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Sample records for african union au

  1. Positioning women's and children's health in African union policy-making: a policy analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background With limited time to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, progress towards improving women's and children's health needs to be accelerated. With Africa accounting for over half of the world's maternal and child deaths, the African Union (AU) has a critical role in prioritizing related policies and catalysing required investments and action. In this paper, the authors assess the evolution of African Union policies related to women's and children's health, and analyze how these policies are prioritized and framed. Methods The main method used in this policy analysis was a document review of all African Union policies developed from 1963 to 2010, focusing specifically on policies that explicitly mention health. The findings from this document review were discussed with key actors to identify policy implications. Results With over 220 policies in total, peace and security is the most common AU policy topic. Social affairs and other development issues became more prominent in the 1990s. The number of policies that mentioned health rose steadily over the years (with 1 policy mentioning health in 1963 to 7 in 2010). This change was catalysed by factors such as: a favourable shift in AU priorities and systems towards development issues, spurred by the transition from the Organization of African Unity to the African Union; the mandate of the African Commission on Human and People's Rights; health-related advocacy initiatives, such as the Campaign for the Accelerated Reduction of Maternal Mortality in Africa (CARMMA); action and accountability requirements arising from international human rights treaties, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and new health-funding mechanisms, such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Prioritization of women's and children's health issues in AU policies has been framed primarily by human rights, advocacy and accountability considerations, more by economic and health frames looking at investments and

  2. Science and Technology in Africa: The African Union New Initiative and Financial Support Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezin, Jean-Pierre

    2010-02-01

    Physics, which is widely touted as the most fundamental of the sciences, underpins the progress in all other branches of science and has a wide range of applications in economic development, including in health, energy research, food security, communication technology and climate change. The African Union (AU) Commission articulates the continental vision of its Member States and its programs are designed to directly contribute to its social and economic development and integration efforts. In the area of science and technology the Department has developed Africa's Science and Technology Consolidated Plan of Action as a strategic policy document through the AU system of conference of ministers responsible for science to guide the continent on common priority programs. The programs in this plan of action that have been transformed into bankable projects under the Book of ``lighthouse projects Phase 1'', adequately respond to Africa's challenges and development needs using science. They can be summarized into three main themes: a pan-African university (PAU) initiative (to combine higher education and scientific research as a network of differentiated PAU in each of the five African regions), African research grants (to strengthen the research capacity of the African institutions and upgrading infrastructures, consolidating their accumulated asset of scientific knowledge), popularization of science and technology and promotion of public participation (to build public understanding and raising awareness on science and technology as a driving agent for social and economic progress for Africa and its integration process) and a science and technology institutional capacity building program). This talk will review these programs as well as the vision of the African Development Bank role in it. )

  3. Introduction of African Swine Fever into the European Union through Illegal Importation of Pork and Pork Products

    PubMed Central

    Costard, Solenne; Jones, Bryony Anne; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Mur, Lina; de la Torre, Ana; Martínez, Marta; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Jose-Manuel; Pfeiffer, Dirk Udo; Wieland, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Transboundary animal diseases can have very severe socio-economic impacts when introduced into new regions. The history of disease incursions into the European Union suggests that initial outbreaks were often initiated by illegal importation of meat and derived products. The European Union would benefit from decision-support tools to evaluate the risk of disease introduction caused by illegal imports in order to inform its surveillance strategy. However, due to the difficulty in quantifying illegal movements of animal products, very few studies of this type have been conducted. Using African swine fever as an example, this work presents a novel risk assessment framework for disease introduction into the European Union through illegal importation of meat and products. It uses a semi-quantitative approach based on factors that likely influence the likelihood of release of contaminated smuggled meat and products, and subsequent exposure of the susceptible population. The results suggest that the European Union is at non-negligible risk of African swine fever introduction through illegal importation of pork and products. On a relative risk scale with six categories from negligible to very high, five European Union countries were estimated at high (France, Germany, Italy and United Kingdom) or moderate (Spain) risk of African swine fever release, five countries were at high risk of exposure if African swine fever were released (France, Italy, Poland, Romania and Spain) and ten countries had a moderate exposure risk (Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Portugal, Sweden and United Kingdom). The approach presented here and results obtained for African swine fever provide a basis for the enhancement of risk-based surveillance systems and disease prevention programmes in the European Union. PMID:23613795

  4. Teacher Unions' Participation in Policy Making: A South African Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Govender, Logan

    2015-01-01

    This article contends that teacher unions' participation in policy making during South Africa's political transition was characterised by assertion of ideological identity (unionism and professionalism) and the cultivation of policy networks and alliances. It is argued that, historically, while teacher unions were divided along political…

  5. Modular framework to assess the risk of African swine fever virus entry into the European Union

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The recent occurrence and spread of African swine fever (ASF) in Eastern Europe is perceived as a serious risk for the pig industry in the European Union (EU). In order to estimate the potential risk of ASF virus (ASFV) entering the EU, several pathways of introduction were previously assessed separately. The present work aimed to integrate five of these assessments (legal imports of pigs, legal imports of products, illegal imports of products, fomites associated with transport and wild boar movements) into a modular tool that facilitates the visualization and comprehension of the relative risk of ASFV introduction into the EU by each analyzed pathway. Results The framework’s results indicate that 48% of EU countries are at relatively high risk (risk score 4 or 5 out of 5) for ASFV entry for at least one analyzed pathway. Four of these countries obtained the maximum risk score for one pathway: Bulgaria for legally imported products during the high risk period (HRP); Finland for wild boar; Slovenia and Sweden for legally imported pigs during the HRP. Distribution of risk considerably differed from one pathway to another; for some pathways, the risk was concentrated in a few countries (e.g., transport fomites), whereas other pathways incurred a high risk for 4 or 5 countries (legal pigs, illegal imports and wild boar). Conclusions The modular framework, developed to estimate the risk of ASFV entry into the EU, is available in a public domain, and is a transparent, easy-to-interpret tool that can be updated and adapted if required. The model’s results determine the EU countries at higher risk for each ASFV introduction route, and provide a useful basis to develop a global coordinated program to improve ASFV prevention in the EU. PMID:24992824

  6. Gender Distrust and Intimate Unions among Low-Income Hispanic and African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estacion, Angela; Cherlin, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates levels of generalized distrust of men among low-income non-Hispanic African American, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Dominican and non-Hispanic White women in a three-city survey. The results reveal substantial variation. Hispanics' overall levels of distrust are found to be higher than levels for either African Americans or…

  7. Indian and African plate motions driven by the push force of the Réunion plume head.

    PubMed

    Cande, Steven C; Stegman, Dave R

    2011-07-01

    Mantle plumes are thought to play an important part in the Earth's tectonics, yet it has been difficult to isolate the effect that plumes have on plate motions. Here we analyse the plate motions involved in two apparently disparate events--the unusually rapid motion of India between 67 and 52 million years ago and a contemporaneous, transitory slowing of Africa's motion--and show that the events are coupled, with the common element being the position of the Indian and African plates relative to the location of the Réunion plume head. The synchroneity of these events suggests that they were both driven by the force of the Réunion plume head. The recognition of this plume force has substantial tectonic implications: the speed-up and slowdown of India, the possible cessation of convergence between Africa and Eurasia in the Palaeocene epoch and the enigmatic bends of the fracture zones on the Southwest Indian Ridge can all be attributed to the Réunion plume. PMID:21734702

  8. Indian and African plate motions driven by the push force of the Réunion plume head.

    PubMed

    Cande, Steven C; Stegman, Dave R

    2011-07-06

    Mantle plumes are thought to play an important part in the Earth's tectonics, yet it has been difficult to isolate the effect that plumes have on plate motions. Here we analyse the plate motions involved in two apparently disparate events--the unusually rapid motion of India between 67 and 52 million years ago and a contemporaneous, transitory slowing of Africa's motion--and show that the events are coupled, with the common element being the position of the Indian and African plates relative to the location of the Réunion plume head. The synchroneity of these events suggests that they were both driven by the force of the Réunion plume head. The recognition of this plume force has substantial tectonic implications: the speed-up and slowdown of India, the possible cessation of convergence between Africa and Eurasia in the Palaeocene epoch and the enigmatic bends of the fracture zones on the Southwest Indian Ridge can all be attributed to the Réunion plume.

  9. Tackle-related injury rates and nature of injuries in South African Youth Week tournament rugby union players (under-13 to under-18): an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Nicholas; Lambert, Mike I; Viljoen, Wayne; Brown, James C; Readhead, Clint; Hendricks, Sharief

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The tackle situation is most often associated with the high injury rates in rugby union. Tackle injury epidemiology in rugby union has previously been focused on senior cohorts but less is known about younger cohorts. The aim of this study was to report on the nature and rates of tackle-related injuries in South African youth rugby union players representing their provinces at national tournaments. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Four South African Youth Week tournaments (under-13 Craven Week, under-16 Grant Khomo Week, under-18 Academy Week, under-18 Craven Week). Participants Injury data were collected from 3652 youth rugby union players (population at risk) in 2011 and 2012. Outcome measures Tackle-related injury severity (‘time-loss’ and ‘medical attention’), type and location, injury rate per 1000 h (including 95% CIs). Injury rate ratios (IRR) were calculated and modelled using a Poisson regression. A χ2 analysis was used to detect linear trends between injuries and increasing match quarters. Results The 2012 under-13 Craven Week had a significantly greater ‘time-loss’ injury rate when compared with the 2012 under-18 Academy Week (IRR=4.43; 95% CI 2.13 to 9.21, p<0.05) and under-18 Craven Week (IRR=3.52; 95% CI 1.54 to 8.00, p<0.05). The Poisson regression also revealed a higher probability of ‘overall’ (‘time-loss’ and ‘medical attention’ combined) and ‘time-loss’ tackle-related injuries occurring at the under-13 Craven Week. The proportion of ‘overall’ and ‘time-loss’ injuries increased significantly with each quarter of the match when all four tournaments were combined (p<0.05). Conclusions There was a difference in the tackle-related injury rate between the under-13 tournament and the two under-18 tournaments, and the tackle-related injury rate was higher in the final quarter of matches. Ongoing injury surveillance is required to better interpret these findings. Injury prevention strategies

  10. Assessment of African Swine Fever Diagnostic Techniques as a Response to the Epidemic Outbreaks in Eastern European Union Countries: How To Improve Surveillance and Control Programs

    PubMed Central

    Nieto, R.; Soler, A.; Pelayo, V.; Fernández-Pinero, J.; Markowska-Daniel, I.; Pridotkas, G.; Nurmoja, I.; Granta, R.; Simón, A.; Pérez, C.; Martín, E.; Fernández-Pacheco, P.; Arias, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study represents a complete comparative analysis of the most widely used African swine fever (ASF) diagnostic techniques in the European Union (EU) using field and experimental samples from animals infected with genotype II ASF virus (ASFV) isolates circulating in Europe. To detect ASFV, three different PCRs were evaluated in parallel using 785 field and experimental samples. The results showed almost perfect agreement between the Universal ProbeLibrary (UPL-PCR) and the real-time (κ = 0.94 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.91 to 0.97]) and conventional (κ = 0.88 [95% CI, 0.83 to 0.92]) World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)-prescribed PCRs. The UPL-PCR had greater diagnostic sensitivity for detecting survivors and allows earlier detection of the disease. Compared to the commercial antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), good-to-moderate agreement (κ = 0.67 [95% CI, 0.58 to 0.76]) was obtained, with a sensitivity of 77.2% in the commercial test. For ASF antibody detection, five serological methods were tested, including three commercial ELISAs, the OIE-ELISA, and the confirmatory immunoperoxidase test (IPT). Greater sensitivity was obtained with the IPT than with the ELISAs, since the IPT was able to detect ASF antibodies at an earlier point in the serological response, when few antibodies are present. The analysis of the exudate tissues from dead wild boars showed that IPT might be a useful serological tool for determining whether or not animals had been exposed to virus infection, regardless of whether antibodies were present. In conclusion, the UPL-PCR in combination with the IPT was the most trustworthy method for detecting ASF during the epidemic outbreaks affecting EU countries in 2014. The use of the most appropriate diagnostic tools is critical when implementing effective control programs. PMID:26041901

  11. Assessment of African Swine Fever Diagnostic Techniques as a Response to the Epidemic Outbreaks in Eastern European Union Countries: How To Improve Surveillance and Control Programs.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, C; Nieto, R; Soler, A; Pelayo, V; Fernández-Pinero, J; Markowska-Daniel, I; Pridotkas, G; Nurmoja, I; Granta, R; Simón, A; Pérez, C; Martín, E; Fernández-Pacheco, P; Arias, M

    2015-08-01

    This study represents a complete comparative analysis of the most widely used African swine fever (ASF) diagnostic techniques in the European Union (EU) using field and experimental samples from animals infected with genotype II ASF virus (ASFV) isolates circulating in Europe. To detect ASFV, three different PCRs were evaluated in parallel using 785 field and experimental samples. The results showed almost perfect agreement between the Universal ProbeLibrary (UPL-PCR) and the real-time (κ = 0.94 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.91 to 0.97]) and conventional (κ = 0.88 [95% CI, 0.83 to 0.92]) World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)-prescribed PCRs. The UPL-PCR had greater diagnostic sensitivity for detecting survivors and allows earlier detection of the disease. Compared to the commercial antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), good-to-moderate agreement (κ = 0.67 [95% CI, 0.58 to 0.76]) was obtained, with a sensitivity of 77.2% in the commercial test. For ASF antibody detection, five serological methods were tested, including three commercial ELISAs, the OIE-ELISA, and the confirmatory immunoperoxidase test (IPT). Greater sensitivity was obtained with the IPT than with the ELISAs, since the IPT was able to detect ASF antibodies at an earlier point in the serological response, when few antibodies are present. The analysis of the exudate tissues from dead wild boars showed that IPT might be a useful serological tool for determining whether or not animals had been exposed to virus infection, regardless of whether antibodies were present. In conclusion, the UPL-PCR in combination with the IPT was the most trustworthy method for detecting ASF during the epidemic outbreaks affecting EU countries in 2014. The use of the most appropriate diagnostic tools is critical when implementing effective control programs.

  12. Union Agitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honawar, Vaishali

    2006-01-01

    A decade has passed since a few union leaders formed the network known as Teacher Union Reform Network (TURN) to search for innovative ways to enhance education. Selling their message has not always been easy. Created in 1995, TURN was the brain child of Adam Urbanski, the president of the Rochester (N.Y.) Teachers Association for the past 25…

  13. Appropriateness of no-fault compensation for research-related injuries from an African perspective: an appeal for action by African countries.

    PubMed

    Kamalo, Patrick Dongosolo; Manda-Taylor, Lucinda; Rennie, Stuart

    2016-08-01

    Compensation for research-related injuries (RRIs) remains a challenge in the current environment of global collaborative biomedical research as exemplified by the continued reluctance of the US government, a major player in international biomedical research, to enact regulation for mandatory compensation for RRIs. This stance is in stark contrast to the mandatory compensation policies adopted by other democracies like the European Union (EU) countries. These positions taken by the USA and the EU create a nexus of confusion when research is exported to low-income and middle-income countries which have no laws guiding compensation for RRIs. In this paper, we begin by exploring the background to policies concerning RRIs, how they reflect on the traditional dispute resolution mechanisms in African societies, and how this compares with the no-fault compensation model. We then explore the underlying African ethical framework of Ubuntu in the sub-Saharan region, guiding traditional practices of dispute resolution and compensation, and how this framework can help to form the moral justification for no-fault compensation as the preferred compensation model for RRIs for African countries. Finally, we call upon countries in the African Union (AU), to adopt a no-fault policy for compensation of RRIs, and enact it into a regulatory requirement for insurance-based no-fault compensation for biomedical research, which will then be enforced by member states of the AU. PMID:27259545

  14. Appropriateness of no-fault compensation for research-related injuries from an African perspective: an appeal for action by African countries.

    PubMed

    Kamalo, Patrick Dongosolo; Manda-Taylor, Lucinda; Rennie, Stuart

    2016-08-01

    Compensation for research-related injuries (RRIs) remains a challenge in the current environment of global collaborative biomedical research as exemplified by the continued reluctance of the US government, a major player in international biomedical research, to enact regulation for mandatory compensation for RRIs. This stance is in stark contrast to the mandatory compensation policies adopted by other democracies like the European Union (EU) countries. These positions taken by the USA and the EU create a nexus of confusion when research is exported to low-income and middle-income countries which have no laws guiding compensation for RRIs. In this paper, we begin by exploring the background to policies concerning RRIs, how they reflect on the traditional dispute resolution mechanisms in African societies, and how this compares with the no-fault compensation model. We then explore the underlying African ethical framework of Ubuntu in the sub-Saharan region, guiding traditional practices of dispute resolution and compensation, and how this framework can help to form the moral justification for no-fault compensation as the preferred compensation model for RRIs for African countries. Finally, we call upon countries in the African Union (AU), to adopt a no-fault policy for compensation of RRIs, and enact it into a regulatory requirement for insurance-based no-fault compensation for biomedical research, which will then be enforced by member states of the AU.

  15. Physician unionization.

    PubMed

    Lebowitz, P H

    1997-01-01

    Typically, doctors have seemed unsuited for and uncomfortable with the idea of unions but with the current changes in practices and referral patterns, doctors are looking--at least warily--at unions. Two sets of laws apply to possible unionization of physicians; one, federal antitrust laws, the other, both federal and state labor laws as they apply to changes in the medical profession. Antitrust laws are designed to protect competition by prohibiting price fixing. Another typical antitrust issue that applies to healthcare is that of a group boycott or refusal to deal, where competitors try to coerce a third party to set prices where competitors want them set. Congress' earliest legislation to aide the labor movement involved exceptions to the antitrust laws. Some provisions of the laws are limited to workers who are employees, defined as someone who is employed by any person. Doctors are searching for solutions that provide the collective power of the labor laws without offending the antitrust laws. The question is whether doctors can form unions under these two conflicting forces. The first main issue is whether the doctor is or is not an employee. Although radiologic technologists, typically employees of hospitals or provider groups, have been unionized for years, doctors are usually not employees, at least not if they have their own practices. Although not employees, physicians may affiliate with a larger union to use that broader bargaining power, a purpose that is permissible under current law. Membership in a union does have its responsibilities and disadvantages. Some have suggested that the definition of employee be broadened to cover physician duties under managed care payer agreements, for example. Meanwhile, the Federal Trade Commission and the Justice Department are watching that non-employee physicians not use the union label to mask price fixing, boycotts or refusals to deal.

  16. Unions, Vitamins, Exercise: Unionized Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewberry, David R.

    2005-01-01

    After the turbulent labor history of America in the early to mid twentieth century, there has been a general decline of unions. Nevertheless, many graduate school teaching assistants are unionizing in attempts to gain better pay and benefits and remove themselves from an "Ivory Sweatshop." This article discusses a history of unions within graduate…

  17. State of the Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Julie

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the corrupt leadership of two big-city teachers' unions, the Washington Teachers Union (WTU) and its Miami cousin, United Teachers of Dade (UTD), that took both unions to the brink of despair and financial ruin. While the feds were rifling through union files to build extensive criminal investigations, congress called Sandra…

  18. Physicians, unions, and antitrust.

    PubMed

    Hirshfeld, E B

    1999-01-01

    The increasing consolidation of our healthcare delivery systems and the concomitant push for perceived efficiencies, speed, and profits has laid the foundation for a renewed interest in unionization by many physicians. This Article analyzes the barriers to such unionization that are posed by the antitrust laws, and provides an analysis of how to proceed with unionization without violating those laws. The Article also analyzes the current status of physician ability to unionize, and surveys the present status of physician unions.

  19. Users and Union Catalogues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, R. J.; Booth, Helen

    2006-01-01

    Union catalogues have had an important place in libraries for many years. Their use has been little investigated. Recent interest in the relative merits of physical and virtual union catalogues and a recent collaborative project between a physical and several virtual union catalogues in the United Kingdom led to the opportunity to study how users…

  20. Food Service and the College Union. College Unions at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterheld, Douglas C.

    This publication, one in a series of monographs on college unions, explores the importance, role, and function of food services in the college union. Major topics discussed include: (1) food service and the college union, (2) union food service and the campus, (3) union food service and the community, (4) organization of union food services, (5)…

  1. The Efficacy of "Catch-Up Programmes" in South African High Schools: A Legal Jinx

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyoni, Jabulani

    2013-01-01

    The South African State is mandated by Sections 28(2) and 29(1) of the South African Constitution to make provision for the education of a South African child in fulfilment of the child's constitutional rights. Teacher Unions (TUs) and provincial Departments of Basic Education (DBEs) have often promised South African high school student body,…

  2. Power in a Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Pam

    2009-01-01

    The work unions do in providing and supporting learning for their members rarely makes the news headlines, but it will be essential if people are to engage those workers who most need to acquire new and better skills to cope in the economic downturn. In this article, the author talks about the power in a union and describes UNISON, a comparatively…

  3. Teacher Unions 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppich, Julia E.

    2012-01-01

    Teacher unions are hard to miss in the news lately. Newspapers, blogs, social media posts, magazine articles, and political speeches abound with talk of them. Teacher unions are a hot topic and one that probably was not covered in college classes. The noisy back-and-forth among partisans can be both mind-numbing and confusing, often creating a…

  4. Sustainability in the Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Patrick; Taylor, John

    2012-01-01

    Operating as the center of student life, college unions have a central role to teach citizenship, social responsibility, and leadership. Unions can serve as locations for education and conversations about sustainability, as well as for organizations operationally and programmatically engaged in sustainable practices. In this chapter, the authors…

  5. Unity and Duality in Barack Obama's "A More Perfect Union"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrill, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    Faced with a racialized political crisis that threatened to derail his campaign to become the first African American president of the United States, Barack Obama delivered a speech on race titled "A More Perfect Union." He begins by portraying himself as an embodiment of double consciousness, but then invites his audience to share his doubled…

  6. Unionization and Shared Governance at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Given their history of socio-economic peripheralization and continued struggles for success, one would expect African Americans--especially highly educated ones--to be adept at the various forms of mobilization and advocacy, especially that of labor unions, which have not only provided them access to opportunities but also given them a voice in…

  7. African Regional Symposium on Telematics for Development. Report and Recommendations = Colloque regional africain la telematique au service du developpement. Rapport et recommandations (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, April 3-7, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Telecommunication Union, Geneva (Switzerland).

    The African Regional Symposium on Telematics for Development was organized in view of the special educational and communication needs of Africa in a time of accelerating change and development of information technologies. The symposium brought together more than 150 African specialists, and over 40 participants from other regions and development…

  8. Unions and Workplace Reorganization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nissen, Bruce, Ed.

    The 11 chapters in this book focus on "The New American Workplace" and assess its adequacy or inadequacy as a guide for the U.S. labor movement in relation to new work systems. "Unions and Workplace Reorganization" (Bruce Nissen) introduces the subject. "The New American Workplace: A Labor Perspective" (AFL-CIO Committee on the Evolution of Work,…

  9. Marketing the College Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoef, Ted; Howe, Nanci

    Theory underlying marketing in the public sector is presented in combination with specific examples of marketing strategies and techniques used in college unions and student activities programs across the country. The subject of marketing is discussed under six major subject headings: (1) why marketing? (2) analyzing marketing opportunities; (3)…

  10. Teacher's Unions on Mainstreaming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosnowsky, William P.; And Others

    Examined are three distinct forces--teacher unions, civil rights under law, and educational strategy--which have converged on the issue of educating those handicapped learners who, with proper support resources, can be maintained in regular graded classrooms. Briefly discussed are the American Federation of Teachers (AFT), the National Education…

  11. New Roles for Teachers Unions? Reform Unionism in School Decentralization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Morgaen L.; Mayer, Anysia P.; Cobb, Casey D.; LeChasseur, Kimberly; Welton, Anjale

    2013-01-01

    Of late, teachers unions have worked together with district management in new and notable ways. This paper examines the role of teachers unions in shaping the Together Initiative (TI), which seeks to increase autonomy and broaden decision making in urban schools in one northeastern state. In general, state-level union leaders have taken more…

  12. Union Members Are Community Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David

    2013-01-01

    Unions serve their members' interests. But union members are also community members, and their interests go well beyond increasing pay and benefits. A local union president has found that his members are best served by participating in a community-wide coalition. Providing eyeglasses to needy students, promoting healthy eating, and increasing…

  13. Racial Discrimination and Trade Unionism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashenfelter, Orley

    1972-01-01

    Analyzes the likely determinants of a trade union's policy regarding race and estimates the effect of the presence of unionism on the average wage of black workers relative to that of white workers under various types of union organizational structure. (RJ)

  14. European Union Regulations.

    PubMed

    Fürst, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The European Union (EU) has been a leader in the development of both guidance and regulations to ensure food safety throughout the member states. Because of the free movement of food commodities among the countries that belong to the European Union, there is a great need to assure high quality monitoring of both imported food and member state products. The procedures and methods required need to be practical, state-of-the art, and harmonised. The European Commission has developed a network of laboratories and scientific studies to meet this goal. This chapter describes the current Regulations, Directives and Decisions of the European Commission that protect the food supply throughout Europe. Because imported food needs to comply with the EU requirements, and the need to have common compliance throughout the member states, the developed system could be a worldwide template for monitoring the food supply. In addition, the integral role of chromatography hyphenated to mass spectrometry is described.

  15. Tenancy and African American Marriage in the Postbellum South.

    PubMed

    Bloome, Deirdre; Muller, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    The pervasiveness of tenancy in the postbellum South had countervailing effects on marriage between African Americans. Tenancy placed severe constraints on African American women's ability to find independent agricultural work. Freedwomen confronted not only planters' reluctance to contract directly with women but also whites' refusal to sell land to African Americans. Marriage consequently became one of African American women's few viable routes into the agricultural labor market. We find that the more counties relied on tenant farming, the more common was marriage among their youngest and oldest African American residents. However, many freedwomen resented their subordinate status within tenant marriages. Thus, we find that tenancy contributed to union dissolution as well as union formation among freedpeople. Microdata tracing individuals' marital transitions are consistent with these county-level results.

  16. Tenancy and African American Marriage in the Postbellum South

    PubMed Central

    Bloome, Deirdre; Muller, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The pervasiveness of tenancy in the postbellum South had countervailing effects on marriage between African Americans. Tenancy placed severe constraints on African American women’s ability to find independent agricultural work. Freedwomen confronted not only planters’ reluctance to contract directly with women but also whites’ refusal to sell land to African Americans. Marriage consequently became one of African American women’s few viable routes into the agricultural labor market. We find that the more counties relied on tenant farming, the more common was marriage among their youngest and oldest African American residents. However, many freedwomen resented their subordinate status within tenant marriages. Thus, we find that tenancy contributed to union dissolution as well as union formation among freedpeople. Microdata tracing individuals’ marital transitions are consistent with these county-level results. PMID:26223562

  17. Tenancy and African American Marriage in the Postbellum South.

    PubMed

    Bloome, Deirdre; Muller, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    The pervasiveness of tenancy in the postbellum South had countervailing effects on marriage between African Americans. Tenancy placed severe constraints on African American women's ability to find independent agricultural work. Freedwomen confronted not only planters' reluctance to contract directly with women but also whites' refusal to sell land to African Americans. Marriage consequently became one of African American women's few viable routes into the agricultural labor market. We find that the more counties relied on tenant farming, the more common was marriage among their youngest and oldest African American residents. However, many freedwomen resented their subordinate status within tenant marriages. Thus, we find that tenancy contributed to union dissolution as well as union formation among freedpeople. Microdata tracing individuals' marital transitions are consistent with these county-level results. PMID:26223562

  18. Union Density and Hospital Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Koys, Daniel J; Martin, Wm Marty; LaVan, Helen; Katz, Marsha

    2015-01-01

    The authors address the hospital outcomes of patient satisfaction, healthcare quality, and net income per bed. They define union density as the percentage of a hospital's employees who are in unions, healthcare quality as its 30-day acute myocardial infraction (AMI; heart attack) mortality rate, and patient satisfaction as its overall Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems score. Using a random sample of 84 union and 84 nonunion hospitals from across the United States, multiple regression analyses show that union density is negatively related to patient satisfaction. Union density is not related to healthcare quality as measured by the AMI mortality rate or to net income per bed. This implies that unions per se are not good or bad for hospitals. The authors suggest that it is better for hospital administrators to take a Balanced Scorecard approach and be concerned about employee satisfaction, patient satisfaction, healthcare quality, and net income. PMID:26652043

  19. Professional Employees Turn to Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamot, Dennis

    1976-01-01

    White-collar and professional employees are increasingly turning to unions to combat their loss of independence as employees of large organizations. Managers should realize that they and professional employees have different viewpoints about job situations and that the current trend toward white-collar unionism is apt to continue. (JG)

  20. Toward a More Perfect Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Ron

    2010-01-01

    This article explores school districts such as New Haven (Connecticut) Public Schools, whose local union is an American Federation of Teachers (AFT) affiliate and where a shared concern for students has trumped the often adversarial union-management relationship. The author discusses what makes the successful contract negotiations headed by David…

  1. Unionization: The Viewpoint of Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyton, Theodore Lewis

    A study was made to isolate factors which have systematic and repetitive effects on the unionization of librarians, particularly the professional librarian in the public library. The historical patterns of library unionism are summarized, and an analysis is made of the personal characteristics of librarians, their economic position, and employment…

  2. Unions: Bread, Butter & Basic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCEL Newsletter for the Business Community, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Unions are natural providers of basic skills instruction. They are in daily workplace contact with their membership, are trusted to work on members' behalf, and speak the language of the worker. Unions are trying to address the needs of illiterate workers through collective bargaining arrangements in which employers contribute a percentage of…

  3. Teacher Unionization in School Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacoby, Dan

    2011-01-01

    The role of unions in school governance is reviewed to note that labor operates in a larger context of principal-agent relationships. As agents for teachers, unions articulate the concerns that must be addressed if teachers are to be successfully enlisted in the struggle to reduce achievement gaps among at-risk students. Transcending industrial…

  4. African Aesthetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abiodun, Rowland

    2001-01-01

    No single traditional discipline can adequately supply answers to the many unresolved questions in African art history. Because of the aesthetic, cultural, historical, and, not infrequently, political biases, already built into the conception and development of Western art history, the discipline of art history as defined and practiced in the West…

  5. "African Connection."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Cathy; And Others

    This interdisciplinary unit provides students in grades kindergarten through seventh grade an opportunity to understand diversity through a study of Africa as a diverse continent. The project is designed to provide all elementary students with cultural enrichment by exposing them to African music, art, storytelling, and movement. This project can…

  6. Collective flow in Au + Au collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, H.G.; EOS Collaboration

    1994-05-01

    Based on a preliminary sample of Au + Au collisions in the EOS time projection chamber at the Bevalac, we study sideward flow as a function of bombarding energy between 0.25A GeV and 1.2A GeV. We focus on the increase in in-plane transverse momentum per nucleon with fragment mass. We also find event shapes to be close to spherical in the most central collisions, independent of bombarding energy and fragment mass up to {sup 4}He.

  7. 32 CFR 643.116 - Credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Credit unions. 643.116 Section 643.116 National... Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.116 Credit unions. The establishment of credit unions on Army... buildings, without charge for rent or services, to any credit union organized under State law or to...

  8. 32 CFR 643.116 - Credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Credit unions. 643.116 Section 643.116 National... Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.116 Credit unions. The establishment of credit unions on Army... buildings, without charge for rent or services, to any credit union organized under State law or to...

  9. 32 CFR 643.116 - Credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Credit unions. 643.116 Section 643.116 National... Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.116 Credit unions. The establishment of credit unions on Army... buildings, without charge for rent or services, to any credit union organized under State law or to...

  10. 32 CFR 643.116 - Credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Credit unions. 643.116 Section 643.116 National... Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.116 Credit unions. The establishment of credit unions on Army... buildings, without charge for rent or services, to any credit union organized under State law or to...

  11. 32 CFR 643.116 - Credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Credit unions. 643.116 Section 643.116 National... Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.116 Credit unions. The establishment of credit unions on Army... buildings, without charge for rent or services, to any credit union organized under State law or to...

  12. Obesity and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  13. FORT UNION DEEP

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle A. Johnson Jr.

    2002-09-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) is currently the hottest area of energy development in the Rocky Mountain area. The Powder River Basin (PRB) is the largest CBM area in Wyoming and has attracted the majority of the attention because of its high permeability and relatively shallow depth. Other Wyoming coal regions are also being targeted for development, but most of these areas have lower permeability and deeper coal seams. This project consists of the development of a CBM stimulation system for deep coal resources and involves three work areas: (1) Well Placement, (2) Well Stimulation, and (3) Production Monitoring and Evaluation. The focus of this project is the Washakie Basin. Timberline Energy, Inc., the cosponsor, has a project area in southern Carbon County, Wyoming, and northern Moffat County, Colorado. The target coal is found near the top of the lower Fort Union formation. The well for this project, Evans No.1, was drilled to a depth of 2,700 ft. Three coal seams were encountered with sandstone and some interbedded shale between seams. Well logs indicated that the coal seams and the sandstone contained gas. For the testing, the upper seam at 2,000 ft was selected. The well, drilled and completed for this project, produced very little water and only occasional burps of methane. To enhance the well, a mild severity fracture was conducted to fracture the coal seam and not the adjacent sandstone. Fracturing data indicated a fracture half-length of 34 ft, a coal permeability of 0.2226 md, and permeability of 15.3 md. Following fracturing, the gas production rate stabilized at 10 Mscf/day within water production of 18 bpd. The Western Research Institute (WRI) CBM model was used to design a 14-day stimulation cycle followed by a 30-day production period. A maximum injection pressure of 1,200 psig to remain well below the fracture pressure was selected. Model predictions were 20 Mscf/day of air injection for 14 days, a one-day shut-in, then flowback. The predicted flowback

  14. FORT UNION DEEP

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle A. Johnson Jr.

    2002-03-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) is currently the hottest area of energy development in the Rocky Mountain area. The Powder River Basin (PRB) is the largest CBM area in Wyoming and has attracted the majority of the attention because of its high permeability and relatively shallow depth. Other Wyoming coal regions are also being targeted for development, but most of these areas have lower permeability and deeper coal seams. This project consists of the development of a CBM stimulation system for deep coal resources and involves three work areas: (1) Well Placement, (2) Well Stimulation, and (3) Production Monitoring and Evaluation. The focus of this project is the Washakie Basin. Timberline Energy, Inc., the cosponsor, has a project area in southern Carbon County, Wyoming, and northern Moffat County, Colorado. The target coal is found near the top of the lower Fort Union formation. The well for this project, Evans No.1, was drilled to a depth of 2,700 ft. Three coal seams were encountered with sandstone and some interbedded shale between seams. Well logs indicated that the coal seams and the sandstone contained gas. For the testing, the upper seam at 2,000 ft was selected. The well, drilled and completed for this project, produced very little water and only occasional burps of methane. To enhance the well, a mild severity fracture was conducted to fracture the coal seam and not the adjacent sandstone. Fracturing data indicated a fracture half-length of 34 ft, a coal permeability of 0.2226 md, and permeability of 15.3 md. Following fracturing, the gas production rate stabilized at 10 Mscf/day within water production of 18 bpd. The Western Research Institute (WRI) CBM model was used to design a 14-day stimulation cycle followed by a 30-day production period. A maximum injection pressure of 1,200 psig to remain well below the fracture pressure was selected. Model predictions were 20 Mscf/day of air injection for 14 days, a one-day shut-in, then flowback. The predicted flowback

  15. "Parent Unions" Join Policy Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Whether they're organizing events, buttonholing legislators, or simply trading ideas and information, a growing number of "parent unions" are attempting to stake out a place in policy debates over education in states and districts, amid a crowded field of actors and advocates. As the term implies, some of these organizations see themselves as…

  16. Models of Union University Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenstein, Faul; Stack, Hal

    1980-01-01

    The issues common to all models of educational programs are explored as an introduction to the varying ways unions and universities can work together. Cost and lack of time are seen as the most common obstacles confronted by workers interested in furthering their education. (Author/MLW)

  17. Unionization among College Faculty--1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Joel M., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    An analysis of data concerning unionization among college faculty during 1988 is presented. The following topics are discussed: (1) agents elected; (2) American Federation of Teachers; (3) National Education Association; (4) American Association of University Professors; (5) "no-agent" elections; (6) decertifications; (7) strikes; (8) legislation;…

  18. Cajon Valley Union School District: Changing the Culture of Learning to Empower Students. From the Field. Digital Learning Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartzbeck, Terri Duggan

    2013-01-01

    The K-8 Cajon Valley Union School District (Cajon Valley USD) is one of forty-two school districts in the greater San Diego, California metropolitan area. Serving approximately 16,000 students, the Cajon Valley USD is extremely diverse; 36 percent of students are Hispanic, 46 percent are white, 7 percent are African American, and many students are…

  19. A Union Voice for Racial Equality: Miles Stanley and Civil Rights in West Virginia, 1957-68

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fones-Wolf, Colin T.

    2004-01-01

    On October 15, 1959, union delegates from across West Virginia converged upon the Daniel Boone Hotel in the capital city of Charleston to participate in the West Virginia Labor Federation, AFL-CIO's second statewide constitutional convention. Charleston, at this time, remained a segregated city. So when G. William Dunn, an African-American…

  20. Africans in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Ayanna; Spangler, Earl

    This book introduces African-American history and culture to children. The first Africans in America came from many different regions and cultures, but became united in this country by being black, African, and slaves. Once in America, Africans began a long struggle for freedom which still continues. Slavery, the Civil War, emancipation, and the…

  1. Therapy with African Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwadiora, Emeka

    1996-01-01

    Informs helping professionals about the unique history and challenges of African families to guide them toward providing ethnically sensitive psychological services to African immigrant families in need. African families undergo great stress when faced with the alienation of being Black and African in a Euro-American culture. (SLD)

  2. African Outreach Workshop 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Nancy J.

    This report discusses the 1974 African Outreach Workshop planned and coordinated by the African Studies Program at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Its major aim was to assist teachers in developing curriculum units on African using materials available in their local community. A second aim was for the African Studies Program to…

  3. Partnership Creates Centre for Union Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Carol; Roman, Stephen

    1978-01-01

    A unique cooperative venture between the city of Coventry and local trade unions is establishing a library collection of books, periodicals, historical documents, tapes, and films dealing with unions, labor studies, and industrial problems. (JAB)

  4. The First Attempts to Unionize the Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Timothy Reese

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: Faculty unionization is an important topic in modern higher education, but the history of the phenomenon has not yet been fully considered. This article brings together issues of professionalization and unionization and provides needed historical background to ongoing unionization efforts and debates. Purpose/Objective/Research…

  5. Teacher Union Contracts and High School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Mitch

    2009-01-01

    Are teachers unions and collective bargaining agreements barriers to high school reform and redesign efforts in Washington, California, and Ohio? The short answer: sometimes, but not as often as many educators seem to think. Rather than wade into the pro- versus anti-union debate, this report instead aims to offer guidance for educators, unions,…

  6. A Different Role for Teachers Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Marc

    2012-01-01

    American teachers unions are increasingly the target of measures, authored by friends and foes alike, intended to limit their power, or even eviscerate them. Looking at this scene, one would never guess that the countries that are among the top 10 in student performance have some of the strongest teachers unions in the world. Are those unions in…

  7. Unionizing: A Guide for Child Care Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitebook, Marcy; And Others

    Including excerpts from contracts protecting unionized child care workers, this booklet explains basic terminology and facts about unionizing and addresses child care workers' concerns. Section 1 answers commonly asked questions about unions and offers advice about how to answer parents' questions about workers' attempts to organize. Section 2…

  8. Are Charter School Unions Worth the Bargain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Mitch

    2011-01-01

    About 12 percent of all charter schools have bargaining agreements. Why do charter schools unionize? What is in these charter school contracts? Can they be considered innovative or models for union reform? And how do they compare to traditional district/union teacher contracts? Center on Reinventing Public Education legal analyst Mitch Price…

  9. Contemporary perceptions of unionization in the medical profession: a study of attitudes of unionized and non-union physicians.

    PubMed

    Klover, J A; Stephens, D B; Luchsinger, V P

    1980-01-01

    This study investigated current perceptions of a sample of unionized and non-unionized physicians toward the concept of collective bargaining. Specific areas for study were the issues that have motivated and might motivate physicians to unionize, as well as the individuals or institutions physicians perceive as the opponent in collective bargaining. The analysis showed that economic considerations and the imposition of external controls on the practice of medicine dominate the physicians' perceptions. Government and health insurance companies are perceived as the primary adversaries. Perceptual differences between unionized and non-unionized physicians were shown to be small.

  10. Teacher Unionism as Mission and Battle; Success and Crisis in French Teacher Unions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Frances C.

    In France, the National Education Federation (Federation d'Education Nationale (FEN)) and its major constituent union, the National Union of Elementary and Middle School Teachers (Syndicat National des Instituteurs et des Professeurs d'Enseignment General de College (SNI-PEGC)), are examples of "intelligent trade unions," i.e., unions that hold a…

  11. Spin resonance transport properties of a single Au atom in S-Au-S junction and Au-Au-Au junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fangyuan, Wang; Guiqin, Li

    2016-07-01

    The spin transport properties of S-Au-S junction and Au-Au-Au junction between Au nanowires are investigated with density functional theory and the non-equilibrium Green's function. We mainly focus on the spin resonance transport properties of the center Au atom. The breaking of chemical bonds between anchor atoms and center Au atom significantly influences their spin transmission characteristics. We find the 0.8 eV orbital energy shift between anchor S atoms and the center Au atom can well protect the spin state stored in the S-Au-S junction and efficiently extract its spin state to the current by spin resonance mechanism, while the spin interaction of itinerant electrons and the valence electron of the center Au atom in the Au-Au-Au junction can extract the current spin information into the center Au atom. Fermi energy drift and bias-dependent spin filtering properties of the Au-Au-Au junction may transform information between distance, bias, and electron spin. Those unique properties make them potential candidates for a logical nanocircuit. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grants No. 2011CB921602) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants No. 20121318158).

  12. 40. August, 1970 VIEW OF UNION STREET WITH ELISHA GREEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. August, 1970 VIEW OF UNION STREET WITH ELISHA GREEN HOUSE (9 UNION STREET) AT LEFT - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  13. 75 FR 57820 - National Credit Union Administration Restoration Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... ADMINISTRATION National Credit Union Administration Restoration Plan AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION: Approval of National Credit Union Administration restoration plan. On September 16, 2010, the National Credit Union Administration (NCUA) implemented a Restoration Plan for the National...

  14. Procedure for developing Union position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1. Position statements will be restricted to those issues that fall within the guidelines approved by the Council. 2. Requests for position statements are referred immediately to the Public Affairs Committee. 3. If a request seems to fall within Union guidelines, the committee will recommend that the President of the Union appoint an independent panel charged with drafting a statement. The panel will include at least one member nominated by the Public Affairs Committee, the originator of the request, and one member of Council. 4. The Council and the membership will be informed that the panel is working on the issue and that comments are welcome. 5. The panel will prepare a statement for circulation to the Council of the Union. 6. Members of Council (or Executive Committee when timeliness is critical) will be asked to vote or to comment on the proposed statement. This vote is to be taken at regularly scheduled meetings except where timeliness is critical. Concurrence of two thirds is required for adoption. 7. All adopted position statements will be published in Eos as soon as possible. 8. Once a statement has been approved, the Public Affairs Committee will endeavor to apply its expertise to making advocacy of its contents as effective as possible.

  15. 12 CFR 701.26 - Credit union service contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Credit union service contracts. 701.26 Section 701.26 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION OF FEDERAL CREDIT UNIONS § 701.26 Credit union service contracts. A Federal credit union may act as a representative of...

