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Sample records for african unity oau

  1. African leaders back OAU call to save children from AIDS.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    Africa's government heads adopted a 6-point resolution in Tunisia in June at a summit of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) which stresses pre-teen sex education as a key to saving African children from AIDS. They also called on the OAU secretary-general to collaborate with the secretary-general of the UN and the director-general of the World Health Organization in mobilizing resources for an agenda against the pandemic. The African leaders pledged to make sustained efforts to eradicate AIDS and address the issue of the child in Africa. They also committed themselves to consider incorporating sex education programs with special emphasis on AIDS in the curricula of schools for pre-teenage children. Almost 2/3 of HIV infections in Africa occur in people aged 24 years and under. According to estimates, AIDS will have orphaned around 4 million African children by the year 2000. Already, in some of the worst hit areas, more than 50% of children under 15 years have lost a parent. Nearly 1 million African children under 5 years of age have themselves been infected with HIV via maternal transmission, transfusion of infected blood or contaminated syringes. In many places older children nurse sick parents, and grandparents struggle to support grandchildren as families take in orphaned children. Governments should enforce policies that discourage the isolation of children infected by HIV. Families and communities must be helped to provide for children's needs. Recognizing the vulnerability of women to HIV/AIDS and children, governments should increase the educational and employment opportunities of women as well as social support for both women and children. Children need skills as well as knowledge to help them delay intercourse. For young people already engaging in sexual intercourse, education programs must stress non-penetrative forms of sex and condom use as the most effective protection against HIV.

  2. The Future of Conflict Resolution in Africa and the Role of the Organization of African Unity (OAU)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    Politique / Diplomatie/290797-3.html 70 and the refugee situation in Eastern Zaire, in 1994, led the French to initiate diplomatic efforts to...Stephenson 1994:14). The expected "peace dividends " seemed then an opportunity to carry out the development project. At the same time, the

  3. A resolution commemorating the 50th anniversary of the founding of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) and commending its successor, the African Union.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Coons, Christopher A. [D-DE

    2013-06-10

    06/26/2013 Resolution agreed to in Senate without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S5304-5305) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Commemorating the 50th anniversary of the founding of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) and commending its successor, the African Union.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Bass, Karen [D-CA-37

    2013-05-23

    06/07/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights and International Organizations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. [The African Charter on the Rights of the Child. The member states of the Organization of African Unity must ratify without further delay].

    PubMed

    Diongue, A

    1994-12-01

    In July 1990, the Organization of African Unity (OUA) adopted the African Charter of the Rights and Welfare of the Child. It includes a Preamble, two relative parts on the Rights and Respects of the Child, and 47 articles. It defines "child" as a complete human being less than 18 years old. It recognizes the child's unique and privileged place in African society and that African children need protection and special care. It also recognizes that the child has freedom of expression, association, peaceful assembly, thought, religion, and conscience. It aims to protect the private life of the child and safeguard the child against all forms of economic exploitation and against work that is hazardous, interferes with the child's education, or compromises his/her health or physical, social, mental, spiritual, and moral development. It also calls for protection against abuse and bad treatment, negative social and cultural practices, all forms of exploitation or sexual abuse, and illegal drug use. It also aims to prevent the sale, trading, kidnapping, and begging of children. It calls for the creation of an African expert committee on the rights and well-being of the child. Its mission is to promote and protect the rights consecrated by the Charter, to practice applying these rights, and to interpret the disposition of the Charter as required of party states, OUA institutions, or all other institutions recognized by OUA or by a member state. The Charter goes into effect 30 days after OUA or 15 member states ratify it. As of August 24, 1994, only four states had ratified it. Member states have taken it upon themselves to take all necessary measures to adopt the Charter. The delay of African states in this affair is incomprehensible. Eleven years separate the adoption of the Declaration on the Rights and Welfare of the African Child and this Charter. Must the African child wait as long to see the Charter become law?

  6. Unity in Diversity: Results of a Randomized Clinical Culturally Tailored Pilot HIV Prevention Intervention Trial in Baltimore, Maryland, for African American Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Karin; Kuramoto, Satoko J.; German, Danielle; Fields, Errol; Spikes, Pilgrim S.; Patterson, Jocelyn; Latkin, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Unity in Diversity was a randomized controlled trial of a culturally tailored HIV prevention intervention for African American men who have sex with men. The intervention condition was six group-based sessions and one individual session. The control condition was a single-session HIV prevention review. Participants were aged 18 years or older,…

  7. The Role of the African Union in African Peacekeeping Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-26

    Government in Sirte , Libya, on 9 September 1999. The AU was formed to address some of the issues identified during the analysis of the OAU PKOs. The...Establishment of the African Union The Sirte Declaration led to the establishment of the AU in 2002. One of the AU’s objectives was to enhance the security

  8. Unity in diversity: results of a randomized clinical culturally tailored pilot HIV prevention intervention trial in Baltimore, Maryland, for African American men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Karin; Kuramoto, Satoko J; German, Danielle; Fields, Errol; Spikes, Pilgrim S; Patterson, Jocelyn; Latkin, Carl

    2013-06-01

    Unity in Diversity was a randomized controlled trial of a culturally tailored HIV prevention intervention for African American men who have sex with men. The intervention condition was six group-based sessions and one individual session. The control condition was a single-session HIV prevention review. Participants were aged 18 years or older, identified as African American/Black race, reported having at least two sex partners in the prior 90 days (at least one of whom must be a male partner), unprotected anal sex with male partner in the prior 90 days, and willing to test for HIV. Retention exceeded 95% at 3-month follow-up. Results of multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for baseline risk, HIV status, and health insurance indicate intervention efficacy in decreasing the number of male sex partners and marginal effects on condom use with male partners and HIV-negative/unknown partners. Specifically, intervention condition was associated with increased odds of zero male sex partners (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.26-7.28), condom use with male partners (AOR = 2.64, 95% CI = 0.95-7.36), and HIV-negative/unknown status partners (AOR = 3.19, 95% CI = 0.98-10.38) at follow-up. These results contribute to the limited number of culturally appropriate models of HIV prevention intervention that are urgently needed for African American men who have sex with men to address their persistently high rates of HIV.

  9. Unity in Diversity: Results of a randomized clinical culturally tailored pilot HIV prevention intervention trial for African American men who have sex with men; Baltimore, Maryland

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, K; Kuramoto, SJ; German, D; Fields, E; Spikes, PS; Patterson, J; Latkin, C

    2013-01-01

    Unity in Diversity was a randomized controlled trial of a culturally tailored HIV prevention intervention for African American men who have sex with men (AA MSM). The intervention condition was six group-based sessions and one individual session. The control condition was a single-session HIV prevention review. Participants were aged 18 years or older, identified as African American/black race, reported having at least two sex partners in the prior 90 days (at least one of whom must be a male partner), unprotected anal sex with male partner in the prior 90 days and willing to test for HIV. Retention exceeded 95% at 3 month follow-up. Results of multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for baseline risk, HIV status and health insurance indicate intervention efficacy in decreasing the number of male sex partners and marginal effects on condom use with male partners and HIV negative/unknown partners. Specifically, intervention condition was associated with increased odds of zero male sex partners (AOR=3.03, 95%CI=1.26–7.28), condom use with male partners (AOR=2.64, 95%CI=0.95–7.36) and HIV negative/unknown status partners (AOR=3.19, 95%CI=0.98–10.38) at follow-up. These results contribute to the limited number of culturally appropriate models of HIV prevention intervention that are urgently needed for African American men who have sex with men to address their persistently high rates of HIV. PMID:22984216

  10. Dynamic UNITY

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    present the first of our example Dynamic UNITY systems, Eratosthenes ’ prime number sieve. This example is chosen for its determinism; we know the...element of the sequence is the ith prime number.” We know of an algorithm to generate arbitrarily large prime numbers: Eratosthenes ’ prime number sieve. We...filters the in- teger sequences as necessary to implement Eratosthenes ’ algorithm. We introduce the function SIEVE for use in the following proofs. This

  11. A review of the evolution and trajectory of the African union as an instrument of regional integration.

    PubMed

    Chirisa, Innocent Ew; Mumba, Artwell; Dirwai, Simbarashe O

    2014-01-01

    This review paper seeks to analyse African integration in terms of its magnitude of solidarity, the state and typology of integration and functioning. It assesses the strengths, weaknesses, objectives, successes and failures of the African integration project as well as threats to its survival. The primary goal is to sift between issues with the view of better informing the future of the integration. The paper acknowledges how, in 2002, the OAU (formed in 1963) convened to reconstitute and become the African Union (AU) composed of eight Regional Economic Communities. The reformed union has spelt out gender equality, strategic planning, intra-trade, non-indifference to suffering in member states and sustainability, as additional objectives to those of the former OAU. This idea has been to foster integration to promote peace, security and cooperation hence solidarity. It can now be assessed succinctly that African integration has arisen in the need for amalgamation of efforts to solve African problems with African solutions.

  12. Nation Building as a Determinent of Economic Growth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-18

    2005 Mongolia 1960-2005 Morocco 1960-2005 Mozambique 1975-2005 Myanmar ( Burma ) 1960-2005 Namibia 1990-2005 Nepal 1965-2005 Netherlands 1960-2005...Organization for African Unity (OAU), the North -Atlantic Treaty Organization, or the Organization of American States(OAS) execute the construction...This includes operations conducted by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Organization for African Unity (OAU), and the Organization

  13. Revisiting sub-Saharan African countries' drug problems: health, social, economic costs, and drug control policy.

    PubMed

    Affinnih, Yahya H

    2002-02-01

    -drug laws or legislation, or of establishing a drug control agency. They are also cooperating regionally to coordinate drug control measures and working with the Organization of African Unity (OAU). In addition, almost all the sub-Saharan African countries are signatories to all United Nations drug conventions. Since the drug problem in Africa has international origins, it will take concerted international cooperation and coordinated effort to combat the "social cancer" of drugs.

  14. Feasibility, Acceptability, and Preliminary Efficacy of the Unity Workshop: An Internalized Stigma Reduction Intervention for African American Women Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Desmond, Michelle; Andrasik, Michele; Rasberry, Tonya; Lambert, Nina; Cohn, Susan E.; Simoni, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Observational studies have examined the prevalence and impact of internalized stigma among African American women living with HIV, but there are no intervention studies investigating stigma reduction strategies in this population. Based on qualitative data previously collected, we adapted the International Center for Research on Women's HIV Stigma Toolkit for a domestic population of African American women to be consistent with Corrigan's principles of strategic stigma change. We implemented the intervention, led by an African American woman living with HIV, as a workshop across two afternoons. The participants discussed issues “triggered” by videos produced specifically for this purpose, learned coping mechanisms from each other, and practiced them in role plays with each other. We pilot tested the intervention with two groups of women (total N=24), measuring change in internalized stigma with the Stigma Scale for Chronic Illness before and after workshop participation. Sixty-two percent of the participants self-reported acquiring HIV through heterosexual sexual contact, 17% through intravenous drug use, 4% in utero, and 13% did not know the route of transmission. The intervention was feasible, enthusiastically accepted by the women, and led to decreased stigma from the start of the workshop to the end (p=0.05) and 1 week after (p=0.07) the last session of workshop. Findings suggest the intervention warrants further investigation. PMID:22984780

  15. Unity Within Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Shiu L., Ed.; Ray, Riten, Ed.

    This monograph contains the speeches and resolutions of representatives of forty-one ethnocultural groups residing in Canada. Included are: (1) opening messages by Pierre Trudeau, Joe Clark, Edward Broadbent, and Alex Chumak; (2) a discussion by Norman Cafik on federalism, multicultural groups, and Canadian unity; (3) remarks on Canadian unity by…

  16. Theodor Waitz on psychic unity.

    PubMed

    Jahoda, Gustav

    2014-06-01

    The tolerant stance on 'race' by prominent Enlightenment figures was followed in the 19th century by a powerful wave of biological racism. Many of its proponents took the view that human 'races' constitute separate species, and that most non-white ones are of inferior mentality. An early opponent of this claim was James Cowles Prichard, who used mainly missionary reports in seeking to refute it. Far more extensive work was undertaken by the Herbartian psychologist Theodor Waitz, who collected ethnographic material from all over the world. It was published in six volumes - the last two after his death by his former student Georg Gerland. Waitz aim was to demonstrate the 'psychic unity' of mankind. Initially extracts from the volume on African peoples are presented in order to show how he dealt with his material. The main focus is on his first volume entitled Introduction to Anthropology, in which he elaborates his general thesis. In it Waitz maintains, against the biological racists, that mankind is a single species. Furthermore he discusses the changes from savagery to civilization, attributing them to a combination of geography and history. He was followed by Adolf Bastian who, unlike Waitz, was a great traveller with personal experience of peoples all over the globe. Both firmly believed in the psychic unity of mankind, but Bastian's approach to psychology was very different.

