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  1. The Role of the African Union in African Peacekeeping Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-26

    Government in Sirte , Libya, on 9 September 1999. The AU was formed to address some of the issues identified during the analysis of the OAU PKOs. The...Establishment of the African Union The Sirte Declaration led to the establishment of the AU in 2002. One of the AU’s objectives was to enhance the security

  2. Positioning women's and children's health in African union policy-making: a policy analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background With limited time to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, progress towards improving women's and children's health needs to be accelerated. With Africa accounting for over half of the world's maternal and child deaths, the African Union (AU) has a critical role in prioritizing related policies and catalysing required investments and action. In this paper, the authors assess the evolution of African Union policies related to women's and children's health, and analyze how these policies are prioritized and framed. Methods The main method used in this policy analysis was a document review of all African Union policies developed from 1963 to 2010, focusing specifically on policies that explicitly mention health. The findings from this document review were discussed with key actors to identify policy implications. Results With over 220 policies in total, peace and security is the most common AU policy topic. Social affairs and other development issues became more prominent in the 1990s. The number of policies that mentioned health rose steadily over the years (with 1 policy mentioning health in 1963 to 7 in 2010). This change was catalysed by factors such as: a favourable shift in AU priorities and systems towards development issues, spurred by the transition from the Organization of African Unity to the African Union; the mandate of the African Commission on Human and People's Rights; health-related advocacy initiatives, such as the Campaign for the Accelerated Reduction of Maternal Mortality in Africa (CARMMA); action and accountability requirements arising from international human rights treaties, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and new health-funding mechanisms, such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Prioritization of women's and children's health issues in AU policies has been framed primarily by human rights, advocacy and accountability considerations, more by economic and health frames looking at investments and

  3. A review of the evolution and trajectory of the African union as an instrument of regional integration.

    PubMed

    Chirisa, Innocent Ew; Mumba, Artwell; Dirwai, Simbarashe O

    2014-01-01

    This review paper seeks to analyse African integration in terms of its magnitude of solidarity, the state and typology of integration and functioning. It assesses the strengths, weaknesses, objectives, successes and failures of the African integration project as well as threats to its survival. The primary goal is to sift between issues with the view of better informing the future of the integration. The paper acknowledges how, in 2002, the OAU (formed in 1963) convened to reconstitute and become the African Union (AU) composed of eight Regional Economic Communities. The reformed union has spelt out gender equality, strategic planning, intra-trade, non-indifference to suffering in member states and sustainability, as additional objectives to those of the former OAU. This idea has been to foster integration to promote peace, security and cooperation hence solidarity. It can now be assessed succinctly that African integration has arisen in the need for amalgamation of efforts to solve African problems with African solutions.

  4. Black-white unions: West Indians and African Americans compared.

    PubMed

    Model, S; Fisher, G

    2001-05-01

    In this research we use 1990 PUMS data to compare the propensity for unions between African Americans and native whites with the propensity for unions between British West Indians and native whites. In addition, we distinguish women and men. Descriptive statistics indicate that West Indians, with the exception of men who arrived as adults, are more likely than African Americans to have white partners. After the introduction of controls for several correlates of intermarriage, however, West Indian men of any generation have lower exogamy rates than African American men, while exogamy rates are higher among West Indian women who arrived as children or who were born in the United States than among African American women. Thus we find no consistent evidence of greater exogamy for British West Indians than for African Americans.

  5. Outbreak of Beriberi among African Union Troops in Mogadishu, Somalia

    PubMed Central

    Watson, John T.; El Bushra, Hassan; Lebo, Emmaculate J.; Bwire, Godfrey; Kiyengo, James; Emukule, Gideon; Omballa, Victor; Tole, John; Zuberi, Muvunyi; Breiman, Robert F.; Katz, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Context and Objectives In July 2009, WHO and partners were notified of a large outbreak of unknown illness, including deaths, among African Union (AU) soldiers in Mogadishu. Illnesses were characterized by peripheral edema, dyspnea, palpitations, and fever. Our objectives were to determine the cause of the outbreak, and to design and recommend control strategies. Design, Setting, and Participants The illness was defined as acute onset of lower limb edema, with dyspnea, chest pain, palpitations, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, or headache. Investigations in Nairobi and Mogadishu included clinical, epidemiologic, environmental, and laboratory studies. A case-control study was performed to identify risk factors for illness. Results From April 26, 2009 to May 1, 2010, 241 AU soldiers had lower limb edema and at least one additional symptom; four patients died. At least 52 soldiers were airlifted to hospitals in Kenya and Uganda. Four of 31 hospitalized patients in Kenya had right-sided heart failure with pulmonary hypertension. Initial laboratory investigations did not reveal hematologic, metabolic, infectious or toxicological abnormalities. Illness was associated with exclusive consumption of food provided to troops (not eating locally acquired foods) and a high level of insecurity (e.g., being exposed to enemy fire on a daily basis). Because the syndrome was clinically compatible with wet beriberi, thiamine was administered to ill soldiers, resulting in rapid and dramatic resolution. Blood samples taken from 16 cases prior to treatment showed increased levels of erythrocyte transketolase activation coefficient, consistent with thiamine deficiency. With mass thiamine supplementation for healthy troops, the number of subsequent beriberi cases decreased with no further deaths reported. Conclusions An outbreak of wet beriberi caused by thiamine deficiency due to restricted diet occurred among soldiers in a modern, well-equipped army. Vigilance to ensure adequate

  6. Science and Technology in Africa: The African Union New Initiative and Financial Support Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezin, Jean-Pierre

    2010-02-01

    Physics, which is widely touted as the most fundamental of the sciences, underpins the progress in all other branches of science and has a wide range of applications in economic development, including in health, energy research, food security, communication technology and climate change. The African Union (AU) Commission articulates the continental vision of its Member States and its programs are designed to directly contribute to its social and economic development and integration efforts. In the area of science and technology the Department has developed Africa's Science and Technology Consolidated Plan of Action as a strategic policy document through the AU system of conference of ministers responsible for science to guide the continent on common priority programs. The programs in this plan of action that have been transformed into bankable projects under the Book of ``lighthouse projects Phase 1'', adequately respond to Africa's challenges and development needs using science. They can be summarized into three main themes: a pan-African university (PAU) initiative (to combine higher education and scientific research as a network of differentiated PAU in each of the five African regions), African research grants (to strengthen the research capacity of the African institutions and upgrading infrastructures, consolidating their accumulated asset of scientific knowledge), popularization of science and technology and promotion of public participation (to build public understanding and raising awareness on science and technology as a driving agent for social and economic progress for Africa and its integration process) and a science and technology institutional capacity building program). This talk will review these programs as well as the vision of the African Development Bank role in it. )

  7. Introduction of African Swine Fever into the European Union through Illegal Importation of Pork and Pork Products

    PubMed Central

    Costard, Solenne; Jones, Bryony Anne; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Mur, Lina; de la Torre, Ana; Martínez, Marta; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Jose-Manuel; Pfeiffer, Dirk Udo; Wieland, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Transboundary animal diseases can have very severe socio-economic impacts when introduced into new regions. The history of disease incursions into the European Union suggests that initial outbreaks were often initiated by illegal importation of meat and derived products. The European Union would benefit from decision-support tools to evaluate the risk of disease introduction caused by illegal imports in order to inform its surveillance strategy. However, due to the difficulty in quantifying illegal movements of animal products, very few studies of this type have been conducted. Using African swine fever as an example, this work presents a novel risk assessment framework for disease introduction into the European Union through illegal importation of meat and products. It uses a semi-quantitative approach based on factors that likely influence the likelihood of release of contaminated smuggled meat and products, and subsequent exposure of the susceptible population. The results suggest that the European Union is at non-negligible risk of African swine fever introduction through illegal importation of pork and products. On a relative risk scale with six categories from negligible to very high, five European Union countries were estimated at high (France, Germany, Italy and United Kingdom) or moderate (Spain) risk of African swine fever release, five countries were at high risk of exposure if African swine fever were released (France, Italy, Poland, Romania and Spain) and ten countries had a moderate exposure risk (Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Portugal, Sweden and United Kingdom). The approach presented here and results obtained for African swine fever provide a basis for the enhancement of risk-based surveillance systems and disease prevention programmes in the European Union. PMID:23613795

  8. Introduction of African swine fever into the European Union through illegal importation of pork and pork products.

    PubMed

    Costard, Solenne; Jones, Bryony Anne; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Mur, Lina; de la Torre, Ana; Martínez, Marta; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Jose-Manuel; Pfeiffer, Dirk Udo; Wieland, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Transboundary animal diseases can have very severe socio-economic impacts when introduced into new regions. The history of disease incursions into the European Union suggests that initial outbreaks were often initiated by illegal importation of meat and derived products. The European Union would benefit from decision-support tools to evaluate the risk of disease introduction caused by illegal imports in order to inform its surveillance strategy. However, due to the difficulty in quantifying illegal movements of animal products, very few studies of this type have been conducted. Using African swine fever as an example, this work presents a novel risk assessment framework for disease introduction into the European Union through illegal importation of meat and products. It uses a semi-quantitative approach based on factors that likely influence the likelihood of release of contaminated smuggled meat and products, and subsequent exposure of the susceptible population. The results suggest that the European Union is at non-negligible risk of African swine fever introduction through illegal importation of pork and products. On a relative risk scale with six categories from negligible to very high, five European Union countries were estimated at high (France, Germany, Italy and United Kingdom) or moderate (Spain) risk of African swine fever release, five countries were at high risk of exposure if African swine fever were released (France, Italy, Poland, Romania and Spain) and ten countries had a moderate exposure risk (Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Portugal, Sweden and United Kingdom). The approach presented here and results obtained for African swine fever provide a basis for the enhancement of risk-based surveillance systems and disease prevention programmes in the European Union.

  9. Assessing the Risk of African Swine Fever Introduction into the European Union by Wild Boar.

    PubMed

    De la Torre, A; Bosch, J; Iglesias, I; Muñoz, M J; Mur, L; Martínez-López, B; Martínez, M; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2015-06-01

    The presence of African swine fever (ASF) in the Caucasus region and Russian Federation has increased concerns that wild boars may introduce the ASF virus into the European Union (EU). This study describes a semi-quantitative approach for evaluating the risk of ASF introduction into the EU by wild boar movements based on the following risk estimators: the susceptible population of (1) wild boars and (2) domestic pigs in the country of origin; the outbreak density in (3) wild boars and (4) domestic pigs in the countries of origin, the (5) suitable habitat for wild boars along the EU border; and the distance between the EU border and the nearest ASF outbreak in (6) wild boars or (7) domestic pigs. Sensitivity analysis was performed to identify the most influential risk estimators. The highest risk was found to be concentrated in Finland, Romania, Latvia and Poland, and wild boar habitat and outbreak density were the two most important risk estimators. Animal health authorities in at-risk countries should be aware of these risk estimators and should communicate closely with wild boar hunters and pig farmers to rapidly detect and control ASF.

  10. Teacher Unions' Participation in Policy Making: A South African Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Govender, Logan

    2015-01-01

    This article contends that teacher unions' participation in policy making during South Africa's political transition was characterised by assertion of ideological identity (unionism and professionalism) and the cultivation of policy networks and alliances. It is argued that, historically, while teacher unions were divided along political and…

  11. Modular framework to assess the risk of African swine fever virus entry into the European Union

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The recent occurrence and spread of African swine fever (ASF) in Eastern Europe is perceived as a serious risk for the pig industry in the European Union (EU). In order to estimate the potential risk of ASF virus (ASFV) entering the EU, several pathways of introduction were previously assessed separately. The present work aimed to integrate five of these assessments (legal imports of pigs, legal imports of products, illegal imports of products, fomites associated with transport and wild boar movements) into a modular tool that facilitates the visualization and comprehension of the relative risk of ASFV introduction into the EU by each analyzed pathway. Results The framework’s results indicate that 48% of EU countries are at relatively high risk (risk score 4 or 5 out of 5) for ASFV entry for at least one analyzed pathway. Four of these countries obtained the maximum risk score for one pathway: Bulgaria for legally imported products during the high risk period (HRP); Finland for wild boar; Slovenia and Sweden for legally imported pigs during the HRP. Distribution of risk considerably differed from one pathway to another; for some pathways, the risk was concentrated in a few countries (e.g., transport fomites), whereas other pathways incurred a high risk for 4 or 5 countries (legal pigs, illegal imports and wild boar). Conclusions The modular framework, developed to estimate the risk of ASFV entry into the EU, is available in a public domain, and is a transparent, easy-to-interpret tool that can be updated and adapted if required. The model’s results determine the EU countries at higher risk for each ASFV introduction route, and provide a useful basis to develop a global coordinated program to improve ASFV prevention in the EU. PMID:24992824

  12. Gender Distrust and Intimate Unions among Low-Income Hispanic and African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estacion, Angela; Cherlin, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates levels of generalized distrust of men among low-income non-Hispanic African American, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Dominican and non-Hispanic White women in a three-city survey. The results reveal substantial variation. Hispanics' overall levels of distrust are found to be higher than levels for either African Americans or…

  13. Indian and African plate motions driven by the push force of the Réunion plume head.

    PubMed

    Cande, Steven C; Stegman, Dave R

    2011-07-06

    Mantle plumes are thought to play an important part in the Earth's tectonics, yet it has been difficult to isolate the effect that plumes have on plate motions. Here we analyse the plate motions involved in two apparently disparate events--the unusually rapid motion of India between 67 and 52 million years ago and a contemporaneous, transitory slowing of Africa's motion--and show that the events are coupled, with the common element being the position of the Indian and African plates relative to the location of the Réunion plume head. The synchroneity of these events suggests that they were both driven by the force of the Réunion plume head. The recognition of this plume force has substantial tectonic implications: the speed-up and slowdown of India, the possible cessation of convergence between Africa and Eurasia in the Palaeocene epoch and the enigmatic bends of the fracture zones on the Southwest Indian Ridge can all be attributed to the Réunion plume.

  14. African Trade Unions and the Challenge of Organizing Women Workers in the Unorganized Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Date-Bah, Eugenia

    1993-01-01

    Democratization should be considered in terms of equal representation of women and men in government as well as in the relevant bodies and decision-making organs of society. Trade unions should be perceived and assessed in relation to the participation of women within their structures and the reflection of women's concerns in their policies and…

  15. Gender Distrust and Intimate Unions among Low-Income Hispanic and African-American Women.

    PubMed

    Estacion, Angela; Cherlin, Andrew

    2010-04-01

    We investigate levels of generalized distrust of men among low-income African American, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Dominican, and non-Hispanic white women in a three-city survey. The results reveal substantial variation. We find Hispanics' overall levels of distrust to be higher than levels for either African Americans or whites. Among Hispanics, however, Dominicans are the most distrusting group followed by Puerto Ricans; whereas Mexicans report levels of distrust that are comparable to African Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Married women are less distrusting than cohabiting women who, in turn, are less distrusting than non-cohabiting women. Nevertheless, distrust is not a significant predictor of a woman's total number of lifetime marital and cohabiting relationships; and distrust only marginally predicts a woman's desire to be in a steady relationship. We suggest that studies of trust in this population should focus more on attitudes displayed in specific encounters than on overall, generalized attitudes about gender distrust.

  16. Gender Distrust and Intimate Unions among Low-Income Hispanic and African-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Estacion, Angela; Cherlin, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    We investigate levels of generalized distrust of men among low-income African American, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Dominican, and non-Hispanic white women in a three-city survey. The results reveal substantial variation. We find Hispanics' overall levels of distrust to be higher than levels for either African Americans or whites. Among Hispanics, however, Dominicans are the most distrusting group followed by Puerto Ricans; whereas Mexicans report levels of distrust that are comparable to African Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Married women are less distrusting than cohabiting women who, in turn, are less distrusting than non-cohabiting women. Nevertheless, distrust is not a significant predictor of a woman's total number of lifetime marital and cohabiting relationships; and distrust only marginally predicts a woman's desire to be in a steady relationship. We suggest that studies of trust in this population should focus more on attitudes displayed in specific encounters than on overall, generalized attitudes about gender distrust. PMID:21479146

  17. Stochastic spatio-temporal modelling of African swine fever spread in the European Union during the high risk period.

    PubMed

    Nigsch, Annette; Costard, Solenne; Jones, Bryony A; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Wieland, Barbara

    2013-03-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable viral pig disease with high mortality and serious socio-economic consequences. Since ASF emerged in Georgia in 2007 the disease has spread to several neighbouring countries and cases have been detected in areas bordering the European Union (EU). It is uncertain how fast the virus would be able to spread within the unrestricted European trading area if it were introduced into the EU. This project therefore aimed to develop a model for the spread of ASF within and between the 27 Member States (MS) of the EU during the high risk period (HRP) and to identify MS during that period would most likely contribute to ASF spread ("super-spreaders") or MS that would most likely receive cases from other MS ("super-receivers"). A stochastic spatio-temporal state-transition model using simulated individual farm records was developed to assess silent ASF virus spread during different predefined HRPs of 10-60 days duration. Infection was seeded into farms of different pig production types in each of the 27 MS. Direct pig-to-pig transmission and indirect transmission routes (pig transport lorries and professional contacts) were considered the main pathways during the early stages of an epidemic. The model was parameterised using data collated from EUROSTAT, TRACES, a questionnaire sent to MS, and the scientific literature. Model outputs showed that virus circulation was generally limited to 1-2 infected premises per outbreak (95% IQR: 1-4; maximum: 10) with large breeder farms as index case resulting in most infected premises. Seven MS caused between-MS spread due to intra-Community trade during the first 10 days after seeding infection. For a HRP of 60 days from virus introduction, movements of infected pigs will originate at least once from 16 MS, with 6 MS spreading ASF in more than 10% of iterations. Two thirds of all intra-Community spread was linked to six trade links only. Denmark, the Netherlands, Lithuania and Latvia were identified

  18. Update on the Risk of Introduction of African Swine Fever by Wild Boar into Disease-Free European Union Countries.

    PubMed

    Bosch, J; Rodríguez, A; Iglesias, I; Muñoz, M J; Jurado, C; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M; de la Torre, A

    2016-06-28

    Despite efforts to prevent the appearance and spread of African swine fever (ASF) in the European Union, several Member States are now affected (Lithuania, Poland, Latvia and Estonia). Disease appearance in 2014 was associated with multiple entrances linked to wild boar movement from endemic areas (EFSA Journal, 8, 2015, 1556), but the risk of new introductions remains high (Gallardo et al., Porcine Health Management, 1, and 21) as ASF continues to be active in endemic countries (Russian Federation, Belarus and Ukraine). Since 2014, the number of ASF notifications has increased substantially, particularly in wild boar (WB), in parallel with slow but constant geographical advance of the disease. This situation suggests a real risk of further disease spread into other Member States, posing a great threat to pig production in the EU. Following the principles of the risk-based veterinary surveillance, this article applies a methodology developed by De la Torre et al. (Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 62, and 272) to assess the relative risk of new introductions of ASF by natural movements of WB according to the current epidemiological situation. This update incorporates the most recent available data and an improved version of the most important risk estimator: an optimized cartographic tool of WB distribution to analyse wild boar suitable habitat. The highest relative risk values were estimated for Slovakia (5) and Romania (5), followed by Finland (4), Czech Republic (3) and Germany (3). Relative risk for Romania and Finland is associated mainly with disease entrance from endemic areas such as the Russian Federation and Ukraine, where the disease is currently spreading; relative risk for Germany and Czech Republic is associated mainly with the potential progress of the disease through the EU, and relative risk for Slovakia is associated with both pathways. WB habitat is the most important risk estimator, whereas WB density is the least significant, suggesting

  19. Tackle-related injury rates and nature of injuries in South African Youth Week tournament rugby union players (under-13 to under-18): an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Nicholas; Lambert, Mike I; Viljoen, Wayne; Brown, James C; Readhead, Clint; Hendricks, Sharief

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The tackle situation is most often associated with the high injury rates in rugby union. Tackle injury epidemiology in rugby union has previously been focused on senior cohorts but less is known about younger cohorts. The aim of this study was to report on the nature and rates of tackle-related injuries in South African youth rugby union players representing their provinces at national tournaments. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Four South African Youth Week tournaments (under-13 Craven Week, under-16 Grant Khomo Week, under-18 Academy Week, under-18 Craven Week). Participants Injury data were collected from 3652 youth rugby union players (population at risk) in 2011 and 2012. Outcome measures Tackle-related injury severity (‘time-loss’ and ‘medical attention’), type and location, injury rate per 1000 h (including 95% CIs). Injury rate ratios (IRR) were calculated and modelled using a Poisson regression. A χ2 analysis was used to detect linear trends between injuries and increasing match quarters. Results The 2012 under-13 Craven Week had a significantly greater ‘time-loss’ injury rate when compared with the 2012 under-18 Academy Week (IRR=4.43; 95% CI 2.13 to 9.21, p<0.05) and under-18 Craven Week (IRR=3.52; 95% CI 1.54 to 8.00, p<0.05). The Poisson regression also revealed a higher probability of ‘overall’ (‘time-loss’ and ‘medical attention’ combined) and ‘time-loss’ tackle-related injuries occurring at the under-13 Craven Week. The proportion of ‘overall’ and ‘time-loss’ injuries increased significantly with each quarter of the match when all four tournaments were combined (p<0.05). Conclusions There was a difference in the tackle-related injury rate between the under-13 tournament and the two under-18 tournaments, and the tackle-related injury rate was higher in the final quarter of matches. Ongoing injury surveillance is required to better interpret these findings. Injury prevention strategies

  20. Quantitative risk assessment for the introduction of African swine fever virus into the European Union by legal import of live pigs.

    PubMed

    Mur, L; Martínez-López, B; Martínez-Avilés, M; Costard, S; Wieland, B; Pfeiffer, D U; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2012-04-01

    The recent incursion and spread of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in the Russian Federation and Caucasus region, close to European Union (EU) borders, have increased the concerns regarding the probability of ASFV introduction into the EU. There are many potential routes of ASFV entry into EU, but here we specifically aimed to assess the probability of ASFV introduction by legal trade of pigs, which historically has been one of the most important ways of exotic diseases introduction into the EU. A stochastic model was used to estimate the monthly probability of ASFV introduction for each country of the EU. Results of this model suggest an annual probability for ASFV introduction in the whole EU by this way of 5.22*10(-3) , which approximately corresponds with one outbreak in 192years. The risk of ASFV introduction via live pigs was highest in Poland (69%), particularly during the months of November and December. As expected, Russian Federation is the country that most contributes to this risk, representing 68% of the overall annual risk. Methods and results presented here may be useful for informing risk-based surveillance and control programmes and, ultimately, for prevention and control of potential ASFV incursions into the EU.

  1. Assessment of African Swine Fever Diagnostic Techniques as a Response to the Epidemic Outbreaks in Eastern European Union Countries: How To Improve Surveillance and Control Programs.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, C; Nieto, R; Soler, A; Pelayo, V; Fernández-Pinero, J; Markowska-Daniel, I; Pridotkas, G; Nurmoja, I; Granta, R; Simón, A; Pérez, C; Martín, E; Fernández-Pacheco, P; Arias, M

    2015-08-01

    This study represents a complete comparative analysis of the most widely used African swine fever (ASF) diagnostic techniques in the European Union (EU) using field and experimental samples from animals infected with genotype II ASF virus (ASFV) isolates circulating in Europe. To detect ASFV, three different PCRs were evaluated in parallel using 785 field and experimental samples. The results showed almost perfect agreement between the Universal ProbeLibrary (UPL-PCR) and the real-time (κ = 0.94 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.91 to 0.97]) and conventional (κ = 0.88 [95% CI, 0.83 to 0.92]) World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)-prescribed PCRs. The UPL-PCR had greater diagnostic sensitivity for detecting survivors and allows earlier detection of the disease. Compared to the commercial antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), good-to-moderate agreement (κ = 0.67 [95% CI, 0.58 to 0.76]) was obtained, with a sensitivity of 77.2% in the commercial test. For ASF antibody detection, five serological methods were tested, including three commercial ELISAs, the OIE-ELISA, and the confirmatory immunoperoxidase test (IPT). Greater sensitivity was obtained with the IPT than with the ELISAs, since the IPT was able to detect ASF antibodies at an earlier point in the serological response, when few antibodies are present. The analysis of the exudate tissues from dead wild boars showed that IPT might be a useful serological tool for determining whether or not animals had been exposed to virus infection, regardless of whether antibodies were present. In conclusion, the UPL-PCR in combination with the IPT was the most trustworthy method for detecting ASF during the epidemic outbreaks affecting EU countries in 2014. The use of the most appropriate diagnostic tools is critical when implementing effective control programs.

  2. Risk of African swine fever introduction into the European Union through transport-associated routes: returning trucks and waste from international ships and planes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The uncontrolled presence of African swine fever (ASF) in Russian Federation (RF) poses a serious risk to the whole European Union (EU) pig industry. Although trade of pigs and their products is banned since the official notification in June 2007, the potential introduction of ASF virus (ASFV) may occur by other routes, which are very frequent in ASF, and more difficult to control, such as contaminated waste or infected vehicles. This study was intended to estimate the risk of ASFV introduction into the EU through three types of transport routes: returning trucks, waste from international ships and waste from international planes, which will be referred here as transport-associated routes (TAR). Since no detailed and official information was available for these routes, a semi-quantitative model based on the weighted combination of risk factors was developed to estimate the risk of ASFV introduction by TAR. Relative weights for combination of different risk factors as well as validation of the model results were obtained by an expert opinion elicitation. Results Model results indicate that the relative risk for ASFV introduction through TAR in most of the EU countries (16) is low, although some countries, specifically Poland and Lithuania, concentrate high levels of risk, the returning trucks route being the analyzed TAR that currently poses the highest risk for ASFV introduction into the EU. The spatial distribution of the risk of ASFV introduction varies importantly between the analyzed introduction routes. Results also highlight the need to increase the awareness and precautions for ASF prevention, particularly ensuring truck disinfection, to minimize the potential risk of entrance into the EU. Conclusions This study presents the first assessment of ASF introduction into the EU through TAR. The innovative model developed here could be used in data scarce situations for estimating the relative risk associated to each EU country. This simple methodology

  3. Union Agitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honawar, Vaishali

    2006-01-01

    A decade has passed since a few union leaders formed the network known as Teacher Union Reform Network (TURN) to search for innovative ways to enhance education. Selling their message has not always been easy. Created in 1995, TURN was the brain child of Adam Urbanski, the president of the Rochester (N.Y.) Teachers Association for the past 25…

  4. A model of union participation: the impact of perceived union support, union instrumentality, and union loyalty.

    PubMed

    Tetrick, Lois E; Shore, Lynn M; McClurg, Lucy Newton; Vandenberg, Robert J

    2007-05-01

    Perceived union support and union instrumentality have been shown to uniquely predict union loyalty. This study was the first to explicitly examine the relation between perceived union support and union instrumentality. Surveys were completed by 273 union members and 29 union stewards. A comparison of 2 models, 1 based on organizational support theory and 1 based on union participation theories, found that the model based on organizational support theory, in which union instrumentality was an antecedent to perceived union support and led to union loyalty and subsequently union participation, best fit the data. The model based on union participation theories, in which perceived union support was an antecedent of union instrumentality and led to union loyalty and subsequently union participation, was not supported. Union instrumentality was related to union commitment, but the relation was completely mediated by perceived union support.

  5. State of the Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Julie

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the corrupt leadership of two big-city teachers' unions, the Washington Teachers Union (WTU) and its Miami cousin, United Teachers of Dade (UTD), that took both unions to the brink of despair and financial ruin. While the feds were rifling through union files to build extensive criminal investigations, congress called Sandra…

  6. The African Union and Conflict Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-02

    5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Army War College,Carlisle Barracks,Carlisle,PA,17013-5050 8... PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT...dependent on France by membership of the CFA Franc Zone. CFA = Commonaute Financiere Africaine. Even though French control was reduced in 1973, its

  7. Problems Plaguing the African Union Peacekeeping Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    shared by their adver - saries. Sudanese government forces and their allied rebel groups have an intelligence capability built on informers and signal...nations have not entirely eliminated disease from the battlefront; but their vaccinations , antibiotics, and public health measures have been able to

  8. Unions, Vitamins, Exercise: Unionized Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewberry, David R.

    2005-01-01

    After the turbulent labor history of America in the early to mid twentieth century, there has been a general decline of unions. Nevertheless, many graduate school teaching assistants are unionizing in attempts to gain better pay and benefits and remove themselves from an "Ivory Sweatshop." This article discusses a history of unions…

  9. Training Union Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Edward

    1974-01-01

    The Union Leadership Academy (ULA) combines Pennsylvania State, Rutgers, West Virginia, and Atlantic Community College, 3 departments of the ALL-CIO, and 12 unions into an innovative curriculum covering aspects of labor law, union administration, and labor history. (Author/PG)

  10. The Civil War: Black American Contributions to Union Intelligence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    Arizona, on 30 June 1995. Tubman �s Triumphs Harriet Tubman , another black woman involved in intelligence col lection for the Union, is much more famous for...raiding party up the Harriet Tubman From Great Negroes Past and Present, Volume 1, by Russell L. Adams, African American Images, Chicago, Illinois...developed an interest in the Union flag-signal system, and he learned all he could about it. The intelligence Harriet Tubman and her spy organization

  11. The Efficacy of "Catch-Up Programmes" in South African High Schools: A Legal Jinx

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyoni, Jabulani

    2013-01-01

    The South African State is mandated by Sections 28(2) and 29(1) of the South African Constitution to make provision for the education of a South African child in fulfilment of the child's constitutional rights. Teacher Unions (TUs) and provincial Departments of Basic Education (DBEs) have often promised South African high school student body, in…

  12. Soviet Union`s Nuclear Power Program

    SciTech Connect

    1991-01-01

    Glasnost has dramatically increased the availability of information about the Soviet Union`s nuclear industry. In the future, even more information is likely to become known as Soviet participation in international forums increases. Not only is much more general information now available, but up-to-date details are regularly provided, including information such as the Soviet nuclear industry`s strategic direction and goals, recent reactor design changes, safety inspection results, and reports of public opposition and protest. This article summarizes the current status of the Soviet nuclear power program, reconciling the often conflicting reports from various public sources.

  13. Unionization and Shared Governance at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Given their history of socio-economic peripheralization and continued struggles for success, one would expect African Americans--especially highly educated ones--to be adept at the various forms of mobilization and advocacy, especially that of labor unions, which have not only provided them access to opportunities but also given them a voice in…

  14. Unity and Duality in Barack Obama's "A More Perfect Union"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrill, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    Faced with a racialized political crisis that threatened to derail his campaign to become the first African American president of the United States, Barack Obama delivered a speech on race titled "A More Perfect Union." He begins by portraying himself as an embodiment of double consciousness, but then invites his audience to share his…

  15. Teacher Unions 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppich, Julia E.

    2012-01-01

    Teacher unions are hard to miss in the news lately. Newspapers, blogs, social media posts, magazine articles, and political speeches abound with talk of them. Teacher unions are a hot topic and one that probably was not covered in college classes. The noisy back-and-forth among partisans can be both mind-numbing and confusing, often creating a…

  16. Power in a Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Pam

    2009-01-01

    The work unions do in providing and supporting learning for their members rarely makes the news headlines, but it will be essential if people are to engage those workers who most need to acquire new and better skills to cope in the economic downturn. In this article, the author talks about the power in a union and describes UNISON, a comparatively…

  17. Unions, Contractors and CTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarosz, Francesca

    2006-01-01

    Across Illinois, in places where unions thrive, construction industry professionals and career and technical education (CTE) teachers are working together in promoting work-based learning program to students. Likewise, the outreach program provides union-supported contractors with qualified candidates for future employment. Programs such as the…

  18. Sustainability in the Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Patrick; Taylor, John

    2012-01-01

    Operating as the center of student life, college unions have a central role to teach citizenship, social responsibility, and leadership. Unions can serve as locations for education and conversations about sustainability, as well as for organizations operationally and programmatically engaged in sustainable practices. In this chapter, the authors…

  19. Soviet Union, Military Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    agency of the Soviet Union. Permission for further reproduction must be obtained from copyright owner. SOVIET UNION MILITARY AFFAIRS CONTENTS...internationalists, it has always embodied the inviolable friendship of the peoples of the USSR. But are some of us not hypnotized by this principle

  20. African Regional Symposium on Telematics for Development. Report and Recommendations = Colloque regional africain la telematique au service du developpement. Rapport et recommandations (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, April 3-7, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Telecommunication Union, Geneva (Switzerland).

    The African Regional Symposium on Telematics for Development was organized in view of the special educational and communication needs of Africa in a time of accelerating change and development of information technologies. The symposium brought together more than 150 African specialists, and over 40 participants from other regions and development…

  1. West Union Green Downtown

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    West Union, Iowa, is an EPA Climate Showcase Community. EPA’s Climate Showcase Communities Program helps local governments and tribal nations pilot innovative, cost-effective and replicable community-based greenhouse gas reduction projects.

  2. 77 FR 33595 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8832 of June 1, 2012 African-American Music... piece of American culture, music offers a vibrant soundtrack to the story of our people and our Union... tradition, and during African-American Music Appreciation Month, we pay special tribute to...

  3. Union Township Wastewater Treatment Plant - Union Charter Township

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA proposes to reissue a NPDES permit,treated wastewater discharges from the Union Township Wastewater Treatment Plant near Isabella Indian Reservation located in Union Charter Township, Michigan (Isabella County)

  4. New Roles for Teachers Unions? Reform Unionism in School Decentralization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Morgaen L.; Mayer, Anysia P.; Cobb, Casey D.; LeChasseur, Kimberly; Welton, Anjale

    2013-01-01

    Of late, teachers unions have worked together with district management in new and notable ways. This paper examines the role of teachers unions in shaping the Together Initiative (TI), which seeks to increase autonomy and broaden decision making in urban schools in one northeastern state. In general, state-level union leaders have taken more…

  5. Unions and Workplace Reorganization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nissen, Bruce, Ed.

    The 11 chapters in this book focus on "The New American Workplace" and assess its adequacy or inadequacy as a guide for the U.S. labor movement in relation to new work systems. "Unions and Workplace Reorganization" (Bruce Nissen) introduces the subject. "The New American Workplace: A Labor Perspective" (AFL-CIO Committee on the Evolution of Work,…

  6. Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-05

    Manyukov, S. And the Cherries Are in Blossom Again 21 Merganov, S. Parpishakh—Fighter of the Red Army 21 Novikov, V. The Spectator Does Not...the 20th Komsomol Congress with important labor successes; to take an active part in the 2nd All-Union Festival of Artistic Folk Activities

  7. Marketing the College Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoef, Ted; Howe, Nanci

    Theory underlying marketing in the public sector is presented in combination with specific examples of marketing strategies and techniques used in college unions and student activities programs across the country. The subject of marketing is discussed under six major subject headings: (1) why marketing? (2) analyzing marketing opportunities; (3)…

  8. Trade Union Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Heribert; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Excerpts addresses from an international symposium regarding workers' education, human rights, labor standards and law, socioeconomic factors, trade unions, workers' rights, professionalism, and globalization. Includes a background paper, "Participation of Workers and Their Organizations in the Field of International Labour Standards and the…

  9. Union Proposals for Washington Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, William H.

    1970-01-01

    President of the Washington, D.C. Teachers' Union presents the Union's recommendations for short range solutions to their extensive educational problems in testimony before the Senate Public Health, Education, Welfare, and Safety Committee on the District of Columbia. (DM)

  10. Toward an African Maritime Economy: Empowering the African Union to Revolutionize the African Maritime Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    ships of even average size;8 add to this shortcoming the fact that the world shipping industry has been quickly modern- izing its fleets, replacing...maritime sector holistically, across its entire spectrum—improving safety and security, gover- nance, and industrial infrastructure and efficiency. There...handled equitably and transparently, with no hidden costs or lengthy delays. Industrial infrastructure serves as the backbone of maritime ventures

  11. Tenancy and African American Marriage in the Postbellum South.

    PubMed

    Bloome, Deirdre; Muller, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    The pervasiveness of tenancy in the postbellum South had countervailing effects on marriage between African Americans. Tenancy placed severe constraints on African American women's ability to find independent agricultural work. Freedwomen confronted not only planters' reluctance to contract directly with women but also whites' refusal to sell land to African Americans. Marriage consequently became one of African American women's few viable routes into the agricultural labor market. We find that the more counties relied on tenant farming, the more common was marriage among their youngest and oldest African American residents. However, many freedwomen resented their subordinate status within tenant marriages. Thus, we find that tenancy contributed to union dissolution as well as union formation among freedpeople. Microdata tracing individuals' marital transitions are consistent with these county-level results.

  12. Tenancy and African American Marriage in the Postbellum South

    PubMed Central

    Bloome, Deirdre; Muller, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The pervasiveness of tenancy in the postbellum South had countervailing effects on marriage between African Americans. Tenancy placed severe constraints on African American women’s ability to find independent agricultural work. Freedwomen confronted not only planters’ reluctance to contract directly with women but also whites’ refusal to sell land to African Americans. Marriage consequently became one of African American women’s few viable routes into the agricultural labor market. We find that the more counties relied on tenant farming, the more common was marriage among their youngest and oldest African American residents. However, many freedwomen resented their subordinate status within tenant marriages. Thus, we find that tenancy contributed to union dissolution as well as union formation among freedpeople. Microdata tracing individuals’ marital transitions are consistent with these county-level results. PMID:26223562

  13. Women and Trade Union Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Caroline; Jackson, Judith

    2000-01-01

    Many British unions are failing to attract women members. The General Federal of Trade Unions has begun a women's studies program, offering communication and confidence building, women's history, and other courses that are helping women become involved in union l leadership and decision making. (SK)

  14. Union Members Are Community Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David

    2013-01-01

    Unions serve their members' interests. But union members are also community members, and their interests go well beyond increasing pay and benefits. A local union president has found that his members are best served by participating in a community-wide coalition. Providing eyeglasses to needy students, promoting healthy eating, and increasing…

  15. Union Density and Hospital Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Koys, Daniel J; Martin, Wm Marty; LaVan, Helen; Katz, Marsha

    2015-01-01

    The authors address the hospital outcomes of patient satisfaction, healthcare quality, and net income per bed. They define union density as the percentage of a hospital's employees who are in unions, healthcare quality as its 30-day acute myocardial infraction (AMI; heart attack) mortality rate, and patient satisfaction as its overall Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems score. Using a random sample of 84 union and 84 nonunion hospitals from across the United States, multiple regression analyses show that union density is negatively related to patient satisfaction. Union density is not related to healthcare quality as measured by the AMI mortality rate or to net income per bed. This implies that unions per se are not good or bad for hospitals. The authors suggest that it is better for hospital administrators to take a Balanced Scorecard approach and be concerned about employee satisfaction, patient satisfaction, healthcare quality, and net income.

  16. PLANNING AND OPERATING COLLEGE UNION BUILDINGS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BUTTS, PORTER

    THIS MONOGRAPH IS A DISCUSSION OF FOUR ASPECTS OF STUDENT UNIONS. PART ONE DISCUSSES THE NATURE AND PURPOSE OF A UNION AND THE UNION AS A CAMPUS CENTER. PART TWO DEALS WITH THE PLANNING OF UNION BUILDINGS AND GIVES PROCEDURES, PRINCIPLES AND CAUTIONS. UNION FACILITIES AND SERVICES ARE LISTED. PART THREE DISCUSSES THE ORGANIZATION AND ACTIVITIES OF…

  17. Union Quality Comparisons between Long-Term Heterosexual Cohabitation and Legal Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willetts, Marion C.