  16. Magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au and Fe-Au alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, S.; Shimakura, H.; Tahara, S.; Okada, T.

    2015-08-17

    The magnetic susceptibility of liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au, Fe-Au and Cu-Au alloys was investigated as a function of temperature and composition. Liquid Cr{sub 1-c}Au{sub c} with 0.5 ≤ c and Mn{sub 1-c}Au{sub c} with 0.3≤c obeyed the Curie-Weiss law with regard to their dependence of χ on temperature. The magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Fe-Au alloys also exhibited Curie-Weiss behavior with a reasonable value for the effective number of Bohr magneton. On the Au-rich side, the composition dependence of χ for liquid TM-Au (TM=Cr, Mn, Fe) alloys increased rapidly with increasing TM content, respectively. Additionally, the composition dependences of χ for liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au, and Fe-Au alloys had maxima at compositions of 50 at% Cr, 70 at% Mn, and 85 at% Fe, respectively. We compared the composition dependences of χ{sub 3d} due to 3d electrons for liquid binary TM-M (M=Au, Al, Si, Sb), and investigated the relationship between χ{sub 3d} and E{sub F} in liquid binary TM-M alloys at a composition of 50 at% TM.

  17. European Union a New Babylon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesch, F.

    2010-07-01

    The growing European Union faces growing problems in personal communication. These problems cannot be overcome only by more language courses in school. As important is a better mutual knowledge of the culture of other countries, a knowledge that can be gained only by a personal, professional stay in foreign countries. On university level, such stays are best organized by networks connecting European universities. In the broad field of measurement, this IMEKO symposium might offer a unique forum to thoroughly discuss structure and realization of such a network with all interested colleagues.

  18. The African Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2012-01-01

    From student and faculty exchanges to joint research projects, U.S. universities maintain a broad spectrum of collaborative relationships with African universities. It's unclear how many U.S. colleges and universities have partnerships with African universities. The African Studies Association, an organization of scholars, doesn't keep that kind…

  19. Linguistic Imperialism: African Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Responds to an article on aspects of African language policy and discusses the following issues: multilingualism and monolingualism, proposed changes in language policy from the Organization for African Unity and South African initiatives, the language of literature, bilingual education, and whose interests English-language teaching is serving.…

  20. /Au Back Contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudel, Naba R.; Compaan, Alvin D.; Yan, Yanfa

    2014-08-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of CdTe thin-film solar cells with Cu-free MoO3- x /Au back contacts. CdTe solar cells with sputtered CdTe absorbers of thicknesses from 0.5 to 1.75 μm were fabricated on Pilkington SnO2:F/SnO2-coated soda-lime glasses coated with a 60- to 80-nm sputtered CdS layer. The MoO3- x /Au back contact layers were deposited by thermal evaporation. The incorporation of MoO3- x layer was found to improve the open circuit voltage ( V OC) but reduce the fill factor of the ultrathin CdTe cells. The V OC was found to increase as the CdTe thickness increased.

  1. Magnetoresistance of Au films

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, D. L.; Song, X. H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Xiaoguang

    2014-12-10

    Measurement of the magnetoresistance (MR) of Au films as a function of temperature and film thickness reveals a strong dependence on grain size distribution and clear violation of the Kohler s rule. Using a model of random resistor network, we show that this result can be explained if the MR arises entirely from inhomogeneity due to grain boundary scattering and thermal activation of grain boundary atoms.

  2. The relationship between labor unions and safety in US airlines: Is there a "union effect?"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapf, Renee Catherine

    Every airline union claims to work for safety and presents anecdotes where greater airline safety has been achieved through union efforts. The effect unionization has on safety outcomes in U.S. commercial airlines, however, wasn't found to be previously tested. Studies have shown that in industries such as coal mining, retail, and construction, unionization does lead to an increase in safety. This study evaluated the safety rates of 15 major US commercial airlines to compare the difference between unionized and non-unionized airlines. These safety rates were compared based on if and how long each airline's pilots and flight attendants have been unionized, to determine if unionization had an effect on safety outcomes. The 15 airlines included in the study identified as operating most of the years between 1990 and 2013, with annual departures averaging over 130,000, available through the Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Accident and Incident information was acquired through the National Transportation Safety Board database. The number of accident and incidents divided by the total departures at each airline was used as the safety rate. Union websites provided information on unionization at the airlines. Due to the complex nature of the aviation industry, a number of confounding factors could have affected the tests, including mergers, route structures, and legislation. To help control for these confounding factors, this study was limited to airlines with a stable presence in the industry over time, which limited the number of airlines included. No significant difference was found between unionized and non-unionized airlines in this study, though the mean safety rate of unionized airlines was found be better than non-unionized airlines. This study did not take into account safety improvements that were union-backed and eventually required at all airlines, regardless of unionization. Due to the large sample size of the small population the difference in safety rate

  3. Adolescent Violent Victimization and Precocious Union Formation*

    PubMed Central

    C. Kuhl, Danielle; Warner, David F.; Wilczak, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This article bridges scholarship in criminology and family sociology by extending arguments about “precocious exits” from adolescence to consider early union formation as a salient outcome of violent victimization for youths. Research indicates that early union formation is associated with several negative outcomes; yet the absence of attention to union formation as a consequence of violent victimization is noteworthy. We address this gap by drawing on life course theory and data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to examine the effect of violent victimization (“street” violence) on the timing of first co-residential union formation—differentiating between marriage and cohabitation—in young adulthood. Estimates from Cox proportional hazard models show that adolescent victims of street violence experience higher rates of first union formation, especially marriage, early in the transition to adulthood; however, this effect declines with age, as such unions become more normative. Importantly, the effect of violent victimization on first union timing is robust to controls for nonviolent delinquency, substance abuse, and violent perpetration. We conclude by discussing directions for future research on the association between violent victimization and coresidential unions with an eye toward the implications of such early union formation for desistance. PMID:24431471

  4. Hospital RN job satisfaction and nurse unions.

    PubMed

    Seago, Jean Ann; Spetz, Joanne; Ash, Michael; Herrera, Carolina-Nicole; Keane, Dennis

    2011-03-01

    The objective of the study was to examine whether unionization is associated with job satisfaction among RNs in the United States using nationally representative surveys of RNs. Factors that predict job satisfaction for RNs in healthcare continue to be of great concern to nurse administrators and managers because job satisfaction remains an important aspect of nurse retention. In addition, the notion of having unions for RNs has also gained prominence on the national stage. The relationship between RN job satisfaction and having an RN union has rarely been studied, but in 2 studies, a paradox was found; hospitals with RN unions had higher job dissatisfaction but greater retention. This study will test the relationship between having an RN union and job satisfaction with data that are both more recent and nationally representative. We analyze the public-use data from the 2004 and 2008 National Sample Surveys of Registered Nurses. In both 2004 and 2008, union representation was negatively associated with job satisfaction, although this relationship was not statistically significant in 2008. Some nurse administrators and executives would not be surprised by this finding. However, although union nurses may express more dissatisfaction, they may also be more vocal and less fearful about voicing concerns. If managers can harness this ability of the nurses to be articulate and outspoken, working with unions and union nurses can be productive and satisfying.

  5. Running a successful campaign against unionization.

    PubMed

    Block, Velinda J; Jamerson, Patricia A

    2005-01-01

    Unions, once rare in healthcare, are now targeting hospital employees as potential members. In an industry that has seen an increase in regulations, mergers and acquisitions, rising financial pressures, and changing working conditions, it is easy to understand why discontented employees are being targeted by unions now more than ever. Hospital leaders must look to lessons learned in other organizations to develop strategies that will ensure a successful campaign. In 2003, St. Louis Children's Hospital defeated the Missouri Nurses Association/United American Nurse with a 77% no vote. The authors describe an overview of unionization in healthcare and the strategies they used to successfully win this union election.

  6. Adolescent Violent Victimization and Precocious Union Formation.

    PubMed

    C Kuhl, Danielle; Warner, David F; Wilczak, Andrew

    2012-11-01

    This article bridges scholarship in criminology and family sociology by extending arguments about "precocious exits" from adolescence to consider early union formation as a salient outcome of violent victimization for youths. Research indicates that early union formation is associated with several negative outcomes; yet the absence of attention to union formation as a consequence of violent victimization is noteworthy. We address this gap by drawing on life course theory and data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to examine the effect of violent victimization ("street" violence) on the timing of first co-residential union formation-differentiating between marriage and cohabitation-in young adulthood. Estimates from Cox proportional hazard models show that adolescent victims of street violence experience higher rates of first union formation, especially marriage, early in the transition to adulthood; however, this effect declines with age, as such unions become more normative. Importantly, the effect of violent victimization on first union timing is robust to controls for nonviolent delinquency, substance abuse, and violent perpetration. We conclude by discussing directions for future research on the association between violent victimization and coresidential unions with an eye toward the implications of such early union formation for desistance.

  7. union publique HR

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-30

    Chers Collègues,Je me permets de vous rappeler qu'une réunion publique organisée par le Département HR se tiendra aujourd'hui:Vendredi 30 avril 2010 à 9h30 dans l'Amphithéâtre principal (café offert dès 9h00).Durant cette réunion, des informations générales seront données sur:le CERN Admin e-guide, qui est un nouveau guide des procédures administratives du CERN ayant pour but de faciliter la recherche d'informations pratiques et d'offrir un format de lecture convivial;le régime d'Assurance Maladie de l'Organisation (présentation effectuée par Philippe Charpentier, Président du CHIS Board) et;la Caisse de Pensions (présentation effectuée par Théodore Economou, Administrateur de la Caisse de Pensions du CERN).Une transmission simultanée de cette réunion sera assurée dans l'Amphithéâtre BE de Prévessin et également disponible à l'adresse suivante: http://webcast.cern.chJe me réjouis de votre participation!Meilleures salutations,Anne-Sylvie CatherinChef du Département des Ressources humaines__________________________________________________________________________________Dear Colleagues,I should like to remind you that a plublic meeting organised by HR Department will be held today:Friday 30 April 2010 at 9:30 am in the Main Auditorium (coffee from 9:00 am).During this meeting, general information will be given about:the CERN Admin e-guide which is a new guide to the Organization's administrative procedures, drawn up to facilitate the retrieval of practical information and to offer a user-friendly format;the CERN Health Insurance System (presentation by Philippe Charpentier, President of the CHIS Board) and;the Pension Fund (presentation by Theodore Economou, Administrator of the CERN Pension Fund).A simultaneous transmission of this meeting will be broadcast in the BE Auditorium at Prévessin and will also be available at the following address. http://webcast.cern.chI look forward to your participation!Best regards,Anne-Sylvie Catherin

  8. Teacher Unionism in Changing Times: Is This the Real "New Unionism"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Howard

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a case study of union change in an environment in which radical school restructuring is taking place, and active strategies to weaken and marginalize organized teachers are being pursued by the state. The case study union is the National Union of Teachers in England. The article explores a number of different strategies open…

  9. 12 CFR 701.2 - Federal credit union bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Federal credit union bylaws. 701.2 Section 701.2 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION OF FEDERAL CREDIT UNIONS § 701.2 Federal credit union bylaws. (a) Federal...

  10. Teacher Union Legitimacy: Shifting the Moral Center for Member Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popiel, Kara

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-method case study explored teacher union members' beliefs about the teacher union and their reasons for being active or inactive in the union. Findings suggest that teacher unions have gained pragmatic and cognitive legitimacy (Chaison and Bigelow in Unions and legitimacy. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, 2002), but that…

  11. Antibacterial Au nanostructured surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Songmei; Zuber, Flavia; Brugger, Juergen; Maniura-Weber, Katharina; Ren, Qun

    2016-01-01

    We present here a technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It was found that all the Au nanostructures, regardless their shapes, exhibited similar excellent antibacterial properties. A comparison of live cells attached to nanotopographic surfaces showed that the number of live S. aureus cells was <1% of that from flat and rough reference surfaces. Our micro/nanofabrication process is a scalable approach based on cost-efficient self-organization and provides potential for further developing functional surfaces to study the behavior of microbes on nanoscale topographies.We present here a technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It

  12. 29 CFR 452.75 - Union newspapers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Union newspapers. 452.75 Section 452.75 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS... OF 1959 Campaign Safeguards § 452.75 Union newspapers. The provisions of section 401(g) prohibit...

  13. Fashion Institute of Technology Union Contract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fashion Inst. of Tech., New York, NY.

    This document presents the union contract of the Fashion Institute of Technology. Articles cover union recognition; governance; welfare; grievance; leaves of absence and sick leave; salary and checkoff; academic calendar; matters not covered; duration; personnel files; conformity to law-savings clause; appointment-faculty; promotion-faculty;…

  14. Trade Unions and the Humanisation of Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tchobanian, R.

    1975-01-01

    After pointing out possible prejudicial consequences of job restructuring both for occupational and economic interests of workers and for the structure and activities of the trade union movement, various trade union reactions and attitudes to work humanization are analyzed. Available from: ILO Publications, International Labour Office, CH-1211,…

  15. Personnel practices can help discourage unionization.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, H L

    1989-09-01

    Unionization presents a potential source of cost escalation for hospitals, particularly involving health benefits. The best way to minimize chances that staff members will opt for union representation is to develop personnel practices that demonstrate management's commitment to treating employees fairly, such as providing competitive salaries and benefits, scheduling regular meetings to address worker questions, and developing detailed policy handbooks.

  16. 76 FR 10209 - Corporate Credit Unions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... recently finalized changes to its Corporate Credit Union Rule, 12 CFR part 704. 75 FR 64786 (October 20... requirements and process for chartering corporate Federal credit unions (FCUs). 75 FR 60651 (October 1, 2010... requisite skills--including leadership--to make the proposed corporate a success. One commenter...

  17. Unions' Deals with Brokers Raise Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Linda

    2006-01-01

    The New York state attorney general's office is close to announcing a settlement with the 525,000-member New York State United Teachers over a relationship between the union and ING Group, a large financial-services company based in the Netherlands. In that arrangement, the union's Member Benefits division--a separate trust that provides…

  18. 75 FR 60651 - Corporate Credit Unions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... marketing strategies for financial and correspondent services, including the ability of the proposed... substantiate projections); and (17) Services and marketing strategies for financial and correspondent services... unions may wish to form new corporate credit unions. NCUA first issued guidance on chartering...

  19. Women in Trade Unions: Organizing the Unorganized.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Margaret Hosmer, Ed.; Mitter, Swasti, Ed.

    This book contains a comparative survey of efforts to organize female workers in trade unions in both developing and industrialized nations and 19 case studies of efforts to organize female workers in selected occupations. The following papers are included: "A Comparative Survey" (Swasti Mitter); "The Union of Women Domestic Employees, Recife,…

  20. Why Union Activists Write Good Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthen, Helena H.

    2013-01-01

    The representative structure of a union is a maze which, when travelled as a narrative, has drama at every turn. It sets up expectations, pits good against evil, involves many characters with different interests, keeps the clock ticking, and offers opportunities for happy endings (and disappointments) at every level. Union members who are not…

  1. The Defense of Teachers' Trade Union Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepin, Luce

    1990-01-01

    The author sees cause for concern in the number of complaints to the International Labour Organisation alleging violations of teachers' union rights. She examines the right of public employees to organize and strike and government interference, concluding that greater protection for teachers' unions may be needed. (SK)

  2. Women and Unions: Forging a Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobble, Dorothy Sue, Ed.

    This book contains the views of 40 contributors on women and unions, organized into 15 chapters on six topics: Closing the Wage Gap; Meeting Family Needs; Temporary and Part-Time Work: Opportunity or Danger?; Homework; Developing a Realistic Approach; New Directions in Organizing and Representing Women; and Female Leadership and Union Cultures:…

  3. Trends in unionization of nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Sojourner, Aaron J; Grabowski, David C; Chen, Min; Town, Robert J

    Unionization may have important implications for the delivery of nursing home care, but little is known about this phenomenon. Since 1985, the proportion of nursing home workers covered by union contracts declined from 14.6% to 9.9%. The first national-scale data on facility-level unionization reveals that unions are more common in nursing homes with more residents, in hospital-based or chain-affiliated facilities, and in facilities serving a higher proportion of Medicaid patients. With new federal policy proposals aimed at substantially lowering the cost of organizing workers, policymakers will want to consider the potential impact of nursing home unionization on worker, patient, and market outcomes.

  4. The Features of Development in the Pacific Countries of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuenca Garcia, Eduardo; Rodriguez Martin, Jose Antonio; Navarro Pabsdorf, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    In this article we present a new proposal for the measurement of development, applied to the Pacific Countries of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group (ACP), conditional on their insularity, and with privileged relations with the European Union. Our index has been constructed attending to the criteria defined in the Goals of the Millennium…

  5. Surface morphology and optical properties of porphyrin/Au and Au/porphyrin/Au systems

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Porphyrin/Au and Au/porphyrin/Au systems were prepared by vacuum evaporation and vacuum sputtering onto glass substrate. The surface morphology of as-prepared systems and those subjected to annealing at 160°C was studied by optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Absorption and luminescence spectra of as-prepared and annealed samples were measured. Annealing leads to disintegration of the initially continuous gold layer and formation of gold nanoclusters. An amplification of Soret band magnitude was observed on the Au/meso-tetraphenyl porphyrin (TPP) system in comparison with mere TPP. Additional enhancement of luminescence was observed after the sample annealing. In the case of sandwich Au/porphyrin/Au structure, suppression of one of the two porphyrins’ luminescence maxima and sufficient enhancement of the second one were observed. PMID:24373347

  6. The African superswell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyblade, Andrew A.; Robinson, Scott W.

    1994-01-01

    Maps of residual bathymetry in the ocean basins around the African continent reveal a broad bathymetric swell in the southeastern Atlantic Ocean with an amplitude of about 500 m. We propose that this region of anomalously shallow bathymetry, together with the contiguous eastern and southern African plateaus, form a superswell which we refer to as the African superswell. The origin of the African superswell is uncertain. However, rifting and volcanism in eastern Africa, as well as heat flow measurements in southern Africa and the southeastern Atlantic Ocean, suggest that the superswell may be attributed, at least in part, to heating of the lithosphere.

  7. Ethnic Minority-Majority Unions in Estonia.

    PubMed

    van Ham, Maarten; Tammaru, Tiit

    2011-08-01

    Ethnic minority-majority unions-also referred to as mixed ethnic unions-are often seen as the ultimate evidence of the integration of ethnic minorities into their host societies. We investigated minority-majority unions in Estonia, where ethnic minorities account for one-third of the total population (Russians 26%, followed by Ukrainians, Byelorussians, Finns and other smaller groups). Using data from the 2000 Estonian census and regression models, we found that Slavic women are less likely to be in minority-majority unions than are members of other minority groups, with Russians being the least likely. Finns, who are culturally most similar to the Estonian majority population, are the most likely to form a union with an Estonian. For ethnic minority women, the likelihood of being in minority-majority unions is highest in rural areas and increases over generations, with third-generation immigrants being the most likely. Estonian women are most likely to have a minority partner when they or their parents were born abroad and when they live in urban areas. Our findings suggest that both the opportunity to meet potential partners and openness to other ethnic groups are important factors for understanding the dynamics of minority-majority unions. PMID:21957324

  8. Magnetoresistance of Au films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, D. L. Song, X. H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, X.-G.

    2014-12-14

    Classical magnetoresistance (MR) in nonmagnetic metals are conventionally understood in terms of the Kohler rule, with violation usually viewed as anomalous electron transport, in particular, as evidence of non-Fermi liquid behavior. Measurement of the MR of Au films as a function of temperature and film thickness reveals a strong dependence on grain size distribution and clear violation of the Kohler rule. Using a model of random resistor network, we show that this result can be explained if the MR arises entirely from inhomogeneity due to grain boundary scattering and thermal activation of grain boundary atoms. Consequently, the Kohler rule should not be used to distinguish normal and anomalous electron transport in solids.

  9. [Collective bargaining and trade unions in nursing].

    PubMed

    de Villiers, L

    1993-02-01

    Nurses are apparently striving towards collective bargaining in order to meet their professional and personal needs. The reasons might be rapid social change and dissatisfaction with values and norms imposed on them. Although the nursing profession has been represented by a professional association since 1914, interest in labour unions is increasing. Various factors, such as administrative practices, support the interest in labour unions. Although labour unions promise a utopia to potential members, membership leads to advantages and disadvantages both for the profession and the individual. PMID:8510725

  10. [Collective bargaining and trade unions in nursing].

    PubMed

    de Villiers, L

    1993-02-01

    Nurses are apparently striving towards collective bargaining in order to meet their professional and personal needs. The reasons might be rapid social change and dissatisfaction with values and norms imposed on them. Although the nursing profession has been represented by a professional association since 1914, interest in labour unions is increasing. Various factors, such as administrative practices, support the interest in labour unions. Although labour unions promise a utopia to potential members, membership leads to advantages and disadvantages both for the profession and the individual.

  11. Au103(SR)45, Au104(SR)45, Au104(SR)46 and Au105(SR)46 nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dass, Amala; Nimmala, Praneeth Reddy; Jupally, Vijay Reddy; Kothalawala, Nuwan

    2013-11-01

    High resolution ESI mass spectrometry of the ``22 kDa'' nanocluster reveals the presence of a mixture containing Au103(SR)45, Au104(SR)45, Au104(SR)46, and Au105(SR)46 nanoclusters, where R = -CH2CH2Ph. MALDI TOF MS data confirm the purity of the sample and a UV-vis spectrum shows minor features. Au102(SC6H5COOH)44, whose XRD crystal structure was recently reported, is not observed. This is due to ligand effects, because the 102 : 44 composition is produced using aromatic ligands. However, the 103-, 104- and 105-atom nanoclusters, protected by -SCH2CH2Ph and -SC6H13 ligands, are at or near 58 electron shell closing.High resolution ESI mass spectrometry of the ``22 kDa'' nanocluster reveals the presence of a mixture containing Au103(SR)45, Au104(SR)45, Au104(SR)46, and Au105(SR)46 nanoclusters, where R = -CH2CH2Ph. MALDI TOF MS data confirm the purity of the sample and a UV-vis spectrum shows minor features. Au102(SC6H5COOH)44, whose XRD crystal structure was recently reported, is not observed. This is due to ligand effects, because the 102 : 44 composition is produced using aromatic ligands. However, the 103-, 104- and 105-atom nanoclusters, protected by -SCH2CH2Ph and -SC6H13 ligands, are at or near 58 electron shell closing. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03872f

  12. The view from the cotton: reconsidering the Southern Tenant Farmers' Union.

    PubMed

    Manthorne, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Having been evicted from their homes because of incentives created by the New Deal's AGricultural ADjustment Act, sharecroppers in Arkansas formed the biracial Southern Tenant Farmers' Union (STFU) in 1934. Led by socialists and radicals, the organization ultimately claimed upward of thirty thousand members and constituted an assault on the social, economic, and racial status quo of the South. Historians have celebrated the STFU, especially its commitment to biracial cooperation and equality. This article digs beneath this carefully constructed image of the union to scrutinize the internal dynamics of the movement. It revises a number of interpretations surrounding the STFU. Although the greatest obstacles to the union's success were external, it also faced internal divisions that diminished its efficacy. The STFU's decentralized structure did not foster strong connections between leadership and membership, resulting in misunderstandings. But most importantly, the union struggled to live up to its creed of biracialism and equal treatment of African Americans. Ultimately, the STFU was less an aberration that tirelessly confronted the social and racial ills of the South and more an organization that reflected some of those ills even as it grappled with them.

  13. The view from the cotton: reconsidering the Southern Tenant Farmers' Union.

    PubMed

    Manthorne, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Having been evicted from their homes because of incentives created by the New Deal's AGricultural ADjustment Act, sharecroppers in Arkansas formed the biracial Southern Tenant Farmers' Union (STFU) in 1934. Led by socialists and radicals, the organization ultimately claimed upward of thirty thousand members and constituted an assault on the social, economic, and racial status quo of the South. Historians have celebrated the STFU, especially its commitment to biracial cooperation and equality. This article digs beneath this carefully constructed image of the union to scrutinize the internal dynamics of the movement. It revises a number of interpretations surrounding the STFU. Although the greatest obstacles to the union's success were external, it also faced internal divisions that diminished its efficacy. The STFU's decentralized structure did not foster strong connections between leadership and membership, resulting in misunderstandings. But most importantly, the union struggled to live up to its creed of biracialism and equal treatment of African Americans. Ultimately, the STFU was less an aberration that tirelessly confronted the social and racial ills of the South and more an organization that reflected some of those ills even as it grappled with them. PMID:20235394

  14. 16 Extraordinary African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    This collection for children tells the stories of 16 African Americans who helped make America what it is today. African Americans can take pride in the heritage of these contributors to society. Biographies are given for the following: (1) Sojourner Truth, preacher and abolitionist; (2) Frederick Douglass, abolitionist; (3) Harriet Tubman, leader…

  15. African Studies Computer Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    African studies computer resources that are readily available in the United States with linkages to Africa are described, highlighting those most directly corresponding to African content. Africanists can use the following four fundamental computer systems: (1) Internet/Bitnet; (2) Fidonet; (3) Usenet; and (4) dial-up bulletin board services. The…

  16. Understanding African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward Earl

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the socialization skills, self-esteem, and academic readiness of African American males in a school environment. Discussions with students and the School Perceptions Questionnaire provided data for this investigation. The intended targets for this investigation were African American students; however, there…

  17. Africans Away from Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, John Henrik

    Africans who were brought across the Atlantic as slaves never fully adjusted to slavery or accepted its inevitability. Resistance began on board the slave ships, where many jumped overboard or committed suicide. African slaves in South America led the first revolts against tyranny in the New World. The first slave revolt in the Caribbean occurred…

  18. Keeping African Masks Real

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddington, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Art is a good place to learn about our multicultural planet, and African masks are prized throughout the world as powerfully expressive artistic images. Unfortunately, multicultural education, especially for young children, can perpetuate stereotypes. Masks taken out of context lose their meaning and the term "African masks" suggests that there is…

  19. Educating African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American…

  20. Determination of relative sensitivity factors during secondary ion sputtering of silicate glasses by Au+, Au2+ and Au3+ ions.

    PubMed

    King, Ashley; Henkel, Torsten; Rost, Detlef; Lyon, Ian C

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, Au-cluster ions have been successfully used for organic analysis in secondary ion mass spectrometry. Cluster ions, such as Au(2)(+) and Au(3)(+), can produce secondary ion yield enhancements of up to a factor of 300 for high mass organic molecules with minimal sample damage. In this study, the potential for using Au(+), Au(2)(+) and Au(3)(+) primary ions for the analysis of inorganic samples is investigated by analyzing a range of silicate glass standards. Practical secondary ion yields for both Au(2)(+) and Au(3)(+) ions are enhanced relative to those for Au(+), consistent with their increased sputter rates. No elevation in ionization efficiency was found for the cluster primary ions. Relative sensitivity factors for major and trace elements in the standards showed no improvement in quantification with Au(2)(+) and Au(3)(+) ions over the use of Au(+) ions. Higher achievable primary ion currents for Au(+) ions than for Au(2)(+) and Au(3)(+) allow for more precise analyses of elemental abundances within inorganic samples, making them the preferred choice, in contrast to the choice of Au(2)(+) and Au(3)(+) for the analysis of organic samples. The use of delayed secondary ion extraction can also boost secondary ion signals, although there is a loss of overall sensitivity.

  1. African horse sickness and African carnivores.

    PubMed

    Alexander, K A; Kat, P W; House, J; House, C; O'Brien, S J; Laurenson, M K; McNutt, J W; Osburn, B I

    1995-11-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a disease that affects equids, and is principally transmitted by Culicoides spp. that are biological vectors of AHS viruses (AHSV). The repeated spread of AHSV from sub-Saharan Africa to the Middle East, northern Africa and the Iberian peninsula indicate that a better understanding of AHS epizootiology is needed. African horse sickness has long been known to infect and cause mortality among domestic dogs that ingest virus contaminated meat, but it is uncertain what role carnivores play in transmission of the virus. We present evidence of widespread natural AHS infection among a diversity of African carnivore species. We hypothesize that such infection resulted from ingestion of meat and organs from AHS-infected prey species. The effect of AHS on the carnivores is unknown, as is their role in the maintenance cycle of the disease.

  2. Tips for Carpeting Your Student Union Building.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbacci, Diann

    2001-01-01

    Presents guidelines for enhancing the investment value of carpeting in student union buildings, foyers and hallways, administrative offices, cafeterias and food courts, and recreation areas. Color coordination is briefly discussed. (GR)

  3. Hospital union election activity, 1974-85

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Edmund R.; Rakich, Jonathon S.

    1988-01-01

    This study, using National Labor Relations Board data and American Hospital Association data, reports on the status of union election activity in the hospital industry for a 65-month period, January 1980-May 1985, and contrasts it with earlier data for a similar 65-month time period (1974-79). Together these data provide a comprehensive overview of union election activity in non-Federal, nongovernment hospitals since the passage of the 1974 Nonprofit Hospital Amendments to the Taft-Hartley Act. The study analyzes union, election, hospital, and environmental characteristics. Comparisons over the two time periods show that, while union victory rates in hospital elections have remained constant, the total number of elections has declined dramatically in the hospital industry. PMID:10312518

  4. Children's Literature in the Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, D. D.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Children's literature in the Soviet Union is of four types: 17 stories based on old tales, adaptations from great Russian literature, original writings for children, and translations from foreign works. (JH)

  5. Diabetes in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, M

    2005-01-01

    African Americans have a high risk for type 2 diabetes. Genetic traits, the prevalence of obesity, and insulin resistance all contribute to the risk of diabetes in the African American community. African Americans have a high rate of diabetic complications, because of poor glycaemic control and racial disparities in health care in the USA. African Americans with diabetes may have an atypical presentation that simulates type 1 diabetes, but then their subsequent clinical course is typical of type 2 diabetes. Culturally sensitive strategies, structured disease management protocols, and the assistance of nurses, diabetic educators, and other health care professionals are effective in improving the outcome of diabetes in the African American community. PMID:16344294

  6. African bees to control African elephants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollrath, Fritz; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2002-11-01

    Numbers of elephants have declined in Africa and Asia over the past 30 years while numbers of humans have increased, both substantially. Friction between these two keystone species is reaching levels which are worryingly high from an ecological as well as a political viewpoint. Ways and means must be found to keep the two apart, at least in areas sensitive to each species' survival. The aggressive African bee might be one such method. Here we demonstrate that African bees deter elephants from damaging the vegetation and trees which house their hives. We argue that bees can be employed profitably to protect not only selected trees, but also selected areas, from elephant damage.

  7. Physician unionization efforts gain momentum, support.

    PubMed

    Keating, G C

    1999-11-01

    Physicians increasingly are assuming the status of employees in healthcare organizations. Physicians also are seeing restrictions imposed on their practices by healthcare organizations seeking to control costs of care delivery. These trends have led a growing number of physicians to attempt to organize into unions. Obstacles to physician unionization efforts have included Federal antitrust laws that prohibit physicians from organizing, as well as physician reluctance to engage in organized activities they see as antithetical to their professional duties (e.g., strikes). In addition, physicians' attempts to unionize frequently have failed due to provisions of the National Labor Relations Act, which authorize collective bargaining only among individuals designated as "employees." Physicians seeking to form unions often are thwarted by the argument that they are not employees, but rather students, independent contractors, or supervisors, and therefore not entitled to protection under the act. Nonetheless, a number of recent developments, such as the American Medical Association's decision to endorse unionization by physicians and the National Labor Relations Board's decision that attending physicians should be regarded as employees, not supervisors, are creating a climate more conducive to physician unionization in the United States.

  8. Labor unions and safety climate: perceived union safety values and retail employee safety outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Robert R; Martin, James E; Sears, Lindsay E

    2010-09-01

    Although trade unions have long been recognized as a critical advocate for employee safety and health, safety climate research has not paid much attention to the role unions play in workplace safety. We proposed a multiple constituency model of workplace safety which focused on three central safety stakeholders: top management, ones' immediate supervisor, and the labor union. Safety climate research focuses on management and supervisors as key stakeholders, but has not considered whether employee perceptions about the priority their union places on safety contributes contribute to safety outcomes. We addressed this gap in the literature by investigating unionized retail employee (N=535) perceptions about the extent to which their top management, immediate supervisors, and union valued safety. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that perceived union safety values could be distinguished from measures of safety training, workplace hazards, top management safety values, and supervisor values. Structural equation analyses indicated that union safety values influenced safety outcomes through its association with higher safety motivation, showing a similar effect as that of supervisor safety values. These findings highlight the need for further attention to union-focused measures related to workplace safety as well as further study of retail employees in general. We discuss the practical implications of our findings and identify several directions for future safety research.

  9. Ocean Pollution as a Result of Onshore Offshore Petroleum Activities in the African Gulf of Guinea Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubakar, B.

    2007-05-01

    increasing cases of pollution of farmlands, rivers, wells and the environment in general. Apart from all these, what is even becoming more worrisome is that none of all these oil firms operating in the region is able to account on how it disposes its industrial toxic waste generated as a result of its industrial activities within the region. Finally Geological strata are adversely destroyed by seismographic activities, Sea creatures are destroyed by oil pollution and Means of livelihood of revering dwellers are often threatened by pollution. RECOMMENDATIONS After identifying how the pollution in the Gulf of Guinea region is increasing in relation to the increasing petroleum activities, I have come up with the following suggestions/recommendations. 1. AFRICAN UNION RESOLUTION The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) in conjunction with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) should use their capacity to be able to influence the African Union (AU) to pass a resolution banning the illegal dumping of radioactive waste, Gas flaring and Costal bunkering in this part of the world. 2. RESEARCH AND INVESTIGATION The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, in conjunction with the United Nations Environmental Agency, the International Atomic Energy Agency and with the corporation of the African Union should send team of researchers to come and investigate this trend on petroleum pollution in the Gulf of Guinea region and proffer possible solutions in checking the menace.

  10. Centrality dependence of antiproton production in Au+Au collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Beavis, D.; Bennett, M.J.; Carroll, J.B.; Chiba, J.; Chikanian, A.; Crawford, H.; Cronqvist, M.; Dardenne, Y.; Debbe, R.; Doke, T.; Engelage, J.; Greiner, L.; Hallman, T.J.; Hayano, R.S.; Heckman, H.H.; Kashiwagi, T.; Kikuchi, J.; Kumar, S.; Kuo, C.; Lindstrom, P.J.; Mitchell, J.W.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagle, J.L.; Pope, J.K.; Stankus, P.; Tanaka, K.H.; Welsh, R.C.; Zhan, W. ||||||||[Universities Space Sciences Research Association

    1995-11-13

    We have measured the yields of antiprotons in Au+Au interactions in the rapidity range 1.2{lt}{ital y}{lt}2.8 as a function of centrality using a beam line spectrometer. The shapes of the invariant multiplicity distributions at {ital p}{sub {ital t}}=0 are used to explore the dynamics of antiproton production and annihilation. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital The} {ital American} {ital Physical} {ital Society}.

  11. 12 CFR 704.3 - Corporate credit union capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corporate credit union capital. 704.3 Section... CORPORATE CREDIT UNIONS § 704.3 Corporate credit union capital. (a) Capital plan. A corporate credit union... strategies which provide for the building of capital consistent with regulatory requirements, the...

  12. Open-Source Unionism: New Workers, New Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Julie M.

    2004-01-01

    In "Open-Source Unionism: Beyond Exclusive Collective Bargaining," published in fall 2002 in the journal Working USA, labor scholars Richard B. Freeman and Joel Rogers use the term "open-source unionism" to describe a form of unionization that uses Web technology to organize in hard-to-unionize workplaces. Rather than depend on the traditional…

  13. Trade Union Mergers: A Survey of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelson, Grant

    2000-01-01

    Examines trade union mergers highlighting merger forms, merger motivation, role played by union officers, and merger waves. Discusses the consequences of mergers on members and union performance and concludes that union merger activity has had little impact. (Contains 74 references.) (JOW)

  14. 12 CFR 741.222 - Credit union service organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Credit union service organizations. 741.222 Section 741.222 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS... credit union service organizations (CUSOs) and the requirement to maintain separate corporate...

  15. Union Views on Job Evaluation: 1971 vs. 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janes, Harold D.

    1979-01-01

    Compares 1978 survey results to those of 1971 survey on union's job evaluation views. Thirty-nine unions out of 180 American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations and other selected unions responded to questions on job evaluation preferences, practices, origination, problems, and union policies. Results indicated modest trend…

  16. Au20: A Tetrahedral Cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jun; Li, Xi; Zhai, Hua Jin; Wang, Lai S.

    2003-02-07

    Photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that a 20 atom gold cluster has an extremely large energy gap, which is even greater than that of C60, and an electron affinity comparable with that of C60. This observation suggests that the Au20 cluster must be extremely stable and chemically inert. Using relativistic density functional calculations, we found that Au20 possesses a remarkable tetrahedral structure, which is a fragment of the bulk face-centered cubic lattice of gold with a small structural relaxation. Au20 is thus a true cluster molecule, while at the same time it is exactly part of the bulk, but with very different properties. The tetrahedral Au20 may possess interesting catalytic properties and may be synthesized in bulk quantity or assembled on non-interacting surfaces.

  17. Do Unions Matter? An Examination of the Historical and Contemporary Role of Labor Unions in the Social Work Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Jessica; Rosenberg, Samuel

    2006-01-01

    The attitudes among social workers toward labor unions are a topic of significance. Historically, social workers have had an ambivalent relationship with unions. This article analyzes the extent to which unions matter to social workers and whether unions represent the interests of professional social workers. The relationship between social work…

  18. Regional Utilization of the Union Catalog of Medical Periodicals System

    PubMed Central

    Sprinkle, Michael D.

    1969-01-01

    This paper describes regional utilization of the Union Catalog of Medical Periodicals system and data base in producing union lists outside Metropolitan New York, the area served by the Union Catalog. A basic introduction to the Medical Library Center of New York's UCMP system is set forth, demonstrating the system's value in the production of such medical and paramedical union lists throughout the country. Several applications are then described, showing how these union lists were produced. PMID:5789816

  19. History and Status of the CIS Customs Union

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, T.M.; Erickson, S.A.

    1999-08-31

    This report explores the history of the CIS Customs Union and the major obstacles the Union faces in its implementation. Investigation of the Customs Union is necessary as its implementation could effect the Second Line of Defense (SLD) Program. Russian Customs contends that radiation detectors should not be installed along the Customs Union members borders of as the borders will be dissolved when the Union is implemented.

  20. 75 FR 15573 - Fiduciary Duties at Federal Credit Unions; Mergers and Conversions of Insured Credit Unions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... access to that network if it becomes a bank. Likewise, some ATM networks limit their services to credit... merging into banks. The proposal also amends some of the existing regulatory procedures applicable to insured credit union mergers with other credit unions and conversions to banks. DATES: Comments must...

  1. This Union Cause: An Illustrated History of Labor Unions in America. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Union, United Automobile, Aerospace and Agricultural Implement Workers of America, Detroit, MI.

    This pamphlet on labor history highlights some of labor's economic and political actions during the past 200 years. The purpose is to provide inspiration and motivation for greater participation in union work. The introduction explains the purpose of unions--to pursue economic independence and social stature for all individuals--for defenseless…

  2. 78 FR 33445 - Office of Small Credit Unions (OSCUI) Grant Program Access For Credit Unions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ...The National Credit Union Administration (NCUA) is issuing a Notice of Funding Opportunity (NOFO) to invite eligible credit unions to submit applications for participation in the OSCUI Grant Program (a.k.a. Community Development Revolving Loan Fund (CDRLF)), subject to funding availability. The OSCUI Grant Program serves as a source of financial support, in the form of technical assistance......

  3. Astronomy for African development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govender, Kevindran

    2011-06-01

    In recent years there have been a number of efforts across Africa to develop the field of astronomy as well as to reap benefit from astronomy for African people. This presentation will discuss the case of the SALT (Southern African Large Telescope) Collateral Benefits Programme (SCBP) which was set up to ensure societal benefit from astronomy. With African society as the target, the SCBP has embarked on various projects from school level education to public understanding of science to socio-economic development, the latter mainly being felt in the rural communities surrounding the South African Astronomical Observatory (home to SALT). A development plan for ``Astronomy in Africa'' will also be discussed. This plan has been drawn up with input from all over Africa and themed ``Astronomy for Education''. The Africa case stands as a good example for the IYA cornerstone project ``Developing Astronomy Globally'' which focuses on developing regions.

  4. African American Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... specific health concerns. Differences in the health of groups can result from Genetics Environmental factors Access to care Cultural factors On this page, you'll find links to health issues that affect African Americans.

  5. African American Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... accounted for 83.8% of Caucasian elderly suicides. • Firearms were the predominant method of suicide among African ... per 100,000 annually. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Vital Statistics System. Mortality Data. ...

  6. The African Organisation for Research and Training in Cancer and its conferences: a historical perspective and highlights of the Ninth International Conference, Durban, South Africa, 21–24 November 2013

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Christopher KO; Cristina Stefan, D; Rawlinson, Fiona; Simbiri, Kenneth; Mbulaiteye, Sam M

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the African Organisation for Research and Training in Cancer (AORTIC), both at its inception in the early 1980s, and at its reactivation in 2000 following a decade of inactivity, included bringing the products of decades of advances in cancer research to African populations through international collaboration. The historical perspective provided in this report illustrates progress in achieving these objectives through successive continent-wide activities over a period of 30 years, culminating in the organisation’s most recent conference held in Durban, South Africa, 21–24 November 2013. The constant growth in the number of attendants and increasing diversity of the nations of their origin are consistent with advances, whereby the number of participants and the nations of their origin have grown from 24 in 1983 to almost 1000 in 2013, and from 14 to 70, respectively. While earlier AORTIC conferences used to assume the atmosphere of ‘jamborees’, more recent ones have morphed to problem-solving events, with the concerted collaboration of international organisations, including the World Health Organisation (WHO), International Union Against Cancer (UICC), the Africa Union (AU), the US National Cancer Institute (NCI), the International Psycho-Oncology Society (IPOS), and others. The topics of discussion at the Ninth AORTIC International Conference on Cancer in Africa in Durban were those of paramount importance for low- and middle-income countries: childhood cancers, cancers of the cervix, breast, and prostate, as well as cancer care challenges resulting from ignorance, neglect, and economic deprivation. The role of environmental factors that underlie Burkitt’s lymphoma was the subject of the Epidemiology of Burkitt Lymphoma in East-African Children and Minors Workshop, highlighting the NCI research programme in East Africa, while the Workshop on Cost Effectiveness of Treatment of Cancer in Africa surmised that treating childhood cancers is

  7. The African Organisation for Research and Training in Cancer and its conferences: a historical perspective and highlights of the Ninth International Conference, Durban, South Africa, 21-24 November 2013.