  17. Unity connecting module in SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station, is shown with Pressurized Mating Adapters 1 (left) and 2 (right) attached. Unity is scheduled to undergo testing of the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock. Unity is the primary payload on mission STS-88, targeted to launch Dec. 3, 1998. Other testing includes the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27. The Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time.

  18. Unity power factor converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wester, Gene W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A unity power factor converter capable of effecting either inversion (dc-to-dc) or rectification (ac-to-dc), and capable of providing bilateral power control from a DC source (or load) through an AC transmission line to a DC load (or source) for power flow in either direction, is comprised of comparators for comparing the AC current i with an AC signal i.sub.ref (or its phase inversion) derived from the AC ports to generate control signals to operate a switch control circuit for high speed switching to shape the AC current waveform to a sine waveform, and synchronize it in phase and frequency with the AC voltage at the AC ports, by selectively switching the connections to a series inductor as required to increase or decrease the current i.

  19. Station Tour: Harmony, Tranquility, Unity

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams starts off her tour of the International Space Station with a look at its nodes -- Harmony, Tranquility and Unity -- which include the crew's sleeping quarters...

  20. Unity power factor switching regulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A single or multiphase boost chopper regulator operating with unity power factor, for use such as to charge a battery is comprised of a power section for converting single or multiphase line energy into recharge energy including a rectifier (10), one inductor (L.sub.1) and one chopper (Q.sub.1) for each chopper phase for presenting a load (battery) with a current output, and duty cycle control means (16) for each chopper to control the average inductor current over each period of the chopper, and a sensing and control section including means (20) for sensing at least one load parameter, means (22) for producing a current command signal as a function of said parameter, means (26) for producing a feedback signal as a function of said current command signal and the average rectifier voltage output over each period of the chopper, means (28) for sensing current through said inductor, means (18) for comparing said feedback signal with said sensed current to produce, in response to a difference, a control signal applied to the duty cycle control means, whereby the average inductor current is proportionate to the average rectifier voltage output over each period of the chopper, and instantaneous line current is thereby maintained proportionate to the instantaneous line voltage, thus achieving a unity power factor. The boost chopper is comprised of a plurality of converters connected in parallel and operated in staggered phase. For optimal harmonic suppression, the duty cycles of the switching converters are evenly spaced, and by negative coupling between pairs 180.degree. out-of-phase, peak currents through the switches can be reduced while reducing the inductor size and mass.

  1. Teacher Power, Teacher Unity and Teacher Professionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotigel, David E.

    1972-01-01

    Author argues that for the sake of the students, teachers must work for the power to control and direct the enterprise of education -- and such professional power can come only through unity. (Author/MB)

  2. Unity through Diversity: Fostering Cultural Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Richard B.; Vuong, Trang K.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the program "Unity through Diversity" and outlines the planning procedure used in its implementation. Discusses major program aspects, including the four assembly programs and the supplementary curricular materials. Students perceived the program to be educational and entertaining. (RJM)

  3. USSR Report. International Affairs: The Working Class and the Contemporary World. No. 4, July-August 1986.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    advance in this direction was to some extent fixed in the " Plan for Action" adopted at the Organization of African Unity (OAU) conference in 1980 in...Lagos, but consistent realization of this plan at the level of the agrarian sector is at present impossible for a whole set of reasons. In the...before the socialists came to power. Thus, the "Socialist Plan " (1980) emphasized that "NATO remains for our country an essential counterweight to

  4. Unity of Effort in Peace Operations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This change entails looking at more than just military considerations. By using a non-military approach, in this case Peter Senge’s model of systems ... thinking and the learning organization, the military will be better prepared for the challenges of peace operations. A good way to achieve unity of

  5. From Dualism to Unity in Quantum Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landé, Alfred

    2016-02-01

    Preface; Introduction; 1. Causality, chance, continuity; 2. States, observables, probabilities; 3. The metric law of probabilities; 4. Quantum dynamics; 5. Quantum fact and fiction; Retrospect. From dualism to unity, from positivism to realism; Appendix 1. Survey of elementary postulates; Appendix 2. Two problems of uniqueness; References; Index.

  6. Students Write: Pow-Wow Means Unity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaydahzinne, Colleen

    1978-01-01

    Throughout America all tribes have united to restore the "Indianism" that was lost at the time of the captivity. "Pow-wow" is the Indian effort to enforce this unity. Pow-wow can be held at any time of the year, although holidays are a good time to have dances. This essay provides much detail on the costumes and customs of the…

  7. Unity of forces at the preon level

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, K.S. ); Pati, J.C. )

    1993-09-01

    In the context of a viable preon model which serves to provide a unified origin of the diverse scales and an explanation for family replication, it is shown that the unity of forces may well occur at the level of preons near the Planck scale in a manner that is novel compared to the conventional approach of elementary quarks and leptons.

  8. Religious Education in Syria: Unity and Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinal, Monique C.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the almost identical syllabuses of the Christian and Muslim religious education programmes of the Syrian Arab Republic. Content analysis of the students' textbooks and teachers' guides (in Arabic) reveals common themes of citizenship education and national unity. Classroom observations in Damascus also highlight how…

  9. Marietta Celebration of Unity Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philbin, Meg; Phillips, Rebecca

    This case study concerns the forming of a Marietta, Ohio unity committee, entitled Citizens for Social and Racial Justice, in response to the local Ku Klux Klan's (KKK) request for a parade permit in order to demonstrate against blacks in this city. Marietta, the county seat of Washington County, Ohio, has a population composed of both white and…

  10. 3. OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF EASTERN FACADE OF UNITY PLANT SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF EASTERN FACADE OF UNITY PLANT SHOWING LANDSCAPING AND HILL. NOTE THE CORBELED BRICK SUPPORT FOR THE FIRE WALL BETWEEN SECTIONS OF THE MILL. - Unity Spinning Mill, 1402 Austin Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

  11. STS-96 Astronauts Adjust Unity Hatch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Aboard the International Space Station (ISS), astronauts Rick D. Husband and Tamara E. Jernigan adjust the hatch for the U.S. built Unity node. The task was part of an overall effort of seven crew members to prepare the existing portion of the International Space Station (ISS). Launched on May 27, 1999, aboard the Orbiter Discovery, the STS-96 mission was the second ISS assembly flight and the first shuttle mission to dock with the station.

  12. Genetics and the unity of biology. Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-31

    International Congresses of Genetics, convened just once every five years, provide a rare opportunity for overview in the field of genetic engineering. The Congress, held August 20-27, 1988 in Toronto, Canada focused on the theme Genetics and the Unity of Biology, which was chosen because the concepts of modern genetics have provided biology with a unifying theoretical structure. This program guide contains a schedule of all Congress activities and a listing of all Symposia, Workshops and Poster Sessions held.

  13. The Unity connecting module is moved to payload canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, a closeup view shows the overhead crane holding the Unity connecting module as it moves it to the payload canister for transfer to the launch pad. Part of the International Space Station (ISS), Unity is scheduled for launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on Mission STS-88 in December. The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach Unity to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time.

  14. The Unity connecting module is moved to payload canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, workers attach the overhead crane that will lift the Unity connecting module from its workstand to move the module to the payload canister. Part of the International Space Station (ISS), Unity is scheduled for launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on Mission STS-88 in December. The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach Unity to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time.

  15. The Unity connecting module is moved to payload canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, workers at the side and on the floor of the payload canister guide the Unity connecting module into position for transfer to the launch pad. Part of the International Space Station (ISS), Unity is scheduled for launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on Mission STS-88 in December. The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach Unity to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time.

  16. The Unity connecting module is moved to payload canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, an overhead crane moves the Unity connecting module to the payload canister for transfer to the launch pad. Part of the International Space Station (ISS), Unity is scheduled for launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on Mission STS-88 in December. The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach Unity to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time.

  17. The Organization of African Unity and Peacekeeping: The Pan-African Defense Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-05

    different factions met with the Commander 1 8 of the Nigerian troops in Chad. The different factions were: Gen Felix Malloum of the Forces Armes du Tchad (FAT...1 9 Mr. Hissen Habre of Forces du Norcd (FAN); Mr. Goukeni Wuddeyi of FROLINAT and the Commander of Movement Popularire du Liberation du Tchad (MPLT

  18. Command and Control: Toward Arctic Unity of Command and Unity of Effort

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-19

    AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 31 March 2011 2. REPORT DATE Master’s Thesis, August 2010 – March 2011 3 . REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Command and...and more than 30,000 minor islands covering 1.4 million square kilometers.13 Unity of Command Army Field Manual 1-02 defines Unity of Command as...200 miles , then that nation can make a claim for up to 350 45 Ibid. 46 O’Rourke, Changes in the Arctic, 6. 47 Ibid. 48 “The Arctic Circle

  19. Project UNITY: Cross Domain Visualization Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, J.; Havig, P.

    UNITY is an International Cooperative Research and Development (ICR&D) project between the United States and Great Britain under the Research and Development Projects (RDP) Memorandum of Agreement (MOA). UNITYs objectives are to develop and evaluate the operational concepts and requirements for undertaking combined operations: a) pursuant to the interests of mission partners, b) develop, experiment, and demonstrate, transitionable emergent technologies, capabilities, or concepts, which facilitate the sharing of information and products between mission partners, and c) identify and define additional emerging technologies that may need to be developed to support current and future military information sharing. Collaboration between coalition partners is essentially for accurate and timely decision making in the ever increasing nature and tempo of global security. The purpose for this project is to develop engineering solutions in order to further investigate the human factors issues that arise while sharing information in a collaborative environment where security is an issue. The biggest difference between existing available solutions are in the presentation and interaction with the interface on both ends of the collaboration in order to preserve the expressed intent of shared situation awareness while also enabling markups and content on one screen that the other collaborator does not see and vice versa. The UNITY project stresses collaboration differently than all known realtime collaboration software in production, aka groupware, on the market today. The tradition of What You See Is What I See (WYSIWIS) as in typical implementations of shared whiteboards simply do not address the need for local and private information to be displayed in context with shareable data. This paper addresses the concerns, problems, and some solutions for shared 3D visualization and 2D tabular visualizations which are explored and presented within the space situation awareness problem

  20. 1. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF KEX PLANT, FORMER CALLAWAY MILLS UNITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF KEX PLANT, FORMER CALLAWAY MILLS UNITY COTTON MILL (A. FRANCIS WALKER, 1900-01) FROM DUNSON STREET. UNITY COTTON MILL WAS THE FIRST OF SEVERAL TEXTILE MILLS BUILT BY THE CALLAWAY MILLS GROUP IN SOUTHWEST LAGRANGE DURING THE EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURY. NOTE REMAINING PORTION OF ORIGINAL WATER TANK TOWER IN MIDDLE OF PHOTOGRAPH. - Unity Cotton Mill, 815 Leeman Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

  1. The Unity connecting module moves into payload bay of Endeavour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Viewed from below, the Unity connecting module is moved into the payload bay of the orbiter Endeavour at Launch Pad 39A. Part of the International Space Station (ISS), Unity is scheduled for launch Dec. 3, 1998, on Mission STS-88. The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach it to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time.

  2. The Unity connecting module moves into payload bay of Endeavour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Looking like a painting, this wide-angle view shows the Unity connecting module being moved toward the payload bay of the orbiter Endeavour at Launch Pad 39A. Part of the International Space Station (ISS), Unity is scheduled for launch Dec. 3, 1998, on Mission STS-88. The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach it to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time.

