basically independent modes of inquiry, but they have come into conflict over questions about the origin, history, and nature of the physical world. These are areas in which science has been far more successful in providing fruitful explanations and predictions. Nevertheless, the limitations of science and the scientific method must be understood and respected.

  5. An emerging field in religion and reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Gaydos, Laura M; Smith, Alexandria; Hogue, Carol J R; Blevins, John

    2010-12-01

    Separate from scholarship in religion and medicine, a burgeoning field in religion and population health, includes religion and reproductive health. In a survey of existing literature, we analyzed data by religious affiliation, discipline, geography and date. We found 377 peer-reviewed articles; most were categorized as family planning (129), sexual behavior (81), domestic violence (39), pregnancy (46), HIV/AIDS (71), and STDs (61). Most research occurred in North America (188 articles), Africa (52), and Europe (47). Article frequency increased over time, from 3 articles in 1980 to 38 articles in 2008. While field growth is evident, there is still no cohesive "scholarship" in religion and reproductive health. PMID:20094795

  6. Conceptions of traditional cosmological ideas among literate and nonliterate Nigerians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunniyi, M. B.

    This paper examines the nature of selected traditional cosmological concepts among literate and nonliterate Nigerians. An analysis of the data reveals that the subjects, irrespective of their level of education, class, sex, age, religion, tribe, or locality, hold in varying degrees certain traditional as well as scientific concepts about the natural phenomena. An exposure of some of the subjects to an history/philosophy of science course appears to enhance their preference for a scientific worldview vis a vis a traditional point-of-view. The implications of these findings for traditional societies deserve a closer consideration.

  7. Religion in Organized Medicine: The AMA's Committee and Department of Medicine and Religion, 1961-1974.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daniel; Curlin, Farr; Wolenberg, Kelly; Sulmasy, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The history commonly told of the relationship between modern medicine and religion is one of steady, even inevitable, separation rooted in the Enlightenment. The divorce between medicine and religion, it is thought, had become nearly total before a recent surge of interest in the spiritual and religious dimensions of health care. This narrative, however, misjudges a persistent sense of spiritual need in illness that medical practice, even today, is unable to entirely ignore. Relying on primary sources, we recount here the little known story of the rise and fall of the Committee on Medicine and Religion and the Department of Medicine and Religion at the American Medical Association between 1961 and 1974. Arising in a context of a widely perceived dehumanization of care and the emergence of new ethical dilemmas at the bedside--concerns with significant parallels today--the initiative garnered striking physician enthusiasm and achieved dramatic successes nationally before coming to a puzzling end in 1972. We argue that its demise was linked to the AMA's contentious internal debate on abortion, and conclude with a note of caution regarding the status of normative concerns in medicine's ongoing efforts to address the spiritual and religious dimensions of its practices.

  8. THEORY IN RELIGION AND AGING: AN OVERVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Jeff; Chatters, Linda M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of theory in religion, aging, and health. It offers both a primer on theory and a roadmap for researchers. Four “tenses” of theory are described—distinct ways that theory comes into play in this field: grand theory, mid-range theory, use of theoretical models, and positing of constructs which mediate or moderate putative religious effects. Examples are given of both explicit and implicit uses of theory. Sources of theory for this field are then identified, emphasizing perspectives of sociologists and psychologists, and discussion is given to limitations of theory. Finally, reflections are offered as to why theory matters. PMID:20087662

  9. Place matters: Contextualizing the roles of religion and race for understanding Americans' attitudes about homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Amy; Boyd, Katharine A; Hayes, Brittany E

    2016-05-01

    As laws and policies related to homosexuality have evolved, Americans' attitudes have also changed. Race and religion have been established as important indicators of feelings about homosexuality. However, researchers have given almost no attention to how county characteristics shape Americans' attitudes. Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling techniques, we examine how personal characteristics and the religious and racial context of a county shape feelings about homosexuality drawing on data from the American National Election Survey and information about where respondents reside. We find that African Americans initially appear less tolerant than other racial groups, until we account for the geographical distribution of attitudes across the nation. Additionally, once we consider religious involvement, strength of belief, and religious affiliation African Americans appear to have warmer feelings about homosexuality than whites. Drawing on the moral communities' hypothesis, we also find that the strength of religiosity amongst county residents heightens the influence of personal religious beliefs on disapproving attitudes. There is also a direct effect of the proportion conservative Protestant, whereby people of all faiths have cooler attitudes towards homosexual individuals when they reside in a county with a higher proportion of conservative Protestants. Finally, we do not find any evidence for an African American cultural influence on attitudes.

  10. Place matters: Contextualizing the roles of religion and race for understanding Americans' attitudes about homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Amy; Boyd, Katharine A; Hayes, Brittany E

    2016-05-01

    As laws and policies related to homosexuality have evolved, Americans' attitudes have also changed. Race and religion have been established as important indicators of feelings about homosexuality. However, researchers have given almost no attention to how county characteristics shape Americans' attitudes. Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling techniques, we examine how personal characteristics and the religious and racial context of a county shape feelings about homosexuality drawing on data from the American National Election Survey and information about where respondents reside. We find that African Americans initially appear less tolerant than other racial groups, until we account for the geographical distribution of attitudes across the nation. Additionally, once we consider religious involvement, strength of belief, and religious affiliation African Americans appear to have warmer feelings about homosexuality than whites. Drawing on the moral communities' hypothesis, we also find that the strength of religiosity amongst county residents heightens the influence of personal religious beliefs on disapproving attitudes. There is also a direct effect of the proportion conservative Protestant, whereby people of all faiths have cooler attitudes towards homosexual individuals when they reside in a county with a higher proportion of conservative Protestants. Finally, we do not find any evidence for an African American cultural influence on attitudes. PMID:26973028

  11. Educating toward Communion: The Traditional Italian "Festa" as a Means of Christian Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco, Philip A.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines popular religion and its potential as a means of Christian religious education. In particular, it studies the traditional Italian "Festa" and the manner in which communities may use this and similar traditions as a means of fashioning a people and as a context in which to educate toward communion. The article argues that the…

  12. Obesity and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  13. Intercultural Education: Religion, Knowledge and the Limits of Postmodernism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulby, David

    2008-01-01

    This paper commences with an examination of some of the destructive aspects of religion, past and present. Against this it sets the knowledge and tolerance advocated in the Enlightenment. It goes on to consider the current role of religion in some school systems. It concludes by considering the challenge that the institutionalization of religion…

  14. The Impact of Culture and Religion on Psychiatric Care

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Ezra E.H.

    1982-01-01

    Culture and religion have a strong impact on clinical relationships, and attention to these issues has been shown to improve psychiatric care. Current issues in psychiatry and religion are explored, in order to demonstrate the clinical relevance of new findings in this area. PMID:7154101

  15. What Doth It Profit? The Study of Mountain Religion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salstrom, Paul; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Five papers examine mountain religion, focusing on Jeff Todd Titon's book, "Powerhouse of God: Speech, Chant, and Song in an Appalachian Baptist Church." Discussants include Paul Salstrom; Deborah Vansau McCauley; Howard Dorgan; Altina Waller; and Charles T. Davis. Titon responds, explaining his views and study of religion. (TES)

  16. Religion & Public Schools: Striking a Constitutional Balance. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittins, Naomi E., Ed.

    This document provides comprehensive analysis of new key developments in the law regarding the proper relationship between religion and public schools. There are 12 chapters: (1) "The First Amendment and Public Schools: Overview of the Religion Clauses" (John Walsh, Dorine Lawrence-Hughes, and Usi N. Botros); (2) "Prayer on Campus: Thirty Years of…

  17. Religion/Spirituality and Adolescent Psychiatric Symptoms: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dew, Rachel Elizabeth; Daniel, Stephanie S.; Armstrong, Tonya D.; Goldston, David B.; Triplett, Mary Frances; Koenig, Harold G.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the current article is to review the literature on religion and spirituality as it pertains to adolescent psychiatric symptoms. One hundred and fifteen articles were reviewed that examined relationships between religion/spirituality and adolescent substance use, delinquency, depression, suicidality, and anxiety. Ninety-two percent of…

  18. Religion and Subjective Well-Being in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokimica, Jelena; Addai, Isaac; Takyi, Baffour K.

    2012-01-01

    Using 2008 Afrobarometer survey data, we examine the relationship between religion and subjective well-being (SWB) in Ghana, as well as religious group differences in their experiences of SWB. Two measures of religion--religious affiliation and religious importance, and two measures of SWB--absolute SWB (own perceived living conditions) and…

  19. Religion, Modernity and Social Rights in European Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zambeta, Evie

    2008-01-01

    Religion, as social construct and institutional reality, has played a pivotal role in shaping European societies. In spite of the impact of Enlightenment theories in the formation of European modernity, institutionalized religions and established churches have managed to maintain their influence in the public domain. Educational systems, the par…

  20. Teaching Religion in the USA: Bridging the Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Doorn-Harder, Nelly

    2007-01-01

    This article argues that, considering the current trends of polarization between adherents of different religions, courses on world religions should no longer focus only on the transmission of knowledge, but include material from human rights studies, inter-religious dialogue, and peace studies as well. According to the author, due to their…

  1. Three Monotheistic Religions: Judaism, Christianity, Islam. Slide Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalak, Laurence

    This slide exercise is intended to communicate information about the three major monotheistic religions of the Middle East: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. The exercise focuses on beliefs, events, symbols, institutions, and practices important to the three religions, but the main purpose is to impress upon students the many things that these…

  2. Pastoral care, spirituality, and religion in palliative care journals.

    PubMed

    Hermsen, Maaike A; ten Have, Henk A M J

    2004-01-01

    With the growth and development of palliative care, interest in pastoral care, spirituality, and religion also seems to be growing. The aim of this article is to review the topic of pastoral care, spirituality, and religion appearing in the journals of palliative care, between January 1984 and January 2002.