    PubMed

    Williams, Christopher Ko; Cristina Stefan, D; Rawlinson, Fiona; Simbiri, Kenneth; Mbulaiteye, Sam M

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the African Organisation for Research and Training in Cancer (AORTIC), both at its inception in the early 1980s, and at its reactivation in 2000 following a decade of inactivity, included bringing the products of decades of advances in cancer research to African populations through international collaboration. The historical perspective provided in this report illustrates progress in achieving these objectives through successive continent-wide activities over a period of 30 years, culminating in the organisation's most recent conference held in Durban, South Africa, 21-24 November 2013. The constant growth in the number of attendants and increasing diversity of the nations of their origin are consistent with advances, whereby the number of participants and the nations of their origin have grown from 24 in 1983 to almost 1000 in 2013, and from 14 to 70, respectively. While earlier AORTIC conferences used to assume the atmosphere of 'jamborees', more recent ones have morphed to problem-solving events, with the concerted collaboration of international organisations, including the World Health Organisation (WHO), International Union Against Cancer (UICC), the Africa Union (AU), the US National Cancer Institute (NCI), the International Psycho-Oncology Society (IPOS), and others. The topics of discussion at the Ninth AORTIC International Conference on Cancer in Africa in Durban were those of paramount importance for low- and middle-income countries: childhood cancers, cancers of the cervix, breast, and prostate, as well as cancer care challenges resulting from ignorance, neglect, and economic deprivation. The role of environmental factors that underlie Burkitt's lymphoma was the subject of the Epidemiology of Burkitt Lymphoma in East-African Children and Minors Workshop, highlighting the NCI research programme in East Africa, while the Workshop on Cost Effectiveness of Treatment of Cancer in Africa surmised that treating childhood cancers is affordable

  8. The African Organisation for Research and Training in Cancer and its conferences: a historical perspective and highlights of the Ninth International Conference, Durban, South Africa, 21-24 November 2013.

    PubMed

    Williams, Christopher Ko; Cristina Stefan, D; Rawlinson, Fiona; Simbiri, Kenneth; Mbulaiteye, Sam M

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the African Organisation for Research and Training in Cancer (AORTIC), both at its inception in the early 1980s, and at its reactivation in 2000 following a decade of inactivity, included bringing the products of decades of advances in cancer research to African populations through international collaboration. The historical perspective provided in this report illustrates progress in achieving these objectives through successive continent-wide activities over a period of 30 years, culminating in the organisation's most recent conference held in Durban, South Africa, 21-24 November 2013. The constant growth in the number of attendants and increasing diversity of the nations of their origin are consistent with advances, whereby the number of participants and the nations of their origin have grown from 24 in 1983 to almost 1000 in 2013, and from 14 to 70, respectively. While earlier AORTIC conferences used to assume the atmosphere of 'jamborees', more recent ones have morphed to problem-solving events, with the concerted collaboration of international organisations, including the World Health Organisation (WHO), International Union Against Cancer (UICC), the Africa Union (AU), the US National Cancer Institute (NCI), the International Psycho-Oncology Society (IPOS), and others. The topics of discussion at the Ninth AORTIC International Conference on Cancer in Africa in Durban were those of paramount importance for low- and middle-income countries: childhood cancers, cancers of the cervix, breast, and prostate, as well as cancer care challenges resulting from ignorance, neglect, and economic deprivation. The role of environmental factors that underlie Burkitt's lymphoma was the subject of the Epidemiology of Burkitt Lymphoma in East-African Children and Minors Workshop, highlighting the NCI research programme in East Africa, while the Workshop on Cost Effectiveness of Treatment of Cancer in Africa surmised that treating childhood cancers is affordable

  9. Marriage and Health in the Transition to Adulthood: Evidence for African Americans in Add Health.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Lee, Hedwig; Deleone, Felicia Yang

    2010-08-01

    This paper examines the relationship between early marriage (before age 26), cohabitation, and health for African Americans and whites during the transition to adulthood using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). We examine three categories of health outcomes relevant to young adulthood: physical health, mental health, and health risk behaviors. Lagged dependent variable models are used to examine the health effects of early marriage and cohabitation accounting for potential health selection into unions. Our results indicate that early marriage by young adults does not have protective effects for African Americans, and finds more negative effects for African American men than women. There are mixed results for whites with some protective effects of marriage for binge drinking. Early marriage for both African Americans and whites is associated with increased Body Mass Index (BMI). Cohabitation is uniformly associated with negative health outcomes for all race and sex groups.

  10. Interfacial nanodroplets guided construction of hierarchical Au, Au-Pt, and Au-Pd particles as excellent catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Aijing; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Xuehua; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Dayang; Xu, Haolan

    2014-01-01

    Interfacial nanodroplets were grafted to the surfaces of self-sacrificed template particles in a galvanic reaction system to assist the construction of 3D Au porous structures. The interfacial nanodroplets were formed via direct adsorption of surfactant-free emulsions onto the particle surfaces. The interfacial nanodroplets discretely distributed at the template particle surfaces and served as soft templates to guide the formation of porous Au structures. The self-variation of footprint sizes of interfacial nanodroplets during Au growth gave rise to a hierarchical pore size distribution of the obtained Au porous particles. This strategy could be easily extended to synthesize bimetal porous particles such as Au-Pt and Au-Pd. The obtained porous Au, Au-Pt, and Au-Pd particles showed excellent catalytic activity in catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol. PMID:24797697

  11. Nonmarital Fertility, Union History, and Women's Wealth.

    PubMed

    Painter, Matthew; Frech, Adrianne; Williams, Kristi

    2015-02-01

    We use more than 20 years of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 to examine wealth trajectories among mothers following a nonmarital first birth. We compare wealth according to union type and union stability, and we distinguish partners by biological parentage of the firstborn child. Net of controls for education, race/ethnicity, and family background, single mothers who enter into stable marriages with either a biological father or stepfather experience significant wealth advantages over time (more than $2,500 per year) relative to those who marry and divorce, cohabit, or remain unpartnered. Sensitivity analyses adjusting for unequal selection into marriage support these findings and demonstrate that race (but not ethnicity) and age at first birth structure mothers' access to later marriage. We conclude that not all single mothers have equal access to marriage; however, marriage, union stability, and paternity have distinct roles for wealth accumulation following a nonmarital birth.

  12. Is there a physician union in your future?

    PubMed

    McGraw, S E; Rodriguez, T A

    1997-01-01

    Physician unions are in the news. Patient management and patient care decisions are increasingly being taken out of the hands of physicians and put into the hands of "The Suits." To take their case for a return to physician-driven patient care to the people, some physicians are joining unions. Some are even collectively bargaining for salary and other issues that are historically more closely associated with unions. The simple fact is that physician unions exist and the number of physicians joining them is expected to increase. What are the pros and cons of unionization? What motivates physicians to join unions, and what potential negative and positive factors are associated with physician unionization? This article reviews the pros and cons and the issues related to physician unions, for physicians attempting to answer the question, "Is there a union in my future?"

  13. [European Union fight against smoking related activitiy].

    PubMed

    Calvete Oliva, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    This study is aimed at providing information concerning the provisions adopted by the European Union on both a compulsory and non-compulsory basis for its member States related in one way or another to the fight against smoking. To this end, a review is made of all of the provisions published in the Official Journal of the European Union as of the first published in 1986 up to March 2005, commenting upon the aspects of each provision having to do with the subject stated above.

  14. [Legalization of consensual unions in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Pebley, A R; Goldman, N

    1986-01-01

    Data examined in this study are from the 1976 Mexican Fertility Survey. The authors review previous findings and compare information from this survey with data from the 1969 PECFAL Survey. They then examine the types of consensual union and factors such as women's age, educational status, occupation, premarital fertility, and rural or urban residence. The focus of the study is on the extent to which consensual unions eventually become legal marriages. The authors also investigate the increasing probability of termination of marriage through divorce or separation, especially in urban areas. PMID:12314402

  15. Phénomènes karstiques fossiles et actuels au sein des formations métamorphiques silico-alumineuses de la nappe pan-africaine de Yaoundé (Sud-Cameroun)Fossil and present-time karstic phenomena in silico-aluminous metamorphic formations of the Pan-African nappe of Yaoundé (South-Cameroon)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicat, Jean-Paul; Mvondo, Hubert; Willems, Luc; Pouclet, André

    Numerous karstic features have been recognised in the non-carbonaceous micaschists and gneisses of the Yaoundé Pan-African nappe, south of Cameroon. It is shown that their formation was controlled by the structural features of the rocks. The wells and the pipes in the bedrock outcrops point out a current karstification process, resulting from the plagioclase dissolution by the acid rain waters. Hill wall alveoli and caves, of pre-Miocene age, are exhumed features that were done by dissolution in the aquiferous underground. To cite this article: J.-P. Vicat et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 545-550.

  16. Self-efficacy as a mediator of the relationship between perceived union barriers and women's participation in union activities.

    PubMed

    Bulger, C A; Mellor, S

    1997-12-01

    This study investigated the influence of union self-efficacy (expectations of success in pursuit of union activities) as a mediator of the relationship between perceptions of barriers to union participation and women's participation in union activities (N = 89). Perceived barriers were defined in 4 domains (community, family, union, work), and self-efficacy was operationalized based on C. Lee and P. Bobko's (1994) analysis of self-efficacy measures (self-efficacy magnitude, self-efficacy strength). Union self-efficacy was found to mediate the relationship between the magnitude of perceived union barriers and the magnitude of union participation, although mediation was limited to women with weak union self-efficacy. Implications for designing training and intervention programs to enhance women's participation in the face of perceived barriers are discussed.

  17. South African underwater diving accidents, 1969-1976.

    PubMed

    Landsberg, P G

    1976-12-25

    Since 1969 a survey of diving accidents involving South African amateur divers was undertaken. The South African Underwater Union diving accident report form was used, and various State agents (SA Police and inquest courts) and individual divers and club instructors were questioned. This survey covers the period up to the end of June 1976. Data acquired during the 8-year period 1969 - 1976 are compared. A conservative estimate from the number of certificates issued to club divers indicates a 25% increase in diver population, while the number of fatilities has decreased from 0,1% in 1971 to 0,016% in 1976, indicating the importance of accident reporting in determining safety trends. In general, a change in pattern is observed during the last 4 years, showing more SCUBA than breath-hold fatalities. The formation of the Decompression Sickness and Diving Accidents Investigation Panel as a further measure to decrease fatal diving accidents is discussed.

  18. Archaeal Diversity in Waters from Deep South African Gold Mines

    SciTech Connect

    Takai, Ken; Moser, Duane P.; Deflaun, Mary; Onstott, Tullis C.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2001-12-01

    Culture-independent molecular analysis of archaeal communities in waters collected from deep South African gold (Au) mines was performed by PCR-mediated terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of rRNA genes (rDNA) in conjunction with sequencing analysis of archaeal rDNA clone libraries. Water samples represented various environments including: deep fissure water; mine service water; and water from an overlying dolomite aquifer. T-RFLP analysis revealed that the ribotype distribution of archaea varied directly with the source of the water. The archaeal communities in the deep Au mine environments revealed a large phylogenetic diversity; the majority of members were most closely related to uncultivated species. Some archaeal rDNA clones obtained from mine service water and dolomite aquifer water samples were most closely related to the environmental rDNA clones from surface soil (Soil clones) and marine environments (Marine Group I; MGI). Other clones possessed an intermediate phylogenetic affiliation between soil clones and MGI within the Crenarchaea. Fissure water samples, derived from active or dormant geothermal environments, yielded archaeal sequences of novel phylogeny including a novel lineage of Euryarchaeota. These results suggest that deep South African Au mines harbor novel archaeal communities distinct from those observed in other environments. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of archaeal strains and rDNA clones, including these newly discovered archaeal rDNA clones, the evolutionary relationship and the phylogenetic organization of the domain Archaea is reevaluated.

  19. Residential Differences in Cohabitors' Union Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Susan L.; Snyder, Anastasia R.

    2006-01-01

    Using data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth, we examine residential variation in cohabiting women's union outcomes. Prior work has shown that although there are no residential differences in cohabitation, nonmetro women are more likely than others to marry directly and hold more favorable attitudes toward marriage. Building on this…

  20. Singing All the Way to the Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Joe Grim

    2010-01-01

    In early 1909, just over a hundred years ago, the Spokane, Washington, branch of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) got a reputation as a "singing union." Later that year, the same Spokane branch of the IWW embarked on a massive free speech fight. IWW agitators would arrive on street corners, call on the crowds not to pay for work, and…

  1. HUELGA, A MILESTONE IN FARM UNIONISM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COHEN, IRVING J.

    EARLY ATTEMPTS DURING THE 20TH CENTURY TO ORGANIZE FARM WORKERS, TO GAIN WAGE INCREASES, AND TO SECURE EMPLOYER RECOGNITION OF A UNION AS THE WORKERS' AGENT FOR COLLECTIVE BARGAINING FAILED. AN ESTIMATED 380 AGRICULTURAL STRIKES INVOLVED OVER 200,000 WORKERS IN 33 STATES BETWEEN 1930 AND 1948. THE NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS ACT, ENACTED AS A RESULT…

  2. 75 FR 75648 - Corporate Credit Unions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... Board issued a proposed rule amending its corporate credit union rule. 75 FR 73000 (November 29, 2010... is not also a member. 75 FR 73000 (November 29, 2010). NCUA requested comments on its proposal and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT...

  3. [A Profile of Union County, South Carolina].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilley, Stephen C.; McLean, Edward L.

    Now almost totally dependent on textile production, heavily forested Union County, South Carolina, was primarily agricultural until the 20th century. By 1970, 65% of the population depended on manufacturing and only 4% of the workers on farming. From 1920 to 1970 the population was characterized by a rural-to-urban shift and by outmigration,…

  4. Further Thoughts on Unionization and University Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, David M.

    1994-01-01

    David Cameron responds to a review of his book, "More than an Academic Question," which examines Canadian higher education, justifying his opposition to faculty unionization on both moral and professional grounds and reiterating the need to strengthen university governing boards. (SM)

  5. Economic Demise of the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foundation for Teaching Economics, San Francisco, CA.

    This series of lesson plans and activities deals with the economic demise of the now-defunct Soviet Union. Each of the five lessons and six activities addresses identified standards and benchmarks from the Voluntary National Content Standards in Economics. The lesson plans also address the National History Content Standards, in terms of both the…

  6. A Union Member's Guide to Employee Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juravich, Tom; Harris, Howard

    This guide is intended to be a first-time, general introduction to employee involvement for trade unionists--local leaders, stewards, and rank-and-file members. It makes no attempt to be comprehensive, but instead raises the major issues concerning employee involvement framed in trade union terms. Part I looks at the kinds of employee involvement…

  7. Unionization of Educational Administrators in the USA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlitz, Howard

    1979-01-01

    The author finds two major threats to school decision-making structures in the current trend toward unionization among school principals. First, it separates middle managers from top management, disrupting the traditional team approach to policymaking. Second, it requires greater specification and therefore restriction and formalization of roles.…

  8. Multi-Union Efforts in New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newfield, Marcia

    2008-01-01

    The Professional Staff Congress (PSC), the union for twenty-two thousand faculty and staff members at the City University of New York (CUNY), has been successful at gaining New York State aid for tuition remission for doctoral students and health insurance for graduate student employees, increasing budget allotments to CUNY, and obtaining transit…

  9. Regulatory pathways in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Manuela

    2011-01-01

    In principle, there are three defined procedures to obtain approval for a medicinal product in the European Union. As discussed in this overview of the procedures, the decision on which regulatory pathway to use will depend on the nature of the active substance, the target indication(s), the history of product and/or the marketing strategy. PMID:21487236

  10. Student v. Union: Colleges at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byman, Abigail

    1990-01-01

    College union administrators should be careful about the use of facilities, particularly in public schools, because of the potential for legal liability. Institutions of higher education today are vulnerable to being sued in regard to issues of free speech, trespass, and religion. Areas of potential liability include (1) serving alcoholic…

  11. Retrenchment Clauses in Faculty Union Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Gary

    1993-01-01

    Examination of retrenchment clauses in the faculty union contracts at 42 colleges and universities focused on implications for tenure rights and the roles prescribed for faculty and administrators. Concepts of financial exigency and shared governance are highlighted. Contracts were found to provide faculty with a limited and reactive role during…

  12. Keeping a Dream Alive: Cooper Union Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwan, Irene

    1984-01-01

    Profiles the Cooper Union Library, a private academic library specializing in architecture, art, and engineering that celebrated its 125th anniversary in fall 1984. Highlights include a biographical sketch of the college's founder, Peter Cooper; construction of the building; curriculum changes; library services and materials; and cooperative and…

  13. Teachers' Unions Take Own Path on Election

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on two national teachers' unions' different approaches to the 2008 U.S. election campaign. The National Education Association is ready to spend $40 million this election year, but it is not ready to endorse a candidate for president. The American Federation Teachers, by contrast, is working aggressively for U.S. Sen. Hillary…

  14. Teachers Unions and the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The media and observers across the ideological spectrum were surprised and, in some cases, disconcerted in July 2014, when at the annual American Federation of Teachers (AFT) convention in Los Angeles, the union's leadership team announced that its Innovation Fund grants of $20,000 to $30,000 were going to be made available to state and local…

  15. Letters of a Slave Turned Union Soldier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humanities, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the influx of Black soldiers into the Union army following the Emancipation Proclamation. Concentrates on the case of Private Spotswood Rice. Provides a short history of Rice, including copies of Rice's letters to his enslaved daughters, the daughter's slaveholders, and an angry retort from the slaveowner to the federal commander in…

  16. Current Options for Determining Fracture Union

    PubMed Central

    Morshed, Saam

    2014-01-01

    Determining whether a bone fracture is healed is one of the most important and fundamental clinical determinations made in orthopaedics. However, there are currently no standardized methods of assessing fracture union, which in turn has created significant disagreement among orthopaedic surgeons in both clinical and research settings. An extensive amount of research has been dedicated to finding novel and reliable ways of determining healing with some promising results. Recent advancements in imaging techniques and introduction of new radiographic scores have helped decrease the amount of disagreement on this topic among physicians. The knowledge gained from biomechanical studies of bone healing has helped us refine our tools and create more efficient and practical research instruments. Additionally, a deeper understanding of the molecular pathways involved in the bone healing process has led to emergence of serologic markers as possible candidates in assessment of fracture union. In addition to our current physician centered methods, patient-centered approaches assessing quality of life and function are gaining popularity in assessment of fracture union. Despite these advances, assessment of union remains an imperfect practice in the clinical setting. Therefore, clinicians need to draw on multiple modalities that directly and indirectly measure or correlate with bone healing when counseling patients. PMID:26556422

  17. The Organizational Impact of University Labor Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickens, Christine M.

    2008-01-01

    The current review presents both postulated and empirically tested consequences of university unionization and labor strikes on the North American institution's administration, faculty, and students. The review explores the impact of collective bargaining on employee working conditions including job security, academic freedom, university…

  18. Union, States Wage Frontal Attack on NCLB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Bess; Sack, Joetta L.

    2005-01-01

    Widespread sniping at the Bush administration's centerpiece education law escalated into a frontal attack as the nation's largest teachers' union. Several school districts sued federal officials over the measure, just a day after the Utah legislature approved a bill challenging the reach of the law. The National Education Association's suit…

  19. Teacher of the Year to Union President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Richard Lee

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Richard Lee Colvin, provides an uplifting history of the current vice president and next President of the National Education Association (NEA), Lily Eskelsen García, the first Hispanic head of the nation's largest union. Colvin describes Garcia as a powerful labor and political leader. Colvin describes NEA's beginning in…

  20. Unions Feeling Chill on State Capital Front

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2011-01-01

    Teachers' unions find themselves on the defensive in states across the country, as governors and lawmakers press forward with proposals to target job protections and benefits that elected officials contend the public can no longer afford academically or financially. Many of those efforts are being driven by newly elected Republicans, who have…

  1. The Soviet Union: Population Trends and Dilemmas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feshbach, Murray

    1982-01-01

    Recent trends and differentials among the Soviet Union's 15 republics and major nationalities are reviewed, focusing on fertility, mortality and urbanization, the prospect for labor supplies and military manpower, emigration, and projected population growth to 2000. Estimated at 270 million as of mid-1982, the Soviet population is currently…

  2. Optoelectronics research in the former Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, H. C., Jr.; Bishop, S. G.; Eichen, E.; Kazarinov, R. F.; Taylor, H. F.

    1992-05-01

    Optoelectronics research in the former Soviet Union has been examined in the areas of eptitaxial layer growth and device processing, photonic devices such as semiconductor laser and photodetectors, high-speed lasers, the integration of photonic devices and transistors for optoelectronic integrated circuits (OEIC's), optical amplifiers, optoelectronic switching, and optical communications. These devices are largely prepared with 3-5 compound semiconductors. The assessment by a panel of US experts is based on a review of the translated Soviet technical literature, supplemented by information from recent visits to the former Soviet Union. The majority of Soviet optoelectronic devices were fabricated on wafers prepared by liquid-phase epitaxy. The strongest area of Soviet optoelectronic device research has been semiconductor lasers. No reports of ER(3+)-doped fiber amplifiers were found in the Soviet literature. However, Er(3+)-doped fiber fabrication is extremely simple, and, given its traditional strengths in the area of glass fabrication, the former Soviet Union should have the capability to fabricate Er(3+)-doped optical-fiber amplifiers. The current turmoil in the former Soviet Union makes predictions of the future difficult. It is likely that researchers will be driven to develop funding ties with foreign entities, and they also will become better integrated into the world research community by publishing in foreign (mainly US) journals.

  3. Leading Student Groups to the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winokur, Marshall

    1981-01-01

    Describes student tours to the Soviet Union, discussing the benefits to be derived from such experiences by both students and leaders. In particular, discusses the organization of the tours, their types and costs, advertising strategies, suggested itineraries and guidebooks, student orientation and group composition, and problems encountered…

  4. 75 FR 64785 - Corporate Credit Unions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... changes to the structure of the corporate credit union (corporate) system were warranted. 74 FR 6004 (Feb... related rule provisions. 74 FR 65210 (Dec. 9, 2009). The proposed revisions covered corporate capital... corporate's directors be representatives of NPCUs. +36 months. 704.15 Audit requirements..... No N/A....

  5. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  6. 29 CFR 452.48 - Employees of union.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... employees from being candidates for union office, because of the potential conflict of interest arising from the employment relationship which could be detrimental to the union as an institution....

  7. English as an African Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desai, Gaurav

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the role of the English language in postcolonial African literature, focusing on the politics of language, "Africanized" English, and the social languages used in Chinua Achebe's novels and concludes that English today is as much an African language as a British or American one. (Contains 37 references.) (MDM)

  8. The Struggles over African Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maseko, Pam; Vale, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this interview, African Language expert Pam Maseko speaks of her own background and her first encounter with culture outside of her mother tongue, isiXhosa. A statistical breakdown of South African languages is provided as background. She discusses Western (originally missionary) codification of African languages and suggests that this approach…

  9. Au36(SPh)23 nanomolecules.

    PubMed

    Nimmala, Praneeth Reddy; Dass, Amala

    2011-06-22

    A new core size protected completely by an aromatic thiol, Au(36)(SPh)(23), is synthesized and characterized by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and UV-visible spectroscopy. The synthesis involving core size changes is studied by MS, and the complete ligand coverage by aromatic thiol group is shown by NMR.

  10. Some physical and chemical indices of the Union Jack lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuli; Yan, Weigen; Tian, Tao

    2015-02-01

    The Union Jack lattice is the dual lattice of the 4.8.8 lattice. The quantum spin model with frustration and the Ising model on the Union Jack lattice have been studied extensively by physicists. In this paper, we derive the spectrum and Laplacian spectrum of the Union Jack lattice with toroidal boundary condition. As applications, we obtain the formulae of the number of spanning trees, the energy, and the Kirchhoff index of the Union Jack lattice with toroidal boundary condition.

  11. Union Type and Depressive Symptoms among Mexican Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmeer, Kammi K.; Kroeger, Rhiannon A.

    2011-01-01

    Diversity in union type is increasing around the world as cohabitation and higher order unions become more prevalent in developing and developed countries. This necessitates a more nuanced understanding of how different union types relate to individual well-being across social settings. In this study, the authors analyze nationally-representative…

  12. Unions Striking Back at Bills to Curb Labor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Besieged by state proposals to eviscerate collective bargaining, eliminate teacher tenure, and make it harder to collect dues, teachers' unions are fighting back. Lawsuits supported by local union affiliates have for now blocked anti-union legislation in Alabama and Wisconsin. E-mail "blasts," phone banks, and rallies are also among the tools…

  13. Evaluation of the Union County Alternative to Suspension Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Joyce Ann

    2010-01-01

    The schools in Union County have undergone a tremendous amount of growth in the past decade. The growth in the county has led to an increase in discipline problems. In order to provide suspended students a second chance, Union County Public Schools implemented an alternative to suspension program, the Union County Alternative to Suspension Program…

  14. Union Membership and Political Participation in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerrissey, Jasmine; Schofer, Evan

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the effect of union membership on civic and political participation in the late 20th century in the United States. We discuss why and how unions seek to mobilize their members and where mobilization is channeled. We argue that union membership affects electoral and collective action outcomes and will be larger for low…

  15. "New and Improved" Teacher Unionism: But Will It Wash?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerchner, Charles; Koppich, Julia; Weeres, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    Unions are increasingly advocating for teaching as an occupation and for public education as an American institution. New and improved unionism is replacing teachers as industrial workers with teachers as knowledge workers empowered to devise educational solutions from the classroom up. Unions' new vision will be organized around quality,…

  16. The Survival of Employee Participation Programs in Unionized Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Adrienne E.

    1994-01-01

    A survey of 86 union representatives in worksites with employee participation programs was followed 3 years later with a survey of 66 reps and 49 corresponding managers. Only 20-30% of the programs failed, although management and union opinions differed. Union reps attributed failure to poor labor relations and were more likely than management to…

  17. The Future of Teachers' Unions: A Call for Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawton, Stephen B.

    2000-01-01

    Presents four initiatives to make Canadian teacher unions more customer-centered and competitive: (1) make union membership optional; (2) sell union services to members and nonmembers; (3) lobby for school-level concerns and conduct controversial political lobbying through arms-length organizations; and (4) take more supportive stances toward…

  18. Worker Participation and American Unions. Threat or Opportunity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochan, Thomas A.; And Others

    This book reports results of a study of the efects of quality of worklife programs and related forms of worker participation on unions and the collective bargaining process. Chapter 1 describes the evolution of worker participation in unionized settings and summarizes basic propositions in models of joint union-management change. In chapter 2 five…

  19. 12 CFR 704.3 - Corporate credit union capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., management strength, and future prospects of the corporate credit union and, if applicable, its subsidiaries... earnings and PCC (excluding, if a corporate credit union exercises the capital prioritization option under... exceed retained earnings and PCC (excluding, if a corporate credit union exercises the...

  20. 12 CFR 704.3 - Corporate credit union capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., management strength, and future prospects of the corporate credit union and, if applicable, its subsidiaries... earnings and PCC (excluding, if a corporate credit union exercises the capital prioritization option under... exceed retained earnings and PCC (excluding, if a corporate credit union exercises the...

  1. 12 CFR 704.3 - Corporate credit union capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., management strength, and future prospects of the corporate credit union and, if applicable, its subsidiaries... earnings and PCC (excluding, if a corporate credit union exercises the capital prioritization option under... exceed retained earnings and PCC (excluding, if a corporate credit union exercises the...

  2. What Can Trade Unions Do To Combat Child Labour?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myrstad, Geir

    1999-01-01

    Examines mainly practical activities of trade unions to fight child labor. Argues that trade unions can give the most significant contribution to the struggle against child labor by focusing on methods that are typical for, or even exclusive to, the trade union movement, in particular negotiations and collective bargaining. (Author)

  3. Learning, Labour and Union Learning Representatives: Promoting Workplace Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    The initiative by the Trades Union Congress (TUC) and affiliated trade unions in the UK to appoint trade union learning representatives (ULRs), to promote learning among their members, is a significant development in adult learning. Understandably, the initiative has attracted the attention of academic researchers, but primarily from the…

  4. Teachers' Perceptions Regarding the Value of a Local Teacher Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Sidney L.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 3 years, teacher union membership has significantly decreased in the state of Georgia. This decrease in union membership is troubling, as previous research has shown that union membership is positively connected to teacher satisfaction and, in turn, to student success. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to determine why…

  5. New "Right to Work" Laws Could Hobble Faculty Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Faculty unions outside Michigan have reason to be concerned with its passage of legislation barring unions from collecting fees from workers who do not join them. But the experiences of faculty unions in states that adopted such laws years ago suggest that while the measures can be a major hindrance to their work, they are not a death blow.…

  6. A Union of Professionals: Labor Relations and Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerchner, Charles Taylor; Koppich, Julia E.

    This book examines the changing role of teacher unions in the educational reform movement. It contains nine case studies of unions across the United States that are forging new, collaborative relationships with management in a reconceptualization of "professional unionism." Chapters include: (1) "Building the Airplane While It's Rolling Down the…

  7. The Genetic Structure and History of Africans and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Tishkoff, Sarah A.; Reed, Floyd A.; Friedlaender, Françoise R.; Ehret, Christopher; Ranciaro, Alessia; Froment, Alain; Hirbo, Jibril B.; Awomoyi, Agnes A.; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Juma, Abdalla T.; Kotze, Maritha J.; Lema, Godfrey; Moore, Jason H.; Mortensen, Holly; Nyambo, Thomas B.; Omar, Sabah A.; Powell, Kweli; Pretorius, Gideon S.; Smith, Michael W.; Thera, Mahamadou A.; Wambebe, Charles; Weber, James L.; Williams, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    Africa is the source of all modern humans, but characterization of genetic variation and of relationships among populations across the continent has been enigmatic. We studied 121 African populations, four African American populations, and 60 non-African populations for patterns of variation at 1327 nuclear microsatellite and insertion/deletion markers. We identified 14 ancestral population clusters in Africa that correlate with self-described ethnicity and shared cultural and/or linguistic properties. We observed high levels of mixed ancestry in most populations, reflecting historical migration events across the continent. Our data also provide evidence for shared ancestry among geographically diverse hunter-gatherer populations (Khoesan speakers and Pygmies). The ancestry of African Americans is predominantly from Niger-Kordofanian (~71%), European (~13%), and other African (~8%) populations, although admixture levels varied considerably among individuals. This study helps tease apart the complex evolutionary history of Africans and African Americans, aiding both anthropological and genetic epidemiologic studies. PMID:19407144

  8. Global polarization measurement in Au+Au collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Abelev, B.I.; Adams, J.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Ahammed, Z.; Amonett,J.; Anderson, B.D.; Anderson, M.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G.S.; Bai,Y.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L.S.; Baudot, J.; Bekele, S.; Belaga, V.V.; Bellingeri-Laurikainen, A.; Bellwied, R.; Benedosso, F.; Bhardwaj, S.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A.K.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L.C.; Blyth, S.-L.; Bonner, B.E.; Botje, M.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A.V.; Bravar, A.; Bystersky, M.; Cadman, R.V.; Cai,X.Z.; Caines, H.; Calderon de la Barca Sanchez, M.; Castillo, J.; Catu,O.; Cebra, D.; Chajecki, Z.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen,H.F.; Chen, J.H.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Coffin, J.P.; Cormier, T.M.; Cosentino, M.R.; Cramer, J.G.; Crawford,H.J.; Das, D.; Das, S.; Daugherity, M.; de Moura, M.M.; Dedovich, T.G.; DePhillips, M.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Didenko, L.; Dietel, T.; Djawotho,P.; Dogra, S.M.; Dong, W.J.; Dong, X.; Draper, J.E.; Du, F.; Dunin, V.B.; Dunlop, J.C.; Dutta Mazumdar, M.R.; Eckardt, V.; Edwards, W.R.; Efimov,L.G.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Fachini, P.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Filimonov, K.; Filip, P.; Finch,E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Fu, J.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Gaillard, L.; Ganti,M.S.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gonzalez, J.S.; Gorbunov, Y.G.; Gos,H.; Grebenyuk, O.; Grosnick, D.; Guertin, S.M.; Guimaraes, K.S.F.F.; Guo,Y.; Gupta, N.; Gutierrez, T.D.; Haag, B.; Hallman, T.J.; Hamed, A.; Harris, J.W.; He, W.; Heinz, M.; Henry, T.W.; Hepplemann, S.; Hippolyte,B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffman, A.M.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Horner, M.J.; Huang, H.Z.; Huang, S.L.; Hughes, E.W.; Humanic, T.J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs,P.; Jacobs, W.W.; Jakl, P.; Jia, F.; Jiang, H.; Jones, P.G.; Judd, E.G.; Kabana, S.; Kang, K.; Kapitan, J.; Kaplan, M.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khodyrev,V.Yu.; Kim, B.C.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Kislov, E.M.; Klein,S.R.; Kocoloski, A.; Koetke, D.D.; et al.

    2007-08-02

    The system created in non-central relativisticnucleus-nucleus collisions possesses large orbital angular momentum. Dueto spin-orbit coupling, particles produced in such a system could becomeglobally polarized along the direction of the system angular momentum. Wepresent the results of Lambda and anti-Lambda hyperon global polarizationmeasurements in Au+Au collisions at sqrt sNN=62.4 GeV and 200 GeVperformed with the STAR detector at RHIC. The observed globalpolarization of Lambda and anti-Lambda hyperons in the STAR acceptance isconsistent with zero within the precision of the measurements. Theobtained upper limit, lbar P Lambda, anti-Lambda rbar<= 0.02, iscompared to the theoretical values discussed recently in theliterature.

  9. The Other African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matory, J. Lorand

    Black North America is ethnically and culturally diverse. It contains many groups who do not call themselves or have not always called themselves "Negro,""Black,""African-American," and so forth, such as Louisiana Creoles of color and many of the Indian tribes east of the Mississippi. There are also numerous North American ethnic groups of African…

  10. African Oral Tradition Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Doris

    1985-01-01

    Presents the basic principles of two systems for notating African music and dance: Labanotation (created to record and analyze movements) and Greenotation (created to notate musical instruments of Africa and to parallel Labanotation whereby both music and dance are incorporated into one integrated score). (KH)

  11. Elective: African Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Kenneth V.

    The make-up of a course in African literature for high school students is discussed. It is pointed out that the course can be constructed on already familiar lines. High school students will be able to describe clearly, for example, the relationship between environment and character or the dilemma of characters caught between traditional values…

  12. Do Strong Unions Shape District Policies? Collective Bargaining, Teacher Contract Restrictiveness, and the Political Power of Teachers' Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strunk, Katharine O.; Grissom, Jason A.

    2010-01-01

    A substantial amount of school district policy is set in the collective bargaining agreements (CBAs) negotiated between teachers' unions and districts. Although previous studies have assumed that CBA provisions bargained by unions are a primary mechanism connecting union strength to outcomes for teachers and students, research has not yet…

  13. Physician unionization: a threat to integration?

    PubMed

    1999-08-01

    Physicians, primarily those salaried by hospitals and health systems, are increasingly turning to labor unions to help them in their frustration over what they see as eroding clinical autonomy as well as diminishing compensation. Significantly, non-salaried physicians are also looking to the concept of collective bargaining as a tool in their negotiations with health insurers. The pro-labor doctors may get some of what they're looking for in the coming months and years, with a combination of economic and political forces driving the nascent trend forward regionally and nationwide. But victory won't come without a struggle and some major legal and regulatory hassles. And what will physician unionization mean for integrated health systems and other large healthcare organizations? Plenty, say industry observers and those in the trenches.

  14. [European Union funds and clinical toxicology].

    PubMed

    Wiszniewiecka, Monika; Cejrowski, Daniel; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Since 2014 we are heading the third programming period of help from European Union (EU). The new budget will run until 2020. From common resources of EU, 106 billion euro will reach Poland, of which about 82.3 billion to cohesion policy, levelling differences of regional development. Clinical toxicology centres will be able to apply for funding under the allocation for the health service. Polish health service very actively benefited from EU funds in previous programming periods, between 2004-2006, and 2007-2013. Thanks to grants from the EU, a large number of health centres were built or renovated. Unfortunately the needs of hospitals, which were underinvested for many years, exceeded available funds according to UE programmes. Except investment projects, also projects training of health professionals were executed. In the current programming period European Union will still support projects aimed at health service. Clinical toxicology centres should have a try of using this period to fulfil their plans.

  15. The Western European Union Satellite Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasani, Bhupendra; Mara, Simon

    1993-06-01

    In January 1993, the FALCON consortium of 13 European companies, led by Cray Systems, won the contract to supply a turnkey satellite image processing facility to the Western European Union. The project started immediately and will be installed at WEU's Data Centre in Torrejon near Madrid in December 1993. This paper discusses the development of an idea for a Regional Satellite Monitoring Agency (RSMA) which will be realized in December 1993 when the Centre becomes fully operational.

  16. US - Former Soviet Union environmental management activities

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) has been delegated the responsibility for US DOE`s cleanup of nuclear weapons complex. The nature and the magnitude of the waste management and environmental remediation problem requires the identification of technologies and scientific expertise from domestic and foreign sources. This booklet makes comparisons and describes coordinated projects and workshops between the USA and the former Soviet Union.

  17. d + Au hadron correlation measurements at PHENIX

    SciTech Connect

    Anne M. Sickles

    2014-05-13

    In these proceedings, we discuss recent results from d + Au collisions in PHENIX ridge related measurements and their possible hydrodynamic origin. We present the v2 at midrapidity and measurements of the pseudorapidity dependence of the ridge, distinguishing between the d-going and Au-going directions. We investigate the possible geometrical origin by comparing v2 in d + Au to that in p + Pb, Au + Au and Pb + Pb collisions. Future plans to clarify the role of geometry in small collision systems at RHIC are discussed.

  18. Physician unionization in the United States: fad or phenomenon?

    PubMed

    Hoff, T J

    2000-01-01

    This article explores the current trends and issues surrounding physician unionization in the United States, using data from secondary sources and nine interviews with leaders of organizations at the forefront of physician unionizing efforts. Several key points are supported by these data and prior unionization research. First, unions should become a viable organizing alternative for the almost 50% of doctors who are salaried employees because of fewer legal barriers to collective representation, the involvement of national labor unions with resources to spend on organizing, more physicians belonging to demographic groups less hostile to organized labor. and work-related pressures faced by physician-employee under managed care. A second key point is that unions will find it difficult to represent self-employed physicians because of the influence of organized medicine and legal barriers to gaining collective bargaining rights for this group. This discussion is intended to raise awareness of the physician union issue among health care policy-makers and researchers.

  19. 12 CFR 704.11 - Corporate Credit Union Service Organizations (Corporate CUSOs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Corporate Credit Union Service Organizations... AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS CORPORATE CREDIT UNIONS § 704.11 Corporate Credit Union Service Organizations... union; (2) Primarily serves credit unions; (3) Restricts its services to those related to the...

  20. Synthesis and optical property characterization of elongated AuPt and Pt@Au metal nanoframes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangji; Jang, Hee-Jeong; Jang, Ho Young; Hong, Soonchang; Moh, Sang Hyun; Park, Sungho

    2016-02-01

    We report a facile method to synthesize elongated nanoframes consisting of Pt and Au in solution. Pentagonal Au nanorods served as templates and successfully led to an elongated AuPt nanoframe after etching the core Au. Subsequently, the coating of Au around Pt ridges resulted in Pt@Au metal nanoframes. The resulting elongated nanostructure exhibited 5 well-defined ridges continuously connected along the long axis. During the shape evolution from pure Au nanorods to elongated Pt@Au metal nanoframes, their corresponding localized surface plasmon resonance bands were monitored. Especially, unique surface plasmon features were observed for elongated Pt@Au nanoframes where the short-axis oscillation of surface free electrons is strongly coupled but the long-axis oscillation is not coupled among the ridges.We report a facile method to synthesize elongated nanoframes consisting of Pt and Au in solution. Pentagonal Au nanorods served as templates and successfully led to an elongated AuPt nanoframe after etching the core Au. Subsequently, the coating of Au around Pt ridges resulted in Pt@Au metal nanoframes. The resulting elongated nanostructure exhibited 5 well-defined ridges continuously connected along the long axis. During the shape evolution from pure Au nanorods to elongated Pt@Au metal nanoframes, their corresponding localized surface plasmon resonance bands were monitored. Especially, unique surface plasmon features were observed for elongated Pt@Au nanoframes where the short-axis oscillation of surface free electrons is strongly coupled but the long-axis oscillation is not coupled among the ridges. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08200e

  1. The role of tephra studies in African paleoanthropology as exemplified by the Sidi Hakoma Tuff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WoldeGabriel, Giday; Endale, Tamrat; White, Tim D.; Thouveny, Nicolas; Hart, William K.; Renne, Paul R.; Asfaw, Berhane

    2013-01-01

    Beginning in the 1960s, geological and paleoanthropological exploration of the Ethiopian rift system's basins have led to the discovery and assembly of the most comprehensive record of human biological and technological change during the last 6 million years. The hominid fossils, including partial skeletons, were primarily discovered in the Afar Rift, the Main Ethiopian Rift, and in the Omo Basin of the broadly rifted zone of SW Ethiopia. The paleoanthropological research areas within the SW Afar Rift that have yielded many diverse hominid species and the oldest stone tools are, from north to south, Woranso-Mille (aff. Ardipithecus and Au. afarensis), Hadar (Au. afarensis, Homo sp.), Dikika (Au. afarensis), Gona (Ar. kadabba, Ar. ramidus, H. erectus, and oldest stone tools), Middle Awash (Ar. kadabba, Ar. ramidus, Au. anamensis, Au. afarensis, Au. garhi, H. erectus, H. rhodesiensis, H. sapiens idaltu, and the oldest paleo-butchery locality), and Galili (Au. afarensis). Additional hominid remains were discovered at Melka Kunture on the banks of the Awash River near its source along the western margin of the central part of the Main Ethiopian Rift (H. erectus), at Konso (H. erectus and A. boisei), and at the southern end of the MER, and in the Omo Basin (Au. anamensis, Au. afarensis, Au. aethiopicus, Au. boisei, H. habilis, and H. erectus). Distal and sometimes proximal tephra units interbedded within fossilifeous sedimentary deposits have become key elements in this work by providing chronological and correlative control and depositional contexts. Several regional tephra markers have been identified within the northern half of the eastern African rift valley in Ethiopia and Kenya, and in marine sediments of the Gulf of Aden Rift and the NW Indian Ocean. Out of the many regional tephra stratigraphic markers that range in age from the early Pliocene (3.97 Ma) to the late Pleistocene (0.16 Ma), the Sidi Hakoma Tuff (SHT) has been more widely identified and thoroughly

  2. Understanding traditional African healing

    PubMed Central

    MOKGOBI, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of traditional healers as well as the role of traditional healers in their communities are discussed. In conclusion, the services of traditional healers go far beyond the uses of herbs for physical illnesses. Traditional healers serve many roles which include but not limited to custodians of the traditional African religion and customs, educators about culture, counselors, social workers and psychologists. PMID:26594664

  3. Human African trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Lejon, Veerle; Bentivoglio, Marina; Franco, José Ramon

    2013-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness is a neglected tropical disease that affects populations in sub-Saharan Africa. The disease is caused by infection with the gambiense and rhodesiense subspecies of the extracellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei, and is transmitted to humans by bites of infected tsetse flies. The disease evolves in two stages, the hemolymphatic and meningoencephalitic stages, the latter being defined by central nervous system infection after trypanosomal traversal of the blood-brain barrier. African trypanosomiasis, which leads to severe neuroinflammation, is fatal without treatment, but the available drugs are toxic and complicated to administer. The choice of medication is determined by the infecting parasite subspecies and disease stage. Clinical features include a constellation of nonspecific symptoms and signs with evolving neurological and psychiatric alterations and characteristic sleep-wake disturbances. Because of the clinical profile variability and insidiously progressive central nervous system involvement, disease staging is currently based on cerebrospinal fluid examination, which is usually performed after the finding of trypanosomes in blood or other body fluids. No vaccine being available, control of human African trypanosomiasis relies on diagnosis and treatment of infected patients, assisted by vector control. Better diagnostic tools and safer, easy to use drugs are needed to facilitate elimination of the disease.

  4. Diversity among African Pygmies

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez Rozzi, Fernando V.; Sardi, Marina L.