  3. The Unity connecting module moves into payload bay of Endeavour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Unity connecting module is moved toward the payload bay of the orbiter Endeavour at Launch Pad 39A. Part of the International Space Station (ISS), Unity is scheduled for launch Dec. 3, 1998, on Mission STS-88 . The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach it to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time.

  4. 'To preserve unity while almost allowing for chaos': Testing the aesthetic principle of unity-in-variety in product design.

    PubMed

    Post, R A G; Blijlevens, J; Hekkert, P

    2016-01-01

    Unity-in-variety is considered to be one of the oldest-known universal principles of beauty. However, little empirical research exists on how unity and variety together influence aesthetic appreciation. In three studies we investigated how unity and variety predict the aesthetic appreciation of a range of product designs, and further assessed whether perceived visual complexity and individual differences in regulatory focus influence this relationship. Our findings reveal that both unity and variety, while suppressing each other's effect, positively affect aesthetic appreciation. Hence, product designs that exhibit an optimum balance between unity and variety are aesthetically preferred. Furthermore, the research reveals that unity is the dominant factor in this relationship and facilitates the appreciation of variety. We discuss several theoretical and practical implications resulting from these studies.

  5. Is there unity within the discipline?

    PubMed

    Newham, Roger A

    2012-07-01

    This paper will examine a claim that nursing is united by its moral stance. The claim is that there are moral constraints on nurses' actions as people practising nursing (nurses qua nurses) and that they are in some way different from both what for now can be called standard morality and also different from the person's own moral views who also happens to be a nurse, hence the defining and unifying factor for nursing. I will begin by situating the claim within the broader area about the need for a definition to state features that are essential to all and only members of its class. This will highlight the fact that there are two distinct types of definition used by authors seeking to find a unity for nursing. One type of definition has to do with goals or purposes given to nursing and the other with ends discovered as nursing. But even if there are ends waiting to be discovered a particular practical concern is how we can have knowledge of them. I will suggest that knowledge by intuition is plausible but that as things currently stand in moral epistemology it will not provide the unifying ground for nursing. Then I will argue that in the latter approach to definition a certain account of human nature has been advanced in order to provide features that are there to be discovered and so not dependent on human beings for the definition or classification. However, such an attempt to define nursing cannot do what is wanted. Rather than the account of human nature grounding morality and doing so for nursing, the account of human nature itself relies upon a prior account of morality. Because of this it loses its supposed ground of unity for the profession. Nursing is not united by its moral stance especially if this is understood in a strong sense as unique moral stance, but as things currently stand in moral epistemology this is not necessarily a bad thing for practitioners or patients.

  6. Aspects of the unity of consciousness and everyday memory failures.

    PubMed

    Gennaro, Rocco J; Herrmann, Douglas J; Sarapata, Michael

    2006-06-01

    We argue that analyzing everyday memory failures in terms of the "unity of consciousness" can elucidate the bases of such failures. A perfect unity amongst one's mental states is rare. In extreme cases the unity of consciousness can breakdown in dramatic fashion (e.g., in Dissociative Identity Disorder), but such breakdowns also occur in less dramatic ways that affect us in everyday life. For example, disruptions in the unity of consciousness can result in everyday memory failures, such as forgetting to put on a tie for an important formal meeting. After providing some philosophical background into the notions of "unity of consciousness" and "functionalism," we offer preliminary analyses of three examples of everyday memory failure. We then introduce and develop what we call the "unity model" of memory failure and show how it explains the examples. We also describe different ways that unity can break down which, in turn, can lead to memory failure and inappropriate behavior. We then show how slips of action and other kinds of cognitive failures (e.g., memory blocks) differ from everyday memory failures. Finally, we examine alternative models (e.g., Absentmindedness and Multimodal) arguing that the unity model is preferable, and then show how our model is consistent with some experimental results.

  7. Unity connecting module moving to new site in SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station, hangs suspended during its move to another location in the SSPF. As the primary payload on mission STS-88, scheduled to launch Dec. 3, 1998, Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time. In the SSPF, Unity is undergoing testing such as the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle, as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter, and the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the Shuttle's payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27.

  8. Unity connecting module moving to new site in SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF), workers guide the suspended Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station, as they move it to another location in the SSPF. As the primary payload on mission STS-88, scheduled to launch Dec. 3, 1998, Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time. In the SSPF, Unity is undergoing testing such as the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle, as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter, and the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27.

  9. Unity connecting module lowered to new site in SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF), the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station, is lowered to its new location in the SSPF. In the background, visitors watch through a viewing window, part of the visitors tour at the Center. As the primary payload on mission STS-88, scheduled to launch Dec. 3, 1998, Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time. In the SSPF, Unity is undergoing testing such as the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle, as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter, and the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the Shuttle's payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27.

  10. Unity connecting module moving to new site in SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) Unity is suspended in air as it is moved to a now location in the SSPF. At right, visitors watch through a viewing window, part of the visitors tour at the Center. As the primary payload on mission STS-88, scheduled to launch Dec. 3, 1998, Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time. In the SSPF, Unity is undergoing testing such as the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle, as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter, and the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27.

  11. Unity connecting module placed in new site in SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station, is placed in a work station in the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF). As the primary payload on mission STS-88, scheduled to launch Dec. 3, 1998, Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time. In the SSPF, Unity is undergoing testing such as the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle, as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter, and the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the Shuttle's payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27.

  12. Unity and diversity in human language

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2011-01-01

    Human language is both highly diverse—different languages have different ways of achieving the same functional goals—and easily learnable. Any language allows its users to express virtually any thought they can conceptualize. These traits render human language unique in the biological world. Understanding the biological basis of language is thus both extremely challenging and fundamentally interesting. I review the literature on linguistic diversity and language universals, suggesting that an adequate notion of ‘formal universals’ provides a promising way to understand the facts of language acquisition, offering order in the face of the diversity of human languages. Formal universals are cross-linguistic generalizations, often of an abstract or implicational nature. They derive from cognitive capacities to perceive and process particular types of structures and biological constraints upon integration of the multiple systems involved in language. Such formal universals can be understood on the model of a general solution to a set of differential equations; each language is one particular solution. An explicit formal conception of human language that embraces both considerable diversity and underlying biological unity is possible, and fully compatible with modern evolutionary theory. PMID:21199842

  13. Unity and diversity in human language.

    PubMed

    Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2011-02-12

    Human language is both highly diverse-different languages have different ways of achieving the same functional goals-and easily learnable. Any language allows its users to express virtually any thought they can conceptualize. These traits render human language unique in the biological world. Understanding the biological basis of language is thus both extremely challenging and fundamentally interesting. I review the literature on linguistic diversity and language universals, suggesting that an adequate notion of 'formal universals' provides a promising way to understand the facts of language acquisition, offering order in the face of the diversity of human languages. Formal universals are cross-linguistic generalizations, often of an abstract or implicational nature. They derive from cognitive capacities to perceive and process particular types of structures and biological constraints upon integration of the multiple systems involved in language. Such formal universals can be understood on the model of a general solution to a set of differential equations; each language is one particular solution. An explicit formal conception of human language that embraces both considerable diversity and underlying biological unity is possible, and fully compatible with modern evolutionary theory.

  14. An African Perspective on Peace Education: "Ubuntu" Lessons in Reconciliation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murithi, Tim

    2009-01-01

    This essay examines the value of educating for peace. It does this through a consideration of the African cultural world-view known as "ubuntu," which highlights the essential unity of humanity and emphasises the importance of constantly referring to the principles of empathy, sharing and cooperation in efforts to resolve our common…

  15. Motion and edge sensitivity in perception of object unity.

    PubMed

    Carter Smith, W; Johnson, Scott P; Spelke, Elizabeth S

    2003-02-01

    Although much evidence indicates that young infants perceive unitary objects by analyzing patterns of motion, infants' abilities to perceive object unity by analyzing Gestalt properties and by integrating distinct views of an object over time are in dispute. To address these controversies, four experiments investigated adults' and infants' perception of the unity of a center-occluded, moving rod with misaligned visible edges. Both alignment information and depth information affected adults' and infants' perception of object unity in similar ways, and infants perceived object unity by integrating information about object features over time. However, infants perceived a moving, misaligned, three-dimensional object as indeterminate in its connectedness, whereas adults perceived it as connected behind the occluder. These findings indicate that the effectiveness of common motion in specifying unified surfaces across an occluder is reduced by misalignment of edges. Alignment information enhances perception of object unity either by serving directly as information for unity or by optimizing the detectability of motion-carried information for unity. In addition, young infants are able to retain information about edge orientation over short intervals in determining connectedness via a process of spatiotemporal integration.

  16. Frequency-constant Q, unity and disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Hargreaves, N.D.

    1995-12-31

    In exploration geophysics we obtain information about the earth by observing its response to different types of applied force. The response can cover the full range of possible Q values (where Q, the quality factor, is a measure of energy dissipation), from close to infinity in the case of deep crustal seismic to close to 0 in the case of many electromagnetic methods. When Q is frequency-constant, however, the various types of response have a common scaling behavior and can be described as being self-affine. The wave-equation then takes on a generalised form, changing from the standard wave-equation at Q = {infinity} to the diffusion equation at Q = 0, via lossy, diffusive, propagation at intermediate Q values. Solutions of this wave-diffusion equation at any particular Q value can be converted to an equivalent set of results for any other Q value. In particular it is possible to convert from diffusive to wave propagation by a mapping from Q < {infinity} to Q = {infinity}. In the context of seismic sounding this is equivalent to applying inverse Q-filtering; in a more general context the mapping integrates different geophysical observations by referencing them to the common result at Q = {infinity}. The self-affinity of the observations for frequency-constant Q is an expression of scale invariance in the fundamental physical properties of the medium of propagation, this being the case whether the mechanism of diffusive propagation is scattering of intrinsic attenuation. Scale invariance, or fractal scaling, is a general property of disordered systems; the assumption of frequency-constant Q not only implies a unity between different geophysical observations, but also suggests that it is the disordered nature of the earth`s sub-surface that is the unifying factor.

  17. STS-88 Onboard Photograph - Unity and Zarya Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This photograph, taken during the STS-88 mission, shows the cornected Unity Module or Node 1 and Zarya or the Functional Cargo Block (FGB) after having been released from the Orbiter Endeavour's cargo bay. The Unity (also called Node 1), the first U.S. Module for the International Space Station (ISS), is a six-sided connector to which all future U.S. Station modules will attach. It was manufactured by the Boeing Company at the Marshall Space Flight Center from 1994 to 1997. The U.S. built Unity Module was launched aboard the orbiter Endeavour (STS-88 mission) on December 4, 1998 and connected to the Zarya, the Russian built Functional Energy Block (FGB). The Zarya was launched on a Russian proton rocket prior to the launch of the Unity. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide unprecedented undertakings in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  18. STS-88 Onboard Photograph - The Unity Module and the Zarya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This photograph taken during the STS-88 mission, shows the cornected Zarya (top with solar wings) and the Unity Module after having been released from the Orbiter Endeavour's cargo bay. The Unity (also called Node 1), the first U.S. Module for the International Space Station (ISS), is a six-sided connector to which all future U.S. Station modules will attach and was manufactured by the Boeing Company at the Marshall Space Flight Center from 1994 to 1997. The U.S. built Unity module was launched aboard the orbiter Endeavour (STS-88 mission) on December 4, 1998 and connected to the Zarya, the Russian built Functional Energy Block (FGB). The Zarya was launched on a Russian proton rocket prior to the launch of the Unity. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide unprecedented undertakings in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  19. Unity connecting module in the Space Station Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station, awaits processing in the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF). On the end at the right can be seen the Pressurized Mating Adapter 2, which provides entry into the module. The Unity, scheduled to be launched on STS-88 in December 1998, will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will already be in orbit. STS-88 will be the first Space Shuttle launch for the International Space Station.

  20. Unity Module in the Payload Bay for STS-88

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Unity module inside the shuttle payload bay of Space Shuttle Endeavour. Endeavour is scheduled to fly on mission STS-88, the first Space Shuttle flight for the assembly of the International Space Station, on December 3, 1998. The primary payload on the mission is the Unity connecting module, which will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya Control Module already in orbit at that time.