    2006-01-01

    A longitudinal analysis is conducted on the union quality of long-term cohabiting and legally married couples using data from both waves of the National Survey of Families and Households. An analysis of racially homogamous (Anglo-American and African American) couples indicates that the cohabitors and marrieds do not differ significantly with…

  18. Unions: Bread, Butter & Basic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCEL Newsletter for the Business Community, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Unions are natural providers of basic skills instruction. They are in daily workplace contact with their membership, are trusted to work on members' behalf, and speak the language of the worker. Unions are trying to address the needs of illiterate workers through collective bargaining arrangements in which employers contribute a percentage of…

  19. College/Labor Union Cooperation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, William

    1977-01-01

    A survey of 1,054 institutions by the AACJC Service Center for Community College-Labor Union Cooperation concluded that while substantial joint undertakings exist between unions and community colleges, in many cases labor and community colleges are waiting for the other party to make the first move. (JG)

  20. Teacher Unionization in School Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacoby, Dan

    2011-01-01

    The role of unions in school governance is reviewed to note that labor operates in a larger context of principal-agent relationships. As agents for teachers, unions articulate the concerns that must be addressed if teachers are to be successfully enlisted in the struggle to reduce achievement gaps among at-risk students. Transcending industrial…

  1. Planning a College Union Building.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Chester Arthur

    This volume examines the background and characteristics of the college union and its buildings, discusses its purposes and the means by which they may be achieved, and considers the impact of these means on the building requirements. General planning principles are developed and applied to the union building and its various areas. The translation…

  2. Recent Developments in Compulsory Unionism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchnick, Morton G.

    1993-01-01

    Looks at legal cases concerning the uses to which mandatory union dues are put. Considers the variety of approaches adopted in Switzerland, Spain, Belgium, and Germany and reviews how compulsory unionism has been treated in the courts in the United Kingdom, Denmark, the United States, and Canada. (JOW)

  3. Thinking about the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkovich, George

    In the United States, educators have had difficulty teaching about the Soviet Union. Students are often ignorant of the historical circumstances that have affected the U.S./Soviet relationship, and they are often miseducated by stereotypes they encounter in popular culture. This curriculum explores the government and economy of the Soviet Union,…

  4. Unionization: The Viewpoint of Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyton, Theodore Lewis

    A study was made to isolate factors which have systematic and repetitive effects on the unionization of librarians, particularly the professional librarian in the public library. The historical patterns of library unionism are summarized, and an analysis is made of the personal characteristics of librarians, their economic position, and employment…

  5. Professional Employees Turn to Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamot, Dennis

    1976-01-01

    White-collar and professional employees are increasingly turning to unions to combat their loss of independence as employees of large organizations. Managers should realize that they and professional employees have different viewpoints about job situations and that the current trend toward white-collar unionism is apt to continue. (JG)

  6. African Union: Towards Good Governance, Peace and Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-15

    research paper are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Army, Department of Defense, or...RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 15-03-2012 2. REPORT TYPE Strategy Research Project 3. DATES COVERED (From - To...NUMBER (include area code) Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT

  7. Trade Unions and the Economics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veale, Sarah

    1987-01-01

    Contends that a realistic approach to teaching economics requires learning about trade unions. Presents a role play of a trade union meeting that helps students think about how trade unions tackle problems. (BSR)

  8. African Aesthetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abiodun, Rowland

    2001-01-01

    No single traditional discipline can adequately supply answers to the many unresolved questions in African art history. Because of the aesthetic, cultural, historical, and, not infrequently, political biases, already built into the conception and development of Western art history, the discipline of art history as defined and practiced in the West…

  9. African Pentecostalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrard, David J.

    2009-01-01

    The diversity of African Pentecostalism, its early colonial and missionary history and its current characteristics are described and analysed. Reference is made to methods of training and forms of leadership, and suggestions are made about the reasons for its growth and persistence. (Contains 19 notes.)

  10. Consumers Union rates condoms.

    PubMed

    1980-05-01

    In an effort to provide some insights as to why and how condoms fail, the Consumers Union of the United States tested brandname condoms for leakage, bursting, tensile strength and heat deterioration and surveyed 1900 women and men who used the method for birth control. The highest-ranked latex condoms were Nuform, Trojan Plus, Conceptrol Shield and Horizon Nuda. Least preferred were Sheik No. 22 unlubricated condoms and Trojan unlubricated. Preferences among skin condoms were Fourex Capsuled and Klingtite Naturalamb. Obvious advantages of the condom method of contraception, in addition to its potentially high success rate, include the following: 1) protection against venereal disease; 2) lack of side effects; 3) simplicity of method; and 4) reasonable price. 1/2 of the 1900 respondentes cited interruption of lovemaking, reduced sensitivity and mere awareness of condom presence as reasons why the method impaired sexual pleasure. Almost 1/4 of the respondents disliked the need for prompt withdrawal in order to avoid spillage, and some feared vigorous intercourse would result in the condom slipping off.

  11. African-American Biography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ron

    1995-01-01

    Suggests sources of information for African American History Month for library media specialists who work with students in grades four through eight. Gale Research's "African-American Reference Library," which includes "African-America Biography,""African-American Chronology," and "African-American Almanac,"…

  12. African Trypanosomiasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    infection by protozoan hemo- flagellates of the Trypanosoma brucei complex, 2 subspe- cies of which cause disease in humans: Trypanosoma bru- cei gambiense...public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES See also ADA545141. Chapter 3 from e-book, Topics on the Pathology of Protozoan and...the brief ferry crossing. 2 3 • Topics on The paThology of proTozoan and invasive arThropod diseases Three severe epidemics of African trypanosomiasis

  13. The Evolving Role of Union Learning Representatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Sian; Ross, Cilla

    2008-01-01

    This article suggests that the union learning representative (ULR) is increasingly situated at the heart of trade union activity. The paper draws upon recent research based on interviews with national trade union officers and case studies of union learning activity to explore the competing demands being made upon ULRs and the implications for…

  14. 32 CFR 643.116 - Credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Credit unions. 643.116 Section 643.116 National... Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.116 Credit unions. The establishment of credit unions on Army... buildings, without charge for rent or services, to any credit union organized under State law or to...

  15. 32 CFR 643.116 - Credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Credit unions. 643.116 Section 643.116 National... Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.116 Credit unions. The establishment of credit unions on Army... buildings, without charge for rent or services, to any credit union organized under State law or to...

  16. 32 CFR 643.116 - Credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Credit unions. 643.116 Section 643.116 National... Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.116 Credit unions. The establishment of credit unions on Army... buildings, without charge for rent or services, to any credit union organized under State law or to...

  17. 32 CFR 643.116 - Credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Credit unions. 643.116 Section 643.116 National... Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.116 Credit unions. The establishment of credit unions on Army... buildings, without charge for rent or services, to any credit union organized under State law or to...

  18. 32 CFR 643.116 - Credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Credit unions. 643.116 Section 643.116 National... Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.116 Credit unions. The establishment of credit unions on Army... buildings, without charge for rent or services, to any credit union organized under State law or to...

  19. 75 FR 75648 - Corporate Credit Unions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Parts 701, 704, and 741 RIN 3133-AD74 Corporate Credit Unions AGENCY: National Credit Union... Board issued a proposed rule amending its corporate credit union rule. 75 FR 73000 (November 29,...

  20. @AuAg nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rina; Soni, R. K.

    2014-09-01

    Bimetallic and trimetallic nanoparticles have attracted significant attention in recent times due to their enhanced electrochemical and catalytic properties compared to monometallic nanoparticles. The numerical calculations using Mie theory has been carried out for three-layered metal nanoshell dielectric-metal-metal (DMM) system consisting of a particle with a dielectric core (Al@Al2O3), a middle metal Ag (Au) layer and an outer metal Au (Ag) shell. The results have been interpreted using plasmon hybridization theory. We have also prepared Al@Al2O3@Ag@Au and Al@Al2O3@AgAu triple-layered core-shell or alloy nanostructure by two-step laser ablation method and compared with calculated results. The synthesis involves temporal separations of Al, Ag, and Au deposition for step-by-step formation of triple-layered core-shell structure. To form Al@Ag nanoparticles, we ablated silver for 40 min in aluminium nanoparticle colloidal solution. As aluminium oxidizes easily in water to form alumina, the resulting structure is core-shell Al@Al2O3. The Al@Al2O3 particle acts as a seed for the incoming energetic silver particles for multilayered Al@Al2O3@Ag nanoparticles is formed. The silver target was then replaced by gold target and ablation was carried out for different ablation time using different laser energy for generation of Al@Al2O3@Ag@Au core-shell or Al@Al2O3@AgAu alloy. The formation of core-shell and alloy nanostructure was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy. The absorption spectra show shift in plasmon resonance peak of silver to gold in the range 400-520 nm with increasing ablation time suggesting formation of Ag-Au alloy in the presence of alumina particles in the solution.

  1. African Outreach Workshop 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Nancy J.

    This report discusses the 1974 African Outreach Workshop planned and coordinated by the African Studies Program at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Its major aim was to assist teachers in developing curriculum units on African using materials available in their local community. A second aim was for the African Studies Program to…

  2. Africans in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Ayanna; Spangler, Earl

    This book introduces African-American history and culture to children. The first Africans in America came from many different regions and cultures, but became united in this country by being black, African, and slaves. Once in America, Africans began a long struggle for freedom which still continues. Slavery, the Civil War, emancipation, and the…

  3. A Union Voice for Racial Equality: Miles Stanley and Civil Rights in West Virginia, 1957-68

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fones-Wolf, Colin T.

    2004-01-01

    On October 15, 1959, union delegates from across West Virginia converged upon the Daniel Boone Hotel in the capital city of Charleston to participate in the West Virginia Labor Federation, AFL-CIO's second statewide constitutional convention. Charleston, at this time, remained a segregated city. So when G. William Dunn, an African-American…

  4. Cajon Valley Union School District: Changing the Culture of Learning to Empower Students. From the Field. Digital Learning Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartzbeck, Terri Duggan

    2013-01-01

    The K-8 Cajon Valley Union School District (Cajon Valley USD) is one of forty-two school districts in the greater San Diego, California metropolitan area. Serving approximately 16,000 students, the Cajon Valley USD is extremely diverse; 36 percent of students are Hispanic, 46 percent are white, 7 percent are African American, and many students are…

  5. "Parent Unions" Join Policy Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Whether they're organizing events, buttonholing legislators, or simply trading ideas and information, a growing number of "parent unions" are attempting to stake out a place in policy debates over education in states and districts, amid a crowded field of actors and advocates. As the term implies, some of these organizations see…

  6. Union Education: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, R. Brooke

    1988-01-01

    Outlines the author's observations and experiences while designing and delivering a training program at the Professional Institute of the Public Service of Canada. A two-day course acquaints union stewards and prospective stewards with their functions; a three-day advanced course examines legislation and collective bargaining and deals with other…

  7. Proliferation and the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The report examines the whole range of consequences for proliferation of weapons of mass destruction of the Soviet Union's breakup and describes how U.S. assistance may reduce specific proliferation risks in the former Soviet Union.

  8. Partnership Creates Centre for Union Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Carol; Roman, Stephen

    1978-01-01

    A unique cooperative venture between the city of Coventry and local trade unions is establishing a library collection of books, periodicals, historical documents, tapes, and films dealing with unions, labor studies, and industrial problems. (JAB)

  9. Graduate Student Unionization: Catalysts and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julius, Daniel J.; Gumport, Patricia J.

    2003-01-01

    Examined unionization trends and outcomes among graduate students: where and why they have organized and whether unionization has affected student-mentor relationships. Uncovered several implications for institutional and departmental autonomy, student-mentor relationships, and labor relations outcomes. (EV)

  10. Spin resonance transport properties of a single Au atom in S-Au-S junction and Au-Au-Au junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fangyuan, Wang; Guiqin, Li

    2016-07-01

    The spin transport properties of S-Au-S junction and Au-Au-Au junction between Au nanowires are investigated with density functional theory and the non-equilibrium Green's function. We mainly focus on the spin resonance transport properties of the center Au atom. The breaking of chemical bonds between anchor atoms and center Au atom significantly influences their spin transmission characteristics. We find the 0.8 eV orbital energy shift between anchor S atoms and the center Au atom can well protect the spin state stored in the S-Au-S junction and efficiently extract its spin state to the current by spin resonance mechanism, while the spin interaction of itinerant electrons and the valence electron of the center Au atom in the Au-Au-Au junction can extract the current spin information into the center Au atom. Fermi energy drift and bias-dependent spin filtering properties of the Au-Au-Au junction may transform information between distance, bias, and electron spin. Those unique properties make them potential candidates for a logical nanocircuit. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grants No. 2011CB921602) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants No. 20121318158).

  11. Unionizing: A Guide for Child Care Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitebook, Marcy; And Others

    Including excerpts from contracts protecting unionized child care workers, this booklet explains basic terminology and facts about unionizing and addresses child care workers' concerns. Section 1 answers commonly asked questions about unions and offers advice about how to answer parents' questions about workers' attempts to organize. Section 2…

  12. A Different Role for Teachers Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Marc

    2012-01-01

    American teachers unions are increasingly the target of measures, authored by friends and foes alike, intended to limit their power, or even eviscerate them. Looking at this scene, one would never guess that the countries that are among the top 10 in student performance have some of the strongest teachers unions in the world. Are those unions in…

  13. ETUDE - European Trade Union Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creanor, Linda; Walker, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Describes transnational distance learning activities among European trade union educators carried out as part of the European Trade Union Distance Education (ETUDE) project, supported by the European Commission. Highlights include the context of international trade union distance education; tutor training course; tutors' experiences; and…

  14. 76 FR 44866 - Credit Union Service Organizations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ...-AD93 Credit Union Service Organizations AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: NCUA proposes to amend its credit union service organization (CUSO) regulation to... Organizations Subpart B of part 741 addresses NCUA regulations that FISCUs must follow to obtain and...

  15. 75 FR 60651 - Corporate Credit Unions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... union system. As part of this restructuring, NCUA believes that some groups of natural person credit... committee member, and senior management employee; and NCUA Form 4008, the credit union's organization... requirement. Any group of persons creating a new federally chartered corporate credit union must apply...

  16. Are Charter School Unions Worth the Bargain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Mitch

    2011-01-01

    About 12 percent of all charter schools have bargaining agreements. Why do charter schools unionize? What is in these charter school contracts? Can they be considered innovative or models for union reform? And how do they compare to traditional district/union teacher contracts? Center on Reinventing Public Education legal analyst Mitch Price…

  17. 75 FR 64785 - Corporate Credit Unions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ...NCUA is issuing final amendments to its rule governing corporate credit unions. The major revisions involve corporate credit union capital, investments, asset-liability management, governance, and credit union service organization (CUSO) activities. The amendments establish a new capital scheme, including risk-based capital requirements; impose new prompt corrective action requirements; place......

  18. Union-Management Ideological Frames of Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolters, Roger S.

    1982-01-01

    Looks at union-management (U-M) ideology as a potential explanatory variable in labor relations and demonstrates a method of measuring the ideology of union (N=34) and management (N=38) representatives. Semantic differential and antecedent-consequent techniques indicated significant union-management differences on all 10 U-M beliefs measured. (WAS)

  19. Iranian National Union Catalog Description and Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, John F.

    This outline of how to establish and maintain an Asian national union catalog contains basic instruction for the staff and for the participating libraries of one of West Asia's largest union catalogs. It has been prepared to: (1) define and clarify the purposes of the Iranian National Union Catalog; (2) explain the policies and procedures under…

  20. Unions and Job Satisfaction: An Alternative View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeffer, Jeffrey; Davis-Blake, Alison

    1990-01-01

    The dominant theoretical perspective suggests that unions reduce job satisfaction by making workers more critical of the workplace and more willing to complain. However, unions reduce wage inequality and increase worker control and commitment. A survey of 978 workers shows that unionization has a positive effect on job satisfaction. (JOW)

  1. 75 FR 17083 - Fiduciary Duties at Federal Credit Unions; Mergers and Conversions of Insured Credit Unions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Parts 701, 708a, and 708b Fiduciary Duties at Federal Credit Unions; Mergers and Conversions of Insured Credit Unions; Correction AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration. ACTION:...

  2. 40. August, 1970 VIEW OF UNION STREET WITH ELISHA GREEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. August, 1970 VIEW OF UNION STREET WITH ELISHA GREEN HOUSE (9 UNION STREET) AT LEFT - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  3. 75 FR 57820 - National Credit Union Administration Restoration Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... ADMINISTRATION National Credit Union Administration Restoration Plan AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION: Approval of National Credit Union Administration restoration plan. On September 16, 2010, the National Credit Union Administration (NCUA) implemented a Restoration Plan for the National...

  4. 12 CFR 741.222 - Credit union service organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit union service organizations. 741.222 Section 741.222 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS... Unions That Also Apply to Federally Insured State-Chartered Credit Unions § 741.222 Credit union...

  5. 12 CFR 741.222 - Credit union service organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Credit union service organizations. 741.222 Section 741.222 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS... Unions That Also Apply to Federally Insured State-Chartered Credit Unions § 741.222 Credit union...

  6. Magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au and Fe-Au alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, S.; Shimakura, H.; Tahara, S.; Okada, T.

    2015-08-17

    The magnetic susceptibility of liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au, Fe-Au and Cu-Au alloys was investigated as a function of temperature and composition. Liquid Cr{sub 1-c}Au{sub c} with 0.5 ≤ c and Mn{sub 1-c}Au{sub c} with 0.3≤c obeyed the Curie-Weiss law with regard to their dependence of χ on temperature. The magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Fe-Au alloys also exhibited Curie-Weiss behavior with a reasonable value for the effective number of Bohr magneton. On the Au-rich side, the composition dependence of χ for liquid TM-Au (TM=Cr, Mn, Fe) alloys increased rapidly with increasing TM content, respectively. Additionally, the composition dependences of χ for liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au, and Fe-Au alloys had maxima at compositions of 50 at% Cr, 70 at% Mn, and 85 at% Fe, respectively. We compared the composition dependences of χ{sub 3d} due to 3d electrons for liquid binary TM-M (M=Au, Al, Si, Sb), and investigated the relationship between χ{sub 3d} and E{sub F} in liquid binary TM-M alloys at a composition of 50 at% TM.

  7. African Americans and Glaucoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to a ... glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in African Americans. Half of those with glaucoma don't know ...

  8. Black African Traditional Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslavsky, Claudia

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the traditional number systems and the origin of the number names used by several African peoples living south of the Sahara. Also included are limitations in African mathematical development, and possible topics for research. (RP)

  9. Solid-Phase Equilibria in the Au-As, Au-Ga-Sb, Au-In-As, and Au-In-Sb Ternaries.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-28

    AD6i5 469 SOLID- PHASE EQUILIBRIA IN THE Ru-As AU-GA-SB AU-IN-AS- 1/17 AND AU-IN-SB TERNAR (U) CALIFORNIA UNIV LOS ANGELES DEPT OF CHEMISTRY AND...REPORT & PERIOD COVERED SOLID- PHASE EQUILIBRIA IN THE Au-Ga-As, Au-Ga-Sb Thchnical Report Au-In-As, and Au-In-Sb TEARIEIS S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER...CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGEMI*n Does Entepd) 4./ lie- . .- - - - - -- -- Solid Phase Equilibria in the Au-Ga-As, Au-Ga-Sb, Au-In-As, and Au-In-Sb Ternaries C

  10. The African Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2012-01-01

    From student and faculty exchanges to joint research projects, U.S. universities maintain a broad spectrum of collaborative relationships with African universities. It's unclear how many U.S. colleges and universities have partnerships with African universities. The African Studies Association, an organization of scholars, doesn't keep that kind…

  11. Magnetoresistance of Au films

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, D. L.; Song, X. H.; Zhang, X.; ...

    2014-12-10

    Measurement of the magnetoresistance (MR) of Au films as a function of temperature and film thickness reveals a strong dependence on grain size distribution and clear violation of the Kohler s rule. Using a model of random resistor network, we show that this result can be explained if the MR arises entirely from inhomogeneity due to grain boundary scattering and thermal activation of grain boundary atoms.

  12. European Union a New Babylon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesch, F.

    2010-07-01

    The growing European Union faces growing problems in personal communication. These problems cannot be overcome only by more language courses in school. As important is a better mutual knowledge of the culture of other countries, a knowledge that can be gained only by a personal, professional stay in foreign countries. On university level, such stays are best organized by networks connecting European universities. In the broad field of measurement, this IMEKO symposium might offer a unique forum to thoroughly discuss structure and realization of such a network with all interested colleagues.

  13. The relationship between labor unions and safety in US airlines: Is there a "union effect?"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapf, Renee Catherine

    Every airline union claims to work for safety and presents anecdotes where greater airline safety has been achieved through union efforts. The effect unionization has on safety outcomes in U.S. commercial airlines, however, wasn't found to be previously tested. Studies have shown that in industries such as coal mining, retail, and construction, unionization does lead to an increase in safety. This study evaluated the safety rates of 15 major US commercial airlines to compare the difference between unionized and non-unionized airlines. These safety rates were compared based on if and how long each airline's pilots and flight attendants have been unionized, to determine if unionization had an effect on safety outcomes. The 15 airlines included in the study identified as operating most of the years between 1990 and 2013, with annual departures averaging over 130,000, available through the Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Accident and Incident information was acquired through the National Transportation Safety Board database. The number of accident and incidents divided by the total departures at each airline was used as the safety rate. Union websites provided information on unionization at the airlines. Due to the complex nature of the aviation industry, a number of confounding factors could have affected the tests, including mergers, route structures, and legislation. To help control for these confounding factors, this study was limited to airlines with a stable presence in the industry over time, which limited the number of airlines included. No significant difference was found between unionized and non-unionized airlines in this study, though the mean safety rate of unionized airlines was found be better than non-unionized airlines. This study did not take into account safety improvements that were union-backed and eventually required at all airlines, regardless of unionization. Due to the large sample size of the small population the difference in safety rate

  14. Seismic anisotropy beneath La Réunion hotspot track: plume spreading vs deep mantle convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barruol, G.; Fontaine, F. R.

    2012-12-01

    Seismic anisotropy beneath the Western Indian Ocean is analyzed from temporary and permanent seismological deployments on the Piton de la Fournaise volcano, the active place of La Réunion hotspot, and from the permanent stations in Mauritius, Rodrigues and the Maldives Islands, in order to decipher the sublithospheric spreading signature of La Réunion mantle plume and the large-scale mantle flow pattern induced by the buoyancy-driven upwelling of the African superplume. The comparison of the SKS splitting observations with geodynamic mantle flow models show that the large-scale anisotropy pattern - characterized by fast directions trending NE-SW in the north (Maldives and Seychelles) to EW in the south (Mauritius, Rodrigues and La Réunion) may be largely explained by asthenospheric flow resulting from the combined effects of plate motion and deep mantle circulation. Anisotropy observed at the seismic stations installed on La Réunion Island shows, however, complex backazimuthal variations characterized by numerous "nulls" and by fast split directions trending normal to the plate motion observed within only a small backazimuthal window, that cannot be explained by neither a single nor two anisotropic layers. By testing models of sublithospheric spreading of La Réunion mantle upwelling, we show that this complex anisotropy pattern can be explained by a parabolic asthenospheric plume spreading with a plume conduit located 100 to 200 km north of La Réunion Island. Anisotropy beneath the GEOSCOPE station recently installed in Rodrigues Island does not appear to be influenced by the La Réunion plume-spreading signature but is fully compatible with either a model of large-scale deep mantle convection pattern and/or with a channeled asthenospheric flow beneath the Rodrigues ridge.

  15. Arab Maghreb Union: Achievement and Prospects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    be enough to save this union from collapse. Geographic and "’Hoffman, S, contemporary Theory in International relations , (Englewood Cliffs, NJ,1960...NAVAL POSTGRADU1ATE SCHOOL Monterey, California AD-A283 604 THESIS w ’ : ’ ARAB MAGHREB UNION : ACHIEVEMENT AND PROSPECTS by Abderrahmen Messaoudi...AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED 1994 June Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Arab Maghreb Union

  16. meson production in Au+Au collisions at in STAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Long; STAR collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we report the measurements of the nuclear modification factor (R AA) and elliptic flow (v 2) for in Au+Au collisions at from the STAR experiment. These results are compared with the results of other open charm mesons to study the hadronization mechanism of the charm quarks and disentangle the transport properties of quark-gluon plasma and hadronic phase [1]. We found that the nuclear modification factor for D s are systematically higher than unity and D 0 R AA. The ratio of D s /D 0 for 10-40% central Au+Au collisions is also higher than that in p+p collisions as predicted by PYTHIA. The D s /D 0 ratio is also compared to that in Pb+Pb collisions at measured by the ALICE experiment. Our results indicate an enhancement of D s meson production in Au+Au collisions.

  17. Adolescent Violent Victimization and Precocious Union Formation*

    PubMed Central

    C. Kuhl, Danielle; Warner, David F.; Wilczak, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This article bridges scholarship in criminology and family sociology by extending arguments about “precocious exits” from adolescence to consider early union formation as a salient outcome of violent victimization for youths. Research indicates that early union formation is associated with several negative outcomes; yet the absence of attention to union formation as a consequence of violent victimization is noteworthy. We address this gap by drawing on life course theory and data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to examine the effect of violent victimization (“street” violence) on the timing of first co-residential union formation—differentiating between marriage and cohabitation—in young adulthood. Estimates from Cox proportional hazard models show that adolescent victims of street violence experience higher rates of first union formation, especially marriage, early in the transition to adulthood; however, this effect declines with age, as such unions become more normative. Importantly, the effect of violent victimization on first union timing is robust to controls for nonviolent delinquency, substance abuse, and violent perpetration. We conclude by discussing directions for future research on the association between violent victimization and coresidential unions with an eye toward the implications of such early union formation for desistance. PMID:24431471

  18. Adolescent Violent Victimization and Precocious Union Formation.

    PubMed

    C Kuhl, Danielle; Warner, David F; Wilczak, Andrew

    2012-11-01

    This article bridges scholarship in criminology and family sociology by extending arguments about "precocious exits" from adolescence to consider early union formation as a salient outcome of violent victimization for youths. Research indicates that early union formation is associated with several negative outcomes; yet the absence of attention to union formation as a consequence of violent victimization is noteworthy. We address this gap by drawing on life course theory and data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to examine the effect of violent victimization ("street" violence) on the timing of first co-residential union formation-differentiating between marriage and cohabitation-in young adulthood. Estimates from Cox proportional hazard models show that adolescent victims of street violence experience higher rates of first union formation, especially marriage, early in the transition to adulthood; however, this effect declines with age, as such unions become more normative. Importantly, the effect of violent victimization on first union timing is robust to controls for nonviolent delinquency, substance abuse, and violent perpetration. We conclude by discussing directions for future research on the association between violent victimization and coresidential unions with an eye toward the implications of such early union formation for desistance.

  19. The Soviet Union in transition

    SciTech Connect

    Niiseki, K.

    1987-01-01

    Because of the recent transition in the Soviet Union's leadership, scholars worldwide have found it necessary to reevaluate Soviet domestic and foreign policy. In this book, prominent Japanese, U.S., and European experts examine changes within the USSR as well as Soviet reactions to changes in the rest of the world. They assess the immediate implications of change for such areas as technology, energy policy, and economic reform and deliver commentaries on current policy directions and historical backgrounds of Soviet policies. The Japan Institute of International Affairs held the symposium on which this volume is based to commemorate its silver jubilee and to add the valuable perspective of Japanese Soviet studies scholars to Western analyses. Contents: Introduction; The Soviet Union in a Changing World; East-West Relations: A European Perspective; ''Gorbachevism''-Simply Old Wine in a New Bottle. Implications of Leadership and Social Change for Soviet Policies; Soviet Economic Trends, with Special Emphasis on Investment and Energy Policies; Economic Reforms in China in Light of Soviet and Eastern European Experiences.

  20. Union leadership and member attitudes: a multi-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Tove Helland; Bayazit, Mahmut; Wazeter, David L

    2009-03-01

    Analyses of union leadership roles show that union presidents should have both a within-union focus and an external focus. The authors combined multi-level survey data from 3,871 union members in 248 local teachers' unions with archival and field staff data to examine relationships between leadership and members' perceptions of union instrumentality and justice, union commitment, and participation. The results showed significant union-level effects on members' beliefs about, and attitudes toward, their unions, attributable to the presidents' internal and external leadership, wage outcomes, and union characteristics. Relationships between internally focused leadership and members' loyalty and willingness to work for the union were partially mediated by perceptions of union instrumentality and justice. These perceptions fully mediated the relationship between externally focused leadership and union loyalty.

  1. Teacher Unionism in Changing Times: Is This the Real "New Unionism"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Howard

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a case study of union change in an environment in which radical school restructuring is taking place, and active strategies to weaken and marginalize organized teachers are being pursued by the state. The case study union is the National Union of Teachers in England. The article explores a number of different strategies open…

  2. 75 FR 15573 - Fiduciary Duties at Federal Credit Unions; Mergers and Conversions of Insured Credit Unions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] Part III National Credit Union Administration 12 CFR Parts 701, 708a, and 708b Fiduciary Duties at Federal Credit Unions; Mergers and Conversions of Insured Credit Unions; Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75, No....

  3. The Features of Development in the Pacific Countries of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuenca Garcia, Eduardo; Rodriguez Martin, Jose Antonio; Navarro Pabsdorf, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    In this article we present a new proposal for the measurement of development, applied to the Pacific Countries of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group (ACP), conditional on their insularity, and with privileged relations with the European Union. Our index has been constructed attending to the criteria defined in the Goals of the Millennium…

  4. Antibacterial Au nanostructured surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Songmei; Zuber, Flavia; Brugger, Juergen; Maniura-Weber, Katharina; Ren, Qun

    2016-01-01

    We present here a technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It was found that all the Au nanostructures, regardless their shapes, exhibited similar excellent antibacterial properties. A comparison of live cells attached to nanotopographic surfaces showed that the number of live S. aureus cells was <1% of that from flat and rough reference surfaces. Our micro/nanofabrication process is a scalable approach based on cost-efficient self-organization and provides potential for further developing functional surfaces to study the behavior of microbes on nanoscale topographies.We present here a technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It

  5. Teacher Union Legitimacy: Shifting the Moral Center for Member Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popiel, Kara

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-method case study explored teacher union members' beliefs about the teacher union and their reasons for being active or inactive in the union. Findings suggest that teacher unions have gained pragmatic and cognitive legitimacy (Chaison and Bigelow in Unions and legitimacy. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, 2002), but that…

  6. Industrial Feudalism Reconsidered. The Effects of Unionization on Labor Mobility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Amico, Ronald

    1984-01-01

    Analyzes union effects on patterns of job mobility. It finds that the union effects vary by type of union and by type of job change, with industrial unions promoting the incidence of intrafirm occupation changes and craft unions decreasing the incidence of interoccupation moves. (CT)

  7. 12 CFR 701.2 - Federal credit union bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Federal credit union bylaws. 701.2 Section 701.2 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION OF FEDERAL CREDIT UNIONS § 701.2 Federal credit union bylaws. (a) Federal...

  8. 12 CFR 701.26 - Credit union service contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Credit union service contracts. 701.26 Section 701.26 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION OF FEDERAL CREDIT UNIONS § 701.26 Credit union service contracts. A Federal...

  9. Trade Union Libraries in the People's Republic of China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Richard D.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the trade union library system in China that has fallen on hard times amid economic and social changes of the past 20 years. Focuses on a history of the trade union library movement; services provided by trade union libraries; problems faced by union libraries; and reform of trade union libraries. (AEF)

  10. union publique HR

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-30

    Chers Collègues,Je me permets de vous rappeler qu'une réunion publique organisée par le Département HR se tiendra aujourd'hui:Vendredi 30 avril 2010 à 9h30 dans l'Amphithéâtre principal (café offert dès 9h00).Durant cette réunion, des informations générales seront données sur:le CERN Admin e-guide, qui est un nouveau guide des procédures administratives du CERN ayant pour but de faciliter la recherche d'informations pratiques et d'offrir un format de lecture convivial;le régime d'Assurance Maladie de l'Organisation (présentation effectuée par Philippe Charpentier, Président du CHIS Board) et;la Caisse de Pensions (présentation effectuée par Théodore Economou, Administrateur de la Caisse de Pensions du CERN).Une transmission simultanée de cette réunion sera assurée dans l'Amphithéâtre BE de Prévessin et également disponible à l'adresse suivante: http://webcast.cern.chJe me réjouis de votre participation!Meilleures salutations,Anne-Sylvie CatherinChef du Département des Ressources humaines__________________________________________________________________________________Dear Colleagues,I should like to remind you that a plublic meeting organised by HR Department will be held today:Friday 30 April 2010 at 9:30 am in the Main Auditorium (coffee from 9:00 am).During this meeting, general information will be given about:the CERN Admin e-guide which is a new guide to the Organization's administrative procedures, drawn up to facilitate the retrieval of practical information and to offer a user-friendly format;the CERN Health Insurance System (presentation by Philippe Charpentier, President of the CHIS Board) and;the Pension Fund (presentation by Theodore Economou, Administrator of the CERN Pension Fund).A simultaneous transmission of this meeting will be broadcast in the BE Auditorium at Prévessin and will also be available at the following address. http://webcast.cern.chI look forward to your participation!Best regards,Anne-Sylvie Catherin

  11. University Union Student Preference Survey Spring 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, David F.

    The University of North Carolina at Wilmington administered a 1986 University Union Spring Survey to 404 residential and nonresidential students to monitor student preferences and to evaluate their satisfaction with selected aspects of services and programs within the student union. The results revealed that students considered notices in their…

  12. Women in Trade Unions: Organizing the Unorganized.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Margaret Hosmer, Ed.; Mitter, Swasti, Ed.

    This book contains a comparative survey of efforts to organize female workers in trade unions in both developing and industrialized nations and 19 case studies of efforts to organize female workers in selected occupations. The following papers are included: "A Comparative Survey" (Swasti Mitter); "The Union of Women Domestic…

  13. Trade Unions and the Humanisation of Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tchobanian, R.

    1975-01-01

    After pointing out possible prejudicial consequences of job restructuring both for occupational and economic interests of workers and for the structure and activities of the trade union movement, various trade union reactions and attitudes to work humanization are analyzed. Available from: ILO Publications, International Labour Office, CH-1211,…

  14. Why Union Activists Write Good Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthen, Helena H.

    2013-01-01

    The representative structure of a union is a maze which, when travelled as a narrative, has drama at every turn. It sets up expectations, pits good against evil, involves many characters with different interests, keeps the clock ticking, and offers opportunities for happy endings (and disappointments) at every level. Union members who are not…

  15. Women and Unions: Forging a Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobble, Dorothy Sue, Ed.

    This book contains the views of 40 contributors on women and unions, organized into 15 chapters on six topics: Closing the Wage Gap; Meeting Family Needs; Temporary and Part-Time Work: Opportunity or Danger?; Homework; Developing a Realistic Approach; New Directions in Organizing and Representing Women; and Female Leadership and Union Cultures:…

  16. Analysis of the Unionization of Academic Advisors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bee, Richard H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A study evaluated the effectiveness of unionization of academic advisors at Youngstown State University in achieving economic, career, and professional goals. It was found that unionization has adequately addressed job security needs and defined workload requirements but fell short concerning annual salary increases, merit pay, and opportunities…

  17. Unions' Deals with Brokers Raise Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Linda

    2006-01-01

    The New York state attorney general's office is close to announcing a settlement with the 525,000-member New York State United Teachers over a relationship between the union and ING Group, a large financial-services company based in the Netherlands. In that arrangement, the union's Member Benefits division--a separate trust that provides…

  18. Surface morphology and optical properties of porphyrin/Au and Au/porphyrin/Au systems

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Porphyrin/Au and Au/porphyrin/Au systems were prepared by vacuum evaporation and vacuum sputtering onto glass substrate. The surface morphology of as-prepared systems and those subjected to annealing at 160°C was studied by optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Absorption and luminescence spectra of as-prepared and annealed samples were measured. Annealing leads to disintegration of the initially continuous gold layer and formation of gold nanoclusters. An amplification of Soret band magnitude was observed on the Au/meso-tetraphenyl porphyrin (TPP) system in comparison with mere TPP. Additional enhancement of luminescence was observed after the sample annealing. In the case of sandwich Au/porphyrin/Au structure, suppression of one of the two porphyrins’ luminescence maxima and sufficient enhancement of the second one were observed. PMID:24373347

  19. The African superswell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyblade, Andrew A.; Robinson, Scott W.

    1994-01-01

    Maps of residual bathymetry in the ocean basins around the African continent reveal a broad bathymetric swell in the southeastern Atlantic Ocean with an amplitude of about 500 m. We propose that this region of anomalously shallow bathymetry, together with the contiguous eastern and southern African plateaus, form a superswell which we refer to as the African superswell. The origin of the African superswell is uncertain. However, rifting and volcanism in eastern Africa, as well as heat flow measurements in southern Africa and the southeastern Atlantic Ocean, suggest that the superswell may be attributed, at least in part, to heating of the lithosphere.

  20. The African Standby Force: A Premature Enterprise Dictated by Circumstances?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-23

    St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t THE AFRICAN STANDBY FORCE: A PREMATURE ENTERPRISE DICTATED BY CIRCUMSTANCES? BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL...Force: A Premature Enterprise Dictated by Circumstances? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6... effectiveness and sustainability. In order to cope adequately with threats not initially taken into account, the AU should focus mainly on sustainability and

  1. Magnetoresistance of Au films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, D. L. Song, X. H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, X.-G.

    2014-12-14

    Classical magnetoresistance (MR) in nonmagnetic metals are conventionally understood in terms of the Kohler rule, with violation usually viewed as anomalous electron transport, in particular, as evidence of non-Fermi liquid behavior. Measurement of the MR of Au films as a function of temperature and film thickness reveals a strong dependence on grain size distribution and clear violation of the Kohler rule. Using a model of random resistor network, we show that this result can be explained if the MR arises entirely from inhomogeneity due to grain boundary scattering and thermal activation of grain boundary atoms. Consequently, the Kohler rule should not be used to distinguish normal and anomalous electron transport in solids.

  2. The view from the cotton: reconsidering the Southern Tenant Farmers' Union.

    PubMed

    Manthorne, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Having been evicted from their homes because of incentives created by the New Deal's AGricultural ADjustment Act, sharecroppers in Arkansas formed the biracial Southern Tenant Farmers' Union (STFU) in 1934. Led by socialists and radicals, the organization ultimately claimed upward of thirty thousand members and constituted an assault on the social, economic, and racial status quo of the South. Historians have celebrated the STFU, especially its commitment to biracial cooperation and equality. This article digs beneath this carefully constructed image of the union to scrutinize the internal dynamics of the movement. It revises a number of interpretations surrounding the STFU. Although the greatest obstacles to the union's success were external, it also faced internal divisions that diminished its efficacy. The STFU's decentralized structure did not foster strong connections between leadership and membership, resulting in misunderstandings. But most importantly, the union struggled to live up to its creed of biracialism and equal treatment of African Americans. Ultimately, the STFU was less an aberration that tirelessly confronted the social and racial ills of the South and more an organization that reflected some of those ills even as it grappled with them.