    2010-01-01

    Although dissimilarities in cranial and post-cranial morphology among African pygmies groups have been recognized, comparative studies on skull morphology usually pull all pygmies together assuming that morphological characters are similar among them and different with respect to other populations. The main aim of this study is to compare cranial morphology between African pygmies and non-pygmies populations from Equatorial Africa derived from both the Eastern and the Western regions in order to test if the greatest morphological difference is obtained in the comparison between pygmies and non-pygmies. Thirty three-dimensional (3D) landmarks registered with Microscribe in four cranial samples (Western and Eastern pygmies and non-pygmies) were obtained. Multivariate analysis (generalized Procrustes analysis, Mahalanobis distances, multivariate regression) and complementary dimensions of size were evaluated with ANOVA and post hoc LSD. Results suggest that important cranial shape differentiation does occur between pygmies and non-pygmies but also between Eastern and Western populations and that size changes and allometries do not affect similarly Eastern and Western pygmies. Therefore, our findings raise serious doubt about the fact to consider African pygmies as a homogenous group in studies on skull morphology. Differences in cranial morphology among pygmies would suggest differentiation after divergence. Although not directly related to skull differentiation, the diversity among pygmies would probably suggest that the process responsible for reduced stature occurred after the split of the ancestors of modern Eastern and Western pygmies. PMID:21049030

  5. African horse sickness.

    PubMed

    Zientara, S; Weyer, C T; Lecollinet, S

    2015-08-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a devastating disease of equids caused by an arthropod-borne virus belonging to the Reoviridae family, genus Orbivirus. It is considered a major health threat for horses in endemic areas in sub-Saharan Africa. African horse sickness virus (AHSV) repeatedly caused large epizootics in the Mediterranean region (North Africa and southern Europe in particular) as a result of trade in infected equids. The unexpected emergence of a closely related virus, the bluetongue virus, in northern Europe in 2006 has raised fears about AHSV introduction into Europe, and more specifically into AHSV-free regions that have reported the presence of AHSV vectors, e.g. Culicoides midges. North African and European countries should be prepared to face AHSV incursions in the future, especially since two AHSV serotypes (serotypes 2 and 7) have recently spread northwards to western (e.g. Senegal, Nigeria, Gambia) and eastern Africa (Ethiopia), where historically only serotype 9 had been isolated. The authors review key elements of AHS epidemiology, surveillance and prophylaxis. PMID:26601437

  6. [Women and tobacco in the European Union].

    PubMed

    Joossens, L; Sasco, A; Salvador, T; Villalbí, J R

    1999-01-01

    Over the last decades, the prevalence of smoking in the European Union has followed different trends by sex. While the prevalence has declined for men, it has increased or is stable for women. In some countries where these changes took place earlier, the prevalence of smoking is now higher among women than among men. This document provides quantitative data for these trends in the European Union, with special reference to the situation in Spain. In 1995 there were 60 million men and 42 million women smokers in the European Union. Up to 48% of female smokers used light cigarettes, that is 20 million women. There are documents from the tobacco industry showing that the goal of the promotion of light cigarettes is to reassure their clients and to keep as smokers those concerned about their health who are considering the possibility of quitting. There is evidence confirming that this policy is successful, and that the misconceptions of smokers about light cigarettes deter them from quitting. There is evidence on the role of smoking in weight control. Women are more concerned than men about their weight, and for young women body image is very relevant. Young girls often have the perception that they are overweight. Although fear of being overweight is more common than actual overweight, the evidence suggests that being afraid of gaining weight plays a role in keeping women as smokers, and that young girls begin smoking taking into consideration weight issues. The advice on how to maintain weight should be included in any smoking cessation program for women. Any preventive action for teen age smokers should include weight control issues.

  7. East African Rift Valley, Kenya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This rare, cloud free view of the East African Rift Valley, Kenya (1.5N, 35.5E) shows a clear view of the Turkwell River Valley, an offshoot of the African REift System. The East African Rift is part of a vast plate fracture which extends from southern Turkey, through the Red Sea, East Africa and into Mozambique. Dark green patches of forests are seen along the rift margin and tea plantations occupy the cooler higher ground.

  8. Injury Risk in International Rugby Union

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Isabel S.; Ranson, Craig; Mathema, Prabhat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Within international Rugby Union, only injury rates during the Rugby World Cup have been reported. Therefore, injury rates and types during other international tournaments are unknown. Purpose: To assess the 3-year incidence, severity, nature, and causes of match and training injuries sustained during different international tournaments played by the Welsh national Rugby Union team. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Injury data for all players (n = 78) selected for 1 national Rugby Union team over a 3-year period were analyzed using the international consensus statement methods. Player height (cm) and mass (kg) were recorded. Tournaments were grouped for comparisons as: autumn tournaments (2012 and 2013), Rugby World Cup (RWC; 2011), Six Nations (2012, 2013, and 2014), and summer tournaments (2012, 2013, and 2014). Injury incidence (injuries/1000 hours), prevalence (% of players unavailable), and severity (days lost) were calculated for each tournament. Injury location, type, and cause of match and training injuries were analyzed. Results: Match injury incidence was highest during autumn tournaments (262.5/1000 match-hours) and lowest during the RWC (178.6/1000 match-hours). Summer tournaments had the highest training incidence (5.5 injuries/1000 training-hours). Mild injuries were most likely during the RWC (risk ratio [RR], 2.02; 95% CI, 1.26-3.24), while severe injuries were most likely during autumn tournaments (RR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.70-6.29). Quadriceps hematomas (18.8/1000 match-hours; 95% CI, 11.3-31.1) and concussions (13.8/1000 match-hours; 95% CI, 7.6-24.8) were the most common match injuries, with shoulder dislocations being the most severe (111 mean days lost per injury). Conclusion: Injury rates were considerably higher than those previously reported for multiple teams during RWC tournaments. Further investigation of injury rates and risk factors is recommended to accurately gauge their impact within international Rugby

  9. [The national union for private hospital oncology].

    PubMed

    Parmentier, Gérard

    2013-06-01

    In the French health system, social security is the same for both public and private hospitals regardless of their status. In terms of number of patients screened, diagnosed, or treated, independant medicine is the most important sector in the French oncology. The multitude of organizations representing private hospitals or independant oncologists, physicians, radiologists or pathologists have a common organization, the National Union for Private Hospital Oncology (UNHPC). It bases its action on two founding postulates to ensure the quality of the oncology practice : the medical and managerial cultures are complementary and should be articulated ; the quality of organizations is as important as professional competence.

  10. State of the Union touches on science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    With the Senate impeachment trial as a backdrop, U.S. President Bill Clinton delivered a State of the Union address on January 19 that included a number of items related to science policy.Calling the threat of global warming “our most fateful new challenge,” the President proposed a package of climate change initiatives to help communities reduce greenhouse and other pollution, and tax incentives and investments to spur clean energy technology. He also offered to work with members of Congress in both parties to reward companies that take early, voluntary action to reduce greenhouse gases.

  11. Indian Geophysical Union celebrates 25th anniversary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Indian Geophysical Union under its president A.P. Mitra, director-general of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, is holding the seminar “Advances in Geophysical Research in India” at its 25th annual convention February 1-3 at the National Geophysical Research Institute (NGRI) in Hyderabad. Broad disciplines covered in the seminar are solid Earth geophysics, physics of the oceans, atmospheric sciences, solar-terrestrial relations, space sciences and planetology, and instrumentation. An international symposium on structure and dynamics of the Indian lithosphere is also part of the convention program.

  12. Premarital cohabitation and postmarital cohabiting union formation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Z

    1995-03-01

    "Previous research has indicated that premarital cohabitation decreases marital stability. This study examined the role of premarital cohabitation as a determinant of cohabitation after marital disruption. The author proposed that people who cohabited with their first spouse prior to marriage have a greater propensity to cohabit after marital disruption than people who did not cohabit before their first marriage. Event history analysis of the postmarital union experiences of women and men from the Canadian 1990 Family and Friends Survey (FFS) supports this proposition. It was found that the hazard rate of postmarital cohabitation was over 50% higher for premarital cohabitants than for noncohabitants."

  13. 78 FR 2449 - Office of Small Credit Unions (OSCUI) Grant Program Access for Credit Unions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    .... A revised Part 705 was published on November 2, 2011. 76 FR 67583. Additional requirements are found...-income members. It also serves as a source of funding to help low-income designated credit unions (LICUs... providing basic financial services to their low-income members to stimulate economic activities in...

  14. Union Learning Representatives: A Case Study of the Public and Commercial Services Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexandrou, Alex; Davies, John Dwyfor; Lee, John

    2005-01-01

    Union Learning Representatives (ULRs) are a relatively recent phenomenon and are a new category of lay representation within the workplace in the United Kingdom. They are part of the present New Labour administration's drive to expand and improve lifelong learning and create the new "learning society"--in this case, particularly amongst the…

  15. 78 FR 4875 - Office of Small Credit Unions (OSCUI) Loan Program Access for Credit Unions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... credit union's marketing strategy to reach members and the community; and include financial projections... November 2, 2011. 76 FR 67583. Additional requirements are found at 12 CFR Parts 701 and 741. Applicants... its strategy for raising matching funds if NCUA determines matching funds are required (see 12...

  16. Stability of marital unions and fertility in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Isiugo-Abanihe, U C

    1998-01-01

    Using nationally representative data, it is shown that marital unions are relatively stable in Nigeria. Remarriage rates are high so little time is lost between unions. Consequently, the fertility of women who have experienced marital disruption is only slightly lower than for those in stable unions. Their slightly lower parity may be a function of a high incidence of reproductive impairment, which is a major reason for divorce and separation in Nigeria.

  17. Agricultural aviation medicine in the Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Mohler, S R

    1980-05-01

    The Soviet Union has developed one of the world's most sophisticated civil aviation medicine programs. The program gives specific attention to aerial application operations and includes special preflight pilot medical examinations, aircraft with specialized protective airflow systems for the pilots, minimum flight altitude spraying limit of 5 m, and the use of a "chemical log book" by each pilot in addition to the flight log book. These and additional steps--i.e. limiting a pilot's daily agricultural flights to 4-6 h--have led to a reported USSR agricultural aviation annual accident rate near zero. The Soviet workhorse aircraft, the Antonov AN-2, can serve multipurpose roles since, when not used for application flights, it can be rapidly converted to executive, courier, cargo, or air taxi, or air ambulance use. A new, single-engine turbojet biplane, the Polish M-15, is undergoing evaluation in the Soviet Union as a replacement for the AN-2. Countries with very high agricultural aircraft accident rates may wish to study the Soviet approach, especially the use by the pilot of a chemical log book.

  18. Commentary: professionalism, unionization, and physicians' strikes.

    PubMed

    Cruess, Richard L; Cruess, Sylvia R

    2011-05-01

    Professionalism is the basis of medicine's social contract with society. The details of that contract are influenced by the presence or absence of a national health plan. In countries with such a plan, unlike in the United States, negotiations are dictated by the nature of medicine's contract with society and take place between the medical profession and society directly. This system has required that medicine be represented at the negotiating table, and, in most instances, it has resulted in the unionization of physicians. To influence these negotiations, the medical profession has used various forms of collective action, including strikes. As the United States continues on the path toward health care reform, it seems likely that the American medical profession will also require an organization to represent it at the negotiating table and will be under the same pressures to strike as are physicians in other countries. Because both unionization and strikes pose potential threats to the professionalism of students, residents and practicing physicians, such issues should be a part of the medical education curriculum at both the undergraduate and postgraduate levels. The authors briefly review the literature on strikes and job actions and share personal experiences to support this discussion. Students and residents should have an opportunity to consider these issues in a safe environment, both to understand the potential impact of a strike on patients and the profession and to determine their own personal course of action should such a situation arise.

  19. A union catalog of monographs: another approach.

    PubMed

    Kronick, D A; Bowden, V M

    1978-07-01

    The rationale for and the production of the 1977 TALON Union Catalog of Monographs are described. The 158,859 records include the existing machine-readable records for six health sciences libraries plus the cataloging of six others, converted by matching other data bases and by keypunching. The method and costs of production are discussed. Use of Computer-Output-Microfiche (COM) significantly decreased the cost and time required for publication. The $.076 unit cost per entry, with both author and title access for the COM method, is almost one-half the unit cost for the previous method which offered only main-entry access. The TALON Catalog compares favorably with the Midwest Medical Union Catalog. The addition of the title index significantly increases its usefulness. However, the unique feature of the TALON Catalog may be its machine-readable form which offers the potential for quantitative analyses of health sciences library collections. Such data may be essential for rational management of limited library funds. PMID:678697

  20. The magic gold cluster Au20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryachko, E. S.; Remacle, F.

    The 20-nanogold cluster Au20 exhibits a large variety of two- and three-dimensional isomeric forms. Among them is the ground-state isomer Au20(Td) representing the stable cluster with a unique tetrahedral shape, with all atoms on the surface, and large HOMO-LUMO gap which even slightly exceeds that of the buckyball fullerene C60. The anionic cluster Au-20(Td) that holds its parent tetrahedral symmetry features a high catalytic activity. The list of the properties of the 20-nanogold clusters surveyed in the present work ranges from the energetic order of stability of its isomers to the optical absorption and excitation spectra of the Au20(Td) cluster. We also report the structures and properties of its doubly charged clusters Au2+20 and Au2-20 and computationally confirm that Au2-20 is indeed stable. The zero-point-energy-corrected adiabatic second electron affinity of Au20(Td) amounts to 0.43-0.53 eV that is consistent with the experimental data. In addition, we provide computational evidence of the existence of the novel, hollow cage isomer of Au20 and analyze its key properties.0

  1. A Teacher's Guide to African Narratives. Studies in African Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Sara Talis

    This guide is designed to help secondary school teachers include African literature in their classes. It furnishes English and social studies teachers with a foundation for teaching African literature by offering critical commentary on the texts themselves. A synthesis of anthropological and historical material is presented to help both teachers…

  2. Unionization in the hospital industry: how are wages affected?

    PubMed

    Wilson, C N

    1985-08-01

    With the enactment of the 1974 amendments to the National Labor Relations Act, employees in not-for-profit hospitals have more freedom to organize, form unions, and bargain collectively. As a result, union activity in the hospital field has greatly increased in the last 10 years. How does unionization affect hospital wages and ultimately healthcare costs? Studies indicate an approximately 8.8 percent wage increase in hospital occupations as a whole, resulting from collective bargaining in hospitals. If unionization can affect hospital wages to this extent, financial managers must be aware of the possible implications for their organizations.

  3. African American Administrators and Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Dianne; Taylor, Janice D.; Burrell, Charlotte; Stewart, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the issues of African American participation in the administrative ranks of the academy. The authors find that African Americans tend to hold positions that are marginal in academic organizations, lacking power and influence, and that not much has changed over recent decades. Forces influencing this condition are explored,…

  4. African-American Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Lucinda

    This paper examines the history of African American children's literature, the present-day status of it, and ventures predictions about its future. The paper also considers the historic and social factors of the debate about whether an author who is not African American can write a book that will/should be accepted in this category of children's…

  5. African-American Sacred Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, A. Peter

    1991-01-01

    The history of African-American sacred music is traced from the time of slavery to the present interest in gospel music. The religious music of African Americans is geared toward liberation themes. It is important that this music does not dilute its power through cross-over with other music forms. (SLD)

  6. Africanization in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, M. Alice; Rubink, William L.; Patton, John C.; Coulson, Robert N.; Johnston, J. Spencer

    2005-01-01

    The expansion of Africanized honeybees from South America to the southwestern United States in <50 years is considered one of the most spectacular biological invasions yet documented. In the American tropics, it has been shown that during their expansion Africanized honeybees have low levels of introgressed alleles from resident European populations. In the United States, it has been speculated, but not shown, that Africanized honeybees would hybridize extensively with European honeybees. Here we report a continuous 11-year study investigating temporal changes in the genetic structure of a feral population from the southern United States undergoing Africanization. Our microsatellite data showed that (1) the process of Africanization involved both maternal and paternal bidirectional gene flow between European and Africanized honeybees and (2) the panmitic European population was replaced by panmitic mixtures of A. m. scutellata and European genes within 5 years after Africanization. The post-Africanization gene pool (1998–2001) was composed of a diverse array of recombinant classes with a substantial European genetic contribution (mean 25–37%). Therefore, the resulting feral honeybee population of south Texas was best viewed as a hybrid swarm. PMID:15937139

  7. The Soviet Union: population trends and dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Feshbach, M

    1982-08-01

    Focus in this discussion of population trends and dilemmas in the Soviet Union is on demographic problems, data limitations, early population growth, geography and resources, the 15 republics of the Soviet Union and nationalities, agriculture and the economy, population growth over the 1950-1980 period (national trend, regional differences); age and sex composition of the population, fertility trends, nationality differentials in fertility, the reasons for fertility differentials (child care, divorce, abortion and contraception, illegitimacy), labor shortages and military personnel, mortality (mortality trends, life expectancy), reasons for mortality increases, urbanization and emigration, and future population prospects and projections. For mid-1982 the population of the Soviet Union was estimated at 270 million. The country's current rate of natural increase (births minus deaths) is about 0.8% a year, higher than current rates of natural increase in the U.S. (0.7%) and in developed countries as a whole (0.6%). Net immigration plays no part in Soviet population growth, but emigration was noticeable in some years during the 1970s, while remaining insignificant relative to total population size. National population growth has dropped by more than half in the last 2 decades, from 1.8% a year in the 1950s to 0.8% in 1980-1981, due mostly to declining fertility. The national fertility decline masks sharp differences among the 15 republics and even more so among the some 125 nationalities. In 1980, the Russian Republic had an estimated fertility rate of 1.9 births/woman, and the rate was just 2.0 in the other 2 Slavic republics, the Ukraine and Belorussia. In the Central Asian republics the rates ranged up to 5.8. Although the Russians will no doubt continue to be the dominant nationality, low fertility and a relatively higher death rate will reduce their share of the total population by less than half by the end of the century. Soviet leaders have launched a

  8. Réunion publique HR

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Chers Collègues,Je me permets de vous rappeler qu'une réunion publique organisée par le Département HR se tiendra aujourd'hui:Vendredi 30 avril 2010 à 9h30 dans l'Amphithéâtre principal (café offert dès 9h00).Durant cette réunion, des informations générales seront données sur:le CERN Admin e-guide, qui est un nouveau guide des procédures administratives du CERN ayant pour but de faciliter la recherche d'informations pratiques et d'offrir un format de lecture convivial;le régime d'Assurance Maladie de l'Organisation (présentation effectuée par Philippe Charpentier, Président du CHIS Board) et;la Caisse de Pensions (présentation effectuée par Théodore Economou, Administrateur de la Caisse de Pensions du CERN).Une transmission simultanée de cette réunion sera assurée dans l'Amphithéâtre BE de Prévessin et également disponible à l'adresse suivante: http://webcast.cern.chJe me réjouis de votre participation!Meilleures salutations,Anne-Sylvie CatherinChef du Département des Ressources humaines__________________________________________________________________________________Dear Colleagues,I should like to remind you that a plublic meeting organised by HR Department will be held today:Friday 30 April 2010 at 9:30 am in the Main Auditorium (coffee from 9:00 am).During this meeting, general information will be given about:the CERN Admin e-guide which is a new guide to the Organization's administrative procedures, drawn up to facilitate the retrieval of practical information and to offer a user-friendly format;the CERN Health Insurance System (presentation by Philippe Charpentier, President of the CHIS Board) and;the Pension Fund (presentation by Theodore Economou, Administrator of the CERN Pension Fund).A simultaneous transmission of this meeting will be broadcast in the BE Auditorium at Prévessin and will also be available at the following address. http://webcast.cern.chI look forward to your participation!Best regards,Anne-Sylvie Catherin

  9. The history of African trypanosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Steverding, Dietmar

    2008-01-01

    The prehistory of African trypanosomiasis indicates that the disease may have been an important selective factor in the evolution of hominids. Ancient history and medieval history reveal that African trypanosomiasis affected the lives of people living in sub-Saharan African at all times. Modern history of African trypanosomiasis revolves around the identification of the causative agents and the mode of transmission of the infection, and the development of drugs for treatment and methods for control of the disease. From the recent history of sleeping sickness we can learn that the disease can be controlled but probably not be eradicated. Current history of human African trypanosomiasis has shown that the production of anti-sleeping sickness drugs is not always guaranteed, and therefore, new, better and cheaper drugs are urgently required. PMID:18275594

  10. Cancer statistics for African Americans.

    PubMed

    Ghafoor, Asma; Jemal, Ahmedin; Cokkinides, Vilma; Cardinez, Cheryll; Murray, Taylor; Samuels, Alicia; Thun, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    The American Cancer Society provides estimates on the number of new cancer cases and deaths, and compiles health statistics on African Americans in a biennial publication, Cancer Facts and Figures for African Americans. The compiled statistics include cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and lifestyle behaviors using the most recent data on incidence and survival from the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program, mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), and behavioral information from the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), and National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). It is estimated that 132,700 new cases of cancer and 63,100 deaths will occur among African Americans in the year 2003. Although African Americans have experienced higher incidence and mortality rates of cancer than whites for many years, incidence rates have declined by 2.7 percent per year in African-American males since 1992, while stabilizing in African-American females. During the same period, death rates declined by 2.1 percent and 0.4 percent per year among African-American males and females, respectively. The decrease in both incidence and death rates from cancer among African-American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. Nonetheless, African Americans still carry the highest cancer burden among US racial and ethnic groups. Most cancers detectable by screening are diagnosed at a later stage and survival rates are lower within each stage of disease in African Americans than in whites. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors is an active area of research.

  11. What Motivates Member Donations to the Union?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, James A.; Grove, Timothy L.

    2008-04-01

    In the fall of 2007, the AGU Development Board commissioned the development staff to survey the approximately 1200 AGU supporting members to learn why these members give $100 to AGU each year- many give much more-to fund activities in education, public affairs, public information, the sections, and the focus groups. (A recent list of supporting members was published in Eos, 88(49), 544-545, 2007.) With supporting membership having more than doubled since 2003, the development staff and the Development Board wanted to find out more about the individual motivations underlying this trend. We also were trying to identify new incentives for members to support the Union's special projects and programs.

  12. State of the Data Union, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This is the first report on the State of the Data Union (SDU) for the NASA Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA). OSSA responsibilities include the collection, analysis, and permanent archival of data critical to space science research. The nature of how this is done by OSSA is evolving to keep pace with changes in space research. Current and planned missions have evolved to be more complex and multidisciplinary, and are generating much more data and lasting longer than earlier missions. New technologies enable global access to data, transfer of huge volumes of data, and increasingly complex analysis. The SDU provides a snapshot of this dynamic environment, identifying trends in capabilities and requirements. The current space science data environment is described and parameters which capture the pulse of key functions within that environment are presented. Continuous efforts of OSSA to improve the availability and quality of data provided to the scientific community are reported, highlighting efforts such as the Data Management Initiative.

  13. The Union3 Supernova Ia Compilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, David; Aldering, Greg Scott; Amanullah, Rahman; Barbary, Kyle H.; Bruce, Adam; Chappell, Greta; Currie, Miles; Dawson, Kyle S.; Deustua, Susana E.; Doi, Mamoru; Fakhouri, Hannah; Fruchter, Andrew S.; Gibbons, Rachel A.; Goobar, Ariel; Hsiao, Eric; Huang, Xiaosheng; Ihara, Yutaka; Kim, Alex G.; Knop, Robert A.; Kowalski, Marek; Krechmer, Evan; Lidman, Chris; Linder, Eric; Meyers, Joshua; Morokuma, Tomoki; Nordin, Jakob; Perlmutter, Saul; Ripoche, Pascal; Ruiz-Lapuente, Pilar; Rykoff, Eli S.; Saunders, Clare; Spadafora, Anthony L.; Suzuki, Nao; Takanashi, Naohiro; Yasuda, Naoki; Supernova Cosmology Project

    2016-01-01

    High-redshift supernovae observed with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are crucial for constraining any time variation in dark energy. In a forthcoming paper (Rubin+, in prep), we will present a cosmological analysis incorporating existing supernovae with improved calibrations, and new HST-observed supernovae (six above z=1). We combine these data with current literature data, and fit them using SALT2-4 to create the Union3 Supernova compilation. We build on the Unified Inference for Type Ia cosmologY (UNITY) framework (Rubin+ 2015b), incorporating non-linear light-curve width and color relations, a model for unexplained dispersion, an outlier model, and a redshift-dependent host-mass correction.

  14. European Union vaccine research--an overview.

    PubMed

    Sautter, Jürgen; Olesen, Ole F; Bray, Jeremy; Draghia-Akli, Ruxandra

    2011-09-01

    Recent developments in vaccine research provide new momentum for an important area in health innovation. Particularly interesting are novel DNA vaccine approaches, many of which are already under clinical investigation. The Framework Programmes of the European Union play an important role in supporting collaborative efforts in vaccine research to develop new and better vaccines and bring them to the market. With a timely strategic reorientation towards a sustainable investment in innovation, the current seventh Framework Programme will help to bring large industry and small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) on board and foster partnership between stakeholders. As the first human DNA vaccines progresses through the development pipeline, more and more questions revolve around licensing and regulation and appropriate guidelines are being developed.

  15. 66 Federal Credit Union v. Tucker.

    PubMed

    2003-01-01

    Court Decision: 853 Southern Reporter, 2d Series 104; 2003 Aug 21 (date of decision). The Supreme Court of Mississippi held that Mississippi's wrongful death statute includes a nonviable, unborn child that is "quick" in the womb as a "person." At the time of the attempted repossession of a vehicle financed by a defendant, 66 Federal Credit Union, Tracy Tucker was five months pregnant. On the evening of the attempted repossession, Tucker experienced abdominal pain and miscarried three days later. Tucker filed a lawsuit against the defendants for wrongful death. The court found support in its holding from criminal statutes and property law which similarly consider an unborn "quick" child a person. The court did not consider viability to be an appropriate criterion for determining whether an unborn child is a person.

  16. 66 Federal Credit Union v. Tucker.

    PubMed

    2003-01-01

    The Supreme Court of Mississippi, on 21 August 2003, held that Mississippi's wrongful death statute includes a nonviable, unborn child that is "quick" in the womb as a "person." At the time of the attempted repossession of a vehicle financed by a defendant, 66 Federal Credit Union, Tracy Tucker was five months pregnant. On the evening of the attempted repossession, Tucker experienced abdominal pain and miscarried three days later. Tucker filed a lawsuit against the defendants for wrongful death. The court found support in its holding from criminal statutes and property law which similarly consider an unborn "quick" child a person. The court did not consider viability to be an appropriate criterion for determining whether an unborn child is a person.

  17. Synthesis and Optical Responses of Ag@Au/Ag@Au Double Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying-Ying; Liu, Xiao-Li; Yang, Da-Jie; Hao, Zhong-Hua; Wang, Qu-Quan

    2015-02-01

    We synthesize hollow-structured Ag@Au nanoparticles with single porous shell and Ag@Au/Ag@Au double shells by using the galvanic replacement reaction and investigate their linear and nonlinear optical properties. Our results show that the surface plasmon resonance wavelength of the hollow porous nanoparticles could be easily tuned in a wide range in the visible and near infrared region by controlling the volume of HAuCl4. The nonlinear optical refraction of the double-shelled Ag@Au/Ag@Au nanoparticles is prominently enhanced by the plasmon resonance. Our findings may find applications in biosensors and nonlinear optical nanodevices.

  18. Au microstructure and the functional properties of Ni/Au finishes on ceramic IC packages

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, E.D.; Baxter, W.K.; Braski, D.N.; Watkins, T.R.

    1995-12-31

    Ni/Au plated finishes used on thick-film metallized multilayer ceramic packages for integrated circuits must meet functional requirements such as bondability, sealability, and solderability. Their ability to do so is dependent, among other things, on the ability of the Au deposit to inhibit the grain boundary diffusion and subsequent surface oxidation of Ni. In this study, the relation between functional performance, Ni diffusionr ate, and Au microstructure was examined. Extent of Ni diffusion during heating was determined by Auger electron spectroscopy for several electrolytic and electroless Ni/Au finishing processes. Results were correlated with differences in Au microstructures determined by SEM, atomic force microscopy, and XRD.

  19. 12 CFR 701.6 - Fees paid by Federal credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fees paid by Federal credit unions. 701.6 Section 701.6 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION OF FEDERAL CREDIT UNIONS § 701.6 Fees paid by Federal credit unions. (a) Basis...

  20. Between Immediacy and Imagination: The Place of the Educator and Organiser in Union Renewal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tony; Yasukawa, Keiko

    2010-01-01

    Can the current education programme of the Australian trade union movement contribute to reviving union growth and union culture, develop new activists and leaders, and encourage and facilitate the organisational change needed to re-orient unions to develop broader alliances? Twenty-five Australian trade union leaders were asked to describe the…

  1. 12 CFR 704.11 - Corporate Credit Union Service Organizations (Corporate CUSOs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corporate Credit Union Service Organizations (Corporate CUSOs). 704.11 Section 704.11 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS CORPORATE CREDIT UNIONS § 704.11 Corporate Credit Union Service...

  2. Bioenergy and African transformation.

    PubMed

    Lynd, Lee R; Sow, Mariam; Chimphango, Annie Fa; Cortez, Luis Ab; Brito Cruz, Carlos H; Elmissiry, Mosad; Laser, Mark; Mayaki, Ibrahim A; Moraes, Marcia Afd; Nogueira, Luiz Ah; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem H

    2015-01-01

    Among the world's continents, Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern bioenergy production in Africa. Here we consider bioenergy as an enabler for development, and provide an overview of modern bioenergy technologies with a comment on application in an Africa context. Experience with bioenergy in Africa offers evidence of social benefits and also some important lessons. In Brazil, social development, agricultural development and food security, and bioenergy development have been synergistic rather than antagonistic. Realizing similar success in African countries will require clear vision, good governance, and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, and business models to myriad local circumstances. Strategies for integrated production of food crops, livestock, and bioenergy are potentially attractive and offer an alternative to an agricultural model featuring specialized land use. If done thoughtfully, there is considerable evidence that food security and economic development in Africa can be addressed more effectively with modern bioenergy than without it. Modern bioenergy can be an agent of African transformation, with potential social benefits accruing to multiple sectors and extending well beyond energy supply per se. Potential negative impacts also cut across sectors. Thus, institutionally inclusive multi-sector legislative structures will be more effective at maximizing the social benefits of bioenergy compared to institutionally exclusive, single-sector structures. PMID:25709714

  3. African oil plays

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, A.J. )

    1989-09-01

    The vast continent of Africa hosts over eight sedimentary basins, covering approximately half its total area. Of these basins, only 82% have entered a mature exploration phase, 9% have had little or no exploration at all. Since oil was first discovered in Africa during the mid-1950s, old play concepts continue to bear fruit, for example in Egypt and Nigeria, while new play concepts promise to become more important, such as in Algeria, Angola, Chad, Egypt, Gabon, and Sudan. The most exciting developments of recent years in African oil exploration are: (1) the Gamba/Dentale play, onshore Gabon; (2) the Pinda play, offshore Angola; (3) the Lucula/Toca play, offshore Cabinda; (4) the Metlaoui play, offshore Libya/Tunisia; (5) the mid-Cretaceous sand play, Chad/Sudan; and (6) the TAG-I/F6 play, onshore Algeria. Examples of these plays are illustrated along with some of the more traditional oil plays. Where are the future oil plays likely to develop No doubt, the Saharan basins of Algeria and Libya will feature strongly, also the presalt of Equatorial West Africa, the Central African Rift System and, more speculatively, offshore Ethiopia and Namibia, and onshore Madagascar, Mozambique, and Tanzania.

  4. Bioenergy and African transformation.

    PubMed

    Lynd, Lee R; Sow, Mariam; Chimphango, Annie Fa; Cortez, Luis Ab; Brito Cruz, Carlos H; Elmissiry, Mosad; Laser, Mark; Mayaki, Ibrahim A; Moraes, Marcia Afd; Nogueira, Luiz Ah; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem H

    2015-01-01

    Among the world's continents, Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern bioenergy production in Africa. Here we consider bioenergy as an enabler for development, and provide an overview of modern bioenergy technologies with a comment on application in an Africa context. Experience with bioenergy in Africa offers evidence of social benefits and also some important lessons. In Brazil, social development, agricultural development and food security, and bioenergy development have been synergistic rather than antagonistic. Realizing similar success in African countries will require clear vision, good governance, and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, and business models to myriad local circumstances. Strategies for integrated production of food crops, livestock, and bioenergy are potentially attractive and offer an alternative to an agricultural model featuring specialized land use. If done thoughtfully, there is considerable evidence that food security and economic development in Africa can be addressed more effectively with modern bioenergy than without it. Modern bioenergy can be an agent of African transformation, with potential social benefits accruing to multiple sectors and extending well beyond energy supply per se. Potential negative impacts also cut across sectors. Thus, institutionally inclusive multi-sector legislative structures will be more effective at maximizing the social benefits of bioenergy compared to institutionally exclusive, single-sector structures.

  5. Proportionate mortality among unionized construction operating engineers.

    PubMed

    Stern, F; Haring-Sweeney, M

    1997-07-01

    This report presents the results of proportionate mortality ratios (PMR) and proportionate cancer mortality ratios (PCMR) among 15,843 members of the International Union of Operating Engineers who had died between 1988-1993. Operating engineers represent one of the 15 unions in the Building and Construction Trades Department and are responsible for the operation and maintenance of heavy earthmoving equipment used in the construction of buildings, bridges, roads, and other facilities. Using U.S. proportionate cancer mortality as the referent, statistically significant elevated mortality was observed for cancers of the lung (PCMR = 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.09-1.19) and bone (PCMR = 2.14, CI = 1.19-3.52). Using U.S. proportionate mortality as the referent, statistically significant elevated mortality was observed for other benign and unspecified neoplasms (PMR = 1.54, CI = 1.09-2.13), emphysema (PMR = 1.37, CI = 1.20-1.55), other injuries (PMR = 1.43, CI = 1.20-1.70) (which included crushing under/in machinery, tractor rollover, run over by crane), and suicide (PMR = 1.22, CI = 1.06-1.40). The PMR for leukemia, and aleukemia (PMR = 1.19, CI = 1.02-1.37), but not the PCMR (1.07, CI = 0.92-1.24), was also significantly elevated. Some of the occupational exposures that may have contributed to these excesses include diesel exhaust, asphalt and welding fumes, silica dust, ionizing radiation, and coal tar pitch. The present study underscores the need to control airborne exposures to these substances and for injury prevention efforts aimed at operating engineers in the construction industry.

  6. Laboratory medicine in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Oosterhuis, Wytze P; Zerah, Simone

    2015-01-01

    The profession of laboratory medicine differs between countries within the European Union (EU) in many respects. The objective of professional organizations of the promotion of mutual recognition of specialists within the EU is closely related to the free movement of people. This policy translates to equivalence of standards and harmonization of the training curriculum. The aim of the present study is the description of the organization and practice of laboratory medicine within the countries that constitute the EU. A questionnaire covering many aspects of the profession was sent to delegates of the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) and Union Européenne de Médecins Spécialistes (UEMS) of the 28 EU countries. Results were sent to the delegates for confirmation. Many differences between countries were identified: predominantly medical or scientific professionals; a broad or limited professional field of interest; inclusion of patient treatment; formal or absent recognition; a regulated or absent formal training program; general or minor application of a quality system based on ISO Norms. The harmonization of the postgraduate training of both clinical chemists and of laboratory physicians has been a goal for many years. Differences in the organization of the laboratory professions still exist in the respective countries which all have a long historical development with their own rationality. It is an important challenge to harmonize our profession, and difficult choices will need to be made. Recent developments with respect to the directive on Recognition of Professional Qualifications call for new initiatives to harmonize laboratory medicine both across national borders, and across the borders of scientific and medical professions.

  7. Electrochemical formation of Au clusters in polyaniline

    SciTech Connect

    Hatchett, D.W.; Josowicz, M.; Janata, J.; Baer, D.R.

    1999-10-01

    The reduction of chloroaurate and the incorporation of Au clusters in polyaniline, PANI, films have been investigated. The chloroaurate complex is generated at the electrode surface during Cl{sup {minus}} doping of Au/PANI. FTIE and UV/vis data indicate that chloroaurate interacts with PANI and that its reduction to metallic Au occurs preferentially at the nitrogen linkages. The voltammetric and XPS results show that the uptake of both protons and anions is suppressed by the formation of Au clusters due to this interaction. The ability to reduce chloroaurate in PANI films is also demonstrated for Pt electrodes coated with PANI in solutions containing KAuCl{sub 4}. The preliminary results indicate that Au cluster size distribution remains fairly constant regardless of the method used.

  8. The Union Learning Fund: A Genuine Success Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The "Daily Telegraph" recently carried an attack on the Union Learning Fund (ULF) as part of its ongoing criticism of unions following the industrial action by cabin crew at British Airways. This included a quote from Conservative MP Francis Maude suggesting that the fund was a form of "money laundering." The article, which was re-hashed a couple…

  9. Union Learning Reps in a High Tech Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Steve

    2008-01-01

    This article examines moves towards the creation of a Union Learning Rep (ULR) network within Connect, the union for UK communications sector management and professional staff. Focusing on a large communications company (CommCo), the article argues that ULRs need not be limited to campaigning for basic skills training. They also have a role in a…

  10. 12 CFR 221.104 - Federal credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... interpretation on Federal credit unions, see 12 CFR 220.110. ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Federal credit unions. 221.104 Section 221.104... (CONTINUED) CREDIT BY BANKS AND PERSONS OTHER THAN BROKERS OR DEALERS FOR THE PURPOSE OF PURCHASING...

  11. Professional Nurses in Unions: Working Together Pays Off.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breda, Karen Lucas

    1997-01-01

    An ethnographic study of unionized nurses in a psychiatric hospital showed how collaborative decision making and innovative conflict resolution allowed nurses to voice their professional concerns and serve as a legitimate ideological force in the hospital culture. Union nurses were able to influence positive changes and advocate for better care.…

  12. Reforming Public School Systems through Sustained Union-Management Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinstein, Saul A.; McCarthy, John E.

    2011-01-01

    For most of the past decade the policy debate over improving U.S. public education has centered on teacher quality. In this debate, teachers and their unions have often been seen as the problem, not part of the solution. Further, current discourse often assumes that conflicting interests between teacher unions and administration is inevitable.…

  13. In Celebration: The National Union Catalog, Pre-1956 Imprints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, John Y., Ed.

    This document contains the principal papers from a 1981 symposium held to celebrate the completion of the 754-volume National Union Catalog, Pre-1956 Imprints. Papers by both those who use the National Union Catalog (NUC) and those who developed it are included. A brief preface describes the mission of the Center for the Book and the purpose of…

  14. Union Learning Representatives: Facilitating Professional Development for Scottish Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexandrou, Alex; O'Brien, Jim

    2007-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, teachers' professional associations and labor organizations, notably in the form of trade unions have historically been involved in education and training in the workplace. Recently, in the United Kingdom this activity has gained greater credence and importance due to the emergence of trade union learning representatives who…

  15. Trade Union Education in Times of Economic Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agostinone, V.

    1982-01-01

    The author discusses a number of important factors having a bearing on the new requirements of workers' education. They include the expansion of workers' interests and trade unions' responsibilities, the expansion of collective bargaining, a movement toward effective tripartism, and the incorporation of rural workers into unions. (CT)

  16. Power in Practice: Trade Union Education in Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stirling, John

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the development of a trade union education program in Sierra Leone in the geo-historical context of British colonialism. It places the argument in relation to the contradictory trends of trade unionism more generally and alongside their antagonistic cooperation with capitalism. It discusses the limits and…

  17. College Union Facilities and Their Perceived Influence on Institutional Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierno, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    The College Union is a campus facility that is part of the campus ecology. It provides a place where all can feel a sense of inclusion, safety, involvement, and community. Through a comparative research approach I will present how both students and professional staff perceive the College Union, the programs that are part of the facility, and how…

  18. Back to Basics: Unions Reaffirms Their Campus Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Richard D.

    1988-01-01

    The role of the college student union is discussed in this review of what makes a union successful. It is suggested that the truly successful one combines the concepts of unifying force, common meeting ground, and community in order to educate as well as generate revenue. Issues considered include: hiring and training employees; competition with…

  19. The NEA and AFT: Teacher Unions in Power and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Myron; And Others

    This book describes the structure, operations, and influences of teacher unions, especially the National Education Association (NEA) and the American Federation of Teachers (AFT). There is a belief that an NEA/AFT merger will take place in the 1990s, and that the emergence of strong teacher unions is an important development in education, the…

  20. Guidelines for the Compilation of Union Catalogues of Serials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, London (England).

    Intended for use in countries planning the establishment of new union catalogs, as well as in countries with long established traditions of library resource sharing, this document provides guiding principles and outlines standard methods and practices for the compilation of union catalogs of serials. Following definitions of relevant terminology…

  1. Learning for Renewal; Learning in a Trade Union Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopsen, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze learning in a Swedish trade union board in a workplace, according to contemporary challenges in working life and conditions, of decentralization and local independency of trade union work and learning. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on ethnographic studies of two Swedish local trade…

  2. Transforming Teacher Unions: Fighting for Better Schools and Social Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Bob, Ed.; Charney, Michael, Ed.

    This anthology examines exemplary practices of teachers' unions at the local and national level, presenting visions for the 21st century that involve teachers' unions in the fight to improve public schools and conditions of social justice throughout U.S. communities. Six sections feature 25 articles: (1) "Overview," including "Survival and…

  3. Admission and Apprenticeship in the Building Trades Unions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Roger A.; Lahne, Herbert J.

    Concerned with the problems of low representation of minority groups in the craft unions in the building trades, this study examined the journeymen admission policies of 17 national craft unions and 98 local affiliates as provided in their national and local constitutions and in their national and local apprenticeship standards under the program…

  4. White coat, blue collar: physician unionization and managed care.

    PubMed

    Luepke, E L

    1999-01-01

    Ms. Luepke provides a historical review of the rise of the physician unionization movement in the United States. This article also examines the barriers faced by employed and independent physicians that prevent or limit their collective bargaining, and reviews the responses of the various organized medical societies to the physician unionization movement.

  5. Unionization and the Canadian University: Historical and Personal Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Michiel

    1994-01-01

    In 1949-50, Canadian professors founded the Canadian Association of University Teachers. Canadian universities are still in crisis today, though faculty associations are active nationally, provincially, and locally. Despite warnings about the effects of unionization, unionized universities today do not offer less scope for faculty participation in…

  6. Organizing.com. New Unions for the New Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusnet, David

    1999-01-01

    Discusses old and new employer-employee problems within various high-tech companies giving rise to a variety of employee organizations. Examines union building at IBM and looks at the employee group founded by Microsoft employees. Concludes by focusing on the issue of new unions for the new economy. (SM)

  7. Scientific and Technological Information Systems in the Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirson, Benjamin L.

    1973-01-01

    Not much is known at present about the organization and structure of the Soviet Union's information systems. It is the purpose of the communication to objectively review and summarize the present state-of-the-art of scientific and technological information systems within the Soviet Union. (9 references) (Author)

  8. 12 CFR 704.3 - Corporate credit union capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... corporate credit union to NCUA but not yet posted on NCUA's Web site. (7) Merger. In the event of a merger... on NCUA's Web site. (6) A corporate credit union is permitted to condition membership, services, or... weak credit quality or a significant likelihood of financial loss, or has loans or securities...

  9. The Effect of International Competition on Union and Nonunion Wages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macpherson, David A.; Stewart, James B.