  1. The shape of a rapidly rotating polytrope with index unity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knopik, Jerzy; Mach, Patryk; Odrzywołek, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    We show that the solutions obtained in the paper `An exact solution for arbitrarily rotating gaseous polytropes with index unity' by Kong, Zhang, and Schubert represent only approximate solutions of the free-boundary Euler-Poisson system of equations describing uniformly rotating, self-gravitating polytropes with index unity. We discuss the quality of such solutions as approximations to the rigidly rotating equilibrium polytropic configurations.

  2. A new unity for angular measurements in strabismus.

    PubMed

    Bicas, Harley E A

    2014-10-01

    The practical advantages of quantifying an angle by a ratio of linear lengths instead of arcs of circles has led to the definition of the prism-diopter, a conventional unity for numbering prisms and measuring strabismic deviations. However, a major inconvenience of using prism-diopter unities to express angular measurements is the non-linearity of the scale, which reaches an infinite value for the angle of 90º, then becomes negative, with decreasing magnitudes for increasing angles between 90º and 180º. As a consequence, arithmetical operations and comparisons of angles measured by such unities present errors of very great magnitudes. In order to retain the advantages of defining an angle by straight line dimensions but to diminish the severe inconveniences of this method, a new definition of the prism-diopter is proposed. Here, instead of defining the prism-diopter by the asymmetrical condition, the conception of this new unity is based on a geometrically symmetrical condition; that of the relationship of an isosceles triangle (where the leg is perpendicular to the bisector of the angle and the bisector itself ). The condition of symmetry for the definition of the new unity represents a conceptual advance because it reproduces the already well accepted, conventional criteria for quantifying the value of a prism, that of its minimum deviation. Furthermore, it corresponds to the most commonly observed clinical conditions of binocular balance. The absolute differences between the unitary values of the prism-diopter and that of the new unity are negligible (0.0025%), but the scale of values expressed by the new unity is closer to the ideal scale of angular measurements. (With the new unity, the infinite value is only reached for an angle of 180º and the errors due to arithmetical operations are much smaller.) Numerical examples showing the advantages of using the new unity of angular measurements instead of the prism-diopter are presented. A mathematical

  3. 8 CFR 236.18 - Termination of Family Unity Program benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Termination of Family Unity Program... REMOVED Family Unity Program § 236.18 Termination of Family Unity Program benefits. (a) Grounds for termination. The Service may terminate benefits under the Family Unity Program whenever the necessity for...

  4. 8 CFR 236.18 - Termination of Family Unity Program benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination of Family Unity Program... REMOVED Family Unity Program § 236.18 Termination of Family Unity Program benefits. (a) Grounds for termination. The Service may terminate benefits under the Family Unity Program whenever the necessity for...

  5. 8 CFR 236.18 - Termination of Family Unity Program benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Termination of Family Unity Program... REMOVED Family Unity Program § 236.18 Termination of Family Unity Program benefits. (a) Grounds for termination. The Service may terminate benefits under the Family Unity Program whenever the necessity for...

  6. 8 CFR 236.18 - Termination of Family Unity Program benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Termination of Family Unity Program... REMOVED Family Unity Program § 236.18 Termination of Family Unity Program benefits. (a) Grounds for termination. The Service may terminate benefits under the Family Unity Program whenever the necessity for...

  7. 8 CFR 236.18 - Termination of Family Unity Program benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Termination of Family Unity Program... REMOVED Family Unity Program § 236.18 Termination of Family Unity Program benefits. (a) Grounds for termination. The Service may terminate benefits under the Family Unity Program whenever the necessity for...

  8. Unity hatch closed in preparation for launch on STS-88

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility work in the doorway of the Unity connecting module preparing it for closure before its launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on STS-88 in December. Unity will now undergo a series of leak checks before a final purge of clean, dry air inside the module to ready it for initial operations in space. Other testing includes the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock and the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter. The next time the hatch will be opened it will be by astronauts on orbit. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27. The Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time.

  9. Unity hatch closed in preparation for launch on STS-88

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility prepare the hatch of the Unity connecting module for closure before its launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on STS-88 in December. Unity will now undergo a series of leak checks before a final purge of clean, dry air inside the module to ready it for initial operations in space. Other testing includes the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock and the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter. The next time the hatch will be opened it will be by astronauts on orbit. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27. The Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time.

  10. Unity hatch closed in preparation for launch on STS-88

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility close the access hatch to the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station, before its launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on STS-88 in December. Unity will now undergo a series of leak checks before a final purge of clean, dry air inside the module to ready it for initial operations in space. Other testing includes the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock and the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter. The next time the hatch will be opened it will be by astronauts on orbit. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27. The Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time.

  11. Unity hatch closed in preparation for launch on STS-88

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility hold part of the equipment to close the hatch to the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station, before its launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on STS-88 in December. Unity will now undergo a series of leak checks before a final purge of clean, dry air inside the module to ready it for initial operations in space. Other testing includes the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock and the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter. The next time the hatch will be opened it will be by astronauts on orbit. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27. The Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time.

  12. Unity hatch closed in preparation for launch on STS-88

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility make final preparations for closing the access hatch to the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station, before its launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on STS-88 in December. Unity will now undergo a series of leak checks before a final purge of clean, dry air inside the module to ready it for initial operations in space. Other testing includes the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock and the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter. The next time the hatch will be opened it will be by astronauts on orbit. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27. The Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time.

  13. Unity hatch closed in preparation for launch on STS-88

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility prepare the Unity connecting module for closure before its launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on STS-88 in December. Unity will now undergo a series of leak checks before a final purge of clean, dry air inside the module to ready it for initial operations in space. Other testing includes the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock and the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter. The next time the hatch will be opened it will be by astronauts on orbit. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27. The Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time.

  14. Unity connecting module moving to new site in SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF), Unity (top) is suspended in air as it is moved to a new location (bottom left)in the SSPF. To its left is Leonardo, the Italian-built Multi- Purpose Logistics Module to be launched on STS-100. Above Leonardo, visitors watch through a viewing window, part of the visitors tour at the Center. As the primary payload on mission STS-88, scheduled to launch Dec. 3, 1998, Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time. In the SSPF, Unity is undergoing testing such as the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle, as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter, and the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27.

  15. Fast controller for a unity-power-factor PWM rectifier

    SciTech Connect

    Eissa, M.O.; Leeb, S.B.; Verghese, G.C.; Stankovic, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an analog implementation of a fast controller for a unity-power-factor (UPF) PWM rectifier. The best settling times of many popular controllers for this type of converter are on the order of a few line cycles, corresponding to bandwidths under 20 Hz. The fast controller demonstrated in this paper can exercise control action at a rate comparable to the switching frequency rather than the line frequency. In order to accomplish this while maintaining unity power factor during steady-state operation, the fast controller employs a ripple-feedback cancellation scheme.

  16. Appreciating Unity in Diversity: An Interview with Andrew Solomon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Dane L.

    2014-01-01

    The theme of the AMS 2014 Annual Conference is "Unity in Diversity," a concept that also describes the work of conference keynote speaker Andrew Solomon. Solomon is a writer and lecturer on psychology and politics; winner of the National Book Award; and an activist for LGBT [lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender] rights, mental health,…

  17. Potential of Iraqi Local Councils to facilitate Iraqi National Unity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-12

    34 11 said James Miller of the Center for New American Security in Washington. Although achieving national unity is admittedly a daunting task...gain power and build confidence in the people that [reform] would finally come.” 104 Dr. Omar, an anesthesiologist and local council member

  18. Unity in Diversity: The View from the (UAE) Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This talk is about finding "unity in diversity". I ask how we can best focus our research efforts and then design our teaching for those of us involved with teaching language for specific business purposes in the Asia Pacific region and the Middle East. In parts 1 and 2 of the presentation I discuss how we need to (i) refer to empirical…

  19. Nilpotent representations of classical quantum groups at roots of unity

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, Yuuki; Nakashima, Toshiki

    2005-11-01

    Properly specializing the parameters in 'Schnizer modules', for types A,B,C, and D, we get its unique primitive vector. Then we show that the module generated by the primitive vector is an irreducible highest weight module of finite dimensional classical quantum groups at roots of unity.

  20. Hermite-Birkhoff interpolation in the nth roots of unity

    SciTech Connect

    Cavaretta, A.S. Jr.; Sharma, A.; Varga, R.S.

    1980-06-01

    Consider, as nodes for polynomial interpolation, the nth roots of unity. For a sufficiently smooth function f(z), we require a polynomial p(z) to interpolate f and certain of its derivatives at each node. It is shown that the so-called Polya conditions, which are necessary for unique interpolation, are in this setting also sufficient.

  1. Ethnic Diversity, National Unity and Multicultural Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review ethnic diversity, national unity and multicultural education in China with graduate students in a multicultural education course and pose some questions for discussion. China is a rapidly developing multiethnic country facing several challenges, including pollution, growing income inequality and low political…

  2. Literature, Society and the Writer in Tripartite Unity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anaso, George Nworah; Nwabudike, Christopher Eziafa

    2014-01-01

    The proactive unity of purpose between Literature, society and the writer is the main focus of this paper. Writers use Literature to address various important themes or the goings on in the society, with the purpose of edifying its virtues and condemning the vices so as to adulate the good deeds or correct the society where it goes wrong. However,…

  3. 77 FR 65703 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Family Unity Benefits, Form I-817...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... for Family Unity Benefits, Form I-817, Revision of a Currently Approved Collection ACTION: 60-Day...) Title of the Form/Collection: Application for Family Unity Benefits. (3) Agency form number, if any,...

  4. 78 FR 2415 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Family Unity Benefits, Form Number I...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... for Family Unity Benefits, Form Number I-817; Revision of a Currently Approved Collection ACTION: 30... approved information. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Application for Family Unity Benefits. (3)...

  5. 8 CFR 245a.37 - Termination of Family Unity Program benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination of Family Unity Program... UNDER SECTION 245A OF THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT LIFE Act Amendments Family Unity Provisions § 245a.37 Termination of Family Unity Program benefits. (a) Grounds for termination. The Service...

  6. 8 CFR 245a.37 - Termination of Family Unity Program benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Termination of Family Unity Program... UNDER SECTION 245A OF THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT LIFE Act Amendments Family Unity Provisions § 245a.37 Termination of Family Unity Program benefits. (a) Grounds for termination. The Service...

  7. 37 CFR 1.499 - Unity of invention during the national stage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unity of invention during the... Provisions National Stage § 1.499 Unity of invention during the national stage. If the examiner finds that a national stage application lacks unity of invention under § 1.475, the examiner may in an Office...

  8. 37 CFR 1.499 - Unity of invention during the national stage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unity of invention during the... Provisions National Stage § 1.499 Unity of invention during the national stage. If the examiner finds that a national stage application lacks unity of invention under § 1.475, the examiner may in an Office...

  9. 37 CFR 1.499 - Unity of invention during the national stage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unity of invention during the... Provisions National Stage § 1.499 Unity of invention during the national stage. If the examiner finds that a national stage application lacks unity of invention under § 1.475, the examiner may in an Office...

  10. 37 CFR 1.499 - Unity of invention during the national stage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unity of invention during the... Provisions National Stage § 1.499 Unity of invention during the national stage. If the examiner finds that a national stage application lacks unity of invention under § 1.475, the examiner may in an Office...

  11. 37 CFR 1.499 - Unity of invention during the national stage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unity of invention during the... Provisions National Stage § 1.499 Unity of invention during the national stage. If the examiner finds that a national stage application lacks unity of invention under § 1.475, the examiner may in an Office...

  12. 8 CFR 245a.37 - Termination of Family Unity Program benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or her ineligible for Family Unity benefits under the LIFE Act Amendments; (3) The alien, upon whose...) A qualifying relationship to the alien, upon whose status Family Unity benefits under the LIFE Act... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Termination of Family Unity...