  3. When It All Began: A Question of Religion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weewish Tree, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Describes the contrasting religions of the White man and the Indian and explains how the Indian has always practiced freedom of religion. Includes a statement given in 1805 by Red Jacket, an Indian leader of the Seneca Tribe, addressing religious freedom. (SB)

  4. Should God Get Tenure? Essays on Religion and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, David W., Ed.

    Essays on the role of religion in higher education include: "Should God Get Tenure?" (David W. Gill); "On Being a Professor: The Case of Socrates" (Bruce R. Reichenbach); "Academic Excellence: Cliche or Humanizing Vision?" (Merold Westphal); "Religion, Science, and the Humanities in the Liberal Arts Curriculum" (H. Newton Maloney); "Tolstoy and…

  5. Should Science Educators Deal with the Science/Religion Issue?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    I begin by examining the natures of science and religion before looking at the ways in which they relate to one another. I then look at a number of case studies that centre on the relationships between science and religion, including attempts to find mechanisms for divine action in quantum theory and chaos theory, creationism, genetic engineering…

  6. Reassessing Possible Naturalized Ideology Regarding Science, Education, and Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Todd

    2006-01-01

    This manuscript asks questions about what may be the naturalized, or taken for granted, ideologies in science education regarding religion. There have been times in history when religion has taken a dogmatic role in limiting the practices of science (e.g., the Roman Catholic Church and Galileo). This manuscript reflects on the dogmatic rule of…

  7. Teaching Religion in America's Public Schools: A Necessary Disruption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passe, Jeff; Willox, Lara

    2009-01-01

    Religion plays an important role in social studies content and is difficult to ignore, especially because of current world events. In our global society, it is more important than ever to know about and understand the religious beliefs of others. The social studies curriculum is infused with religion, but teachers circumvent the issue, mistakenly…

  8. How Do Finnish Pre-Adolescents Perceive Religion and Spirituality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubani, Martin; Tirri, Kirsi

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how Finnish pre-adolescents perceive religion and spirituality. The participants of the study are 12- to 13-year-old Grade 6 pupils (N=102). The pupils were asked to give their meanings of religion and spirituality. The data includes over 700 written expressions on the two concepts. The qualitative…

  9. Spirituality, Religion, and Career Development: Current Status and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Ryan D.

    2006-01-01

    The growing interest in the role that spirituality and religion play in mental health has spawned research investigating the relationships between spirituality, religion, and career development. To date, only a limited number of studies have explored these variables in tandem, but generally these investigations have found aspects of spirituality…

  10. Family, Religion, and Work among Arab American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghazal Read, Jen'nan

    2004-01-01

    Using data from a national survey of 501 Arab American women, this study examines the extent to which family behavior mediates the influence of religion on women's labor force activity. Prior research on families has largely overlooked the role of religion in influencing women's labor force decisions, particularly at different stages of the life…

  11. Are Religion or "Faith" Necessary for a Moral Sexual Ethos?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Marty

    2011-01-01

    Credit the editor of the American Journal of Sexuality Education for inviting an article on whether religion or faith is necessary for a moral sexual ethos. Credit organized religion for creating a global cultural narrative in which this question would even be asked. Most articles answer a central question. This article challenges the central…

  12. Religion and Body Weight in the Lower Mississippi Delta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The empirical evidence linking religion and health has grown substantially over the last decade to the extent that even the most skeptical scientists are taking seriously the myriad of literature identifying religions’ association with health. In concert with this literature, religion has been empir...

  13. Integrating Religion and Spirituality into Counselor Education: Barriers and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Christopher M.; Puig, Ana; Baggs, Adrienne; Wolf, Cheryl Pence

    2015-01-01

    Despite a professionally recognized need for training in religion/spirituality, literature indicates that religious and spirituality issues continue to be inconsistently addressed in counselor education. Ten experts were asked to identify potential barriers to integrating religion and spirituality into counselor education and indicate strategies…

  14. Teaching Introductory Upper-Level Religion and Theology Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clingerman, Forrest; O'Brien, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    The undergraduate study of religion is predominantly undertaken by non-majors who are meeting a general education requirement. This means that, while curricular discussions make important distinctions between the work of lower- and upper-division courses, many religion and theology faculty are teaching hybrid courses that we call…

  15. Religion and Spirituality in Adjustment Following Bereavement: An Integrative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wortmann, Jennifer H.; Park, Crystal L.

    2008-01-01

    Surprisingly little research has examined the widely held assumption that religion and spirituality are generally helpful in adjusting to bereavement. A systematic literature search located 73 empirical articles that examined religion/spirituality in the context of bereavement. The authors describe the multidimensional nature of…

  16. "Religion" in Educational Spaces: Knowing, Knowing Well, and Knowing Differently

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    I'Anson, John; Jasper, Alison

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this article is how "religion", as a materially heterogeneous concept, becomes mobilized in different educational spaces, and the "kinds of knowing" to which this gives rise. Three "case studyish" illustrations are deployed in order to consider how religion and education produce kinds of knowing which may--or may not--involve knowing…

  17. Joachim Wach and the Study of Religion: A Comparative Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia, Robert T.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the life and career of Joachim Wach, a proponent of comparative study of religion (CSR). Reports that Wach envisioned "Religionwissenschaft," a unitary science taking a systematic approach to the study of religion using elements of theology, philosophy, and social science. Presents Wach's "basic and eternal" questions on ultimate…

  18. Youth and Religion: The Gameboy Generation Goes to "Church"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cnaan, Ram A.; Gelles, Richard J.; Sinha, Jill W.

    2004-01-01

    Using the secularization theory and the Marxist notion of religion as masking class conscience one would expect the importance of religion and religious involvement today to wane and be limited to lower class members. To challenge this expectation, using a representative national telephone survey of 2004 youth (ages 11-18) and their parents, we…

  19. Religion, Education, and Religious Education in Irish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, Áine; Bocking, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This essay is part of a collection of short essays solicited from authors around the globe who teach religion courses at the college level (not for professional religious training). They are published together with an introduction in "Teaching Theology and Religion" 18:3 (July 2015). The authors were asked to provide a brief overview of…

  20. Teaching Religion in Brazil, in Public Schools and Confessional Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz, Eduardo R.; Soares, Afonso L.

    2015-01-01

    This essay is part of a collection of short essays solicited from authors around the globe who teach religion courses at the college level (not for professional religious training). They are published together with an introduction in "Teaching Theology and Religion" 18:3 (July 2015). The authors were asked to provide a brief overview of…

  1. Facilitating Dialogue on Religion and Sexuality Using a Descriptive Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Richard W.

    2009-01-01

    Dialogue on religion and sexuality is difficult because these topics consist of deeply seated concepts of self, as well as one's relationship to other selves in the world. This chapter offers practical steps for creating and navigating difficult dialogues with respect to sexuality and religion. It suggests that partnership with departments,…

  2. Needed: Disciplined Dialogues on Religion and Education. Guest Editorial Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachariah, Mathew; Mehran, Golnar

    1996-01-01

    Calls for rekindled interest in the comparative study of significant issues in religion as they relate to education in various parts of the world. Outlines the questions examined in this issues' articles, and lists areas of religion-education linkage in which research is needed. Presents four principles of communication that promote genuine…

  3. Intrinsic Religion and Internalized Homophobia in Sexual-Minority Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ream, Geoffrey L.

    This research investigates the development of conflict between sexual minority identity and religious identity in sexual minority youth, examining religion as both a risk factor and a protective factor. Intrinsic religion was expected to predict self reported conflict between religious and sexual minority identity. Retrospectively reported…

  4. Shortcomings of the Human Brain and Remedial Action by Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, K. Helmut

    2010-01-01

    There is no consensus as to whether, and if so, in which regard and to what extent science and religion is needed for human survival. Here a circumscribed domain is taken up: the sovereignty and sufficiency of the human brain in this context. Several of its shortcomings are pointed out. Religion and other aspects of culture are needed for remedial…

  5. Religion and Gender in a Men’s Hospital and School of Nursing, 1866–1969

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Barbra Mann

    2009-01-01

    Objectives This article explores religious beliefs, practices, and representations of the Alexian Brothers, a religious order of Catholic nursing brothers, and the role of gender in this discourse. Background Nursing in the United States developed within a cultural framework of caring as part of women’s roles in families and communities. Yet, a study of the Alexian Brothers challenges the dominance of the “female” in most gender analyses of nursing. Methods Historical methodology is used to evaluate and interpret data within the broader framework of historiographical literature on gender, religion, and nursing. In analyzing nursing, religion, and gender, attention has been paid to representations, mainly of women, through photographs and written literature. In this article, the same sources are used for men. Results The story of the Alexian Brothers and the men they educated is a testament to the power of gender and religion in nursing history. These men carved out a system of caring that recognized it as a responsibility not only of women but also of men. As they asserted that their paid work was a Christian calling, they renegotiated dominant notions of masculinity. In doing so, male nurses navigated among an array of representations, from nurse, to school administrator, to military soldier, to religious person, to professional practitioner of scientific medicine. These self-representations in the masculine spaces of the hospital and nursing school were designed to debunk stereotypes of feminine men, and they challenged traditional spatial boundaries. PMID:19448519

  6. The relationship between evolutionary biology and religion.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Michael J

    2009-07-01

    Belief in creationism and intelligent design is widespread and gaining significance in a number of countries. This article examines the characteristics of science and of religions and the possible relationship between science and religion. I argue that creationism is sometimes best seen not as a misconception but as a worldview. In such instances, the most to which a science educator (whether in school, college or university) can normally aspire is to ensure that students with creationist beliefs understand the scientific position. In the short term, the scientific worldview is unlikely to supplant a creationist one for students who are firm creationists. We can help students to find their evolutionary biology courses interesting and intellectually challenging without their being threatening. Effective teaching in this area can help students not only learn about the theory of evolution but better appreciate the way science is done, the procedures by which scientific knowledge accumulates, the limitations of science, and the ways in which scientific knowledge differs from other forms of knowledge.

  7. The relationship between evolutionary biology and religion.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Michael J

    2009-07-01

    Belief in creationism and intelligent design is widespread and gaining significance in a number of countries. This article examines the characteristics of science and of religions and the possible relationship between science and religion. I argue that creationism is sometimes best seen not as a misconception but as a worldview. In such instances, the most to which a science educator (whether in school, college or university) can normally aspire is to ensure that students with creationist beliefs understand the scientific position. In the short term, the scientific worldview is unlikely to supplant a creationist one for students who are firm creationists. We can help students to find their evolutionary biology courses interesting and intellectually challenging without their being threatening. Effective teaching in this area can help students not only learn about the theory of evolution but better appreciate the way science is done, the procedures by which scientific knowledge accumulates, the limitations of science, and the ways in which scientific knowledge differs from other forms of knowledge. PMID:19473393

  8. Gender, religion and democratic politics in India.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Zoya

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the impact of identity politics on gender equality. More specifically it explores the paradoxical and complex relationship of religion and politics in a multi-religious society and the complicated ways in which women's activism has both reinforced and challenged their gender identities. Contrary to the argument that religious politics does not always negate gender equality, the article argues that the Hindu religious politics and women's activism associated with it provides a compelling example of the instrumentalisation of women to accomplish the political goals of the Hindu right. It also examines the approach and strategies of influential political parties, women's organisations and Muslim women's groups towards legal reform and the contested issue of a uniform civil code. Against those who argue that, in the current communal conjuncture, reform within Muslim personal laws or Islamic feminism is the best strategy for enhancing the scope of Muslim women's rights, the article argues that such an approach tends to freeze identities within religious boundaries. It shows how women's and minority rights are used within the politics of religion to sideline the agenda of women's rights. PMID:20857570

  9. Gender, religion and democratic politics in India.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Zoya

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the impact of identity politics on gender equality. More specifically it explores the paradoxical and complex relationship of religion and politics in a multi-religious society and the complicated ways in which women's activism has both reinforced and challenged their gender identities. Contrary to the argument that religious politics does not always negate gender equality, the article argues that the Hindu religious politics and women's activism associated with it provides a compelling example of the instrumentalisation of women to accomplish the political goals of the Hindu right. It also examines the approach and strategies of influential political parties, women's organisations and Muslim women's groups towards legal reform and the contested issue of a uniform civil code. Against those who argue that, in the current communal conjuncture, reform within Muslim personal laws or Islamic feminism is the best strategy for enhancing the scope of Muslim women's rights, the article argues that such an approach tends to freeze identities within religious boundaries. It shows how women's and minority rights are used within the politics of religion to sideline the agenda of women's rights.