    1990-01-01

    A study of the impact of international competition on union and nonunion wages found that international competition was a significant determinant and that the net negative effect of a given import share of union and nonunion wages decreased sharply in absolute magnitude as the percentage of organized workers increased. (Author)

  10. 78 FR 77608 - Requirements for Contacts with Federal Credit Unions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 701 RIN 3133-AE34 Requirements for Contacts with Federal Credit Unions AGENCY...) proposes to amend part 701 of its regulations to require examinations and other contacts between NCUA staff... one method for members and NCUA staff to contact the credit union. These requirements would apply...

  11. A Small College in Maryland Trains Union Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashburn, Elyse

    2006-01-01

    The National Labor College was created to increase educational opportunities for union members, and its bachelor's-degree programs, like labor studies and the political economy of labor, focus on material that is immediately applicable to workers' day-to-day union roles. The idea is to make those blue-collar workers more effective at negotiating,…

  12. Teachers Unions and Student Performance: Help or Hindrance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberts, Randall W.

    2007-01-01

    Randall Eberts explores the role of teachers unions in public education. He focuses particularly on how collective bargaining agreements shape the delivery of educational services, how unions affect both student achievement and the cost of providing quality education, and how they support educational reform efforts. Eberts's synthesis of the…

  13. Faculty Unions, Business Models, and the Academy's Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Gary

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author addresses questions about the future of faculty unions, business models, and the academy by providing some current and historical context regarding the causes of and conflicts about faculty unions. He also reviews trends in college and university management over the past three decades, using California, Ohio, and…

  14. Public health sector unions and deregulation in Europe.

    PubMed

    Lethbridge, Jane

    2004-01-01

    Deregulation and liberalization of health services take several forms in Europe: public-private partnerships; contracting out of services; and corporatization of health care institutions. The impact on health workers includes changes in terms and conditions of employment, breakup of collective bargaining agreements, and often more stressful working conditions. The author examines four types of trade union responses to deregulation. National health trade union action has used campaigning, awareness raising, and judicial review. Health workers' unions in alliance with other trade unions have taken part in wider campaigns against privatization and in promoting public services. Health workers' unions joining with social movements have become involved in wider alliances that link with broader public policy issues such as poverty reduction and urban/regional regeneration. European-wide action, seen through the work of the European Federation of Public Service Unions, has concentrated on the development of an alternative health policy, and the promotion of social dialogue at a European level. Trade unions must adopt a range of approaches to challenge the effects of deregulation. Increasingly, trade union members need to be aware of how to take action at both the national and European levels. PMID:15346679

  15. 20 CFR 638.814 - Lobbying; political activities; unionization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lobbying; political activities; unionization... § 638.814 Lobbying; political activities; unionization. No funds provided under the Act may be used in... activity which involves political activities; or (d) For any activity which will assist, promote, or...

  16. 20 CFR 638.814 - Lobbying; political activities; unionization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lobbying; political activities; unionization... § 638.814 Lobbying; political activities; unionization. No funds provided under the Act may be used in... activity which involves political activities; or (d) For any activity which will assist, promote, or...

  17. 20 CFR 638.814 - Lobbying; political activities; unionization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lobbying; political activities; unionization... § 638.814 Lobbying; political activities; unionization. No funds provided under the Act may be used in... activity which involves political activities; or (d) For any activity which will assist, promote, or...

  18. A Simulation of Union Organizing in a Labor Law Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrada, Roberto L.

    1996-01-01

    To help students of labor law understand the industrial union experience, one professor created a simulation in which students formed a union and bargained with the teacher on course terms and conditions. Planning considerations, simulation stages, and lessons learned are described. The exercise produced a meaningful context for students, taught…

  19. Female Union Band Cemetery, 1975 Plot Plan Mount Zion ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Female Union Band Cemetery, 1975 Plot Plan - Mount Zion Cemetery/ Female Union Band Cemetery, Bounded by 27th Street right-of-way N.W. (formerly Lyons Mill Road), Q Street N.W., & Mill Road N.W., Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. Regulatory Regionalism and Education: The European Union in Central Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the purchase which Jayasuriya's regulatory regionalism approach offers for an analysis of the European Union's engagement in Central Asia. The European Union has a clearly articulated strategy through which to pursue what it sees as its interests in Central Asia and the development of a range of EU-Central Asia education…

  1. The Free Kindergarten Union of Victoria, 1908-80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardiner, Lyndsay

    The social history of the Free Kindergarten Union of the State of Victoria, Australia, from inception in 1908 to the year 1980 is recorded in this book. Growth of the union is described within the context of the World Wars, the Depression, and urbanization and industrialization. The story begins with volunteerism and philanthropy, and with four…

  2. Politics and Policies of Promoting Multilingualism in the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romaine, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the politics of policies promoting multilingualism in the European Union (EU), specifically in light of the recently released European Union Civil Society Platform on Multilingualism. As the most far-reaching and ambitious policy document issued by the European Commission, the Platform warrants close scrutiny at a significant…

  3. Learning to Organize: US Unions, Work, and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scully-Russ, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Responding to the recent split in the US labor movement, this paper aims to argue that learning must become an integral part of a progressive union devoted to organizing. Design/methodology/approach: This paper traces the evolution of vocational education in US industrial unions and critiques it in light of the challenges facing labor…

  4. RHUM-RUM investigates La Réunion mantle plume from crust to core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigloch, K.; Barruol, G.

    2012-12-01

    RHUM-RUM (Réunion Hotspot and Upper Mantle - Réunions Unterer Mantel) is a French-German passive seismic experiment designed to image an oceanic mantle plume - or lack of plume - from crust to core beneath La Réunion Island, and to understand these results in terms of material, heat flow and plume dynamics. La Réunion hotspot is one of the most active volcanoes in the world, and its hotspot track leads unambiguously to the Deccan Traps of India, one of the largest flood basalt provinces on Earth, which erupted 65 Ma ago. The genesis and the origin at depth of the mantle upwelling and of the hotspot are still very controversial. In the RHUM-RUM project, 57 German and French ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) are deployed over an area of 2000 km x 2000 km2 centered on La Réunion Island, using the "Marion Dufresne" and "Meteor" vessels. The one-year OBS deployment (Oct. 2012 - Oct. 2013) will be augmented by terrestrial deployments in the Iles Eparses in the Mozambique Channel, in Madagascar, Seychelles, Mauritius, Rodrigues and La Réunion islands. A significant number of OBS will be also distributed along the Central and South West Indian Ridges to image the lower-mantle beneath the hotspot, but also to provide independent opportunity for the study of these slow to ultra-slow ridges and of possible plume-ridge interactions. RHUM-RUM aims to characterize the vertically ascending flow in the plume conduit, as well as any lateral flow spreading into the asthenosphere beneath the western Indian Ocean. We want to establish the origin of the heat source that has been fueling this powerful hotspot, by answering the following questions: Is there a direct, isolated conduit into the deepest mantle, which sources its heat and material from the core-mantle boundary? Is there a plume connection to the African superswell at mid-mantle depths? Might the volcanism reflect merely an upper mantle instability? RHUM-RUM also aims at studying the hotspot's interaction with the

  5. RHUM-RUM investigates La Réunion mantle plume from crust to core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigloch, Karin; Barruol, Guilhem

    2013-04-01

    RHUM-RUM (Réunion Hotspot and Upper Mantle - Réunions Unterer Mantel) is a French-German passive seismic experiment designed to image an oceanic mantle plume - or lack of plume - from crust to core beneath La Réunion Island, and to understand these results in terms of material, heat flow and plume dynamics. La Réunion hotspot is one of the most active volcanoes in the world, and its hotspot track leads unambiguously to the Deccan Traps of India, one of the largest flood basalt provinces on Earth, which erupted 65 Ma ago. The genesis and the origin at depth of the mantle upwelling and of the hotspot are still very controversial. In the RHUM-RUM project, 57 German and French ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) are deployed over an area of 2000 km x 2000 km2 centered on La Réunion Island, using the "Marion Dufresne" and "Meteor" vessels. The one-year OBS deployment (Oct. 2012 - Oct. 2013) will be augmented by terrestrial deployments in the Iles Eparses in the Mozambique Channel, in Madagascar, Seychelles, Mauritius, Rodrigues and La Réunion islands. A significant number of OBS will be also distributed along the Central and South West Indian Ridges to image the lower-mantle beneath the hotspot, but also to provide independent opportunity for the study of these slow to ultra-slow ridges and of possible plume-ridge interactions. RHUM-RUM aims to characterize the vertically ascending flow in the plume conduit, as well as any lateral flow spreading into the asthenosphere beneath the western Indian Ocean. We want to establish the origin of the heat source that has been fueling this powerful hotspot, by answering the following questions: Is there a direct, isolated conduit into the deepest mantle, which sources its heat and material from the core-mantle boundary? Is there a plume connection to the African superswell at mid-mantle depths? Might the volcanism reflect merely an upper mantle instability? RHUM-RUM also aims at studying the hotspot's interaction with the

  6. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bulk film analysis using C 60+, Au 3+, and Au + primary ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conlan, X. A.; Gilmore, I. S.; Henderson, A.; Lockyer, N. P.; Vickerman, J. C.

    2006-07-01

    The damage characteristics of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) have been studied under bombardment by C 60+, Au 3+ and Au + primary ions. The observed damage cross-sections for the three ion beams are not dramatically different. The secondary ion yields however were significantly enhanced by the polyatomic primary ions where the secondary ion yield of the [M + H] + is on average 5× higher for C 60+ than Au 3+ and 8× higher for Au 3+ than Au +. Damage accumulates under Au + and Au 3+ bombardment while C 60+ bombardment shows a lack of damage accumulation throughout the depth profile of the PET thick film up to an ion dose of ˜1 × 10 15 ions cm -2. These properties of C 60+ bombardment suggest that the primary ion will be a useful molecular depth profiling tool.

  7. Investigation of the Phase Equilibria of Sn-Cu-Au Ternary and Ag-Sn-Cu-Au Quaternary Systems and Interfacial Reactions in Sn-Cu/Au Couples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Yee-Wen; Jao, Chien-Chung; Hsiao, Hsien-Ming; Lin, Chung-Yung; Lee, Chiapyng

    2007-02-01

    The phase equilibria of the Sn-Cu-Au ternary, Ag-Sn-Cu-Au quaternary systems and interfacial reactions between Sn-Cu alloys and Au were experimentally investigated at specific temperatures in this study. The experimental results indicated that there existed three ternary intermetallic compounds (IMCs) and a complete solid solubility between AuSn and Cu6Sn5 phases in the Sn-Cu-Au ternary system at 200°C. No quaternary IMC was found in the isoplethal section of the Ag-Sn-Cu-Au quaternary system. Three IMCs, AuSn, AuSn2, and AuSn4, were found in all couples. The same three IMCs and (Au,Cu)Sn/(Cu,Au)6Sn5 phases were found in all Sn-Cu/Au couples. The thickness of these reaction layers increased with increasing temperature and time. The mechanism of IMC growth can be described by using the parabolic law. In addition, when the reaction time was extended and the Cu content of the alloy was increased, the AuSn4 phase disappeared gradually. The (Au, Cu)Sn and (Cu,Au)6Sn5 layers played roles as diffusion barriers against Sn in Sn-Cu/Au reaction couple systems.

  8. Relationship effort, satisfaction, and stability: differences across union type.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Kevin; Jensen, Todd M; Larson, Jeffry H

    2014-04-01

    Relationship satisfaction and stability are two commonly studied outcomes in marriage and family research. Majority of studies address socio demographic variability and differences across union type in these outcomes. We extend this literature by addressing how the amount of effort one puts into their relationship is associated with stability and satisfaction. Specifically, we focus on how effort impacts these measures of quality in four union types: premarital cohabitation, first marriage, post-divorce cohabitation, and second marriage following divorce. Furthermore, we make union type comparisons in the strength of effort's association with satisfaction and stability. Using data from 8,006 respondents in the Relationship Evaluation Survey, our results show that effort was strongly and positively associated with satisfaction and stability in all four unions. Although effort is more strongly associated with satisfaction in first marriage than cohabiting relationships, no union type differences in the role of effort on stability were observed. Clinical and research implications of these findings are discussed.

  9. Union transitions and changes in BMI among adults in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Schmeer, Kammi K

    2012-01-01

    This study utilizes nationally representative, longitudinal data from the Mexico Family Life Survey to examine the associations between union transitions and changes in body mass index (BMI) among adults in Mexico. Results from change score regression models (N = 11,339) indicate larger BMI gains for those entering a union than for those remaining single, net of baseline weight status and socioeconomic controls. Further, a significant moderating effect of baseline weight status suggests that overweight individuals entering a union gain almost two BMI points more than overweight single individuals during this three-year period. Individuals experiencing a union dissolution gain less BMI than those entering a union, but are predicted to lose BMI (as found in the United States) only if they are overweight before the transition. PMID:22660828

  10. Brooklyn Union`s award-winning phosphoric-acid fuel cell installation

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, C.

    1996-03-01

    Brooklyn Union has been involved with the development of commercial fuel cells since the late 1960s. In the early 1990`s, the ONSI Corporation began a limited first-of-its-kind production run of a 200-kW system. ONSI`s Model PC-25 remains the only commercially available on-site fuel cell system. Brooklyn Union is currently operating a PC-25 at St. Vincent`s Medical Center in Staten Island, NY. In December of 1989, Brooklyn Union signed a contract with ONSI for the purchase of one of the first PC-25s. Installation of this unit began in September 1992, and the system went on line in October. The system is operating at an electrical efficiency of 36.8% (based on higher heating value) with a combined thermal/electrical efficiency of nearly 71.5%. The thermal output of the fuel cell is being used for the production of domestic hot water for use in the hospital`s laundry. This paper describes the system and its performances to date.

  11. Successfully Educating Our African-American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moncree-Moffett, Kareem

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this empirical study was to explore the lived experiences of African American retired female teachers who have prior experience with educating urban African American students in public schools. Also explored are the experiences of active African American female teachers of urban African American students and comparisons are…

  12. Compulsory Unionism, the NLRB, and the Courts: A Legal Analysis of Union Security Agreements. Labor Relations and Public Policy Series Report No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggard, Thomas R.

    As used here, compulsory union or union security agreements are federally sanctioned contracts between a labor union and employer whereby the employer agrees to require his employees, as a condition of their employment, to affiliate with the union in some way. Right-to-work is usually construed to mean the liberty of the individual to have a job…

  13. Negro, Black, Black African, African Caribbean, African American or what? Labelling African origin populations in the health arena in the 21st century

    PubMed Central

    Agyemang, C.; Bhopal, R.; Bruijnzeels, M.

    2005-01-01

    Broad terms such as Black, African, or Black African are entrenched in scientific writings although there is considerable diversity within African descent populations and such terms may be both offensive and inaccurate. This paper outlines the heterogeneity within African populations, and discusses the strengths and limitations of the term Black and related labels from epidemiological and public health perspectives in Europe and the USA. This paper calls for debate on appropriate terminologies for African descent populations and concludes with the proposals that (1) describing the population under consideration is of paramount importance (2) the word African origin or simply African is an appropriate and necessary prefix for an ethnic label, for example, African Caribbean or African Kenyan or African Surinamese (3) documents should define the ethnic labels (4) the label Black should be phased out except when used in political contexts. PMID:16286485

  14. Negro, Black, Black African, African Caribbean, African American or what? Labelling African origin populations in the health arena in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Agyemang, Charles; Bhopal, Raj; Bruijnzeels, Marc

    2005-12-01

    Broad terms such as Black, African, or Black African are entrenched in scientific writings although there is considerable diversity within African descent populations and such terms may be both offensive and inaccurate. This paper outlines the heterogeneity within African populations, and discusses the strengths and limitations of the term Black and related labels from epidemiological and public health perspectives in Europe and the USA. This paper calls for debate on appropriate terminologies for African descent populations and concludes with the proposals that (1) describing the population under consideration is of paramount importance (2) the word African origin or simply African is an appropriate and necessary prefix for an ethnic label, for example, African Caribbean or African Kenyan or African Surinamese (3) documents should define the ethnic labels (4) the label Black should be phased out except when used in political contexts. PMID:16286485

  15. Thermal and photoinduced reduction of ionic Au(III) to elemental Au nanoparticles by dissolved organic matter in water: possible source of naturally occurring Au nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yongguang; Yu, Sujuan; Liu, Jingfu; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been widely observed in ore deposits, coal, soil, and environmental water. Identifying the source of these naturally occurring AuNPs could be helpful for not only the discovery of Au deposits through advanced exploration methods, but also the elucidation of the biogeochemical cycle and environmental toxicity of ionic Au and engineered AuNPs. Here, we investigated the effect of natural/simulated sunlight and heating on the reduction of ionic Au by ubiquitous dissolved organic matter (DOM) in river water. The reductive process probed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that phenolic, alcoholic, and aldehyde groups in DOM act as reductive sites. Long-time exposure with thermal and photoirradiation induced the further fusion and growth of AuNPs to branched Au nanostructure as precipitation. The formation processes and kinetics of AuNPs were further investigated using humic acid (HA) as the DOM model, with comprehensive characterizing methods. We have observed that HA can reduce ionic Au(III) complex (as chloride or hydroxyl complex) to elemental Au nanoparticles under sunlight or heating. In this process, nearly all of the Au(III) could be reduced to AuNPs, in which HA serves as not only the reductive agent, but also the coating agent to stabilize and disperse AuNPs. The size and stability of AuNPs were highly dependent on the concentration ratio of Au(III) to HA. These results imply that, besides biological processes, this thermal or photochemical reduction process is another possible source of naturally occurring AuNPs in natural environments, which possibly has critical impacts on the transport and transformation of Au and engineered AuNPs.

  16. African and African Caribbean users' perceptions of inpatient services.

    PubMed

    Secker, J; Harding, C

    2002-04-01

    It has been suggested that well-documented differences in African and African Caribbean people's contact with mental health services may stem from the organization, processes and practices of services themselves. This article presents the findings of a qualitative study which explored the inpatient experiences of a sample of African and African Caribbean people. Although some positive experiences were described, in the main, participants' accounts revolved around a sense of loss of control and around experiences of overt and implicit racism. Underpinning these experiences were relationships with staff that were perceived to be unhelpful. On the basis of both the positive and negative experiences described, we draw conclusions about the changes required to ensure that inpatient services more effectively meet the needs of this group.

  17. Concave soft sets, critical soft points, and union-soft ideals of ordered semigroups.

    PubMed

    Jun, Young Bae; Song, Seok Zun; Muhiuddin, G

    2014-01-01

    The notions of union-soft semigroups, union-soft l-ideals, and union-soft r-ideals are introduced, and related properties are investigated. Characterizations of a union-soft semigroup, a union-soft l-ideal, and a union-soft r-ideal are provided. The concepts of union-soft products and union-soft semiprime soft sets are introduced, and their properties related to union-soft l-ideals and union-soft r-ideals are investigated. Using the notions of union-soft l-ideals and union-soft r-ideals, conditions for an ordered semigroup to be regular are considered. The concepts of concave soft sets and critical soft points are introduced, and their properties are discussed. PMID:25405223

  18. Self-assembly of thiolated cyanine aggregates on Au(111) and Au nanoparticle surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menéndez, Guillermo O.; Cortés, Emiliano; Grumelli, Doris; Méndez de Leo, Lucila P.; Williams, Federico J.; Tognalli, Nicolás G.; Fainstein, Alejandro; Vela, María Elena; Jares-Erijman, Elizabeth A.; Salvarezza, Roberto C.

    2012-01-01

    Heptamethinecyanine J-aggregates display sharp, intense fluorescence emission making them attractive candidates for developing a variety of chem-bio-sensing applications. They have been immobilized on planar thiol-covered Au surfaces and thiol-capped Au nanoparticles by weak molecular interactions. In this work the self-assembly of novel thiolated cyanine (CNN) on Au(111) and citrate-capped AuNPs from solutions containing monomers and J-aggregates has been studied by using STM, XPS, PM-IRRAS, electrochemical techniques and Raman spectroscopy. Data show that CNN species adsorb on the Au surfaces by forming thiolate-Au bonds. We found that the J-aggregates are preferentially adsorbed on the Au(111) surface directly from the solution while adsorbed CNN monomers cannot organize into aggregates on the substrate surface. These results indicate that the CNN-Au interaction is not able to disorganize the large J-aggregates stabilized by π-π stacking to optimize the S-Au binding site but it is strong enough to hinder the π-π stacking when CNNs are chemisorbed as monomers. The optical properties of the J-aggregates remain active after adsorption. The possibility of covalently bonding CNN J-aggregates to Au planar surfaces and Au nanoparticles controlling the J-aggregate/Au distance opens a new path regarding their improved stability and the wide range of biological applications of both CNN and AuNP biocompatible systems.Heptamethinecyanine J-aggregates display sharp, intense fluorescence emission making them attractive candidates for developing a variety of chem-bio-sensing applications. They have been immobilized on planar thiol-covered Au surfaces and thiol-capped Au nanoparticles by weak molecular interactions. In this work the self-assembly of novel thiolated cyanine (CNN) on Au(111) and citrate-capped AuNPs from solutions containing monomers and J-aggregates has been studied by using STM, XPS, PM-IRRAS, electrochemical techniques and Raman spectroscopy. Data show

  19. The African Millennium Villages

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Pedro; Palm, Cheryl; Sachs, Jeffrey; Denning, Glenn; Flor, Rafael; Harawa, Rebbie; Jama, Bashir; Kiflemariam, Tsegazeab; Konecky, Bronwen; Kozar, Raffaela; Lelerai, Eliud; Malik, Alia; Modi, Vijay; Mutuo, Patrick; Niang, Amadou; Okoth, Herine; Place, Frank; Sachs, Sonia Ehrlich; Said, Amir; Siriri, David; Teklehaimanot, Awash; Wang, Karen; Wangila, Justine; Zamba, Colleen

    2007-01-01

    We describe the concept, strategy, and initial results of the Millennium Villages Project and implications regarding sustainability and scalability. Our underlying hypothesis is that the interacting crises of agriculture, health, and infrastructure in rural Africa can be overcome through targeted public-sector investments to raise rural productivity and, thereby, to increased private-sector saving and investments. This is carried out by empowering impoverished communities with science-based interventions. Seventy-eight Millennium Villages have been initiated in 12 sites in 10 African countries, each representing a major agroecological zone. In early results, the research villages in Kenya, Ethiopia, and Malawi have reduced malaria prevalence, met caloric requirements, generated crop surpluses, enabled school feeding programs, and provided cash earnings for farm families. PMID:17942701

  20. Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    1989-11-01

    The Central African Republic contains 242,000 square miles, which rolling terrain almost 2000 feet above sea level. The climate is tropical, and it has a population of 2.8 million people with a 2.5% growth rate. There are more than 80 ethnic groups including Baya 34%, Banda 28%, Sara 10%, Mandja 9%, Mboum 9%, and M'Baka 7%. The religions are traditional African 35%, protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, and Muslim 15%, and the languages are French and Sangho. The infant mortality rate is 143/1000, with expectancy at 49 years and a 40% literacy rate. The work force of 1 million is 70% agricultural, industry 6% and commerce and service 6% and government 3%. The government consists of a president assisted by cabinet ministers and a single party. Natural resources include diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, and oil, and major industries are beverages, textiles, and soap. Agricultural products feature coffee, cotton, peanuts, tobacco, food crops and livestock. Most of the population live in rural areas and most of the 80 ethnic groups have their own language. This is one of the world's least developed countries, with a per capita income of $375/year. The main problems with development are the poor transportation infrastructure, and the weak internal and international marketing systems. The US and various international organizations have aided in agriculture development, health programs, and family planning. US investment is mainly in diamond and gold mining, and although oil drilling has been successful it is not economically feasible at current prices.

  1. Controlled Synthesis of Au@AgAu Yolk-Shell Cuboctahedra with Well-Defined Facets.

    PubMed

    Londono-Calderon, Alejandra; Bahena, Daniel; Yacaman, Miguel J

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis of Au@AgAu yolk-shell cuboctahedra nanoparticles formed by galvanic replacement in a seed-mediated method is described. Initially, single-crystal Au seeds are used for the formation of Au@Ag core-shell nanocubes, which serve as the template material for the deposition of an external Au layer. The well-controlled synthesis yields the formation of cuboctahedra nanoparticles with smooth inner and outer Au/Ag surfaces. The deposition/oxidation process is described to understand the formation of cuboctahedra and octahedra nanoparticles. The Au core maintains the initial morphology of the seed and remains static at the center of the yolk-shell because of residual Ag. Structural analysis of the shell indicates intrinsic stacking faults (SFs) near the surface. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) compositional analysis show an Au-Ag nonordered alloy forming the shell. The three-dimensional structure of the nanoparticles presented open facets on the [111] as observed by electron tomography SIRT reconstruction over a stack of high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) images. The geometrical model was validated by analyzing the direction of streaks in coherent nanobeam diffraction (NBD). The catalytic activity was evaluated using a model reaction based on the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NTP) by NaBH4 in the presence of Au@AgAu yolk-shell nanoparticles. PMID:27385583

  2. Au40: A Large Tetrahedral Magic Cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Deen; Walter, Michael

    2011-01-01

    40 is a magic number for tetrahedral symmetry predicted in both nuclear physics and the electronic jellium model. We show that Au{sub 40} could be such a magic cluster from density functional theory-based basin hopping for global minimization. The putative global minimum found for Au{sub 40} has a twisted pyramid structure, reminiscent of the famous tetrahedral Au{sub 20}, and a sizable HOMO-LUMO gap of 0.69 eV, indicating its molecular nature. Analysis of the electronic states reveals that the gap is related to shell closings of the metallic electrons in a tetrahedrally distorted effective potential.

  3. Early African Hominids: Pedagogic Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, James L.

    1984-01-01

    By studying early African hominids, students can learn about the interactive testing and creative aspects of scientific thinking and sharpen their geographical skills. It is impossible to study this topic without giving prominence to space and time. (RM)

  4. Union of phylogeography and landscape genetics.

    PubMed

    Rissler, Leslie J

    2016-07-19

    Phylogeography and landscape genetics have arisen within the past 30 y. Phylogeography is said to be the bridge between population genetics and systematics, and landscape genetics the bridge between landscape ecology and population genetics. Both fields can be considered as simply the amalgamation of classic biogeography with genetics and genomics; however, they differ in the temporal, spatial, and organismal scales addressed and the methodology used. I begin by briefly summarizing the history and purview of each field and suggest that, even though landscape genetics is a younger field (coined in 2003) than phylogeography (coined in 1987), early studies by Dobzhansky on the "microgeographic races" of Linanthus parryae in the Mojave Desert of California and Drosophila pseudoobscura across the western United States presaged the fields by over 40 y. Recent advances in theory, models, and methods have allowed researchers to better synthesize ecological and evolutionary processes in their quest to answer some of the most basic questions in biology. I highlight a few of these novel studies and emphasize three major areas ripe for investigation using spatially explicit genomic-scale data: the biogeography of speciation, lineage divergence and species delimitation, and understanding adaptation through time and space. Examples of areas in need of study are highlighted, and I end by advocating a union of phylogeography and landscape genetics under the more general field: biogeography. PMID:27432989

  5. Union of phylogeography and landscape genetics

    PubMed Central

    Rissler, Leslie J.

    2016-01-01

    Phylogeography and landscape genetics have arisen within the past 30 y. Phylogeography is said to be the bridge between population genetics and systematics, and landscape genetics the bridge between landscape ecology and population genetics. Both fields can be considered as simply the amalgamation of classic biogeography with genetics and genomics; however, they differ in the temporal, spatial, and organismal scales addressed and the methodology used. I begin by briefly summarizing the history and purview of each field and suggest that, even though landscape genetics is a younger field (coined in 2003) than phylogeography (coined in 1987), early studies by Dobzhansky on the “microgeographic races” of Linanthus parryae in the Mojave Desert of California and Drosophila pseudoobscura across the western United States presaged the fields by over 40 y. Recent advances in theory, models, and methods have allowed researchers to better synthesize ecological and evolutionary processes in their quest to answer some of the most basic questions in biology. I highlight a few of these novel studies and emphasize three major areas ripe for investigation using spatially explicit genomic-scale data: the biogeography of speciation, lineage divergence and species delimitation, and understanding adaptation through time and space. Examples of areas in need of study are highlighted, and I end by advocating a union of phylogeography and landscape genetics under the more general field: biogeography. PMID:27432989

  6. Cogeneration in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Horak, W.C.

    1997-07-01

    The former Soviet Union made a major commitment to Cogeneration. The scale and nature of this commitment created a system conceptually different from Cogeneration in the west. The differences were both in scale, in political commitment, and in socio economic impact. This paper addresses some of the largest scale Cogeneration programs, the technology, and the residual impact of these programs. The integration of the Cogeneration and nuclear programs is a key focus of the paper. Soviet designed nuclear power plants were designed to produce both electricity and heat for residential and industrial uses. Energy systems used to implement this design approach are discussed. The significant dependence on these units for heat created an urgent need for continued operation during the winter. Electricity and heat are also produced in nuclear weapons production facilities, as well as power plants. The Soviets also had designed, and initiated construction of a number of nuclear power plants {open_quotes}ATETs{close_quotes} optimized for production of heat as well as electricity. These were canceled.

  7. Union of phylogeography and landscape genetics.

    PubMed

    Rissler, Leslie J

    2016-07-19

    Phylogeography and landscape genetics have arisen within the past 30 y. Phylogeography is said to be the bridge between population genetics and systematics, and landscape genetics the bridge between landscape ecology and population genetics. Both fields can be considered as simply the amalgamation of classic biogeography with genetics and genomics; however, they differ in the temporal, spatial, and organismal scales addressed and the methodology used. I begin by briefly summarizing the history and purview of each field and suggest that, even though landscape genetics is a younger field (coined in 2003) than phylogeography (coined in 1987), early studies by Dobzhansky on the "microgeographic races" of Linanthus parryae in the Mojave Desert of California and Drosophila pseudoobscura across the western United States presaged the fields by over 40 y. Recent advances in theory, models, and methods have allowed researchers to better synthesize ecological and evolutionary processes in their quest to answer some of the most basic questions in biology. I highlight a few of these novel studies and emphasize three major areas ripe for investigation using spatially explicit genomic-scale data: the biogeography of speciation, lineage divergence and species delimitation, and understanding adaptation through time and space. Examples of areas in need of study are highlighted, and I end by advocating a union of phylogeography and landscape genetics under the more general field: biogeography.

  8. The kinetics of rugby union scrummaging.

    PubMed

    Milburn, P D

    1990-01-01

    Two rugby union forward packs of differing ability levels were examined during scrummaging against an instrumented scrum machine. By systematically moving the front-row of the scrum along the scrum machine, kinetic data on each front-row forward could be obtained under all test conditions. Each forward pack was tested under the following scrummaging combinations: front-row only; front-row plus second-row; full scrum minus side-row, and full scrum. Data obtained from each scrum included the three orthogonal components of force at engagement and the sustained force applied by each front-row player. An estimate of sub-unit contributions was made by subtracting the total forward force on all three front-row players from the total for the complete scrum. Results indicated the primary role of the second-row appeared to be application of forward force. The back-row ('number eight') forward did not substantially contribute any additional forward force, and added only slightly to the lateral and vertical shear force experienced by the front-row. The side-row contributed an additional 20-27% to the forward force, but at the expense of increased vertical forces on all front-row forwards. Results of this investigation are discussed in relation to rule modification, rule interpretation and coaching. PMID:2359151

  9. Paleoenvironment of Fort Union Formation, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrum, C.

    1983-08-01

    Rocks of Paleocene age are represented in the Cave Hills of northwestern South Dakota by the Ludlow, Cannonball, and Tongue River members of the Fort Union Formation. The Cave Hills are situated within the southern margin of the Williston basin, 80 mi (130 km) north of the Black Hills, South Dakota. Numerous fine-grained, fining-upward sedimentary sequences comprise the Ludlow Member and are attributed to meandering streams occupying a low-gradient lower alluvial to upper deltaic plain. The Cannonball Member is 130 ft (40 m) thick in the North Cave Hills and is represented by two fine-grained, coarsening-upward sandstone mudstone sequences. A distinct vertical succession of sedimentary facies occur within each sequence representing offshore/lower shoreface through upper shoreface/foreshore depositional environment. A north to northeast depositional strike for the Cannonball shoreline is inferred from ripple crest and cross-bed orientations. The basal part of the Tongue River consists of approximately 40 to 50 ft (12 to 15 m) of lenticular sandstone, siltstone, mudstone, thin-bedded lignite, and kaolinite beds representing thin broad channels, point-bar, levee, overbank, and nearshore swamp depositional environments. Massive fluvial channel sandstones measuring several tens of ft in thickness overlie the fine-grained basal Tongue River lithologies. These channel sandstones represent the continued progradation of continental/fluvial/coastal plain depositional environments eastward over the marine sandstones of the Cannonball Member.

  10. Union Oil Company of California's Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program

    SciTech Connect

    Randle, A.C.

    1982-01-01

    Union Oil Company is confident that with the completion of its project now under construction, the commercial production of oil from shale will finally become a reality. The retorting technology developed by Union scientists through 35 years of research will be proven on a commercial scale. Not only does Union Oil have confidence in its technology, but already other companies have licensed the Unishale B for their own shale projects. While shale oil will not solve all of the nation's energy problems, it will make a significant contribution to the solution.

  11. Ir-induced activation of Au towards CO adsorption: Ir films deposited on Au{111}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tianfu; Driver, Stephen M.; Pratt, Stephanie J.; Jenkins, Stephen J.; King, David A.

    2016-06-01

    We have investigated the interaction of CO with Ir/Au{111} bimetallic surfaces, and the influence of morphology changes as Ir moves sub-surface into the Au bulk, using reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS). The presence of Ir stabilises CO on exposed regions of the Au surface at temperatures up to around 200 K: we attribute this to low-coordinated Au sites, probably associated with lifting of the clean-surface 'herringbone' reconstruction by Ir deposition. The highest density of active Au sites is obtained after annealing the bimetallic surface to 500-600 K: we attribute this to morphology changes associated with the movement of Ir into bulk Au.

  12. Longitudinal scaling of net-protons in AuAu and pp collisions at RHIC energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Videbaek, Flemming

    2008-10-01

    BRAHMS has studied net-protons distributions in Au+Au and p+p collisions at √sNN=62.4 and 200 GeV. Net-proton distributions reflect the net-baryon yields and can be used to extract the nuclear stopping in the collisions, thus providing information on baryon number transport and energy available for particle production. The talk will present final and preliminary results from the above mentioned systems. It will be shown that in p+p and in Au+Au central collisions that net-proton distributions exhibit longitudinal scaling once the target contribution to the projectile rapidity range is corrected for. The difference between p+p and Au+Au will be discussed. Aspects of future measurements at the LHC of net-baryons at mid-rapidity will be brought forth.

  13. Hepatitis C in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Saab, Sammy; Jackson, Christian; Nieto, Jose; Francois, Fritz

    2014-10-01

    The care of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in African Americans represents an opportunity to address a major health disparity in medicine. In all facets of HCV infection, African Americans are inexplicably affected, including in the prevalence of the virus, which is higher among them compared with most of the racial and ethnic groups. Ironically, although fibrosis rates may be slow, hepatocellular carcinoma and mortality rates appear to be higher among African Americans. Sustained viral response (SVR) rates have historically significantly trailed behind Caucasians. The reasons for this gap in SVR are related to both viral and host factors. Moreover, low enrollment rates in clinical trials hamper the study of the efficacy of anti-viral therapy. Nevertheless, the gap in SVR between African Americans and Caucasians may be narrowing with the use of direct-acting agents. Gastroenterologists, hepatologists, primary care physicians, and other health-care providers need to address modifiable risk factors that affect the natural history, as well as treatment outcomes, for HCV among African Americans. Efforts need to be made to improve awareness among health-care providers to address the differences in screening and referral patterns for African Americans.

  14. A Union of Railroad Workers Sets the Pace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pullman, A. Philip Randolph

    2004-01-01

    During the century spanning the years 1868-1968, the African-American railroad attendant's presence on the train became an American tradition. By the 1920s, a peak decade for the railroads, more than twenty thousand African-Americans were working as porters, providing a variety services for passengers on the sleeping cars. The railroad was the…

  15. Thermal Expansion of AuIn2

    SciTech Connect

    Saw, C K; Siekhaus, W J

    2004-07-12

    The thermal expansion of AuIn{sub 2} gold is of great interest in soldering technology. Indium containing solders have been used to make gold wire interconnects at low soldering temperature and over time, AuIn{sub 2} is formed between the gold wire and the solder due to the high heat of formation and the high inter-metallic diffusion of indium. Hence, the thermal expansion of AuIn{sub 2} alloy in comparison with that of the gold wire and the indium-containing solder is critical in determining the integrity of the connection. We present the results of x-ray diffraction measurement of the coefficient of linear expansion of AuIn{sub 2} as well as the bulk expansion and density changes over the temperature range of 30 to 500 C.

  16. RHIC Au beam in Run 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S. Y.

    2014-09-15

    Au beam at the RHIC ramp in run 2014 is reviewed together with the run 2011 and run 2012. Observed bunch length and longitudinal emittance are compared with the IBS simulations. The IBS growth rate of the longitudinal emittance in run 2014 is similar to run 2011, and both are larger than run 2012. This is explained by the large transverse emittance at high intensity observed in run 2012, but not in run 2014. The big improvement of the AGS ramping in run 2014 might be related to this change. The importance of the injector intensity improvement in run 2014 is emphasized, which gives rise to the initial luminosity improvement of 50% in run 2014, compared with the previous Au-Au run 2011. In addition, a modified IBS model, which is calibrated using the RHIC Au runs from 9.8 GeV/n to 100 GeV/n, is presented and used in the study.

  17. The purposes of unionization in the medical profession: the unionized profession's perspective in the United States.

    PubMed

    Marcus, S A

    1975-01-01

    In the age of the common man, and ever bigger government, inexorable forces have been interposed between the traditionally independent physician in the Golden Age of Medicine in the United States and his patients. These forces; and associated pressures; come from the insurance industry, the hospital industry, and government involvement in the financing of health services. With these forces arrayed against the physician, the author contends that only medical unionism can protect his best interests and can at the same time serve as an effective consumer advocate for the public.

  18. Molecular dynamics simulation of energetic atom depositions of Au/Au(100) film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qing-yu, Zhang; Zheng-ying, Pan; Jia-yong, Tang

    1999-04-01

    The energetic atom deposition of thin Au/Au(100) film has been studied by molecular dynamics simulation using the Au-Au interatomic interaction potential with embedded atom method. By investigating the variation of coverage curves and Bragg diffraction intensities during the film growth, the transition of Stranski-Kranstanov growth mode to Frank-van der Merwe growth mode was observed with the increase of the incident energy of deposition atoms. The role of energetic atoms in the film growth is discussed by analyzing the transport properties of deposited atoms and the evolution of incident energy and substrate temperatures.

  19. Unravelling Thiol's Role in Directing Asymmetric Growth of Au Nanorod-Au Nanoparticle Dimers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianfeng; Zhu, Yihan; Liu, Changxu; Shi, Zhan; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Han, Yu

    2016-01-13

    Asymmetric nanocrystals have practical significance in nanotechnologies but present fundamental synthetic challenges. Thiol ligands have proven effective in breaking the symmetric growth of metallic nanocrystals but their exact roles in the synthesis remain elusive. Here, we synthesized an unprecedented Au nanorod-Au nanoparticle (AuNR-AuNP) dimer structure with the assistance of a thiol ligand. On the basis of our experimental observations, we unraveled for the first time that the thiol could cause an inhomogeneous distribution of surface strains on the seed crystals as well as a modulated reduction rate of metal precursors, which jointly induced the asymmetric growth of monometallic dimers.

  20. Counterion-Mediated Assembly of Spherical Nucleic Acid-Au Nanoparticle Conjugates (SNA-AuNPs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kewalramani, Sumit; Moreau, Liane; Guerrero-García, Guillermo; Mirkin, Chad; Olvera de La Cruz, Monica; Bedzyk, Michael; Afosr Muri Team

    2015-03-01

    Controlled crystallization of colloids from solution has been a goal of material scientists for decades. Recently, nucleic acid functionalized spherical Au nanoparticles (SNA-AuNPs) have been programmed to assemble in a wide variety of crystal structures. In this approach, the assembly is driven by Watson-Crick hybridization between DNAs coating the AuNPs. Here, we show that counterions can induce ordered assembly of SNA-AuNPs in bulk solutions, even in the absence of base pairing interactions. The electrostatics-driven assembly of spherical nucleic acid-Au nanoparticle conjugates (SNA-AuNPs) is probed as a function of counterion concentration and counterion valency [ +1 (Na+) or +2 (Ca2+) ] by in situ solution X-ray scattering. Assemblies of AuNPs capped with single-stranded (ss-) or double-stranded (ds-) DNA are examined. SAXS reveals disordered (gas-like) --> face-centered-cubic (FCC) --> glass-like phase transitions with increasing solution ionic strength. These studies demonstrate how non-base-pairing interactions can be tuned to create crystalline assemblies of SNA-AuNPs. The dependence of the inter-SNA-AuNP interactions on counterion valency and stiffness of the DNA corona will be discussed.

  1. Kinetics of Phase Transformations in CuAu Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malis, O.; Ludwig, K.

    1997-03-01

    We have performed time resolved x-ray scattering studies of the kinetics of phase transformations in CuAu alloys. The equilibrium phase diagram of CuAu presents two first-order ordering transitions which separate the stability range of a high temperature disordered phase and two ordered phases: CuAuI and CuAuII. CuAuII is a modulated phase having a wavelength ten times larger than CuAuI. Our study focused on the competition between CuAuI and CuAuII as well as on the interaction between order and strain as the lattice changes from cubic in the disordered phase to tetragonal in CuAuI. During CuAuI formation from the disordered phase, CuAuII appears and persists even for quenches deep below the coexistence point of CuAuI and CuAuII. We have also found that the formation of CuAuI from CuAuII is considerably slower than the formation of CuAuI from the disordered phase for equal quench temperatures. Langevin simulations based on EMT are in good qualitative agreement with the x-ray results(Elder, Malis, Ludwig, Chakraborty, Goldenfeld in preparation.). With increasing quench depth we also observe a change in kinetics from an incoherent nucleation process to a continuous transformation of the lattice while ordering.

  2. Quantitation of ochratoxin A in South African wines.

    PubMed

    Shephard, Gordon S; Fabiani, Alessandra; Stockenström, Sonja; Mshicileli, Ndumiso; Sewram, Vikash

    2003-02-12

    The natural occurrence of the carcinogenic mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) in wines sold in local retail outlets in South Africa and Italy was investigated by HPLC analysis with fluorescence detection following cleanup by immunoaffinity column. All 24 local South African wines tested (15 white and 9 red) were found to contain detectable levels (>0.01 microg/L) of OTA, with a mean of 0.16 microg/L in the white wines and a mean of 0.24 microg/L in the red wines. Results were subsequently confirmed by LC-MS analysis using positive ion electrospray ionization with collision-induced dissociation of the protonated molecular ion [M + H](+) at m/z 404 and selected reaction monitoring of the resultant product ions [M + H - H(2)O - CO](+) at m/z 358 and [M + H - H(2)O](+) at m/z 386. Comparison with the fluorescence method gave a significant correlation (r = 0.87; p < 0.01). Although OTA contamination was present in all of the South African samples analyzed, levels were well below the suggested European Union limit of 0.5 microg/kg. The highest level found in a locally purchased wine was 0.39 microg/L in a blend of local and imported Spanish red wine. Of the eight Italian wines analyzed, only two red wines were contaminated above the suggested maximum level.

  3. Health, Human Capital, and African American Migration Before 1910

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Trevon D.