  3. On the electron affinity of Au3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The EA of Au3 is estimated to be 3.93 eV. The calculations also show that the feature in the photodetachment spectrum at about 2 eV electron binding energy is due to a two-photon process involving fragmentation of Au3(-) to Au and Au2(-) and subsequent photodetachment of Au2(-). Au3 is found to have a 2B2 ground state that is only slightly distorted from an equilateral triangle.

  4. Understanding African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward Earl

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the socialization skills, self-esteem, and academic readiness of African American males in a school environment. Discussions with students and the School Perceptions Questionnaire provided data for this investigation. The intended targets for this investigation were African American students; however, there…

  5. Africans Away from Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, John Henrik

    Africans who were brought across the Atlantic as slaves never fully adjusted to slavery or accepted its inevitability. Resistance began on board the slave ships, where many jumped overboard or committed suicide. African slaves in South America led the first revolts against tyranny in the New World. The first slave revolt in the Caribbean occurred…

  6. Educating African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American…

  7. 16 Extraordinary African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    This collection for children tells the stories of 16 African Americans who helped make America what it is today. African Americans can take pride in the heritage of these contributors to society. Biographies are given for the following: (1) Sojourner Truth, preacher and abolitionist; (2) Frederick Douglass, abolitionist; (3) Harriet Tubman, leader…

  8. Keeping African Masks Real

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddington, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Art is a good place to learn about our multicultural planet, and African masks are prized throughout the world as powerfully expressive artistic images. Unfortunately, multicultural education, especially for young children, can perpetuate stereotypes. Masks taken out of context lose their meaning and the term "African masks" suggests that there is…

  9. African swine fever: an epidemiological update.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M; Mur, L; Martínez-López, B

    2012-03-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most important swine diseases, mainly because of its significant sanitary and socioeconomic consequences. This review gives an update on the epidemiology of the disease and reviews key issues and strategies to improve control of the disease and promote its eradication. Several characteristics of ASF virus (ASFV) make its control and eradication difficult, including the absence of available vaccines, marked virus resistance in infected material and contaminated animal products, and a complex epidemiology and transmission involving tick reservoir virus interactions. The incidence of ASF has not only increased on the African continent over the last 15 years, so that it now affects West African countries, Mauritius and Madagascar, but it has also reached new areas, such as the Caucasus region in 2007. In fact, the rapid spread of the disease on the European continent and the uncontrolled situation in the Russian Federation places all countries at great risk as a result of intense global trade. The proximity of some affected areas to the European Union (EU) borders (<150 km) has increased concerns about the potential economic consequences of an ASF incursion into the EU pig sector. Establishing effective surveillance, control and eradication programmes that implicate all actors (veterinarians, farmers, and policy makers) is essential for controlling ASF. African swine fever -free countries should be aware of the potential risk of ASF incursion and implement risk reduction measures such as trade controls and other sanitary measures. This review will discuss lessons learnt so far about ASF control, current challenges to its control and future studies needed to support global efforts at prevention and control.

  10. Do unions matter? An examination of the historical and contemporary role of labor unions in the social work profession.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Jessica; Rosenberg, Samuel

    2006-10-01

    The attitudes among social workers toward labor unions are a topic of significance. Historically, social workers have had an ambivalent relationship with unions. This article analyzes the extent to which unions matter to social workers and whether unions represent the interests of professional social workers. The relationship between social work and unions is conceptualized as reciprocal in nature. Insights about social workers' current attitudes toward unions are informed through critical analysis of a recent research study that examined attitudes toward unions among social work union members. The authors discuss the potential for a collaborative progressive agenda between the social work profession and labor.

  11. Determination of relative sensitivity factors during secondary ion sputtering of silicate glasses by Au+, Au2+ and Au3+ ions.

    PubMed

    King, Ashley; Henkel, Torsten; Rost, Detlef; Lyon, Ian C

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, Au-cluster ions have been successfully used for organic analysis in secondary ion mass spectrometry. Cluster ions, such as Au(2)(+) and Au(3)(+), can produce secondary ion yield enhancements of up to a factor of 300 for high mass organic molecules with minimal sample damage. In this study, the potential for using Au(+), Au(2)(+) and Au(3)(+) primary ions for the analysis of inorganic samples is investigated by analyzing a range of silicate glass standards. Practical secondary ion yields for both Au(2)(+) and Au(3)(+) ions are enhanced relative to those for Au(+), consistent with their increased sputter rates. No elevation in ionization efficiency was found for the cluster primary ions. Relative sensitivity factors for major and trace elements in the standards showed no improvement in quantification with Au(2)(+) and Au(3)(+) ions over the use of Au(+) ions. Higher achievable primary ion currents for Au(+) ions than for Au(2)(+) and Au(3)(+) allow for more precise analyses of elemental abundances within inorganic samples, making them the preferred choice, in contrast to the choice of Au(2)(+) and Au(3)(+) for the analysis of organic samples. The use of delayed secondary ion extraction can also boost secondary ion signals, although there is a loss of overall sensitivity.

  12. Ocean Pollution as a Result of Onshore Offshore Petroleum Activities in the African Gulf of Guinea Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubakar, B.

    2007-05-01

    increasing cases of pollution of farmlands, rivers, wells and the environment in general. Apart from all these, what is even becoming more worrisome is that none of all these oil firms operating in the region is able to account on how it disposes its industrial toxic waste generated as a result of its industrial activities within the region. Finally Geological strata are adversely destroyed by seismographic activities, Sea creatures are destroyed by oil pollution and Means of livelihood of revering dwellers are often threatened by pollution. RECOMMENDATIONS After identifying how the pollution in the Gulf of Guinea region is increasing in relation to the increasing petroleum activities, I have come up with the following suggestions/recommendations. 1. AFRICAN UNION RESOLUTION The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) in conjunction with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) should use their capacity to be able to influence the African Union (AU) to pass a resolution banning the illegal dumping of radioactive waste, Gas flaring and Costal bunkering in this part of the world. 2. RESEARCH AND INVESTIGATION The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, in conjunction with the United Nations Environmental Agency, the International Atomic Energy Agency and with the corporation of the African Union should send team of researchers to come and investigate this trend on petroleum pollution in the Gulf of Guinea region and proffer possible solutions in checking the menace.

  13. Neotropical Africanized honey bees have African mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Smith, D R; Taylor, O R; Brown, W M

    1989-05-18

    Non-indigenous African honey bees have invaded most of South and Central America in just over 30 years. The genetic composition of this population and the means by which it rapidly colonizes new territory remain controversial. In particular, it has been unclear whether this 'Africanized' population has resulted from interbreeding between African and domestic European bees, or is an essentially pure African population. Also, it has not been known whether this population expanded primarily by female or by male migration. Restriction site mapping of 62 mitochondrial DNAs of African bees from Brazil, Venezuela and Mexico reveals that 97% were of African (Apis mellifera scutellata) type. Although neotropical European apiary populations are rapidly Africanized by mating with neotropical African males, there is little reciprocal gene flow to the neotropical African population through European females. These are the first genetic data to indicate that the neotropical African population could be expanding its range by female migration.

  14. Pion Interferometry in AU+AU Collisions at the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J. H.

    1999-01-09

    Two-pion Bose-Einstein correlations have been studied using the BNL-E866 Forward Spectrometer in 11.6 A {center_dot} GeV/c Au + Au collisions. The data were analyzed using three-dimensional correlation parameterizations to study transverse momentum-dependent source parameters. The freeze-out time and the duration of emission were derived from the source radii parameters.

  15. Optical nonlinearities of Au nanoparticles and Au/Ag coreshells.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jae Tae; Yang, Qiguang; Kim, Wan-Joong; Heo, Jinhwa; Ma, Seong-Min; Austin, Jasmine; Yun, Wan Soo; Jung, Sung Soo; Han, Sang Woo; Tabibi, Bagher; Temple, Doyle

    2009-02-01

    Au nanoparticles exhibited both negative and positive nonlinear absorptions with ground-state plasmon bleaching and free-carrier absorption that could be origins of the saturable and reverse-saturable optical properties. Au/Ag coreshells displayed only positive nonlinear absorption and reverse-saturable optical properties as a function of excitation intensity at the edge of surface-plasmon resonance, which implies no ground-state plasmon bleaching and the existence of two-photon absorption.

  16. Labor unions: a public health institution.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Beth; Minkler, Meredith; Stock, Laura

    2015-02-01

    Using a social-ecological framework, we drew on a targeted literature review and historical and contemporary cases from the US labor movement to illustrate how unions address physical and psychosocial conditions of work and the underlying inequalities and social determinants of health. We reviewed labor involvement in tobacco cessation, hypertension control, and asthma, limiting articles to those in English published in peer-reviewed public health or medical journals from 1970 to 2013. More rigorous research is needed on potential pathways from union membership to health outcomes and the facilitators of and barriers to union-public health collaboration. Despite occasional challenges, public health professionals should increase their efforts to engage with unions as critical partners.

  17. Tips for Carpeting Your Student Union Building.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbacci, Diann

    2001-01-01

    Presents guidelines for enhancing the investment value of carpeting in student union buildings, foyers and hallways, administrative offices, cafeterias and food courts, and recreation areas. Color coordination is briefly discussed. (GR)

  18. Faculty Unions Growing Force on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepkowski, Wil

    1982-01-01

    Reviews factors influencing rise of faculty unions on college campuses, including low pay, faculty frustration toward increasingly centralized management in state systems, trustees insensitive to educational ideals, women's and minority rights, and the rising egalitarianism in society at large. (SK)

  19. US student assistants win union rights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2016-10-01

    The US National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) has ruled that graduate students in private universities and colleges who work as teaching or research assistants are statutory employees of their institutions who have the right to join unions.

  20. The Economy of the Arab Maghrib Union

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-09

    necessary and identify by block number) On 17 February 1989, the Arab Maghrib Union (A.M.U.) was founded in Marrakech , Morocco. This organization brought...Unclassified On 17 February 1989, the Arab Maghrib Union (A.M.U.) was founded in Marrakech , Morocco. This organization brought together the five...continue to ignore the political, economic and social evolution of their environment. The Maghrib summit held in February 1989, in Marrakech , (Morocco

  1. AGU Union Fellows Elected for 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieters, Carle; Williams, Danica

    2014-07-01

    The Union Fellows Selection Committee is proud to present the 2014 class of AGU Fellows. Established in 1962, the Fellows program recognizes AGU members who have attained acknowledged eminence in the Earth and space sciences as valued by their peers and vetted by a Union-wide committee of Fellows. Primary criteria for evaluation in scientific eminence are a major breakthrough or discovery, paradigm shift, or sustained impact.

  2. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    of party political work. Opinions are discussed and correct decisions are worked out together. Col A. PAVLOV , deputy chief of the social sciences...Marshal of the Soviet Union [MSU] Ivan Khristo- forovich Bagramyan.... They call him their son in Russia, in the Caucasus, in the Ukraine and in...Forces A. Babadzhanyan. The military biography of the twice Hero of the Soviet Union Ivan Khristoforovich Bagramyan, who would have been 90 years

  3. Labor unions and safety climate: perceived union safety values and retail employee safety outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Robert R; Martin, James E; Sears, Lindsay E

    2010-09-01

    Although trade unions have long been recognized as a critical advocate for employee safety and health, safety climate research has not paid much attention to the role unions play in workplace safety. We proposed a multiple constituency model of workplace safety which focused on three central safety stakeholders: top management, ones' immediate supervisor, and the labor union. Safety climate research focuses on management and supervisors as key stakeholders, but has not considered whether employee perceptions about the priority their union places on safety contributes contribute to safety outcomes. We addressed this gap in the literature by investigating unionized retail employee (N=535) perceptions about the extent to which their top management, immediate supervisors, and union valued safety. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that perceived union safety values could be distinguished from measures of safety training, workplace hazards, top management safety values, and supervisor values. Structural equation analyses indicated that union safety values influenced safety outcomes through its association with higher safety motivation, showing a similar effect as that of supervisor safety values. These findings highlight the need for further attention to union-focused measures related to workplace safety as well as further study of retail employees in general. We discuss the practical implications of our findings and identify several directions for future safety research.

  4. Using the OCLC union listing component for a statewide health sciences union list of serials.

    PubMed

    Sutton, L S; Wolfgram, P A

    1986-04-01

    Union lists of serials are critical to the effective operation of interlibrary loan networks. The Michigan Health Sciences Libraries Association used the OCLC union list component to produce the Michigan Statewide Health Sciences Union List of Serials (MISHULS). MISHULS, which includes the serials holdings of ninety-three hospital health sciences libraries, is a subset of a statewide multi-type union list maintained on OCLC. The rationale for a statewide list and the criteria for choosing vendors are discussed. Typical costs are provided. Funding sources are identified and a unique approach to decentralized input is described. The benefits of resource sharing in a larger, multi-type library network are also explored.

  5. Education at the Centre? Australia's National Union Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tony; Yasukawa, Keiko

    2009-01-01

    Australian trade unions are at a pivotal moment. In 2007-2008, a review of the training and education programs of the Education and Campaign Centre (ECC), the education arm of the Australian Council of Trade Unions (ACTU), was conducted through a series of interviews with leaders of twenty-five unions. The review found that Australian unions do…

  6. Trade Union Mergers: A Survey of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelson, Grant

    2000-01-01

    Examines trade union mergers highlighting merger forms, merger motivation, role played by union officers, and merger waves. Discusses the consequences of mergers on members and union performance and concludes that union merger activity has had little impact. (Contains 74 references.) (JOW)

  7. Exploring Novice Teachers' Attitudes and Behaviors Regarding Teacher Unionism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogodzinski, Ben; Jones, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    The distinct needs and interests of novice teachers are not always reflected in the priorities of teacher unions, which may impact novice teachers' attachment to teacher unionism. Using survey data from teachers, we examined novice teachers' involvement in their unions and their desire for union involvement in their work lives compared to their…

  8. A Reinvented Union: A Concern for Teaching, Not Just Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demitchell, Todd A.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the development of teachers' unions as adversaries of school boards in the 1960s. Today there are signs that unions are moving from an industrial model of labor relations to a more professional union model, one in which union leaders and school leaders can become allies in the effort to improve schools. (SLD)

  9. 12 CFR 715.5 - Audit of Federal Credit Unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Audit of Federal Credit Unions. 715.5 Section 715.5 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE AUDITS AND VERIFICATIONS § 715.5 Audit of Federal Credit Unions. (a) Total assets...

  10. Al-Au-La (010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carow-Watamura, U.; Louzguine, D. V.; Takeuchi, A.

    This document is part of Part 1 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/9getType="URL"/> 'Systems from Ag-Al-Ca to Au-Pd-Si' of Subvolume B 'Physical Properties of Ternary Amorphous Alloys' of Volume 37 'Phase Diagrams and Physical Properties of Nonequilibrium Alloys' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains the Chapter 'Al-Au-La (010)' with the content:

  11. Do Unions Matter? An Examination of the Historical and Contemporary Role of Labor Unions in the Social Work Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Jessica; Rosenberg, Samuel

    2006-01-01

    The attitudes among social workers toward labor unions are a topic of significance. Historically, social workers have had an ambivalent relationship with unions. This article analyzes the extent to which unions matter to social workers and whether unions represent the interests of professional social workers. The relationship between social work…

  12. A Grand Avenue to Au Nanocluster Electrochemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Hesari, Mahdi; Ding, Zhifeng

    2017-02-21

    In most cases of semiconductor quantum dot nanocrystals, the inherent optical and electrochemical properties of these interesting nanomaterials do not translate into expected efficient electrochemiluminescence or electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) because of the surface-state induction effect. Thus, their low ECL efficiencies, while very interesting to explore, limit their applications. As their electrochemistry is not well-defined, insight into their ECL mechanistic details is also limited. Alternatively, gold nanoclusters possess monodispersed sizes with atomic precision, low and well defined HOMO-LUMO energy gaps, and stable optical and electrochemical properties that make them suitable for potential ECL applications. In this Account, we demonstrate strong and sustainable ECL of gold nanoclusters Au25(z) (i.e., Au25(SR)18(z), z = 1-, 0, 1+), Au38(SR)24, and Au144(SR)60, where the ligand SR is 2-phenylethanethiol. By correlation of the optical and electrochemical features of Au25 nanoclusters, a Latimer-type diagram can be constructed to reveal thermodynamic relationships of five oxidation states (Au25(2+), Au25(+), Au25(0), Au25(-), and Au25(2-)) and three excited states (Au25(-)*, Au25(0)*, and Au25(+)*). We describe ECL mechanisms and reaction kinetics by means of conventional ECL-voltage curves and novel spooling ECL spectroscopy. Notably, their ECL in the presence of tri-n-propylamine (TPrA), as a coreactant, is attributed to emissions from Au25(-)* (950 nm, strong), Au25(0)* (890 nm, very strong), and Au25(+)* (890 nm, very strong), as confirmed by the photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the three Au25 clusters electrogenerated in situ. The ECL emissions are controllable by adjustment of the concentrations of TPrA· and Au25(-), Au25(0), and Au25(+) species in the vicinity of the working electrode and ultimately the applied potential. It was determined that the Au25(-)/TPrA coreactant system should have an ECL efficiency of >50% relative to the Ru(bpy)3

  13. History and Status of the CIS Customs Union

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, T.M.; Erickson, S.A.

    1999-08-31

    This report explores the history of the CIS Customs Union and the major obstacles the Union faces in its implementation. Investigation of the Customs Union is necessary as its implementation could effect the Second Line of Defense (SLD) Program. Russian Customs contends that radiation detectors should not be installed along the Customs Union members borders of as the borders will be dissolved when the Union is implemented.

  14. African American Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... accounted for 83.8% of Caucasian elderly suicides. • Firearms were the predominant method of suicide among African ... per 100,000 annually. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Vital Statistics System. Mortality Data. ...

  15. Obesity and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Management System Report to Congress Knowledge Center Capacity Building Information Services Events Calendar Resource Guide Justice ... Workforce Diversity Grants Youth Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Black/African American ...

  16. The African Organisation for Research and Training in Cancer and its conferences: a historical perspective and highlights of the Ninth International Conference, Durban, South Africa, 21–24 November 2013

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Christopher KO; Cristina Stefan, D; Rawlinson, Fiona; Simbiri, Kenneth; Mbulaiteye, Sam M

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the African Organisation for Research and Training in Cancer (AORTIC), both at its inception in the early 1980s, and at its reactivation in 2000 following a decade of inactivity, included bringing the products of decades of advances in cancer research to African populations through international collaboration. The historical perspective provided in this report illustrates progress in achieving these objectives through successive continent-wide activities over a period of 30 years, culminating in the organisation’s most recent conference held in Durban, South Africa, 21–24 November 2013. The constant growth in the number of attendants and increasing diversity of the nations of their origin are consistent with advances, whereby the number of participants and the nations of their origin have grown from 24 in 1983 to almost 1000 in 2013, and from 14 to 70, respectively. While earlier AORTIC conferences used to assume the atmosphere of ‘jamborees’, more recent ones have morphed to problem-solving events, with the concerted collaboration of international organisations, including the World Health Organisation (WHO), International Union Against Cancer (UICC), the Africa Union (AU), the US National Cancer Institute (NCI), the International Psycho-Oncology Society (IPOS), and others. The topics of discussion at the Ninth AORTIC International Conference on Cancer in Africa in Durban were those of paramount importance for low- and middle-income countries: childhood cancers, cancers of the cervix, breast, and prostate, as well as cancer care challenges resulting from ignorance, neglect, and economic deprivation. The role of environmental factors that underlie Burkitt’s lymphoma was the subject of the Epidemiology of Burkitt Lymphoma in East-African Children and Minors Workshop, highlighting the NCI research programme in East Africa, while the Workshop on Cost Effectiveness of Treatment of Cancer in Africa surmised that treating childhood cancers is

  17. Marriage and Health in the Transition to Adulthood: Evidence for African Americans in Add Health.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Lee, Hedwig; Deleone, Felicia Yang

    2010-08-01

    This paper examines the relationship between early marriage (before age 26), cohabitation, and health for African Americans and whites during the transition to adulthood using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). We examine three categories of health outcomes relevant to young adulthood: physical health, mental health, and health risk behaviors. Lagged dependent variable models are used to examine the health effects of early marriage and cohabitation accounting for potential health selection into unions. Our results indicate that early marriage by young adults does not have protective effects for African Americans, and finds more negative effects for African American men than women. There are mixed results for whites with some protective effects of marriage for binge drinking. Early marriage for both African Americans and whites is associated with increased Body Mass Index (BMI). Cohabitation is uniformly associated with negative health outcomes for all race and sex groups.

  18. 75 FR 81378 - Fiduciary Duties at Federal Credit Unions; Mergers and Conversions of Insured Credit Unions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... measurements for when and how a director will be considered sufficiently trained in the use of financial... analysis to include intangible items such as the value of the relationship between the members and the... credit unions (those under ten million dollars in assets). Only a few credit unions convert in a...

  19. 78 FR 2449 - Office of Small Credit Unions (OSCUI) Grant Program Access for Credit Unions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... financial support, in the form of technical assistance grants, for credit unions serving predominantly low... communities. Through the OSCUI Grant Program, NCUA provides financial support in the form of technical... unions to submit applications for participation in the OSCUI Grant Program (a.k.a. Community...

  20. 78 FR 33445 - Office of Small Credit Unions (OSCUI) Grant Program Access For Credit Unions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... financial support, in the form of technical assistance grants, for credit unions serving predominantly low... provides financial support in the form of technical assistance grants to LICUs. These funds help improve... unions to submit applications for participation in the OSCUI Grant Program (a.k.a. Community...

  1. 78 FR 77721 - Office of Small Credit Unions (OSCUI) Grant Program Access for Credit Unions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... financial support, in the form of technical assistance grants, for credit unions serving predominantly low... communities. Through the OSCUI Grant Program, NCUA provides financial support in the form of technical... unions to submit applications for participation in the OSCUI Grant Program (a.k.a. Community...

  2. This Union Cause: An Illustrated History of Labor Unions in America. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Union, United Automobile, Aerospace and Agricultural Implement Workers of America, Detroit, MI.

    This pamphlet on labor history highlights some of labor's economic and political actions during the past 200 years. The purpose is to provide inspiration and motivation for greater participation in union work. The introduction explains the purpose of unions--to pursue economic independence and social stature for all individuals--for defenseless…

  3. A study of the electronic properties of Au nanowires and Au nanoislands on Au(111) surfaces.

    PubMed

    Schouteden, K; Lijnen, E; Muzychenko, D A; Ceulemans, A; Chibotaru, Liviu F; Lievens, P; Van Haesendonck, C

    2009-09-30

    By means of ion bombardment of clean Au(111) films, atomically flat nanoparticles of various shapes and sizes were created, ranging from several tens of nm(2) down to only a few nm(2). Both two-dimensional Au islands as well as one-dimensional Au nanowire-like structures have been investigated by means of low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. We were able to probe their local electronic structure in a broad energy range, which was found to be dominated by pronounced size-dependent confinement effects. Mapping of the local density of states revealed complex standing wave patterns that arise due to interference of scattered Au surface state electrons at the edges of the Au nanoparticles. The observed phenomena could be modeled with high accuracy by theoretical particle-in-a-box calculations based on a variational method that can be applied to '2D boxes' of arbitrary polygonal shape and that we have previously successfully applied to explain the electronic wave patterns on Co islands on Au(111). Our findings support the general validity of this particle-in-a-box model.

  4. Sustainable development: a trade union perspective.

    PubMed

    Gereluk, Winston; Royer, Lucien

    2003-01-01

    Sustainable development has become an important issue for trade unions around the world, but progress on sustainable development has been slow. Agenda 21, which came out of the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro, called on workers and trade unions to assume an active role. The International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) and the Trade Union Advisory Committee (TUAC) to the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) became influential players who represent more than 155 million members in 148 countries and territories. The implementation of Agenda 21 has been hampered by bureaucratic gridlock--a situation that trade unions propose to overcome through innovative strategies on workplaces and workers. They realize that sustainable development cannot take place without radical changes in production and consumption. Globalization is creating opulence on the one hand and grinding poverty on the other. ICFTU and TUAC propose a new "world order" that includes democratic decision-making, popular accountability, transparency, and local control. They have proposed priorities, outlined in this article, for an international approach to sustainable development.

  5. Geoscience international: the role of scientific unions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail-Zadeh, Alik

    2016-11-01

    International geoscientific unions (geounions) have been coordinating and promoting international efforts in Earth and space sciences since the beginning of the 20th century. Thousands of scientists from many nations and specific scientific disciplines have developed ways of cooperation through international unions and learned how to work together to promote basic geosciences. The unions have been initiating, developing, and implementing international cooperative programmes, setting scientific standards, developing research tools, educating and building capacity, and contributing to science for policy. This paper analyses the role of geounions in and their added value to the promotion of geoscience internationally in the arena of the existing and emerging professional societies of geoscientists. The history of the geounions and the development of international cooperation in geosciences are reviewed in the paper in the context of scientific and political changes over the last century. History is considered here to be a key element in understanding and shaping the future of geounions. Scientific and organisational aspects of their activities, including cooperation with international and intergovernmental institutions, are analysed using the example of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG). The geounions' activities are compared to those of professional societies. Future development of scientific unions and their role in the changing global landscape of geosciences are discussed.

  6. Union Type and Depressive Symptoms Among Mexican Adults

    PubMed Central

    Schmeer, Kammi K.; Kroeger, Rhiannon A.

    2012-01-01

    Diversity in union type is increasing around the world as cohabitation and higher order unions become more prevalent in developing and developed countries. This necessitates a more nuanced understanding of how different union types relate to individual well-being across social settings. In this study, the authors analyze nationally-representative data from Mexico in cross-sectional and change models to evaluate differences in depressive symptoms across union type (marital vs. cohabiting and first vs. higher order unions) among Mexican men and women. The findings suggest that cohabiting unions do not provide the same mental health benefits as marital unions (especially for men). Repartnering is also associated with higher depressive symptoms (especially for women), which indicates possible lasting mental health disadvantages of divorce/separation or entrance into lower quality second unions. These results suggest that the changing family context in Mexico, which includes increasing cohabitation and union instability, may have important consequences for individuals’ psychological well-being. PMID:22822284

  7. Nonmarital Fertility, Union History, and Women's Wealth.

    PubMed

    Painter, Matthew; Frech, Adrianne; Williams, Kristi

    2015-02-01

    We use more than 20 years of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 to examine wealth trajectories among mothers following a nonmarital first birth. We compare wealth according to union type and union stability, and we distinguish partners by biological parentage of the firstborn child. Net of controls for education, race/ethnicity, and family background, single mothers who enter into stable marriages with either a biological father or stepfather experience significant wealth advantages over time (more than $2,500 per year) relative to those who marry and divorce, cohabit, or remain unpartnered. Sensitivity analyses adjusting for unequal selection into marriage support these findings and demonstrate that race (but not ethnicity) and age at first birth structure mothers' access to later marriage. We conclude that not all single mothers have equal access to marriage; however, marriage, union stability, and paternity have distinct roles for wealth accumulation following a nonmarital birth.

  8. Labor Unions: A Public Health Institution

    PubMed Central

    Malinowski, Beth; Stock, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Using a social–ecological framework, we drew on a targeted literature review and historical and contemporary cases from the US labor movement to illustrate how unions address physical and psychosocial conditions of work and the underlying inequalities and social determinants of health. We reviewed labor involvement in tobacco cessation, hypertension control, and asthma, limiting articles to those in English published in peer-reviewed public health or medical journals from 1970 to 2013. More rigorous research is needed on potential pathways from union membership to health outcomes and the facilitators of and barriers to union–public health collaboration. Despite occasional challenges, public health professionals should increase their efforts to engage with unions as critical partners. PMID:25521905

  9. Archaeal Diversity in Waters from Deep South African Gold Mines

    SciTech Connect

    Takai, Ken; Moser, Duane P.; Deflaun, Mary; Onstott, Tullis C.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2001-12-01

    Culture-independent molecular analysis of archaeal communities in waters collected from deep South African gold (Au) mines was performed by PCR-mediated terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of rRNA genes (rDNA) in conjunction with sequencing analysis of archaeal rDNA clone libraries. Water samples represented various environments including: deep fissure water; mine service water; and water from an overlying dolomite aquifer. T-RFLP analysis revealed that the ribotype distribution of archaea varied directly with the source of the water. The archaeal communities in the deep Au mine environments revealed a large phylogenetic diversity; the majority of members were most closely related to uncultivated species. Some archaeal rDNA clones obtained from mine service water and dolomite aquifer water samples were most closely related to the environmental rDNA clones from surface soil (Soil clones) and marine environments (Marine Group I; MGI). Other clones possessed an intermediate phylogenetic affiliation between soil clones and MGI within the Crenarchaea. Fissure water samples, derived from active or dormant geothermal environments, yielded archaeal sequences of novel phylogeny including a novel lineage of Euryarchaeota. These results suggest that deep South African Au mines harbor novel archaeal communities distinct from those observed in other environments. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of archaeal strains and rDNA clones, including these newly discovered archaeal rDNA clones, the evolutionary relationship and the phylogenetic organization of the domain Archaea is reevaluated.

  10. [European Union fight against smoking related activitiy].

    PubMed

    Calvete Oliva, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    This study is aimed at providing information concerning the provisions adopted by the European Union on both a compulsory and non-compulsory basis for its member States related in one way or another to the fight against smoking. To this end, a review is made of all of the provisions published in the Official Journal of the European Union as of the first published in 1986 up to March 2005, commenting upon the aspects of each provision having to do with the subject stated above.

  11. Coccidioidomycosis in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Ruddy, Barbara E.; Mayer, Anita P.; Ko, Marcia G.; Labonte, Helene R.; Borovansky, Jill A.; Boroff, Erika S.; Blair, Janis E.

    2011-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is caused by Coccidioides species, a fungus endemic to the desert regions of the southwestern United States, and is of particular concern for African Americans. We performed a PubMed search of the English-language medical literature on coccidioidomycosis in African Americans and summarized the pertinent literature. Search terms were coccidioidomycosis, Coccidioides, race, ethnicity, African, black, and Negro. The proceedings of the national and international coccidioidomycosis symposia were searched. All relevant articles and their cited references were reviewed; those with epidemiological, immunologic, clinical, and therapeutic data pertaining to coccidioidomycosis in African Americans were included in the review. Numerous studies documented an increased predilection for severe coccidioidal infections, coccidioidomycosis-related hospitalizations, and extrapulmonary dissemination in persons of African descent; however, most of the published studies are variably problematic. The immunologic mechanism for this predilection is unclear. The clinical features and treatment recommendations are summarized. Medical practitioners need to be alert to the possibility of coccidioidomycosis in persons with recent travel to or residence in an area where the disease is endemic. PMID:21193657

  12. Mental Health and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  13. The Struggles over African Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maseko, Pam; Vale, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this interview, African Language expert Pam Maseko speaks of her own background and her first encounter with culture outside of her mother tongue, isiXhosa. A statistical breakdown of South African languages is provided as background. She discusses Western (originally missionary) codification of African languages and suggests that this approach…

  14. Student v. Union: Colleges at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byman, Abigail

    1990-01-01

    College union administrators should be careful about the use of facilities, particularly in public schools, because of the potential for legal liability. Institutions of higher education today are vulnerable to being sued in regard to issues of free speech, trespass, and religion. Areas of potential liability include (1) serving alcoholic…

  15. Universal Services in the European Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Johannes M.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses universal service policies in the European Union. Topics include information access; the demise of the public service model; the effects of competition on universal service; financing; national implementation of member states; programs for schools and libraries; and pertinent Web sites on European universal service policy. (LRW)

  16. Unions Battle for Democrats in Swing States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honawar, Vaishali

    2008-01-01

    Teachers' unions around the country have shifted into high gear in the countdown to the presidential election next week, and nowhere is the fervor more evident than in the battleground states. In Florida, New Hampshire, New Mexico, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wisconsin, affiliates of the National Education Association and the…

  17. The Organizational Impact of University Labor Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickens, Christine M.

    2008-01-01

    The current review presents both postulated and empirically tested consequences of university unionization and labor strikes on the North American institution's administration, faculty, and students. The review explores the impact of collective bargaining on employee working conditions including job security, academic freedom, university…

  18. Letters of a Slave Turned Union Soldier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humanities, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the influx of Black soldiers into the Union army following the Emancipation Proclamation. Concentrates on the case of Private Spotswood Rice. Provides a short history of Rice, including copies of Rice's letters to his enslaved daughters, the daughter's slaveholders, and an angry retort from the slaveowner to the federal commander in…

  19. Singing All the Way to the Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Joe Grim

    2010-01-01

    In early 1909, just over a hundred years ago, the Spokane, Washington, branch of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) got a reputation as a "singing union." Later that year, the same Spokane branch of the IWW embarked on a massive free speech fight. IWW agitators would arrive on street corners, call on the crowds not to pay for…

  20. The End of the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hergesheimer, John

    1992-01-01

    Presents, as a supplement to social studies textbooks, a summary of recent Soviet Union developments. Begins with the rise of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and traces events through the dissolution of the USSR. Provides a Soviet history timeline, a vocabulary list, and a reproducible map of eastern Europe and central Asia. (SG)

  1. Interlibrary Lending with Computerized Union Catalogues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Klaus-Dieter

    Interlibrary loans in the Federal Republic of Germany are facilitated by applying techniques of data processing and computer output microfilm (COM) to the union catalogs of the national library system. The German library system consists of two national libraries, four central specialized libraries of technology, medicine, agriculture, and…

  2. Teachers' Unions Take Own Path on Election

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on two national teachers' unions' different approaches to the 2008 U.S. election campaign. The National Education Association is ready to spend $40 million this election year, but it is not ready to endorse a candidate for president. The American Federation Teachers, by contrast, is working aggressively for U.S. Sen. Hillary…

  3. Multi-Union Efforts in New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newfield, Marcia

    2008-01-01

    The Professional Staff Congress (PSC), the union for twenty-two thousand faculty and staff members at the City University of New York (CUNY), has been successful at gaining New York State aid for tuition remission for doctoral students and health insurance for graduate student employees, increasing budget allotments to CUNY, and obtaining transit…

  4. Leading Student Groups to the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winokur, Marshall

    1981-01-01

    Describes student tours to the Soviet Union, discussing the benefits to be derived from such experiences by both students and leaders. In particular, discusses the organization of the tours, their types and costs, advertising strategies, suggested itineraries and guidebooks, student orientation and group composition, and problems encountered…

  5. Teacher of the Year to Union President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Richard Lee

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Richard Lee Colvin, provides an uplifting history of the current vice president and next President of the National Education Association (NEA), Lily Eskelsen García, the first Hispanic head of the nation's largest union. Colvin describes Garcia as a powerful labor and political leader. Colvin describes NEA's beginning in 1857 by…

  6. Regulatory pathways in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Manuela

    2011-01-01

    In principle, there are three defined procedures to obtain approval for a medicinal product in the European Union. As discussed in this overview of the procedures, the decision on which regulatory pathway to use will depend on the nature of the active substance, the target indication(s), the history of product and/or the marketing strategy.

  7. The Belgian Union Catalogue of Periodicals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goedeme, G.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Describes the edition, on computer output microfiche, of the supplement to the 1965 Union catalogue of foreign periodicals in Belgian and Luxemburgian libraries and documentation centers. The microfiches contain location information of 28,000 periodicals in 300 libraries and are edited in a rich typography. (Author)

  8. Unions Assail Teacher Ideas in NCLB Draft

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson; Hoff, David J.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on two national teachers' unions that have mounted a vigorous lobbying campaign to rewrite language linking teacher bonuses to student test scores and other incentive-pay provisions contained in a draft bill for reauthorizing the No Child Left Behind Act. Members of the National Education Association circulated in the halls of…

  9. Keeping a Dream Alive: Cooper Union Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwan, Irene

    1984-01-01

    Profiles the Cooper Union Library, a private academic library specializing in architecture, art, and engineering that celebrated its 125th anniversary in fall 1984. Highlights include a biographical sketch of the college's founder, Peter Cooper; construction of the building; curriculum changes; library services and materials; and cooperative and…

  10. Teacher Union Bargaining: Practice and Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geisert, Gene; Lieberman, Myron

    This book provides school board members with hands-on guidelines for collaborative bargaining with teacher unions. The book combines the practical with the conceptual and policy dimensions of teacher bargaining. Part 1 provides a view of immediate problems in their context--broad policy issues that affect across-the-table bargaining. Eight…

  11. What Do Unions Do for Women?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spalter-Roth, Roberta; And Others

    A study used data for the 1987 calendar year from the 1986 and 1987 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) to examine the impact of union membership on women's wages and job tenure. The data set included 17,200 sample members, representing about 79 million workers, aged 16-64. The study mapped the distribution of union…

  12. Dancing with the Teachers' Union President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Don

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author has equated the principal's relationship with the president of the teachers' union as a dance where each wants to lead and yet there is, as in most relationships, a mutual dependency that makes each person realize that there is a time when one leads and a time when one follows. The author presents the details of when…

  13. Districts, Unions Seek to Improve Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Wrapping up a two-day conference in Denver designed to improve labor-management relations in school districts, sponsors and participants vowed to work at reforms that will be beneficial to teachers, students, and officials. Teams made up of a local superintendent, a school board representative, and the teachers' union leader descended on the Mile…

  14. The geography of civil unions in Vermont.

    PubMed

    Coulmont, Baptiste

    2005-01-01

    In 2000, Vermont established "civil unions" meant for same-sex couples. This form of marriage relies on the existence of a local gay and lesbian community, while contributing to the development of "gay and lesbian tourism" and pushing certain churches to revisit their treatment of same-sex couples. Gay and lesbian rights and rural communities are not mutually exclusive.

  15. Librarians and Unions: Defining and Protecting Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Deanna D.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the relationship between the professional values of librarians and the benefits of unionization. Discusses process-based benefits that include the protection of tenure, fair workload, job security, and due process in grievance procedures; and value-based benefits, including open communication, academic and intellectual freedom, and…

  16. Faculty Union Contracts: The New Organizational Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Harold I., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    The recent expansion of collective bargaining among faculty unions has led to the establishment of new organizational rules. These new rules eliminate discretion, but unlike traditional rules imposed by superiors to control subordinates, collective bargaining initiates a different format for rule-making--formal joint determination. Collective…

  17. Unions Feeling Chill on State Capital Front

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2011-01-01

    Teachers' unions find themselves on the defensive in states across the country, as governors and lawmakers press forward with proposals to target job protections and benefits that elected officials contend the public can no longer afford academically or financially. Many of those efforts are being driven by newly elected Republicans, who have…

  18. Current Options for Determining Fracture Union

    PubMed Central

    Morshed, Saam

    2014-01-01

    Determining whether a bone fracture is healed is one of the most important and fundamental clinical determinations made in orthopaedics. However, there are currently no standardized methods of assessing fracture union, which in turn has created significant disagreement among orthopaedic surgeons in both clinical and research settings. An extensive amount of research has been dedicated to finding novel and reliable ways of determining healing with some promising results. Recent advancements in imaging techniques and introduction of new radiographic scores have helped decrease the amount of disagreement on this topic among physicians. The knowledge gained from biomechanical studies of bone healing has helped us refine our tools and create more efficient and practical research instruments. Additionally, a deeper understanding of the molecular pathways involved in the bone healing process has led to emergence of serologic markers as possible candidates in assessment of fracture union. In addition to our current physician centered methods, patient-centered approaches assessing quality of life and function are gaining popularity in assessment of fracture union. Despite these advances, assessment of union remains an imperfect practice in the clinical setting. Therefore, clinicians need to draw on multiple modalities that directly and indirectly measure or correlate with bone healing when counseling patients. PMID:26556422

  19. Neural networks in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Wunsch, D.C. II.

    1993-01-01

    A brief overview is given of neural networks activities in the former Soviet Union that have potential aerospace applications. Activities at institutes in Moscow, the former Leningrad, Kiev, Taganrog, Rostov-on-Don, and Krasnoyarsk are addressed, including the most important scientists involved. 21 refs.