  10. The influence of religion on sexual HIV risk.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Stacey A; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2014-08-01

    This systematic review examines the relationship between religion and sexual HIV risk behavior. It focuses primarily on how studies have conceptualized and defined religion, methodologies, and sexual risk outcomes. We also describe regions where studies were conducted and mechanisms by which religion may be associated with sexual risk. We included 137 studies in this review, classifying them as measuring: (1) only religious affiliation (n = 57), (2) only religiosity (n = 48), and (3) both religious affiliation and religiosity (n = 32). A number of studies identified lower levels of sexual HIV risk among Muslims, although many of these examined HIV prevalence rather than specific behavioral risk outcomes. Most studies identified increased religiosity to be associated with lower levels of sexual HIV risk. This finding persists but is weaker when the outcome considered is condom use. The paper reviews ways in which religion may contribute to increase and reduction in sexual HIV risk, gaps in research, and implications for future research on religion and HIV.

  11. Historical intersections of psychology, religion, and politics in national contexts.

    PubMed

    Kugelmann, Robert; Belzen, Jacob A

    2009-08-01

    Various types of psychology have come into existence in and have been interacting with a plurality of contexts, contexts that have been radically varying in different states or nations. One important factor in the development of psychology has been the multiple relationships to the Christian religion, whether understood as an institution, a worldview, or a form of personal spirituality. The articles in this issue focus on the intertwinements between institutional religion and national political structures and on their influence on developing forms of psychology in four different national contexts: Spain, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Within these four settings, aspects of the ways in which varying forms of Christian religion coconstituted, facilitated, and shaped psychology, theoretically, practically, and institutionally, are examined. The formative power of the religions was not independent of the relationships between religion and political power, but rather mediated by these.

  12. The origins of religion: evolved adaptation or by-product?

    PubMed

    Pyysiäinen, Ilkka; Hauser, Marc

    2010-03-01

    Considerable debate has surrounded the question of the origins and evolution of religion. One proposal views religion as an adaptation for cooperation, whereas an alternative proposal views religion as a by-product of evolved, non-religious, cognitive functions. We critically evaluate each approach, explore the link between religion and morality in particular, and argue that recent empirical work in moral psychology provides stronger support for the by-product approach. Specifically, despite differences in religious background, individuals show no difference in the pattern of their moral judgments for unfamiliar moral scenarios. These findings suggest that religion evolved from pre-existing cognitive functions, but that it may then have been subject to selection, creating an adaptively designed system for solving the problem of cooperation.

  13. Science, religion, and constructivism: constructing and understanding reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, Bhaskar

    2010-03-01

    There have been debates about the place of religion in science and in what ways knowledge that is produced through religion can aid in the learning and teaching of science. The discord between science and religion is mainly focused on whose knowledge is better in describing and explaining the reality. Constructivist epistemology seems to give some scholars hope in the possibility that the discord between science and religion can be ameliorated and that their expressions of reality can co-exist. In this forum contribution I present some Hindu perspectives to re-interpret how science and Hinduism explain reality. I have used only few Hindu perspectives based on selected Hindu writings, particularly Vedanta, to expand on objectivity and reality. Finally, I recommend that social constructivism may be a better framework in keeping science and religion discord at bay.

  14. Religion and health: public health research and practice.

    PubMed

    Chatters, L M

    2000-01-01

    Research examining the relationships between religion and the health of individuals and populations has become increasingly visible in the social, behavioral, and health sciences. Systematic programs of research investigate religious phenomena within the context of coherent theoretical and conceptual frameworks that describe the causes and consequences of religious involvement for health outcomes. Recent research has validated the multidimensional aspects of religious involvement and investigated how religious factors operate through various biobehavioral and psychosocial constructs to affect health status through proposed mechanisms that link religion and health. Methodological and analytical advances in the field permit the development of more complex models of religion's effects, in keeping with proposed theoretical explanations. Investigations of religion and health have ethical and practical implications that should be addressed by the lay public, health professionals, the research community, and the clergy. Future research directions point to promising new areas of investigation that could bridge the constructs of religion and health.

  15. Religion, spirituality and health care: confusions, tensions, opportunities.

    PubMed

    Pattison, Stephen

    2013-09-01

    This paper raises some issues about understanding religion, religions and spirituality in health care to enable a more critical mutual engagement and dialogue to take place between health care institutions and religious communities and believers. Understanding religions and religious people is a complex, interesting matter. Taking into account the whole reality of religion and spirituality is not just about meeting specific needs, nor of trying to ensure that religious people abandon their distinctive beliefs and insights when they engage with health care institutions and policies. Members of religious groups and communities form an integral part of the structure and fabric of health care delivery, whether as users or in delivery capacities. Religion is both facilitator and resistor, friend and critic, for health care institutions, providers and workers.

  16. Haitian vodou as a health care system: between magic, religion, and medicine.

    PubMed

    Vonarx, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Haitian vodou has been considered an African-American religion organized around a pantheon, sanctuaries, priests, fraternities, and rituals honoring the spirits (lwa), the dead, and the ancestors. This construction of vodou, which is predominant in the literature, is based on a substantive approach to religion. It obscures the close connections between vodou and illness and does not adequately reveal how vodou is used in the daily lives of Haitians. By adopting a microsocial perspective on vodou and focusing on the knowledge and practices of vodou practitioners, the importance of vodou's therapeutic dimension becomes clear. Indeed, I am compelled to conclude that vodou is a health care system. Grounded in 16 months' research in the Haitian countryside and using a definition of health care systems identified in the medical anthropology literature, this new way of approaching vodou situates its religious and magical dimensions within its role as a health care system. This article deals with these different aspects, addressing the criteria that make vodou a health care system. In particular, I explore the practitioners who are recognized as healers and consulted as such; the sites where practitioners meet with the sick and treat them; the vodou theories on illness; and the curative, preventive, and care-giving practices based on those theories. This approach helps us to better understand how medicine, religion, and magic are linked in Haitian vodou and leads us back to debates about the construction of vodou, which are apparently well known in the scientific literature. All of this leads us to reflect on Western approaches to healing and caring. PMID:22314676

  17. The relationship between medicine's internal morality and religion.

    PubMed

    Welie, Jos V M

    2002-08-01

    In the face of managed care and market economies infringing on the practice of medicine, reducing its autonomy and determining the moral guidelines for medical practice, many physicians are calling out for a return to what is perceived as a traditional medical ethic. Many religiously motivated critics of certain modern developments in medicine have made similar appeals. These calls are best understood as an attempt to define medicine as a practice that is necessarily ethical in nature, a practice the moral basis of which is internal to that practice. This article examines and assesses this definition of medicine in reference to Aristotle's division of human undertakings into three distinct categories: theory, poieisis (i.e., production), and praxis. It is concluded that medicine can be understood as a praxis (as opposed to a theory or production, both of which are morally neutral), because the practice of medicine, and all of its constitutive acts, can only be explained and assessed in reference to health, which is itself a final good and hence of moral value. Such an understanding would immunize medicine against usurpation by the free market. However, by the same token it would also dissociate medicine from all other moralities external to it, including those grounded in faith and religion.

  18. Religion, spirituality and mental health in the West and the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Harold G; Zaben, Faten Al; Khalifa, Doaa Ahmed

    2012-06-01

    Research on religion, spirituality and mental health has been rapidly accumulating from Western countries and now increasingly from the Middle East. We review here the latest research on this topic from these two areas of the world, one largely Christian and the other largely Muslim, after discussing similarities and differences in these faith traditions. Contrary to popular thought, there is considerable overlap between these religious groups in beliefs, practices of worship, moral beliefs and values, and emphasis on family life (although also some distinct differences). Because of the similarity in belief and practice, it is not surprising that research on mental health and devout religious involvement in both these religious traditions has tended to produce similar results. Religious psychotherapies within these faith traditions have been developed and are now being refined and used in clinical trials to determine if integrating patients' religious resources into therapy is more or less effective than conventional therapies in relieving the symptoms of depression and anxiety.

  19. Textbook Religion and Lived Religion: A Comparison of the Christian Faith as Expressed in Textbooks and by Young Church Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vestøl, Jon Magne

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on perspectives from sociocultural theory, this article investigates how Christian denominations are represented in Norwegian textbooks of religious education and by young believers. The main finding is that textbooks and young adherents present religion in substantially different ways. While textbooks relate religion to global and…

  20. Religion as Bridging or Bonding Social Capital: Race, Religion, and Cross-Racial Interaction for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Julie J.; Bowman, Nicholas A.

    2015-01-01

    Religion is the most segregated arena of American life, but its effect on collegiate diversity outcomes has been overlooked, despite the significance of both race and religion in many students' lives. This study examines whether religious observance, religious worldview identification, and participation in a religious student organization are…

  1. SOME NOTES ON CUBAN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Refal Milanes

    1996-01-01

    The traditional medical system of cuba is an amalgam so the medical knowledge of the Africans, Hispanics and the Amerindians of cuba. An attempt is made is this article to provide a short introduction to this fascinating body of knowledge, which awaits further investigations by scholars of ethnic medicine. PMID:22556768

  2. Attitudes toward victims of rape: effects of gender, race, religion, and social class.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Barbara; Matsuo, Hisako; McIntyre, Kevin P; Morrison, Nancy

    2005-06-01

    Although previous literature focusing on perceptions of victims of rape has examined how gender, race, and culture influence the attitudes one holds toward victims, these studies have yielded mixed results. This study compared perceptions of victims of rape across a wide range of ages, educational backgrounds, religions, and income levels, while focusing on gender and racial differences. Results indicate (N = 220) that victims of rape are generally viewed more sympathetically by females than by males and by Whites than by African Americans. However, the effect of race disappears when socioeconomic variables are controlled, suggesting a more complex relationship. Also, a hierarchical regression indicates that age, sex, education, and income are significant predictors of attitudes toward victims. This study builds on existing research that examines such attitudes from a cultural perspective and extends this literature by examining the interactive effects of several demographic variables within a community sample.