  13. 8 CFR 245a.37 - Termination of Family Unity Program benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or her ineligible for Family Unity benefits under the LIFE Act Amendments; (3) The alien, upon whose...) A qualifying relationship to the alien, upon whose status Family Unity benefits under the LIFE Act... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Termination of Family Unity...

  14. 8 CFR 245a.37 - Termination of Family Unity Program benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or her ineligible for Family Unity benefits under the LIFE Act Amendments; (3) The alien, upon whose...) A qualifying relationship to the alien, upon whose status Family Unity benefits under the LIFE Act... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Termination of Family Unity...

  15. Effects of non-unity Lewis numbers in diffusion flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linan, A.; Orlandi, P.; Verzicco, R.; Higuera, F. J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to carry out direct numerical simulations of diffusion controlled combustion with non-unity Lewis numbers for the reactants and products, thus accounting for the differential diffusion effects of the temperature and concentration fields. We use a formulation based on combining the conservation equations in a way to eliminate the reaction terms similar to the method used by Burke and Schumann (1928) for unity Lewis numbers. We present calculations for an axisymmetric fuel jet and for a planar, time evolving mixing layer, leaving out the effects of thermal expansion and variations of the transport coefficients due to the heat release. Our results show that the front of the flame shifts toward the fuel or oxygen sides owing to the effect of the differential diffusion and that the location of maximum temperature may not coincide with the flame. The dependence of the distribution of the reaction products on their Lewis number has been investigated.

  16. Biophysical body-brain-mind unity: theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Naisberg, Y

    2000-03-01

    A novel substance-attributed biophysical theory of brain-mind unity is presented. We separate spiritualism and matters of the soul from the medical sphere. Biophysical principles are responsible for the body's operational regimen (BOR) in the homeostatic state which allows for materialization and emergence of the mind; Excitation and/or inhibition modulate 8 BOR stages. There is automatic (somatic) and non-automatic (biophysical and psychological) Circadian cycle control. Computer-analog input and output occurs in wired neuronal electric pathways. Biotechnological devices located in emotional neurons positively signal homeostatic and negatively signal deranged BOR and biophysical mind operations. Macro and/or micro cerebral lesions which affect homeostasis may cause psychopathology, which can be treated with 'instrumental psychotherapy' (IPT) which enables recovery from homeostatic disorder in Phase 1, refining EGO in Phase 2, and social competence in Phase 3. The theory of brain-mind unity and practice of IPT is geared to medical workers and biophysical psychologists.

  17. Cosmonaut Gidzenko Near Hatch Between Unity and Destiny

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Cosmonaut Yuri P. Gidzenko, Expedition One Soyuz commander, stands near the hatch leading from the Unity node into the newly-attached Destiny laboratory aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The Node 1, or Unity, serves as a cornecting passageway to Space Station modules. The U.S.-built Unity module was launched aboard the Orbiter Endeavour (STS-88 mission) on December 4, 1998, and connected to Zarya, the Russian-built Functional Cargo Block (FGB). The U.S. Laboratory (Destiny) module is the centerpiece of the ISS, where science experiments will be performed in the near-zero gravity in space. The Destiny Module was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis (STS-98 mission) on February 7, 2001. The aluminum module is 8.5 meters (28 feet) long and 4.3 meters (14 feet) in diameter. The laboratory consists of three cylindrical sections and two endcones with hatches that will be mated to other station components. A 50.9-centimeter- (20-inch-) diameter window is located on one side of the center module segment. This pressurized module is designed to accommodate pressurized payloads. It has a capacity of 24 rack locations, and payload racks will occupy 13 locations especially designed to support experiments.

  18. African Aesthetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abiodun, Rowland

    2001-01-01

    No single traditional discipline can adequately supply answers to the many unresolved questions in African art history. Because of the aesthetic, cultural, historical, and, not infrequently, political biases, already built into the conception and development of Western art history, the discipline of art history as defined and practiced in the West…

  19. African Pentecostalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrard, David J.

    2009-01-01

    The diversity of African Pentecostalism, its early colonial and missionary history and its current characteristics are described and analysed. Reference is made to methods of training and forms of leadership, and suggestions are made about the reasons for its growth and persistence. (Contains 19 notes.)

  20. Unity nameplate examined after being attached to module for ISS and Mission STS-88

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, Joan Higgenbotham, with KSC's Astronaut Office Computer Support, checks placement of the nameplate for the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station. Unity was expected to be transported to Launch Pad 39A on Oct. 26 for launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on Mission STS-88 in December. The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach Unity to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time.

  1. Unity nameplate is attached to module for ISS and Mission STS-88

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    - In the Space Station Processing Facility, a worker checks placement of the nameplate to be attached to the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station. Unity was expected to be transported to Launch Pad 39A on Oct. 26 for launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on Mission STS-88 in December. The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach Unity to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time.

  2. Unity nameplate examined after being attached to module for ISS and Mission STS-88

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, a worker checks placement of the nameplate for the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station. Unity was expected to be transported to Launch Pad 39A on Oct. 26 for launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on Mission STS-88 in December. The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach Unity to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time.

  3. Unity nameplate examined before being attached to module for ISS and Mission STS-88

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, holding the nameplate for the Unity connecting module are (left) Joan Higginbotham, with the Astronaut Office Computer Support Branch, and (right) Nancy Tolliver, with Boeing-Huntsville. Part of the International Space Station, Unity was expected to be transported to Launch Pad 39A on Oct. 26 for launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on Mission STS-88 in December. The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach Unity to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time.

  4. Unity nameplate added to module for ISS and Mission STS-88

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, workers look over the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station, after attaching the nameplate. Unity was expected to be transported to Launch Pad 39A on Oct. 26 for launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on Mission STS-88 in December. The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach Unity to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time.

  5. Unity nameplate is attached to module for ISS and Mission STS-88

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    - In the Space Station Processing Facility, a worker places the nameplate on the side of the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station. Unity was expected to be transported to Launch Pad 39A on Oct. 26 for launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on Mission STS-88 in December. The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach Unity to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time.

  6. Unity nameplate gets final check before being attached to module for ISS and Mission STS-88

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    - In the Space Station Processing Facility, workers make a final check of the nameplate to be attached to the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station. Unity was expected to be transported to Launch Pad 39A on Oct. 26 for launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on Mission STS-88 in December. The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach Unity to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time.

  7. African-American Biography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ron

    1995-01-01

    Suggests sources of information for African American History Month for library media specialists who work with students in grades four through eight. Gale Research's "African-American Reference Library," which includes "African-America Biography,""African-American Chronology," and "African-American Almanac,"…

  8. African Trypanosomiasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    infection by protozoan hemo- flagellates of the Trypanosoma brucei complex, 2 subspe- cies of which cause disease in humans: Trypanosoma bru- cei gambiense...public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES See also ADA545141. Chapter 3 from e-book, Topics on the Pathology of Protozoan and...the brief ferry crossing. 2 3 • Topics on The paThology of proTozoan and invasive arThropod diseases Three severe epidemics of African trypanosomiasis

  9. The Quest for Unity - The Adventure of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Etienne; Lachièze-Rey, Marc

    1999-05-01

    What could quantum mechanics have in common with the philosophical musings of the ancient Greeks? In our age of multimillion-dollar supercolliders, it's hard to imagine that modern physics owes anything to thinkers who predate Descartes. But French physicists Etienne Klein and March Lachieze-Rey see an unbroken thread running from antiquity to the present--an ongoing search, throughout the history of science, for unity. In The Search for Unity the authors reveal how the quest for the One has driven all the great breakthroughs in science. They show how the Greeks searched for the fundamental element in all things; how Galileo unified the earth with the heavens, by discovering valleys and mountains on the moon; and how Newton created a single theory to describe the motion of the celestial bodies. With unequaled clarity, they explore the work of the most famous unifier of all, Albert Einstein, who melded space and time into a combined space-time concept, and then embarked on an unsuccessful search for a single theory to explain all the physical laws of the universe. Throughout the book, the authors stress the esthetic motives of scientists, how they recognize truth through apprehension of mathematical beauty. And in tracing the quest for unity up to the present day, they illuminate the bizarre workings of quantum mechanics and the sticky definition of reality itself at the subatomic level. A grand unification of all interactions still awaits discovery--but as Klein and Lachieze-Rey show, the search itself is as fascinating as the end result may ever be.

  10. Julius Sachs (1832-1897) and the Unity of Life.

    PubMed

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Baluška, František

    2015-01-01

    In 1865, the German botanist Julius Sachs published a seminal monograph entitled Experimental-Physiologie der Pflanzen (Experimental Physiology of Plants) and hence became the founder of a new scientific discipline that originated 150 y ago. Here, we outline the significance of the achievements of Sachs. In addition, we document, with reference to his Vorlesungen über Pflanzen-Physiologie (Lectures on the Physiology of Plants, 1882), that Sachs was one of the first experimentalists who proposed the functional unity of all organisms alive today (humans, animals, plants and other "vegetable" organisms, such as algae, cyanophyceae, fungi, myxomycetes, and bacteria).

  11. Julius Sachs (1832–1897) and the Unity of Life

    PubMed Central

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Baluška, František

    2015-01-01

    In 1865, the German botanist Julius Sachs published a seminal monograph entitled Experimental-Physiologie der Pflanzen (Experimental Physiology of Plants) and hence became the founder of a new scientific discipline that originated 150 y ago. Here, we outline the significance of the achievements of Sachs. In addition, we document, with reference to his Vorlesungen über Pflanzen-Physiologie (Lectures on the Physiology of Plants, 1882), that Sachs was one of the first experimentalists who proposed the functional unity of all organisms alive today (humans, animals, plants and other “vegetable” organisms, such as algae, cyanophyceae, fungi, myxomycetes, and bacteria). PMID:26359706

  12. [The problems of guaranteeing the unity of measurements in medicine].

    PubMed

    Tarbeev, Iu V

    1998-01-01

    The paper discussed its today's status in medicine in terms of its requirements for accurate measurements and their metrological provision, as well as the possibilities of metrology to meet the requirements. The fact that in medicine there is a wide spectrum of urgent measuring tasks requiring priority metrological provision is illustrated by specific examples. The role and potentialities of the D. I. Mendeleev All-Russian Research Institute of Metrology as the chief center of state standards in solving some of these tasks. Particular attention is given to the provision of unity of measurements of physical values which are most widely medically used in diagnosis and treatment.

  13. Thermoelectrically pumped light-emitting diodes operating above unity efficiency.

    PubMed

    Santhanam, Parthiban; Gray, Dodd Joseph; Ram, Rajeev J

    2012-03-02

    A heated semiconductor light-emitting diode at low forward bias voltage Vunity electrical-to-optical power conversion efficiency.

  14. Astronaut Susan Helms in the ISS Unity Node

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    In this photograph, Astronaut Susan Helms, Expedition Two flight engineer, is positioned near a large amount of water temporarily stored in the Unity Node aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Astronaut Helms accompanied the STS-105 crew back to Earth after having spent five months with two crewmates aboard the ISS. The 11th ISS assembly flight, the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery STS-105 mission was launched on August 10, 2001, and landed on August 22, 2001 at the Kennedy Space Center after the completion of the successful 12-day mission.

  15. Interpretation of quantum yields exceeding unity in photoelectrochemical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Szklarczyk, M.; Allen, R.E.

    1986-10-20

    In photoelectrochemical systems involving light shining on a semiconductor interfaced with an electrolyte, the quantum yield as a function of photon frequency ..nu.. is observed to exhibit a peak at h..nu..roughly-equal2E/sub g/, where E/sub g/ is the band gap of the semiconductor. The maximum in this peak is sometimes found to exceed unity. We provide an interpretation involving surface states and inelastic electron-electron scattering. The theory indicates that the effect should be observable for p-type semiconductors, but not n-type.

  16. 37 CFR 1.477 - Protest to lack of unity of invention before the International Searching Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Protest to lack of unity of... PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions Unity of Invention § 1.477 Protest to lack of unity of... lack of unity of invention by the International Searching Authority, additional fees may be paid...

  17. 37 CFR 1.477 - Protest to lack of unity of invention before the International Searching Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Protest to lack of unity of... PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions Unity of Invention § 1.477 Protest to lack of unity of... lack of unity of invention by the International Searching Authority, additional fees may be paid...