  20. Multimedia Transforms Union Pacific's Training Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantwell, Steve

    1993-01-01

    Describes a multimedia training program developed for Union Pacific to help improve management-worker relations and to improve service reliability by improving morale and motivating employees for training. Courses are described; multimedia interactivity is explained, including decision making and problem solving; and future plans are reviewed.…

  1. Election Behavior and Union Representation Elections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, David

    1980-01-01

    Examines the National Labor Relations Board's policy on intervention in union representation elections prior to the "Shopping Kart" decision and as a result of the "General Knit" decision. The effect of a research study on the board's decision on when to intervene in elections is also discussed. (IRT)

  2. HUELGA, A MILESTONE IN FARM UNIONISM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COHEN, IRVING J.

    EARLY ATTEMPTS DURING THE 20TH CENTURY TO ORGANIZE FARM WORKERS, TO GAIN WAGE INCREASES, AND TO SECURE EMPLOYER RECOGNITION OF A UNION AS THE WORKERS' AGENT FOR COLLECTIVE BARGAINING FAILED. AN ESTIMATED 380 AGRICULTURAL STRIKES INVOLVED OVER 200,000 WORKERS IN 33 STATES BETWEEN 1930 AND 1948. THE NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS ACT, ENACTED AS A RESULT…

  3. Narcolepsy in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Makoto; O'Hara, Ruth; Einen, Mali; Lin, Ling; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Although narcolepsy affects 0.02–0.05% of individuals in various ethnic groups, clinical presentation in different ethnicities has never been fully characterized. Our goal was to study phenotypic expression across ethnicities in the United States. Design/Setting: Cases of narcolepsy from 1992 to 2013 were identified from searches of the Stanford Center for Narcolepsy Research database. International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition diagnosis criteria for type 1 and type 2 narcolepsy were used for inclusion, but subjects were separated as with and without cataplexy for the purpose of data presentation. Information extracted included demographics, ethnicity and clinical data, HLA-DQB1*06:02, polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) data, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1 level. Patients: 182 African-Americans, 839 Caucasians, 35 Asians, and 41 Latinos with narcolepsy. Results: Sex ratio, PSG, and MSLT findings did not differ across ethnicities. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score was higher and age of onset of sleepiness earlier in African Americans compared with other ethnicities. HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity was higher in African Americans (91.0%) versus others (76.6% in Caucasians, 80.0% in Asians, and 65.0% in Latinos). CSF hypocretin-1 level, obtained in 222 patients, was more frequently low (≤ 110 pg/ml) in African Americans (93.9%) versus Caucasians (61.5%), Asians (85.7%) and Latinos (75.0%). In subjects with low CSF hypocretin-1, African Americans (28.3%) were 4.5 fold more likely to be without cataplexy when compared with Caucasians (8.1%). Conclusions: Narcolepsy in African Americans is characterized by earlier symptom onset, higher Epworth Sleepiness Scale score, higher HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity, and low cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 level in the absence of cataplexy. In African Americans, more subjects without cataplexy have type 1 narcolepsy. Citation: Kawai M, O'Hara R, Einen M, Lin L

  4. Photoneutron cross sections for Au

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, O.; Utsunomiya, H.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Kondo, T.; Kamata, M.; Toyokawa, H.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Goko, S.; Nair, C.; Lui, Y.-W.

    2011-10-28

    Photoneutron cross sections were measured for Au in the entire energy range of the ({gamma},n) channel based on a direct neutron-counting technique with quasimonochromatic {gamma} rays produced in inverse Compton-scattering of laser photons with relativistic electrons. We present results of the measurement in comparison with the past data.

  5. Tool separates sleeve-type unions without heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millett, A. U.

    1966-01-01

    Tool that uses conventional milling and cutting techniques separates sleeve type tubing unions and tubes without using heat. A selection of holders, associated bits, and cutting wheels permits preparation of varied diameter unions.

  6. Detail view of lancetarched, concrete pedestrian railing Union Avenue ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of lancet-arched, concrete pedestrian railing - Union Avenue Viaduct, Spanning between Southeast Harrison & Southeast Ivon Streets on Union Avenue (Old Highway 99 East), Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  7. 76 FR 13504 - Conversions of Insured Credit Unions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ..., including credit union conversions to mutual savings banks or mutual savings associations (MSBs) in 12 CFR...-insured credit unions to MSBs and former Sec. 708a.1 is now numbered Sec. 708a.101. That final rule...

  8. The African Union, U.S. Africa Command, and Airlift: Building Operational Logistics Capacity for the African Standby Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-04

    Air Forces, “South Africa - Air Force,” http://search.janes.com (accessed 10 April 2011). 11 Donna Cassata , “Spending cuts bill hits defense and...www.proquest.com/ (accessed 10 April 2011). Bowers, Ray. Tactical Airlift. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History, 1983. Cassata , Donna

  9. The genetic structure and history of Africans and African Americans.

    PubMed

    Tishkoff, Sarah A; Reed, Floyd A; Friedlaender, Françoise R; Ehret, Christopher; Ranciaro, Alessia; Froment, Alain; Hirbo, Jibril B; Awomoyi, Agnes A; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Juma, Abdalla T; Kotze, Maritha J; Lema, Godfrey; Moore, Jason H; Mortensen, Holly; Nyambo, Thomas B; Omar, Sabah A; Powell, Kweli; Pretorius, Gideon S; Smith, Michael W; Thera, Mahamadou A; Wambebe, Charles; Weber, James L; Williams, Scott M

    2009-05-22

    Africa is the source of all modern humans, but characterization of genetic variation and of relationships among populations across the continent has been enigmatic. We studied 121 African populations, four African American populations, and 60 non-African populations for patterns of variation at 1327 nuclear microsatellite and insertion/deletion markers. We identified 14 ancestral population clusters in Africa that correlate with self-described ethnicity and shared cultural and/or linguistic properties. We observed high levels of mixed ancestry in most populations, reflecting historical migration events across the continent. Our data also provide evidence for shared ancestry among geographically diverse hunter-gatherer populations (Khoesan speakers and Pygmies). The ancestry of African Americans is predominantly from Niger-Kordofanian (approximately 71%), European (approximately 13%), and other African (approximately 8%) populations, although admixture levels varied considerably among individuals. This study helps tease apart the complex evolutionary history of Africans and African Americans, aiding both anthropological and genetic epidemiologic studies.

  10. Spiral Patterning of Au Nanoparticles on Au Nanorod Surface to Form Chiral AuNR@AuNP Helical Superstructures Templated by DNA Origami.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chenqi; Lan, Xiang; Zhu, Chenggan; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Leyu; Wang, Qiangbin

    2017-02-20

    Plasmonic motifs with precise surface recognition sites are crucial for assembling defined nanostructures with novel functionalities and properties. In this work, a unique and effective strategy is successfully developed to pattern DNA recognition sites in a helical arrangement around a gold nanorod (AuNR), and a new set of heterogeneous AuNR@AuNP plasmonic helices is fabricated by attaching complementary-DNA-modified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to the predesigned sites on the AuNR surface. AuNR is first assembled to one side of a bifacial rectangular DNA origami, where eight groups of capture strands are selectively patterned on the other side. The subsequently added link strands make the rectangular DNA origami roll up around the AuNR into a tubular shape, therefore giving birth to a chiral patterning of DNA recognition sites on the surface of AuNR. Following the hybridization with the AuNPs capped with the complementary strands to the capture strands on the DNA origami, left-handed and right-handed AuNR@AuNP helical superstructures are precisely formed by tuning the pattern of the recognition sites on the AuNR surface. Our strategy of nanoparticle surface patterning innovatively realizes hierarchical self-assembly of plasmonic superstructures with tunable chiroptical responses, and will certainly broaden the horizon of bottom-up construction of other functional nanoarchitectures with growing complexity.

  11. New "Right to Work" Laws Could Hobble Faculty Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Faculty unions outside Michigan have reason to be concerned with its passage of legislation barring unions from collecting fees from workers who do not join them. But the experiences of faculty unions in states that adopted such laws years ago suggest that while the measures can be a major hindrance to their work, they are not a death blow.…

  12. Considering Trade Union Education as a Community of Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Malcolm J.

    2003-01-01

    Using the framework of communities of practice, data were collected from a labor union education program (152 survey responses, 3 life histories). Despite negative early schooling experiences, respondents saw union involvement as a rationale to participate in formal education. Union education was depicted as situated learning through participation…

  13. Evaluation of the Union County Alternative to Suspension Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Joyce Ann

    2010-01-01

    The schools in Union County have undergone a tremendous amount of growth in the past decade. The growth in the county has led to an increase in discipline problems. In order to provide suspended students a second chance, Union County Public Schools implemented an alternative to suspension program, the Union County Alternative to Suspension Program…

  14. Unions Striking Back at Bills to Curb Labor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Besieged by state proposals to eviscerate collective bargaining, eliminate teacher tenure, and make it harder to collect dues, teachers' unions are fighting back. Lawsuits supported by local union affiliates have for now blocked anti-union legislation in Alabama and Wisconsin. E-mail "blasts," phone banks, and rallies are also among the…

  15. Learning, Labour and Union Learning Representatives: Promoting Workplace Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    The initiative by the Trades Union Congress (TUC) and affiliated trade unions in the UK to appoint trade union learning representatives (ULRs), to promote learning among their members, is a significant development in adult learning. Understandably, the initiative has attracted the attention of academic researchers, but primarily from the…

  16. Teachers' Perceptions Regarding the Value of a Local Teacher Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Sidney L.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 3 years, teacher union membership has significantly decreased in the state of Georgia. This decrease in union membership is troubling, as previous research has shown that union membership is positively connected to teacher satisfaction and, in turn, to student success. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to determine why…

  17. The Impact of Teacher Unions on Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenster, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    The overall impact of unions and collective bargaining agreements on student achievement has produced a literature with decidedly mixed results. Unions are seen to have both positive and negative influences on a teachers' ability to perform the teaching act. This study researches the impact of unions on state level student achievement, controlling…

  18. A Union of Professionals: Labor Relations and Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerchner, Charles Taylor; Koppich, Julia E.

    This book examines the changing role of teacher unions in the educational reform movement. It contains nine case studies of unions across the United States that are forging new, collaborative relationships with management in a reconceptualization of "professional unionism." Chapters include: (1) "Building the Airplane While It's Rolling Down the…

  19. Union Membership and Political Participation in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerrissey, Jasmine; Schofer, Evan

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the effect of union membership on civic and political participation in the late 20th century in the United States. We discuss why and how unions seek to mobilize their members and where mobilization is channeled. We argue that union membership affects electoral and collective action outcomes and will be larger for low…

  20. What Can Trade Unions Do To Combat Child Labour?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myrstad, Geir

    1999-01-01

    Examines mainly practical activities of trade unions to fight child labor. Argues that trade unions can give the most significant contribution to the struggle against child labor by focusing on methods that are typical for, or even exclusive to, the trade union movement, in particular negotiations and collective bargaining. (Author)

  1. 32 CFR 231.7 - Procedures-domestic credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Procedures-domestic credit unions. 231.7 Section...) MISCELLANEOUS PROCEDURES GOVERNING BANKS, CREDIT UNIONS AND OTHER FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS ON DOD INSTALLATIONS Guidelines § 231.7 Procedures—domestic credit unions. (a) General policy. Given their role in...

  2. 12 CFR 741.222 - Credit union service organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Credit union service organizations. 741.222 Section 741.222 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR INSURANCE Regulations Codified Elsewhere in NCUA's Regulations as Applying to Federal...

  3. 12 CFR 741.206 - Corporate credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Corporate credit unions. 741.206 Section 741.206 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR INSURANCE Regulations Codified Elsewhere in NCUA's Regulations as Applying to Federal...

  4. The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Teachers' Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Russian and East European Inst.

    Basic material on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe is presented in this teachers' guide in such a way that teachers can incorporate it into the daily curriculum or utilize it through special units or projects. The guide is divided into two sections, one covering the Soviet Union, the other Eastern Europe. The Soviet Union section discusses…

  5. Worker Participation and American Unions. Threat or Opportunity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochan, Thomas A.; And Others

    This book reports results of a study of the efects of quality of worklife programs and related forms of worker participation on unions and the collective bargaining process. Chapter 1 describes the evolution of worker participation in unionized settings and summarizes basic propositions in models of joint union-management change. In chapter 2 five…

  6. Elective: African Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Kenneth V.

    The make-up of a course in African literature for high school students is discussed. It is pointed out that the course can be constructed on already familiar lines. High school students will be able to describe clearly, for example, the relationship between environment and character or the dilemma of characters caught between traditional values…

  7. African Americans and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Joan

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the opportunities available in the field of agriculture for African American students and notes efforts of the 136 colleges of agriculture to publicize their offerings and recruit students. Profiles six black leaders in agriculture, highlighting their achievements in research and aid to developing countries. A table provides data on annual…

  8. African Literature: Selected Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deschenes, Martin O.; Waters, Harold A.

    This bibliography of resources for the teaching of African literature includes over 100 citations of books, textbooks, anthologies, plays, novels, short stories, and periodicals in French and English. Publishing house addresses, audiovisual aids, professional organizations, and a course list are also cited. The books are listed under the following…

  9. New Structure Model of Au22(SR)18: Bitetrahederon Golden Kernel Enclosed by [Au6(SR)6] Au(I) Complex.

    PubMed

    Pei, Yong; Tang, Jian; Tang, Xianqiong; Huang, Yunqing; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2015-04-16

    The study of atomic structure of thiolate-protected gold with decreased core size is important to explore the structural evolution from Au(I) complex to Au nanoclusters. In this work, we theoretically predicted the structure of recently synthesized four valence electron (4e) Au22(SR)18 cluster. The Au22(SR)18 cluster is proposed to possess a bitetrahedron Au7 kernel that is surrounded by a unique [Au6(SR)6] Au(I) complex and three Au3(SR)4 staple motifs. More interestingly, the Au22(SR)18 exhibits structural connections with Au24(SR)20 and Au20(SR)16. The stability of Au22(SR)18 can be understood from the superatom electronic configuration of the Au kernel as well as the formation of superatomic network. The present study can offer new insight into the structural evolution as well as electronic structure of thiolate-protected Au nanoclusters.

  10. Onset of nuclear matter expansion in Au+Au collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crochet, P.; Rami, F.; Gobbi, A.; Dona, R.; Coffin, J. P.; Fintz, P.; Guillaume, G.; Jundt, F.; Kuhn, C.; Roy, C.; de Schauenburg, B.; Tizniti, L.; Wagner, P.; Alard, J. P.; Amouroux, V.; Andronic, A.; Basrak, Z.; Bastid, N.; Belyaev, I.; Best, D.; Biegansky, J.; Buta, A.; Čaplar, R.; Cindro, N.; Dupieux, P.; Dželalija, M.; Fan, Z. G.; Fodor, Z.; Fraysse, L.; Freifelder, R. P.; Berrmann, N.; Hildenbrand, K. D.; Hong, B.; Jeong, S. C.; Kecskemeti, J.; Kirejczyk, M.; Koncz, P.; Korolija, M.; Kotte, R.; Lebedev, A.; Leifels, Y.; Manko, V.; Moisa, D.; Mösner, J.; Neubert, W.; Pelte, D.; Petrovici, M.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pras, P.; Ramillien, V.; Reisdorf, W.; Ritman, J. L.; Sadchikov, A. G.; Schüll, D.; Seres, Z.; Sikora, B.; Simion, V.; Siwek-Wilczyńska, K.; Sodan, U.; Teh, K. M.; Trzaska, M.; Vasiliev, M.; Wang, G. S.; Wessels, J. P.; Wienold, T.; Wisniewski, K.; Wohlfarth, D.; Zhilin, A.; FOPI Collaboration

    1997-02-01

    Using the FOPI detector at GSI Darmstadt, excitation functions of collective flow components were measured for the Au+Au system, in the reaction plane and out of this plane, at seven incident energies ranging from 100 A MeV to 800 A MeV. The threshold energies, corresponding to the onset of sideward-flow (balance energy) and squeeze-out effect (transition energy), are extracted from extrapolations of these excitation functions toward lower beam energies for charged products with Z ⩾ 2. The transition energy is found to be larger than the balance energy. The impact parameter dependence of both balance and transition energies, when extrapolated to central collisions, suggests comparable although slightly higher values than the threshold energy for the radial flow. The relevant parameter seems to be the energy deposited into the system in order to overcome the attractive nuclear forces.

  11. Universality in fragment inclusive yields from Au+Au collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Insolia, A.; Tuvè, C.; Albergo, S.; Bieser, F.; Brady, F. P.; Caccia, Z.; Cebra, D.; Chacon, A. D.; Chance, J. L.; Choi, Y.; Costa, S.; Elliott, J. B.; Gilkes, M.; Hauger, J. A.; Hirsch, A. S.; Hjort, E. L.; Justice, M.; Keane, D.; Kintner, J.; Lisa, M.; Matis, H. S.; McMahan, M.; McParland, C.; Olson, D. L.; Partlan, M. D.; Porile, N. T.; Potenza, R.; Rai, G.; Rasmussen, J.; Ritter, H. G.; Romero, J. L.; Russo, G. V.; Scharenberg, R.; Scott, A.; Shao, Y.; Srivastava, B. K.; Symons, T. J. M.; Tincknell, M. L.; Wang, S.; Warren, P. G.; Wieman, H. H.; Wolf, K. L.

    2001-11-01

    The inclusive light fragment (Z⩽7) yield data in Au+Au reactions, measured by the EOS Collaboration at the LBNL Bevalac, are presented and discussed. For peripheral collisions the measured charge distributions develop progressively according to a power law which can be fitted by a single τ exponent independently of the bombarding energy in the range 250-1200 A MeV. In addition to this universal feature, we observe that the location of the maximum in the individual yields of different charged fragments shift towards lower multiplicity as the fragment charge increases from Z=3 to Z=7. This trend is common to all six measured beam energies. Moments of charge distributions and correlations among different moments are reported. Finally, the THe,DT thermometer has been constructed for central and peripheral collisions using the double yield ratios of He and D, T projectile fragments. The measured nuclear temperatures are in agreement with experimental findings in other fragmentation reactions.

  12. Successful synthesis and thermal stability of immiscible metal Au-Rh, Au-Ir and Au-Ir-Rh nanoalloys.

    PubMed

    Shubin, Yury; Plusnin, Pavel; Sharafutdinov, Marat; Makotchenko, Evgenia; Korenev, Sergey

    2017-04-06

    We successfully prepared face-centred cubic nanoalloys in systems of Au-Ir, Au-Rh and Au-Ir-Rh, with large bulk miscibility gaps, in one-run reactions under thermal decomposition of specially synthesised single-source precursors, namely, [AuEn2][Ir(NO2)6], [AuEn2][Ir(NO2)6]х[Rh(NO2)6]1-х and [AuEn2][Rh(NO2)6]. The precursors employed contain all desired metals "mixed" at the molecular level, thus providing significant advantages for obtaining alloys. The observations using HR TEM show that the nanoalloy structures are composed of well-dispersed aggregates of crystalline domains with a mean size of 5±3 nm. EDX and XRD measurements confirm the formation of AuIr, AuRh, AuIr0.75Rh0.25, AuIr0.50Rh0.50 and AuIr0.25Rh0.75 metastable solid solutions. In-situ real-time synchrotron XRD was used to study the formation mechanism of nanoalloys. The observed transformations are described by the "conversion chemistry" mechanism characterised by the primary development of particles comprising atoms of only one type, followed by a chemical reaction resulting in the final formation of a nanoalloy. The obtained metastable nanoalloys exhibit essential thermal stability. Exposure to 180 ºC for 30 h does not cause any dealloying process.

  13. d + Au hadron correlation measurements at PHENIX

    SciTech Connect

    Anne M. Sickles

    2014-05-13

    In these proceedings, we discuss recent results from d + Au collisions in PHENIX ridge related measurements and their possible hydrodynamic origin. We present the v2 at midrapidity and measurements of the pseudorapidity dependence of the ridge, distinguishing between the d-going and Au-going directions. We investigate the possible geometrical origin by comparing v2 in d + Au to that in p + Pb, Au + Au and Pb + Pb collisions. Future plans to clarify the role of geometry in small collision systems at RHIC are discussed.

  14. [European Union funds and clinical toxicology].

    PubMed

    Wiszniewiecka, Monika; Cejrowski, Daniel; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Since 2014 we are heading the third programming period of help from European Union (EU). The new budget will run until 2020. From common resources of EU, 106 billion euro will reach Poland, of which about 82.3 billion to cohesion policy, levelling differences of regional development. Clinical toxicology centres will be able to apply for funding under the allocation for the health service. Polish health service very actively benefited from EU funds in previous programming periods, between 2004-2006, and 2007-2013. Thanks to grants from the EU, a large number of health centres were built or renovated. Unfortunately the needs of hospitals, which were underinvested for many years, exceeded available funds according to UE programmes. Except investment projects, also projects training of health professionals were executed. In the current programming period European Union will still support projects aimed at health service. Clinical toxicology centres should have a try of using this period to fulfil their plans.

  15. The Soviet Union: Political and military trends

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, J.F.; Garrity, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    On July 20, 1989, the Center for National Security Studies (CNSS) of the Los Alamos National Laboratory held a workshop on The Soviet Union: Political and Military Trends.'' The morning session was devoted to a discussion of the magnitude of the problems confronting the Soviet Union, the political and economic reforms designed to address those problems, and the repercussions of those reforms on Soviet foreign policy and defense spending. In the afternoon session, the Soviet view of the changing character of warfare, the technologies and force structures that the Soviets might develop and deploy to anticipate the battlefield of the future, and the role that conventional arms control might play in Soviet political and military strategy were examined.

  16. International Scientific Unions and Global Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, T.

    2013-05-01

    This presentation will deal with the role that international scientific unions play in coordinating international research efforts. Rather than give a general, theoretical, talk on the role that ICSU - the International Council of Science - plays in International Science, I will briefly outline their role and then focus on a case study relevant to the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG). I will compare the scientific activities, and the outreach and education activities, of two major international research programs - the International Year of Planet Earth and the International Polar Year. These were two of the IGY+50 activities. Past informal polls of conference attendees to determine how many had heard of each IGY+50 event result in. eGY (electronic Geophysical Year) 1% IHY (International Heliophysical Year) 4% IYPE (International Year of Planet Earth) 31% IPY (International Polar Year) 64% Why is IPY the one of which most scientists are aware?

  17. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    on cinematography . In film planning and production, the universally-con- demned but still all-powerful "His Highness, Val [gross output...is functioning. Understanding all this, Goskino [State Committee for Cinematography ] and the USSR Union of Cinema Workers have begun to repair the...in Russian23 Oct 87 p 2 [Article by Ye. Sobor, chairman, MSSR State Committee on Cinematography : "It’s Time to Reset our Clocks"] [Text] By virtue

  18. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    perestroyka. Yu. Yuzelyunas expressed puzzlement at the fact that the Central Committee resolution adopted in 1948 on for- malism in music in connection...know little about the Soviet Union and Lithuania. This is very sad, because there are high achievements both in literature and in music , and they are...supporting all trips abroad and all direct ties. We have specific proposals to this effect. We are ready to organize a Baltic music and Baltic

  19. A trade union perspective on AMT.

    PubMed

    Cure, K G

    1988-03-01

    Amalgamated Engineering Union (AEU) members often observe that poor design not only makes their work unnecessarily difficult, it also cuts into company profits. Sadly, mistakes 'scientific management' was intended to rectify 60 years ago are still being made in British manufacturing today, with consequences - especially for health and safety - that the trade union movement cannot accept. The introduction of the microprocessor, and of advanced manufacturing technology (AMT), have not always seen a comparable improvement in the design of tools or the workplace. Too often, lessons which should have been learned with the old technology are having to be learned all over again with the new. This points to the lack of a healthy management tradition in which lessons can be passed from one generation to another. One issue which is high-lighting this is repetitive stress injury (or occupationally-related musculo-skeletal disorders). The AEU is committed to the training and re-training of its members, and is convinced that this is part of the key to the successful introduction of AMT. Workers used to the physical disciplines of an older generation of technology will need re-training to make the most of the new. If this is to be done effectively, the employee's interest in having a satisfying and interesting job should be accepted as an ergonomic aim at least as important as the efficient use of time and space. In the past, workers and their unions have not been allowed a significant input in the decisions about their own workplaces and jobs. This has had two serious effects: design has been worse for it, and trade unions have not paid the attention to ergonomics they should have done, but have concentrated on other matters which they could influence. It is important for Britain's economic future that we listen to the voice of the workers.

  20. US - Former Soviet Union environmental management activities

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) has been delegated the responsibility for US DOE`s cleanup of nuclear weapons complex. The nature and the magnitude of the waste management and environmental remediation problem requires the identification of technologies and scientific expertise from domestic and foreign sources. This booklet makes comparisons and describes coordinated projects and workshops between the USA and the former Soviet Union.

  1. JPRS Report, Soviet Union:, Political Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    bureaucracy was and remains the most reactionary force in the entire Union, with the exception perhaps of some of the Central Asian clans. Such a status...34 Crab Tavern". In Yalta, the fashionable hotel for foreigners "Rossiya" bears a large sign to the right of the door with the letters USSR and the...southern shore of Crimea, a graduate, to go that far, of the Medical-Surgical Academy of St. Petersburg. No mention is made either of Ambrosiy

  2. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: International Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-18

    union statistics , there were about 15 mil- lion persons unemployed. More than 17 million persons have been without work in the countries of Western...misrepresent statistical accounting and sell military equipment, ammunition, and munitions at prices that are patently speculative. So a 12-foot tape...science-intensive than civilian production. According to the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics estimate, 1 billion dollars can provide for 54,000 jobs in

  3. JPRS Report Soviet Union, Economic Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    investment in the branch that is connected with tion output and an improvement of its quality , and an the introduction of scientific and engineering progress...Belorussia, 4.3 pairs; Latvia, 4.1 pairs; the Ukraine, 3.7 pairs; Georgia and Azerbaijan, 3.4 pairs; Improved footwear quality and increased production...corresponding improvement of the per- priate agencies of the state. formance characteristics and quality of the products. Representatives of the trade unions

  4. Conversion and enrichment in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    1991-04-01

    In the Soviet Union, just as in the West, the civilian nuclear industry emerged from research work undertaken for nuclear weapons development. At first, researchers tried various techniques for physical separation of uranium isotopes: electromagnetic and molecular-kinetic thermo-diffusion methods; gaseous diffusion; and centrifuge methods. All of those methods, which are based primarily on differences in the atomic mass of uranium isotopes, called for extensive research and the development of new, technically unprecedented equipment. Gradually gaseous diffusion and gas centrifuge technology became recognized as most feasible for industrial use, so research on other methods was terminated. Industrial-scale uranium enrichment in the Soviet Union began in 1949 using the gaseous diffusion method; by the early 1960s, centrifuge technology was in use on an industrial scale. All Soviet production of highly-enriched, weapons-grade uranium was halted in 1987. The Soviet Union now has four enrichment plants in operation (at classified locations), solely for civilian nuclear power needs. All four enrichment plants have centrifuge modules, and enrichment provided by gaseous diffusion accounts for less than 5% of their total output. Two of the four enrichment plants also incorporate facilities for conversion to uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}).

  5. Understanding traditional African healing

    PubMed Central

    MOKGOBI, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of traditional healers as well as the role of traditional healers in their communities are discussed. In conclusion, the services of traditional healers go far beyond the uses of herbs for physical illnesses. Traditional healers serve many roles which include but not limited to custodians of the traditional African religion and customs, educators about culture, counselors, social workers and psychologists. PMID:26594664

  6. The role of tephra studies in African paleoanthropology as exemplified by the Sidi Hakoma Tuff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WoldeGabriel, Giday; Endale, Tamrat; White, Tim D.; Thouveny, Nicolas; Hart, William K.; Renne, Paul R.; Asfaw, Berhane

    2013-01-01

    Beginning in the 1960s, geological and paleoanthropological exploration of the Ethiopian rift system's basins have led to the discovery and assembly of the most comprehensive record of human biological and technological change during the last 6 million years. The hominid fossils, including partial skeletons, were primarily discovered in the Afar Rift, the Main Ethiopian Rift, and in the Omo Basin of the broadly rifted zone of SW Ethiopia. The paleoanthropological research areas within the SW Afar Rift that have yielded many diverse hominid species and the oldest stone tools are, from north to south, Woranso-Mille (aff. Ardipithecus and Au. afarensis), Hadar (Au. afarensis, Homo sp.), Dikika (Au. afarensis), Gona (Ar. kadabba, Ar. ramidus, H. erectus, and oldest stone tools), Middle Awash (Ar. kadabba, Ar. ramidus, Au. anamensis, Au. afarensis, Au. garhi, H. erectus, H. rhodesiensis, H. sapiens idaltu, and the oldest paleo-butchery locality), and Galili (Au. afarensis). Additional hominid remains were discovered at Melka Kunture on the banks of the Awash River near its source along the western margin of the central part of the Main Ethiopian Rift (H. erectus), at Konso (H. erectus and A. boisei), and at the southern end of the MER, and in the Omo Basin (Au. anamensis, Au. afarensis, Au. aethiopicus, Au. boisei, H. habilis, and H. erectus). Distal and sometimes proximal tephra units interbedded within fossilifeous sedimentary deposits have become key elements in this work by providing chronological and correlative control and depositional contexts. Several regional tephra markers have been identified within the northern half of the eastern African rift valley in Ethiopia and Kenya, and in marine sediments of the Gulf of Aden Rift and the NW Indian Ocean. Out of the many regional tephra stratigraphic markers that range in age from the early Pliocene (3.97 Ma) to the late Pleistocene (0.16 Ma), the Sidi Hakoma Tuff (SHT) has been more widely identified and thoroughly

  7. Ectoparasites of African Mammals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-30

    This study consisted of ectoparasites from approximately 100,000 African small mammals, representing probably more than 500 species of which many are...study of ectoparasites may provide information concerning interactions among animal reservoirs of disease, and (3) an understanding of ecological...parameters for ectoparasites and their hosts may enhance understanding of epidemiological patterns. Of the four major groups dealt with, considerably more

  8. Diversity among African Pygmies

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez Rozzi, Fernando V.; Sardi, Marina L.

    2010-01-01

    Although dissimilarities in cranial and post-cranial morphology among African pygmies groups have been recognized, comparative studies on skull morphology usually pull all pygmies together assuming that morphological characters are similar among them and different with respect to other populations. The main aim of this study is to compare cranial morphology between African pygmies and non-pygmies populations from Equatorial Africa derived from both the Eastern and the Western regions in order to test if the greatest morphological difference is obtained in the comparison between pygmies and non-pygmies. Thirty three-dimensional (3D) landmarks registered with Microscribe in four cranial samples (Western and Eastern pygmies and non-pygmies) were obtained. Multivariate analysis (generalized Procrustes analysis, Mahalanobis distances, multivariate regression) and complementary dimensions of size were evaluated with ANOVA and post hoc LSD. Results suggest that important cranial shape differentiation does occur between pygmies and non-pygmies but also between Eastern and Western populations and that size changes and allometries do not affect similarly Eastern and Western pygmies. Therefore, our findings raise serious doubt about the fact to consider African pygmies as a homogenous group in studies on skull morphology. Differences in cranial morphology among pygmies would suggest differentiation after divergence. Although not directly related to skull differentiation, the diversity among pygmies would probably suggest that the process responsible for reduced stature occurred after the split of the ancestors of modern Eastern and Western pygmies. PMID:21049030

  9. Human African trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Lejon, Veerle; Bentivoglio, Marina; Franco, José Ramon

    2013-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness is a neglected tropical disease that affects populations in sub-Saharan Africa. The disease is caused by infection with the gambiense and rhodesiense subspecies of the extracellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei, and is transmitted to humans by bites of infected tsetse flies. The disease evolves in two stages, the hemolymphatic and meningoencephalitic stages, the latter being defined by central nervous system infection after trypanosomal traversal of the blood-brain barrier. African trypanosomiasis, which leads to severe neuroinflammation, is fatal without treatment, but the available drugs are toxic and complicated to administer. The choice of medication is determined by the infecting parasite subspecies and disease stage. Clinical features include a constellation of nonspecific symptoms and signs with evolving neurological and psychiatric alterations and characteristic sleep-wake disturbances. Because of the clinical profile variability and insidiously progressive central nervous system involvement, disease staging is currently based on cerebrospinal fluid examination, which is usually performed after the finding of trypanosomes in blood or other body fluids. No vaccine being available, control of human African trypanosomiasis relies on diagnosis and treatment of infected patients, assisted by vector control. Better diagnostic tools and safer, easy to use drugs are needed to facilitate elimination of the disease.

  10. East African Rift Valley, Kenya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This rare, cloud free view of the East African Rift Valley, Kenya (1.5N, 35.5E) shows a clear view of the Turkwell River Valley, an offshoot of the African REift System. The East African Rift is part of a vast plate fracture which extends from southern Turkey, through the Red Sea, East Africa and into Mozambique. Dark green patches of forests are seen along the rift margin and tea plantations occupy the cooler higher ground.

  11. Impediments to the effectiveness of the United Nations-African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Security Council Sets Massive New Challenges for UN Peacekeeping,‖ 1-2. 62 Ibid., 1. 63 Ibid., 6. 64 Ibid., 2. 65 Ibid. 66 Timo Pelz and...files/bueros/usa/04976.pdf (accessed May 24, 2010). 67 Timo Pelz and Volker Lehmann, ―The Evolution of UN Peacekeeping (1): Hybrid Missions,‖ 1

  12. Counterinsurgency in Somalia: Lessons Learned from the African Union Mission in Somalia, 2007-2013

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Force Ret., Resident Senior Fellows Anna-Marie Wyant, M.A., English , JSOU Press Editor Editorial Advisory Board Roby C. Barrett Ph.D., Middle...support— or to legally justify their presence.52 It was arguably in May-July 2009 that AMISOM was also at its weakest, controlling only five of...clique established itself as the SCIC’s primary militia and for several months they exerted significant influence on SCIC legal and social policy.58

  13. [The national union for private hospital oncology].

    PubMed

    Parmentier, Gérard

    2013-06-01

    In the French health system, social security is the same for both public and private hospitals regardless of their status. In terms of number of patients screened, diagnosed, or treated, independant medicine is the most important sector in the French oncology. The multitude of organizations representing private hospitals or independant oncologists, physicians, radiologists or pathologists have a common organization, the National Union for Private Hospital Oncology (UNHPC). It bases its action on two founding postulates to ensure the quality of the oncology practice : the medical and managerial cultures are complementary and should be articulated ; the quality of organizations is as important as professional competence.

  14. Premarital cohabitation and postmarital cohabiting union formation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Z

    1995-03-01

    "Previous research has indicated that premarital cohabitation decreases marital stability. This study examined the role of premarital cohabitation as a determinant of cohabitation after marital disruption. The author proposed that people who cohabited with their first spouse prior to marriage have a greater propensity to cohabit after marital disruption than people who did not cohabit before their first marriage. Event history analysis of the postmarital union experiences of women and men from the Canadian 1990 Family and Friends Survey (FFS) supports this proposition. It was found that the hazard rate of postmarital cohabitation was over 50% higher for premarital cohabitants than for noncohabitants."

  15. State of the Union touches on science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    With the Senate impeachment trial as a backdrop, U.S. President Bill Clinton delivered a State of the Union address on January 19 that included a number of items related to science policy.Calling the threat of global warming “our most fateful new challenge,” the President proposed a package of climate change initiatives to help communities reduce greenhouse and other pollution, and tax incentives and investments to spur clean energy technology. He also offered to work with members of Congress in both parties to reward companies that take early, voluntary action to reduce greenhouse gases.

  16. State of the Union Address, 1997. Remarks by the President in State of the Union Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Executive Office of the President, Washington, DC.

    This document contains the text of President Clinton's State of the Union Address, delivered on February 4, 1997. The President issues a call to action to work together to prepare America for the twenty-first century. The United States must attend to the unfinished business of balancing the budget, enacting bipartisan campaign-finance reform, and…

  17. Union Learning Representatives: A Case Study of the Public and Commercial Services Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexandrou, Alex; Davies, John Dwyfor; Lee, John

    2005-01-01

    Union Learning Representatives (ULRs) are a relatively recent phenomenon and are a new category of lay representation within the workplace in the United Kingdom. They are part of the present New Labour administration's drive to expand and improve lifelong learning and create the new "learning society"--in this case, particularly amongst…

  18. 78 FR 4875 - Office of Small Credit Unions (OSCUI) Loan Program Access for Credit Unions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... credit union's marketing strategy to reach members and the community; and include financial projections... its strategy for raising matching funds if NCUA determines matching funds are required (see 12 CFR...) Matching Funds: A narrative describing its strategy for raising matching funds from non-federal sources...

  19. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Kommunist, No. 14, September 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    bureaucratic work style . Naturally, the situation was also affected by the residual principle in training trade union cadres: frequently people who were not...made members of a party or a soviet body were recom- mended for trade union committee membership. A bureaucratic style means not only a...dynamism of the progress of the Union, which obeys what I consider a universal law of uneven development. Redistribution relations, the paternalism of

  20. Elder Abuse among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauriac, Jesse J.; Scruggs, Natoschia

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of extreme, moderate, and mild forms of elder abuse among African-American women (n=25) and men (n=10) were examined. African-American respondents emphasized physical abuse when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Along with physical abuse, verbal abuse was the most frequently identified form of abuse, and was significantly…

  1. African ethics and voluntary euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Omonzejele, P F

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines the relationship between euthanasia and its ethical norms and practices in a part of West Africa. The various sub-types of euthanasia are described in detail, parallel with the role of African ethical theories in determining their relevance. The author discusses the implications of this approach relative to the social and economic state of African communities.