  3. Writing, Religion and Revolt in Bahia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goody, Jack

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the impact of writing on culture, especially the psychosocial consequences of literacy as a "technology of the intellect." Describes the role played by writing in both a slave revolt in nineteenth century Brazil and a preliterate African culture. Argues that "literacy" serves too many functions to be used as an all-encompassing…

  4. New streams of religion: fly fishing as a lived, religion of nature.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Samuel

    2007-01-01

    Fly fishers around the world frequently use terms such as religious, spiritual, sacred, divine, ritual, meditation, and conversion to describe their personal angling experiences. Further, drawing upon religious terminology, anglers will refer to rivers as their church and to nature as sacred. Often these latter pronouncements drive a concern for the conservation of these sacred spaces as evidenced by participation in both local and national conservation organizations. Informed by theoretical perspectives offered by religious studies, particularly "lived religion" and "religion and nature," I shall trace a few of the historical, material, and everyday elements of fly fishers and their subcultures, demonstrating along the way the insights that come by understanding fly fishing as a religious practice, which can, at times, drive an ethic of environmental conservation.

  5. Informing cancer prevention strategies for African Americans: the relationship of African American acculturation to fruit, vegetable, and fat intake.

    PubMed

    Ard, Jamy D; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Chen, Chuhe; Aickin, Mikel; Svetkey, Laura P

    2005-06-01

    Acculturation has been associated with health-related behaviors in African Americans. We sought to determine if there is a relationship between acculturation and dietary intake in African Americans. African Americans in the PREMIER trial completed the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS) and 2 nonconsecutive 24-h dietary recalls (n = 238). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and canonical correlation were used to assess relationships between acculturation and dietary intakes. Canonical correlation (p = 0.05) showed that traditional African Americans had lower intakes of fruits/vegetables and milk/dairy with higher intakes of fats, meat, and nuts. This pattern was supported by differences in the ANOVA. African American acculturation is related to dietary intake. These findings have implications for the design of cancer-related public health messages targeted to African Americans. PMID:16015458

  6. Religion as Schedule-Induced Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Strand, Paul S

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I argue that a class of religious behaviors exists that is induced, for prepared organisms, by specific stimuli that are experienced according to a response-independent schedule. Like other schedule-induced behaviors, the members of this class serve as minimal units out of which functional behavior may arise. In this way, there exist two classes of religious behavior: nonoperant schedule-induced behaviors and operant behaviors. This dichotomy is consistent with the distinction insisted upon by religious scholars and philosophers between “graceful” and “effortful” religious behaviors. Embracing the distinction allows an explanation of many aspects of religious experience and behavior that have been overlooked or disregarded by other scientific approaches to religion. PMID:22478521

  7. Humanistic psychology and religion: Steps toward reconciliation.

    PubMed

    Morris, J E

    1980-06-01

    Disagreements have surfaced recently among rank- and-file mental health practitioners regarding the relationship between psychology and religion. To mediate these differences and misunderstandings, a study is presented here of the basic concepts of humanistic psychology vis-á-vis major elements of Judeo-Christian biblical theology. An assumption is posited that all forms of knowledge share a fundamental language basis and symbolic system regarding the ultimate questions and meanings of existence. From this presupposition similarities and congruities among specific elements of humanistic psychology and biblical theology are discussed, providing a basis for more intensive empathic dialogue and cooperative research. A bridge is established to enable therapists to understand better their clients' religious conflicts and/or emotional stresses caused by religious factors.

  8. Psychiatry, religion, positive emotions and spirituality.

    PubMed

    Vaillant, George E

    2013-12-01

    This paper proposes that eight positive emotions: awe, love/attachment, trust/faith, compassion, gratitude, forgiveness, joy and hope constitute what we mean by spirituality. These emotions have been grossly ignored by psychiatry. The two sciences that I shall employ to demonstrate this definition of spirituality will be ethology and neuroscience. They are both very new. I will argue that spirituality is not about ideas, sacred texts and theology. Rather, spirituality is all about emotion and social connection that are more dependent on the limbic system than the cortex. Specific religions, for all their limitations, are often the portal through which positive emotions are brought into conscious attention. Neither Freud nor psychiatric textbooks ever mention emotions like joy and gratitude. Hymns and psalms give these emotions pride of place. Our whole concept of psychotherapy might change, if clinicians set about enhancing positive emotions, rather than focusing only on the negative ones.

  9. Africans in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Ayanna; Spangler, Earl

    This book introduces African-American history and culture to children. The first Africans in America came from many different regions and cultures, but became united in this country by being black, African, and slaves. Once in America, Africans began a long struggle for freedom which still continues. Slavery, the Civil War, emancipation, and the…

  10. Therapy with African Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwadiora, Emeka

    1996-01-01

    Informs helping professionals about the unique history and challenges of African families to guide them toward providing ethnically sensitive psychological services to African immigrant families in need. African families undergo great stress when faced with the alienation of being Black and African in a Euro-American culture. (SLD)

  11. African Outreach Workshop 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Nancy J.

    This report discusses the 1974 African Outreach Workshop planned and coordinated by the African Studies Program at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Its major aim was to assist teachers in developing curriculum units on African using materials available in their local community. A second aim was for the African Studies Program to…

  12. A Rationale for Creating African-American Immersion Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Kenneth C.

    1991-01-01

    The traditional U.S. classroom's milieu has distorted and refused to recognize the language and cultural richness of African-American students. Milwaukee's two immersion schools, Victor Berger Elementary School and Parkman Middle School, place the African-American students and their culture at the center of the educational process. Results have…

  13. African oil plays

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, A.J. )

    1989-09-01

    The vast continent of Africa hosts over eight sedimentary basins, covering approximately half its total area. Of these basins, only 82% have entered a mature exploration phase, 9% have had little or no exploration at all. Since oil was first discovered in Africa during the mid-1950s, old play concepts continue to bear fruit, for example in Egypt and Nigeria, while new play concepts promise to become more important, such as in Algeria, Angola, Chad, Egypt, Gabon, and Sudan. The most exciting developments of recent years in African oil exploration are: (1) the Gamba/Dentale play, onshore Gabon; (2) the Pinda play, offshore Angola; (3) the Lucula/Toca play, offshore Cabinda; (4) the Metlaoui play, offshore Libya/Tunisia; (5) the mid-Cretaceous sand play, Chad/Sudan; and (6) the TAG-I/F6 play, onshore Algeria. Examples of these plays are illustrated along with some of the more traditional oil plays. Where are the future oil plays likely to develop No doubt, the Saharan basins of Algeria and Libya will feature strongly, also the presalt of Equatorial West Africa, the Central African Rift System and, more speculatively, offshore Ethiopia and Namibia, and onshore Madagascar, Mozambique, and Tanzania.

  14. African Dance Aesthetics in a K-12 Dance Setting: From History to Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Sheila A.

    2013-01-01

    This article invites the reader to gain a deeper understanding of the aesthetics of African-based dance through the elements of tradition, transformation, and social justice. A discussion of the aesthetics of African dances within Africa and throughout the African diaspora opens the doors to present these dances in a K-12 setting, to explore a…

  15. Retaining African Americans in Higher Education: Challenging Paradigms for Retaining Students, Faculty and Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lee, Ed.

    This collection discusses some of the issues surrounding the retention of African Americans in higher education, and it challenges traditional paradigms for retaining African American students, administrators, and faculty at predominantly White colleges. The chapters of part 1, "Retaining African-American Students," are: (1) "Creating an Affirming…

  16. Religion and spirituality in psychiatric care: looking back, looking ahead.

    PubMed

    Boehnlein, James K

    2006-12-01

    Cultural psychiatry has been an important contributor to the enhanced dialogue between psychiatry and religion in the past couple of decades. During this time, religion and spirituality have become more prominent in mainstream psychiatry in a number of areas of study and clinical care, including refugee and immigrant health, trauma and loss, psychotherapy, collaboration with clergy, bioethics, and psychiatric research. In looking towards the future, there is a great deal of promise for future enhancement of the study of religion and spirituality in psychiatric education, research, and clinical care.

  17. Does religion deserve a place in secular medicine?

    PubMed

    Earp, Brian D

    2015-11-01

    Biggar (2015) argues that "religion" deserves a place in secular medicine. Against this view, I argue that religion (as most people would understand the term) should not play a role in shaping secular health policy, and I provide some illustrations of the potential dangers of the contrary. However, I also suggest that-upon closer inspection-Biggar seems to be using the term "religion" to refer to obliquely to what most people would call "moral philosophy." On this less controversial interpretation, Biggar's proposal is inoffensive-but also unoriginal.

  18. Religion, reproduction and public policy: disentangling morality from Catholic theology.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Edgar

    2010-12-01

    Many people look to religion to help resolve the serious moral and legal issues associated with assisted reproductive technologies. Doing so presupposes that religion is the cornerstone of ethics, but this assumption is not well founded. While various faiths are entitled to articulate their views on matters of human reproduction, the contradictions involved in doing so make it unwise to rely on religion in the formulation of law and policy. These contradictions--such as the indeterminacy about what revealed truths means--make moral secular philosophy a better guide for the protection of human welfare.

  19. Reflections on the differences between religion and culture.

    PubMed

    Bonney, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Culture may be thought of as a causal agent that affects the evolutionary process by uniquely human means. Religion, on the other hand, is considered a process of revelation and contains the concept of the "faithful" who receive the message of revelation. Culture permits the "self-conscious evaluation of human possibilities" and therefore presents a device for increasing human control over species change. There are dangers, however, in accepting cultural relativism without any constraint, such as respect for human life and dignity. In this article, the author attempts to clarify the boundaries between religion and culture and acknowledges that further research is needed on the religion/culture dichotomy.

  20. The use of religion in death penalty sentencing trials.

    PubMed

    Miller, Monica K; Bornstein, Brian H

    2006-12-01

    Both prosecutors and defense attorneys have presented religious appeals and testimony about a defendant's religious activities in order to influence capital jurors' sentencing. Courts that have objected to this use of religion fear that religion will improperly influence jurors' decisions and interfere with their ability to weigh aggravators and mitigators. This study investigated the effects of both prosecution and defense appeals. Prosecution appeals did not affect verdict decisions; however, use of religion by the defense affected both verdicts and the weighing of aggravators and mitigators. These results could be due to differences in perceived sincerity and remorse that are conveyed in the various appeals.

  1. Pilot study of Muslim women's perceptions on religion and sport.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, Matthew S; Hillyer, Sarah J; Browning, Cedric

    2005-06-01

    This study surveyed 25 Muslim women from Iran about their religious beliefs about sport while taking part in a softball clinic. Direct quotes were collected, translated into English, transcribed verbatim from surveys, and then inductively analyzed into higher order themes, which included strategies to deal with performance anxiety, presence of friends and family support, and use of religion in sport. Quantitative scores recorded indicated a low positive correlations of .17 between sport and religion, although there were some indications of differences about importance (some rated sport more important than religion). Hypotheses are proposed for study.