  18. 37 CFR 1.477 - Protest to lack of unity of invention before the International Searching Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protest to lack of unity of... PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions Unity of Invention § 1.477 Protest to lack of unity of... lack of unity of invention by the International Searching Authority, additional fees may be paid...

  19. 37 CFR 1.477 - Protest to lack of unity of invention before the International Searching Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protest to lack of unity of... PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions Unity of Invention § 1.477 Protest to lack of unity of... lack of unity of invention by the International Searching Authority, additional fees may be paid...

  20. Organic unity theory: the mind-body problem revisited.

    PubMed

    Goodman, A

    1991-05-01

    The purpose of this essay is to delineate the conceptual framework for psychiatry as an integrated and integrative science that unites the mental and the physical. Four basic philosophical perspectives concerning the relationship between mind and body are introduced. The biopsychosocial model, at this time the preeminent model in medical science that addresses this relationship, is examined and found to be flawed. Mental-physical identity theory is presented as the most valid philosophical approach to understanding the relationship between mind and body. Organic unity theory is then proposed as a synthesis of the biopsychosocial model and mental-physical identity theory in which the difficulties of the biopsychosocial model are resolved. Finally, some implications of organic unity theory for psychiatry are considered. 1) The conventional dichotomy between physical (organic) and mental (functional) is linguistic/conceptual rather than inherent in nature, and all events and processes involved in the etiology, pathogenesis, symptomatic manifestation, and treatment of psychiatric disorders are simultaneously biological and psychological. 2) Neuroscience requires new conceptual models to comprehend the integrated and emergent physiological processes to which psychological phenomena correspond. 3) Introspective awareness provides data that are valid for scientific inquiry and is the most direct method of knowing psychophysical events. 4) Energy currently being expended in disputes between biological and psychological psychiatry would be more productively invested in attempting to formulate the conditions under which each approach is maximally effective.

  1. Fuel gain exceeding unity in an inertially confined fusion implosion.

    PubMed

    Hurricane, O A; Callahan, D A; Casey, D T; Celliers, P M; Cerjan, C; Dewald, E L; Dittrich, T R; Döppner, T; Hinkel, D E; Berzak Hopkins, L F; Kline, J L; Le Pape, S; Ma, T; MacPhee, A G; Milovich, J L; Pak, A; Park, H-S; Patel, P K; Remington, B A; Salmonson, J D; Springer, P T; Tommasini, R

    2014-02-20

    Ignition is needed to make fusion energy a viable alternative energy source, but has yet to be achieved. A key step on the way to ignition is to have the energy generated through fusion reactions in an inertially confined fusion plasma exceed the amount of energy deposited into the deuterium-tritium fusion fuel and hotspot during the implosion process, resulting in a fuel gain greater than unity. Here we report the achievement of fusion fuel gains exceeding unity on the US National Ignition Facility using a 'high-foot' implosion method, which is a manipulation of the laser pulse shape in a way that reduces instability in the implosion. These experiments show an order-of-magnitude improvement in yield performance over past deuterium-tritium implosion experiments. We also see a significant contribution to the yield from α-particle self-heating and evidence for the 'bootstrapping' required to accelerate the deuterium-tritium fusion burn to eventually 'run away' and ignite.

  2. Method and apparatus for lead-unity-lag electric power generation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganev, Evgeni (Inventor); Warr, William (Inventor); Salam, Mohamed (Arif) (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method employing a lead-unity-lag adjustment on a power generation system is disclosed. The method may include calculating a unity power factor point and adjusting system parameters to shift a power factor angle to substantially match an operating power angle creating a new unity power factor point. The method may then define operation parameters for a high reactance permanent magnet machine based on the adjusted power level.

  3. The African Peace and Security Architecture: Myth or Reality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    better address conflicts in Africa. The mechanism was inaugurated at the OAU summit meeting of June 1994 . The primary focus of the mechanism was to...prevent and manage conflicts in Africa. It helped to broker the Arusha Peace Agreement for Rwanda in 1993 and de-escalated political tensions in Congo...Security Architecture Most probably, due to lessons learned from the conflicts in Liberia, Rwanda and Sierra Leone, the AU Constitutive Act

  4. The Unity connecting module rests inside the payload bay of Endeavour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Unity connecting module rests inside the payload bay of the orbiter Endeavour at Launch Pad 39A. The first U.S. element of the International Space Station (ISS), Unity is scheduled for launch Dec. 3, 1998, on Mission STS-88. The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach it to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time. The mission is expected to last nearly 12 days, landing back at the Kennedy Space Center on Dec. 14.

  5. Unity and Duality in Barack Obama's "A More Perfect Union"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrill, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    Faced with a racialized political crisis that threatened to derail his campaign to become the first African American president of the United States, Barack Obama delivered a speech on race titled "A More Perfect Union." He begins by portraying himself as an embodiment of double consciousness, but then invites his audience to share his…

  6. African Outreach Workshop 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Nancy J.

    This report discusses the 1974 African Outreach Workshop planned and coordinated by the African Studies Program at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Its major aim was to assist teachers in developing curriculum units on African using materials available in their local community. A second aim was for the African Studies Program to…

  7. Africans in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Ayanna; Spangler, Earl

    This book introduces African-American history and culture to children. The first Africans in America came from many different regions and cultures, but became united in this country by being black, African, and slaves. Once in America, Africans began a long struggle for freedom which still continues. Slavery, the Civil War, emancipation, and the…

  8. Unity-Efficiency Parametric Down-Conversion via Amplitude Amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Murphy Yuezhen; Sanders, Barry C.; Wong, Franco N. C.; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    2017-03-01

    We propose an optical scheme, employing optical parametric down-converters interlaced with nonlinear sign gates (NSGs), that completely converts an n -photon Fock-state pump to n signal-idler photon pairs when the down-converters' crystal lengths are chosen appropriately. The proof of this assertion relies on amplitude amplification, analogous to that employed in Grover search, applied to the full quantum dynamics of single-mode parametric down-conversion. When we require that all Grover iterations use the same crystal, and account for potential experimental limitations on crystal-length precision, our optimized conversion efficiencies reach unity for 1 ≤n ≤5 , after which they decrease monotonically for n values up to 50, which is the upper limit of our numerical dynamics evaluations. Nevertheless, our conversion efficiencies remain higher than those for a conventional (no NSGs) down-converter.

  9. Unity of knowledge in the advancement of nursing knowledge.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, Karen K; Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Lopez, Ruth Palan

    2005-07-01

    During the past 20 years, we have witnessed an explosion in nursing knowledge providing the discipline with diverse and multifaceted theoretical frameworks and paradigms. One knowledge theme that pervades the dialogue in the scholarly literature is that of multiple ways of knowing. With the acknowledgement that the fundamental nature of nursing knowledge is grounded in the understanding of human nature and its response to its environment, comes an imperative for a consilience of knowledge. The purpose of this article is to present such a unified worldview by articulating a vision of nursing knowledge, a meaning of unity of knowledge, and a challenge to the discipline to embrace inclusive rather than exclusive ways of knowing.

  10. Quantum efficiencies exceeding unity in amorphous silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Vanmaekelbergh, D.; Lagemaat, J. van de; Schropp, R.E.I.

    1994-12-31

    The experimental observation of internal quantum efficiencies above unity in crystalline silicon solar cells has brought up the question whether the generation of multiple electron/hole pairs has to be taken into consideration also in solar cells based on direct gap amorphous semiconductors. To study photogenerated carrier dynamics, the authors have applied Intensity Modulated Photocurrent Spectroscopy (IMPS) to hydrogenated amorphous silicon p-i-n solar cells. In the reverse voltage bias region at low illumination intensities it has been observed that the low frequency limit of the AC quantum yield Y increases significantly above unit with decreasing light intensity, indicating that more than one electron per photon is detected in the external circuit. This phenomenon can be explained by considering trapping and thermal emission of photogenerated carriers at intragap atmospheric dangling bond defect centers.

  11. Search Codes for a Bibliography for the Study of African International Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    in «i K^fiM PAGE 13 0CiA ORGAN I SAT IOU COMMUNE AFRICAiNE, MALGACHE ET MAüRtCiENNE (OCAf;) 0AU ORGANIZATION OF...OAU) 0C ORGANISATION COMMUNE AFRICANINE, MALGACHE ET MAURACIENNE (OCAi) OMA UllAN ÜPE ORGANIZATION UF PETROLEU,, EXPORTING COUNTRIES

  12. 37 CFR 1.488 - Determination of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority. 1.488 Section 1.488 Patents, Trademarks... Determination of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority. (a) Before... requirement of unity of invention as set forth in § 1.475. (b) If the International Preliminary...

  13. 37 CFR 1.476 - Determination of unity of invention before the International Searching Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... invention before the International Searching Authority. 1.476 Section 1.476 Patents, Trademarks, and... PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions Unity of Invention § 1.476 Determination of unity of invention before the International Searching Authority. (a) Before establishing the international...

  14. 37 CFR 1.475 - Unity of invention before the International Searching Authority, the International Preliminary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unity of invention before the... Invention § 1.475 Unity of invention before the International Searching Authority, the International... application shall relate to one invention only or to a group of inventions so linked as to form a...

  15. Unity connecting module lifted from workstand before move to new site in SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) oversee the lifting of the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station, for its move to another location in the SSPF. As the primary payload on mission STS-88, scheduled to launch Dec. 3, 1998, Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time. In the SSPF, Unity is undergoing testing such as the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle, as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter, and the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the Shuttle's payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27.

  16. Unity nameplate examined before being attached to module for ISS and Mission STS-88

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Examining the nameplate for the Unity connecting module, in the Space Station Processing Facility, are (left to right) Joe Schweiger and Tommy Annis, of Boeing-KSC, and Nancy Tolliver, of Boeing-Huntsville. An unidentified worker behind them looks on. Part of the International Space Station, Unity was expected to be transported to Launch Pad 39A on Oct. 26 for launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on Mission STS-88 in December. The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach Unity to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time.

  17. Unity connecting module prepared for move to new site in SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) attach a frame to lift the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station, for its move to another location in the SSPF. As the primary payload on mission STS-88, scheduled to launch Dec. 3, 1998, Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time. In the SSPF, Unity is undergoing testing such as the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle, as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter, and the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the Shuttle's payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27.

  18. The Unity connecting module rests inside the payload bay of Endeavour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This fish-eye view of the Unity connecting module reveals its immense size relative to the workers (below right). Unity rests inside the open payload bay of the orbiter Endeavour on Launch Pad 39A. At the top of bay is the docking mechanism first used with launches to Mir, the Russian space station. Unity is the first U.S. element of the International Space Station (ISS) and is scheduled for launch Dec. 3, 1998, on Mission STS-88. The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach it to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time. The mission is expected to last nearly 12 days, landing back at the Kennedy Space Center on Dec. 14.

  19. Unity connecting module before being moved to new site in SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF), the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station, sits on a workstand before its move to a new location in the SSPF. As the primary payload on mission STS-88, scheduled to launch Dec. 3, 1998, Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time. In the SSPF, Unity is undergoing testing such as the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle, as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter, and the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the Shuttle's payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27.

  20. Factorization of colored knot polynomials at roots of unity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kononov, Ya.; Morozov, A.

    2015-07-01

    HOMFLY polynomials are the Wilson-loop averages in Chern-Simons theory and depend on four variables: the closed line (knot) in 3d space-time, representation R of the gauge group SU (N) and exponentiated coupling constant q. From analysis of a big variety of different knots we conclude that at q, which is a 2m-th root of unity, q2m = 1, HOMFLY polynomials in symmetric representations [ r ] satisfy recursion identity: Hr+m =Hr ṡHm for any A =qN, which is a generalization of the property Hr = H1r for special polynomials at m = 1. We conjecture a further generalization to arbitrary representation R, which, however, is checked only for torus knots. Next, Kashaev polynomial, which arises from HR at q2 = e 2 πi / | R |, turns equal to the special polynomial with A substituted by A| R |, provided R is a single-hook representations (including arbitrary symmetric) - what provides a q - A dual to the similar property of Alexander polynomial. All this implies non-trivial relations for the coefficients of the differential expansions, which are believed to provide reasonable coordinates in the space of knots - existence of such universal relations means that these variables are still not unconstrained.