  2. African American Administrators and Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Dianne; Taylor, Janice D.; Burrell, Charlotte; Stewart, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the issues of African American participation in the administrative ranks of the academy. The authors find that African Americans tend to hold positions that are marginal in academic organizations, lacking power and influence, and that not much has changed over recent decades. Forces influencing this condition are explored,…

  3. African-Americans and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigmon, Scott B.

    To better serve people in a counseling relationship, it is useful to understand them not only culturally, but demographically as well. This paper traces historical, religious, demographic aspects and treatment of alcohol abuse in African Americans. Historically, alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence have varied for African Americans. During the…

  4. Africanization in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, M. Alice; Rubink, William L.; Patton, John C.; Coulson, Robert N.; Johnston, J. Spencer

    2005-01-01

    The expansion of Africanized honeybees from South America to the southwestern United States in <50 years is considered one of the most spectacular biological invasions yet documented. In the American tropics, it has been shown that during their expansion Africanized honeybees have low levels of introgressed alleles from resident European populations. In the United States, it has been speculated, but not shown, that Africanized honeybees would hybridize extensively with European honeybees. Here we report a continuous 11-year study investigating temporal changes in the genetic structure of a feral population from the southern United States undergoing Africanization. Our microsatellite data showed that (1) the process of Africanization involved both maternal and paternal bidirectional gene flow between European and Africanized honeybees and (2) the panmitic European population was replaced by panmitic mixtures of A. m. scutellata and European genes within 5 years after Africanization. The post-Africanization gene pool (1998–2001) was composed of a diverse array of recombinant classes with a substantial European genetic contribution (mean 25–37%). Therefore, the resulting feral honeybee population of south Texas was best viewed as a hybrid swarm. PMID:15937139

  5. The Electronic Properties and L3 XANES of Au and Nano-Au

    SciTech Connect

    Yiu, Y.M.; Zhang, P.; Sham, T.K.

    2004-04-20

    The electronic properties of Au crystal and nano Au have been investigated by theory and experiment. Molecularly capped nano-Au was synthesized using the two-phase method. Au nano-particles have been characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). They retain the fcc crystal structure. Their sizes have been determined to be in a range from 5.5 nm to 1.7 nm. The L3 X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) of nano-Au and Au foil have been recorded using synchrotron radiation, and examined by theoretical calculation based on the first principles. Both theory and experiment show that the nano-Au particles have essentially all the Au L3 XANES features of bulk Au in the near edge region with less pronounced resonance peaks. It is also shown that nano Au exhibits lower 4f binding energy than bulk Au in good agreement with quantum confined Au systems reported previously.

  6. What You Should Know About Unionization and OSHA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zweiback, Richard

    1973-01-01

    A professional negotiator for school districts answers questions about collective bargaining issues. Discusses union use of the California Occupational Safety and Health Act at the bargaining table. (JF)

  7. [Frequency of consanguineous unions in the Tlemcen area (West Algeria)].

    PubMed

    Zaoui, Salah; Biémont, Christian

    2002-01-01

    In order to describe consanguineous unions and their effects in a sample of the Algerian population, we interviewed 3,983 couples in a hospital and from urban and rural areas near Tlemcen. We observed that unions between cousins represented 34.0% of the marriages. The frequency of unions between relatives was lower in the urban (30.6%) than in the rural areas (40.5%). This difference can be explained by changing custom and family relationships in urban areas, and is evidenced by social and anthropologic factors and the attitude towards consanguineous unions.

  8. Agricultural aviation medicine in the Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Mohler, S R

    1980-05-01

    The Soviet Union has developed one of the world's most sophisticated civil aviation medicine programs. The program gives specific attention to aerial application operations and includes special preflight pilot medical examinations, aircraft with specialized protective airflow systems for the pilots, minimum flight altitude spraying limit of 5 m, and the use of a "chemical log book" by each pilot in addition to the flight log book. These and additional steps--i.e. limiting a pilot's daily agricultural flights to 4-6 h--have led to a reported USSR agricultural aviation annual accident rate near zero. The Soviet workhorse aircraft, the Antonov AN-2, can serve multipurpose roles since, when not used for application flights, it can be rapidly converted to executive, courier, cargo, or air taxi, or air ambulance use. A new, single-engine turbojet biplane, the Polish M-15, is undergoing evaluation in the Soviet Union as a replacement for the AN-2. Countries with very high agricultural aircraft accident rates may wish to study the Soviet approach, especially the use by the pilot of a chemical log book.

  9. Nuclear legacy of Soviet Union poses concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, W.

    1995-07-01

    The Russian Federation possesses all nuclear weapons design and production facilities of the former Soviet Union, reports William Potter, director of the Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies. However, other former Soviet states, including Ukraine, boast other nuclear assets, including uranium mining and milling centers; training facilities; and research and commercial-power reactors, some of which are capable of producing weapons-grade plutonium. Potter insists that there is no assurance than these newly independent republics will not attempt to export their respective nuclear assets. {open_quotes}This export danger is heightened by the primitive state of export controls and compelling economic incentives to sell anything to anyone for the right price,{close_quotes} he says. Equally alarming as the absence of export control is the legacy of environmental degradation left by the Soviet nuclear program. {open_quotes}The magnitude of environmental damage caused by nuclear weapons production and testing only recently is coming to light,{close_quotes} Potter insists. Furthermore, writes Potter, {open_quotes}there is real danger that unemployed nuclear scientists in the former Soviet Union will accept offers from well-heeled renegade nations seeking to build nuclear weapons.{close_quotes}

  10. The conditional indirect effect model of women's union participation: the moderating effect of perceived union tolerance for sexual harassment.

    PubMed

    Mellor, Steven; Golay, Leslie M

    2014-01-01

    We tested a theoretically trimmed model of union participation presented by Tetrick, Shore, McClurg, and Vandenberg (2007), in which perceived union instrumentality is expected to influence participation through perceived union support. This testing was accomplished as a precursor to testing a conditional indirect effect model of women's participation--in which perceived union tolerance for sexual harassment was expected to moderate the influence of perceived support on willingness to participate in union activities. In a sample of 326 women from multiple unions, we found support for the conditional model; the influence of perceived instrumentality on willingness to participate through perceived support was moderated by perceived tolerance for harassment; specifically, the influence through perceived support was weak when perceived tolerance was high. The implications of our results are discussed in reference to need support and women's participation.

  11. Cancer statistics for African Americans.

    PubMed

    Ghafoor, Asma; Jemal, Ahmedin; Cokkinides, Vilma; Cardinez, Cheryll; Murray, Taylor; Samuels, Alicia; Thun, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    The American Cancer Society provides estimates on the number of new cancer cases and deaths, and compiles health statistics on African Americans in a biennial publication, Cancer Facts and Figures for African Americans. The compiled statistics include cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and lifestyle behaviors using the most recent data on incidence and survival from the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program, mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), and behavioral information from the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), and National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). It is estimated that 132,700 new cases of cancer and 63,100 deaths will occur among African Americans in the year 2003. Although African Americans have experienced higher incidence and mortality rates of cancer than whites for many years, incidence rates have declined by 2.7 percent per year in African-American males since 1992, while stabilizing in African-American females. During the same period, death rates declined by 2.1 percent and 0.4 percent per year among African-American males and females, respectively. The decrease in both incidence and death rates from cancer among African-American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. Nonetheless, African Americans still carry the highest cancer burden among US racial and ethnic groups. Most cancers detectable by screening are diagnosed at a later stage and survival rates are lower within each stage of disease in African Americans than in whites. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors is an active area of research.

  12. East African ROAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekle, Kelali

    2016-10-01

    In the developing world astronomy had been treated as the science of elites. As a result of this overwhelming perception, astronomy compared with other applied sciences has got less attention and its role in development has been insignificant. However, the IAU General Assembly decision in 2009 opened new opportunity for countries and professionals to deeply look into Astronomy and its role in development. Then, the subsequent establishment of regional offices in the developing world is helping countries to integrate astronomy with other earth and space based sciences so as to progressively promote its scientific and development importance. Gradually nations have come to know that space is the frontier of tomorrow and the urgency of preeminence on space frontier starts at primary school and ascends to tertiary education. For this to happen, member nations in east African region have placed STEM education at the center of their education system. For instance, Ethiopian has changed University enrollment strategy to be in favor of science and engineering subjects, i.e. every year seventy percent of new University entrants join science and engineering fields while thirty percent social science and humanities. Such bold actions truly promote astronomy to be conceived as gateway to science and technology. To promote the concept of astronomy for development the East African regional office has actually aligned it activities to be in line with the focus areas identified by the IAU strategy (2010 to 2020).

  13. African oil plays

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, A.J. )

    1989-09-01

    The vast continent of Africa hosts over eight sedimentary basins, covering approximately half its total area. Of these basins, only 82% have entered a mature exploration phase, 9% have had little or no exploration at all. Since oil was first discovered in Africa during the mid-1950s, old play concepts continue to bear fruit, for example in Egypt and Nigeria, while new play concepts promise to become more important, such as in Algeria, Angola, Chad, Egypt, Gabon, and Sudan. The most exciting developments of recent years in African oil exploration are: (1) the Gamba/Dentale play, onshore Gabon; (2) the Pinda play, offshore Angola; (3) the Lucula/Toca play, offshore Cabinda; (4) the Metlaoui play, offshore Libya/Tunisia; (5) the mid-Cretaceous sand play, Chad/Sudan; and (6) the TAG-I/F6 play, onshore Algeria. Examples of these plays are illustrated along with some of the more traditional oil plays. Where are the future oil plays likely to develop No doubt, the Saharan basins of Algeria and Libya will feature strongly, also the presalt of Equatorial West Africa, the Central African Rift System and, more speculatively, offshore Ethiopia and Namibia, and onshore Madagascar, Mozambique, and Tanzania.

  14. Bioenergy and African transformation.

    PubMed

    Lynd, Lee R; Sow, Mariam; Chimphango, Annie Fa; Cortez, Luis Ab; Brito Cruz, Carlos H; Elmissiry, Mosad; Laser, Mark; Mayaki, Ibrahim A; Moraes, Marcia Afd; Nogueira, Luiz Ah; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem H

    2015-01-01

    Among the world's continents, Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern bioenergy production in Africa. Here we consider bioenergy as an enabler for development, and provide an overview of modern bioenergy technologies with a comment on application in an Africa context. Experience with bioenergy in Africa offers evidence of social benefits and also some important lessons. In Brazil, social development, agricultural development and food security, and bioenergy development have been synergistic rather than antagonistic. Realizing similar success in African countries will require clear vision, good governance, and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, and business models to myriad local circumstances. Strategies for integrated production of food crops, livestock, and bioenergy are potentially attractive and offer an alternative to an agricultural model featuring specialized land use. If done thoughtfully, there is considerable evidence that food security and economic development in Africa can be addressed more effectively with modern bioenergy than without it. Modern bioenergy can be an agent of African transformation, with potential social benefits accruing to multiple sectors and extending well beyond energy supply per se. Potential negative impacts also cut across sectors. Thus, institutionally inclusive multi-sector legislative structures will be more effective at maximizing the social benefits of bioenergy compared to institutionally exclusive, single-sector structures.

  15. Between Immediacy and Imagination: The Place of the Educator and Organiser in Union Renewal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tony; Yasukawa, Keiko

    2010-01-01

    Can the current education programme of the Australian trade union movement contribute to reviving union growth and union culture, develop new activists and leaders, and encourage and facilitate the organisational change needed to re-orient unions to develop broader alliances? Twenty-five Australian trade union leaders were asked to describe the…

  16. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 701 - Federal Credit Union Bylaws

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Federal Credit Union Bylaws A Appendix A to Part 701 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION OF FEDERAL CREDIT UNIONS Pt. 701, App. A Appendix A to Part 701—Federal Credit Union Bylaws Introduction A. Effective...

  17. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 701 - Federal Credit Union Bylaws

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Federal Credit Union Bylaws A Appendix A to Part 701 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION OF FEDERAL CREDIT UNIONS Pt. 701, App. A Appendix A to Part 701—Federal Credit Union Bylaws Introduction A. Effective...

  18. Stabilization of Au at edges of bimetallic PdAu nanocrystallites.

    PubMed

    Yudanov, Ilya V; Neyman, Konstantin M

    2010-05-21

    Density functional calculations were performed to study the distribution of Au atoms in bimetallic PdAu nanoparticles. A series of Pd(79-n)Au(n) clusters of truncated octahedral shape with different content of Au ranging from n = 1 to 60 was used to model such bimetallic nanosystems. Segregation of Au to the particle surface is found to be thermodynamically favorable. The most stable sites for Au substitution are located at the edges of the PdAu nanoclusters. The stabilization at the edges is rationalized by their higher flexibility for surface relaxation which minimizes the strain induced by larger atomic radius of Au as compared to Pd. This stabilization of Au at the edges indicates the possibility to synthesize PdAu particles with Pd atoms located mainly on the facets, and edges "decorated" by Au atoms. Such nanocrystallites are expected to exhibit peculiar catalytic properties and, being thermodynamically stable, should be prone to retaining their initial shape under catalytic conditions.

  19. A Bibliography of African Languages and Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, John D., Comp.; Goff, Harry, Comp.

    The present bibliography of African languages and linguistics includes not only works relating to the "Negro-African" languages, but also those dealing with the African varieties of Arabic, the Hamitic languages, Malagasy, Afrikaans, and various Creoles. (The greater part of the entries relate to the indigenous languages of the African continent…

  20. Réunion publique HR

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Chers Collègues,Je me permets de vous rappeler qu'une réunion publique organisée par le Département HR se tiendra aujourd'hui:Vendredi 30 avril 2010 à 9h30 dans l'Amphithéâtre principal (café offert dès 9h00).Durant cette réunion, des informations générales seront données sur:le CERN Admin e-guide, qui est un nouveau guide des procédures administratives du CERN ayant pour but de faciliter la recherche d'informations pratiques et d'offrir un format de lecture convivial;le régime d'Assurance Maladie de l'Organisation (présentation effectuée par Philippe Charpentier, Président du CHIS Board) et;la Caisse de Pensions (présentation effectuée par Théodore Economou, Administrateur de la Caisse de Pensions du CERN).Une transmission simultanée de cette réunion sera assurée dans l'Amphithéâtre BE de Prévessin et également disponible à l'adresse suivante: http://webcast.cern.chJe me réjouis de votre participation!Meilleures salutations,Anne-Sylvie CatherinChef du Département des Ressources humaines__________________________________________________________________________________Dear Colleagues,I should like to remind you that a plublic meeting organised by HR Department will be held today:Friday 30 April 2010 at 9:30 am in the Main Auditorium (coffee from 9:00 am).During this meeting, general information will be given about:the CERN Admin e-guide which is a new guide to the Organization's administrative procedures, drawn up to facilitate the retrieval of practical information and to offer a user-friendly format;the CERN Health Insurance System (presentation by Philippe Charpentier, President of the CHIS Board) and;the Pension Fund (presentation by Theodore Economou, Administrator of the CERN Pension Fund).A simultaneous transmission of this meeting will be broadcast in the BE Auditorium at Prévessin and will also be available at the following address. http://webcast.cern.chI look forward to your participation!Best regards,Anne-Sylvie Catherin

  1. RHUM-RUM investigates La Réunion mantle plume from crust to core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigloch, Karin; Barruol, Guilhem

    2013-04-01

    RHUM-RUM (Réunion Hotspot and Upper Mantle - Réunions Unterer Mantel) is a French-German passive seismic experiment designed to image an oceanic mantle plume - or lack of plume - from crust to core beneath La Réunion Island, and to understand these results in terms of material, heat flow and plume dynamics. La Réunion hotspot is one of the most active volcanoes in the world, and its hotspot track leads unambiguously to the Deccan Traps of India, one of the largest flood basalt provinces on Earth, which erupted 65 Ma ago. The genesis and the origin at depth of the mantle upwelling and of the hotspot are still very controversial. In the RHUM-RUM project, 57 German and French ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) are deployed over an area of 2000 km x 2000 km2 centered on La Réunion Island, using the "Marion Dufresne" and "Meteor" vessels. The one-year OBS deployment (Oct. 2012 - Oct. 2013) will be augmented by terrestrial deployments in the Iles Eparses in the Mozambique Channel, in Madagascar, Seychelles, Mauritius, Rodrigues and La Réunion islands. A significant number of OBS will be also distributed along the Central and South West Indian Ridges to image the lower-mantle beneath the hotspot, but also to provide independent opportunity for the study of these slow to ultra-slow ridges and of possible plume-ridge interactions. RHUM-RUM aims to characterize the vertically ascending flow in the plume conduit, as well as any lateral flow spreading into the asthenosphere beneath the western Indian Ocean. We want to establish the origin of the heat source that has been fueling this powerful hotspot, by answering the following questions: Is there a direct, isolated conduit into the deepest mantle, which sources its heat and material from the core-mantle boundary? Is there a plume connection to the African superswell at mid-mantle depths? Might the volcanism reflect merely an upper mantle instability? RHUM-RUM also aims at studying the hotspot's interaction with the

  2. RHUM-RUM investigates La Réunion mantle plume from crust to core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigloch, K.; Barruol, G.

    2012-12-01

    RHUM-RUM (Réunion Hotspot and Upper Mantle - Réunions Unterer Mantel) is a French-German passive seismic experiment designed to image an oceanic mantle plume - or lack of plume - from crust to core beneath La Réunion Island, and to understand these results in terms of material, heat flow and plume dynamics. La Réunion hotspot is one of the most active volcanoes in the world, and its hotspot track leads unambiguously to the Deccan Traps of India, one of the largest flood basalt provinces on Earth, which erupted 65 Ma ago. The genesis and the origin at depth of the mantle upwelling and of the hotspot are still very controversial. In the RHUM-RUM project, 57 German and French ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) are deployed over an area of 2000 km x 2000 km2 centered on La Réunion Island, using the "Marion Dufresne" and "Meteor" vessels. The one-year OBS deployment (Oct. 2012 - Oct. 2013) will be augmented by terrestrial deployments in the Iles Eparses in the Mozambique Channel, in Madagascar, Seychelles, Mauritius, Rodrigues and La Réunion islands. A significant number of OBS will be also distributed along the Central and South West Indian Ridges to image the lower-mantle beneath the hotspot, but also to provide independent opportunity for the study of these slow to ultra-slow ridges and of possible plume-ridge interactions. RHUM-RUM aims to characterize the vertically ascending flow in the plume conduit, as well as any lateral flow spreading into the asthenosphere beneath the western Indian Ocean. We want to establish the origin of the heat source that has been fueling this powerful hotspot, by answering the following questions: Is there a direct, isolated conduit into the deepest mantle, which sources its heat and material from the core-mantle boundary? Is there a plume connection to the African superswell at mid-mantle depths? Might the volcanism reflect merely an upper mantle instability? RHUM-RUM also aims at studying the hotspot's interaction with the

  3. Union Learning Representatives: Facilitating Professional Development for Scottish Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexandrou, Alex; O'Brien, Jim

    2007-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, teachers' professional associations and labor organizations, notably in the form of trade unions have historically been involved in education and training in the workplace. Recently, in the United Kingdom this activity has gained greater credence and importance due to the emergence of trade union learning representatives who…

  4. The Effect of International Competition on Union and Nonunion Wages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macpherson, David A.; Stewart, James B.

    1990-01-01

    A study of the impact of international competition on union and nonunion wages found that international competition was a significant determinant and that the net negative effect of a given import share of union and nonunion wages decreased sharply in absolute magnitude as the percentage of organized workers increased. (Author)

  5. Human resource management in a union-free environment

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, R.P.

    1997-12-01

    The title would suggest that there are two separate styles in managing companies: those that are represented and those that are union-free. In actuality, the management style is the same for both types of operations. For example, Zeigler Coal Holding Company has both types of operations; union-represented and union-free, and the company fundamentally manages them the same. A review of past employees relations shows that from the 1920s through the 1960s, there were two opposing positions which were anti-union and pro-company. The atmosphere was almost always confrontational and was normally a win/lose relationship, at best. It is good to first clarify terminology. A union is a third party who represents employees to management. Non-union is usually referred to smaller operations with limited resources and workers who are not represented by a union. Union-free operations are those that are not represented but practice positive employee relations and attempt to develop a win/win situation. This latter should be the management style regardless of whether or not employees are represented.

  6. Learning to Organize: US Unions, Work, and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scully-Russ, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Responding to the recent split in the US labor movement, this paper aims to argue that learning must become an integral part of a progressive union devoted to organizing. Design/methodology/approach: This paper traces the evolution of vocational education in US industrial unions and critiques it in light of the challenges facing labor…

  7. Tensions Mark Relationships between New Organizations and Teachers' Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    As a new breed of national education advocacy organizations gains clout, they're entering into often-uneasy relationships with teachers' unions--and running into a debate about whether they can play a grassroots "ground game" comparable to that of labor. For many unions, the policy changes the newer groups typically support--staffing based on…

  8. Modernised Learning: An Emerging Lifelong Agenda by British Trade Unions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrester, Keith P.

    2001-01-01

    British trade unions' engagement in workplace learning is currently shaped by discourses of globalization and the learning society. Unions' workplace learning representatives appear more focused on uncritical acceptance of learning for employability and less on learning for active citizenship and workplace democracy. (Contains 21 references.) (SK)

  9. Learning for Revival; British Trade Unions and Workplace Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrester, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Against a background of declining union significance and falling membership, this article reviews the recent development of trade union workplace learning in Britain. It is argued that the dominant framework within which this learning is currently undertaken is one of "employability". Instead of an employability framework, it is…

  10. Female Union Band Cemetery, 1975 Plot Plan Mount Zion ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Female Union Band Cemetery, 1975 Plot Plan - Mount Zion Cemetery/ Female Union Band Cemetery, Bounded by 27th Street right-of-way N.W. (formerly Lyons Mill Road), Q Street N.W., & Mill Road N.W., Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  11. Union Troubles on Campus; Seed Money for Black Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langway, Lynn; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Most major universities have resisted the pull of union fever. Some have not and others are giving way. Here is a short review of the development of faculty unions in higher education. Also describes the efforts of the United Negro College Fund in developing a loan program designed to help black colleges survive the rising cost of education. (R K)

  12. Teachers Unions and Student Performance: Help or Hindrance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberts, Randall W.

    2007-01-01

    Randall Eberts explores the role of teachers unions in public education. He focuses particularly on how collective bargaining agreements shape the delivery of educational services, how unions affect both student achievement and the cost of providing quality education, and how they support educational reform efforts. Eberts's synthesis of the…

  13. A Simulation of Union Organizing in a Labor Law Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrada, Roberto L.

    1996-01-01

    To help students of labor law understand the industrial union experience, one professor created a simulation in which students formed a union and bargained with the teacher on course terms and conditions. Planning considerations, simulation stages, and lessons learned are described. The exercise produced a meaningful context for students, taught…

  14. Back to Basics: Unions Reaffirms Their Campus Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Richard D.

    1988-01-01

    The role of the college student union is discussed in this review of what makes a union successful. It is suggested that the truly successful one combines the concepts of unifying force, common meeting ground, and community in order to educate as well as generate revenue. Issues considered include: hiring and training employees; competition with…

  15. College Union Facilities and Their Perceived Influence on Institutional Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierno, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    The College Union is a campus facility that is part of the campus ecology. It provides a place where all can feel a sense of inclusion, safety, involvement, and community. Through a comparative research approach I will present how both students and professional staff perceive the College Union, the programs that are part of the facility, and how…

  16. Students' Unions, Consumerism and the Neo-Liberal University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Rachel; Byford, Kate; Sela, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the economic relationships between individual students' unions and their wider institutions, and the ways in which they articulate with a pervasive consumerist agenda across the higher education sector. We draw on data from a UK-wide study to argue that students' unions have an ambivalent relationship with consumerist…

  17. Blackboard Unions: The AFT and the NEA, 1900-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Marjorie

    This book sets forth the historic obstacles to the unionization of public school teachers, shows how difficult organization was, and illustrates the contradictions faced by public employees in unionization. The book is organized chronologically, beginning with the centralization of school life at the turn of the century and the emergence of early…

  18. Learning for Renewal; Learning in a Trade Union Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopsen, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze learning in a Swedish trade union board in a workplace, according to contemporary challenges in working life and conditions, of decentralization and local independency of trade union work and learning. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on ethnographic studies of two Swedish local trade…

  19. The Free Kindergarten Union of Victoria, 1908-80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardiner, Lyndsay

    The social history of the Free Kindergarten Union of the State of Victoria, Australia, from inception in 1908 to the year 1980 is recorded in this book. Growth of the union is described within the context of the World Wars, the Depression, and urbanization and industrialization. The story begins with volunteerism and philanthropy, and with four…

  20. 20 CFR 638.814 - Lobbying; political activities; unionization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lobbying; political activities; unionization. 638.814 Section 638.814 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 638.814 Lobbying; political activities; unionization. No funds provided under the Act may be used...

  1. 20 CFR 633.319 - Lobbying, political activities and unionization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lobbying, political activities and unionization. 633.319 Section 633.319 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Lobbying, political activities and unionization. No funds provided under the Act may be used in any way:...

  2. Union Pacific Railroad Company - Clean Water Act Public Notice

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Union Pacific Railroad Company (“Respondent” or “Union Pacific”) for alleged violations of Section 311(b)(3) of the CWA, 33 U.S.C. § 1321(b)(3), and regulations promulgated

  3. In Celebration: The National Union Catalog, Pre-1956 Imprints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, John Y., Ed.

    This document contains the principal papers from a 1981 symposium held to celebrate the completion of the 754-volume National Union Catalog, Pre-1956 Imprints. Papers by both those who use the National Union Catalog (NUC) and those who developed it are included. A brief preface describes the mission of the Center for the Book and the purpose of…

  4. Worksite Health Promotion, Labor Unions and Social Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Robert H. L.

    1989-01-01

    By working with labor unions, health educators have the opportunity to reach worker groups that have been ignored by many worksite health promotion programs. A union-based smoking cessation program is described, and general guidelines for worksite health promotion are given. (IAH)

  5. Transforming Teacher Unions: Fighting for Better Schools and Social Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Bob, Ed.; Charney, Michael, Ed.

    This anthology examines exemplary practices of teachers' unions at the local and national level, presenting visions for the 21st century that involve teachers' unions in the fight to improve public schools and conditions of social justice throughout U.S. communities. Six sections feature 25 articles: (1) "Overview," including…

  6. The Union Learning Fund: A Genuine Success Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The "Daily Telegraph" recently carried an attack on the Union Learning Fund (ULF) as part of its ongoing criticism of unions following the industrial action by cabin crew at British Airways. This included a quote from Conservative MP Francis Maude suggesting that the fund was a form of "money laundering." The article, which was…

  7. Complying with Agency Fee Requirements: A Practical Guide for Unions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francke, Ann H.

    This guide to regulation of agency fees, the monies that unions collect from individuals in a bargaining unit who decline to join the union, discusses the rationale for the fees, outlines procedures for collecting them, and provides excerpts of representative agency fee provisions of existing contracts. The principle on which agency fees are based…

  8. 76 FR 18198 - European Union-United States Atlantis Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION European Union-United States Atlantis Program AGENCY: Office of Postsecondary Education, Department of... Union-(EU) United States (U.S.) Atlantis Program Notice inviting applications for new awards for...

  9. Politics and Policies of Promoting Multilingualism in the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romaine, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the politics of policies promoting multilingualism in the European Union (EU), specifically in light of the recently released European Union Civil Society Platform on Multilingualism. As the most far-reaching and ambitious policy document issued by the European Commission, the Platform warrants close scrutiny at a significant…

  10. Beyond Linguistic Policy: The Soviet Union Versus Estonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rannut, Mart

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of the role of non-Russian languages in the Soviet Union (USSR) focuses on the history of ethnic group languages and language policy in Estonia since the collapse of totalitarianism. A historical overview of Soviet Union language policy is offered, with attention given to the ideological goals influencing policy, and their realization…

  11. 78 FR 77608 - Requirements for Contacts with Federal Credit Unions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 701 RIN 3133-AE34 Requirements for Contacts with Federal Credit Unions AGENCY...) proposes to amend part 701 of its regulations to require examinations and other contacts between NCUA staff... one method for members and NCUA staff to contact the credit union. These requirements would apply...

  12. Power in Practice: Trade Union Education in Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stirling, John

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the development of a trade union education program in Sierra Leone in the geo-historical context of British colonialism. It places the argument in relation to the contradictory trends of trade unionism more generally and alongside their antagonistic cooperation with capitalism. It discusses the limits and…

  13. 12 CFR 221.104 - Federal credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Federal credit unions. 221.104 Section 221.104... (CONTINUED) CREDIT BY BANKS AND PERSONS OTHER THAN BROKERS OR DEALERS FOR THE PURPOSE OF PURCHASING OR CARRYING MARGIN STOCK (REGULATION U) Interpretations § 221.104 Federal credit unions. For text of...

  14. Regulatory Regionalism and Education: The European Union in Central Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the purchase which Jayasuriya's regulatory regionalism approach offers for an analysis of the European Union's engagement in Central Asia. The European Union has a clearly articulated strategy through which to pursue what it sees as its interests in Central Asia and the development of a range of EU-Central Asia education…

  15. Let the Union Reduce the Hassle of Teacher Grievances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galish, John

    1982-01-01

    Proposes that school districts establish informal liaison committees with union and management representatives to speed up resolution of problems without having to resort to usually slow-moving grievance procedures. Suggests how to set up and operate a management-union liaison committee. (RW)

  16. A Small College in Maryland Trains Union Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashburn, Elyse

    2006-01-01

    The National Labor College was created to increase educational opportunities for union members, and its bachelor's-degree programs, like labor studies and the political economy of labor, focus on material that is immediately applicable to workers' day-to-day union roles. The idea is to make those blue-collar workers more effective at negotiating,…

  17. 75 FR 71526 - Corporate Credit Unions, Technical Corrections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 704 RIN 3133-AD58 Corporate Credit Unions, Technical Corrections AGENCY: National... is issuing technical corrections to its corporate credit union rule, published in the Federal... rating requirements in Sec. 704.6; and correct a date contained in Model Form H of Appendix A to part...

  18. Reforming Public School Systems through Sustained Union-Management Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinstein, Saul A.; McCarthy, John E.

    2011-01-01

    For most of the past decade the policy debate over improving U.S. public education has centered on teacher quality. In this debate, teachers and their unions have often been seen as the problem, not part of the solution. Further, current discourse often assumes that conflicting interests between teacher unions and administration is inevitable.…

  19. Impact of Ni/Ge/Au/Ti/Au and Ti/Pt/Au collector metal on GaInP/GaAs HBT characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae-Woo; Mohammadi, Saeed; Pavlidis, Dimitris

    2000-10-01

    The collector-emitter offset voltage of GaInP/GaAs HBTs grown by chemical-beam epitaxy with reduced toxicity precursors is investigated for Ni/Ge/Au/Ti/Au and Ti/Pt/Au collector contact metals. The offset voltage for HBTs with Ti/Pt/Au collector metal is increased by 0.26 V compared to Ni/Ge/Au/Ti/Au due to the 0.26 eV barrier existing between the n-GaAs subcollector and the Ti/Pt/Au contact metal. Other parameters affected by the collector contact barrier and impacting transistor performance include DC gain, microwave and power performance.

  20. Multicomponent Reactions, Union of MCRs and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Zarganes-Tzitzikas, Tryfon; Chandgude, Ajay L; Dömling, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    Multicomponent reactions (MCRs), which are located between one- and two-component and polymerization reactions, provide a number of valuable conceptual and synthetic advantages over stepwise sequential approaches towards complex and valuable molecules. To address current limitations in the number of MCRs and the resulting scaffolds, the concept of union of MCRs was introduced two decades ago by Dömling and Ugi and is rapidly advancing, as is apparent by several recently published works. MCR technology is now widely recognized for its impact on drug discovery projects and is strongly endorsed by industry in addition to academia. Clearly, novel scaffolds accessible in few steps including MCRs will further enhance the field of applications. Additionally, broad expansion of MCR applications in fields such as imaging, materials science, medical devices, agriculture, or futuristic applications in stem cell therapy and theragnostics or solar energy and superconductivity are predicted.

  1. State of the Data Union, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This is the first report on the State of the Data Union (SDU) for the NASA Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA). OSSA responsibilities include the collection, analysis, and permanent archival of data critical to space science research. The nature of how this is done by OSSA is evolving to keep pace with changes in space research. Current and planned missions have evolved to be more complex and multidisciplinary, and are generating much more data and lasting longer than earlier missions. New technologies enable global access to data, transfer of huge volumes of data, and increasingly complex analysis. The SDU provides a snapshot of this dynamic environment, identifying trends in capabilities and requirements. The current space science data environment is described and parameters which capture the pulse of key functions within that environment are presented. Continuous efforts of OSSA to improve the availability and quality of data provided to the scientific community are reported, highlighting efforts such as the Data Management Initiative.

  2. Nuclear power in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.

    1989-01-01

    The pros and cons of nuclear power are similar in many countries, but the following pro factors are specific to the Soviet Union: the major sources of conventional fuel are in one area of the country, but energy consumption is concentrated in another; and a large portion of energy is generated using oil and gas. The arguments against nuclear power are as follows: safety requirements and expectations have been increased; and public opinion is negative. A program of nuclear power generation has been developed. New techniques are being implemented to increase safety and enhance operations of different types of nuclear power plants. Its should be obvious in the future that a nuclear power plant has better economic and environmental parameters than existing methods of power generation.

  3. Heterostructured CIGS-Au nanoparticles: from Au-CIGS side-by-side structure to Au-core/CIGS-shell configuration.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yeming; Li, Quan

    2011-08-01

    Heterostructured Au-Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS) nanoparticles (nps) with Au-CIGS side-by-side and Au-core/CIGS-shell configurations have been synthesized in a controllable manner using seed mediated growth. Detailed microstructure analysis reveals that (112) planes in the tetragonal chalcopyrite CIGS serve as the predominant termination surfaces during single phase CIGS nanoparticle growth. Preferential nucleation of Au on such planes determines the Au-CIGS side-by-side configuration when the pre-synthesized CIGS nps are used as the seeds for further Au growth. Reversing the growth sequence by employing Au nano-seeds results in Au-core/CIGS-shell configuration, as determined by the non-preferential nucleation of CIGS on the spherical Au nanoparticle surface. The different morphological configurations of the heterostructures are found to modify the surface plasmon resonance of Au in the corresponding samples.

  4. Laboratory medicine in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Oosterhuis, Wytze P; Zerah, Simone

    2015-01-01

    The profession of laboratory medicine differs between countries within the European Union (EU) in many respects. The objective of professional organizations of the promotion of mutual recognition of specialists within the EU is closely related to the free movement of people. This policy translates to equivalence of standards and harmonization of the training curriculum. The aim of the present study is the description of the organization and practice of laboratory medicine within the countries that constitute the EU. A questionnaire covering many aspects of the profession was sent to delegates of the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) and Union Européenne de Médecins Spécialistes (UEMS) of the 28 EU countries. Results were sent to the delegates for confirmation. Many differences between countries were identified: predominantly medical or scientific professionals; a broad or limited professional field of interest; inclusion of patient treatment; formal or absent recognition; a regulated or absent formal training program; general or minor application of a quality system based on ISO Norms. The harmonization of the postgraduate training of both clinical chemists and of laboratory physicians has been a goal for many years. Differences in the organization of the laboratory professions still exist in the respective countries which all have a long historical development with their own rationality. It is an important challenge to harmonize our profession, and difficult choices will need to be made. Recent developments with respect to the directive on Recognition of Professional Qualifications call for new initiatives to harmonize laboratory medicine both across national borders, and across the borders of scientific and medical professions.

  5. Compulsory Unionism, the NLRB, and the Courts: A Legal Analysis of Union Security Agreements. Labor Relations and Public Policy Series Report No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggard, Thomas R.

    As used here, compulsory union or union security agreements are federally sanctioned contracts between a labor union and employer whereby the employer agrees to require his employees, as a condition of their employment, to affiliate with the union in some way. Right-to-work is usually construed to mean the liberty of the individual to have a job…

  6. Relationship effort, satisfaction, and stability: differences across union type.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Kevin; Jensen, Todd M; Larson, Jeffry H

    2014-04-01

    Relationship satisfaction and stability are two commonly studied outcomes in marriage and family research. Majority of studies address socio demographic variability and differences across union type in these outcomes. We extend this literature by addressing how the amount of effort one puts into their relationship is associated with stability and satisfaction. Specifically, we focus on how effort impacts these measures of quality in four union types: premarital cohabitation, first marriage, post-divorce cohabitation, and second marriage following divorce. Furthermore, we make union type comparisons in the strength of effort's association with satisfaction and stability. Using data from 8,006 respondents in the Relationship Evaluation Survey, our results show that effort was strongly and positively associated with satisfaction and stability in all four unions. Although effort is more strongly associated with satisfaction in first marriage than cohabiting relationships, no union type differences in the role of effort on stability were observed. Clinical and research implications of these findings are discussed.

  7. The African Millennium Villages

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Pedro; Palm, Cheryl; Sachs, Jeffrey; Denning, Glenn; Flor, Rafael; Harawa, Rebbie; Jama, Bashir; Kiflemariam, Tsegazeab; Konecky, Bronwen; Kozar, Raffaela; Lelerai, Eliud; Malik, Alia; Modi, Vijay; Mutuo, Patrick; Niang, Amadou; Okoth, Herine; Place, Frank; Sachs, Sonia Ehrlich; Said, Amir; Siriri, David; Teklehaimanot, Awash; Wang, Karen; Wangila, Justine; Zamba, Colleen

    2007-01-01

    We describe the concept, strategy, and initial results of the Millennium Villages Project and implications regarding sustainability and scalability. Our underlying hypothesis is that the interacting crises of agriculture, health, and infrastructure in rural Africa can be overcome through targeted public-sector investments to raise rural productivity and, thereby, to increased private-sector saving and investments. This is carried out by empowering impoverished communities with science-based interventions. Seventy-eight Millennium Villages have been initiated in 12 sites in 10 African countries, each representing a major agroecological zone. In early results, the research villages in Kenya, Ethiopia, and Malawi have reduced malaria prevalence, met caloric requirements, generated crop surpluses, enabled school feeding programs, and provided cash earnings for farm families. PMID:17942701

  8. Architect of Union Victory? Montgomery Meigs, Jomini, and Union Success in the American Civil War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-23

    Miller, ed., The Peninsula Campaign of 1862: Yorktown to the Seven Days. Vol. 2. (CA: Savas Woodbury, 1995), xiii. 2 Russell F. Weigley, Quartermaster...Vol. 2. (CA: Savas Woodbury, 1995), 4. 9 William J. Miller, 9. 10 Russell F. Weigley, Quartermaster General of the Union Army: A Biography of...Russell F. Weigley, 37. 15 William J. Miller, ed., The Peninsula Campaign of 1862: Yorktown to the Seven Days. Vol. 2. (CA: Savas Woodbury, 1995

  9. [African population in history].

    PubMed

    Yang, S

    1984-11-29

    The growth rate of the African population has been fluctuating throughout history, affected by political, social, and economic events. 6000 years ago, the majority of the population was based in North Africa, because farming had been developed there. However, between the 11th and the 16th centuries, there was a constant decline in the population of that region, due to invasions from Europe and the black plague. During the same period, the population in the area south of the Sahara grew rapidly, as people there had gone into the iron tool period and farming had been developed. From the 16th to the mid-17th Century, population growth was considerable in Africa; more people had learned the technology of irrigation, corn and potatoes had been introduced from South America, and colonialism was not yet an issue. From the mid-17th to the mid-19th Century, there was no growth, due to the slave trade and wars between tribes. One estimate sets the direct and indirect loss during this period, as a result of the slave trade, at 100 million people. From the 1850s to the end of World War I, population growth started up again, chiefly influenced by the fact that the slave trade had essentially come to a half and modern medical care had become available on the continent. However, in central Africa, the region which suffered the worst blow from the slave trade, growth was very slow, while in East Africa the population was declining because of wars between colonists and natives, as well as natural disasters. Increases in population during this period were a result of immigration from Europe and India. From the end of World War I to the present, growth has been rapid, given improvements in medical services and standards of living, while most of the former colonies became independent after the 1950s. Consequently, almost all African countries are under great pressure now with regard to their populations.