  2. Gandhi on religion, faith and conversion: secular blueprint relevant today.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajai R; Singh, Shakuntala A

    2004-01-01

    Gandhi believed in judging people of other faiths from their stand point rather than his own. He welcomed contact of Hinduism with other religions, especially the Christian doctrines, for he did not want to be debarred from assimilating good anywhere else. He believed a respectful study of other's religion was a sacred duty and it did not reduce reverence for one's own. He was looking out for those universal principles which transcended religion as a dogma. He expected religion to take account of practical life, he wanted it to appeal to reason and not be in conflict with morality. He believed it was his right and duty to point out the defects of his own religion, but to desist from doing so with other's faith. He refused to abuse a man for his fanatical deeds for he tried to see them from the other person's point of view. He believed Jesus expressed the will and spirit of God but could not accept Jesus as the only incarnate son of God. If Jesus was like God or God himself, then all men were like God or God Himself. But neither could he accept the Vedas as the inspired word of God, for if they were inspired why not also the Bible and the Koran? He believed all great religions were fundamentally equal and that there should be innate respect for them, not just mutual tolerance. He felt a person wanting to convert should try to be a good follower of his own faith rather than seek goodness in change of faith. His early impressions of Christianity were unfortunate which underwent a change when he discovered the New Testament and the Sermon on the Mount, whose ideal of renunciation appealed to him greatly. He thought Parliament of Religions or International Fellowship of Religions could be based only on equality of status, a common platform. An attitude of patronising tolerance was false to the spirit of international fellowship. He believed that all religions were more or less true, but had errors because they came to us though imperfect human instrumentality. Religious

  3. The 4th R: Teaching about Religion in the Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dever, Martha T.; Whitaker, Martha L.; Byrnes, Deborah A.

    2001-01-01

    Explores how to teach religion in the social studies classroom in public schools. Asserts that religion should be taught to educate children about beliefs that differ from their own and about the role of religion in U.S. society. Provides suggestions for teaching about religion to students in kindergarten through sixth grade. (CMK)

  4. Academic Standards and Requirements at Commonwealth African Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Clayton G.

    1988-01-01

    Academic standards at British Commonwealth African universities are considered and the relevance of Western academic traditions for the universities is discussed. It is concluded that building academic excellence is of greater importance than increasing manpower output. (MSE)

  5. [Melancholy between medicine and religion: from a pathology of religious behaviour to a pathological practice of religion].

    PubMed

    Crignon-De Oliveira, Claire

    2006-01-01

    By proposing in 1621 to create the completely separate category of religious melancholy, Burton inaugurated the medicalisation of religious controversy which developed considerably after the English Civil Wars. While religious melancholy was a useful critical and polemical weapon for all the defenders of Anglican orthodoxy trying to present fanatics (enthusiasts) and atheists as sick people suffering from a humoural imbalance, it finally came in the early 18th century to designate a certain way of practising religion or alternatively the behaviour of those who devoted their lives to religion. The present article examines this transition from a medical interpretation of nonconformist religious behaviour to the identification of a pathological practice of religion.

  6. Towards a holistic review of Pan-Africanism: linking the idea and the movement.

    PubMed

    Young, Kurt B

    2010-01-01

    This article explores two general approaches to defining Pan-Africanism. Traditional Pan-Africanism reflects definitions of Pan-Africanism that begin with the assumption that distinctions must be made between early "ideas" of group identification with Africa versus modern organizational activities. However, holistic approaches emphasize the interconnectivity of Pan-African ideas and concrete activities. This discussion explores these approaches and their implications for contemporary analyses of Pan-Africanism. The essay concludes that the holistic line is best suited for developing a new model in Pan-Africanism. PMID:20648996

  7. Towards a holistic review of Pan-Africanism: linking the idea and the movement.

    PubMed

    Young, Kurt B

    2010-01-01

    This article explores two general approaches to defining Pan-Africanism. Traditional Pan-Africanism reflects definitions of Pan-Africanism that begin with the assumption that distinctions must be made between early "ideas" of group identification with Africa versus modern organizational activities. However, holistic approaches emphasize the interconnectivity of Pan-African ideas and concrete activities. This discussion explores these approaches and their implications for contemporary analyses of Pan-Africanism. The essay concludes that the holistic line is best suited for developing a new model in Pan-Africanism.

  8. Science, Religion, and Celebrations: A Paradigm for Teaching Holidays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Kathleen; Tansits-Wenze, Gloria

    2002-01-01

    With attention to basic legal issues, teachers can address holidays in meaningful ways. One approach is to organize the study of diverse religious holidays by equinoxes and solstices. This method highlights the connections between religion and science. (SK)

  9. Science and religion in dialogue over the global commons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edenhofer, Ottmar; Flachsland, Christian; Knopf, Brigitte

    2015-10-01

    The Pope's encyclical makes unprecedented progress in developing scientific dialogue with religion by drawing on research, and encouraging further discussion about the ethical challenge of governing the global commons.

  10. EDUCATION, PHILOSOPHY, AND RELIGION DEPARTMENT, DETAIL OF ORIGINAL ALLMETAL TABLE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EDUCATION, PHILOSOPHY, AND RELIGION DEPARTMENT, DETAIL OF ORIGINAL ALL-METAL TABLE, LAMP, AND WINDSOR CHAIR - Free Library of Philadelphia, Central Library, 1901 Vine Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. Spreading order: religion, cooperative niche construction, and risky coordination problems.

    PubMed

    Bulbulia, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Adaptationists explain the evolution of religion from the cooperative effects of religious commitments, but which cooperation problem does religion evolve to solve? I focus on a class of symmetrical coordination problems for which there are two pure Nash equilibriums: (1) ALL COOPERATE, which is efficient but relies on full cooperation; (2) ALL DEFECT, which is inefficient but pays regardless of what others choose. Formal and experimental studies reveal that for such risky coordination problems, only the defection equilibrium is evolutionarily stable. The following makes sense of otherwise puzzling properties of religious cognition and cultures as features of cooperative designs that evolve to stabilise such risky exchange. The model is interesting because it explains lingering puzzles in the data on religion, and better integrates evolutionary theories of religion with recent, well-motivated models of cooperative niche construction. PMID:22207773

  12. Applying scientific openmindedness to religion and science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Settle, Tom

    1996-04-01

    Mahner's and Bunge's two main theses are nearly correct as social reports but the extent to which they are wrong is philosophically very important. I draw attention to a philosophically superior way of viewing the essential relation between science and religion which can have a humane or benign influence upon how both science and religion are taught. On the one hand, science does not need to fight religion nor try to suppress it. A generous openness of mind, which distinguishes the critical rationality implicit in the advance of science, deserves to be applied without acrimony to any systems of thought that purport to explain the universe. On the other hand, religions have no need to fear the growth of scientific knowledge, provided science is not confused, as Mahner and Bunge confuse it, with its materialistic interpretation.

  13. Spreading order: religion, cooperative niche construction, and risky coordination problems.

    PubMed

    Bulbulia, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Adaptationists explain the evolution of religion from the cooperative effects of religious commitments, but which cooperation problem does religion evolve to solve? I focus on a class of symmetrical coordination problems for which there are two pure Nash equilibriums: (1) ALL COOPERATE, which is efficient but relies on full cooperation; (2) ALL DEFECT, which is inefficient but pays regardless of what others choose. Formal and experimental studies reveal that for such risky coordination problems, only the defection equilibrium is evolutionarily stable. The following makes sense of otherwise puzzling properties of religious cognition and cultures as features of cooperative designs that evolve to stabilise such risky exchange. The model is interesting because it explains lingering puzzles in the data on religion, and better integrates evolutionary theories of religion with recent, well-motivated models of cooperative niche construction.

  14. Religion a Buffer Against Suicide for Women, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Religion a Buffer Against Suicide for Women, Study Suggests Going to services at least once a ... suicide than those who don't, a new study suggests. U.S. researchers reviewed data on nearly 90, ...

  15. Religion, secular medicine and utilitarianism: a response to Biggar.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kevin R

    2015-11-01

    Nigel Biggar has argued that religion ought to be given a seat at the negotiating table of medical ethics. I respond in broadly utilitarian terms, arguing that the flawed empirical basis, lack of rationality and non-universality inherent in religion disqualify it from ethical discourse. I conclude that while it would be unacceptable to attempt to debar religious individuals from the negotiating table, an exclusively secular approach is required for ethical decision making in medicine.

  16. Religion, secular medicine and utilitarianism: a response to Biggar.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kevin R

    2015-11-01

    Nigel Biggar has argued that religion ought to be given a seat at the negotiating table of medical ethics. I respond in broadly utilitarian terms, arguing that the flawed empirical basis, lack of rationality and non-universality inherent in religion disqualify it from ethical discourse. I conclude that while it would be unacceptable to attempt to debar religious individuals from the negotiating table, an exclusively secular approach is required for ethical decision making in medicine. PMID:26091815

  17. Access to health care and religion among young American men.

    PubMed

    Gillum, R Frank; Jarrett, Nicole; Obisesan, Thomas O

    2009-12-01

    In order to elucidate cultural correlates of utilization of primary health services by young adult men, we investigated religion in which one was raised and service utilization. Using data from a national survey we tested the hypothesis that religion raised predicts access to and utilization of a regular medical care provider, examinations, HIV and other STD testing and counseling at ages 18-44 years in men born between 1958 and 1984. We also hypothesized that religion raised would be more predictive of utilization for Hispanic Americans and non-Hispanic Black Americans than for non-Hispanic White Americans. The study included a national sample of 4276 men aged 18-44 years. Descriptive and multivariate statistics were used to assess the hypotheses using data on religion raised and responses to 14 items assessing health care access and utilization. Compared to those raised in no religion, those raised mainline Protestant were more likely (p < 0.01) to report a usual source of care (67% vs. 79%), health insurance coverage (66% vs. 80%) and physical examination (43% vs. 48%). Religion raised was not associated with testicular exams, STD counseling or HIV testing. In multivariate analyses controlling for confounders, significant associations of religion raised with insurance coverage, a physician as usual source of care and physical examination remained which varied by race/ethnicity. In conclusion, although religion is a core aspect of culture that deserves further study as a possible determinant of health care utilization, we were not able to document any consistent pattern of significant association even in a population with high rates of religious participation.