  1. Primitive Power Roots of Unity and Its Application to Encryption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Takato; Wada, Koichiro; Tanaka, Keisuke

    We first consider a variant of the Schmidt-Samoa-Takagi encryption scheme without losing additively homomorphic properties. We show that this variant is secure in the sense of IND-CPA under the decisional composite residuosity assumption, and of OW-CPA under the assumption on the hardness of factoring n = p2q. Second, we introduce new algebraic properties “affine” and “pre-image restriction, ” which are closely related to homomorphicity. Intuitively, “affine” is a tuple of functions which have a special homomorphic property, and “pre-image restriction” is a function which can restrict the receiver to having information on the encrypted message. Then, we propose an encryption scheme with primitive power roots of unity in (Z/ns+1)×. We show that our scheme has, in addition to the additively homomorphic property, the above algebraic properties. In addition to the properties, we also show that the encryption scheme is secure in the sense of OW-CPA and IND-CPA under new number theoretic assumptions.

  2. African Americans and Glaucoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to a ... glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in African Americans. Half of those with glaucoma don't know ...

  3. Black African Traditional Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslavsky, Claudia

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the traditional number systems and the origin of the number names used by several African peoples living south of the Sahara. Also included are limitations in African mathematical development, and possible topics for research. (RP)

  4. 37 CFR 1.489 - Protest to lack of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protest to lack of unity of... Protest to lack of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority. (a) If the applicant disagrees with the holding of lack of unity of invention by the International...

  5. 37 CFR 1.489 - Protest to lack of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protest to lack of unity of... Protest to lack of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority. (a) If the applicant disagrees with the holding of lack of unity of invention by the International...

  6. 37 CFR 1.489 - Protest to lack of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Protest to lack of unity of... Protest to lack of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority. (a) If the applicant disagrees with the holding of lack of unity of invention by the International...

  7. 37 CFR 1.489 - Protest to lack of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Protest to lack of unity of... Protest to lack of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority. (a) If the applicant disagrees with the holding of lack of unity of invention by the International...

  8. The African Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2012-01-01

    From student and faculty exchanges to joint research projects, U.S. universities maintain a broad spectrum of collaborative relationships with African universities. It's unclear how many U.S. colleges and universities have partnerships with African universities. The African Studies Association, an organization of scholars, doesn't keep that kind…

  9. Relevance, textual unity, and politeness in writing about science

    SciTech Connect

    Kreml, N.M.P.

    1992-01-01

    The question of whether there are social implications of linguistic choices in unifying a text is investigated empirically by this study which accounts for the interpretation of implicatures in conversation and written texts. It considers Relevance Theory (Sperber and Wilson 1988, Blakemore 1987, Blass 1990) to be the explanation of the unity of the text, as opposed to semantic theories of cohesion (Halliday and Hasan 1976) or pragmatic theories of coherence (van Dijk 1977). This study presents a model of three types of textual unifiers: overt (referring specifically to the text), embedded (referring to intra- and extra-textual information), and inference (not referring to the text at all). It hypothesizes that different genres are characterized by the predominance of different types of textual unifiers, and that readers will prefer those texts that rely on inferential unifiers which emphasize the reader's ability to participate in creating the meaning of the text. Eighteen texts of 275 words each are selected from three genres: scientific magazines, introductory science textbooks, and essays on science. The texts are found to vary significantly by genre in the type of textual unifier used. An Overtness Index expresses the ratio of the marked forms: science textbooks have more Overt unifiers (such as connective phrases) and thus a high Overtness Index; essays rely more on Inference unifiers (not represented by words) and thus have a low Overtness Index. The texts are submitted to 188 readers, and a significantly high number of all types of readers prefer the texts with the lower Overtness Indices-the essays. Thus a low Overtness Index is one feature of texts preferred by readers, supporting the hypotheses that genres of texts vary in the type of unifier used and that readers prefer texts that allow them to participate in constructing the meaning of the text.

  10. The Node 1 (or Unity) Module for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photograph, taken by the Boeing Company,shows Boeing technicians preparing to install one of six hatches or doors to the Node 1 (also called Unity), the first U.S. Module for the International Space Station (ISS). The Node 1, or Unity, serves as a cornecting passageway to Space Station modules and was manufactured by the Boeing Company at the Marshall Space Flight Center from 1994 to 1997. The U.S. built Unity module was launched aboard the orbiter Endeavour (STS-88 mission) on December 4, 1998 and connected to the Zarya, the Russian-built Functional Energy Block (FGB). The Zarya was launched on a Russian proton rocket prior to the launch of the Unity. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide unprecedented undertakings in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  11. The Unity connecting module rests inside the payload bay of Endeavour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Unity connecting module rests inside the open payload bay of the orbiter Endeavour at Launch Pad 39A. At the top of bay is the docking mechanism first used with launches to Mir, the Russian space station. Unity is the first U.S. element of the International Space Station (ISS) and is scheduled for launch Dec. 3, 1998, on Mission STS-88. The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach it to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time. The mission is expected to last nearly 12 days, landing back at the Kennedy Space Center on Dec. 14.

  12. The Node 1 (or Unity) Module for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photograph, taken by the Boeing Company, shows Boeing technicians preparing to install one of six hatches or doors to the Node 1 (also called Unity), the first U.S. Module for the International Space Station (ISS). The Node 1, or Unity, serves as a cornecting passageway to Space Station modules and was manufactured by the Boeing Company at the Marshall Space Flight Center from 1994 to 1997. The U.S. built Unity module was launched aboard the orbiter Endeavour (STS-88 mission) on December 4, 1998 and connected to the Zarya, the Russian-built Functional Energy Block (FGB). The Zarya was launched on a Russian proton rocket prior to the launch of the Unity. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide unprecedented undertakings in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  13. The Node 1 (or Unity) Module for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photograph, taken by the Boeing Company, shows Node 1 (also called Unity), the first U.S. Module for the International Space Station (ISS), with its hatch door installed. The Node 1, or Unity, serves as a cornecting passageway to Space Station modules and was manufactured by the Boeing Company at the Marshall Space Flight Center from 1994 to 1997. The U.S. built Unity module was launched aboard the orbiter Endeavour (STS-88 mission) on December 4, 1998 and connected to the Zarya, the Russian-built Functional Energy Block (FGB). The Zarya was launched on a Russian proton rocket prior to the launch of the Unity. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide unprecedented undertakings in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  14. Unity connecting module viewed from above in the Space Station Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Unity connecting module is viewed from above while it awaits processing in the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF). On the side can be seen the connecting hatch. The Unity, scheduled to be launched on STS-88 in December 1998, will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will already be in orbit. STS-88 will be the first Space Shuttle launch for the International Space Station.

  15. A Methodology to Improving Unity of Effort for Mission Partner Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    earthquake, volcanic eruption , or epidemic) or an act of man (such as a riot, violence, civil strife, explosion-fire) that is or threatens to be of...This paper presents a proposed solution and repeatable processes to improve Unity of Effort that represents an effort by the Department of Homeland...as a solution to improve interagency unity of effort for planning complex interagency national challenges at the operational and theater campaign

  16. Facilitation of multisensory integration by the "unity effect" reveals that speech is special.

    PubMed

    Vatakis, Argiro; Ghazanfar, Asif A; Spence, Charles

    2008-07-29

    Whenever two or more sensory inputs are highly consistent in one or more dimension(s), observers will be more likely to perceive them as a single multisensory event rather than as separate unimodal events. For audiovisual speech, but not for other noncommunicative events, participants exhibit a "unity effect," whereby they are less sensitive to temporal asynchrony (i.e., that are more likely to bind the multisensory signals together) for matched (than for mismatched) speech events. This finding suggests that the modulation of multisensory integration by the unity effect in humans may be specific to speech. To test this hypothesis directly, we investigated whether the unity effect would also influence the multisensory integration of vocalizations from another primate species, the rhesus monkey. Human participants made temporal order judgments for both matched and mismatched audiovisual stimuli presented at a range of stimulus-onset asynchronies. The unity effect was examined with (1) a single call-type across two different monkeys, (2) two different call-types from the same monkey, (3) human versus monkey "cooing," and (4) speech sounds produced by a male and a female human. The results show that the unity effect only influenced participants' performance for the speech stimuli; no effect was observed for monkey vocalizations or for the human imitations of monkey calls. These findings suggest that the facilitation of multisensory integration by the unity effect is specific to human speech signals.

  17. Assessment of the constant non-unity Lewis number assumption in chemically-reacting flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burali, Nicholas; Lapointe, Simon; Bobbitt, Brock; Blanquart, Guillaume; Xuan, Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Accurate computation of molecular diffusion coefficients in chemically reacting flows can be an expensive procedure, and the use of constant non-unity Lewis numbers has been adopted often as a cheaper alternative. The goal of the current work is to explore the validity and the limitations of the constant non-unity Lewis number approach in the description of molecular mixing in laminar and turbulent flames. To carry out this analysis, three test cases have been selected, including a lean, highly unstable, premixed hydrogen/air flame, a lean turbulent premixed n-heptane/air flame, and a laminar ethylene/air coflow diffusion flame. For the hydrogen flame, both a laminar and a turbulent configuration have been considered. The three flames are characterised by Lewis numbers which are less than unity, greater than unity, and close to unity, respectively. For each flame, mixture-averaged transport simulations are carried out and used as reference data. The current analysis suggests that, for numerous combustion configurations, the constant non-unity Lewis number approximation leads to small errors when the set of Lewis numbers is chosen properly. For the selected test cases and our numerical framework, the reduction of computational cost is found to be minimal.

  18. The African superswell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyblade, Andrew A.; Robinson, Scott W.

    1994-01-01

    Maps of residual bathymetry in the ocean basins around the African continent reveal a broad bathymetric swell in the southeastern Atlantic Ocean with an amplitude of about 500 m. We propose that this region of anomalously shallow bathymetry, together with the contiguous eastern and southern African plateaus, form a superswell which we refer to as the African superswell. The origin of the African superswell is uncertain. However, rifting and volcanism in eastern Africa, as well as heat flow measurements in southern Africa and the southeastern Atlantic Ocean, suggest that the superswell may be attributed, at least in part, to heating of the lithosphere.

  19. Plant movements caused by differential growth--unity or diversity of mechanisms?

    PubMed

    Firn, R D; Myers, A B

    1989-01-01

    A very wide range of plant organ movements have been described and yet it is not clear how each of them is related to the others. This uncertainty has had two undesirable consequences. Firstly, some workers have accepted the idea of a vague unity in the area and have subsequently been misled by information obtained in one system and applied without adequate justification to a study of a quite different system. Secondly, some researchers have evoked a possible diversity to explain why a particular mechanistic explanation may continue to be valid even when the model fails to explain events of a very similar nature in a slightly different system. We argue that this confusion has resulted from a classification of organ movements which has been based on functional rather than on mechanistic considerations. Mechanistic unity is to be expected on evolutionary grounds. This unity, however, may apply only to certain elements of the stimulus-response chain, at certain levels of organization. It follows from this that in seeking this unity, comparisons should be made between equivalent elements of the stimulus-response chain at the same level of organization in different systems. Only when this is done will theories built around the concept of unity provoke meaningful discussion.

  20. Assessing the Role of the ‘Unity Assumption’ on Multisensory Integration: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Chuan; Spence, Charles

    2017-01-01

    There has been longstanding interest from both experimental psychologists and cognitive neuroscientists in the potential modulatory role of various top–down factors on multisensory integration/perception in humans. One such top–down influence, often referred to in the literature as the ‘unity assumption,’ is thought to occur in those situations in which an observer considers that various of the unisensory stimuli that they have been presented with belong to one and the same object or event (Welch and Warren, 1980). Here, we review the possible factors that may lead to the emergence of the unity assumption. We then critically evaluate the evidence concerning the consequences of the unity assumption from studies of the spatial and temporal ventriloquism effects, from the McGurk effect, and from the Colavita visual dominance paradigm. The research that has been published to date using these tasks provides support for the claim that the unity assumption influences multisensory perception under at least a subset of experimental conditions. We then consider whether the notion has been superseded in recent years by the introduction of priors in Bayesian causal inference models of human multisensory perception. We suggest that the prior of common cause (that is, the prior concerning whether multisensory signals originate from the same source or not) offers the most useful way to quantify the unity assumption as a continuous cognitive variable.