  10. Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    1989-11-01

    The Central African Republic contains 242,000 square miles, which rolling terrain almost 2000 feet above sea level. The climate is tropical, and it has a population of 2.8 million people with a 2.5% growth rate. There are more than 80 ethnic groups including Baya 34%, Banda 28%, Sara 10%, Mandja 9%, Mboum 9%, and M'Baka 7%. The religions are traditional African 35%, protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, and Muslim 15%, and the languages are French and Sangho. The infant mortality rate is 143/1000, with expectancy at 49 years and a 40% literacy rate. The work force of 1 million is 70% agricultural, industry 6% and commerce and service 6% and government 3%. The government consists of a president assisted by cabinet ministers and a single party. Natural resources include diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, and oil, and major industries are beverages, textiles, and soap. Agricultural products feature coffee, cotton, peanuts, tobacco, food crops and livestock. Most of the population live in rural areas and most of the 80 ethnic groups have their own language. This is one of the world's least developed countries, with a per capita income of $375/year. The main problems with development are the poor transportation infrastructure, and the weak internal and international marketing systems. The US and various international organizations have aided in agriculture development, health programs, and family planning. US investment is mainly in diamond and gold mining, and although oil drilling has been successful it is not economically feasible at current prices.

  11. Au Fixed Point Development at NRC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedyulin, S. N.; Gotoh, M.; Todd, A. D. W.

    2017-04-01

    Two Au fixed points filled using metal of different nominal purities in carbon crucibles have been developed at the National Research Council Canada (NRC). The primary motivation behind this project was to provide the means for direct thermocouple calibrations at the Au freezing point (1064.18°C). Using a Au fixed point filled with the metal of maximum available purity [99.9997 % pure according to glow discharge mass spectroscopy (GDMS)], multiple freezing plateaus were measured in a commercial high-temperature furnace. Four Pt/Pd thermocouples constructed and calibrated in-house were used to measure the freezing plateaus. From the calibration at Sn, Zn, Al and Ag fixed points, the linear deviation function from the NIST-IMGC reference function (IEC 62460:2008 Standard) was determined and extrapolated to the freezing temperature of Au. For all the Pt/Pd thermocouples used in this study, the measured EMF values agree with the extrapolated values within expanded uncertainty, thus substantiating the use of 99.9997 % pure Au fixed point cell for thermocouple calibrations at NRC. Using the Au fixed point filled with metal of lower purity (99.99 % pure according to GDMS), the effect of impurities on the Au freezing temperature measured with Pt/Pd thermocouple was further investigated.

  12. Synthesis of Au microwires by selective oxidation of Au-W thin-film composition spreads.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Sven; Brunken, Hayo; Salomon, Steffen; Meyer, Robert; Savan, Alan; Ludwig, Alfred

    2013-02-01

    We report on the stress-induced growth of Au microwires out of a surrounding Au-W matrix by selective oxidation, in view of a possible application as 'micro-Velcro'. The Au wires are extruded due to the high compressive stress in the tungsten oxide formed by oxidation of elemental W. The samples were fabricated as a thin-film materials library using combinatorial sputter deposition followed by thermal oxidation. Sizes and shapes of the Au microwires were investigated as a function of the W to Au ratio. The coherence length and stress state of the Au microwires were related to their shape and plastic deformation. Depending on the composition of the Au-W precursor, the oxidized samples showed regions with differently shaped Au microwires. The Au48W52 composition yielded wires with the maximum length to diameter ratio due to the high compressive stress in the tungsten oxide matrix. The values of wire length (35 μm) and diameter (2 μm) achieved at the Au48W52 composition are suitable for micro-Velcro applications.

  13. Au/Au@polythiophene core/shell nanospheres for heterogeneous catalysis of nitroarenes.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hye-Seon; Huh, Seong

    2012-11-01

    Monodisperse Au/Au@polythiophene core/shell nanospheres were facilely prepared through the reduction of gold precursor, AuCl₄⁻, by 2-thiopheneacetonitrile in an aqueous solution. Concomitantly, 2-thiopheneacetonitrile polymerized during this redox process. As a result, Au nanoparticle was encapsulated by conductive polymer shell to afford novel core/shell nanospheres. Interestingly, the shell was composed of very tiny Au nanoparticles surrounded with thiophene polymers. Thus, the new material is best described as Au/Au@polythiophene core/shell nanospheres. FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that the Au nanoparticles were coordinated by the C≡N groups of the polythiophene shell. Some of the C≡N groups were partially hydrolyzed into COOH groups during the redox process because of the acidic reaction condition. The shell was conductive based on the typical ohmic behavior found in electrical measurement. The Au/Au@polythiophene core/shell nanospheres were found to be very active catalysts for the hydrogenation of various nitroarene compounds into corresponding aminoarene compounds in the presence of NaBH₄. Both hydrophilic and hydrophobic nitroarenes were efficiently hydrogenated under mild conditions.

  14. African Passages: Journaling through Archetypes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Patricia

    1990-01-01

    Explores how students (through an awareness of literary archetypes and journal writing) can use African stories to cross cultures, time, and continents, making connections between their worlds and the worlds of others. (MG)

  15. Early African Hominids: Pedagogic Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, James L.

    1984-01-01

    By studying early African hominids, students can learn about the interactive testing and creative aspects of scientific thinking and sharpen their geographical skills. It is impossible to study this topic without giving prominence to space and time. (RM)

  16. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    MedlinePlus

    ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of Alzheimer's, ... two times more likely to develop late-onset Alzheimer's disease than whites and less likely to have a ...

  17. A very rare Presentation of Bifocal Non Union Radius with Ipsilateral Ulnar Shaft Non Union: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Padha, Vikas; Awasthi, Bhanu; Singh, Dhananjay; Kalia, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: A bifocal non-union of shaft of radius associated with ipsilateral non-union shaft of ulna in an adult has not been reported in the literature till date to the best of our knowledge, though few similar cases of fresh fractures have been reported. The case being reported by us is the first of its kind. Case Presentation: We report a case of bifocal non-union of shaft radius with non-union ipsilateral shaft of ulna in a 48-year-old right handed male along with discussion of alternative treatment options. Conclusion: We describe an extremely rare and complicated non-union in which our patient got excellent results along with satisfactory functional recovery as a result of appropriate surgical treatment. PMID:27299137

  18. Au40: A Large Tetrahedral Magic Cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Deen; Walter, Michael

    2011-01-01

    40 is a magic number for tetrahedral symmetry predicted in both nuclear physics and the electronic jellium model. We show that Au{sub 40} could be such a magic cluster from density functional theory-based basin hopping for global minimization. The putative global minimum found for Au{sub 40} has a twisted pyramid structure, reminiscent of the famous tetrahedral Au{sub 20}, and a sizable HOMO-LUMO gap of 0.69 eV, indicating its molecular nature. Analysis of the electronic states reveals that the gap is related to shell closings of the metallic electrons in a tetrahedrally distorted effective potential.

  19. Hepatitis C in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Saab, Sammy; Jackson, Christian; Nieto, Jose; Francois, Fritz

    2014-10-01

    The care of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in African Americans represents an opportunity to address a major health disparity in medicine. In all facets of HCV infection, African Americans are inexplicably affected, including in the prevalence of the virus, which is higher among them compared with most of the racial and ethnic groups. Ironically, although fibrosis rates may be slow, hepatocellular carcinoma and mortality rates appear to be higher among African Americans. Sustained viral response (SVR) rates have historically significantly trailed behind Caucasians. The reasons for this gap in SVR are related to both viral and host factors. Moreover, low enrollment rates in clinical trials hamper the study of the efficacy of anti-viral therapy. Nevertheless, the gap in SVR between African Americans and Caucasians may be narrowing with the use of direct-acting agents. Gastroenterologists, hepatologists, primary care physicians, and other health-care providers need to address modifiable risk factors that affect the natural history, as well as treatment outcomes, for HCV among African Americans. Efforts need to be made to improve awareness among health-care providers to address the differences in screening and referral patterns for African Americans.

  20. Ir-induced activation of Au towards CO adsorption: Ir films deposited on Au{111}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tianfu; Driver, Stephen M.; Pratt, Stephanie J.; Jenkins, Stephen J.; King, David A.

    2016-06-01

    We have investigated the interaction of CO with Ir/Au{111} bimetallic surfaces, and the influence of morphology changes as Ir moves sub-surface into the Au bulk, using reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS). The presence of Ir stabilises CO on exposed regions of the Au surface at temperatures up to around 200 K: we attribute this to low-coordinated Au sites, probably associated with lifting of the clean-surface 'herringbone' reconstruction by Ir deposition. The highest density of active Au sites is obtained after annealing the bimetallic surface to 500-600 K: we attribute this to morphology changes associated with the movement of Ir into bulk Au.

  1. Regulating the surface plasmon resonance coupling between Au-nanoparticle and Au-film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuang; Li, Kewu; Zhang, Rui; Jing, Ning; Chen, Youhua; Chen, Yuanyuan; Wang, Zhibin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we report the coupling between the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of Au-nanoparticles and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the Au-film. According to the conditions for SPR excitation of the classical Kretschmann-Raether structure with 50nm Au thin film, the commonly used classes of spherical Au-nanoparticle is studied and optimized. We used the finite element analysis (COMSOL Multiphysics 5.0), to simulate the coupling. The results from calculation and simulation indicate that the resonant plasmonic coupling between Au-nanoparticles and Au-film could lead to a large field enhancement and thus improve SPR. We demonstrate that the resonant plasmonic coupling could be regulated by the size of nanoparticles, the distance between nanoparticles .

  2. Health, Human Capital, and African American Migration Before 1910.

    PubMed

    Logan, Trevon D

    2009-04-01

    Using both IPUMS and the Colored Troops Sample of the Civil War Union Army Data, I estimate the effects of literacy and health on the migration propensities of African Americans from 1870 to 1910. I find that literacy and health shocks were strong predictors of migration and the stock of health was not. There were differential selection propensities based on slave status-former slaves were less likely to migrate given a specific health shock than free blacks. Counterfactuals suggest that as much as 35 percent of the difference in the mobility patterns of former slaves and free blacks is explained by differences in their human capital, and more than 20 percent of that difference is due to health alone. Overall, the selection effect of literacy on migration is reduced by one-tenth to one-third once health is controlled for. The low levels of human capital accumulation and rates of mobility for African Americans after the Civil War are partly explained by the poor health status of slaves and their immediate descendants.

  3. Health, Human Capital, and African American Migration Before 1910

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Trevon D.

    2009-01-01

    Using both IPUMS and the Colored Troops Sample of the Civil War Union Army Data, I estimate the effects of literacy and health on the migration propensities of African Americans from 1870 to 1910. I find that literacy and health shocks were strong predictors of migration and the stock of health was not. There were differential selection propensities based on slave status—former slaves were less likely to migrate given a specific health shock than free blacks. Counterfactuals suggest that as much as 35 percent of the difference in the mobility patterns of former slaves and free blacks is explained by differences in their human capital, and more than 20 percent of that difference is due to health alone. Overall, the selection effect of literacy on migration is reduced by one-tenth to one-third once health is controlled for. The low levels of human capital accumulation and rates of mobility for African Americans after the Civil War are partly explained by the poor health status of slaves and their immediate descendants. PMID:20161107

  4. African Swine Fever Virus: a new old enemy of Europe

    PubMed

    Cisek, Agata A; Dąbrowska, Iwona; Gregorczyk, Karolina P; Wyżewski, Zbigniew

    2016-10-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious viral disease of swine with a mortality rate approaching 100 percent. African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) is a double-stranded DNA virus with a complex molecular structure. Its large genome, encoding multiple virulence factors, allows for efficient replication, which takes place predominantly in the cytoplasm of monocytes and macrophages. Also, ASFV has the ability to interfere with cell signalling pathways, which leads to various modulations in the synthesis profiles of interferon and other cytokines. Sustained viremia favours the persistence of virions in blood and tissues of the convalescents, and the extended circulation of ASFV within the herd. ASFV has been spreading in the Caucasus since 2007, and in 2014 reached the eastern territory of the European Union. Outbreaks pose an economical threat to native pig rearing, especially since a single point source may easily develop into an epizootic event. There is currently no effective vaccine nor treatment for ASF, and eradication is possible only by prevention or the slaughter of diseased animals. This review paper summarizes the current state of knowledge about ASFV.

  5. Teachers unions and student performance: help or hindrance?

    PubMed

    Eberts, Randall W

    2007-01-01

    Randall Eberts explores the role of teachers unions in public education. He focuses particularly on how collective bargaining agreements shape the delivery of educational services, how unions affect both student achievement and the cost of providing quality education, and how they support educational reform efforts. Eberts's synthesis of the empirical research concludes that union bargaining raises teachers' compensation, improves their working conditions, and enhances their employment security-while also raising the cost of providing public education by upwards of 15 percent. The effect of unions on student performance is mixed. Students of average ability who attend school in union districts perform better on standardized tests, whereas low-achieving and high-achieving students perform worse. However, the overall gain in achievement does not make up for the higher cost. Of late, unions have begun to be more supportive of school reform, moving from an adversarial bargaining model to a more collaborative one in which teachers and administrators share common goals and hold joint responsibility. Yet unions' desire to participate in reform does not match their fervor to organize in the 1960s and 1970s. While national union leadership has talked about reform, local affiliates have initiated most of the reform efforts, pioneering reforms such as accountability and incentive pay. In Eberts's view, one reason that unions have been slow to embrace reform efforts is the lack of consensus on their effectiveness. He argues that many reforms have been too narrowly focused; rather, effective schools result from well-designed systems and processes. In principle, adopting standards that help teachers focus on lessons they want students to learn, aligning their teaching to the lessons, and devising measurements that demonstrate that students are responding to these lessons can improve teaching as long as the public, policymakers, and school administrators acknowledge the

  6. Directional light scattering from individual Au nanocup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Jinjun; Li, Yong; Zhao, Bo

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the optical scattering properties of gold nanocup with different orientation and fractional height by full vector finite element method. All of the scattering cross section, the distribution of electric field intensity, and the ability of directional light scattering are simulated, respectively. It is demonstrated that the scattering cross section of Au nanocup is a superposition of scattering spectrum of a transverse mode and an axial mode. The wavelength and the intensity of the maximum value of the scattering cross section increase initially then reduce with the fractional height increasing for transverse mode, while they increase monotonously with the fractional height increasing for axial mode. Furthermore, the calculation results show that the ability of redirecting incident light of Au nanocup mainly depends on the transverse mode. And the deflected angle of scattering increases with the fractional height of Au nanocup decreasing. These results indicate that Au nanocup has a promising application in the planar plasmon devices.

  7. PHENIX results on jets in d + Au

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanks, J. Ali

    2016-12-01

    We present recently published results [A. Adare, et al., arxiv:arXiv:1509.04657] on fully reconstructed R=0.3 anti-kt jets measured in p+p and d+Au collisions at 200 GeV center-of-mass energy. The jet yields for four centrality classes along with the p+p reference are presented, as well as both the minimum bias RdAu and centrality dependent RdAu and RCP. We find that while the minimum bias RdA is consistent with unity, providing a strong constraint on models including cold-nuclear-matter effects or energy loss in small systems, the centrality dependent RdAu show a striking variation which presents a challenge to models attempting to describe the interplay between soft and hard processes in these systems.

  8. RHIC Au beam in Run 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S. Y.

    2014-09-15

    Au beam at the RHIC ramp in run 2014 is reviewed together with the run 2011 and run 2012. Observed bunch length and longitudinal emittance are compared with the IBS simulations. The IBS growth rate of the longitudinal emittance in run 2014 is similar to run 2011, and both are larger than run 2012. This is explained by the large transverse emittance at high intensity observed in run 2012, but not in run 2014. The big improvement of the AGS ramping in run 2014 might be related to this change. The importance of the injector intensity improvement in run 2014 is emphasized, which gives rise to the initial luminosity improvement of 50% in run 2014, compared with the previous Au-Au run 2011. In addition, a modified IBS model, which is calibrated using the RHIC Au runs from 9.8 GeV/n to 100 GeV/n, is presented and used in the study.

  9. Thermal Expansion of AuIn2

    SciTech Connect

    Saw, C K; Siekhaus, W J

    2004-07-12

    The thermal expansion of AuIn{sub 2} gold is of great interest in soldering technology. Indium containing solders have been used to make gold wire interconnects at low soldering temperature and over time, AuIn{sub 2} is formed between the gold wire and the solder due to the high heat of formation and the high inter-metallic diffusion of indium. Hence, the thermal expansion of AuIn{sub 2} alloy in comparison with that of the gold wire and the indium-containing solder is critical in determining the integrity of the connection. We present the results of x-ray diffraction measurement of the coefficient of linear expansion of AuIn{sub 2} as well as the bulk expansion and density changes over the temperature range of 30 to 500 C.

  10. Union job fight boiling at DOE cleanup sites

    SciTech Connect

    Setzer, S.W.

    1993-11-15

    The US DOE is facing a growing jurisdictional dispute over which unions will perform the majority of clean-up work at its facilities. Unions affiliated with the AFL-CIO Metal Trades Council representing operations employees at the sites believe they have a fundamental right to work. Unions in the AFL-CIO's Building and Construction Trades Dept. insist that they have a clear mandate under federal labor law and the Davis-Bacon Act. The issue has heated up in recent weeks at the policy level and is boiling in a contentious dispute at DOE's Fernald site in Ohio.

  11. Counterion-Mediated Assembly of Spherical Nucleic Acid-Au Nanoparticle Conjugates (SNA-AuNPs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kewalramani, Sumit; Moreau, Liane; Guerrero-García, Guillermo; Mirkin, Chad; Olvera de La Cruz, Monica; Bedzyk, Michael; Afosr Muri Team

    2015-03-01

    Controlled crystallization of colloids from solution has been a goal of material scientists for decades. Recently, nucleic acid functionalized spherical Au nanoparticles (SNA-AuNPs) have been programmed to assemble in a wide variety of crystal structures. In this approach, the assembly is driven by Watson-Crick hybridization between DNAs coating the AuNPs. Here, we show that counterions can induce ordered assembly of SNA-AuNPs in bulk solutions, even in the absence of base pairing interactions. The electrostatics-driven assembly of spherical nucleic acid-Au nanoparticle conjugates (SNA-AuNPs) is probed as a function of counterion concentration and counterion valency [ +1 (Na+) or +2 (Ca2+) ] by in situ solution X-ray scattering. Assemblies of AuNPs capped with single-stranded (ss-) or double-stranded (ds-) DNA are examined. SAXS reveals disordered (gas-like) --> face-centered-cubic (FCC) --> glass-like phase transitions with increasing solution ionic strength. These studies demonstrate how non-base-pairing interactions can be tuned to create crystalline assemblies of SNA-AuNPs. The dependence of the inter-SNA-AuNP interactions on counterion valency and stiffness of the DNA corona will be discussed.

  12. DFT study on cysteine adsorption mechanism on Au(111) and Au(110)

    SciTech Connect

    Buimaga-Iarinca, Luiza; Floare, Calin G.; Calborean, Adrian; Turcu, Ioan

    2013-11-13

    Periodic density functional theory calculations were used to investigate relevant aspects of adsorption mechanisms of cysteine dimers in protonated form on Au(111) and Au(110) surfaces. The projected densities of states are explicitly discussed for all main chemical groups of cysteine, i.e. the amino group (NH2), the thiol group (SH) and the carboxylic group (COOH) to identify differences in adsorption mechanism. Special emphasis is put on the analysis of changes in the electronic structure of molecules adsorbed on Au(111) and Au(110) surfaces as well as the accompanying charge transfer mechanisms at molecule-substrate interaction.

  13. Marriage Trajectories and Health Risk Behaviors Throughout Adulthood Among Urban African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Green, Kerry M.; Doherty, Elaine E.; Fothergill, Kate E.; Ensminger, Margaret E.

    2015-01-01

    Although previous studies have identified a protective effect of marriage on risky health behaviors, gaps remain in our understanding of how marriage improves health, particularly among African Americans. This study uses longitudinal data to take selection into account and examines whether marital trajectories that incorporate timing, stability, and duration of marriage affect health risk behaviors among a community cohort of urban African Americans followed for 35 years (N = 1,049). For both men and women, we find six marital trajectories. Men and women in consistently married trajectories are less likely to smoke, drink heavily (women only), and use illegal drugs than those in unmarried or previously married trajectories. Late marrying men do not fare worse in midlife than men in earlier marrying trajectories, but late marrying women show increased risk of midlife drug use. Results suggest policies supporting marriage may have an impact on health but only if stable unions are achieved. PMID:26136611

  14. Marriage Trajectories and Health Risk Behaviors Throughout Adulthood Among Urban African Americans.

    PubMed

    Green, Kerry M; Doherty, Elaine E; Fothergill, Kate E; Ensminger, Margaret E

    2012-12-01

    Although previous studies have identified a protective effect of marriage on risky health behaviors, gaps remain in our understanding of how marriage improves health, particularly among African Americans. This study uses longitudinal data to take selection into account and examines whether marital trajectories that incorporate timing, stability, and duration of marriage affect health risk behaviors among a community cohort of urban African Americans followed for 35 years (N = 1,049). For both men and women, we find six marital trajectories. Men and women in consistently married trajectories are less likely to smoke, drink heavily (women only), and use illegal drugs than those in unmarried or previously married trajectories. Late marrying men do not fare worse in midlife than men in earlier marrying trajectories, but late marrying women show increased risk of midlife drug use. Results suggest policies supporting marriage may have an impact on health but only if stable unions are achieved.

  15. Union of phylogeography and landscape genetics

    PubMed Central

    Rissler, Leslie J.

    2016-01-01

    Phylogeography and landscape genetics have arisen within the past 30 y. Phylogeography is said to be the bridge between population genetics and systematics, and landscape genetics the bridge between landscape ecology and population genetics. Both fields can be considered as simply the amalgamation of classic biogeography with genetics and genomics; however, they differ in the temporal, spatial, and organismal scales addressed and the methodology used. I begin by briefly summarizing the history and purview of each field and suggest that, even though landscape genetics is a younger field (coined in 2003) than phylogeography (coined in 1987), early studies by Dobzhansky on the “microgeographic races” of Linanthus parryae in the Mojave Desert of California and Drosophila pseudoobscura across the western United States presaged the fields by over 40 y. Recent advances in theory, models, and methods have allowed researchers to better synthesize ecological and evolutionary processes in their quest to answer some of the most basic questions in biology. I highlight a few of these novel studies and emphasize three major areas ripe for investigation using spatially explicit genomic-scale data: the biogeography of speciation, lineage divergence and species delimitation, and understanding adaptation through time and space. Examples of areas in need of study are highlighted, and I end by advocating a union of phylogeography and landscape genetics under the more general field: biogeography. PMID:27432989

  16. The kinetics of rugby union scrummaging.

    PubMed

    Milburn, P D

    1990-01-01

    Two rugby union forward packs of differing ability levels were examined during scrummaging against an instrumented scrum machine. By systematically moving the front-row of the scrum along the scrum machine, kinetic data on each front-row forward could be obtained under all test conditions. Each forward pack was tested under the following scrummaging combinations: front-row only; front-row plus second-row; full scrum minus side-row, and full scrum. Data obtained from each scrum included the three orthogonal components of force at engagement and the sustained force applied by each front-row player. An estimate of sub-unit contributions was made by subtracting the total forward force on all three front-row players from the total for the complete scrum. Results indicated the primary role of the second-row appeared to be application of forward force. The back-row ('number eight') forward did not substantially contribute any additional forward force, and added only slightly to the lateral and vertical shear force experienced by the front-row. The side-row contributed an additional 20-27% to the forward force, but at the expense of increased vertical forces on all front-row forwards. Results of this investigation are discussed in relation to rule modification, rule interpretation and coaching.

  17. Cogeneration in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Horak, W.C.

    1997-07-01

    The former Soviet Union made a major commitment to Cogeneration. The scale and nature of this commitment created a system conceptually different from Cogeneration in the west. The differences were both in scale, in political commitment, and in socio economic impact. This paper addresses some of the largest scale Cogeneration programs, the technology, and the residual impact of these programs. The integration of the Cogeneration and nuclear programs is a key focus of the paper. Soviet designed nuclear power plants were designed to produce both electricity and heat for residential and industrial uses. Energy systems used to implement this design approach are discussed. The significant dependence on these units for heat created an urgent need for continued operation during the winter. Electricity and heat are also produced in nuclear weapons production facilities, as well as power plants. The Soviets also had designed, and initiated construction of a number of nuclear power plants {open_quotes}ATETs{close_quotes} optimized for production of heat as well as electricity. These were canceled.

  18. Differences in vaccinations in European Union.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Principi, Nicola

    2008-01-01

    The European Union (EU) currently has 27 Member States, each with its own history, characteristics and habits. The National Health Services of most of these countries have different vaccination systems, different vaccine recommendations and different schedules of vaccine administration, which means that immunization is not considered in the same way and, at least for some antigens, vaccination coverage does not always meet changing medical needs. Together with a lack of political will concerning prevention in childhood, a poor understanding or false perceptions on the part of the general public (and even healthcare workers), and the inadequacies and heterogeneity of the vaccination systems can all be considered barriers to vaccinations in Europe. The most important limitations are those relating to the evaluation of vaccination coverage, the lack of active reminder systems to pick up patients who miss appointments, and the monitoring of adverse events. A common programme designed to overcome these limitations could be beneficial in promoting vaccinations everywhere, above all because active measures by the Health Authorities to demonstrate the importance they attribute to vaccination could convince still uncertain parents to have their children vaccinated.

  19. The African Pediatric Fellowship Program: Training in Africa for Africans.

    PubMed

    Wilmshurst, Jo M; Morrow, Brenda; du Preez, Avril; Githanga, David; Kennedy, Neil; Zar, Heather J

    2016-01-01

    Africa has a significant burden of childhood disease, with relatively few skilled health care professionals. The African Paediatric Fellowship Programme was developed by the Department of Pediatrics and Child Health at the University of Cape Town to provide relevant training for African child health professionals, by Africans, within Africa. Trainees identified by partner academic institutions spend 6 months to 2 years training in the Department of Pediatrics and allied disciplines. They then return to their home institution to build practice, training, research, and advocacy. From 2008 to 2015, 73 physicians have completed or are completing training in general pediatrics or a pediatric subspecialty. At 1 year posttraining, 98% to 100% are practicing back in their home institution. The impact of the returning fellows is evident from their practice interventions, research collaborations, and positions as stakeholders who can change health care policies. Thirty-three centers in 13 African countries are partners with the program, and the program template is now followed by other partner sites in Africa. Increasing and retaining the skills pool of African child health specialists is building a network of motivated, highly skilled clinicians who are equipped to advance child health in Africa.

  20. Systematic Measurements of Identified Particle Spectra in pp, d+Au and Au+Au Collisions from STAR

    SciTech Connect

    STAR Coll

    2009-04-11

    Identified charged particle spectra of {pi}{sup {+-}}, K{sup {+-}}, p and {bar p} at mid-rapidity (|y| < 0.1) measured by the dE/dx method in the STAR-TPC are reported for pp and d + Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV and for Au + Au collisions at 62.4 GeV, 130 GeV, and 200 GeV. Average transverse momenta, total particle production, particle yield ratios, strangeness and baryon production rates are investigated as a function of the collision system and centrality. The transverse momentum spectra are found to be flatter for heavy particles than for light particles in all collision systems; the effect is more prominent for more central collisions. The extracted average transverse momentum of each particle species follows a trend determined by the total charged particle multiplicity density. The Bjorken energy density estimate is at least several GeV/fm{sub 3} for a formation time less than 1 fm/c. A significantly larger net-baryon density and a stronger increase of the net-baryon density with centrality are found in Au + Au collisions at 62.4 GeV than at the two higher energies. Antibaryon production relative to total particle multiplicity is found to be constant over centrality, but increases with the collision energy. Strangeness production relative to total particle multiplicity is similar at the three measured RHIC energies. Relative strangeness production increases quickly with centrality in peripheral Au + Au collisions, to a value about 50% above the pp value, and remains rather constant in more central collisions. Bulk freeze-out properties are extracted from thermal equilibrium model and hydrodynamics-motivated blast-wave model fits to the data. Resonance decays are found to have little effect on the extracted kinetic freeze-out parameters due to the transverse momentum range of our measurements. The extracted chemical freeze-out temperature is constant, independent of collision system or centrality; its value is close to the predicted phase

  1. Towards migration research networking in Eastern-Southern African subregions.

    PubMed

    Oucho, J O

    1993-01-01

    This article reports efforts made by a small group of Eastern-Southern African (ESA) subregion scholars to adopt a systematic approach to establishing a regional network Migration Network in Eastern and Southern Africa (MINESA). The approach involved: 1) holding a conference at which symptomatic types of internal and international migration would be discussed; 2) publication of the conference proceedings; and 3) establishment of MINESA as a network of policy-oriented research in the two subregions. The first stage has been accomplished, the second is nearly complete, and the third has yet to be undertaken. During the African Population Conference organized by the International Union for Scientific Study of Population in Dakar, Senegal, on 5-9 November 1988, a small group agreed on a timetable to establish MINESA. At the ESA conference, papers were presented on ESA issues; internal migration processes and mechanism; refugee movements and their implications for countries; the effects on the economies of Southern African states, of emigration to the Republic of South Africa (RSA). In a keynote address, Adepoju surveyed migration and development in Western-Central (Middle) Africa and Eastern-Southern Africa, which included colonial and post-colonial historical epochs, internal and international migration, and labor and refugee movements. A paper on Kenya by Oucho discussed the implications for rural-urban balance of internal migration based on 1969 and 1979 censuses. Rural-urban migration from the traditional economy to Nairobi and Mombasa in particular has created an unacceptable rural-urban imbalance, adversely affecting rural development. Eastern and Southern Africa has seen massive and wide spatial dispersal of refugees (victims of wars, drought, and famine). Two papers were presented on Tanzania and one on Uganda. The final set of papers addressed the effects of labor migration to the RSA on Swaziland and Lesotho.

  2. Phylogenomics of African guenons.

    PubMed

    Moulin, Sibyle; Gerbault-Seureau, Michèle; Dutrillaux, Bernard; Richard, Florence Anne

    2008-01-01

    The karyotypes of 28 specimens belonging to 26 species of Cercopithecinae have been compared with each other and with human karyotype by chromosome banding and, for some of them, by Zoo-FISH (human painting probes) techniques. The study includes the first description of the karyotypes of four species and a synonym of Cercopithecus nictitans. The chromosomal homologies obtained provide us with new data on a large number of rearrangements. This allows us to code chromosomal characters to draw Cercopithecini phylogenetic trees, which are compared to phylogenetic data based on DNA sequences. Our findings show that some of the superspecies proposed by Kingdon (1997 The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals, Academic Press.) and Groves (2001 Primates Taxonomy, Smithsonian Institution Press) do not form homogeneous groups and that the genus Cercopithecus is paraphyletic, in agreement with previous molecular analyses. The evolution of Cercopithecini karyotypes is mainly due to non-centromeric chromosome fissions and centromeric shifts or inversions. Non-Robertsonian translocations occurred in C. hamlyni and C. neglectus. The position of chromosomal rearrangements in the phylogenetic tree leads us to propose that the Cercopithecini evolution proceeded by either repeated fission events facilitated by peculiar genomic structures or successive reticulate phases, in which heterozygous populations for few rearranged chromosomes were present, allowing the spreading of chromosomal forms in various combinations, before the speciation process.

  3. An African ethic for nursing?

    PubMed

    Haegert, S

    2000-11-01

    This article derives from a doctoral thesis in which a particular discourse was used as a 'paradigm case'. From this discourse an ethic set within a South African culture arose. Using many cultural 'voices' to aid the understanding of this narrative, the ethic shows that one can build on both a 'justice' and a 'care' ethic. With further development based on African culture one can take the ethic of care deeper and reveal 'layers of understanding'. Care, together with compassion, forms the foundation of morality. Nursing ethics has followed particular western moral philosophers. Often nursing ethics has been taught along the lines of Kohlberg's theory of morality, with its emphasis on rules, rights, duties and general obligations. These principles were universalistic, masculine and noncontextual. However, there is a new ethical movement among Thomist philosophers along the lines to be expounded in this article. Nurses such as Benner, Bevis, Dunlop, Fry and Gadow--to name but a few--have welcomed the concept of an 'ethic of care'. Gilligan's work gave a feminist view and situated ethics in the everyday aspects of responsiveness, responsibility, context and concern. Shutte's search for a 'philosophy for Africa' has resulted in finding similarities in Setiloane and in Senghor with those of Thomist philosophers. Using this African philosophy and a research participant's narrative, an African ethic evolves out of the African proverb: 'A person is a person through other persons', or its alternative rendering: 'I am because we are: we are because I am.' This hermeneutic narrative reveals 'the way affect imbues activity with ethical meaning' within the context of a black nursing sister in a rural South African hospital. It expands upon the above proverb and incorporates the South African constitutional idea of 'Ubuntu' (compassion and justice or humanness).

  4. A Union of Railroad Workers Sets the Pace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pullman, A. Philip Randolph

    2004-01-01

    During the century spanning the years 1868-1968, the African-American railroad attendant's presence on the train became an American tradition. By the 1920s, a peak decade for the railroads, more than twenty thousand African-Americans were working as porters, providing a variety services for passengers on the sleeping cars. The railroad was the…

  5. Fully Cationized Gold Clusters: Synthesis of Au25(SR(+))18.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Yohei; Narita, Kunihiro; Yonezawa, Tetsu; Whetten, Robert L

    2016-10-06

    Although many thiolate-protected Au clusters with different numbers of Au atoms and a variety of thiolate ligands have been synthesized, to date there has been no report of a fully cationized Au cluster protected with cationic thiolates. Herein, we report the synthesis of the first member of a new series of thiolate-protected Au cluster molecules: a fully cationized Au25(SR(+))18 cluster.

  6. 12. Irving & Cherry Streets Bridge. Rahway, Union Co., NJ. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Irving & Cherry Streets Bridge. Rahway, Union Co., NJ. Sec. 1401, MP 19.31. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between Pennsylvania/New Jersey & New Jersey/New York State Lines, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  7. Astronomic-Geodetic Highlights from the Soviet Union,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This report is a translation of an article in the German language periodical Austrian Journal of Geodesy , written by K. Ledersteger, published in Vienna in 1959. It concerns Astronomic-Geodetic highlights in the Soviet Union.

  8. City of West Union, Iowa - Clean Water Act Public Notice

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against the City of West Union, IA, a municipality, for alleged violations of its National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit (permit No. IA-0035378) for discharges from

  9. 16. Rahway Avenue Bridge. Elizabeth, Union Co., NJ. Sec. 1401, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Rahway Avenue Bridge. Elizabeth, Union Co., NJ. Sec. 1401, MP 14.49. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between Pennsylvania/New Jersey & New Jersey/New York State Lines, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  10. 15. Staten Island Rapid Transit Bridge. Linden, Union Co., NJ. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Staten Island Rapid Transit Bridge. Linden, Union Co., NJ. Sec. 1401, MP 16.28. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between Pennsylvania/New Jersey & New Jersey/New York State Lines, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  11. 18. Central Railroad of New Jersey Bridge. Elizabeth, Union Co., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Central Railroad of New Jersey Bridge. Elizabeth, Union Co., NJ. Sec. 1401, MP 14.22. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between Pennsylvania/New Jersey & New Jersey/New York State Lines, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  12. 11. Irving & Cherry Streets Bridge. Rahway, Union Co., NJ. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Irving & Cherry Streets Bridge. Rahway, Union Co., NJ. Sec. 1401, MP 19.31. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between Pennsylvania/New Jersey & New Jersey/New York State Lines, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  13. 10. Milton Avenue Bridge. Rahway, Union Co., NJ. Sec. 1401, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Milton Avenue Bridge. Rahway, Union Co., NJ. Sec. 1401, MP 19.41. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between Pennsylvania/New Jersey & New Jersey/New York State Lines, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  14. 14. Rahway River Bridge. Rahway, Union Co., NJ. Sec. 1401, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Rahway River Bridge. Rahway, Union Co., NJ. Sec. 1401, MP 19.13. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between Pennsylvania/New Jersey & New Jersey/New York State Lines, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  15. 13. Main Street Bridge. Rahway, Union Co., NJ. Sec. 1401, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Main Street Bridge. Rahway, Union Co., NJ. Sec. 1401, MP 19.17. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between Pennsylvania/New Jersey & New Jersey/New York State Lines, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  16. 17. West Jersey Street Bridge. Elizabeth, Union Co., NJ. Sec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. West Jersey Street Bridge. Elizabeth, Union Co., NJ. Sec. 1401, MP 14.22. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between Pennsylvania/New Jersey & New Jersey/New York State Lines, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  17. 19. Central Railroad of New Jersey Bridge. Elizabeth, Union Co., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Central Railroad of New Jersey Bridge. Elizabeth, Union Co., NJ. Sec. 1401, MP 14.22. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between Pennsylvania/New Jersey & New Jersey/New York State Lines, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  18. 12 CFR 702.307 - Incentives for new credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... for new credit unions. (a) Assistance in revising business plans. Upon timely request by a credit... NCUA Board shall provide assistance in preparing a revised business plan required to be filed...

  19. 12 CFR 702.307 - Incentives for new credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... for new credit unions. (a) Assistance in revising business plans. Upon timely request by a credit... NCUA Board shall provide assistance in preparing a revised business plan required to be filed...

  20. Union Lists and the Public Record of Serials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Kenneth D.

    1970-01-01

    Adaptation of union listing of serials to displace individually constructed public records in contributing libraries is discussed. Standardization in scope, main entry, and input would be necessary. (Author/JS)

  1. The Role of Graduate Employee Unions in Gender Equality (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Nicholas A.; Freeland, Emily

    2009-04-01

    Graduate employee unions represent a significant fraction of graduate employees in the United States, Canada, and other nations. The collective bargaining process is a unique forum where issues ranging from paid parental leave, hostile work environment, and access to lactation rooms can be addressed on an even footing with the employing universities. Because employment is governed by a collective bargaining agreement, violations are subject to a grievance policy. The Teaching Assistants' Association at the University of Wisconsin-Madison is one of the oldest graduate employee unions in the world. We discuss this example union, including successes in both the collective bargaining process and the grievance procedure. In particular, we find that graduate employee unions are an effective means of fighting pregnancy discrimination. We also provide a comparison of parental leave policies for graduate students at various universities.