  18. Folk and Traditional Music in New York State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ray; Groce, Nancy, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This special journal issue is designed to draw attention to the varied musical traditions of cultural groups living in New York State. Recent research by folklorists and musicologists also is examined. Articles include: (1) "Introduction: Folk and Traditional Music in New York State" (Ray Allen; Nancy Groce); (2) "African-American Sacred Quartet…

  19. Religion, spirituality and cancer: current status and methodological challenges.

    PubMed

    Stefanek, Michael; McDonald, Paige Green; Hess, Stephanie A

    2005-06-01

    The role of religion and spirituality in health has received increasing attention in the scientific and lay literature. While the scientific attention to this issue has expanded, there continue to be methodological and measurement concerns that often prevent firm conclusions about health and adjustment benefits. Limited attention has been provided to the role of spirituality and religion in cancer. This is true when both disease outcome and adjustment are considered. A recent 'levels of evidence' review examining the link between physical health and religion or spirituality found little overall support for the hypotheses that religion or spirituality impact cancer progression or mortality. Studies examining their impact on quality of life and adjustment are decidedly mixed. In sum, research specifically focusing on the role of religion or spirituality on cancer outcomes has been surprisingly sparse. Such research presents a number of methodological and measurement challenges. Due to these unmet challenges in the literature to date, it is premature to determine what role religion and spirituality play in disease, adjustment, or quality of life outcomes in cancer. A number of suggestions are made for continued research in this area.

  20. Women's religious conversions on death row: theorizing religion and state.

    PubMed

    Cooey, P M

    2002-01-01

    Most scholars of religion who approach the phenomena associated with religious conversion in order to theorize religion tend to ignore the legal and political implications of the actual context in which conversion occurs for theorizing religion itself. Meanwhile, political and legal theorists who attend to the implications of executing convicted murderers who undergo religious conversion on death row err in a different direction. They virtually ignore the significance of the claims made by the converts and their associates about the conversion themselves for theorizing the state. Scholars across disciplines increasingly address issues of race, class, gender, and sexual orientation in respect to theorizing religion and theorizing the state independently of one another. At the same time, they do not seize the opportunity to incorporate their analyses into a wider study of the sociocultural production of religion and state in relation to each other. I examine the religious conversion of Karla Faye Tucker and Wanda Jean Allen on death row, as well as the scholarship that their convictions, conversions, and executions have generated across academic disciplines and fields. Close examination illustrates well the necessity for theorizing religion and the state in relation to one another in order to understand either adequately.

  1. Traditional Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollak, Susan

    From the earliest historical period up to the present, Hindus have linked education with religion. This paper examines the evolution of the Hindu educational system from the Vedic period (up to 1000 B.C.) to the present. Topics covered include the historical development of the Hindu education from the earliest period when it consisted of…

  2. West African Folktales [and] Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Steven H.

    Traditionally, an important function of folktales in West Africa has been to educate, as the older generation imparts knowledge to younger members of the family, tribe, societal unit, or ethnic group both informally in everyday life and more formally within the context of the bush schools. This anthology of West African folk literature offers more…

  3. African and Pacific Literature: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Kristine L.

    Literary writing in Africa and the Pacific addresses themes that reflect colonial experience and the struggles of newly independent nations to cope with change and conflicts between traditional and modern existence. The novels of Chinua Achebe of Nigeria and Ngugi Wa Thiong'o of Kenya illustrate many dominant themes of African literature. Achebe…

  4. Careers of African Americans in Academic Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fikes, Robert Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Though traditionally the field of academic astronomy has belonged almost exclusively to whites, today several black scholars are beginning to make their mark in this scientific discipline. Profiles a group of contemporary African American scholars who are astronomers and astrophysicists, noting that there are at least four black graduate students…

  5. Contemporary Sexism in the South African Navy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Wijk, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    The military traditionally embraces highly sexist attitudes. Over the past decade, the South African Navy (SAN) has been exposed to an increasingly progressive political environment. This study investigated contemporary expressions of sexism in the SAN. A representative sample of 476 sailors completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory, Modern Sexism…

  6. Darwin and Religion: Correcting the Caricatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooke, John Hedley

    2010-05-01

    Much has been written on the subject of Darwinism and religion, but rather less on the development of Darwin’s own thinking on religious matters and how it changed over time. What were his religious, or anti-religious, beliefs? Did he believe that his theory of evolution by natural selection was incompatible with belief in a Creator? Was it his revolutionary science that turned him into an agnostic? If not, what other considerations affected his judgment? The aim of this paper is to illuminate these questions and, in so doing, to correct some popular caricatures that frequently appear when the two words ‘science’ and ‘religion’ are juxtaposed. Darwin himself reflected deeply on the theological problem of suffering and justified his naturalism on the ground that it made the deity less directly responsible for the more repulsive features of creation. The deism that he espoused at the time of writing his Origin of Species also left its mark in his conviction that it would be demeaning to the deity to suggest that its purposes could not be achieved through natural causes. The diversity of the religious responses also corrects a common misperception that there was almost unanimous hostility from religious interests.

  7. Ayurveda: Between Religion, Spirituality, and Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, C.; Wischnewsky, M.; Michalsen, A.; Eisenmann, C.; Melzer, J.

    2013-01-01

    Ayurveda is playing a growing part in Europe. Questions regarding the role of religion and spirituality within Ayurveda are discussed widely. Yet, there is little data on the influence of religious and spiritual aspects on its European diffusion. Methods. A survey was conducted with a new questionnaire. It was analysed by calculating frequency variables and testing differences in distributions with the χ2-Test. Principal Component Analyses with Varimax Rotation were performed. Results. 140 questionnaires were analysed. Researchers found that individual religious and spiritual backgrounds influence attitudes and expectations towards Ayurveda. Statistical relationships were found between religious/spiritual backgrounds and decisions to offer/access Ayurveda. Accessing Ayurveda did not exclude the simultaneous use of modern medicine and CAM. From the majority's perspective Ayurveda is simultaneously a science, medicine, and a spiritual approach. Conclusion. Ayurveda seems to be able to satisfy the individual needs of therapists and patients, despite worldview differences. Ayurvedic concepts are based on anthropologic assumptions including different levels of existence in healing approaches. Thereby, Ayurveda can be seen in accordance with the prerequisites for a Whole Medical System. As a result of this, intimate and individual therapist-patient relationships can emerge. Larger surveys involving bigger participant numbers with fully validated questionnaires are warranted to support these results. PMID:24368928

  8. The dream as religion of the mind.

    PubMed

    Mancia, M

    1988-01-01

    Dreams are defined as a religion of the mind in the sense that they can re-ligare--i.e. unite in a complex relationship--the components involved in the construction of the mind and its representation. The paper discusses the processes of splitting and projective identification which are manifested in dreams and appear to be essential for the transformation of emotional experiences, the acquisition of knowledge and mental growth. On the basis of clinical findings, a revision of Freud's theory of dreams is proposed: the concept of an internal world dominated by good and bad parent figures suggests a theological function for dreams connected with a state of necessity. Dreams represent a real experience which, in analysis, becomes a representation of the internal organization in its immediate present. For this reason, work on dreams makes it possible to acquire knowledge of one's internal objects and of their relationship with the Self. The work on the internal world offered by dreams is made possible by the recovery of memory, the agency responsible for a fusion between current reality and that of infancy as reactivated in the transference. Finally, some aspects of the processes active in dreams are discussed, which make them similar to poetic texts.

  9. Religion Education Teaching in Zimbabwe Secondary Schools: The Search for an Authentic Values-Oriented Multi-Faith Religion Education Pedagogical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndlovu, Lovemore

    2014-01-01

    Religion Education teaching in post-independence Zimbabwe has remained bible-oriented and confessional at a time when most Religion Education stakeholders expect an "open", plural and authentic multi-faith Religion Education curriculum. Despite curriculum innovation initiatives aimed at introducing new approaches such as experiential…

  10. Fallen star legends and traditional religion of Japan: an aspect of star lore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Akira

    2015-08-01

    Japanese star lore is a complex mixture of animism, Buddhism, Shinto-ism, Confucianism and folk beliefs. Although some studies have been done on rituals concerning constellation developed in esoteric Buddhism (e.g. Journal Culture and Cosmos, Vol. 10 no 1 and 2), studies on other aspects of Japanese star lore are limited, in particular, to the English audience.In historic literatures, there often mentioned abnormal astronomical phenomena, such as, eclipse, meteors and comets. In this paper, I will discuss the possibility of reference to these astronomical phenomena in order to talk about some historical facts.In western part of Japan, there are Shinto shrines and Buddhistic temples that are said to be built as monuments of fallen stars. Usually fallen stars were divided into three, and a trio of shrines/temples are said to be the remnants of this phenomenon. Similar legends are found in Kudamatsu (that means "fallen pine=pine where stars fallen") of Yamaguchi Prefecture, Bisei-cho (that means "beautiful star") of Okayama Prefecture, Hoshida (that means "rice field or village of star") shrine of Osaka, and also Hoshida shrine of Nagoya.The purpose of this presentation is not to argue whether fallen star legend was truly astronomical phenomenon, such as, meteor or not. Instead, I will discuss why similar legends have been talked concerning the origin of particular shrines or temples. Citing Eliade who related gorge and alchemy producing spark to astronomical phenomena, I will disclose the possibility to relate these astronomical legends to the coming of the naturalized Japanese from Korean Peninsula who introducd forge to Japan abound 5 to 6 centuries.

  11. Health care practitioners’ opinions about traditional healing

    PubMed Central

    Mokgobi, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organisation (WHO) has been encouraging governments to assume an active role in recruiting traditional healers to be part of primary health care. However, studies in many parts of the world have reported mixed results regarding health care practitioners’ opinions of traditional healing. This study aimed to investigate South African-based western-trained health care practitioners’ opinions about traditional African healing. Three hundred and nineteen health care practitioners participated in this study. Participants were conveniently sampled from state hospitals and clinics in two provinces in South Africa, namely Limpopo and Gauteng. The study used the Opinions of Traditional Healing Questionnaire for data collection. Results of the Kruskal-Wallis Test revealed a significant difference in opinions of traditional healing across the four categories of health care practitioners [Psychiatrists (n = 25), Physicians (n = 37), General nurses (n = 168) and Psychiatric nurses (n = 89)], X2 (3, n = 319) = 9.45, p = 0.024. The results revealed that health care practitioners working with psychiatric conditions had more positive opinions than general physicians and general nurses. By implication, if South Africa were to investigate the integration of traditional healers into primary health care, as the WHO proposes, psychiatric services and institutions would be the first logical contact for optimal integration. PMID:26568985

  12. The African Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2012-01-01

    From student and faculty exchanges to joint research projects, U.S. universities maintain a broad spectrum of collaborative relationships with African universities. It's unclear how many U.S. colleges and universities have partnerships with African universities. The African Studies Association, an organization of scholars, doesn't keep that kind…

  13. Linguistic Imperialism: African Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Responds to an article on aspects of African language policy and discusses the following issues: multilingualism and monolingualism, proposed changes in language policy from the Organization for African Unity and South African initiatives, the language of literature, bilingual education, and whose interests English-language teaching is serving.…