    2009-01-01

    Using both IPUMS and the Colored Troops Sample of the Civil War Union Army Data, I estimate the effects of literacy and health on the migration propensities of African Americans from 1870 to 1910. I find that literacy and health shocks were strong predictors of migration and the stock of health was not. There were differential selection propensities based on slave status—former slaves were less likely to migrate given a specific health shock than free blacks. Counterfactuals suggest that as much as 35 percent of the difference in the mobility patterns of former slaves and free blacks is explained by differences in their human capital, and more than 20 percent of that difference is due to health alone. Overall, the selection effect of literacy on migration is reduced by one-tenth to one-third once health is controlled for. The low levels of human capital accumulation and rates of mobility for African Americans after the Civil War are partly explained by the poor health status of slaves and their immediate descendants. PMID:20161107

  4. Systematic Measurements of Identified Particle Spectra in pp, d+Au and Au+Au Collisions from STAR

    SciTech Connect

    STAR Coll

    2009-04-11

    Identified charged particle spectra of {pi}{sup {+-}}, K{sup {+-}}, p and {bar p} at mid-rapidity (|y| < 0.1) measured by the dE/dx method in the STAR-TPC are reported for pp and d + Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV and for Au + Au collisions at 62.4 GeV, 130 GeV, and 200 GeV. Average transverse momenta, total particle production, particle yield ratios, strangeness and baryon production rates are investigated as a function of the collision system and centrality. The transverse momentum spectra are found to be flatter for heavy particles than for light particles in all collision systems; the effect is more prominent for more central collisions. The extracted average transverse momentum of each particle species follows a trend determined by the total charged particle multiplicity density. The Bjorken energy density estimate is at least several GeV/fm{sub 3} for a formation time less than 1 fm/c. A significantly larger net-baryon density and a stronger increase of the net-baryon density with centrality are found in Au + Au collisions at 62.4 GeV than at the two higher energies. Antibaryon production relative to total particle multiplicity is found to be constant over centrality, but increases with the collision energy. Strangeness production relative to total particle multiplicity is similar at the three measured RHIC energies. Relative strangeness production increases quickly with centrality in peripheral Au + Au collisions, to a value about 50% above the pp value, and remains rather constant in more central collisions. Bulk freeze-out properties are extracted from thermal equilibrium model and hydrodynamics-motivated blast-wave model fits to the data. Resonance decays are found to have little effect on the extracted kinetic freeze-out parameters due to the transverse momentum range of our measurements. The extracted chemical freeze-out temperature is constant, independent of collision system or centrality; its value is close to the predicted phase

  5. 6. EARLY MORNING VIEW OF BOTH JOSO HIGH BRIDGE (UNION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. EARLY MORNING VIEW OF BOTH JOSO HIGH BRIDGE (UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD) IN BACKGROUND AND LYONS FERRY BRIDGE IN THE FOREGROUND - Snake River Bridge at Lyons' Ferry, State Route 261 spanning Snake River, Starbuck, Columbia County, WA

  6. 32 CFR 231.8 - Procedures-overseas credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... logistical support. (ii) The name and location of the nearest credit union facility or branch. (iii) The... announced a selection. (c) Logistical support. Installation or community commanders shall provide...

  7. 32 CFR 231.8 - Procedures-overseas credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... logistical support. (ii) The name and location of the nearest credit union facility or branch. (iii) The... announced a selection. (c) Logistical support. Installation or community commanders shall provide...

  8. 32 CFR 231.8 - Procedures-overseas credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... logistical support. (ii) The name and location of the nearest credit union facility or branch. (iii) The... announced a selection. (c) Logistical support. Installation or community commanders shall provide...

  9. 32 CFR 231.7 - Procedures-domestic credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Regional Office that has geographic jurisdiction and the applicable state regulatory agency. (ii) Prepare... union participates in the construction of a shopping mall complex the lease shall cover only land...

  10. Activism in Concrete: Student Union, San Francisco State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Progressive Architecture, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The San Francisco State University Student Union is a futurist design of two steel space-frame pyramids. Each contains a stairway leading to four partial floors that diminish in size as the pyramid tapers. (Author/MLF)

  11. A Survey of Selected Student Union and Conference Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Raymond G.

    Results are summarized from data gathered from sample institutions of higher education, concerning the policies on alcoholic beverages served in student unions, as well as sleeping, dining and parking facilities. (FS)

  12. Chemistry union unveils names of four new elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Hamish

    2016-07-01

    The periodic table could soon be graced by four new symbols – Nh, Mc, Ts and Og – after the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) unveiled its proposed names for the four most recently discovered elements.

  13. 32 CFR 231.8 - Procedures-overseas credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... logistical support. (ii) The name and location of the nearest credit union facility or branch. (iii) The... announced a selection. (c) Logistical support. Installation or community commanders shall provide...

  14. 11. VIEW OF YAKIMA VALLEY TRANSPORTATION COMPANY AND UNION PACIFIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF YAKIMA VALLEY TRANSPORTATION COMPANY AND UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD INTERCHANGE TRACKS AT YAKIMA, SHOWING DETAIL OF OVERHEAD WIRING - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  15. 12. VIEW OF YAKIMA VALLEY TRANSPORTATION COMPANY AND UNION PACIFIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF YAKIMA VALLEY TRANSPORTATION COMPANY AND UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD INTERCHANGE TRACKS AT YAKIMA, SHOWING SOUTH END OF OVERHEAD WIRING TERMINATION - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  16. 10. VIEW OF YAKIMA VALLEY TRANSPORTATION COMPANY AND UNION PACIFIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF YAKIMA VALLEY TRANSPORTATION COMPANY AND UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD INTERCHANGE TRACKS AT YAKIMA - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  17. Chemistry union unveils names of four new elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Hamish

    2016-07-01

    The periodic table could soon be graced by four new symbols - Nh, Mc, Ts and Og - after the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) unveiled its proposed names for the four most recently discovered elements.

  18. Injury trends and prevention in rugby union football.

    PubMed

    MacQueen, Amy E; Dexter, William W

    2010-01-01

    Rugby union football has long been one of the most popular sports in the world. Its popularity and number of participants continue to increase in the United States. Until 1995, rugby union primarily was an amateur sport. Worldwide there are now flourishing professional leagues in many countries, and after a long absence, rugby union will be returning to the Olympic games in 2016. In the United States, rugby participation continues to increase, particularly at the collegiate and high school levels. With the increase in rugby professional athletes and the reported increase in aggressive play, there have been changes to the injury patterns in the sport. There is still significant need for further epidemiologic data as there is evidence that injury prevention programs and rule changes have been successful in decreasing the number of catastrophic injuries in rugby union.

  19. Deck view, west approach; former Western Pacific (now Union Pacific) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Deck view, west approach; former Western Pacific (now Union Pacific) Railroad at left; wind turbine generators atop hill in background; view to northeast; 90mm lens - Carroll Overhead Bridge, Altamont Pass Road, Livermore, Alameda County, CA

  20. The legality of employee attitude surveys in union environments.

    PubMed

    Friedson, A S

    1983-01-01

    Employee attitude surveys are becoming an increasingly popular tool for employers. A host of legal implications, such as the circumstances under which they can be used, what they can ask, and whether or not they are a subject of mandatory bargaining, arise when surveys are conducted by companies that have an incumbent union or by companies that are involved in union-organizing campaigns. The following article describes the survey process, outlines some of the inherent advantages and pitfalls, and examines the legal questions raised when surveys are used by nonunion employers, by employers with incumbent unions, and by employers who are involved in union-organizing-campaigns. It concludes with recommendations for employers that undertake attitude surveys.

  1. Union Junction Interlocking Tower. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Union Junction Interlocking Tower. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP 95.49. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  2. 10. Third Melan Bridge on tour route Union Avenue just ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Third Melan Bridge on tour route Union Avenue just beyond tour stop 6, detail from scaffold to the north. - Vicksburg National Military Park Roads & Bridges, Melan Arch Bridges, Spanning various tributaries at Confederate Avenue, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  3. 13. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SHOWING UNION WORKS (ROSEN MILL), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SHOWING UNION WORKS (ROSEN MILL), GRANT LOCOMOTIVE WORKS -- MACHINE SHOP, DANFORTH (COOKE) LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE CO. - Great Falls S. U. M. Historic District, Oliver Street, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  4. 22. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST SHOWING GRANT LOCOMOTIVE WORKS, UNION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST SHOWING GRANT LOCOMOTIVE WORKS, UNION WORKS (ROSEN MILL), ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE COMPANY AND IVANHOE MILL WHEELHOUSE UNDER RESTORATION. - Great Falls S. U. M. Historic District, Oliver Street, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  5. The African Pediatric Fellowship Program: Training in Africa for Africans.

    PubMed

    Wilmshurst, Jo M; Morrow, Brenda; du Preez, Avril; Githanga, David; Kennedy, Neil; Zar, Heather J

    2016-01-01

    Africa has a significant burden of childhood disease, with relatively few skilled health care professionals. The African Paediatric Fellowship Programme was developed by the Department of Pediatrics and Child Health at the University of Cape Town to provide relevant training for African child health professionals, by Africans, within Africa. Trainees identified by partner academic institutions spend 6 months to 2 years training in the Department of Pediatrics and allied disciplines. They then return to their home institution to build practice, training, research, and advocacy. From 2008 to 2015, 73 physicians have completed or are completing training in general pediatrics or a pediatric subspecialty. At 1 year posttraining, 98% to 100% are practicing back in their home institution. The impact of the returning fellows is evident from their practice interventions, research collaborations, and positions as stakeholders who can change health care policies. Thirty-three centers in 13 African countries are partners with the program, and the program template is now followed by other partner sites in Africa. Increasing and retaining the skills pool of African child health specialists is building a network of motivated, highly skilled clinicians who are equipped to advance child health in Africa. PMID:26659458

  6. The African Pediatric Fellowship Program: Training in Africa for Africans.

    PubMed

    Wilmshurst, Jo M; Morrow, Brenda; du Preez, Avril; Githanga, David; Kennedy, Neil; Zar, Heather J

    2016-01-01

    Africa has a significant burden of childhood disease, with relatively few skilled health care professionals. The African Paediatric Fellowship Programme was developed by the Department of Pediatrics and Child Health at the University of Cape Town to provide relevant training for African child health professionals, by Africans, within Africa. Trainees identified by partner academic institutions spend 6 months to 2 years training in the Department of Pediatrics and allied disciplines. They then return to their home institution to build practice, training, research, and advocacy. From 2008 to 2015, 73 physicians have completed or are completing training in general pediatrics or a pediatric subspecialty. At 1 year posttraining, 98% to 100% are practicing back in their home institution. The impact of the returning fellows is evident from their practice interventions, research collaborations, and positions as stakeholders who can change health care policies. Thirty-three centers in 13 African countries are partners with the program, and the program template is now followed by other partner sites in Africa. Increasing and retaining the skills pool of African child health specialists is building a network of motivated, highly skilled clinicians who are equipped to advance child health in Africa.

  7. East African Rift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Places where the earth's crust has formed deep fissures and the plates have begun to move apart develop rift structures in which elongate blocks have subsided relative to the blocks on either side. The East African Rift is a world-famous example of such rifting. It is characterized by 1) topographic deep valleys in the rift zone, 2) sheer escarpments along the faulted walls of the rift zone, 3) a chain of lakes within the rift, most of the lakes highly saline due to evaporation in the hot temperatures characteristic of climates near the equator, 4) voluminous amounts of volcanic rocks that have flowed from faults along the sides of the rift, and 5) volcanic cones where magma flow was most intense. This example in Kenya displays most of these features near Lake Begoria.

    The image was acquired December 18, 2002, covers an area of 40.5 x 32 km, and is located at 0.1 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  8. An African ethic for nursing?

    PubMed

    Haegert, S

    2000-11-01

    This article derives from a doctoral thesis in which a particular discourse was used as a 'paradigm case'. From this discourse an ethic set within a South African culture arose. Using many cultural 'voices' to aid the understanding of this narrative, the ethic shows that one can build on both a 'justice' and a 'care' ethic. With further development based on African culture one can take the ethic of care deeper and reveal 'layers of understanding'. Care, together with compassion, forms the foundation of morality. Nursing ethics has followed particular western moral philosophers. Often nursing ethics has been taught along the lines of Kohlberg's theory of morality, with its emphasis on rules, rights, duties and general obligations. These principles were universalistic, masculine and noncontextual. However, there is a new ethical movement among Thomist philosophers along the lines to be expounded in this article. Nurses such as Benner, Bevis, Dunlop, Fry and Gadow--to name but a few--have welcomed the concept of an 'ethic of care'. Gilligan's work gave a feminist view and situated ethics in the everyday aspects of responsiveness, responsibility, context and concern. Shutte's search for a 'philosophy for Africa' has resulted in finding similarities in Setiloane and in Senghor with those of Thomist philosophers. Using this African philosophy and a research participant's narrative, an African ethic evolves out of the African proverb: 'A person is a person through other persons', or its alternative rendering: 'I am because we are: we are because I am.' This hermeneutic narrative reveals 'the way affect imbues activity with ethical meaning' within the context of a black nursing sister in a rural South African hospital. It expands upon the above proverb and incorporates the South African constitutional idea of 'Ubuntu' (compassion and justice or humanness).

  9. Suppression of ϒ production in d +Au and Au+Au collisions at √{sNN}=200 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Anson, C. D.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Balewski, J.; Banerjee, A.; Barnovska, Z.; Beavis, D. R.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Borowski, W.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Brovko, S. G.; Bültmann, S.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, L.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Chwastowski, J.; Codrington, M. J. M.; Corliss, R.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Cui, X.; Das, S.; Davila Leyva, A.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Derradi de Souza, R.; Dhamija, S.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Ding, F.; Djawotho, P.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Engle, K. S.; Eppley, G.; Eun, L.; Evdokimov, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Fedorisin, J.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Gliske, S.; Grosnick, D.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hajkova, O.; Hamed, A.; Han, L.-X.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; Hays-Wehle, J. P.; Heppelmann, S.; Hill, K.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, B.; Huang, H. Z.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kesich, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikola, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Konzer, J.; Koralt, I.; Korsch, W.; Kotchenda, L.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Leight, W.; LeVine, M. J.; Li, C.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. M.; Lima, L. M.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Madagodagettige Don, D. M. M. D.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; McShane, T. S.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Munhoz, M. G.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Ohlson, A.; Okorokov, V.; Oldag, E. W.; Oliveira, R. A. N.; Pachr, M.; Page, B. S.; Pal, S. K.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlak, T.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Peterson, A.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Plyku, D.; Poljak, N.; Porter, J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Pujahari, P. R.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Riley, C. K.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Ross, J. F.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandacz, A.; Sandweiss, J.; Sangaline, E.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Singaraju, R. N.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Solanki, D.; Sorensen, P.; deSouza, U. G.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stevens, J. R.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Sumbera, M.; Sun, X.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Turnau, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vanfossen, J. A.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G. M. S.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Vossen, A.; Wada, M.; Walker, M.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wimsatt, G.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, H.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yan, W.; Yang, C.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Zawisza, Y.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, F.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Y. H.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.

    2014-07-01

    We report measurements of ϒ meson production in p + p, d +Au, and Au +Au collisions using the STAR detector at RHIC. We compare the ϒ yield to the measured cross section in p + p collisions in order to quantify any modifications of the yield in cold nuclear matter using d +Au data and in hot nuclear matter using Au +Au data separated into three centrality classes. Our p + p measurement is based on three times the statistics of our previous result. We obtain a nuclear modification factor for ϒ (1 S + 2 S + 3 S) in the rapidity range | y | < 1 in d +Au collisions of RdAu = 0.79 ± 0.24 (stat.) ± 0.03 (syst.) ± 0.10 (p + p syst.). A comparison with models including shadowing and initial state parton energy loss indicates the presence of additional cold-nuclear matter suppression. Similarly, in the top 10% most-central Au +Au collisions, we measure a nuclear modification factor of RAA = 0.49 ± 0.1 (stat.) ± 0.02 (syst.) ± 0.06 (p + psyst.), which is a larger suppression factor than that seen in cold nuclear matter. Our results are consistent with complete suppression of excited-state ϒ mesons in Au +Au collisions. The additional suppression in Au +Au is consistent with the level expected in model calculations that include the presence of a hot, deconfined Quark-Gluon Plasma. However, understanding the suppression seen in d +Au is still needed before any definitive statements about the nature of the suppression in Au +Au can be made.

  10. Professional nurses in unions: working together pays off.

    PubMed

    Breda, K L

    1997-01-01

    Professionalism versus unionization of nurses is often posited as a dichotomy of mutually exclusive choices. Many US nurses are alienated from militancy and activism because they are viewed as unprofessional. This stance weakens nurses' ability to organize coalitions, to increase their power bases, and to advocate for both nurses and clients. This article examines how nurses worked together in a labor union to realize professional gains. Ethnography, including participant observation and ethnographic interviews, was the method used to study unionized registered nurses (RNs) in a 60-bed, private, not-for-profit psychiatric hospital in rural southern New England. The union nurses' position as workers in a gendered profession was analyzed. Nurses' union involvement, solidarity, and working conditions were considered in the context of a patriarchal and authoritarian hospital setting. Collaborative decision making and an innovative conflict resolution strategy allowed nurses to voice professional concerns. Unionization allowed RNs to collectively mobilize as a legitimate ideological force in the hospital culture and to enhance their professional status. Their ability to resolve conflicts and to implement change within this context were evaluated. PMID:9094836

  11. Labor union members play an OLG repeated game.

    PubMed

    Kandori, Michihiro; Obayashi, Shinya

    2014-07-22

    Humans are capable of cooperating with one another even when it is costly and a deviation provides an immediate gain. An important reason is that cooperation is reciprocated or rewarded and deviations are penalized in later stages. For cooperation to be sustainable, not only must rewards and penalties be strong enough but individuals should also have the right incentives to provide rewards and punishments. Codes of conduct with such properties have been studied extensively in game theory (as repeated game equilibria), and the literature on the evolution of cooperation shows how equilibrium behavior might emerge and proliferate in society. We found that community unions, a subclass of labor unions that admits individual affiliations, are ideal to corroborate these theories with reality, because (i) their activities are simple and (ii) they have a structure that closely resembles a theoretical model, the overlapping generations repeated game. A detailed case study of a community union revealed a possible equilibrium that can function under the very limited observability in the union. The equilibrium code of conduct appears to be a natural focal point based on simple heuristic reasoning. The union we studied was created out of necessity for cooperation, without knowing or anticipating how cooperation might be sustained. The union has successfully resolved about 3,000 labor disputes and created a number of offspring.

  12. Professional nurses in unions: working together pays off.

    PubMed

    Breda, K L

    1997-01-01

    Professionalism versus unionization of nurses is often posited as a dichotomy of mutually exclusive choices. Many US nurses are alienated from militancy and activism because they are viewed as unprofessional. This stance weakens nurses' ability to organize coalitions, to increase their power bases, and to advocate for both nurses and clients. This article examines how nurses worked together in a labor union to realize professional gains. Ethnography, including participant observation and ethnographic interviews, was the method used to study unionized registered nurses (RNs) in a 60-bed, private, not-for-profit psychiatric hospital in rural southern New England. The union nurses' position as workers in a gendered profession was analyzed. Nurses' union involvement, solidarity, and working conditions were considered in the context of a patriarchal and authoritarian hospital setting. Collaborative decision making and an innovative conflict resolution strategy allowed nurses to voice professional concerns. Unionization allowed RNs to collectively mobilize as a legitimate ideological force in the hospital culture and to enhance their professional status. Their ability to resolve conflicts and to implement change within this context were evaluated.

  13. Labor union members play an OLG repeated game

    PubMed Central

    Kandori, Michihiro; Obayashi, Shinya

    2014-01-01

    Humans are capable of cooperating with one another even when it is costly and a deviation provides an immediate gain. An important reason is that cooperation is reciprocated or rewarded and deviations are penalized in later stages. For cooperation to be sustainable, not only must rewards and penalties be strong enough but individuals should also have the right incentives to provide rewards and punishments. Codes of conduct with such properties have been studied extensively in game theory (as repeated game equilibria), and the literature on the evolution of cooperation shows how equilibrium behavior might emerge and proliferate in society. We found that community unions, a subclass of labor unions that admits individual affiliations, are ideal to corroborate these theories with reality, because (i) their activities are simple and (ii) they have a structure that closely resembles a theoretical model, the overlapping generations repeated game. A detailed case study of a community union revealed a possible equilibrium that can function under the very limited observability in the union. The equilibrium code of conduct appears to be a natural focal point based on simple heuristic reasoning. The union we studied was created out of necessity for cooperation, without knowing or anticipating how cooperation might be sustained. The union has successfully resolved about 3,000 labor disputes and created a number of offspring. PMID:25024211

  14. Labor union members play an OLG repeated game.

    PubMed

    Kandori, Michihiro; Obayashi, Shinya

    2014-07-22

    Humans are capable of cooperating with one another even when it is costly and a deviation provides an immediate gain. An important reason is that cooperation is reciprocated or rewarded and deviations are penalized in later stages. For cooperation to be sustainable, not only must rewards and penalties be strong enough but individuals should also have the right incentives to provide rewards and punishments. Codes of conduct with such properties have been studied extensively in game theory (as repeated game equilibria), and the literature on the evolution of cooperation shows how equilibrium behavior might emerge and proliferate in society. We found that community unions, a subclass of labor unions that admits individual affiliations, are ideal to corroborate these theories with reality, because (i) their activities are simple and (ii) they have a structure that closely resembles a theoretical model, the overlapping generations repeated game. A detailed case study of a community union revealed a possible equilibrium that can function under the very limited observability in the union. The equilibrium code of conduct appears to be a natural focal point based on simple heuristic reasoning. The union we studied was created out of necessity for cooperation, without knowing or anticipating how cooperation might be sustained. The union has successfully resolved about 3,000 labor disputes and created a number of offspring. PMID:25024211

  15. 100-MeV proton beam intensity measurement by Au activation analysis using 197Au(p, pn)196Au and 197Au(p, p3n)194Au reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtari Oranj, Leila; Jung, Nam-Suk; Oh, Joo-Hee; Lee, Hee-Seock

    2016-05-01

    The proton beam intensity of a 100-MeV proton linac at the Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC) was measured by an Au activation analysis using 197Au(p, pn)196Au and 197Au(p, p3n)194Au reactions to determine the accuracy and precision of beam intensity measurement using Gafchromic film dosimetry method. The target, irradiated by 100-MeV protons, was arranged in a stack consisting of Au, Al foils and Pb plates. The yields of produced radio-nuclei in Au foils were obtained by gamma-ray spectroscopy. The FLUKA code was employed to calculate the energy spectrum of protons onto the front surface of Au foils located at three different depth points of the target and also to investigate the condition of incident beam on the target. A good agreement was found between the beam intensity measurements using the activation analysis method at three different depth points of the target. An excellent agreement was also observed between the beam intensity measurements using the Au activation analysis method and the dosimetry method using Gafchromic film.

  16. A Guide to the Changing Court Rulings on Union Security in the Public Sector: A Union Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darko, Richard J.; Knapp, Janet C.

    1985-01-01

    The Supreme Court in "Ellis vs. Brotherhood of Railway, Airline and Steamship Clerks" has provided a systematic process for determining what constitutes union expenses properly charged to objecting nonmembers. (MLF)

  17. Cladistic analysis of extant and fossil African papionins using craniodental data.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Christopher C

    2013-05-01

    This study examines African papionin phylogenetic history through a comprehensive cladistic analysis of extant and fossil craniodental morphology using both quantitative and qualitative characters. To account for the well-documented influence of allometry on the papionin skull, the general allometric coding method was applied to characters determined to be significantly affected by allometry. Results of the analyses suggest that Parapapio, Pliopapio, and Papio izodi are stem African papionin taxa. Crown Plio-Pleistocene African papionin taxa include Gorgopithecus, Lophocebus cf. albigena, Procercocebus, Soromandrillus (new genus defined herein) quadratirostris, and, most likely, Dinopithecus. Furthermore, S. quadratirostris is a member of a clade also containing Mandrillus, Cercocebus, and Procercocebus; ?Theropithecus baringensis is strongly supported as a primitive member of the genus Theropithecus; Gorgopithecus is closely related to Papio and Lophocebus; and Theropithecus is possibly the most primitive crown African papionin taxon. Finally, character transformation analyses identify a series of morphological transformations during the course of papionin evolution. The origin of crown African papionins is diagnosed, at least in part, by the appearance of definitive and well-developed male maxillary ridges and maxillary fossae. Among crown African papionins, Papio, Lophocebus, and Gorgopithecus are further united by the most extensive development of the maxillary fossae. The Soromandrillus/Mandrillus/Cercocebus/Procercocebus clade is diagnosed by upturned nuchal crests (especially in males), widely divergent temporal lines (especially in males), medially oriented maxillary ridges in males, medially oriented inferior petrous processes, and a tendency to enlarge the premolars as an adaptation for hard-object food processing. The adaptive origins of the genus Theropithecus appear associated with a diet requiring an increase in size of the temporalis, the optimal

  18. Electrochemical Characterization of Protein Adsorption onto YNGRT-Au and VLGXE-Au Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Trzeciakiewicz, Hanna; Esteves-Villanueva, Jose; Soudy, Rania; Kaur, Kamaljit; Martic-Milne, Sanela

    2015-01-01

    The adsorption of the proteins CD13, mucin and bovine serum albumin on VLGXE-Au and YNGRT-Au interfaces was monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the presence of [Fe(CN)6]3−/4−. The hydrophobicity of the Au surface was tailored using specific peptides, blocking agents and diluents. The combination of blocking agents (ethanolamine or n-butylamine) and diluents (hexanethiol or 2-mercaptoethanol) was used to prepare various peptide-modified Au surfaces. Protein adsorption onto the peptide-Au surfaces modified with the combination of n-butylamine and hexanethiol produced a dramatic decrease in the charge transfer resistance, Rct, for all three proteins. In contrast, polar peptide-surfaces induced a minimal change in Rct for all three proteins. Furthermore, an increase in Rct was observed with CD13 (an aminopeptidase overexpressed in certain cancers) in comparison to the other proteins when the VLGXE-Au surface was modified with n-butylamine as a blocking agent. The electrochemical data indicated that protein adsorption may be modulated by tailoring the peptide sequence on Au surfaces and that blocking agents and diluents play a key role in promoting or preventing protein adsorption. The peptide-Au platform may also be used for targeting cancer biomarkers with designer peptides. PMID:26262621

  19. Using supported Au nanoparticles as starting material for preparing uniform Au/Pd bimetallic catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, Alberto; Prati, Laura; Su, Dangshen; Wang, Di; Veith, Gabriel M

    2010-01-01

    One of the best methods for producing bulk homogeneous (composition) supported bimetallic AuPd clusters involves the immobilization of a protected Au seed followed by the addition of Pd. This paper investigates the importance of this gold seed in controlling the resulting bimetallic AuPd clusters structures, sizes and catalytic activities by investigating three different gold seeds. Uniform Au-Pd alloy were obtained when a steric/electrostatic protecting group, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), was used to form the gold clusters on activated carbon (AC). In contrast Au/AC precursors prepared using Au nanoparticles with only electrostatic stabilization (tetrakis(hydroxypropyl)phosphonium chloride (THPC)), or no stabilization (magnetron sputtering) produced inhomogeneous alloys and segregation of the gold and palladium. The uniform alloyed catalyst (Pd{at}Au{sub PVA}/AC) is the most active and selective catalyst, while the inhomogenous catalysts are less active and selective. Further study of the PVA protected Au clusters revealed that the amount of PVA used is also critical for the preparation of uniform alloyed catalyst, their stability, and their catalytic activity.

  20. The extraction characteristic of Au-Ag from Au concentrate by thiourea solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Bongju; Cho, Kanghee; On, Hyunsung; Choi, Nagchoul; Park, Cheonyoung

    2013-04-01

    The cyanidation process has been used commercially for the past 100 years, there are ores that are not amenable to treatment by cyanide. Interest in alternative lixiviants, such as thiourea, halogens, thiosulfate and malononitrile, has been revived as a result of a major increase in gold price, which has stimulated new developments in extraction technology, combined with environmental concern. The Au extraction process using the thiourea solvent has many advantages over the cyanidation process, including higher leaching rates, faster extraction time and less than toxicity. The purpose of this study was investigated to the extraction characteristic of Au-Ag from two different Au concentrate (sulfuric acid washing and roasting) under various experiment conditions (thiourea concentration, pH of solvent, temperature) by thiourea solvent. The result of extraction experiment showed that the Au-Ag extraction was a fast extraction process, reaching equilibrium (maximum extraction rate) within 30 min. The Au-Ag extraction rate was higher in the roasted concentrate than in the sulfuric acid washing. The higher the Au-Ag extraction rate (Au - 70.87%, Ag - 98.12%) from roasted concentrate was found when the more concentration of thiourea increased, pH decreased and extraction temperature increased. This study informs extraction method basic knowledge when thiourea was a possibility to eco-/economic resources of Au-Ag utilization studies including the hydrometallurgy.

  1. Career Transitions after a Long Experience as Trade Union Officer: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Scali, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    In France, trade union officers are former shop stewards who have chosen to work full-time for the union for several years. This research investigates the career transitions of former union officers who have returned to the labour market following extended experience with high-level responsibilities in the union. Semi-directed interviews were…

  2. Standards for Professional Staff Preparation in College Unions and Student Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plakidas, Shirley

    Qualifications needed by professionals who staff the college student union are suggested as criteria for job candidates and as information for aspiring union professionals. After considering goals of the college union, desirable qualities of student union staff are identified. The number of staff positions required will vary according to the size…

  3. Standards for Professional Staff Preparation and Compensation in College Union Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Coll. Unions-International, Stanford, CA.

    Standards for college union work are considered in relation to academic preparation, staff qualifications, and compensation proposed by the Association of College Unions--International. The college union serves as a community center of the college, serving cultural, social, and recreational programs. College union work is considered a professional…

  4. Equal Access to Income and Union Dissolution among Mainland Puerto Ricans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oropesa, R. S.; Landale, Nancy S.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the implications for union stability of different methods for providing access to income in cohabiting and marital unions among mainland Puerto Ricans. Using the Puerto Rican Maternal and Infant Health Study (N= 836), we show that union dissolution is associated with both union type and type of method. The relatively high…

  5. Reachout: Associations of College Unions-International Proceedings of the Forty Eighth Annual Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Coll. Unions-International, Madison, WI.

    A wide range of articles concerned with the major work and interests of college unions are organized into six topical areas; (1) philosophical considerations about the purposes and directions of college unions; (2) management and operation of the college union; (3) food service; (4) programming; (5) contemporary society and the college union; and…

  6. The Trade Unions in Germany. Facing New Challenges. IN Visitors' Information Special Report. 2nd Quarter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horstkotte, Hermann; Schroder, Karsten

    A study examined the current status and likely future of trade unions in the German Trade Union Federation. The study focused on the following topics: unions as part of a social partnership, unions as partners in self-administration, collective pay policy against unemployment, plant reorganization and its impact on work and wages, the trend toward…

  7. African American Males. A Critical Link in the African American Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dionne J., Ed.

    African Americans are experiencing extreme stress in the United States, and African-American males appear to suffer the most. The chapters in this volume examine some of the issues confronting African-American men today. They include: (1) "Introduction" (Dionne J. Jones); (2) "Reaffirming Young African American Males: Mentoring and Community…

  8. African American Preschoolers' Language, Emergent Literacy Skills, and Use of African American English: A Complex Relation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Craig, Holly K.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relation between African American preschoolers' use of African American English (AAE) and their language and emergent literacy skills in an effort to better understand the perplexing and persistent difficulties many African American children experience learning to read proficiently. Method: African American…

  9. African horse sickness.

    PubMed

    Mellor, Philip Scott; Hamblin, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    African horse sickness virus (AHSV) causes a non-contagious, infectious insect-borne disease of equids and is endemic in many areas of sub-Saharan Africa and possibly Yemen in the Arabian Peninsula. However, periodically the virus makes excursions beyond its endemic areas and has at times extended as far as India and Pakistan in the east and Spain and Portugal in the west. The vectors are certain species of Culicoides biting midge the most important of which is the Afro-Asiatic species C. imicola. This paper describes the effects that AHSV has on its equid hosts, aspects of its epidemiology, and present and future prospects for control. The distribution of AHSV seems to be governed by a number of factors including the efficiency of control measures, the presence or absence of a long term vertebrate reservoir and, most importantly, the prevalence and seasonal incidence of the major vector which is controlled by climate. However, with the advent of climate-change the major vector, C. imicola, has now significantly extended its range northwards to include much of Portugal, Spain, Italy and Greece and has even been recorded from southern Switzerland. Furthermore, in many of these new locations the insect is present and active throughout the entire year. With the related bluetongue virus, which utilises the same vector species of Culicoides this has, since 1998, precipitated the worst outbreaks of bluetongue disease ever recorded with the virus extending further north in Europe than ever before and apparently becoming endemic in that continent. The prospects for similar changes in the epidemiology and distribution of AHSV are discussed.

  10. African N Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekunda, M.; Galford, G. L.; Hickman, J. E.; Palm, C.

    2011-12-01

    Africa's smallholder agricultural systems face unique challenges in planning for reducing poverty, concurrent with adaptation and mitigation to climate change. At continental level, policy seeks to promote a uniquely African Green Revolution to increase crop yields and food production, and improve local livelihoods. However, the consequences on the environment and climate are not clear; these pro-economic development measures should be linked to climate change adaptation and mitigation measures, and research is required to help achieve these policy proposals by identifying options, and testing impacts. In particular, increased nitrogen (N) inputs are essential for increasing food production in Africa, but are accompanied by inevitable increases in losses to the environment. These losses appear to be low at input levels promoted in agricultural development programs, while the increased N inputs both increase current food production and appear to reduce the vulnerability of food production to changes in climate. We present field and remote sensing evidence from Malawi that subsidizing improved seed and fertilizers increases resilience to drought without adding excess N to the environment. In Kenya, field research identified thresholds in N2O losses, where emissions are very low at fertilization rates of less than 200 kg ha-1. Village-scale models have identified potential inefficiencies in the food production process where the largest losses of reactive N occur, and which could be targeted to reduce the amount of N released to the environment. We further review some on-going research activities and progress in Africa that compare different methods of managing resources that target resilience in food production and adaptation to climate change, using nutrient N as an indicator, while evaluating the effects of these resource management practices on ecosystems and the environment.

  11. Adsorbate-modified Electron Relaxation in Au-Au_2S Nanoshells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westcott, Sarah; Averitt, Richard; Wolfgang, John; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi

    2001-03-01

    Au-Au_2S nanoshells are 50 nm nanoparticles consisting of an Au_2S core encapsulated by a thin (<5 nm) Au shell. Their optical properties are determined by the metallic shell layer, whose inner and outer radii control plasmon frequency and whose thickness determines plasmon linewidth[1]. We studied the time-resolved relaxation of hot electrons in the Au shell, using degenerate pump-probe spectroscopy. The electron relaxation for nanoshells in solution was appreciably slower than relaxation for bulk gold, moreover, adsorbed molecules on the nanoshell surface strongly modify this relaxation. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the molecules providing the strongest modification of relaxation possess the largest induced dipole moments above a metal surface, indicating that the adsorbate-induced perturbation of the nanoshell electron dynamics appears to be primarily electronic in nature. [1] R. D. Averitt, D. Sarkar and N. J. Halas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4217 (1997).

  12. Odd-Even Pattern Observed in Polyaniline/(Au0 – Au8) Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Jonke, Alex P.; Josowicz, Mira A.; Janata, Jiri

    2012-01-12

    Theoretically predicted effect of odd-even pattern of electron pairing on behavior of gold clusters in polyaniline/AuN (N = 0 to 8) has been confirmed experimentally. In these composites the atomic Au clusters with even number of atoms exhibit higher catalytic activity for electrochemical oxidation of n-propanol in 1 M NaOH than the odd-number atoms clusters. Also, infrared spectroscopy shows that even numbered PANI/AuN composites affect the N-H stretching vibration more strongly than the corresponding odd numbered ones. This behavior matches the theoretically predicted variations of HOMO-LUMO gap energy and the stability of the atomic Au clusters. It also agrees with the earlier experimental work in which the UPS spectra of isolated, mass-selected Au clusters have been reported.

  13. African Perceptions of Female Attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Coetzee, Vinet; Faerber, Stella J.; Greeff, Jaco M.; Lefevre, Carmen E.; Re, Daniel E.; Perrett, David I.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about mate choice preferences outside Western, educated, industrialised, rich and democratic societies, even though these Western populations may be particularly unrepresentative of human populations. To our knowledge, this is the first study to test which facial cues contribute to African perceptions of African female attractiveness and also the first study to test the combined role of facial adiposity, skin colour (lightness, yellowness and redness), skin homogeneity and youthfulness in the facial attractiveness preferences of any population. Results show that youthfulness, skin colour, skin homogeneity and facial adiposity significantly and independently predict attractiveness in female African faces. Younger, thinner women with a lighter, yellower skin colour and a more homogenous skin tone are considered more attractive. These findings provide a more global perspective on human mate choice and point to a universal role for these four facial cues in female facial attractiveness. PMID:23144734

  14. Plio-pleistocene African climate

    SciTech Connect

    deMenocal, P.B.

    1995-10-06

    Marine records of African climate variability document a shift toward more arid conditions after 2.8 million years ago (Ma), evidently resulting from remote forcing by cold North Atlantic sea-surface temperatures associated with the onset of Northern Hemisphere glacial cycles. African climate before 2.8 Ma was regulated by low-latitude insolation forcing of monsoonal climate due to Earth orbital precession. Major steps in the evolution of African hominids and other vertebrates are coincident with shifts to more arid, open conditions near 2.8 Ma, 1.7 Ma, and 1.0 Ma, suggesting that some Pliocene (Plio)-Pleistocene speciation events may have been climatically mediated. 65 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Plio-Pleistocene African Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demenocal, Peter B.

    1995-10-01

    Marine records of African climate variability document a shift toward more arid conditions after 2.8 million years ago (Ma), evidently resulting from remote forcing by cold North Atlantic sea-surface temperatures associated with the onset of Northern Hemisphere glacial cycles. African climate before 2.8 Ma was regulated by low-latitude insolation forcing of monsoonal climate due to Earth orbital precession. Major steps in the evolution of African hominids and other vertebrates are coincident with shifts to more arid, open conditions near 2.8 Ma, 1.7 Ma, and 1.0 Ma, suggesting that some Pliocene (Plio)-Pleistocene speciation events may have been climatically mediated.

  16. West African crude production diversifies

    SciTech Connect

    Aalund, L.

    1983-06-01

    Nigeria, with its seven crude-oil export streams, dominated West African production and accounted for over 70% of the depressed 1.8 million b/d output from the region last year. However, during the 1970s a flurry of new producing fields, primarily off the African coast, diversified production among a number of countries and touched off a wave of oil activity. The Journal takes a close look at the quality of West African oil in this installment of assays on world export crudes. This issue covers, in alphabetical order, Bonny Light (Nigeria) to Espoir (Ivory Coast). A following issue will wrap up West Africa by presenting assays on crudes from Forcados Blend (Nigeria) to Zaire Crude (Zaire).

  17. The African Cultural Astronomy Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urama, Johnson O.; Holbrook, Jarita C.

    2011-06-01

    Indigenous, endogenous, traditional, or cultural astronomy focuses on the many ways that people and cultures interact with celestial bodies. In most parts of Africa, there is very little or no awareness about modern astronomy. However, like ancient people everywhere, Africans wondered at the sky and struggled to make sense of it. The African Cultural Astronomy Project aims to unearth the body of traditional knowledge of astronomy possessed by peoples of the different ethnic groups in Africa and to consider scientific interpretations when appropriate for cosmogonies and ancient astronomical practices. Regardless of scientific validity, every scientist can relate to the process of making observations and creating theoretical mechanisms for explaining what is observed. Through linking the traditional and the scientific, it is believed that this would be used to create awareness and interest in astronomy in most parts of Africa. This paper discusses the vision, challenges and prospects of the African Cultural Astronomy Project in her quest to popularize astronomy in Africa.

  18. Jets and dijets in Au+Au and p+p collisions at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Hardtke, D.; STAR Collaboration

    2002-12-09

    Recent data from RHIC suggest novel nuclear effects in the production of high p{sub T} hadrons. We present results from the STAR detector on high p{sub T} angular correlations in Au+Au and p+p collisions at {radical}S = 200 GeV/c. These two-particle angular correlation measurements verify the presence of a partonic hard scattering and fragmentation component at high p{sub T} in both central and peripheral Au+Au collisions. When triggering on a leading hadron with p{sub T}>4 GeV, we observe a quantitative agreement between the jet cone properties in p+p and all centralities of Au+Au collisions. This quantitative agreement indicates that nearly all hadrons with p{sub T}>4 GeV/c come from jet fragmentation and that jet fragmentation properties are not substantially modified in Au+Au collisions. STAR has also measured the strength of back-to-back high p{sub T} charged hadron correlations, and observes a small suppression of the back-to-back correlation strength in peripheral collisions, and a nearly complete disappearance o f back-to-back correlations in central Au+Au events. These phenomena, together with the observed strong suppression of inclusive yields and large value of elliptic flow at high p{sub T}, are consistent with a model where high p{sub T} hadrons come from partons created near the surface of the collision region, and where partons that originate or propagate towards the center of the collision region are substantially slowed or completely absorbed.