  2. 13. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SHOWING UNION WORKS (ROSEN MILL), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SHOWING UNION WORKS (ROSEN MILL), GRANT LOCOMOTIVE WORKS -- MACHINE SHOP, DANFORTH (COOKE) LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE CO. - Great Falls S. U. M. Historic District, Oliver Street, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  3. Deck view, west approach; former Western Pacific (now Union Pacific) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Deck view, west approach; former Western Pacific (now Union Pacific) Railroad at left; wind turbine generators atop hill in background; view to northeast; 90mm lens - Carroll Overhead Bridge, Altamont Pass Road, Livermore, Alameda County, CA

  4. 12 CFR 704.3 - Corporate credit union capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., affiliates, and business partners; (iv) The corporate credit union's liquidity, capital and other indicators... activities or condition of its CUSOs or other persons or entities with which it has significant...

  5. 6. EARLY MORNING VIEW OF BOTH JOSO HIGH BRIDGE (UNION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. EARLY MORNING VIEW OF BOTH JOSO HIGH BRIDGE (UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD) IN BACKGROUND AND LYONS FERRY BRIDGE IN THE FOREGROUND - Snake River Bridge at Lyons' Ferry, State Route 261 spanning Snake River, Starbuck, Columbia County, WA

  6. Creedmoor State Hospital, 8045 Winchester Boulevard (site bounded by Union ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Creedmoor State Hospital, 80-45 Winchester Boulevard (site bounded by Union Turnpike on north, Hillside Avenue on south, Winchester Boulevard on west, & 240th, 241st, & 242nd Streets on east), Queens (subdivision), Queens County, NY

  7. A Survey of Selected Student Union and Conference Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Raymond G.

    Results are summarized from data gathered from sample institutions of higher education, concerning the policies on alcoholic beverages served in student unions, as well as sleeping, dining and parking facilities. (FS)

  8. Chemistry union unveils names of four new elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Hamish

    2016-07-01

    The periodic table could soon be graced by four new symbols - Nh, Mc, Ts and Og - after the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) unveiled its proposed names for the four most recently discovered elements.

  9. Cladistic analysis of extant and fossil African papionins using craniodental data.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Christopher C

    2013-05-01

    This study examines African papionin phylogenetic history through a comprehensive cladistic analysis of extant and fossil craniodental morphology using both quantitative and qualitative characters. To account for the well-documented influence of allometry on the papionin skull, the general allometric coding method was applied to characters determined to be significantly affected by allometry. Results of the analyses suggest that Parapapio, Pliopapio, and Papio izodi are stem African papionin taxa. Crown Plio-Pleistocene African papionin taxa include Gorgopithecus, Lophocebus cf. albigena, Procercocebus, Soromandrillus (new genus defined herein) quadratirostris, and, most likely, Dinopithecus. Furthermore, S. quadratirostris is a member of a clade also containing Mandrillus, Cercocebus, and Procercocebus; ?Theropithecus baringensis is strongly supported as a primitive member of the genus Theropithecus; Gorgopithecus is closely related to Papio and Lophocebus; and Theropithecus is possibly the most primitive crown African papionin taxon. Finally, character transformation analyses identify a series of morphological transformations during the course of papionin evolution. The origin of crown African papionins is diagnosed, at least in part, by the appearance of definitive and well-developed male maxillary ridges and maxillary fossae. Among crown African papionins, Papio, Lophocebus, and Gorgopithecus are further united by the most extensive development of the maxillary fossae. The Soromandrillus/Mandrillus/Cercocebus/Procercocebus clade is diagnosed by upturned nuchal crests (especially in males), widely divergent temporal lines (especially in males), medially oriented maxillary ridges in males, medially oriented inferior petrous processes, and a tendency to enlarge the premolars as an adaptation for hard-object food processing. The adaptive origins of the genus Theropithecus appear associated with a diet requiring an increase in size of the temporalis, the optimal

  10. The Role of Union Cavalry during the Atlanta Campaign

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    forced Major General Joseph Hooker to operate blind against Confederate Generals Lee and Jackson. Chancellorsville was Lee’s greatest battle, and... Joseph E. Johnston took command of the Army of Tennessee, which had been pushed south into Georgia following the Battle of Missionary Ridge. The strategic...Union effort. 5 The Union cavalry efforts there were eclipsed by Confederate cavalry under Forrest and Major General Joseph Wheeler. 7 Atlanta

  11. View west of a concrete angel gravestone in Female Union ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View west of a concrete angel gravestone in Female Union Band Cemetery with 27th Street right-of-way NW and Oak Hill Cemetery in the background. - Mount Zion Cemetery/ Female Union Band Cemetery, Bounded by 27th Street right-of-way N.W. (formerly Lyons Mill Road), Q Street N.W., & Mill Road N.W., Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  12. Observations on a Recent Trip to the Former Soviet Union

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-26

    NPS-NS-92-012 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA AD-A255 891 J6 0- & R A D b OBSERVATIONS ON A RECENT TRIP TO THE FORMER SOVIET UNION BY...Include Security Classification) OBSERVATIONS ON A RECENT TRIP TO THE FORMER SOVIET UNION 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) TRITTEN, JAMES JOHN 13a. TYPEOFREPORT...ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) (8 A -C) ADDITIONAL SPONSOR, INTELLIGENCE PLANS & INTEGRATION DIRECTORATE

  13. Turkey and European Union. Problems and Prospects for Membership

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    and Politics in the Light of February 28 Process,” p. 315. The comment is from Tuncer Kilinc, the Secretary General of the NSC. 91 See Ersel Aydinli ...136 Ersel Aydinli and Don Waxman. “A Dream Become Nightmare? Turkey’s Entry into the European Union,” Current... Aydinli , Ersel and Waxman, Don, “A Dream Become Nightmare? Turkey’s Entry into the European Union,” Current History, November 2001. 103 Balkan, N. and

  14. African American Preschoolers' Language, Emergent Literacy Skills, and Use of African American English: A Complex Relation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Craig, Holly K.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relation between African American preschoolers' use of African American English (AAE) and their language and emergent literacy skills in an effort to better understand the perplexing and persistent difficulties many African American children experience learning to read proficiently. Method: African American…

  15. Technical Consulting: The African-American Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Tracy N.

    2010-01-01

    The qualitative research study explored the organizational characteristics necessary in addressing the low concentration of African American technical consultants employed in the information technology industry. Using research participants' professional experience, participants responded to a developed questionnaire. African American technical…

  16. Landslide-generated tsunamis at Réunion Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelfoun, Karim; Giachetti, Thomas; Labazuy, Philippe

    2010-10-01

    Landslides that occur on oceanic volcanoes can reach the sea and trigger catastrophic tsunamis. Réunion Island has been the location of numerous huge landslides involving tens to hundreds of cubic kilometers of material. We use a new two-fluid (seawater and landslide) numerical model to estimate the wave amplitudes and the propagation of tsunamis associated with landslide events on Réunion Island. A 10 km3 landslide from the eastern flank of Piton de la Fournaise volcano would lift the water surface by about 150 m where it entered the sea. The wave thus generated would reach Saint-Denis, the capital of Réunion Island (population of about 150,000 people), in only 12 min, with an amplitude of more than 10 m, and would reach Mauritius Island in 18 min. Although Mauritius is located about 175 km from the impact, waves reaching its coast would be greater than those for Réunion Island. This is due to the initial shape of the wave, and its propagation normal to the coast at Mauritius but generally coast-parallel at Réunion Island. A submarine landslide of the coastal shelf of 2 km3, would trigger a ˜40 m high wave that would severely affect the proximal coast in the western part of Réunion Island. For a landslide of the shelf of only 0.5 km3, waves of about 2 m in amplitude would affect the proximal coast.

  17. Labor union members play an OLG repeated game.

    PubMed

    Kandori, Michihiro; Obayashi, Shinya

    2014-07-22

    Humans are capable of cooperating with one another even when it is costly and a deviation provides an immediate gain. An important reason is that cooperation is reciprocated or rewarded and deviations are penalized in later stages. For cooperation to be sustainable, not only must rewards and penalties be strong enough but individuals should also have the right incentives to provide rewards and punishments. Codes of conduct with such properties have been studied extensively in game theory (as repeated game equilibria), and the literature on the evolution of cooperation shows how equilibrium behavior might emerge and proliferate in society. We found that community unions, a subclass of labor unions that admits individual affiliations, are ideal to corroborate these theories with reality, because (i) their activities are simple and (ii) they have a structure that closely resembles a theoretical model, the overlapping generations repeated game. A detailed case study of a community union revealed a possible equilibrium that can function under the very limited observability in the union. The equilibrium code of conduct appears to be a natural focal point based on simple heuristic reasoning. The union we studied was created out of necessity for cooperation, without knowing or anticipating how cooperation might be sustained. The union has successfully resolved about 3,000 labor disputes and created a number of offspring.

  18. Ports modernization and its influence on trade unions.

    PubMed

    Maciel, Regina Heloisa; Lopes, Taise Araújo; Gonçalves, Rosemary Cavalcante

    2012-01-01

    The restructuring of production resulting from the Port Modernization Law (Law 8.630/90) caused significant changes in work organization of Brazilian Ports. In the case of Mucuripe (Fortaleza, Ceará), in particular, the changes were very intense as Mucuripe is an old port that, before the Law, had labor regulation being governed by Trade Unions. This paper aims to present the perceptions of Union Representatives on the changes brought about by the Law on work organization in the port of Fortaleza, its influence in the organization and in the way the Unions deal with this new reality. Open and exploratory interviews were conducted with representatives of occasional labor workers registered in the Port of Fortaleza OGMO (Orgão Gestor de Mão de Obra, Labor Regulation Management). The analysis of the collected material in the interviews was based on the technique of content analysis proposed by Bardin (1979). Trade Unions have undergone a great loss of power and it has reflected in a relative inability to perform its function and to fight for the rights of the workers. The obvious Trade Unions weakness - a reduction of strikes and less unionized workers - reflects the dominating ideology of capital.

  19. Labor union members play an OLG repeated game

    PubMed Central

    Kandori, Michihiro; Obayashi, Shinya

    2014-01-01

    Humans are capable of cooperating with one another even when it is costly and a deviation provides an immediate gain. An important reason is that cooperation is reciprocated or rewarded and deviations are penalized in later stages. For cooperation to be sustainable, not only must rewards and penalties be strong enough but individuals should also have the right incentives to provide rewards and punishments. Codes of conduct with such properties have been studied extensively in game theory (as repeated game equilibria), and the literature on the evolution of cooperation shows how equilibrium behavior might emerge and proliferate in society. We found that community unions, a subclass of labor unions that admits individual affiliations, are ideal to corroborate these theories with reality, because (i) their activities are simple and (ii) they have a structure that closely resembles a theoretical model, the overlapping generations repeated game. A detailed case study of a community union revealed a possible equilibrium that can function under the very limited observability in the union. The equilibrium code of conduct appears to be a natural focal point based on simple heuristic reasoning. The union we studied was created out of necessity for cooperation, without knowing or anticipating how cooperation might be sustained. The union has successfully resolved about 3,000 labor disputes and created a number of offspring. PMID:25024211

  20. African N Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekunda, M.; Galford, G. L.; Hickman, J. E.; Palm, C.

    2011-12-01

    Africa's smallholder agricultural systems face unique challenges in planning for reducing poverty, concurrent with adaptation and mitigation to climate change. At continental level, policy seeks to promote a uniquely African Green Revolution to increase crop yields and food production, and improve local livelihoods. However, the consequences on the environment and climate are not clear; these pro-economic development measures should be linked to climate change adaptation and mitigation measures, and research is required to help achieve these policy proposals by identifying options, and testing impacts. In particular, increased nitrogen (N) inputs are essential for increasing food production in Africa, but are accompanied by inevitable increases in losses to the environment. These losses appear to be low at input levels promoted in agricultural development programs, while the increased N inputs both increase current food production and appear to reduce the vulnerability of food production to changes in climate. We present field and remote sensing evidence from Malawi that subsidizing improved seed and fertilizers increases resilience to drought without adding excess N to the environment. In Kenya, field research identified thresholds in N2O losses, where emissions are very low at fertilization rates of less than 200 kg ha-1. Village-scale models have identified potential inefficiencies in the food production process where the largest losses of reactive N occur, and which could be targeted to reduce the amount of N released to the environment. We further review some on-going research activities and progress in Africa that compare different methods of managing resources that target resilience in food production and adaptation to climate change, using nutrient N as an indicator, while evaluating the effects of these resource management practices on ecosystems and the environment.

  1. Is ICH exportable outside the European Union?

    PubMed

    Dent, N J

    2000-01-01

    This article sets out to explore whether or not the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) Good Clinical Practices (GCP) Guidelines are exportable outside the European Union (EU). It is not a question of whether the Guidelines per se are exportable but rather can studies outside the EU be performed to the same, or a better standard? It is well known that the ICH Guidelines are accepted worldwide in the countries where International Clinical Trials are carried out. Likewise with the signatories to the Step 5 document being the major players--the USA, Japan, and Europe--the guidelines are already enshrined in national legislation. The author therefore sets out to address whether clinical trials can be conducted to the ICH GCP standard outside Western Europe. The facts and opinions presented here are based on a 16 centre (of which eight of the centres were required to be audited by the Sponsor) clinical study that was carried out in both the Czech Republic and Poland for nonseasonal rhinitis. The recruitment of patients was required to take place in a short period of time and had strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. The overall concept of the study and the compliance with internationally accepted ICH GCPs was found to be of a very high standard. In addition, several other studies from totally different therapeutic areas, clearly show that the standard in non-EU countries is equally high and in most cases of a higher standard than is seen at the principal investigators sites within the EU. In what Western Europeans like to call "developing countries," an understanding of the international GCPs has already been grasped and extremely high quality clinical trials are being carried out. To demonstrate this, attention is drawn to a large head and neck cancer study that was part device and part pharmaceutical product and was conducted in conjunction with photodynamic therapy (PDT), carried out in several countries, but of note in India.

  2. Affordability of medicines in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Zaprutko, Tomasz; Kopciuch, Dorota; Kus, Krzysztof; Merks, Piotr; Nowicka, Monika; Augustyniak, Izabela; Nowakowska, Elżbieta

    2017-01-01

    Background Medications and their prices are key issues for healthcare. Although access to medicines at affordable prices had been specified as a key objective of the European Health Policy, it seems that these goals have not been achieved. Therefore, we attempted an evaluation of affordability of selected medicines at full prices. Methods The analysis concerned 2012 and was conducted between 2013 and 2015 in all the European Union (EU) countries divided into 3 groups depending on the date of their accession to the EU. Finally, we considered 9 originators used in the treatment of schizophrenia and multiple sclerosis. Information on drug prices were collected from pharmacies. Participation in the study was voluntary and anonymous in order to avoid accusations of advertising. To evaluate affordability, several factors were used (e.g. minimum earnings and Gini coefficient). Due to unavailability in some countries, the exact number of analyzed medicines varies. Results Drug prices vary significantly between EU Member States. Almost eleven fold difference was observed between Germany (EUR 1451.17) and Croatia (EUR 132.77) in relation to Interferone beta-1a 22 μg. Generally, prices were the highest in Germany. The cheapest drugs were found in various countries but never in the poorest ones like Bulgaria or Romania. Discrepancies in wages were observed too (the smallest minimum wage was EUR 138.00 in Bulgaria and the highest EUR 1801.00 in Luxembourg). Full price of olanzapine 5mg, however, was higher in Bulgaria (EUR 64.53) than, for instance, in Belgium (EUR 37.26). Conclusions Analyzed medications are still unaffordable for many citizens of the EU. Besides, access to medicines is also impaired e.g. due to parallel trade. Unaffordability of medications may lead to the patients’ non-compliance and therefore to increased direct and indirect costs of treatment. Common European solutions are needed to achieve a real affordability and accessibility of medications. PMID

  3. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in union ironworkers.

    PubMed

    Forde, Martin S; Punnett, Laura; Wegman, David H

    2005-04-01

    The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) symptoms and doctor-diagnosed musculoskeletal disorders (DDMDs) were estimated among union construction ironworkers by a telephone-administered questionnaire. Of 1996 ironworkers eligible, 1566 were contacted and 981 were interviewed. The prevalence of self-reported MSD symptoms was high for the lower back (56%), wrist/hands/fingers (40%), knees (39%), and shoulders (36%). The most common DDMDs were tendonitis (19%), ruptured disk in the back (18%), bursitis in the shoulder (15%), and carpal tunnel syndrome (12%). Generally, the prevalence of DDMDs and MSD symptoms increased with duration of employment. In age-adjusted logistic regression analyses, those who worked 25 to 35 years were more likely to have tendonitis (odds ratio [OR] 7.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.116.6), shoulder bursitis (OR 13.7, 95% CI 3.160.4), knee bursitis (OR 5.1, 95% CI 1.025.1), and ruptured intervertebral back disk (OR 6.7, 95% CI 2.617.5). The effect of prior injury was also consistently high (upper extremities, OR 4.6; lower extremities OR 5.1; lower back, OR 6.0). Among workers without prior injuries, MSD symptoms were more frequent for the lower back in structural ironwork (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.12.6), and for the upper extremity in concrete reinforcement ironwork (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.22.9). These findings suggest that some musculoskeletal morbidity in construction ironworkers may be work related and thus preventable.

  4. Using supported Au nanoparticles as starting material for preparing uniform Au/Pd bimetallic catalysts.

    PubMed

    Villa, Alberto; Wang, Di; Su, Dangsheng; Veith, Gabriel M; Prati, Laura

    2010-03-07

    One of the best methods for producing bulk homogeneous (composition) supported bimetallic AuPd clusters involves the immobilization of a protected Au seed followed by the addition of Pd. This paper investigates the importance of this gold seed in controlling the resulting bimetallic AuPd clusters structures, sizes and catalytic activities by investigating three different gold seeds. Uniform Au-Pd alloy were obtained when a steric/electrostatic protecting group, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), was used to form the gold clusters on activated carbon (AC). In contrast Au/AC precursors prepared using Au nanoparticles with only electrostatic stabilization (tetrakis(hydroxypropyl)phosphonium chloride (THPC)), or no stabilization (magnetron sputtering) produced inhomogeneous alloys and segregation of the gold and palladium. The uniform alloyed catalyst (Pd@Au(PVA)/AC) is the most active and selective catalyst, while the inhomogenous catalysts are less active and selective. Further study of the PVA protected Au clusters revealed that the amount of PVA used is also critical for the preparation of uniform alloyed catalyst, their stability, and their catalytic activity.

  5. Using supported Au nanoparticles as starting material for preparing uniform Au/Pd bimetallic catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, Alberto; Prati, Laura; Su, Dangshen; Wang, Di; Veith, Gabriel M

    2010-01-01

    One of the best methods for producing bulk homogeneous (composition) supported bimetallic AuPd clusters involves the immobilization of a protected Au seed followed by the addition of Pd. This paper investigates the importance of this gold seed in controlling the resulting bimetallic AuPd clusters structures, sizes and catalytic activities by investigating three different gold seeds. Uniform Au-Pd alloy were obtained when a steric/electrostatic protecting group, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), was used to form the gold clusters on activated carbon (AC). In contrast Au/AC precursors prepared using Au nanoparticles with only electrostatic stabilization (tetrakis(hydroxypropyl)phosphonium chloride (THPC)), or no stabilization (magnetron sputtering) produced inhomogeneous alloys and segregation of the gold and palladium. The uniform alloyed catalyst (Pd{at}Au{sub PVA}/AC) is the most active and selective catalyst, while the inhomogenous catalysts are less active and selective. Further study of the PVA protected Au clusters revealed that the amount of PVA used is also critical for the preparation of uniform alloyed catalyst, their stability, and their catalytic activity.

  6. LaAu2 and CeAu2 surface intermetallic compounds grown by high-temperature deposition on Au(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormaza, M.; Fernández, L.; Lafuente, S.; Corso, M.; Schiller, F.; Xu, B.; Diakhate, M.; Verstraete, M. J.; Ortega, J. E.

    2013-09-01

    We report on the crystal structure and electronic bands of LaAu2 and CeAu2 surface intermetallic compounds grown by high-temperature deposition on Au(111). By scanning-tunneling microscopy we study the formation of different alloy phases as a function of growth temperature and lanthanide coverage. We determine the specific growth conditions to achieve monolayers and bilayers of LaAu2 and CeAu2 with high crystalline quality. Due to lattice mismatch with the underlying Au substrate, both LaAu2 and CeAu2 exhibit long-range moiré patterns, which can serve as templates for further nanostructure growth. By angle-resolved photoemission we map the two-dimensional band structure of these surface alloys, discussing the nature of the different spectral features in the light of first-principles calculations.

  7. 41 CFR 60-1.9 - Compliance by labor unions and by recruiting and training agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Preliminary Matters; Equal Opportunity Clause; Compliance Reports § 60-1.9 Compliance by labor unions and by... revision of a collective bargaining agreement the labor union or unions which are parties to such an... available instrumentalities, to cause any labor union, recruiting and training agency or...

  8. 41 CFR 60-1.9 - Compliance by labor unions and by recruiting and training agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Preliminary Matters; Equal Opportunity Clause; Compliance Reports § 60-1.9 Compliance by labor unions and by... revision of a collective bargaining agreement the labor union or unions which are parties to such an... available instrumentalities, to cause any labor union, recruiting and training agency or...

  9. 41 CFR 60-1.9 - Compliance by labor unions and by recruiting and training agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Preliminary Matters; Equal Opportunity Clause; Compliance Reports § 60-1.9 Compliance by labor unions and by... revision of a collective bargaining agreement the labor union or unions which are parties to such an... available instrumentalities, to cause any labor union, recruiting and training agency or...

  10. 41 CFR 60-1.9 - Compliance by labor unions and by recruiting and training agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Preliminary Matters; Equal Opportunity Clause; Compliance Reports § 60-1.9 Compliance by labor unions and by... revision of a collective bargaining agreement the labor union or unions which are parties to such an... available instrumentalities, to cause any labor union, recruiting and training agency or...

  11. 41 CFR 60-1.9 - Compliance by labor unions and by recruiting and training agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Preliminary Matters; Equal Opportunity Clause; Compliance Reports § 60-1.9 Compliance by labor unions and by... revision of a collective bargaining agreement the labor union or unions which are parties to such an... available instrumentalities, to cause any labor union, recruiting and training agency or...

  12. 48 CFR 3022.101-70 - Admittance of union representatives to DHS installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Administration or United States Secret Service installations and work sites is not governed by this rule, but by... installations to visit work sites and transact labor union business with contractors, their employees, and union... meetings, collect union dues, or make speeches concerning union matters while visiting a work site...

  13. Standards for Professional Staff Preparation and Compensation in College Union Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Coll. Unions-International, Stanford, CA.

    Standards for college union work are considered in relation to academic preparation, staff qualifications, and compensation proposed by the Association of College Unions--International. The college union serves as a community center of the college, serving cultural, social, and recreational programs. College union work is considered a professional…

  14. 78 FR 18798 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Union, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Union, IA AGENCY... airspace at West Union, IA. Decommissioning of the West Union non-directional beacon (NDB) at George L... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the West Union,...

  15. Informal Unions among Mainland Puerto Ricans: Cohabitation or an Alternative to Legal Marriage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landale, Nancy S.; Fennelly, Katherine

    1992-01-01

    Examined meaning of informal unions among mainland Puerto Rican women. Compared characteristics of women in informal unions to those of single and married women; assessed whether Puerto Rican women defined their informal unions as nonmarital cohabitation or form of marriage; and examined predictors of women's definitions of informal unions. Found…

  16. Career Transitions after a Long Experience as Trade Union Officer: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Scali, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    In France, trade union officers are former shop stewards who have chosen to work full-time for the union for several years. This research investigates the career transitions of former union officers who have returned to the labour market following extended experience with high-level responsibilities in the union. Semi-directed interviews were…

  17. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(14)-1 - Credit unions and mutual insurance funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Credit unions and mutual insurance funds. 1.501(c... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Exempt Organizations § 1.501(c)(14)-1 Credit unions and mutual insurance funds. Credit unions (other than Federal credit unions described in...

  18. A Guide to the Changing Court Rulings on Union Security in the Public Sector: A Union Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darko, Richard J.; Knapp, Janet C.

    1985-01-01

    The Supreme Court in "Ellis vs. Brotherhood of Railway, Airline and Steamship Clerks" has provided a systematic process for determining what constitutes union expenses properly charged to objecting nonmembers. (MLF)

  19. Plio-pleistocene African climate

    SciTech Connect

    deMenocal, P.B.

    1995-10-06

    Marine records of African climate variability document a shift toward more arid conditions after 2.8 million years ago (Ma), evidently resulting from remote forcing by cold North Atlantic sea-surface temperatures associated with the onset of Northern Hemisphere glacial cycles. African climate before 2.8 Ma was regulated by low-latitude insolation forcing of monsoonal climate due to Earth orbital precession. Major steps in the evolution of African hominids and other vertebrates are coincident with shifts to more arid, open conditions near 2.8 Ma, 1.7 Ma, and 1.0 Ma, suggesting that some Pliocene (Plio)-Pleistocene speciation events may have been climatically mediated. 65 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Plio-Pleistocene African Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demenocal, Peter B.

    1995-10-01

    Marine records of African climate variability document a shift toward more arid conditions after 2.8 million years ago (Ma), evidently resulting from remote forcing by cold North Atlantic sea-surface temperatures associated with the onset of Northern Hemisphere glacial cycles. African climate before 2.8 Ma was regulated by low-latitude insolation forcing of monsoonal climate due to Earth orbital precession. Major steps in the evolution of African hominids and other vertebrates are coincident with shifts to more arid, open conditions near 2.8 Ma, 1.7 Ma, and 1.0 Ma, suggesting that some Pliocene (Plio)-Pleistocene speciation events may have been climatically mediated.

  1. African perceptions of female attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, Vinet; Faerber, Stella J; Greeff, Jaco M; Lefevre, Carmen E; Re, Daniel E; Perrett, David I

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about mate choice preferences outside Western, educated, industrialised, rich and democratic societies, even though these Western populations may be particularly unrepresentative of human populations. To our knowledge, this is the first study to test which facial cues contribute to African perceptions of African female attractiveness and also the first study to test the combined role of facial adiposity, skin colour (lightness, yellowness and redness), skin homogeneity and youthfulness in the facial attractiveness preferences of any population. Results show that youthfulness, skin colour, skin homogeneity and facial adiposity significantly and independently predict attractiveness in female African faces. Younger, thinner women with a lighter, yellower skin colour and a more homogenous skin tone are considered more attractive. These findings provide a more global perspective on human mate choice and point to a universal role for these four facial cues in female facial attractiveness.

  2. The African Cultural Astronomy Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urama, Johnson O.; Holbrook, Jarita C.

    2011-06-01

    Indigenous, endogenous, traditional, or cultural astronomy focuses on the many ways that people and cultures interact with celestial bodies. In most parts of Africa, there is very little or no awareness about modern astronomy. However, like ancient people everywhere, Africans wondered at the sky and struggled to make sense of it. The African Cultural Astronomy Project aims to unearth the body of traditional knowledge of astronomy possessed by peoples of the different ethnic groups in Africa and to consider scientific interpretations when appropriate for cosmogonies and ancient astronomical practices. Regardless of scientific validity, every scientist can relate to the process of making observations and creating theoretical mechanisms for explaining what is observed. Through linking the traditional and the scientific, it is believed that this would be used to create awareness and interest in astronomy in most parts of Africa. This paper discusses the vision, challenges and prospects of the African Cultural Astronomy Project in her quest to popularize astronomy in Africa.

  3. Adsorbate-modified Electron Relaxation in Au-Au_2S Nanoshells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westcott, Sarah; Averitt, Richard; Wolfgang, John; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi

    2001-03-01

    Au-Au_2S nanoshells are 50 nm nanoparticles consisting of an Au_2S core encapsulated by a thin (<5 nm) Au shell. Their optical properties are determined by the metallic shell layer, whose inner and outer radii control plasmon frequency and whose thickness determines plasmon linewidth[1]. We studied the time-resolved relaxation of hot electrons in the Au shell, using degenerate pump-probe spectroscopy. The electron relaxation for nanoshells in solution was appreciably slower than relaxation for bulk gold, moreover, adsorbed molecules on the nanoshell surface strongly modify this relaxation. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the molecules providing the strongest modification of relaxation possess the largest induced dipole moments above a metal surface, indicating that the adsorbate-induced perturbation of the nanoshell electron dynamics appears to be primarily electronic in nature. [1] R. D. Averitt, D. Sarkar and N. J. Halas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4217 (1997).

  4. Towards a Norm in South African Englishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Walt, Johann L.; van Rooy, Bertus

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the perception and application of the norm in South African English with specific reference to Black South African English. Hypothesizes that South African English is in the hibernation and expansion phase. Three sets of data are presented and analyzed. (Author/VWL)

  5. African American Teaching and the Matriarchal Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffries, Rhonda Baynes

    This paper discusses the role of matriarchs in African-American culture, explaining that traditionally, African-American matriarchs arise from a combination of African norms and American social positions that naturally forces them to assume leadership conditions. The roles these women assume are a response to the desire to survive in a society…

  6. Freedom Road: Adult Education of African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Elizabeth A., Ed.

    This book contains six chapters by various authors about the history of African Americans' contributions and participation in adult education. The book reports on how some African American leaders saw the connection between education and the eventual freedom or uplift of the African American people. Following a foreword (Phyllis M. Cunningham) and…

  7. Engaging African Americans in Smoking Cessation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…

  8. Increasing Reading Engagement in African American Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husband, Terry

    2014-01-01

    Much has been written concerning the challenges many teachers face in engaging African American males in reading practices. While much of this extant scholarship focuses on African American males at the pre-adolescent stage of development and beyond, little has been written regarding increasing reading engagement in African American boys in P-5…

  9. African Expressions in Hispano-American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Ben C.

    This revised version of a lecture on the relationship of African language and Hispano-American literature illustrates the historical influence of the African slave on representative literature and modern culture of the Caribbean Islands. Introductory remarks focus on the migratory patterns of the African slaves. The concept of negritude is then…

  10. An Introduction to West African Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taiwo, Oladele

    Intended to provide help for those interested in studying West African literature, this book is divided into three parts. Part One provides background information: the various African oral traditions are discussed, related to the way of life of the people, and examined for the extent to which they form the basis of present West African literary…

  11. Empowering African genomics for infectious disease control.

    PubMed

    Folarin, Onikepe A; Happi, Anise N; Happi, Christian T

    2014-11-07

    At present, African scientists can only participate minimally in the genomics revolution that is transforming the understanding, surveillance and clinical treatment of infectious diseases. We discuss new initiatives to equip African scientists with knowledge of cutting-edge genomics tools, and build a sustainable critical mass of well-trained African infectious diseases genomics scientists.

  12. Jets and dijets in Au+Au and p+p collisions at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Hardtke, D.; STAR Collaboration

    2002-12-09

    Recent data from RHIC suggest novel nuclear effects in the production of high p{sub T} hadrons. We present results from the STAR detector on high p{sub T} angular correlations in Au+Au and p+p collisions at {radical}S = 200 GeV/c. These two-particle angular correlation measurements verify the presence of a partonic hard scattering and fragmentation component at high p{sub T} in both central and peripheral Au+Au collisions. When triggering on a leading hadron with p{sub T}>4 GeV, we observe a quantitative agreement between the jet cone properties in p+p and all centralities of Au+Au collisions. This quantitative agreement indicates that nearly all hadrons with p{sub T}>4 GeV/c come from jet fragmentation and that jet fragmentation properties are not substantially modified in Au+Au collisions. STAR has also measured the strength of back-to-back high p{sub T} charged hadron correlations, and observes a small suppression of the back-to-back correlation strength in peripheral collisions, and a nearly complete disappearance o f back-to-back correlations in central Au+Au events. These phenomena, together with the observed strong suppression of inclusive yields and large value of elliptic flow at high p{sub T}, are consistent with a model where high p{sub T} hadrons come from partons created near the surface of the collision region, and where partons that originate or propagate towards the center of the collision region are substantially slowed or completely absorbed.

  13. Heart failure in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Yancy, Clyde W

    2005-10-10

    The demographics of the United States are changing, and in the next few decades there will no longer be a racial/ethnic majority population. Increased awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in special populations is warranted as these populations increase. Heart failure carries a substantial burden on those affected, particularly African Americans, who have a disproportionate burden of heart disease. Current treatments for heart failure include angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers, angiotensin II-receptor antagonists, and vasodilating agents. This review discusses the unique characteristics of CVD in African Americans and addresses the need for targeted treatments to reduce the excess burden found in this population.

  14. Au nanoparticles films used in biological sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosales Pérez, M.; Delgado Macuil, R.; Rojas López, M.; Gayou, V. L.; Sánchez Ramírez, J. F.

    2009-05-01

    Lactobacillus para paracasei are used commonly as functional food and probiotic substances. In this work Au nanoparticles self-assembled films were used for Lactobacillus para paracasei determination at five different concentrations. Functionalized substrates were immersed in a colloidal solution for one and a half hour at room temperature and dried at room temperature during four hours. After that, drops of Lactobacillus para paracasei in aqueous solution were put into the Au nanoparticles film and let dry at room temperature for another two hours. Infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflectance sampling mode was used to observe generation peaks due to substrate silanization, enhancement of Si-O band intensity due to the Au colloids added to silanized substrate and also to observe the enhancement of Lactobacillus para paracasei infrared intensity of the characteristic frequencies at 1650, 1534 and 1450 cm-1 due to surface enhancement infrared absorption.

  15. [Human cloning in the activities of the European Union].

    PubMed

    Mik, C

    2001-01-01

    The European Union has been concerned with human cloning since the late 80. It resulted from inclusion of biotechnology into the sphere of European integration. The attitude of the European Union in the domain of human cloning was shaped, in principle in the second part of the 90. As the Community law stands at present, the European Union is not able to regulate all aspects of the cloning of human beings. It has no general power to decide in that sphere, especially, as far as bioethic aspects are concerned. The cloning of human beings in the European Union is understood as a process aiming at producing new human being, genetically identical with another live or dead human being. Thus the notion of human cloning is reduced to reproductive cloning. Three instruments are at the disposal of the European Union in the domain of human cloning. The first is prohibition of reproductive cloning as a general principle of Community law. However, that principle is not the result of judicial activity of the European Court of Justice (as general principles normally are), but the logical consequence of views formally expressed by the European Parliament, the Council of the Europe as well as the Commission. The principle was finally included in the Charter of fundamental rights of the European Union. The second instrument is an imperative prohibition of patent granting to biotechnological inventions on human reproductive cloning. Last, but not least, the Union applies a prohibition of financing scientific research connected with human cloning from the budget of the European Communities within the V Framework Programme in the field of research and technological development.

  16. African-American spirituality: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Newlin, Kelley; Knafl, Kathleen; Melkus, Gail D'Eramo

    2002-12-01

    Culturally competent care for African Americans requires sensitivity to spirituality as a component of the cultural context. To foster understanding, measurement, and delivery of the spiritual component of culturally competent care, this article presents an evolutionary concept analysis of African-American spirituality. The analysis is based on a sample of multidisciplinary research studies reflecting spirituality of African Americans. Findings indicate that African-American spirituality involves quintessential, internal, external, consoling, and transformative attributive dimensions. Findings are considered in relation to previous conceptual analyses of spirituality and suggest that defining attributes of African-American spirituality are both global and culturally prominent. Implications for practice and research are discussed.

  17. Au-Ag@Au Hollow Nanostructure with Enhanced Chemical Stability and Improved Photothermal Transduction Efficiency for Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tongtong; Song, Jiangluqi; Zhang, Wenting; Wang, Hao; Li, Xiaodong; Xia, Ruixiang; Zhu, Lixin; Xu, Xiaoliang

    2015-10-07

    Despite the fact that Au-Ag hollow nanoparticles (HNPs) have gained much attention as ablation agents for photothermal therapy, the instability of the Ag element limits their applications. Herein, excess Au atoms were deposited on the surface of a Au-Ag HNP by improving the reduction power of l-ascorbic acid (AA) and thereby preventing the reaction between HAuCl4 and the Ag element in the Au-Ag alloy nanostructure. Significantly, the obtained Au-Ag@Au HNPs show excellent chemical stability in an oxidative environment, together with remarkable increase in extinction peak intensity and obvious narrowing in peak width. Moreover, finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) was used to simulate the optical properties and electric field distribution of HNPs. The calculated results show that the proportion of absorption cross section in total extinction cross section increases with the improvement of Au content in HNP. As predicted by the theoretical calculation results, Au-Ag@Au nanocages (NCs) exhibit a photothermal transduction efficiency (η) as high as 36.5% at 808 nm, which is higher than that of Au-Ag NCs (31.2%). Irradiated by 808 nm laser at power densities of 1 W/cm(2), MCF-7 breast cancer cells incubated with PEGylated Au-Ag@Au NCs were seriously destroyed. Combined together, Au-Ag@Au HNPs with enhanced chemical stability and improved photothermal transduction efficiency show superior competitiveness as photothermal agents.

  18. The role of interfaces in the magnetoresistance of Au/Fe/Au/Fe/GaAs(001)

    SciTech Connect

    Enders, A.; Monchesky, T. L.; Myrtle, K.; Urban, R.; Heinrich, B.; Kirschner, J.; Zhang, X.-G.; Butler, W. H.

    2001-06-01

    The electron transport and magnetoresistance (MR) were investigated in high quality crystalline epitaxial Fe(001) and Au(001) films and exchange coupled Au/Fe/Au/Fe/GaAs(001) trilayer structures. Fits to the experimental data were based on the semiclassical Boltzmann equation, which incorporates the electronic properties obtained from first-principles local density functional calculations. The fits require a surprisingly high asymmetry for the spin dependent electron lifetimes in Fe, {tau}{sup {down_arrow}}/{tau}{sup {up_arrow}}=10 at room temperature. Despite the large atomic terraces at the Au/vacuum and Fe/GaAs interfaces the scattering at the outer interfaces was found to be diffuse. The origin of MR in Au/Fe/Au/Fe/GaAs(001) structures is due to electron channeling in the Au spacer layer. The measured MR is consistent with the diffusivity parameters s{sup {up_arrow}}=0.55, s{sup {down_arrow}}=0.77 at the metal{endash}metal interfaces. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  19. Cryptococcal meningitis in African children.

    PubMed

    Subramanyam, V R; Mtitimila, E; Hart, C A; Broadhead, R L

    1997-06-01

    Three cases of cryptococcal meningitis in Malawian children aged 6 weeks, 3 years and 9 years are described. Only 23 cases of cryptococcal meningitis in children have been described previously, but in children from Europe and the USA. These are therefore the first cases of cryptococcosis to be described in African children.