  14. Addressing the Public About Science and Religion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peshkin, Murray

    2010-03-01

    Attacks on the integrity of science teaching in our public schools have recently become increasingly threatening. Geology and Darwinian evolution are the primary targets and cosmology is at risk. Up to now, the Supreme Court has excluded teachings based on religion from public schools for constitutional, not scientific, reasons. But now the incumbent Supreme Court seem less committed to strict separation of church and state than were their predecessors, and federal courts are beginning to judge the science itself. In this situation, we need to create a climate of public opinion favorable to the protection of good science by explaining the issues both to students and to others. I have been trying to do that by addressing audiences such as church groups, other community groups, and high school and college classes. I do not seek to convert committed anti-evolutionists. I am trying to inform the reasonable majority who do not really know what science is and does, or what a theory is and how we know when it's right, or why we tell them that all knowledge is provisional but still insist that we are teaching the right science. Many have been advised by their religious teachers that there is no conflict between science and their religious beliefs but do not see how that can be. I try to explain how they are disjoint discussions. I also discuss the likely consequences for our country if we degrade the teaching of science in the public schools. My audiences have generally been receptive. Here I will relate some lessons I have learned from my experience with such talks. Without doubt, the most important lesson is that most Americans have religious beliefs that are important to them and are willing to consider what I say only because they know I respect their beliefs. This work was partially supported by the U.S. Dept. of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics, under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  15. Exploring Biology Education Students' Responses to a Course in Evolution at a South African University: Implications for Their Roles as Future Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stears, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The present study was prompted by the introduction of evolution in the school curriculum and reports on student teachers' responses to a course in evolution at a South African university. The concepts framing the study are conceptual change, nature of science (NOS) and the science/religion conflict. The research may be described as a qualitative…

  16. The Unwitting Student: Listening to the Natural World through Traditional Farming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brascoupe, Clayton

    1998-01-01

    A Mohawk farmer reflects on the value of farming in relation to maintaining political sovereignty, observing and valuing nature and its cycles, developing a sense of community and family responsibility, traditional religion, sharing, and appropriate family living. Views are given on natural pest control, intercropping, use of herbs, reviving…

  17. Traditional Native American Cultures and Contemporary U.S. Society: A Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horejsi, Charles; Pablo, Joe

    1993-01-01

    Compares values and behavioral patterns common to many traditional Native American societies (particularly of the high plains) with those of the dominant American culture. Contrasts attitudes toward religion and spirituality, family, children, older persons, learning, definition of self, social interaction, competition, material possessions,…

  18. Religion as dialogical resource: a socio-cultural approach.

    PubMed

    Baucal, Aleksandar; Zittoun, Tania

    2013-06-01

    William James proposed a psychological study of religion examining people's religious experiences, and to see in what sense these were good for them. The recent developments of psychology of religion moved far from that initial proposition. In this paper, we propose a sociocultural perspective to religion that renews with that initial stance. After recalling Vygtotsky's core ideas, we suggest that religion, as cultural and symbolic system, participates to the orchestration of human activities and sense-making. Such orchestration works both from within the person, through internalized values and ideas, and from without, through the person's interactions with others, discourses, cultural objects etc. This leads us to consider religions as supporting various forms of dialogical dynamics-intra-psychological dialogues, interpersonal with present, absent or imaginary others, as well as inter-group dialogues-which we illustrate with empirical vignettes. The example of religious tensions in the Balkans in the 90's highlights how much the historical-cultural embeddedness of these dynamics can also lead to the end of dialogicality, and therefore, sense-making.

  19. [Religion and psychiatric disorders in patients admitted to a university general hospital].

    PubMed

    Soeiro, Rachel Esteves; Colombo, Elisabetta S; Ferreira, Marianne H F; Guimarães, Paula S A; Botega, Neury J; Dalgalarrondo, Paulo

    2008-04-01

    In order to evaluate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in a Brazilian general hospital and their association with religious denomination and religiosity, 253 inpatients were interviewed. A socio-demographic questionnaire and an instrument for diagnosis of mental disorders (MINI-Plus) were applied. Distribution of religious denominations was: Catholic 63.2% (n=177), Evangelical Protestant 20.4% (n=57), Spiritist 4.3% (n=12), traditional Protestant 2.3% (n=8), and "no religion" 7.5% (n=21). Degree of religiosity was: very religious 43.2% (n=116), religious 46.9% (n=129), hardly religious 9.8% (n=27), and not at all religious 1.1% (n=3). Evangelical (Pentecostal) religious affiliation and frequent attendance at worship services were associated with fewer alcohol problems. Membership in an Evangelical (Pentecostal) church may thus have an inhibitory effect on alcohol dependence or abuse. Intensity of religiosity was moderately associated with overall prevalence of disorders, especially bipolar disorder. It is reasonable to conclude that extreme situations (very intense versus very limited religious participation) are related to this finding, associating both an exacerbated pursuit of religion and alienation from it with altered mental states.

  20. Women and the social construction of gender in African development.

    PubMed

    Kalu, A C

    1996-01-01

    Because a footnote of Marxism teaches that capitalism must first destroy primitive cultures that lack a dynamic social change mechanism and then rejuvenate them as modern industrialized states, the economic and cultural bases of social relationships in developing countries have been deemed irrelevant. In a similar way, Western feminist paradigms fail to acknowledge epistemological differences from those of African women. This article explores these contradictions and analyzes social change mechanisms within the Igbo culture in Africa that were stunted by colonialism. The first topic considered is the relationship of African literature (using Toni Morrison's "Beloved" as a point of reference) with sustainable African development and African women. The remainder of the article is devoted to an examination of the role of women in light of precolonial and colonial literary traditions. It is noted that continued use of Western feudal and capitalist terms for self-identification alienates Africans from Africa's problems. Traditional African thought assigned women the power to feed the family and to serve as protectors of children and society, and ancestral wisdom directed how societies responded to threats, took charge of their world, and resolved conflict. Problems faced by contemporary African researchers are shown to center on the dilemma faced by those who wish to design a program that analyzes the content of African development and provides contemporary solutions without completely deriving the program completely from contemporary thought. It is, thus, concluded that redefinition of the African development agenda must involve recognition of the essential role of African women as a change agent and a rearticulation of the male role within traditional thought. PMID:12292424

  1. Women and the social construction of gender in African development.

    PubMed

    Kalu, A C

    1996-01-01

    Because a footnote of Marxism teaches that capitalism must first destroy primitive cultures that lack a dynamic social change mechanism and then rejuvenate them as modern industrialized states, the economic and cultural bases of social relationships in developing countries have been deemed irrelevant. In a similar way, Western feminist paradigms fail to acknowledge epistemological differences from those of African women. This article explores these contradictions and analyzes social change mechanisms within the Igbo culture in Africa that were stunted by colonialism. The first topic considered is the relationship of African literature (using Toni Morrison's "Beloved" as a point of reference) with sustainable African development and African women. The remainder of the article is devoted to an examination of the role of women in light of precolonial and colonial literary traditions. It is noted that continued use of Western feudal and capitalist terms for self-identification alienates Africans from Africa's problems. Traditional African thought assigned women the power to feed the family and to serve as protectors of children and society, and ancestral wisdom directed how societies responded to threats, took charge of their world, and resolved conflict. Problems faced by contemporary African researchers are shown to center on the dilemma faced by those who wish to design a program that analyzes the content of African development and provides contemporary solutions without completely deriving the program completely from contemporary thought. It is, thus, concluded that redefinition of the African development agenda must involve recognition of the essential role of African women as a change agent and a rearticulation of the male role within traditional thought.

  2. RE: Religions, Equality and Curriculum Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felderhof, Marius C.

    2005-01-01

    Theory can mislead by ignoring detail and the practicalities of teaching situations. Understanding others requires just this attention to detail and practicalities. These observations identify the failings in the ambitions of the National Framework for RE to teach as many "religious" traditions as possible. Part of the motivation of the authors of…

  3. Religion as a Site of Language Contact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spolsky, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    Provides an overview of early work on the translation of sacred texts into various languages. Reviews the language use patterns and practices historically characteristic of different religious traditions, including Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, and Quakerism. Describes linguistic effects of missionary activity in several…

  4. Analysing Religion and Education in Christian Academies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This paper asserts that the religious assumptions of Christian academies need to be fully examined in relation to any analysis of their cultural practices, impact or policy implications. It proposes that Bourdieu's concepts of habitus, cultural capital and symbolic power can be broadened out from their traditional use in accounting for social…

  5. "My religion picked my birth control": the influence of religion on contraceptive use.

    PubMed

    Hill, Nicholas J; Siwatu, Mxolisi; Robinson, Alexander K

    2014-06-01

    This research investigates the influence of religious preference and practice on the use of contraception. Much of earlier research examines the level of religiosity on sexual activity. This research extends this reasoning by suggesting that peer group effects create a willingness to mask the level of sexuality through the use of contraception. While it is understood that certain religions, that is, Catholicism does not condone the use of contraceptives, this research finds that Catholics are more likely to use certain methods of contraception than other religious groups. With data on contraceptive use from the Center for Disease Control's Family Growth Survey, a likelihood probability model is employed to investigate the impact religious affiliation on contraception use. Findings suggest a preference for methods that ensure non-pregnancy while preventing feelings of shame and condemnation in their religious communities.

  6. Religion as a resource for positive youth development: religion, social capital, and moral outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ebstyne King, Pamela; Furrow, James L

    2004-09-01

    Although existing literature demonstrates that developmental benefits are associated with religion for adolescents, little is understood about the dynamics of this relationship. Drawing on social capital theory, this study tested a conceptual model exploring socially embedded religious influences on moral outcomes. A three-dimensional model of social capital demonstrated how social interaction, trust, and shared vision enable social ties associated with religiousness to influence moral behavior. Structural equation modeling was used with data gathered from 735 urban youths to test a proposed model of the effects of religiousness on moral outcomes. Results suggested that religiously active youths report higher levels of social capital resources and that the influence of adolescent religiousness on moral outcomes was mediated through social capital resources. Suggestions for further research and implications for faith-based youth development organizations are considered.

  7. "Fool Me Once, Shame on You; Fool Me Twice, Shame on Me": African American Students' Reclamation of Smartness as Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twyman Hoff, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    In African American culture competing value systems shape the definition and value of smartness. This article will explore African American "sayins" as a tool to transmit the counter-hegemonic cultural value of smartness. "Sayins," a facet of the African American oral tradition, are drawn from the deep structures of African…

  8. Religion, spirituality, and genetics: mapping the terrain for research purposes.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Larry R

    2009-02-15

    Genetic diseases often raise issues of profound importance for human self-understanding, such as one's identity, the family or community to which one belongs, and one's future or destiny. These deeper questions have commonly been seen as the purview of religion and spirituality. This essay explores how religion and spirituality are understood in the current US context and defined in the scholarly literature over the past 100 years. It is argued that a pragmatic, functional approach to religion and spirituality is important to understanding how patients respond to genetic diagnoses and participate in genetic therapies. A pragmatic, functional approach requires broadening the inquiry to include anything that provides a framework of transcendent meaning for the fundamental existential questions of human life. This approach also entails suspending questions about the truth claims of any particular religious/spiritual belief or practice. Three implications of adopting this broad working definition will be presented.