  19. Spectra and ratios of identified particles in Au+Au and d+Au collisions at sNN=200 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Alexander, J.; Angerami, A.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Aramaki, Y.; Atomssa, E. T.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Barish, K. N.; Bassalleck, B.; Basye, A. T.; Bathe, S.; Baublis, V.; Baumann, C.; Bazilevsky, A.; Belikov, S.; Belmont, R.; Bennett, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Bhom, J. H.; Bickley, A. A.; Blau, D. S.; Bok, J. S.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Bunce, G.; Butsyk, S.; Camacho, C. M.; Campbell, S.; Caringi, A.; Chen, C.-H.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Choudhury, R. K.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, P.; Chvala, O.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cole, B. A.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M.; Constantin, P.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Dahms, T.; Dairaku, S.; Danchev, I.; Das, K.; Datta, A.; David, G.; Dayananda, M. K.; Denisov, A.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dharmawardane, K. V.; Dietzsch, O.; Dion, A.; Donadelli, M.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Dutta, D.; D'Orazio, L.; Edwards, S.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Ellinghaus, F.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Esumi, S.; Fadem, B.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Fraenkel, Z.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fujiwara, K.; Fukao, Y.; Fusayasu, T.; Garishvili, I.; Glenn, A.; Gong, H.; Gonin, M.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grim, G.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gunji, T.; Gustafsson, H.-Å.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamblen, J.; Han, R.; Hanks, J.; Hartouni, E. P.; Haslum, E.; Hayano, R.; He, X.; Heffner, M.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Hill, J. C.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzmann, W.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hornback, D.; Huang, S.; Ichihara, T.; Ichimiya, R.; Ide, J.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Inaba, M.; Isenhower, D.; Ishihara, M.; Isobe, T.; Issah, M.; Isupov, A.; Ivanischev, D.; Iwanaga, Y.; Jacak, B. V.; Jia, J.; Jiang, X.; Jin, J.; Johnson, B. M.; Jones, T.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kajihara, F.; Kametani, S.; Kamihara, N.; Kamin, J.; Kang, J. H.; Kapustinsky, J.; Karatsu, K.; Kasai, M.; Kawall, D.; Kawashima, M.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Kempel, T.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kijima, K. M.; Kikuchi, J.; Kim, A.; Kim, B. I.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.; Kim, E.-J.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y.-J.; Kinney, E.; Kiriluk, K.; Kiss, Á.; Kistenev, E.; Kleinjan, D.; Kochenda, L.; Komkov, B.; Konno, M.; Koster, J.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kozlov, A.; Král, A.; Kravitz, A.; Kunde, G. J.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G. S.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, J.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Leitch, M. J.; Leite, M. A. L.; Leitner, E.; Lenzi, B.; Li, X.; Lichtenwalner, P.; Liebing, P.; Linden Levy, L. A.; Liška, T.; Litvinenko, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, M. X.; Love, B.; Luechtenborg, R.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Malakhov, A.; Malik, M. D.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Mao, Y.; Masui, H.; Matathias, F.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; McGlinchey, D.; Means, N.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mibe, T.; Mignerey, A. C.; Mikeš, P.; Miki, K.; Milov, A.; Mishra, M.; Mitchell, J. T.; Mohanty, A. K.; Moon, H. J.; Morino, Y.; Morreale, A.; Morrison, D. P.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagle, J. L.; Naglis, M.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, K. R.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Nam, S.; Newby, J.; Nguyen, M.; Nihashi, M.; Nouicer, R.; Nyanin, A. S.; Oakley, C.; O'Brien, E.; Oda, S. X.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Oka, M.; Okada, K.; Onuki, Y.; Oskarsson, A.; Ouchida, M.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, I. H.; Park, J.; Park, S. K.; Park, W. J.; Pate, S. F.; Pei, H.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, H.; Peresedov, V.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Petti, R.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pisani, R. P.; Proissl, M.; Purschke, M. L.; Purwar, A. K.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Rembeczki, S.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Roach, D.; Roche, G.; Rolnick, S. D.; Rosati, M.; Rosen, C. A.; Rosendahl, S. S. E.; Rosnet, P.; Rukoyatkin, P.; Ružička, P.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sakashita, K.; Samsonov, V.; Sano, S.; Sato, T.; Sawada, S.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Semenov, A. Yu.; Seto, R.; Sharma, D.; Shein, I.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Sim, K. S.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Slunečka, M.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Sourikova, I. V.; Sparks, N. A.; Stankus, P. W.; Stenlund, E.; Stoll, S. P.; Sugitate, T.; Sukhanov, A.; Sziklai, J.; Takagui, E. M.; Taketani, A.; Tanabe, R.; Tanaka, Y.; Taneja, S.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tarján, P.; Themann, H.; Thomas, D.; Thomas, T. L.; Togawa, M.; Toia, A.; Tomášek, L.; Torii, H.; Towell, R. S.; Tserruya, I.; Tsuchimoto, Y.; Vale, C.; Valle, H.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vazquez-Zambrano, E.; Veicht, A.; Velkovska, J.; Vértesi, R.; Vinogradov, A. A.; Virius, M.; Vrba, V.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Wang, X. R.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Wei, F.; Wei, R.; Wessels, J.; White, S. N.; Winter, D.; Wood, J. P.; Woody, C. L.; Wright, R. M.; Wysocki, M.; Xie, W.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yamaura, K.; Yang, R.; Yanovich, A.; Ying, J.; Yokkaichi, S.; You, Z.; Young, G. R.; Younus, I.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zhang, C.; Zhou, S.; Zolin, L.

    2013-08-01

    The transverse momentum (pT) spectra and ratios of identified charged hadrons (π±, K±, p, p¯) produced in sNN=200 GeV Au+Au and d+Au collisions are reported in five different centrality classes for each collision species. The measurements of pions and protons are reported up to pT=6 GeV/c (5 GeV/c), and the measurements of kaons are reported up to pT=4 GeV/c (3.5 GeV/c) in Au+Au (d+Au) collisions. In the intermediate pT region, between 2 and 5 GeV/c, a significant enhancement of baryon-to-meson ratios compared to those measured in p+p collisions is observed. This enhancement is present in both Au+Au and d+Au collisions and increases as the collisions become more central. We compare a class of peripheral Au+Au collisions with a class of central d+Au collisions which have a comparable number of participating nucleons and binary nucleon-nucleon collisions. The pT-dependent particle ratios for these classes display a remarkable similarity, which is then discussed.

  20. The African American Image in American Cinema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourne, St. Clair

    1990-01-01

    Political conditions have influenced the screen images of U.S. cinema, and the images of African Americans have reflected prevailing social stereotypes. The history of African-American representation in films is traced, and it is noted that the tendency to portray African Americans stereotypically has not changed. (SLD)

  1. Towards a Norm in South African Englishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Walt, Johann L.; van Rooy, Bertus

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the perception and application of the norm in South African English with specific reference to Black South African English. Hypothesizes that South African English is in the hibernation and expansion phase. Three sets of data are presented and analyzed. (Author/VWL)

  2. African Centered Knowledge: A British Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Considers the impact of African centered knowledge within the United Kingdom. Recent development of African Diaspora studies has forged links between various black Atlantic communities. The United Kingdom has experienced positive grassroots community response to the work of noted African centered scholars, yet within the British academy,…

  3. Freedom Road: Adult Education of African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Elizabeth A., Ed.

    This book contains six chapters by various authors about the history of African Americans' contributions and participation in adult education. The book reports on how some African American leaders saw the connection between education and the eventual freedom or uplift of the African American people. Following a foreword (Phyllis M. Cunningham) and…

  4. An Introduction to West African Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taiwo, Oladele

    Intended to provide help for those interested in studying West African literature, this book is divided into three parts. Part One provides background information: the various African oral traditions are discussed, related to the way of life of the people, and examined for the extent to which they form the basis of present West African literary…

  5. Engaging African Americans in Smoking Cessation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…

  6. African American Teaching and the Matriarchal Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffries, Rhonda Baynes

    This paper discusses the role of matriarchs in African-American culture, explaining that traditionally, African-American matriarchs arise from a combination of African norms and American social positions that naturally forces them to assume leadership conditions. The roles these women assume are a response to the desire to survive in a society…

  7. The Economic Question and the African Novel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okonkwo, J. I.

    1989-01-01

    Presents examples of how African novelists express their ideas on the restructuring of African economic orders and the social and political implications that emanate from them. Discusses the present state of the African economy reflected in the visions of these writers, and their visions of future socio-economic health of Africa. (JS)

  8. Content-based Instruction for African Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moshi, Lioba

    2001-01-01

    Examines content-based instruction for African languages and considers Schleicher's (2000) expatiation of goal-based instruction for African languages. Focuses on the parameters for content-based instruction, the profile of a content-based instructional program, the nature of content-based instruction, the first steps for African languages, and…

  9. Complex Syntax Production of African American Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Sandra C.; Roberts, Joanne E.

    2001-01-01

    This study examined changes in the complex syntax production of 85 African American preschoolers and the role of child (gender, age, African American English) and family (home environment) factors. Age, gender, and home environment effects were found for the amount of complex language used. African American English was not related to amount of…

  10. Synthesis and characterization in AuCu–Si nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Novelo, T.E.; Amézaga-Madrid, P.; Maldonado, R.D.; Oliva, A.I.; Alonzo-Medina, G.M.

    2015-03-15

    Au/Cu bilayers with different Au:Cu concentrations (25:75, 50:50 and 75:25 at.%) were deposited on Si(100) substrates by thermal evaporation. The thicknesses of all Au/Cu bilayers were 150 nm. The alloys were prepared by thermal diffusion into a vacuum oven with argon atmosphere at 690 K during 1 h. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed different phases of AuCu and CuSi alloys in the samples after annealing process. CuSi alloys were mainly obtained for 25:75 at.% samples, meanwhile the AuCuII phase dominates for samples prepared with 50:50 at.%. Additionally, the Au:Cu alloys with 75:25 at.%, produce Au{sub 2}Cu{sub 3} and Au{sub 3}Cu phases. The formed alloys were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to study the morphology and the elemental concentration of the formed alloys. - Highlights: • AuCu/Si alloy thin films were prepared by thermal diffusion. • Alloys prepared with 50 at.% of Au produce the AuCuII phase. • Alloys prepared with 75 at.% of Au produce Au{sub 3}Cu and Au{sub 2}Cu{sub 3} phases. • All alloys present diffusion of Si and Cu through the CuSi alloy formation.

  11. Heart failure in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Yancy, Clyde W

    2005-10-10

    The demographics of the United States are changing, and in the next few decades there will no longer be a racial/ethnic majority population. Increased awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in special populations is warranted as these populations increase. Heart failure carries a substantial burden on those affected, particularly African Americans, who have a disproportionate burden of heart disease. Current treatments for heart failure include angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers, angiotensin II-receptor antagonists, and vasodilating agents. This review discusses the unique characteristics of CVD in African Americans and addresses the need for targeted treatments to reduce the excess burden found in this population.

  12. Au nanoparticles films used in biological sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosales Pérez, M.; Delgado Macuil, R.; Rojas López, M.; Gayou, V. L.; Sánchez Ramírez, J. F.

    2009-05-01

    Lactobacillus para paracasei are used commonly as functional food and probiotic substances. In this work Au nanoparticles self-assembled films were used for Lactobacillus para paracasei determination at five different concentrations. Functionalized substrates were immersed in a colloidal solution for one and a half hour at room temperature and dried at room temperature during four hours. After that, drops of Lactobacillus para paracasei in aqueous solution were put into the Au nanoparticles film and let dry at room temperature for another two hours. Infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflectance sampling mode was used to observe generation peaks due to substrate silanization, enhancement of Si-O band intensity due to the Au colloids added to silanized substrate and also to observe the enhancement of Lactobacillus para paracasei infrared intensity of the characteristic frequencies at 1650, 1534 and 1450 cm-1 due to surface enhancement infrared absorption.

  13. A velocity map imaging study of gold-rare gas complexes: Au-Ar, Au-Kr, and Au-Xe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, W. Scott; Woodham, Alex P.; Plowright, Richard J.; Wright, Timothy G.; Mackenzie, Stuart R.

    2010-06-01

    The ultraviolet photodissociation dynamics of the gold-rare gas atom van der Waals complexes (Au-RG, RG=Ar, Kr, and Xe) have been studied by velocity map imaging. Photofragmentation of Au-Ar and Au-Kr at several wavelengths permits extrapolation to zero of the total kinetic energy release (TKER) spectra as monitored in the Au(P23/2∘[5d106p]) fragment channel, facilitating the determination of ground state dissociation energies of D0″(Au-Ar)=149±13 cm-1 and D0″(Au-Kr)=240±19 cm-1, respectively. In the same spectral region, transitions to vibrational levels of an Ω'=1/2 state of the Au-Xe complex result in predissociation to the lower Au(P21/2∘[5d106p])+Xe(S10[5p6]) fragment channel for which TKER extrapolation yields a value of D0″(Au-Xe)=636±27 cm-1. Asymmetric line shapes for transitions to the v'=14 level of this state indicate coupling to the Au(P23/2∘[5d106p])+Xe(S10[5p6]) continuum, which allows us to refine this value to D0″(Au-Xe)=607±5 cm-1. The dissociation dynamics of this vibrational level have been studied at the level of individual isotopologues by fitting the observed excitation spectra to Fano profiles. These fits reveal a remarkable variation in the predissociation dynamics for different Au-Xe isotopologues. For Au-Ar and Au-Xe, the determined ground state dissociation energies are in good agreement with recent theoretical calculations; the agreement of the Au-Kr value with theory is less satisfactory.

  14. What happens after participants complete a Union-MSF structured operational research training course?

    PubMed

    Guillerm, N; Tayler-Smith, K; Berger, S D; Bissell, K; Kumar, A M V; Ramsay, A; Reid, A J; Zachariah, R; Harries, A D

    2014-06-21

    Contexte : Huit cours de recherche opérationnelle (OR) structurée achevés de L'Union et Médecins sans Frontières pour des participants de pays à revenu faible ou intermédiaire. On ignore si les participants continuent à pratiquer la recherche opérationnelle après avoir suivi le cours.Objectifs : Déterminer 1) les activités de recherche des participants et de leurs institutions après la fin du cours ; 2) l'influence des bourses de recherche sur ces activités ; et 3) les activités des collègues n'ayant pas assisté au cours, stratifiées par sexe, région et statut professionnel.Schéma : Une enquête par questionnaire auto-administré envoyée par e-mail.Résultats : Sur 83 participants qui ont terminé le cours, 76 (92%) ont répondu au questionnaire. Après la fin du cours, 47 (62%) participants ont réalisé de nouveaux projets de recherche, 38 (50%) ont publié des articles (comparés à 25 [33%] qui en avaient publié avant le cours), 42 (55%) ont exposé des affiches ou présenté des résumés oraux lors de conférences, 33 (43%) ont été facilitateurs lors de cours suivants, 29 (38%) ont revu des articles scientifiques, 25 (33%) ont obtenu un financement ultérieur pour le recherche opérationnelle et 55 (72%) ont affirmé que leurs institutions étaient impliquées dans la mise en œuvre de recherche ou de renforcement des capacités. Les participants au cours ont eu une meilleure performance que les autres. Parmi ces derniers, les hommes et les participants venant d'Asie ont eu de meilleurs résultats que les femmes et les participants venant d'Afrique (P < 0,05).Conclusion : Une proportion significative de participants a continué à réaliser des recherches opérationnelles après la fin du cours. Ces constatations sont encourageantes en termes d'impact à long terme de ce modèle de renforcement des capacités.

  15. Antiproton distributions in Au+nucleus collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Beavis, D.; Debbe, R.; Bennett, M.J.; Chikanian, A.; Kumar, B.S.; Nagle, J.L.; Pope, J.K.; Carroll, J.B.; Hallman, T.J.; Chiba, J.; Tanaka, K.H.; Crawford, H.J.; Cronqvist, M.; Dardenne, Y.; Engelage, J.; Greiner, L.; Kuo, C.; Doke, T.; Kashiwagi, T.; Kikuchi, J.; Hayano, R.S.; Heckman, H.H.; Lindstrom, P.J.; Mitchell, J.W.; Welsh, R.C.

    1997-09-01

    Experiment E878 at the BNL-AGS has measured the invariant cross sections of antiprotons produced near p{sub t}=0 in interactions of 10.8 GeV/c Au beams with targets of Al, Cu, and Au. The data were measured for a wide range of centralities and rapidities using a focusing beamline spectrometer and a high-rate centrality detector. We compare our data with the predictions of simple models and sophisticated transport models to explore the physics of antiproton production and annihilation. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  16. The role of interfaces in the magnetoresistance of Au/Fe/Au/Fe/GaAs(001)

    SciTech Connect

    Enders, A.; Monchesky, T. L.; Myrtle, K.; Urban, R.; Heinrich, B.; Kirschner, J.; Zhang, X.-G.; Butler, W. H.

    2001-06-01

    The electron transport and magnetoresistance (MR) were investigated in high quality crystalline epitaxial Fe(001) and Au(001) films and exchange coupled Au/Fe/Au/Fe/GaAs(001) trilayer structures. Fits to the experimental data were based on the semiclassical Boltzmann equation, which incorporates the electronic properties obtained from first-principles local density functional calculations. The fits require a surprisingly high asymmetry for the spin dependent electron lifetimes in Fe, {tau}{sup {down_arrow}}/{tau}{sup {up_arrow}}=10 at room temperature. Despite the large atomic terraces at the Au/vacuum and Fe/GaAs interfaces the scattering at the outer interfaces was found to be diffuse. The origin of MR in Au/Fe/Au/Fe/GaAs(001) structures is due to electron channeling in the Au spacer layer. The measured MR is consistent with the diffusivity parameters s{sup {up_arrow}}=0.55, s{sup {down_arrow}}=0.77 at the metal{endash}metal interfaces. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  17. Appropriating social citizenship: women's labour, poverty, and entrepreneurship in the manual workers union of Botswana.

    PubMed

    Werbner, Pnina

    2010-01-01

    Interrogating critiques of the 'African labour aristocracy' thesis, the article proposes that public service industrial-class manual workers in Botswana form, if not a labour 'aristocracy' in the sense first defined by Saul and Arrighi, then a marginal worker 'elite'. They are privileged in having a regular salary above minimum pay, augmented by periodic lump-sum gratuity payments. This sets them apart from the other low-paid workers in the private sector, casual workers in the informal economy and a vast army of unemployed job seekers. In the absence of a national unemployment benefit scheme in Botswana, the article explores some of the strategies deployed by women members of the Manual Workers Union in their attempts to contend with the spectre of future unemployment and impoverishment. In gender terms, the article highlights the independence, autonomy and decision-making capacity of women trade unionist leaders, who straddle the worlds of workers' rights and citizens' rights, and manoeuvre their way through the maze of rules and regulations they encounter in both. PMID:20879188

  18. Appropriating social citizenship: women's labour, poverty, and entrepreneurship in the manual workers union of Botswana.

    PubMed

    Werbner, Pnina

    2010-01-01

    Interrogating critiques of the 'African labour aristocracy' thesis, the article proposes that public service industrial-class manual workers in Botswana form, if not a labour 'aristocracy' in the sense first defined by Saul and Arrighi, then a marginal worker 'elite'. They are privileged in having a regular salary above minimum pay, augmented by periodic lump-sum gratuity payments. This sets them apart from the other low-paid workers in the private sector, casual workers in the informal economy and a vast army of unemployed job seekers. In the absence of a national unemployment benefit scheme in Botswana, the article explores some of the strategies deployed by women members of the Manual Workers Union in their attempts to contend with the spectre of future unemployment and impoverishment. In gender terms, the article highlights the independence, autonomy and decision-making capacity of women trade unionist leaders, who straddle the worlds of workers' rights and citizens' rights, and manoeuvre their way through the maze of rules and regulations they encounter in both.

  19. Robust Au-Ag-Au bimetallic atom-scale junctions fabricated by self-limited Ag electrodeposition at Au nanogaps.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Tai-Wei; Bohn, Paul W

    2011-10-25

    Atom-scale junctions (ASJs) exhibit quantum conductance behavior and have potential both for fundamental studies of adsorbate-mediated conductance in mesoscopic conductors and as chemical sensors. Electrochemically fabricated ASJs, in particular, show the stability needed for molecular detection applications. However, achieving physically robust ASJs at high yield is a challenge because it is difficult to control the direction and kinetics of metal deposition. In this work, a novel electrochemical approach is reported, in which Au-Ag-Au bimetallic ASJs are reproducibly fabricated from an initially prepared Au nanogap by sequential overgrowth and self-limited thinning. Applying a potential across specially prepared Au nanoelectrodes in the presence of aqueous Ag(I) leads to preferential galvanic reactions resulting in the deposition of Ag and the formation of an atom-scale junction between the electrodes. An external resistor is added in series with the ASJ to control self-termination, and adjusting solution chemical potential (concentration) is used to mediate self-thinning of junctions. The result is long-lived, mechanically stable ASJs that, unlike previous constructions, are stable in flowing solution, as well as to changes in solution media. These bimetallic ASJs exhibit a number of behaviors characteristic of quantum structures, including long-lived fractional conductance states, that are interpreted to arise from two or more quantized ASJs in series.

  20. Fabrication of segmented Au/Co/Au nanowires: insights in the quality of Co/Au junctions.

    PubMed

    Jang, Bumjin; Pellicer, Eva; Guerrero, Miguel; Chen, Xiangzhong; Choi, Hongsoo; Nelson, Bradley J; Sort, Jordi; Pané, Salvador

    2014-08-27

    Electrodeposition is a versatile method, which enables the fabrication of a variety of wire-like nanoarchitectures such as nanowires, nanorods, and nanotubes. By means of template-assisted electrodeposition, segmented Au/Co/Au nanowires are grown in anodic aluminum oxide templates from two different electrolytes. To tailor the properties of the cobalt segments, several electrochemical conditions are studied as a function of current density, pulse deposition, and pH. The morphology, crystal structure, and magnetic properties are accordingly investigated. Changes in the deposition conditions affect the cobalt electrocrystallization process directly. Cobalt tends to crystallize mainly in the hexagonal close-packed structure, which is the reason cobalt might not accommodate satisfactorily on the face-centered cubic Au surface or vice versa. We demonstrate that by modifying the electrolyte and the applied current densities, changes in the texture and the crystalline structure of cobalt lead to a good quality connection between dissimilar segments. In particular, lowering the bath pH, or using pulse plating at a high overpotential, produces polycrystalline fcc Co and thus well-connected Co/Au bimetallic junctions with smooth interface. These are crucial factors to be carefully considered taking into account that nanowires are potential building blocks in micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems. PMID:25025496

  1. Neurofibromatosis in the South African Indian community--further evidence for heterogeneity?

    PubMed

    Wallis, C E; Slater, C P

    1987-10-01

    Ninety-five members of three South African Indian families were examined for neurofibromatosis (NF) and 45 were deemed to be affected in terms of accepted diagnostic criteria. Analysis of the pedigrees revealed autosomal dominant inheritance with full penetrance. The absence of macromelanosomes in skin biopsies of café-au-lait macules and the failure to detect Lisch nodules (hamartomas of the iris) in this population group raises further evidence that NF might be a heterogeneous condition. The potential importance of heterogeneity in molecular linkage studies is emphasised.

  2. Classic African American Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNair, Jonda C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to assert that there are classic African American children's books and to identify a sampling of them. The author presents multiple definitions of the term classic based on the responses of children's literature experts and relevant scholarship. Next, the manner in which data were collected and analyzed in regard to…

  3. Wellness among African American Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day-Vines, Norma L.; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    Although there are various definitions of wellness, few conceptual definitions have addressed the contextual dimensions of wellness relative to African American counselors. The authors present an overview of generic models of wellness, discuss factors that both inhibit and promote wellness, offer some culture-specific models of wellness, and…

  4. Liberia: America's Closest African Ally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Samuel; Mowell, Barry

    1997-01-01

    Profiles Liberia, the West African nation patterned after the United States and colonized with freed U.S. slaves in the early 19th century. Reviews the country's history and its eruption into civil strife in 1990, showing how tensions have often characterized relationships between Liberians of different ethnic identities. (MJP)

  5. Improvisation in West African Musics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, David

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is music of the sub-Sahara. Vocal, instrumental, and dance drumming from the Sudan Desert, the North Coast, East Horn, Central and West Africa, and contrapuntal yodeling of Pygmies is described. For African musicians, the ability to improvise, and creativity, are gifts from God. Includes selected readings and recordings. (KC)

  6. African American Men in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuyjet, Michael J., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This book is a much-needed resource that includes examples of real-world programs and activities to enhance academic success in the college environment for African American men. The examples are collected from a variety of institutions across the country. With contributions from leading practitioners and scholars in the field, this book explores…

  7. Production of ω mesons in p + p, d + Au, Cu + Cu, and Au + Au collisions at sNN=200 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Al-Jamel, A.; Alexander, J.; Angerami, A.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Aphecetche, L.; Aramaki, Y.; Armendariz, R.; Aronson, S. H.; Asai, J.; Atomssa, E. T.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldisseri, A.; Barish, K. N.; Barnes, P. D.; Bassalleck, B.; Basye, A. T.; Bathe, S.; Batsouli, S.; Baublis, V.; Bauer, F.; Baumann, C.; Bazilevsky, A.; Belikov, S.; Belmont, R.; Bennett, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Bhom, J. H.; Bickley, A. A.; Bjorndal, M. T.; Blau, D. S.; Boissevain, J. G.; Bok, J. S.; Borel, H.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Brown, D. S.; Bucher, D.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Bunce, G.; Burward-Hoy, J. M.; Butsyk, S.; Camacho, C. M.; Campbell, S.; Caringi, A.; Chai, J.-S.; Chang, B. S.; Charvet, J.-L.; Chen, C.-H.; Chernichenko, S.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiba, J.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Choudhury, R. K.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, P.; Churyn, A.; Chvala, O.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cleven, C. R.; Cobigo, Y.; Cole, B. A.; Comets, M. P.; Conesa Del Valle, Z.; Connors, M.; Constantin, P.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Dahms, T.; Dairaku, S.; Danchev, I.; Das, K.; Datta, A.; David, G.; Dayananda, M. K.; Deaton, M. B.; Dehmelt, K.; Delagrange, H.; Denisov, A.; D'Enterria, D.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dharmawardane, K. V.; Dietzsch, O.; Dion, A.; Donadelli, M.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Dubey, A. K.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Dutta, D.; Dzhordzhadze, V.; D'Orazio, L.; Edwards, S.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Egdemir, J.; Ellinghaus, F.; Emam, W. S.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Espagnon, B.; Esumi, S.; Eyser, K. O.; Fadem, B.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Forestier, B.; Fraenkel, Z.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fujiwara, K.; Fukao, Y.; Fung, S.-Y.; Fusayasu, T.; Gadrat, S.; Garishvili, I.; Gastineau, F.; Germain, M.; Glenn, A.; Gong, H.; Gonin, M.; Gosset, J.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grim, G.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gunji, T.; Gustafsson, H.-Å.; Hachiya, T.; Hadj Henni, A.; Haegemann, C.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hagiwara, M. N.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamblen, J.; Han, R.; Hanks, J.; Harada, H.; Hartouni, E. P.; Haruna, K.; Harvey, M.; Haslum, E.; Hasuko, K.; Hayano, R.; He, X.; Heffner, M.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Heuser, J. M.; Hiejima, H.; Hill, J. C.; Hobbs, R.; Hohlmann, M.; Holmes, M.; Holzmann, W.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hornback, D.; Huang, S.; Hur, M. G.; Ichihara, T.; Ichimiya, R.; Ide, J.; Iinuma, H.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Inaba, M.; Inoue, Y.; Isenhower, D.; Isenhower, L.; Ishihara, M.; Isobe, T.; Issah, M.; Isupov, A.; Ivanischev, D.; Iwanaga, Y.; Jacak, B. V.; Jia, J.; Jiang, X.; Jin, J.; Jinnouchi, O.; Johnson, B. M.; Jones, T.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kajihara, F.; Kametani, S.; Kamihara, N.; Kamin, J.; Kaneta, M.; Kang, J. H.; Kanou, H.; Kapustinsky, J.; Karatsu, K.; Kasai, M.; Kawagishi, T.; Kawall, D.; Kawashima, M.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Kelly, S.; Kempel, T.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kijima, K. M.; Kikuchi, J.; Kim, A.; Kim, B. I.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.; Kim, E. J.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y.-J.; Kim, Y.-S.; Kim, Y. J.; Kinney, E.; Kiriluk, K.; Kiss, Á.; Kistenev, E.; Kiyomichi, A.; Klay, J.; Klein-Boesing, C.; Kochenda, L.; Kochetkov, V.; Komkov, B.; Konno, M.; Koster, J.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kozlov, A.; Král, A.; Kravitz, A.; Kroon, P. J.; Kubart, J.; Kunde, G. J.; Kurihara, N.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G. S.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Lebedev, A.; Le Bornec, Y.; Leckey, S.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, J.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, M. K.; Lee, T.; Leitch, M. J.; Leite, M. A. L.; Leitner, E.; Lenzi, B.; Li, X.; Li, X. H.; Lichtenwalner, P.; Liebing, P.; Lim, H.; Linden Levy, L. A.; Liška, T.; Litvinenko, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, M. X.; Love, B.; Luechtenborg, R.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Malakhov, A.; Malik, M. D.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Mao, Y.; Mašek, L.; Masui, H.; Matathias, F.; McCain, M. C.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; Means, N.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mibe, T.; Mignerey, A. C.; Mikeš, P.; Miki, K.; Miller, T. E.; Milov, A.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, G. C.; Mishra, M.; Mitchell, J. T.; Mitrovski, M.; Mohanty, A. K.; Moon, H. J.; Morino, Y.; Morreale, A.; Morrison, D. P.; Moss, J. M.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Mukhopadhyay, D.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagata, Y.; Nagle, J. L.; Naglis, M.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, K. R.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Nam, S.; Newby, J.; Nguyen, M.; Nihashi, M.; Norman, B. E.; Nouicer, R.; Nyanin, A. S.; Nystrand, J.; Oakley, C.; O'Brien, E.; Oda, S. X.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Ohnishi, H.; Ojha, I. D.; Oka, M.; Okada, K.; Omiwade, O. O.; Onuki, Y.; Oskarsson, A.; Otterlund, I.; Ouchida, M.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pal, D.; Palounek, A. P. T.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, I. H.; Park, J.; Park, S. K.; Park, W. J.; Pate, S. F.; Pei, H.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, H.; Peresedov, V.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Petti, R.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pisani, R. P.; Proissl, M.; Purschke, M. L.; Purwar, A. K.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Rembeczki, S.; Reuter, M.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Roach, D.; Roche, G.; Rolnick, S. D.; Romana, A.; Rosati, M.; Rosen, C. A.; Rosendahl, S. S. E.; Rosnet, P.; Rukoyatkin, P.; Ružička, P.; Rykov, V. L.; Ryu, S. S.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sakai, S.; Sakashita, K.; Sakata, H.; Samsonov, V.; Sano, S.; Sato, H. D.; Sato, S.; Sato, T.; Sawada, S.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Semenov, A. Yu.; Semenov, V.; Seto, R.; Sharma, D.; Shea, T. K.; Shein, I.; Shevel, A.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shohjoh, T.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Sim, K. S.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Skutnik, S.; Slunečka, M.; Smith, W. C.; Soldatov, A.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Sourikova, I. V.; Sparks, N. A.; Staley, F.; Stankus, P. W.; Stenlund, E.; Stepanov, M.; Ster, A.; Stoll, S. P.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Sukhanov, A.; Sullivan, J. P.; Sziklai, J.; Tabaru, T.; Takagi, S.; Takagui, E. M.; Taketani, A.; Tanabe, R.; Tanaka, K. H.; Tanaka, Y.; Taneja, S.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tarján, P.; Themann, H.; Thomas, D.; Thomas, T. L.; Togawa, M.; Toia, A.; Tojo, J.; Tomášek, L.; Torii, H.; Towell, R. S.; Tram, V.-N.; Tserruya, I.; Tsuchimoto, Y.; Tuli, S. K.; Tydesjö, H.; Tyurin, N.; Vale, C.; Valle, H.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vazquez-Zambrano, E.; Veicht, A.; Velkovska, J.; Vértesi, R.; Vinogradov, A. A.; Virius, M.; Vrba, V.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Wagner, M.; Walker, D.; Wang, X. R.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Wei, F.; Wei, R.; Wessels, J.; White, S. N.; Willis, N.; Winter, D.; Wood, J. P.; Woody, C. L.; Wright, R. M.; Wysocki, M.; Xie, W.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yamaura, K.; Yang, R.; Yanovich, A.; Yasin, Z.; Ying, J.; Yokkaichi, S.; You, Z.; Young, G. R.; Younus, I.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zaudtke, O.; Zhang, C.; Zhou, S.; Zimányi, J.; Zolin, L.

    2011-10-01

    The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider has measured ω meson production via leptonic and hadronic decay channels in p+p, d+Au, Cu+Cu, and Au+Au collisions at sNN = 200 GeV. The invariant transverse momentum spectra measured in different decay modes give consistent results. Measurements in the hadronic decay channel in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions show that ω production has a suppression pattern at high transverse momentum, similar to that of π0 and η in central collisions, but no suppression is observed in peripheral collisions. The nuclear modification factors, RAA, are consistent in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at similar numbers of participant nucleons.

  8. Facile Syntheses of Monodisperse Ultra-Small Au Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Bertino, Massimo F.; Sun, Zhong-Ming; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Lai S.

    2006-11-02

    During our effort to synthesize the tetrahedral Au20 cluster, we found a facile synthetic route to prepare monodisperse suspensions of ultra-small Au clusters AuN (N<12) using diphosphine ligands. In our monophasic and single-pot synthesis, a Au precursor ClAu(I)PPh3 and a bidentate phosphine ligand P(Ph)2(CH2)MP(Ph)2 (Ph = phenyl) are dissolved in an organic solvent. Au(I) is reduced slowly by a borane-tert-butylamine complex to form Au clusters coordinated by the diphosphine ligand. The Au clusters are characterized by both high resolution mass spectrometry and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. We found that the mean cluster size obtained depends on the chain length M of the ligand. In particular, a single monodispersed Au11 cluster is obtained with the P(Ph)2(CH2)3P(Ph)2 ligand, whereas P(Ph)2(CH2)MP(Ph)2 ligands with M = 5 and 6 yield Au10 and Au8 clusters. The simplicity of our synthetic method makes it suitable for large-scale production of nearly monodisperse ultrasmall Au clusters. It is suggested that diphosphines provide a set of flexible ligands to allow size-controlled synthesis of Au nanoparticles.

  9. Hazards in the hospital: educating the workforce through its union.

    PubMed

    Brown, M P

    1979-10-01

    The hospital workforce is exposed to many occupational hazards of which most hospital workers are unaware. The author and another health educator, both employed with the California State Department of Health, conducted occupational health and safety educational sessions for the membership of a hospital workers' union. These sessions taught nonprofessional workers how to recognize hospital hazards, how to eliminate or minimize these hazards, and informed workers of their legal rights under the California Occupational Safety and Health Act. We first had to convince the union health and safety officer that we had skills and information which would be of benefit to the union. Once that hurdle was crossed, we encountered some difficulty conducting an adequate needs assessment and including the target population in the planning of the educationals. Two series of educational sessions for rank-and-file members were conducted and were enthusiastically received by those attending, with a request for more sessions.

  10. Spanning Trees of the Generalised Union Jack Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lingyun; Yan, Weigen

    2016-04-01

    The Union Jack lattice UJL(n, m) with toroidal boundary condition can be obtained from an n×m square lattice with toroidal boundary condition by inserting a new vertex vf to each face f and adding four edges (vf, ui(f)), where u1(f), u2(f), u3(f), and u4(f) are four vertices on the boundary of f. The Union Jack lattice has been studied extensively by statistical physicists. In this article, we consider the problem of enumeration of spanning trees of the so-called generalised Union Jack lattice UDn, which is obtained from the Aztec diamond ADnt of order n with toroidal boundary condition by inserting a new vertex vf to each face f and adding four edges (vf, ui(f)), where u1(f), u2(f), u3(f) and u4(f) are four vertices on the boundary of f.

  11. Developing anatomical terms in an African language.

    PubMed

    Madzimbamuto, Farai Daniel

    2012-03-01

    Clinical and technical information imparted in most African languages involves inexact terminology and code switching, so it lacks the explanatory power characterised by the English language. African languages are absent in the tertiary science education environment and forums where African scientists could present scientific material in the medium of African languages. This limits the development of African languages in the scientific domain. There has recently been a trend in several African languages to develop and intellectualise them, especially in the field of medical sciences. The ChiShona language is used to explore the ability of an African language to develop new terminology, to name the vertebral skeleton and describe it scientifically. It uses word compounding to demonstrate terminology development. ChiShona has similarities with several hundred other Bantu languages in East, Central and Southern Africa. Advancing this language can promote similar developments in others, making them more explanatory for the lay public and health professionals. PMID:22380900

  12. Suppression of Upsilon production in d + Au and Au + Au collisions at root s(NN) = 200 GeV (vol 735, pg 127, 2014)

    SciTech Connect

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Anson, C. D.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Gliske, S.; Krueger, K.; Spinka, H. M.; Underwood, D. G.

    2014-07-30

    We report measurements of Υ meson production in p + p, d +Au, and Au+Aucollisions using the STAR detector at RHIC. We compare the Υ yield to the measured cross section in p + p collisions in order to quantify any modifications of the yield in cold nuclear matter using d +Au data and in hot nuclear matter using Au+Au data separated into three centrality classes. Our p +p measurement is based on three times the statistics of our previous result. We obtain a nuclear modification factor for Υ (1S + 2S + 3S) in the rapidity range |y| < 1 in d + Aucollisions of RdAu = 0.79 ± 0.24(stat.) ± 0.03(syst.) ± 0.10(p + p syst.). A comparison with models including shadowing and initial state parton energy loss indicates the presence of additional cold-nuclear matter suppression. Similarly, in the top 10% most-central Au + Au collisions, we measure a nuclear modification factor of R AA = 0.49 ±0.1(stat.) ±0.02(syst.) ±0.06(p + p syst.), which is a larger suppression factor than that seen in cold nuclear matter. Our results are consistent with complete suppression of excited-state Υ mesons in Au + Aucollisions. The additional suppression in Au + Au is consistent with the level expected in model calculations that include the presence of a hot, deconfined Quark–Gluon Plasma. However, understanding the suppression seen in d + Au is still needed before any definitive statements about the nature of the suppression in Au + Au can be made.

  13. [The relationship between the State and workers' unions and its impacts in the union-based health coverage regime in Argentina: an historical and political analysis].

    PubMed

    De Fazio, Federico Leandro

    2013-12-01

    This paper aims at developing a political and historical reconstruction of the period spanning from the late nineteenth century to the present. In particular, this work investigates the relationship between the Argentine State and workers' unions and the impacts of that relationship in the establishment, consolidation and potential decline of the health coverage system administrated by unions, in Argentina called obras sociales. This work will also support the hypothesis that the financing obtained by union leaders through this health coverage system has been an efficient instrument for sustaining a centralized union model and has in some cases guaranteed the continued governance of both union leaders and different national governments. PMID:24500545

  14. Can serial scintigraphic studies detect delayed fracture union in man

    SciTech Connect

    O'Reilly, R.J.; Cook, D.J.; Gaffney, R.D.; Angel, K.R.; Paterson, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    The uptake of the bone-seeking tracer technetium-99m-methylenediphosphonate increases following bone fracture as bone healing occurs. To investigate the pattern of change in normal healing and compare it with delayed union and nonunion, an analysis of automated computer profiles was carried out on serial scan data for 22 patients. The type of fracture (simple, comminuted, etc.) influenced the appearance of the activity profile; however, no significant differences in the patterns of change were noted between normal healing and delayed or non-union.

  15. Illegal immigration in the presence of labor unions.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, J G

    1994-01-01

    "This paper develops a general equilibrium framework of a two-sector economy which incorporates illegal immigration in the presence of labor unions. It demonstrates that stricter enforcement of immigration laws, by reducing the demand for or supply of illegal aliens, benefits all legal workers in the economy. The model is used to evaluate the impact of these policy changes on national income. Results indicate that national income does not necessarily fall when immigration controls are tightened. The existence of a union mitigates the negative welfare impact of a reduction in the number of illegal immigrants."

  16. ISO Results Presented at International Astronomical Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-08-01

    Some of the work being presented is collected in the attached ESA Information Note N 25-97, ISO illuminates our cosmic ancestry. A set of six colour images illustrating various aspects have also been released and are available at http://www.estec.esa.nl/spdwww/iso1808.htm or in hard copy from ESA Public Relations Paris (fax:+33.1.5369.7690). These pictures cover: 1. Distant but powerful infrared galaxies 2. A scan across the milky way 3. Helix nebula: the shroud of a dead star 4. Supernova remnant Cassiopeia A 5. Trifid nebula: a dusty birthplace of stars 6. Precursors of stars and planets The International Astronomical Union provides a forum where astronomers from all over the world can develop astronomy in all its aspects through international co-operation. General Assemblies are held every three years. It is expected that over 1600 astronomers will attend this year's meeting, which is being held in Kyoto, Japan from 18-30 August. Further information on the meeting can be found at: www.tenmon.or.jp/iau97/ . ISO illuminates our cosmic ancestry The European Space Agency's Infrared Space Observatory, ISO, is unmatched in its ability to explore and analyse many of the universal processes that made our existence possible. We are children of the stars. Every atom in our bodies was created in cosmic space and delivered to the Sun's vicinity in time for the Earth's formation, during a ceaseless cycle of birth, death and rebirth among the stars. The most creative places in the sky are cool and dusty, and opaque even to the Hubble Space Telescope. Infrared rays penetrating the dust reveal to ISO hidden objects, and the atoms and molecules of cosmic chemistry. "ISO is reading Nature's recipe book," says Roger Bonnet, ESA's director of science. "As the world's only telescope capable of observing the Universe over a wide range of infrared wavelengths, ISO plays an indispensable part in astronomical discoveries that help to explain how we came to exist." This Information Note

  17. Nanoporous Au: an unsupported pure gold catalyst?

    SciTech Connect

    Wittstock, A; Neumann, B; Schaefer, A; Dumbuya, K; Kuebel, C; Biener, M; Zielasek, V; Steinrueck, H; Gottfried, M; Biener, J; Hamza, A; B?umer, M

    2008-09-04

    The unique properties of gold especially in low temperature CO oxidation have been ascribed to a combination of various effects. In particular, particle sizes below a few nm and specific particle-support interactions have been shown to play important roles. On the contrary, recent reports revealed that monolithic nanoporous gold (npAu) prepared by leaching a less noble metal, such as Ag, out of the corresponding alloy can also exhibit remarkably high catalytic activity for CO oxidation, even though no support is present. Therefore, it was claimed to be a pure and unsupported gold catalyst. We investigated npAu with respect to its morphology, surface composition and catalytic properties. In particular, we studied the reaction kinetics for low temperature CO oxidation in detail taking mass transport limitation due to the porous structure of the material into account. Our results reveal that Ag, even if removed almost completely from the bulk, segregates to the surface resulting in surface concentrations of up to 10 at%. Our data suggest that this Ag plays a significant role in activation of molecular oxygen. Therefore, npAu should be considered as a bimetallic catalyst rather than a pure Au catalyst.

  18. 22 CFR 62.31 - Au pairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... pair participant with child development and child safety instruction, as follows: (1) Prior to... development instruction of which no less than 4 shall be devoted to specific training for children under the... and participate directly in the home life of the host family. All au pair participants provide...

  19. 22 CFR 62.31 - Au pairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... pair participant with child development and child safety instruction, as follows: (1) Prior to... development instruction of which no less than 4 shall be devoted to specific training for children under the... and participate directly in the home life of the host family. All au pair participants provide...

  20. 22 CFR 62.31 - Au pairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... pair participant with child development and child safety instruction, as follows: (1) Prior to... development instruction of which no less than 4 shall be devoted to specific training for children under the... and participate directly in the home life of the host family. All au pair participants provide...

  1. 22 CFR 62.31 - Au pairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... pair participant with child development and child safety instruction, as follows: (1) Prior to... development instruction of which no less than 4 shall be devoted to specific training for children under the... and participate directly in the home life of the host family. All au pair participants provide...

  2. 22 CFR 62.31 - Au pairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... pair participant with child development and child safety instruction, as follows: (1) Prior to... development instruction of which no less than 4 shall be devoted to specific training for children under the... and participate directly in the home life of the host family. All au pair participants provide...

  3. Electron transmission characteristics of Au/1,4-benzenedithiol/Au junctions.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, K; Tsutsui, M; Kurokawa, S; Sakai, A

    2009-01-14

    Electron transmission through individual 1,4-benzenedithiol molecules bridging between two gold electrodes (Au/BDT/Au junctions) has been studied by measuring the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. Measurements were made at room temperature on three junction states of conductance 0.005G(0), 0.01G(0), and 0.1G(0), respectively, where G(0) is the quantum unit of conductance. All I-V curves are linear around zero bias and nonlinearly increase upward for biases above approximately 0.2 V. Absence of plateaus in the observed I-V characteristics up to +/- 1 V indicates that the electron transmission spectrum of Au/BDT/Au has no peaks within +/- 0.5 eV from the Fermi level.