  20. Wellness among African American Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day-Vines, Norma L.; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    Although there are various definitions of wellness, few conceptual definitions have addressed the contextual dimensions of wellness relative to African American counselors. The authors present an overview of generic models of wellness, discuss factors that both inhibit and promote wellness, offer some culture-specific models of wellness, and…

  1. African American Men in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuyjet, Michael J., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This book is a much-needed resource that includes examples of real-world programs and activities to enhance academic success in the college environment for African American men. The examples are collected from a variety of institutions across the country. With contributions from leading practitioners and scholars in the field, this book explores…

  2. Improvisation in West African Musics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, David

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is music of the sub-Sahara. Vocal, instrumental, and dance drumming from the Sudan Desert, the North Coast, East Horn, Central and West Africa, and contrapuntal yodeling of Pygmies is described. For African musicians, the ability to improvise, and creativity, are gifts from God. Includes selected readings and recordings. (KC)

  3. Developing anatomical terms in an African language.

    PubMed

    Madzimbamuto, Farai Daniel

    2012-02-23

    Clinical and technical information imparted in most African languages involves inexact terminology and code switching, so it lacks the explanatory power characterised by the English language. African languages are absent in the tertiary science education environment and forums where African scientists could present scientific material in the medium of African languages. This limits the development of African languages in the scientific domain. There has recently been a trend in several African languages to develop and intellectualise them, especially in the field of medical sciences. The ChiShona language is used to explore the ability of an African language to develop new terminology, to name the vertebral skeleton and describe it scientifically. It uses word compounding to demonstrate terminology development. ChiShona has similarities with several hundred other Bantu languages in East, Central and Southern Africa. Advancing this language can promote similar developments in others, making them more explanatory for the lay public and health professionals.

  4. Synthesis of ultrathin face-centered-cubic au@pt and au@pd core-shell nanoplates from hexagonal-close-packed au square sheets.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhanxi; Zhu, Yihan; Huang, Xiao; Han, Yu; Wang, Qingxiao; Liu, Qing; Huang, Ying; Gan, Chee Lip; Zhang, Hua

    2015-05-04

    The synthesis of ultrathin face-centered-cubic (fcc) Au@Pt rhombic nanoplates is reported through the epitaxial growth of Pt on hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) Au square sheets (AuSSs). The Pt-layer growth results in a hcp-to-fcc phase transformation of the AuSSs under ambient conditions. Interestingly, the obtained fcc Au@Pt rhombic nanoplates demonstrate a unique (101)f orientation with the same atomic arrangement extending from the Au core to the Pt shell. Importantly, this method can be extended to the epitaxial growth of Pd on hcp AuSSs, resulting in the unprecedented formation of fcc Au@Pd rhombic nanoplates with (101)f orientation. Additionally, a small amount of fcc (100)f -oriented Au@Pt and Au@Pd square nanoplates are obtained with the Au@Pt and Au@Pd rhombic nanoplates, respectively. We believe that these findings will shed new light on the synthesis of novel noble bimetallic nanostructures.

  5. What happens after participants complete a Union-MSF structured operational research training course?

    PubMed

    Guillerm, N; Tayler-Smith, K; Berger, S D; Bissell, K; Kumar, A M V; Ramsay, A; Reid, A J; Zachariah, R; Harries, A D

    2014-06-21

    Contexte : Huit cours de recherche opérationnelle (OR) structurée achevés de L'Union et Médecins sans Frontières pour des participants de pays à revenu faible ou intermédiaire. On ignore si les participants continuent à pratiquer la recherche opérationnelle après avoir suivi le cours.Objectifs : Déterminer 1) les activités de recherche des participants et de leurs institutions après la fin du cours ; 2) l'influence des bourses de recherche sur ces activités ; et 3) les activités des collègues n'ayant pas assisté au cours, stratifiées par sexe, région et statut professionnel.Schéma : Une enquête par questionnaire auto-administré envoyée par e-mail.Résultats : Sur 83 participants qui ont terminé le cours, 76 (92%) ont répondu au questionnaire. Après la fin du cours, 47 (62%) participants ont réalisé de nouveaux projets de recherche, 38 (50%) ont publié des articles (comparés à 25 [33%] qui en avaient publié avant le cours), 42 (55%) ont exposé des affiches ou présenté des résumés oraux lors de conférences, 33 (43%) ont été facilitateurs lors de cours suivants, 29 (38%) ont revu des articles scientifiques, 25 (33%) ont obtenu un financement ultérieur pour le recherche opérationnelle et 55 (72%) ont affirmé que leurs institutions étaient impliquées dans la mise en œuvre de recherche ou de renforcement des capacités. Les participants au cours ont eu une meilleure performance que les autres. Parmi ces derniers, les hommes et les participants venant d'Asie ont eu de meilleurs résultats que les femmes et les participants venant d'Afrique (P < 0,05).Conclusion : Une proportion significative de participants a continué à réaliser des recherches opérationnelles après la fin du cours. Ces constatations sont encourageantes en termes d'impact à long terme de ce modèle de renforcement des capacités.

  6. Nanoporous Au structures by dealloying Au/Ag thermal- or laser-dewetted bilayers on surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffino, F.; Torrisi, V.; Grillo, R.; Cacciato, G.; Zimbone, M.; Piccitto, G.; Grimaldi, M. G.

    2017-03-01

    Nanoporous Au attracts great technological interest and it is a promising candidate for optical and electrochemical sensors. In addition to nanoporous Au leafs and films, recently, interest was focused on nanoporous Au micro- and nano-structures on surfaces. In this work we report on the study of the characteristics of nanoporous Au structures produced on surfaces. We developed the following procedures to fabricate the nanoporous Au structures: we deposited thin Au/Ag bilayers on SiO2 or FTO (fluorine-doped tin oxide) substrates with thickness xAu and xAg of the Au and Ag layers; we induced the alloying and dewetting processes of the bilayers by furnace annealing processes of the bilayers deposited on SiO2 and by laser irradiations of the bilayers deposited on FTO; the alloying and dewetting processes result in the formation of AuxAgy alloy sub-micron particles being x and y tunable by xAu and xAg. These particles are dealloyed in HNO3 solution to remove the Ag atoms. We obtain, so, nanoporous sub-micron Au particles on the substrates. Analyzing the characteristics of these particles we find that: a) the size and shape of the particles depend on the nature of the dewetting process (solid-state dewetting on SiO2, molten-state dewetting on FTO); b) the porosity fraction of the particles depends on how the alloying process is reached: about 32% of porosity for the particles fabricated by the furnace annealing at 900 °C, about 45% of porosity for the particles fabricated by the laser irradiation at 0.5 J/cm2, in both cases independently on the Ag concentration in the alloy; c) After the dealloying process the mean volume of the Au particles shrinks of about 39%; d) After an annealing at 400 °C the nanoporous Au particles reprise their initial volume while the porosity fraction is reduced. Arguments to justify these behaviors are presented.

  7. SHG anisotropy in Au/Co/Au/Cu/vicinal Si(1 1 1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheikh-Rouhou, W.; Sampaio, L. C.; Bartenlian, B.; Beauvillain, P.; Brun, A.; Ferré, J.; Georges, P.; Jamet, J.-P.; Mathet, V.; Stupakewicz, Andrei

    2002-02-01

    The second harmonic generation (SHG) reflectivity on magnetic multilayers is a very sensitive technique to reveal the crystallography of buried interfaces. We have used the azimuthal anisotropy of SHG to demonstrate that the vicinal character of Si(1 1 1) substrate is duplicated in the metallic multilayer Au/Co/Au/Cu. The magnetic properties of these multilayers as anisotropy and magneto-optic polar Kerr rotation were studied by linear magneto-optic effects in correlation with SHG experiments, by varying the Co and Au buffer thicknesses as well as the Cu buffer deposition condition.

  8. Time Dependent Universal Conductance Fluctuations In AuPd, Ag, And Au Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trionfi, A.; Lee, S.; Natelson, D.

    2006-09-01

    Quantum transport phenomena allow experimental determinations of the phase coherence information in metals. We report quantitative comparisons of inferred coherence lengths from independent measurements of the weak localization magnetoresistance and time-dependent universal conductance fluctuations' magnetic field dependence. Strong agreement is observed in both quasi-2D and quasi-1D AuPd samples. However, quantitative agreement is not seen in quasi-1D Ag wires below 10 K and quasi-1D Au wires below 14 K. A possible explanation for this disagreement will be discussed. Attempts to produce changes in the coherence length in Au by annealing have also been made and results will be reported.

  9. Industrial unionism and the Oklahoma coal industry, 1870-1935

    SciTech Connect

    Sewall, S.L.

    1992-01-01

    This study traces the development of industrial unionism in Oklahoma's coal industry from the beginnings of the industry in 1870 to its decline in 1935. Chapter topics include the early years of the coal industry, life in the coal towns, and the series of strikes that occurred from 1894 to 1932. The study draws from both labor and management materials, but also from primary sources that reflect the role of both the state and federal governments during strikes. The study also utilizes the newspapers of the coal towns. They are a bountiful source on life in Oklahoma's coal towns. Study concludes that Oklahoma's coal towns were a perfect breeding ground for industrial unionism. Working in the most dangerous mines in the United States, the miners of Oklahoma turned to unionism in their efforts to improve working conditions and to secure a living wage. Above ground, the miners battled to break the company towns system. There the union achieved success in eliminating the company store and company housing, the two principal components of the company town system. At the same time, the miners created a union culture under which miners of all nationalities were welcome.

  10. Geology and hydrocarbon potential of the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R. )

    1991-03-01

    The Soviet Union is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas. Soviet oil production averaged 12.1 million bbl per day in 1989 with gas production of 79 bcf per day. Estimates of Soviet proved reserves fall within the range of 50 to 80 billion bbl, which gives the Soviet Union the world's greatest concentration of proved conventional crude oil reserves outside the Persian Gulf. In addition, the Soviet Union contains estimated proved reserves of 1500 tcf of natural gas, constituting over 38% of the worldwide total. The basins of the Soviet Union can be generally separated into five categories based upon geography, geology, and exploration maturity. The southwestern flank of the Soviet Union, from the Carpathians to Central Asia, contains a series of late Mesozoic to Tertiary basins associated with the closing of the Tethys Ocean and the Tertiary Alpine Orogeny. Because these basins contain shallow production and are near population centers and in moderate climates, they were the first explored and provided virtually all Soviet production prior to the Second World War.

  11. Revisiting the S-Au(111) interaction: Static or Dynamic?

    SciTech Connect

    Biener, M M; Biener, J; Friend, C M

    2004-08-17

    The chemical inertness typically observed for Au does not imply a general inability to form stable bonds with non-metals but is rather a consequence of high reaction barriers. The Au-S interaction is probably the most intensively studied interaction of Au surfaces with non-metals as, for example, it plays an important role in Au ore formation, and controls the structure and dynamics of thiol-based self-assembled-monolayers (SAMs). In recent years a quite complex picture of the interaction of sulfur with Au(111) surfaces emerged, and a variety of S-induced surface structures was reported under different conditions. The majority of these structures were interpreted in terms of a static Au surface, where the positions of the Au atoms remain essentially unperturbed. Here we demonstrate that the Au(111) surface exhibits a very dynamic character upon interaction with adsorbed sulfur: low sulfur coverages modify the surface stress of the Au surface leading to lateral expansion of the surface layer; large-scale surface restructuring and incorporation of Au atoms into a growing two-dimensional AuS phase were observed with increasing sulfur coverage. These results provide new insight into the Au-S surface chemistry, and reveal the dynamic character of the Au(111) surface.

  12. Appropriating social citizenship: women's labour, poverty, and entrepreneurship in the manual workers union of Botswana.

    PubMed

    Werbner, Pnina

    2010-01-01

    Interrogating critiques of the 'African labour aristocracy' thesis, the article proposes that public service industrial-class manual workers in Botswana form, if not a labour 'aristocracy' in the sense first defined by Saul and Arrighi, then a marginal worker 'elite'. They are privileged in having a regular salary above minimum pay, augmented by periodic lump-sum gratuity payments. This sets them apart from the other low-paid workers in the private sector, casual workers in the informal economy and a vast army of unemployed job seekers. In the absence of a national unemployment benefit scheme in Botswana, the article explores some of the strategies deployed by women members of the Manual Workers Union in their attempts to contend with the spectre of future unemployment and impoverishment. In gender terms, the article highlights the independence, autonomy and decision-making capacity of women trade unionist leaders, who straddle the worlds of workers' rights and citizens' rights, and manoeuvre their way through the maze of rules and regulations they encounter in both.

  13. Suppression of Upsilon production in d + Au and Au + Au collisions at root s(NN) = 200 GeV (vol 735, pg 127, 2014)

    SciTech Connect

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Anson, C. D.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Gliske, S.; Krueger, K.; Spinka, H. M.; Underwood, D. G.

    2014-07-30

    We report measurements of Υ meson production in p + p, d +Au, and Au+Aucollisions using the STAR detector at RHIC. We compare the Υ yield to the measured cross section in p + p collisions in order to quantify any modifications of the yield in cold nuclear matter using d +Au data and in hot nuclear matter using Au+Au data separated into three centrality classes. Our p +p measurement is based on three times the statistics of our previous result. We obtain a nuclear modification factor for Υ (1S + 2S + 3S) in the rapidity range |y| < 1 in d + Aucollisions of RdAu = 0.79 ± 0.24(stat.) ± 0.03(syst.) ± 0.10(p + p syst.). A comparison with models including shadowing and initial state parton energy loss indicates the presence of additional cold-nuclear matter suppression. Similarly, in the top 10% most-central Au + Au collisions, we measure a nuclear modification factor of R AA = 0.49 ±0.1(stat.) ±0.02(syst.) ±0.06(p + p syst.), which is a larger suppression factor than that seen in cold nuclear matter. Our results are consistent with complete suppression of excited-state Υ mesons in Au + Aucollisions. The additional suppression in Au + Au is consistent with the level expected in model calculations that include the presence of a hot, deconfined Quark–Gluon Plasma. However, understanding the suppression seen in d + Au is still needed before any definitive statements about the nature of the suppression in Au + Au can be made.

  14. The fast diffusion of Au IN Pb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclellan, R. B.; Ko, C.; Brotzen, F. R.

    1990-01-01

    A treatment of the phenomenon of fast diffusion in lead is presented. The model used is based upon the fast diffusion of free solute interstitials. The very large negative enhancement coefficients found in the Pb-(Au, Ag) systems is explained by the formation of first and second order clusters of vacancies and substitutional solute atoms.

  15. 22 CFR 62.31 - Au pairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... pair participant with child development and child safety instruction, as follows: (1) Prior to... development instruction of which no less than 4 shall be devoted to specific training for children under the... and participate directly in the home life of the host family. All au pair participants provide...

  16. 22 CFR 62.31 - Au pairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... pair participant with child development and child safety instruction, as follows: (1) Prior to... development instruction of which no less than 4 shall be devoted to specific training for children under the... and participate directly in the home life of the host family. All au pair participants provide...

  17. 22 CFR 62.31 - Au pairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... pair participant with child development and child safety instruction, as follows: (1) Prior to... development instruction of which no less than 4 shall be devoted to specific training for children under the... and participate directly in the home life of the host family. All au pair participants provide...

  18. 22 CFR 62.31 - Au pairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... pair participant with child development and child safety instruction, as follows: (1) Prior to... development instruction of which no less than 4 shall be devoted to specific training for children under the... and participate directly in the home life of the host family. All au pair participants provide...

  19. 22 CFR 62.31 - Au pairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... pair participant with child development and child safety instruction, as follows: (1) Prior to... development instruction of which no less than 4 shall be devoted to specific training for children under the... and participate directly in the home life of the host family. All au pair participants provide...

  20. Five types of non-union grievance systems.

    PubMed

    Balfour, A

    1984-01-01

    Organizations without a process for hearing and resolving employee complaints leave their employees feeling powerless to affect the system that drives their working hours--a feeling that can send morale and motivation plummeting and fuel a vote to "go union" in an organizing effort. Even if unions fail to capitalize on such situations, the federal government may see a need to step in. Thus there is good reason, says author Alan Balfour (associate professor of management at the University of South Florida), to institute grievance systems for non-union employees. But which system is best? Balfour discusses the advantages and disadvantages of five: an open-door policy; ombudsman; juries of peers; hearing officers; and binding, outside arbitration. In doing so, he distinguishes between those that simply address the facts of a case and those that try to get to the root of a problem and solve it in ways that repair the relationships involved.

  1. Spanning Trees of the Generalised Union Jack Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lingyun; Yan, Weigen

    2016-04-01

    The Union Jack lattice UJL(n, m) with toroidal boundary condition can be obtained from an n×m square lattice with toroidal boundary condition by inserting a new vertex vf to each face f and adding four edges (vf, ui(f)), where u1(f), u2(f), u3(f), and u4(f) are four vertices on the boundary of f. The Union Jack lattice has been studied extensively by statistical physicists. In this article, we consider the problem of enumeration of spanning trees of the so-called generalised Union Jack lattice UDn, which is obtained from the Aztec diamond ADnt of order n with toroidal boundary condition by inserting a new vertex vf to each face f and adding four edges (vf, ui(f)), where u1(f), u2(f), u3(f) and u4(f) are four vertices on the boundary of f.

  2. [The relationship between the State and workers' unions and its impacts in the union-based health coverage regime in Argentina: an historical and political analysis].

    PubMed

    De Fazio, Federico Leandro

    2013-12-01

    This paper aims at developing a political and historical reconstruction of the period spanning from the late nineteenth century to the present. In particular, this work investigates the relationship between the Argentine State and workers' unions and the impacts of that relationship in the establishment, consolidation and potential decline of the health coverage system administrated by unions, in Argentina called obras sociales. This work will also support the hypothesis that the financing obtained by union leaders through this health coverage system has been an efficient instrument for sustaining a centralized union model and has in some cases guaranteed the continued governance of both union leaders and different national governments.

  3. Systematics of Global Observables in Cu+Cu and Au+Au Collisions at RHIC Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Nouicer, Rachid

    2006-07-11

    Charged particles produced in Cu+Cu collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN}) = 200 and 62.4 GeV have been measured in the PHOBOS experiment at RHIC. The comparison of the results for Cu+Cu and Au+Au for the most central collisions at the same energy reveals that the particle density per nucleon participant pair and the extended longitudinal scaling behavior are similar in both systems. This implies that for the most central events in symmetric nucleus-nucleus collisions the particle density per nucleon participant pair does not depend on the size of the two colliding nuclei but only on the collision energy. Also the extended longitudinal scaling seems independent of the colliding energy and species for central collisions. In addition, there is an overall factorization of dNch/d{eta} shapes as a function of collision centraliry between Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at the same energy.

  4. Charged-Particle Pseudorapidity Density Distributions from Au+Au Collisions at

    SciTech Connect

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.

    2001-09-03

    The charged-particle pseudorapidity density dN{sub ch}/d{eta} has been measured for Au+Au collisions at s{sub NN}=130 GeV at RHIC, using the PHOBOS apparatus. The total number of charged particles produced for the 3% most-central Au+Au collisions for |{eta}|{<=}5.4 is found to be 4200{+-}470 . The evolution of dN{sub ch}/d{eta} with centrality is discussed, and compared to model calculations and to data from proton-induced collisions. The data show an enhancement in charged-particle production at midrapidity, while in the fragmentation regions, the results are consistent with expectations from pp and pA scattering.

  5. High Resolution Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Au_2^- and Au_4^- by Photoelectron Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, Iker; Yang, Zheng; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2013-06-01

    We report high resolution photoelectron spectra of Au_2^- and Au_4^- obtained with a newly-built photoelectron imaging apparatus. Gold anions are produced by laser vaporization and the desired specie is mass selected and focused into the collinear velocity-map imaging (VMI) lens assembly. The design of the imaging lens has allowed us to obtain less than 0.9% energy resolution for high kinetic energy electrons ( > 1eV) while maintaining wavenumber resolution for low kinetic energy electrons. Although gold dimer and tetramer have been studied in the past, we present spectroscopic results under high resolution. For Au_2^-, we report high resolution spectra with an accurate determination of the electron affinity together with a complete vibrational assignment, for both the anion and neutral ground states, while for Au_4^-, we are able to resolve a low frequency mode and obtain accurately the adiabatic detachment energy.

  6. Magnetic disorder in nanostructured Fe7Au93 films and Fe14Au86 powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alba Venero, D.; Fernández Barquín, L.; Alonso, J.; Svalov, A.; Fdez-Gubieda, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    Thin films and powders of dilute Fe-Au alloys have been produced by DC-magnetron sputtering and high-energy milling, respectively. Energy disperse X-ray spectroscopy gives Fe7Au93 for the films and Fe14Au86 for the powders. The film, with a thickness below 200 nm measured by atomic force microscopy, was deposited onto a Si(100) substrate. X-ray diffraction reveals a major presence of fcc-Au peaks masking the bcc-Fe phase. The (1 0-300 K) DC-susceptibility (H = 100-1000 Oe) shows a clear cusp in the films in contrast to the powders, with a reentrant spin glass-like behavior.

  7. Au/ZnO nanoarchitectures with Au as both supporter and antenna of visible-light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tianyu; Chen, Wei; Hua, Yuxiang; Liu, Xiaoheng

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we fabricate Au/ZnO nanostructure with smaller ZnO nanoparticles loaded onto bigger gold nanoparticles via combining seed-mediated method and sol-gel method. The obtained Au/ZnO nanocomposites exhibit excellent properties in photocatalysis process like methyl orange (MO) degradation and oxidative conversion of methanol into formaldehyde under visible light irradiation. The enhanced properties were ascribed to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect of Au nanoparticles, which could contribute to the separation of photo-excited electrons and holes and facilitate the process of absorbing visible light. This paper contributes to the emergence of multi-functional nanocomposites with possible applications in visible-light driven photocatalysts and makes the Au/ZnO photocatalyst an exceptional choice for practical applications such as environmental purification of organic pollutants in aqueous solution and the synthesis of fine chemicals and intermediates.

  8. Etude descriptive et analytique du cancer de l’œsophage au Togo

    PubMed Central

    Oumboma, Bouglouga; Mawuli, Lawson-Ananissoh Laté; Aklesso, Bagny; Laconi, Kaaga; Datouda, Redah

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Décrire les aspects épidémiologiques, cliniques, endoscopiques et histologiques du cancer de l’œsophage (CO) au Togo. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective descriptive et analytique menée sur 8 ans (Janvier 2005-Décembre 2012) dans le service d'hépato-gastroentérologie (HGE) du CHU Campus de Lomé. Etaient inclus les dossiers des patients hospitalisés pour CO confirmé histologiquement. Résultats Sur 8 ans, 24 patients remplissant nos critères d'inclusion ont été retenus soit 3cas de CO par an et 0,55% des hospitalisations. L’âge moyen des patients était de 57,08 ans (extrêmes: 32 et 82 ans). La dysphagie et l’épigastralgie étaient les motifs d'hospitalisation les plus rencontrés. L'alcool (n=15), le tabac (n=13) étaient les facteurs de risque les plus présents. A la fibroscopie, les lésions étaient ulcéro-bourgeonnantes et hémorragiques (n=12), ulcéro-bourgeonnantes (n=5); ces lésions siégeaient au niveau du 1/3 inférieur (n= 11), à l'union 1/3 supérieur 1/3moyen de l’œsophage (n= 13) et aucun au niveau du 1/3 supérieur. Seize lésions étaient des carcinomes épidermoïdes et 3 des adénocarcinomes. L’évolution dans le service a été fatale dans 2cas; 16 patients avaient été transférés en chirurgie pour des soins palliatifs et 5 patients (20,8%) étaient perdus de vue. Conclusion Le CO semble en augmentation au Togo. L'alcool et le tabac sont les facteurs de risque et le pronostic sévère dans notre série est lié au retard diagnostic. Son dépistage précoce passe par une consultation rapide devant toute dysphagie chez un sujet de 50 ans et plus. PMID:25883742

  9. Observation of a Strongly Enhanced Magnetic Susceptibility of Pd in Au-Pd-Au Sandwiches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, M. B.; Freeman, A. J.

    1980-07-01

    Exceptionally large increases in the magnetic susceptibility (indicating nearly magnetic ordering) of thin films of Pd sandwiched between thicker Au films have been observed at low temperatures-presumably due to the expansion of the Pd average lattice constant by the Au. The large resultant Stoner factors and the modified paramagnon model of Levin and Valls indicate the possibility of observing p-wave superconductivity in Pd structures with reduced proximity effects.

  10. Net charge fluctuations in Au + Au interactions at sqrt[s(NN)]=130 GeV.

    PubMed

    Adcox, K; Adler, S S; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Alexander, J; Aphecetche, L; Arai, Y; Aronson, S H; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Barrette, J; Bassalleck, B; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Bellaiche, F G; Belyaev, S T; Bennett, M J; Berdnikov, Y; Botelho, S; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bruner, N; Bucher, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J; Butsyk, S; Carey, T A; Chand, P; Chang, J; Chang, W C; Chavez, L L; Chernichenko, S; Chi, C Y; Chiba, J; Chiu, M; Choudhury, R K; Christ, T; Chujo, T; Chung, M S; Chung, P; Cianciolo, V; Cole, B A; D'Enterria, D G; David, G; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dietzsch, O; Dinesh, B V; Drees, A; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Ebisu, K; Efremenko, Y V; El Chenawi, K; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Ewell, L; Ferdousi, T; Fields, D E; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Z; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fung, S-Y; Garpman, S; Ghosh, T K; Glenn, A; Godoi, A L; Goto, Y; Greene, S V; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Gupta, S K; Guryn, W; Gustafsson, H-A; Haggerty, J S; Hamagaki, H; Hansen, A G; Hara, H; Hartouni, E P; Hayano, R; Hayashi, N; He, X; Hemmick, T K; Heuser, J M; Hibino, M; Hill, J C; Ho, D S; Homma, K; Hong, B; Hoover, A; Ichihara, T; Imai, K; Ippolitov, M S; Ishihara, M; Jacak, B V; Jang, W Y; Jia, J; Johnson, B M; Johnson, S C; Joo, K S; Kametani, S; Kang, J H; Kann, M; Kapoor, S S; Kelly, S; Khachaturov, B; Khanzadeev, A; Kikuchi, J; Kim, D J; Kim, H J; Kim, S Y; Kim, Y G; Kinnison, W W; Kistenev, E; Kiyomichi, A; Klein-Boesing, C; Klinksiek, S; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Koehler, D; Kohama, T; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Kroon, P J; Kurita, K; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lajoie, J G; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Leitch, M J; Li, X H; Li, Z; Lim, D J; Liu, M X; Liu, X; Liu, Z; Maguire, C F; Mahon, J; Makdisi, Y I; Manko, V I; Mao, Y; Mark, S K; Markacs, S; Martinez, G; Marx, M D; Masaike, A; Matathias, F; Matsumoto, T; McGaughey, P L; Melnikov, E; Merschmeyer, M; Messer, F; Messer, M; Miake, Y; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mischke, R E; Mishra, G C; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Mühlbacher, F; Muniruzzaman, M; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagasaka, Y; Nagle, J L; Nakada, Y; Nandi, B K; Newby, J; Nikkinen, L; Nilsson, P; Nishimura, S; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; O'Brien, E; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Ono, M; Onuchin, V; Oskarsson, A; Osterman, L; Otterlund, I; Oyama, K; Paffrath, L; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V S; Papavassiliou, V; Pate, S F; Peitzmann, T; Petridis, A N; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Pitukhin, P; Plasil, F; Pollack, M; Pope, K; Purschke, M L; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Rosati, M; Rose, A A; Ryu, S S; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, A; Sakaguchi, T; Sako, H; Sakuma, T; Samsonov, V; Sangster, T C; Santo, R; Sato, H D; Sato, S; Sawada, S; Schlei, B R; Schutz, Y; Semenov, V; Seto, R; Shea, T K; Shein, I; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shiina, T; Shin, Y H; Sibiriak, I G; Silvermyr, D; Sim, K S; Simon-Gillo, J; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Sivertz, M; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sorensen, S; Stankus, P W; Starinsky, N; Steinberg, P; Stenlund, E; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugioka, M; Sugitate, T; Sullivan, J P; Sumi, Y; Sun, Z; Suzuki, M; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tamai, M; Tanaka, K H; Tanaka, Y; Taniguchi, E; Tannenbaum, M J; Thomas, J; Thomas, J H; Thomas, T L; Tian, W; Tojo, J; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuruoka, H; Tsvetkov, A A; Tuli, S K; Tydesjö, H; Tyurin, N; Ushiroda, T; van Hecke, H W; Velissaris, C; Velkovska, J; Velkovsky, M; Vinogradov, A A; Volkov, M A; Vorobyov, A; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, H; Watanabe, Y; White, S N; Witzig, C; Wohn, F K; Woody, C L; Xie, W; Yagi, K; Yokkaichi, S; Young, G R; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zhang, Z; Zhou, S

    2002-08-19

    Data from Au + Au interactions at sqrt[s(NN)]=130 GeV, obtained with the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider, are used to investigate local net charge fluctuations among particles produced near midrapidity. According to recent suggestions, such fluctuations may carry information from the quark-gluon plasma. This analysis shows that the fluctuations are dominated by a stochastic distribution of particles, but are also sensitive to other effects, like global charge conservation and resonance decays.

  11. Transverse expansion in Au + Au collisions at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Y.; Liu, F.; Liu, K.; Schweda, K.; Xu, N.

    2003-06-24

    Using the RQMD model, transverse momentum distributions and particle ratios are studied for {sup 197}Au + {sup 197}Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV. In particular, they present results on the mean transverse momentum of charged pions, charged kaons, protons and anti-protons and compare with experimental measurements. They discuss an approach to study early partonic collectivity in high energy nuclear collisions.

  12. Strangeness production in Au+Au collisions at the AGS: recent results from E917.

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, W.-C.; Back, B. B.; Betts, R. R.; Britt, H. C.; Chang, W. C.; Gillitzer, A.; Henning, W. F.; Hofman, D. J.; Holzman, B.; Nanal, V.; Wuosmaa, A. H.

    1999-03-30

    Strangeness production in Au+Au collisions has been measured via the yields of K{sup +} , K{sup {minus}} at 6, 8 AGeV and of {bar {Lambda}} at 10.8 AGeV beam kinetic energy in experiment E917. By varying the collision centrally and beam energy, a systematic search for indications of new phenomena and in-medium effects under high baryon density is undertaken.

  13. Illegal immigration in the presence of labor unions.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, J G

    1994-01-01

    "This paper develops a general equilibrium framework of a two-sector economy which incorporates illegal immigration in the presence of labor unions. It demonstrates that stricter enforcement of immigration laws, by reducing the demand for or supply of illegal aliens, benefits all legal workers in the economy. The model is used to evaluate the impact of these policy changes on national income. Results indicate that national income does not necessarily fall when immigration controls are tightened. The existence of a union mitigates the negative welfare impact of a reduction in the number of illegal immigrants."

  14. Some African American Males' Perspectives on the Black Woman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrow, Rufus, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Presents views of Frederick Douglass, W. E. B. Du Bois, Malcolm X, and James Hal Cone (African-American male leaders) toward African-American women in the United States. Discusses the role of African-American men in addressing and eradicating sexism in African-American churches and the African-American community. (SLD)

  15. The effect of Au amount on size uniformity of self-assembled Au nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S.-H.; Wang, D.-C.; Chen, G.-Y.; Chen, K.-Y.

    2008-03-01

    The self-assembled fabrication of nanostructure, a dreaming approach in the area of fabrication engineering, is the ultimate goal of this research. A finding was proved through previous research that the size of the self-assembled gold nanoparticles could be controlled with the mole ratio between AuCl4- and thiol. In this study, the moles of Au were fixed, only the moles of thiol were adjusted. Five different mole ratios of Au/S with their effect on size uniformity were investigated. The mole ratios were 1:1/16, 1:1/8, 1:1, 1:8, 1:16, respectively. The size distributions of the gold nanoparticles were analyzed by Mac-View analysis software. HR-TEM was used to derive images of self-assembled gold nanoparticles. The result reached was also the higher the mole ratio between AuCl4- and thiol the bigger the self-assembled gold nanoparticles. Under the condition of moles of Au fixed, the most homogeneous nanoparticles in size distribution derived with the mole ratio of 1:1/8 between AuCl4- and thiol. The obtained nanoparticles could be used, for example, in uniform surface nanofabrication, leading to the fabrication of ordered array of quantum dots.

  16. Low specific contact resistivity to graphene achieved by AuGe/Ni/Au and annealing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shu-Zhen; Song, Yan; Dong, Jian-Rong; Sun, Yu-Run; Zhao, Yong-Ming; He, Yang

    2016-11-01

    Low metal-graphene contact resistance is important in making high-performance graphene devices. In this work, we demonstrate a lower specific contact resistivity of Au0.88Ge0.12/Ni/Au-graphene contact compared with Ti/Au and Ti/Pt/Au contacts. The rapid thermal annealing process was optimized to improve AuGe/Ni/Au contact resistance. Results reveal that both pre- and post-annealing processes are effective for reducing the contact resistance. The specific contact resistivity decreases from 2.5 × 10-4 to 7.8 × 10-5 Ω·cm2 by pre-annealing at 300 °C for one hour, and continues to decrease to 9.5 × 10-7 Ω·cm2 after post-annealing at 490 °C for 60 seconds. These approaches provide reliable means of lowering contact resistance. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61376065) and the Science and Technology Project of Suzhou, China (Grant No. ZXG2013044).

  17. Magnetism of Au Nanoparticles on Sulfolubus Acidocaldarius S-Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolome, Juan; Bartolome, F.; Garcia, L. M.; Figueroa, A. I.; Herrmannsdoerfer, T.; Skrotzki, R.; Schoenemann, R.; Wosnitza, J.; Selenska-Pobell, S.; Geissler, A.; Reitz, T.; Wilhelm, F.; Rogalev, A.

    2011-03-01

    Au nanoparticles (NP) with diameters of a few nm have been synthesized on a protein S-layer of Sulfolobus Acidocaldarius bacteria. SQUID magnetization (1.8 K T 300 Kand 0 B 7 T) showssuperparamagneticbehavioratlow - T . ItsoriginlaysattheAuNP ' s , ashasbeenprovenbyAuL 2,3- edgeXMCDspectroscopy , performedintherange 2.2 T 20 KanduptoB app = 17 T . XMCDanalysisyieldsatotalmagneticmomentperAuatom μAu = 0.050 (1) μB , aparticleaveragemomentm part = 2.3 μB , Auorbitaltospinmomentratioofm L / m S = 0.29 Curie and - like superparamagnetism. Au - S bonds are detected by S K - edge XAS measurements. Besides , EXAFS at the Au L 3 -edge shows that the Au NP internal structure is fcc, and Au-S bonds are located at the particle surface. An increase of the hole charge carrier density in the Au 5d band due to electron transfer with the S-layer explains the Au magnetism. The observed magnetic moment per Au atom is 25 times larger than those previously found by XMCD in Au-thiol capped NPs.

  18. Controlling Au Nanorod Dispersion in Thin Film Polymer Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hore, Michael J. A.; Composto, Russell J.

    2012-02-01

    Dispersion of Au nanorods (Au NRs) in polymer thin films is studied using a combination of experimental and theoretical techniques. Here, we incorporate small volume fractions of polystyrene-functionalized Au NRs (φrod 0.05) into polystyrene (PS) thin films. By controlling the ratio of the brush length (N) to that of the matrix polymers (P), we can selectively obtain dispersed or aggregated Au NR structures in the PS-Au(N):PS(P) films. A dispersion map of these structures allows one to choose N and P to obtain either uniformly dispersed Au NRs or aggregates of closely packed, side-by-side aligned Au NRs. Furthermore, by blending poly(2,6-dimethyl-p-phenylene oxide) (PPO) into the PS films, we demonstrate that the Au nanorod morphology can be further tuned by reducing depletion-attraction forces and promoting miscibility of the Au NRs. These predictable structures ultimately give rise to tunable optical absorption in the films resulting from surface plasmon resonance coupling between the Au NRs. Finally, self-consistent field theoretic (SCFT) calculations for both the PS-Au(N):PS(P) and PS-Au(N):PS(P):PPO systems provide insight into the PS brush structure, and allow us to interpret morphology and optical property results in terms of wet and dry PS brush states.

  19. Experimental and Theoretical Studies on Oxidation of Cu-Au Alloy Surfaces: Effect of Bulk Au Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Michio; Tsuda, Yasutaka; Oka, Kohei; Kojima, Kazuki; Diño, Wilson Agerico; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Kasai, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    We report results of our experimental and theoretical studies on the oxidation of Cu-Au alloy surfaces, viz., Cu3Au(111), CuAu(111), and Au3Cu(111), using hyperthermal O2 molecular beam (HOMB). We observed strong Au segregation to the top layer of the corresponding clean (111) surfaces. This forms a protective layer that hinders further oxidation into the bulk. The higher the concentration of Au in the protective layer formed, the higher the protective efficacy. As a result, of the three Cu-Au surfaces studied, Au3Cu(111) is the most stable against dissociative adsorption of O2, even with HOMB. We also found that this protective property breaks down for oxidations occurring at temperatures above 300 K. PMID:27516137

  20. Bonding, Luminescence, Metallophilicity in Linear Au3 and Au2Ag Chains Stabilized by Rigid Diphosphanyl NHC Ligands.

    PubMed

    Ai, Pengfei; Mauro, Matteo; Gourlaouen, Christophe; Carrara, Serena; De Cola, Luisa; Tobon, Yeny; Giovanella, Umberto; Botta, Chiara; Danopoulos, Andreas A; Braunstein, Pierre

    2016-09-06

    The heterofunctional and rigid ligand N,N'-diphosphanyl-imidazol-2-ylidene (PCNHCP; P = P(t-Bu)2), through its phosphorus and two N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) donors, stabilizes trinuclear chain complexes, with either Au3 or AgAu2 cores, and dinuclear Au2 complexes. The two oppositely situated PCNHCP (L) ligands that "sandwich" the metal chain can support linear and rigid structures, as found in the known tricationic Au(I) complex [Au3(μ3-PCNHCP,κP,κCNHC,κP)2](OTf)3 (OTf = CF3SO3; [Au3L2](OTf)3; Chem. Commun. 2014, 50, 103-105) now also obtained by transmetalation from [Ag3(μ3-PCNHCP,κP,κCNHC,κP)2](OTf)3 ([Ag3L2](OTf)3), or in the mixed-metal tricationic [Au2Ag(μ3-PCNHCP,κP,κCNHC,κP)2](OTf)3 ([Au2AgL2](OTf)3). The latter was obtained stepwise by the addition of AgOTf to the digold(I) complex [Au2(μ2-PCNHCP,κP,κCNHC)2](OTf)2 ([Au2L2](OTf)2). The latter contains two dangling P donors and displays fluxional behavior in solution, and the Au···Au separation of 2.8320(6) Å in the solid state is consistent with metallophilic interactions. In the solvento complex [Au3Cl2(tht)(μ3-PCNHCP,κP,κCNHC,κP)](OTf)·MeCN ([Au3Cl2(tht)L](OTf)·MeCN), which contains only one L and one tht ligand (tht = tetrahydrothiophene), the metal chain is bent (148.94(2)°), and the longer Au···Au separation (2.9710(4) Å) is in line with relaxation of the rigidity due to a more "open" structure. Similar features were observed in [Au3Cl2(SMe2)L](OTf)·2MeCN. A detailed study of the emission properties of [Au3L2](OTf)3, [Au3Cl2(tht)L](OTf)·MeCN, [Au2L2](OTf)2, and [Au2AgL2](OTf)3 was performed by means of steady state and time-resolved photophysical techniques. The complex [Au3L2](OTf)3 displays a bright (photoluminescence quantum yield = 80%) and narrow emission band centered at 446 nm with a relatively small Stokes' shift and long-lived excited-state lifetime on the microsecond timescale, both in solution and in the solid state. In line with the very narrow emission