  9. Operational definitions in research on religion and health.

    PubMed

    Flannelly, Kevin J; Jankowski, Katherine R B; Flannelly, Laura T

    2014-01-01

    This article summarizes the historical development of operational definitions and discusses their application to research on religion and health, and their importance for research, in general. The diversity of religious concepts that have been operationalized is described, as well as the development of multi-dimensional self-report measures of religion specifically designed for use in health research. The operational definitions of a variety of health concepts are also described, including the development of multi-dimensional self-report measures of health. Some of the most consistently observed salutary relationships between religion and health are mentioned. The rising interest in spirituality in health research is discussed, along with problems with the current operational definitions of spirituality in healthcare research. The levels of measurement used in various, operationally defined religious and healthcare concepts are highlighted.

  10. Clergy views on evolution, creationism, science, and religion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colburn, Alan; Henriques, Laura

    2006-04-01

    Spurred by students who felt conflicted accepting evolution and the tenets of their faiths, yet knowing their faiths supported science and evolution, we began a study to determine the views clergy espouse on issues related to evolution, creationism, science, and religion. The resulting study included structured interviews with eight clergy and a religion professor, and a survey and questionnaire sent to each member of an organization made up of clergy. The data revealed a group who believed evolution and their religion to be compatible, that scripture was not meant to be understood literally, and who felt strongly that creationism did not belong in public school classrooms. The science education community may find in clergy an articulate ally in helping citizens to understand the contentious issues surrounding evolution and creationism. We share the insights that respondents provided on these issues and compared their views to those of teachers.

  11. [The relationship of religions with the hieratic and tradicional medicine].

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Sala Moris, José Luis

    2002-01-01

    A long the years I have visited many foreign countries. So, I had the opportunity to know different believes and religions. However not always could I feel that strong bond, that intrinsecal, inalienable, innermost union that should exist between man and God. Because "God sends and always will send this two messages of eternal and supreme foriititude: Peace and love". So, the way to follow for men should be supported on the these two points. From then, for sure, should flow the right coexistence and happiness of the men. But, it's no so. Many religions rules of different epochs, and no seldom, have been favoring untrue teachings about wars and the hatred to the enemy. Here is a short reference about some of these big mistakes in religions sermons in the present or in the past time. PMID:16773808

  12. The rules of implicit evaluation by race, religion, and age.

    PubMed

    Axt, Jordan R; Ebersole, Charles R; Nosek, Brian A

    2014-09-01

    The social world is stratified. Social hierarchies are known but often disavowed as anachronisms or unjust. Nonetheless, hierarchies may persist in social memory. In three studies (total N > 200,000), we found evidence of social hierarchies in implicit evaluation by race, religion, and age. Participants implicitly evaluated their own racial group most positively and the remaining racial groups in accordance with the following hierarchy: Whites > Asians > Blacks > Hispanics. Similarly, participants implicitly evaluated their own religion most positively and the remaining religions in accordance with the following hierarchy: Christianity > Judaism > Hinduism or Buddhism > Islam. In a final study, participants of all ages implicitly evaluated age groups following this rule: children > young adults > middle-age adults > older adults. These results suggest that the rules of social evaluation are pervasively embedded in culture and mind. PMID:25079218

  13. [The relationship of religions with the hieratic and tradicional medicine].

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Sala Moris, José Luis

    2002-01-01

    A long the years I have visited many foreign countries. So, I had the opportunity to know different believes and religions. However not always could I feel that strong bond, that intrinsecal, inalienable, innermost union that should exist between man and God. Because "God sends and always will send this two messages of eternal and supreme foriititude: Peace and love". So, the way to follow for men should be supported on the these two points. From then, for sure, should flow the right coexistence and happiness of the men. But, it's no so. Many religions rules of different epochs, and no seldom, have been favoring untrue teachings about wars and the hatred to the enemy. Here is a short reference about some of these big mistakes in religions sermons in the present or in the past time.

  14. The rules of implicit evaluation by race, religion, and age.

    PubMed

    Axt, Jordan R; Ebersole, Charles R; Nosek, Brian A

    2014-09-01

    The social world is stratified. Social hierarchies are known but often disavowed as anachronisms or unjust. Nonetheless, hierarchies may persist in social memory. In three studies (total N > 200,000), we found evidence of social hierarchies in implicit evaluation by race, religion, and age. Participants implicitly evaluated their own racial group most positively and the remaining racial groups in accordance with the following hierarchy: Whites > Asians > Blacks > Hispanics. Similarly, participants implicitly evaluated their own religion most positively and the remaining religions in accordance with the following hierarchy: Christianity > Judaism > Hinduism or Buddhism > Islam. In a final study, participants of all ages implicitly evaluated age groups following this rule: children > young adults > middle-age adults > older adults. These results suggest that the rules of social evaluation are pervasively embedded in culture and mind.

  15. Why religion is nothing special but is central.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Maurice

    2008-06-12

    It is proposed that explaining religion in evolutionary terms is a misleading enterprise because religion is an indissoluble part of a unique aspect of human social organization. Theoretical and empirical research should focus on what differentiates human sociality from that of other primates, i.e. the fact that members of society often act towards each other in terms of essentialized roles and groups. These have a phenomenological existence that is not based on everyday empirical monitoring but on imagined statuses and communities, such as clans or nations. The neurological basis for this type of social, which includes religion, will therefore depend on the development of imagination. It is suggested that such a development of imagination occurred at about the time of the Upper Palaeolithic 'revolution'. PMID:18292062

  16. [An essay on science, cosmogenesis and religion].

    PubMed

    Cugini, P

    2012-11-01

    The relationships between science and religion are not easy from both the parts. But, the major controversy deals with the cosmogenesis and, thus, the existence of God. Science excludes the hypothesis of a divine creation, while theology assumes the origin of universe as a mere supernatural act. In my opinion, the scientific negation of the existence of God is a merely fideistic position, being founded on the hypothesis that the Bing Bang was an episode governed by casuality. An hypothesis that is more dogmatic that the Plato's idea of a demiurge as the creator of universe. As a matter of fact, nobody, among the scientists, has never explained how something of concrete can be created from Nothingness, i.e., 1. how the primitive Black Hole could have had its origin; 2. how the primordial Black Hole was physically filled up by raw matter, energy, space and time; 3. in which space and time the black hole was located assuming that the both the physical space and time were resident inside its context; 4. why the physical time is immaterial in its essence. All these interrogatives can be better explained by assuming the existence of a divine Creator, existing in a metaphysical spatial and temporal setting, whose omnipotence only can be effective in giving origin to a novel physical matter, energy, space and time. Additionally, the epistemology of science pretends that the scientific negation of something has to be derived by undisputable observational or experimental or theoretic evidences. Finally, it is important to stress that the modern science has its base of knowledge in the statistical probabilistic certainty. With respect to this the fideistic probability that God really exists, is only apparently equivalent to the fideistic probability that God does not exist. Blaise Pascal has clearly demonstrated that is more logical to believe in God than the opposite, because it is important to remember that in the presence of equivalent probabilities, the choice has to be

  17. [An essay on science, cosmogenesis and religion].

    PubMed

    Cugini, P

    2012-11-01

    The relationships between science and religion are not easy from both the parts. But, the major controversy deals with the cosmogenesis and, thus, the existence of God. Science excludes the hypothesis of a divine creation, while theology assumes the origin of universe as a mere supernatural act. In my opinion, the scientific negation of the existence of God is a merely fideistic position, being founded on the hypothesis that the Bing Bang was an episode governed by casuality. An hypothesis that is more dogmatic that the Plato's idea of a demiurge as the creator of universe. As a matter of fact, nobody, among the scientists, has never explained how something of concrete can be created from Nothingness, i.e., 1. how the primitive Black Hole could have had its origin; 2. how the primordial Black Hole was physically filled up by raw matter, energy, space and time; 3. in which space and time the black hole was located assuming that the both the physical space and time were resident inside its context; 4. why the physical time is immaterial in its essence. All these interrogatives can be better explained by assuming the existence of a divine Creator, existing in a metaphysical spatial and temporal setting, whose omnipotence only can be effective in giving origin to a novel physical matter, energy, space and time. Additionally, the epistemology of science pretends that the scientific negation of something has to be derived by undisputable observational or experimental or theoretic evidences. Finally, it is important to stress that the modern science has its base of knowledge in the statistical probabilistic certainty. With respect to this the fideistic probability that God really exists, is only apparently equivalent to the fideistic probability that God does not exist. Blaise Pascal has clearly demonstrated that is more logical to believe in God than the opposite, because it is important to remember that in the presence of equivalent probabilities, the choice has to be

  18. Epilepsy's role in the historical differentiation of religion, magic, and science.

    PubMed

    Riggs, Allison J; Riggs, Jack E

    2005-03-01

    A distinction between religion, magic, and science has not always been recognized. Ancient Greek physicians, in their writings about epilepsy, were likely among the first to record the historically important differentiation between religion, magic, and science.

  19. Religion, self-regulation, and self-control: Associations, explanations, and implications.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Michael E; Willoughby, Brian L B

    2009-01-01

    Many of the links of religiousness with health, well-being, and social behavior may be due to religion's influences on self-control or self-regulation. Using Carver and Scheier's (1998) theory of self-regulation as a framework for organizing the empirical research, the authors review evidence relevant to 6 propositions: (a) that religion can promote self-control; (b) that religion influences how goals are selected, pursued, and organized; (c) that religion facilitates self-monitoring; (d) that religion fosters the development of self-regulatory strength; (e) that religion prescribes and fosters proficiency in a suite of self-regulatory behaviors; and (f) that some of religion's influences on health, well-being, and social behavior may result from religion's influences on self-control and self-regulation. The authors conclude with suggestions for future research.

  20. Flexibility and pragmatism in promoting health: an experience of synergy between health and religion in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed

    Adams, C; Manenti, A

    2012-08-01

    In the Islamic Republic of Iran, religion has traditionally played a central role in the lives of the people. Following the Islamic Revolution in 1979, it has also become integral to the country's governance. Since the Revolution, an exceptional synergy has arisen between the domain of religion and the health sector in the development of family planning policies, which have resulted in dramatic changes in population growth and fertility: the population growth rate decreased from 3.9% (1986) to 1.2% (2000) and total fertility from 6.8 (1984) to 2.1 (2000). The extraordinary aspect of this experience is that the position of religious authorities changed from one of opposition to one of active promotion of family planning. This paper describes the establishment and course of family planning programmes in Iran and makes use of interviews with two main protagonists of this experience (Dr Alireza Marandi--Minister of Health 1984-1989, 1993-1997; Dr Hossein Malekafzali--former Deputy Minister of Health). It is hoped that dissemination of this experience outside of the Islamic Republic of Iran will encourage the development of similar dialogue and synergy between religion and health in other countries.