  4. High Resolution Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Au_2^- and Au_4^- by Photoelectron Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, Iker; Yang, Zheng; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2013-06-01

    We report high resolution photoelectron spectra of Au_2^- and Au_4^- obtained with a newly-built photoelectron imaging apparatus. Gold anions are produced by laser vaporization and the desired specie is mass selected and focused into the collinear velocity-map imaging (VMI) lens assembly. The design of the imaging lens has allowed us to obtain less than 0.9% energy resolution for high kinetic energy electrons ( > 1eV) while maintaining wavenumber resolution for low kinetic energy electrons. Although gold dimer and tetramer have been studied in the past, we present spectroscopic results under high resolution. For Au_2^-, we report high resolution spectra with an accurate determination of the electron affinity together with a complete vibrational assignment, for both the anion and neutral ground states, while for Au_4^-, we are able to resolve a low frequency mode and obtain accurately the adiabatic detachment energy.

  5. Charged-Particle Pseudorapidity Density Distributions from Au+Au Collisions at

    SciTech Connect

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.

    2001-09-03

    The charged-particle pseudorapidity density dN{sub ch}/d{eta} has been measured for Au+Au collisions at s{sub NN}=130 GeV at RHIC, using the PHOBOS apparatus. The total number of charged particles produced for the 3% most-central Au+Au collisions for |{eta}|{<=}5.4 is found to be 4200{+-}470 . The evolution of dN{sub ch}/d{eta} with centrality is discussed, and compared to model calculations and to data from proton-induced collisions. The data show an enhancement in charged-particle production at midrapidity, while in the fragmentation regions, the results are consistent with expectations from pp and pA scattering.

  6. Systematics of Global Observables in Cu+Cu and Au+Au Collisions at RHIC Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Nouicer, Rachid

    2006-07-11

    Charged particles produced in Cu+Cu collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN}) = 200 and 62.4 GeV have been measured in the PHOBOS experiment at RHIC. The comparison of the results for Cu+Cu and Au+Au for the most central collisions at the same energy reveals that the particle density per nucleon participant pair and the extended longitudinal scaling behavior are similar in both systems. This implies that for the most central events in symmetric nucleus-nucleus collisions the particle density per nucleon participant pair does not depend on the size of the two colliding nuclei but only on the collision energy. Also the extended longitudinal scaling seems independent of the colliding energy and species for central collisions. In addition, there is an overall factorization of dNch/d{eta} shapes as a function of collision centraliry between Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at the same energy.

  7. Charge-dependent azimuthal correlations from AuAu to UU collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloczynski, John; Huang, Xu-Guang; Zhang, Xilin; Liao, Jinfeng

    2015-07-01

    We study the charge-dependent azimuthal correlations in relativistic heavy ion collisions, as motivated by the search for the Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) and the investigation of related background contributions. In particular we aim to understand how these correlations induced by various proposed effects evolve from collisions with AuAu system to that with UU system. To do that, we quantify the generation of magnetic field in UU collisions at RHIC energy and its azimuthal correlation with the matter geometry using event-by-event simulations. Taking the experimental data for charge-dependent azimuthal correlations from AuAu collisions and extrapolating to UU with reasonable assumptions, we examine the resulting correlations to be expected in UU collisions and compare them with recent STAR measurements. Based on such analysis we discuss the viability for explaining the data with a combination of the CME-like and flow-induced contributions.

  8. Some thoughts on di-jet correlation in Au + Au collisions from PHENIX

    SciTech Connect

    Jia Jiangyong

    2006-07-11

    PHENIX has measured the two particle azimuth correlation in Au + Au at {radical}(s) = 200 GeV. Jet shape and yield at the away side are found to be strongly modified at intermediate and low pT, and the modifications vary dramatically with pT and centrality. At high pT, away side jet peak reappears but the yield is suppressed. We discuss the possible physics pictures leading to these complicated modifications.

  9. Net charge fluctuations in Au + Au interactions at sqrt[s(NN)]=130 GeV.

    PubMed

    Adcox, K; Adler, S S; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Alexander, J; Aphecetche, L; Arai, Y; Aronson, S H; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Barrette, J; Bassalleck, B; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Bellaiche, F G; Belyaev, S T; Bennett, M J; Berdnikov, Y; Botelho, S; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bruner, N; Bucher, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J; Butsyk, S; Carey, T A; Chand, P; Chang, J; Chang, W C; Chavez, L L; Chernichenko, S; Chi, C Y; Chiba, J; Chiu, M; Choudhury, R K; Christ, T; Chujo, T; Chung, M S; Chung, P; Cianciolo, V; Cole, B A; D'Enterria, D G; David, G; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dietzsch, O; Dinesh, B V; Drees, A; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Ebisu, K; Efremenko, Y V; El Chenawi, K; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Ewell, L; Ferdousi, T; Fields, D E; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Z; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fung, S-Y; Garpman, S; Ghosh, T K; Glenn, A; Godoi, A L; Goto, Y; Greene, S V; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Gupta, S K; Guryn, W; Gustafsson, H-A; Haggerty, J S; Hamagaki, H; Hansen, A G; Hara, H; Hartouni, E P; Hayano, R; Hayashi, N; He, X; Hemmick, T K; Heuser, J M; Hibino, M; Hill, J C; Ho, D S; Homma, K; Hong, B; Hoover, A; Ichihara, T; Imai, K; Ippolitov, M S; Ishihara, M; Jacak, B V; Jang, W Y; Jia, J; Johnson, B M; Johnson, S C; Joo, K S; Kametani, S; Kang, J H; Kann, M; Kapoor, S S; Kelly, S; Khachaturov, B; Khanzadeev, A; Kikuchi, J; Kim, D J; Kim, H J; Kim, S Y; Kim, Y G; Kinnison, W W; Kistenev, E; Kiyomichi, A; Klein-Boesing, C; Klinksiek, S; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Koehler, D; Kohama, T; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Kroon, P J; Kurita, K; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lajoie, J G; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Leitch, M J; Li, X H; Li, Z; Lim, D J; Liu, M X; Liu, X; Liu, Z; Maguire, C F; Mahon, J; Makdisi, Y I; Manko, V I; Mao, Y; Mark, S K; Markacs, S; Martinez, G; Marx, M D; Masaike, A; Matathias, F; Matsumoto, T; McGaughey, P L; Melnikov, E; Merschmeyer, M; Messer, F; Messer, M; Miake, Y; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mischke, R E; Mishra, G C; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Mühlbacher, F; Muniruzzaman, M; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagasaka, Y; Nagle, J L; Nakada, Y; Nandi, B K; Newby, J; Nikkinen, L; Nilsson, P; Nishimura, S; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; O'Brien, E; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Ono, M; Onuchin, V; Oskarsson, A; Osterman, L; Otterlund, I; Oyama, K; Paffrath, L; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V S; Papavassiliou, V; Pate, S F; Peitzmann, T; Petridis, A N; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Pitukhin, P; Plasil, F; Pollack, M; Pope, K; Purschke, M L; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Rosati, M; Rose, A A; Ryu, S S; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, A; Sakaguchi, T; Sako, H; Sakuma, T; Samsonov, V; Sangster, T C; Santo, R; Sato, H D; Sato, S; Sawada, S; Schlei, B R; Schutz, Y; Semenov, V; Seto, R; Shea, T K; Shein, I; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shiina, T; Shin, Y H; Sibiriak, I G; Silvermyr, D; Sim, K S; Simon-Gillo, J; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Sivertz, M; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sorensen, S; Stankus, P W; Starinsky, N; Steinberg, P; Stenlund, E; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugioka, M; Sugitate, T; Sullivan, J P; Sumi, Y; Sun, Z; Suzuki, M; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tamai, M; Tanaka, K H; Tanaka, Y; Taniguchi, E; Tannenbaum, M J; Thomas, J; Thomas, J H; Thomas, T L; Tian, W; Tojo, J; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuruoka, H; Tsvetkov, A A; Tuli, S K; Tydesjö, H; Tyurin, N; Ushiroda, T; van Hecke, H W; Velissaris, C; Velkovska, J; Velkovsky, M; Vinogradov, A A; Volkov, M A; Vorobyov, A; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, H; Watanabe, Y; White, S N; Witzig, C; Wohn, F K; Woody, C L; Xie, W; Yagi, K; Yokkaichi, S; Young, G R; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zhang, Z; Zhou, S

    2002-08-19

    Data from Au + Au interactions at sqrt[s(NN)]=130 GeV, obtained with the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider, are used to investigate local net charge fluctuations among particles produced near midrapidity. According to recent suggestions, such fluctuations may carry information from the quark-gluon plasma. This analysis shows that the fluctuations are dominated by a stochastic distribution of particles, but are also sensitive to other effects, like global charge conservation and resonance decays.

  10. Etude descriptive et analytique du cancer de l’œsophage au Togo

    PubMed Central

    Oumboma, Bouglouga; Mawuli, Lawson-Ananissoh Laté; Aklesso, Bagny; Laconi, Kaaga; Datouda, Redah

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Décrire les aspects épidémiologiques, cliniques, endoscopiques et histologiques du cancer de l’œsophage (CO) au Togo. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective descriptive et analytique menée sur 8 ans (Janvier 2005-Décembre 2012) dans le service d'hépato-gastroentérologie (HGE) du CHU Campus de Lomé. Etaient inclus les dossiers des patients hospitalisés pour CO confirmé histologiquement. Résultats Sur 8 ans, 24 patients remplissant nos critères d'inclusion ont été retenus soit 3cas de CO par an et 0,55% des hospitalisations. L’âge moyen des patients était de 57,08 ans (extrêmes: 32 et 82 ans). La dysphagie et l’épigastralgie étaient les motifs d'hospitalisation les plus rencontrés. L'alcool (n=15), le tabac (n=13) étaient les facteurs de risque les plus présents. A la fibroscopie, les lésions étaient ulcéro-bourgeonnantes et hémorragiques (n=12), ulcéro-bourgeonnantes (n=5); ces lésions siégeaient au niveau du 1/3 inférieur (n= 11), à l'union 1/3 supérieur 1/3moyen de l’œsophage (n= 13) et aucun au niveau du 1/3 supérieur. Seize lésions étaient des carcinomes épidermoïdes et 3 des adénocarcinomes. L’évolution dans le service a été fatale dans 2cas; 16 patients avaient été transférés en chirurgie pour des soins palliatifs et 5 patients (20,8%) étaient perdus de vue. Conclusion Le CO semble en augmentation au Togo. L'alcool et le tabac sont les facteurs de risque et le pronostic sévère dans notre série est lié au retard diagnostic. Son dépistage précoce passe par une consultation rapide devant toute dysphagie chez un sujet de 50 ans et plus. PMID:25883742

  11. Evidence of Significant Covalent Bonding in Au(CN)2-

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xue B.; wang, Yi-Lei; Yang, Jie; Xing, Xiaopeng; Li, Jun; Wang, Lai S.

    2009-11-18

    There have been intense recent interests in the homogeneous catalytic chemistry of Au(I) complexes.1 Among the Au(I) molecules, the Au(CN)2- ion is the most stable and has been widely used in gold extraction back to ancient times. Although AuCN in the condensed phase has been studied, including solution phase vibrational spectroscopy2 and crystal structures,3 the free AuCN molecule has been studied only very recently by microwave spectroscopy.4 The important Au(CN)2- complex has not been observed and studied in the gas phase. Because of the relativistic effects,5 Au-containing molecules exhibit distinctly different properties among the coinage elements. To elucidate the nature of the Au-ligand binding, high-level ab initio calculations are needed due to the complicated electron correlation and relativistic effects.6-8 The structure and bonding of the AuCN molecule were first examined computationally by Frenking and co-workers.7 Recent high-precision calculations by Pyykkö and co-workers suggest multiple-bond characters between Au-C in AuCN because the Au-C bond length is only slightly longer than the sum of the triple bond covalent radii.

  12. The effect of Au amount on size uniformity of self-assembled Au nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S.-H.; Wang, D.-C.; Chen, G.-Y.; Chen, K.-Y.

    2008-03-01

    The self-assembled fabrication of nanostructure, a dreaming approach in the area of fabrication engineering, is the ultimate goal of this research. A finding was proved through previous research that the size of the self-assembled gold nanoparticles could be controlled with the mole ratio between AuCl4- and thiol. In this study, the moles of Au were fixed, only the moles of thiol were adjusted. Five different mole ratios of Au/S with their effect on size uniformity were investigated. The mole ratios were 1:1/16, 1:1/8, 1:1, 1:8, 1:16, respectively. The size distributions of the gold nanoparticles were analyzed by Mac-View analysis software. HR-TEM was used to derive images of self-assembled gold nanoparticles. The result reached was also the higher the mole ratio between AuCl4- and thiol the bigger the self-assembled gold nanoparticles. Under the condition of moles of Au fixed, the most homogeneous nanoparticles in size distribution derived with the mole ratio of 1:1/8 between AuCl4- and thiol. The obtained nanoparticles could be used, for example, in uniform surface nanofabrication, leading to the fabrication of ordered array of quantum dots.

  13. Experimental and Theoretical Studies on Oxidation of Cu-Au Alloy Surfaces: Effect of Bulk Au Concentration.

    PubMed

    Okada, Michio; Tsuda, Yasutaka; Oka, Kohei; Kojima, Kazuki; Diño, Wilson Agerico; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Kasai, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    We report results of our experimental and theoretical studies on the oxidation of Cu-Au alloy surfaces, viz., Cu3Au(111), CuAu(111), and Au3Cu(111), using hyperthermal O2 molecular beam (HOMB). We observed strong Au segregation to the top layer of the corresponding clean (111) surfaces. This forms a protective layer that hinders further oxidation into the bulk. The higher the concentration of Au in the protective layer formed, the higher the protective efficacy. As a result, of the three Cu-Au surfaces studied, Au3Cu(111) is the most stable against dissociative adsorption of O2, even with HOMB. We also found that this protective property breaks down for oxidations occurring at temperatures above 300 K. PMID:27516137

  14. Bonding, Luminescence, Metallophilicity in Linear Au3 and Au2Ag Chains Stabilized by Rigid Diphosphanyl NHC Ligands.

    PubMed

    Ai, Pengfei; Mauro, Matteo; Gourlaouen, Christophe; Carrara, Serena; De Cola, Luisa; Tobon, Yeny; Giovanella, Umberto; Botta, Chiara; Danopoulos, Andreas A; Braunstein, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    The heterofunctional and rigid ligand N,N'-diphosphanyl-imidazol-2-ylidene (PCNHCP; P = P(t-Bu)2), through its phosphorus and two N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) donors, stabilizes trinuclear chain complexes, with either Au3 or AgAu2 cores, and dinuclear Au2 complexes. The two oppositely situated PCNHCP (L) ligands that "sandwich" the metal chain can support linear and rigid structures, as found in the known tricationic Au(I) complex [Au3(μ3-PCNHCP,κP,κCNHC,κP)2](OTf)3 (OTf = CF3SO3; [Au3L2](OTf)3; Chem. Commun. 2014, 50, 103-105) now also obtained by transmetalation from [Ag3(μ3-PCNHCP,κP,κCNHC,κP)2](OTf)3 ([Ag3L2](OTf)3), or in the mixed-metal tricationic [Au2Ag(μ3-PCNHCP,κP,κCNHC,κP)2](OTf)3 ([Au2AgL2](OTf)3). The latter was obtained stepwise by the addition of AgOTf to the digold(I) complex [Au2(μ2-PCNHCP,κP,κCNHC)2](OTf)2 ([Au2L2](OTf)2). The latter contains two dangling P donors and displays fluxional behavior in solution, and the Au···Au separation of 2.8320(6) Å in the solid state is consistent with metallophilic interactions. In the solvento complex [Au3Cl2(tht)(μ3-PCNHCP,κP,κCNHC,κP)](OTf)·MeCN ([Au3Cl2(tht)L](OTf)·MeCN), which contains only one L and one tht ligand (tht = tetrahydrothiophene), the metal chain is bent (148.94(2)°), and the longer Au···Au separation (2.9710(4) Å) is in line with relaxation of the rigidity due to a more "open" structure. Similar features were observed in [Au3Cl2(SMe2)L](OTf)·2MeCN. A detailed study of the emission properties of [Au3L2](OTf)3, [Au3Cl2(tht)L](OTf)·MeCN, [Au2L2](OTf)2, and [Au2AgL2](OTf)3 was performed by means of steady state and time-resolved photophysical techniques. The complex [Au3L2](OTf)3 displays a bright (photoluminescence quantum yield = 80%) and narrow emission band centered at 446 nm with a relatively small Stokes' shift and long-lived excited-state lifetime on the microsecond timescale, both in solution and in the solid state. In line with the very narrow emission

  15. Identified particle distributions in pp and Au+Au collisions atsqrt sNN=200 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.; Adler, C.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Ahammed, Z.; Amonett, J.; Anderson, B.D.; Anderson, M; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G.S.; Badyal,S.K.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L.S.; Baudot, J.; Bekele,S.; Belaga, V.V.; Bellwied, R.; Berger, J.; Bezverkhny, B.I.; Bhardwaj,S.; Bhaskar, P.; Bhati, A.K.; Bichsel, H.; Billmeier, A.; Bland, L.C.; Blyth, C.O.; Bonner, B.E.; Botje, M.; Boucham, A.; Brandin, A.; Bravar,A.; Cadman, R.V.; Cai, X.Z.; Caines, H.; Calderon de la Barca Sanchez,M.; Carroll, J.; Castillo, J.; Castro, M.; Cebra, D.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, Y.; Chernenko, S.P.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Choi, B.; Christie, W.; Coffin, J.P.; Cormier, T.M.; Cramer, J.G.; Crawford, H.J.; Das, D.; Das, S.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Didenko, L.; Dietel, T.; Dong, X.; Draper, J.E.; Du, F.; Dubey, A.K.; Dunin, V.B.; Dunlop, J.C.; Dutta Majumdar, M.R.; Eckardt, V.; Efimov,L.G.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Fachini, P.; Faine, V.; Faivre, J.; Fatemi, R.; Filimonov, K.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flierl, D.; Foley, K.J.; Fu, J.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Ganti, M.S.; Gutierrez, T.D.; Gagunashvili, N.; Gans, J.; Gaudichet, L.; Germain, M.; Geurts, F.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gonzalez, J.E.; Grachov, O.; Grigoriev, V.; Cronstal, S.; Grosnick, D.; Guedon, M.; Guertin, S.M.; Gupta, A.; Gushin, E.; Hallman, T.J.; Hardtke, D.; Harris,J.W.; Heinz, M.; Henry, T.W.; Heppelmann, S.; Herston, T.; Hippolyte, B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Horsley, M.; Huang, H.Z.; Huang,S.L.; Humanic, T.J.; Igo, G.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W.W.; Janik, M.; Johnson, I.; Jones, P.G.; Judd, E.G.; Kabana, S.; Kaneta, M.; Kaplan, M.; Keane, D.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Klay, J.; Klein, S.R.; Klyachko, A.; Koetke, D.D.; Kollegger, T.; Konstantinov, A.S.; Kopytine,S.M.; Kotchenda, L.; Kovalenko, A.D.; Kramer, M.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger,K.; Kuhn, C.; Kulikov, A.I.; Kumar, A.; et al.

    2003-10-06

    Transverse mass and rapidity distributions for charged pions, charged kaons, protons and antiprotons are reported for {radical}sNN = 200 GeV pp and Au+Au collisions at RHIC. The transverse mass distributions are rapidity independent within |y| < 0.5, consistent with a boost-invariant system in this rapidity interval. Spectral shapes and relative particle yields are similar in pp and peripheral Au+Au collisions and change smoothly to central Au+Au collisions. No centrality dependence was observed in the kaon and antiproton production rates relative to the pion production rate from medium-central to central collisions. Chemical and kinetic equilibrium model fits to our data reveal strong radial flow and relatively long duration from chemical to kinetic freeze-out in central Au+Au collisions. The chemical freeze-out temperature appears to be independent of initial conditions at RHIC energies.

  16. Experimental and Theoretical Studies on Oxidation of Cu-Au Alloy Surfaces: Effect of Bulk Au Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Michio; Tsuda, Yasutaka; Oka, Kohei; Kojima, Kazuki; Diño, Wilson Agerico; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Kasai, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    We report results of our experimental and theoretical studies on the oxidation of Cu-Au alloy surfaces, viz., Cu3Au(111), CuAu(111), and Au3Cu(111), using hyperthermal O2 molecular beam (HOMB). We observed strong Au segregation to the top layer of the corresponding clean (111) surfaces. This forms a protective layer that hinders further oxidation into the bulk. The higher the concentration of Au in the protective layer formed, the higher the protective efficacy. As a result, of the three Cu-Au surfaces studied, Au3Cu(111) is the most stable against dissociative adsorption of O2, even with HOMB. We also found that this protective property breaks down for oxidations occurring at temperatures above 300 K. PMID:27516137

  17. Bonding, Luminescence, Metallophilicity in Linear Au3 and Au2Ag Chains Stabilized by Rigid Diphosphanyl NHC Ligands.

    PubMed

    Ai, Pengfei; Mauro, Matteo; Gourlaouen, Christophe; Carrara, Serena; De Cola, Luisa; Tobon, Yeny; Giovanella, Umberto; Botta, Chiara; Danopoulos, Andreas A; Braunstein, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    The heterofunctional and rigid ligand N,N'-diphosphanyl-imidazol-2-ylidene (PCNHCP; P = P(t-Bu)2), through its phosphorus and two N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) donors, stabilizes trinuclear chain complexes, with either Au3 or AgAu2 cores, and dinuclear Au2 complexes. The two oppositely situated PCNHCP (L) ligands that "sandwich" the metal chain can support linear and rigid structures, as found in the known tricationic Au(I) complex [Au3(μ3-PCNHCP,κP,κCNHC,κP)2](OTf)3 (OTf = CF3SO3; [Au3L2](OTf)3; Chem. Commun. 2014, 50, 103-105) now also obtained by transmetalation from [Ag3(μ3-PCNHCP,κP,κCNHC,κP)2](OTf)3 ([Ag3L2](OTf)3), or in the mixed-metal tricationic [Au2Ag(μ3-PCNHCP,κP,κCNHC,κP)2](OTf)3 ([Au2AgL2](OTf)3). The latter was obtained stepwise by the addition of AgOTf to the digold(I) complex [Au2(μ2-PCNHCP,κP,κCNHC)2](OTf)2 ([Au2L2](OTf)2). The latter contains two dangling P donors and displays fluxional behavior in solution, and the Au···Au separation of 2.8320(6) Å in the solid state is consistent with metallophilic interactions. In the solvento complex [Au3Cl2(tht)(μ3-PCNHCP,κP,κCNHC,κP)](OTf)·MeCN ([Au3Cl2(tht)L](OTf)·MeCN), which contains only one L and one tht ligand (tht = tetrahydrothiophene), the metal chain is bent (148.94(2)°), and the longer Au···Au separation (2.9710(4) Å) is in line with relaxation of the rigidity due to a more "open" structure. Similar features were observed in [Au3Cl2(SMe2)L](OTf)·2MeCN. A detailed study of the emission properties of [Au3L2](OTf)3, [Au3Cl2(tht)L](OTf)·MeCN, [Au2L2](OTf)2, and [Au2AgL2](OTf)3 was performed by means of steady state and time-resolved photophysical techniques. The complex [Au3L2](OTf)3 displays a bright (photoluminescence quantum yield = 80%) and narrow emission band centered at 446 nm with a relatively small Stokes' shift and long-lived excited-state lifetime on the microsecond timescale, both in solution and in the solid state. In line with the very narrow emission

  18. Coming of Age: African American Male Rites-of-Passage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Paul, Jr.

    An overview is provided of issues confronting the African American male, along with a strategy to nurture a new generation of African American males. Chapters 1 and 2 focus on the social status and new demographics of the African American male and the external threats that are devastating to the African American male and the African American…

  19. Centrality dependence of direct photon production in (square root)S(NN) = 200 GeV Au + Au collisions.

    PubMed

    Adler, S S; Afanasiev, S; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Alexander, J; Amirikas, R; Aphecetche, L; Aronson, S H; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, R; Babintsev, V; Baldisseri, A; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Bassalleck, B; Bathe, S; Batsouli, S; Baublis, V; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Berdnikov, Y; Bhagavatula, S; Boissevain, J G; Borel, H; Borenstein, S; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bruner, N; Bucher, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J M; Butsyk, S; Camard, X; Chai, J-S; Chand, P; Chang, W C; Chernichenko, S; Chi, C Y; Chiba, J; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J; Choudhury, R K; Chujo, T; Cianciolo, V; Cobigo, Y; Cole, B A; Constantin, P; d'Enterria, D; David, G; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Devismes, A; Dietzsch, O; Drapier, O; Drees, A; du Rietz, R; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Efremenko, Y V; El Chenawi, K; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Ewell, L; Fields, D E; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fox, B D; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fung, S-Y; Garpman, S; Ghosh, T K; Glenn, A; Gogiberidze, G; Gonin, M; Gosset, J; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Guryn, W; Gustafsson, H-A; Hachiya, T; Haggerty, J S; Hamagaki, H; Hansen, A G; Hartouni, E P; Harvey, M; Hayano, R; Hayashi, N; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Heuser, J M; Hibino, M; Hill, J C; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Hoover, A; Ichihara, T; Ikonnikov, V V; Imai, K; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Jacak, B V; Jang, W Y; Jeong, Y; Jia, J; Jinnouchi, O; Johnson, B M; Johnson, S C; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kang, J H; Kapoor, S S; Katou, K; Kelly, S; Khachaturov, B; Khanzadeev, A; Kikuchi, J; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, D W; Kim, E; Kim, G-B; Kim, H J; Kistenev, E; Kiyomichi, A; Kiyoyama, K; Klein-Boesing, C; Kobayashi, H; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Koehler, D; Kohama, T; Kopytine, M; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Kroon, P J; Kuberg, C H; Kurita, K; Kuroki, Y; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Ladygin, V; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Leckey, S; Lee, D M; Lee, S; Leitch, M J; Li, X H; Lim, H; Litvinenko, A; Liu, M X; Liu, Y; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Manko, V I; Mao, Y; Martinez, G; Marx, M D; Masui, H; Matathias, F; Matsumoto, T; McGaughey, P L; Melnikov, E; Messer, F; Miake, Y; Milan, J; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mischke, R E; Mishra, G C; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Mühlbacher, F; Mukhopadhyay, D; Muniruzzaman, M; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Nakamura, T; Nandi, B K; Nara, M; Newby, J; Nilsson, P; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; O'Brien, E; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Okada, K; Ono, M; Onuchin, V; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Oyama, K; Ozawa, K; Pal, D; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, J; Parmar, A; Pate, S F; Peitzmann, T; Peng, J-C; Peresedov, V; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Plasil, F; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reuter, M; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Roche, G; Romana, A; Rosati, M; Rosnet, P; Ryu, S S; Sadler, M E; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakai, M; Sakai, S; Samsonov, V; Sanfratello, L; Santo, R; Sato, H D; Sato, S; Sawada, S; Schutz, Y; Semenov, V; Seto, R; Shaw, M R; Shea, T K; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shiina, T; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Sim, K S; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Sivertz, M; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Staley, F; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stepanov, M; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sullivan, J P; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tamai, M; Tanaka, K H; Tanaka, Y; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarján, P; Tepe, J D; Thomas, T L; Tojo, J; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuruoka, H; Tuli, S K; Tydesjö, H; Tyurin, N; van Hecke, H W; Velkovska, J; Velkovsky, M; Veszprémi, V; Villatte, L; Vinogradov, A A; Volkov, M A; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, Y; White, S N; Wohn, F K; Woody, C L; Xie, W; Yang, Y; Yanovich, A; Yokkaichi, S; Young, G R; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zhang, C; Zhou, S; Zhou, S J; Zolin, L

    2005-06-17

    The first measurement of direct photons in Au + Au collisions at (square root)S(NN) = 200 GeV is presented. The direct photon signal is extracted as a function of the Au + Au collision centrality and compared to next-to-leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations. The direct photon yield is shown to scale with the number of nucleon-nucleon collisions for all centralities.

  20. Slab melting and the origin of gold in Au and Au-Cu deposits: geochemical clues from recent adakites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polve, M.; Maury, R.; Joron, J. L.

    2003-04-01

    Understanding the genetic processes responsible for the common occurrence of Au and Au-Cu deposits in subduction environments is a fairly "hot" question nowadays, as it is clear that most subduction-related magmatic rocks are barren. Studies of space and time relationships between magmatic intrusions, hydrothermal episodes and Au deposits have shown that, very often, Au deposits are associated with adakitic intrusions (Thieblemont et al, 1997, Sajona and Maury, 1998). Adakites are here understood as being generated by melting of the subducting oceanic crust. This study aims to check wether or not magmas derived from melted oceanic crust do contain significantly more Au than regular calc-alkaline magmas by measuring directly Au concentrations in fresh (and barren) adakites and equivalent calc-alkaline andesites. There is a lack of reliable data on Au content in unaltered adakites and andesites, because Au analyses are generally done on hydrothermalized rocks in connection with Au deposits and also because old measurements may give overestimated Au contents, due to technical limitations. Therefore we compiled recent literature data on gold contents of fresh calc-alkaline rocks, and measured Au on a selection of 40 well studied and dated adakites from different localities (Philippines, Baja California). Analyses have been performed either by INAA or by ICP-MS after Au extraction with aqua regia, following the method described by Terashima (1988). Preliminary results show that, for equivalent Si02 contents, adakites are systematically enriched in Au compared to regular dacites, even if regional trends also exist. Moreover, Au seems to behave as an incompatible element in adakitic magmas, whereas in calc-alkaline dacites it is controlled by sulfide crystallization. Our data suggest that, not excluding any other processes related to the hydrothermal phase in the deposit generation, adakites may indeed represent the source of Au, a possible explanation for the adakite-Au

  1. The Union University "Early Bird" Internship Program in Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Union Univ., Jackson, TN.

    The Early Bird Internship Program in Teacher Education at Union University was developed to give the sophomore student a general field orientation to the whole school program prior to the senior student teaching program. In partial fulfillment of the requirements for a beginning course for all prospective teachers taken near the end of the…

  2. Intergenerational Relationships and Union Stability in Fragile Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hognas, Robin S.; Carlson, Marcia J.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 2,656), we examined the association between intergenerational relationships and parents' union stability 5 years after a baby's birth. Results showed that more amiable relationships between parents and each partner's parents, and children's spending more time with paternal…

  3. Analysis of the Midwest Medical Union Catalog. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Paul E.; Pletzke, Chester J.

    A cost-benefit analysis of the 43-library, 260,000-title Midwest Medical Union Catalog (MMUC) of books, conducted from June, 1973, through May, 1975, under a grant from the National Library of Medicine, studied the 49-year-old catalog in the context of the interlibrary loan activity of the Midwest Health Science Library Network. The study tested…

  4. Analyzing the Messages of the State of the Union Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissling, Mark T.; Martell, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    In the era of smartphones and 24-hour news networks, the State of the Union address is a major event. All national media outlets--in print, on television, on the Internet--report on the address, some almost exclusively in the days leading up to and after the speech. In this article, considering their experiences teaching about the address, and…

  5. How to Arrange Student Tours to the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winokur, Marshall

    The details of planning a student tour to the Soviet Union are described by an experienced tour organizer. Student tours of one to three weeks are presented as rewarding alternatives to lengthy overseas study. Recommendations are made regarding choice of tour type, length of tour, travel agencies, time of year to travel, advertising a tour,…

  6. Treatment of Persian Materials in the National Union Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khosh-khui, Abolghasem Z.

    This study investigates the treatment of Persian materials in the National Union Catalog (NUC) using Library of Congress (LC) subject headings. A history and review of the literature on cataloging, classification, and the NUC are provided, and a comparison is made of samples of Persian and American materials in order to determine whether the two…

  7. The National Union Catalog, Reference and Related Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, John W., Jr., Comp.; Freitag, Ruth S.

    The National Union Catalog (NUC) is a record of publications and their location in more than 1,100 libraries in the United States and Canada. As such, it is the central register of library resources in North America. Major portions of the NUC are published on a continuing basis, but most of the records for imprints before 1956 consist of card…

  8. The Politics of Library Artifacts: The National Union Catalog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caidi, Nadia

    2004-01-01

    This article presents case studies of the social shaping of the national union catalog (NUC) in seven countries (four in Central and Eastern Europe, two in the Baltic region, and South Africa). The purpose is to illustrate how technology developments do not occur independently of their social context but rather are co-constituted by the…

  9. Gender, Jobs and Working Conditions in the European Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Colette; Burchell, Brendan

    Trends in gender, jobs, and working conditions in the European Union (EU) were examined. In 2000, representative samples of approximately 1,500 workers in each of the EU member states (500 in Luxembourg) were surveyed. To identify trends, the survey findings were compared with those of similar surveys conducted in 1991 and 1996. The comparison…

  10. Vocation or Vocational? Reviewing European Union Education and Mobility Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadfield, Amelia; Summerby-Murray, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the role that education plays in European Union (EU) integration. We ask whether efforts which historically have been designed to endow European students with a "knowledge of Europe" in terms of an understanding of culture, politics and sensibility have been circumscribed by, or augmented, by the recently…

  11. Labor Unions and Life Satisfaction: Evidence from New Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavin, Patrick; Pacek, Alexander C.; Radcliff, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    While a growing literature demonstrates the impact of socio-political factors on citizens' quality of life, scholars have paid comparatively little attention to the role political organizations such as labor unions play in this regard. We examine labor organization as a determinant of cross-national variation in life satisfaction across a sample…

  12. Father Involvement Ideals and the Union Transitions of Unmarried Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohmann-Marriott, Bryndl E.

    2009-01-01

    As more unmarried couples become parents, it is important to understand the dynamics that help these couples to maintain strong relationships. This article explores the association of the two partners' beliefs about father involvement with their likelihood of union dissolution and transition to marriage, using the first two waves of the Fragile…

  13. Teachers Creating and Leading Schools...Is Union Work!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundin, Louise

    2014-01-01

    The original vision of a charter school called for heavy doses of professional teacher contribution throughout all aspects of curriculum and administration. Unfortunately, that is not how charter schools have evolved. Until now. The Minnesota Guild of Public Charter Schools is the first union-sponsored entity created for the sole purpose of…

  14. Union List of Serials in Pacific Island Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arlene G., Comp.; Yoshida, Patricia, Comp.

    This union list contains the serial holdings from Pacific Island libraries, including the University of the South Pacific Library (Fiji), the University of Guam Robert F. Kennedy Library, Guam Public Library, College of Micronesia-FSM Library, College of the Marshall Islands Library, Micronesian Seminar Library, Palau Community College Library,…

  15. Delayed union and nonunions: epidemiology, clinical issues, and financial aspects.

    PubMed

    Hak, David J; Fitzpatrick, Daniel; Bishop, Julius A; Marsh, J Lawrence; Tilp, Susanne; Schnettler, Reinhard; Simpson, Hamish; Alt, Volker

    2014-06-01

    Fracture healing is a critically important clinical event for fracture patients and for clinicians who take care of them. The clinical evaluation of fracture healing is based on both radiographic findings and clinical findings. Risk factors for delayed union and nonunion include patient dependent factors such as advanced age, medical comorbidities, smoking, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory use, various genetic disorders, metabolic disease and nutritional deficiency. Patient independent factors include fracture pattern, location, and displacement, severity of soft tissue injury, degree of bone loss, quality of surgical treatment and presence of infection. Established nonunions can be characterised in terms of biologic capacity, deformity, presence or absence of infection, and host status. Hypertrophic, oligotrophic and atrophic radiographic appearances allow the clinician to make inferences about the degree of fracture stability and the biologic viability of the fracture fragments while developing a treatment plan. Non-unions are difficult to treat and have a high financial impact. Indirect costs, such as productivity losses, are the key driver for the overall costs in fracture and non-union patients. Therefore, all strategies that help to reduce healing time with faster resumption of work and activities not only improve medical outcome for the patient, they also help reduce the financial burden in fracture and non-union patients.

  16. Depleted New Orleans Teachers' Union Vows to Rebuild

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honawar, Vaishali

    2006-01-01

    The three-story building that was once the United Teachers of New Orleans' office is dark and deserted, the first floor damaged by Hurricane Katrina's floodwaters. The union membership, which numbered 4,700 before the storm, is now down to 300. Of the 25 schools that are now open in New Orleans, only five are regular public schools. The rest are…

  17. Exploring a Monetary Union among Nations through Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goma, Ophelia D.

    2002-01-01

    This article presents a classroom project that employs various techniques of active learning including role-playing, collaborative group work and writing. The project explores the recent creation of the European Monetary Union (EMU) with special emphasis on the introduction of the euro. The project assumes that the Americas have begun preliminary…

  18. 12 CFR 704.19 - Wholesale corporate credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Earnings retention requirement. A wholesale corporate credit union must increase retained earnings if the prior month-end retained earnings ratio is less than 1 percent. (1) Its retained earnings must increase: (i) During the current month, by an amount equal to or greater than the monthly earnings...

  19. Teacher Unions and the Politics of Fear in Labor Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Bruce S.; Sureau, John

    2008-01-01

    Union-management relationships have been filled with fear since the rise of capitalism; public education is no different. Workers fear exploitation by owners (profits depend on it) and capitalist/management has always worried that the working classes will organize and either take over the firm or strike and bring production to a screeching halt.…

  20. Manufacturing Dissent: Labor Revitalization, Union Summer and Student Protest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dyke, Nella; Dixon, Marc; Carlon, Helen

    2007-01-01

    During the late 1990s, college students across the United States mobilized around labor issues. Our research explores whether this explosion of student protest activity was generated, in part, by concerted efforts of the AFL-CIO through its Union Summer college student internship program. A statistical analysis of factors influencing the location…

  1. Bipartisan, but Unfounded: The Assault on Teachers' Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahlenberg, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Teachers' unions are under unprecedented bipartisan attack. The drumbeat is relentless, from governors in Wisconsin and Ohio to the film directors of "Waiting for 'Superman'" and "The Lottery"; from new lobbying groups like Michelle Rhee's StudentsFirst and Wall Street's Democrats for Education Reform to political columnists such as Jonathan Alter…

  2. Recent Migrants and Education in the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osadan, Robert; Reid, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    European schools should improve their methods for teaching migrant students. The European Union has been making efforts to meet the needs of migrant students for some time. From the 2009 Eurydice report "Integrating Immigrant Children into Schools in Europe," which suggests measures to foster inclusion in the larger community and…

  3. Informal Food Production in the Enlarged European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alber, Jens; Kohler, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    How widespread is the production of food in old and new member states of the European Union and what is the social meaning or logic of such activities? We show that growing food is (a) more widespread in former communist countries than in traditional market economies and (b) is predominantly a hobby or recreational activity in affluent countries,…

  4. Municipal Government Structure, Unionization, and the Wages of Fire Fighters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    1973-01-01

    In cities with fire fighter union contracts, hourly wages are 2-18 percent higher but there is a decrease of annual hours of 2-9 percent, leaving an annual earnings increase of 0-9 percent. Hourly wages of fire fighters are lower in city manager and commission cities than in mayor-council cities. (MS)

  5. Educational Revolution from Above: Thatcher's Britain and Gorbachev's Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Martin; Voskresenskaya, Natalia

    1991-01-01

    Educational revolutions in Great Britain and the former Soviet Union were initiated by charismatic national leaders, looked back to more "authentic" conditions where teachers and students dominated formal education, encouraged parent participation, and sought to destroy bureaucratic intermediary agencies in the educational decision-making process.…

  6. Workplace Learning: A Trade Union Failure to Service Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroud, Dean; Fairbrother, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to open up discussion about the relationship between trade unions and workplace learning. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on an analysis of a series of case-studies of restructuring in the European steel industry, incorporating interviews, observation and documentary analysis. Findings: The…

  7. Successful Negotiation in Schools: Management, Unions, Employees, and Citizens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Jerry J.; Herman, Janice L.

    This book is a how-to-do-it roadmap that presents practical details on the important aspects of collective bargaining at the local school district level. It details all of the strategies, tasks, events, and influences that bear on the collective bargaining process from the initial certification election of a union through the preparation for…

  8. Key Data on Vocational Training in the European Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Thessaloniki (Greece).

    This book provides key quantitative and qualitative data on vocational education and training (VET) in the European Union. Among the topics on which data are provided are the following: demographic trends, educational attainment, and the labor market (aging of the population and labor force, changes in educational attainment over time, impacts of…

  9. Shelving plans, elevations, and sections. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Shelving plans, elevations, and sections. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Science Building. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 9, job no. 311. Scale 1.2 inch to the foot. February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  10. South elevation and main floor plan. San Bernardino Valley Union ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South elevation and main floor plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Science Building. Includes chemistry and botany departments. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 2, job no. 311. Scale 1/8 inch to the foot. February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  11. South entrance, plan, section, & detail. San Bernardino Valley Union ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South entrance, plan, section, & detail. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Science Building. Detailed drawings of tile work, wrought iron, and art stone, Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 6, job no. 311. Scale 1.2 inch to the foot. February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  12. Research Reveals Scale of College Union E-Commerce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Guy Patrick; Henry, Wilma J.

    2000-01-01

    Reports results of a survey of member schools of the Association of College Unions International concerning extent of e-commerce being conducted on the Web. College Web sites were also evaluated for information on e-commerce activities. A list of institutions currently conducting interactive business and the type of business being conducted is…

  13. Context view looking SW from Union Station shows Shaub Ellison ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Context view looking SW from Union Station shows Shaub Ellison building recessed on corner of Pacific Avenue and S. 19th Street and warehouse on west side of Pacific Avenue. - Shaub Ellison Company Building, 1902 Pacific Avenue, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  14. Student Unions: The Implications for Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felper, David; Dragga, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to unionize students at private universities are gaining momentum. The National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) has agreed to reconsider whether graduate students at private nonprofit colleges and universities should be treated as employees under the National Labor Relations Act. The case, "New School", Case No. 02- RC-143009,…

  15. 76 FR 16235 - Corporate Credit Unions, Technical Corrections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... published a comprehensive overhaul to its corporate credit union rule, 12 CFR part 704. 75 FR 64786 (Oct. 20... particular investments that did not--when subject to the other credit risk and asset liability management... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT...

  16. The 1925 Fort Union Indian Congress: Divergent Narratives, One Event

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blee, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    This essay investigates how various perspectives differ and converge in the span of an afternoon, thus illustrating how divergent narratives, through their very difference, enhance one's understanding of the past. The case study of the 1925 Fort Union Indian Congress points to the process of narrativizing experience and underscores how meaning is…

  17. Paired and Interacting Galaxies: International Astronomical Union Colloquium No. 124

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulentic, Jack W. (Editor); Keel, William C. (Editor); Telesco, C. M. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The proceedings of the International Astronomical Union Colloquium No. 124, held at the University of Alabama at Tuscaloosa, on December 4 to 7, are given. The purpose of the conference was to describe the current state of theoretical and observational knowledge of interacting galaxies, with particular emphasis on galaxies in pairs.

  18. KIPP and Teachers' Union Go Toe to Toe in Baltimore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2011-01-01

    Leaders of the Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP) charter schools are optimistic that they can reach a long-term agreement with the Baltimore (Maryland) Teachers Union in a nationally watched dispute over teacher pay for an extended school day, reducing the likelihood that the charter network will carry out its threat to close its two schools in…

  19. Aging in the Soviet Union: A West Siberian Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demitri, Shimkin

    1989-01-01

    Presents ethnographic observations on the aged and aging from six months' residence in Siberian industrial city. Describes interactions with medical personnel and reviews scanty literature in Soviet Union. Notes integration of aged in families and respect given to older persons. Discusses problems of elderly caused by hard living conditions,…

  20. Teacher Unions and New Forms of Teacher Compensation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppich, Julia E.

    2010-01-01

    Experience with performance pay projects across the United States has demonstrated that, if performance pay programs are to be successful, teachers must be involved in their design. In addition, the district and the union must agree on the purpose of the program, it needs needs to be based on consensually agreed, credible measures that determine…