  1. Understanding African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward Earl

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the socialization skills, self-esteem, and academic readiness of African American males in a school environment. Discussions with students and the School Perceptions Questionnaire provided data for this investigation. The intended targets for this investigation were African American students; however, there…

  2. Africans Away from Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, John Henrik

    Africans who were brought across the Atlantic as slaves never fully adjusted to slavery or accepted its inevitability. Resistance began on board the slave ships, where many jumped overboard or committed suicide. African slaves in South America led the first revolts against tyranny in the New World. The first slave revolt in the Caribbean occurred…

  3. Educating African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American…

  4. 16 Extraordinary African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    This collection for children tells the stories of 16 African Americans who helped make America what it is today. African Americans can take pride in the heritage of these contributors to society. Biographies are given for the following: (1) Sojourner Truth, preacher and abolitionist; (2) Frederick Douglass, abolitionist; (3) Harriet Tubman, leader…

  5. Keeping African Masks Real

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddington, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Art is a good place to learn about our multicultural planet, and African masks are prized throughout the world as powerfully expressive artistic images. Unfortunately, multicultural education, especially for young children, can perpetuate stereotypes. Masks taken out of context lose their meaning and the term "African masks" suggests that there is…

  6. Near-unity broadband absorption designs for semiconducting nanowire arrays via localized radial mode excitation.

    PubMed

    Fountaine, Katherine T; Kendall, Christian G; Atwater, Harry A

    2014-05-05

    We report design methods for achieving near-unity broadband light absorption in sparse nanowire arrays, illustrated by results for visible absorption in GaAs nanowires on Si substrates. Sparse (<5% fill fraction) nanowire arrays achieve near unity absorption at wire resonant wavelengths due to coupling into 'leaky' radial waveguide modes of individual wires and wire-wire scattering processes. From a detailed conceptual development of radial mode resonant absorption, we demonstrate two specific geometric design approaches to achieve near unity broadband light absorption in sparse nanowire arrays: (i) introducing multiple wire radii within a small unit cell array to increase the number of resonant wavelengths, yielding a 15% absorption enhancement relative to a uniform nanowire array and (ii) tapering of nanowires to introduce a continuum of diameters and thus resonant wavelengths excited within a single wire, yielding an 18% absorption enhancement over a uniform nanowire array.

  7. Organic unity theory: an integrative mind-body theory for psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Goodman, A

    1997-12-01

    The potential of psychiatry as an integrative science has been impeded by an internal schism that derives from the duality of mental and physical. Organic unity theory is proposed as a conceptual framework that brings together the terms of the mind-body duality in one coherent perspective. Organic unity theory is braided of three strands: identity, which describes the relationship between mentally described events and corresponding physically described events; continuity, which describes the linguistic-conceptual system that contains both mental and physical terms; and dialectic, which describes the relationship between the empirical way of knowing that is associated with the physical domain of the linguistic-conceptual system and the hermeneutic way of knowing that is associated with the mental domain. Each strand represents an integrative formulation that resolves an aspect of mental-physical dualism into an underlying unity. After the theory is presented, its implications for psychiatry are briefly considered.

  8. The Unity Council at 40: a pioneering community development and service organization (1967-2007).

    PubMed

    Orozco, Gabriel; Schwartz, Sara L; Austin, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The Spanish Speaking Unity Council (Unity Council) is a community development nonprofit organization that was established in 1964, during the civil rights movement, by a group of community members who wanted to ensure the political representation of the Latino community. Over its 45-year history, the Unity Council has grown into a $12 million community development organization that delivers a range of programming, including social services and employment training as well as facilitating the development and support of local businesses, low-income housing, and neighborhood improvement activities. The history of the agency presents the multiple challenges and rewards associated with development in an underserved community and an example of the important role that leadership plays in the growth of a nonprofit.

  9. Synchronous change and perception of object unity: evidence from adults and infants.

    PubMed

    Jusczyk, P W; Johnson, S P; Spelke, E S; Kennedy, L J

    1999-07-30

    Adults and infants display a robust ability to perceive the unity of a center-occluded object when the visible ends of the object undergo common motion (e.g. Kellman, P.J., Spelke, E.S., 1983. Perception of partly occluded objects in infancy. Cognitive Psychology 15, 483-524). Ecologically oriented accounts of this ability focus on the primary of motion in the perception of segregated objects, but Gestalt theory suggests a broader possibility: observers may perceive object unity by detecting patterns of synchronous change, of which common motion is a special case. We investigated this possibility with observations of adults and 4-month-old infants. Participants viewed a center-occluded object whose visible surfaces were either misaligned or aligned, stationary or moving, and unchanging or synchronously changing in color or brightness in various temporal patterns (e.g. flashing). Both alignment and common motion contributed to adults' perception of object unity, but synchronous color changes did not. For infants, motion was an important determinant of object unity, but other synchronous changes and edge alignment were not. When a stationary object with aligned edges underwent synchronous changes in color or brightness, infants showed high levels of attention to the object, but their perception of its unity appeared to be indeterminate. An inherent preference for fast over slow flash rates, and a novelty preference elicited by a change in rate, both indicated that infants detected the synchronous changes, although they failed to use them as information for object unity. These findings favor ecologically oriented accounts of object perception in which surface motion plays a privileged role.

  10. Trachoma Rapid Assessments in Unity and Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal States, Southern Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Emily; Kur, Lucia W.; Ndyaba, Aggrey; Lado, Mounir; Shafi, Juma; Kabare, Emmanuel; McClelland, R. Scott; Kolaczinski, Jan H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Trachoma is thought to be endemic over large parts of Southern Sudan, but empirical evidence is limited. While some areas east of the Nile have been identified as highly endemic, few trachoma surveys have been conducted in the remainder of the country. This study aimed to determine whether trachoma constitutes a problem to public health in Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal and Unity State, both located west of the Nile. Methods and Principal Findings Trachoma rapid assessments (TRA) were conducted between July and September 2009. Seven villages in Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State and 13 villages in Unity State were surveyed; an average of 50 children (age 1–9 years) and 44 women (age 15 years and above) were examined per village. Samples for analysis using the APTIMA Combo-2 nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) were collected from participants with active trachoma in eight villages in Unity State. In Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State, only three children with active trachoma (trachomatous inflammation follicular (TF) and/or trachomatous inflammation intense (TI)) and two women with trichiasis (TT) were found, in two of the seven villages surveyed. In Unity State, trachoma was endemic in all thirteen villages surveyed; the proportion of children with active trachoma ranged from 33% to 75% between villages, while TF in children ranged from 16% to 44%. Between 4% to 51% of examined women showed signs of TT. Samples from active trachoma cases tested using the NAAT were positive for Chlamydia trachomatis infection for 46.6% of children and 19.0% of women. Conclusions Trachoma presents a major problem to public health Unity State, while the disease is of low priority in Northern-Bahr-el-Ghazal State. Implementation of a population-based prevalence survey is now required in Unity State to generate baseline prevalence data so that trachoma interventions can be initiated and monitored over time. PMID:20957205

  11. Neotropical Africanized honey bees have African mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Smith, D R; Taylor, O R; Brown, W M

    1989-05-18

    Non-indigenous African honey bees have invaded most of South and Central America in just over 30 years. The genetic composition of this population and the means by which it rapidly colonizes new territory remain controversial. In particular, it has been unclear whether this 'Africanized' population has resulted from interbreeding between African and domestic European bees, or is an essentially pure African population. Also, it has not been known whether this population expanded primarily by female or by male migration. Restriction site mapping of 62 mitochondrial DNAs of African bees from Brazil, Venezuela and Mexico reveals that 97% were of African (Apis mellifera scutellata) type. Although neotropical European apiary populations are rapidly Africanized by mating with neotropical African males, there is little reciprocal gene flow to the neotropical African population through European females. These are the first genetic data to indicate that the neotropical African population could be expanding its range by female migration.

  12. Near-Unity Absorption in van der Waals Semiconductors for Ultrathin Optoelectronics.

    PubMed

    Jariwala, Deep; Davoyan, Artur R; Tagliabue, Giulia; Sherrott, Michelle C; Wong, Joeson; Atwater, Harry A

    2016-09-14

    We demonstrate near-unity, broadband absorbing optoelectronic devices using sub-15 nm thick transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) of molybdenum and tungsten as van der Waals semiconductor active layers. Specifically, we report that near-unity light absorption is possible in extremely thin (<15 nm) van der Waals semiconductor structures by coupling to strongly damped optical modes of semiconductor/metal heterostructures. We further fabricate Schottky junction devices using these highly absorbing heterostructures and characterize their optoelectronic performance. Our work addresses one of the key criteria to enable TMDCs as potential candidates to achieve high optoelectronic efficiency.

  13. How culture shapes community: bible belief, theological unity, and a sense of belonging in religious congregations.

    PubMed

    Stroope, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Feeling that you belong in a group is an important and powerful need. The ability to foster a sense of belonging can also determine whether groups survive. Organizational features of groups cultivate feelings of belonging, yet prior research fails to investigate the idea that belief systems also play a major role. Using multilevel data, this study finds that church members' traditional beliefs, group-level belief unity, and their interaction associate positively with members' sense of belonging. In fact, belief unity can be thought of as a “sacred canopy” under which the relationship between traditional beliefs and feelings of belonging thrives.

  14. Experimental Evidence for Hydrogen Tunneling when the Isotopic Arrhenius Prefactor (AH/AD) is Unity

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sudhir C.; Klinman, Judith P.

    2009-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the kinetic isotope effect (KIE) is one of the major tools used for the investigation of hydrogen tunneling in condensed phase. Hydrogen transfer reactions displaying isotopic Arrhenius prefactor ratios (AH/AD) of unity are generally ascribed to a semi-classical mechanism. Here, we have identified a double mutant of soybean lipoxygenase (SLO-1, an enzyme previously shown to follow quantum mechanical hydrogen tunneling), that displays an AH/AD of unity and highly elevated (non-classical) KIEs. This observation highlights the shortcoming of assigning a hydrogen transfer reaction to a semi-classical model based solely on an Arrhenius prefactor ratio. PMID:19061319

  15. Issues of Identity and African Unity Surrounding the Introduction of an Exogenous African Language, Swahili, at Tertiary Level in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildsmith-Cromarty, Rosemary; Conduah, Aloysius N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that examines the attitudes of university students and immigrants to the introduction of Swahili at a tertiary institution in South Africa. Data were obtained from a questionnaire survey and interviews with questions that covered the domains in which Swahili could be most useful, who should learn it and the reasons…

  16. Beans, Bullets and Band-Aids: Attaining Unity of Effort in Humanitarian Intervention Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-06

    the mountainous border region with "some one thousand dying each day due to disease, malnutrition , and exposure."’ On 5 April 1991, President Bush...seeks to attain unity of effort through the establish- ment of the UN Disaster Management Team (DMT). UN igh Co for RefugeesHCR)" The HCR is responsible

  17. 37 CFR 1.475 - Unity of invention before the International Searching Authority, the International Preliminary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unity of invention before the... stage. 1.475 Section 1.475 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... art. (b) An international or a national stage application containing claims to different categories...

  18. 37 CFR 1.475 - Unity of invention before the International Searching Authority, the International Preliminary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unity of invention before the... stage. 1.475 Section 1.475 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... art. (b) An international or a national stage application containing claims to different categories...

  19. 37 CFR 1.476 - Determination of unity of invention before the International Searching Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Determination of unity of... Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN... (note § 1.445 and PCT Art. 17(3)(a) and PCT Rule 40). The applicant will be given a time period...

  20. 37 CFR 1.488 - Determination of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Determination of unity of..., and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF... evident before considering the claims in relation to any prior art, or after taking the prior art...

  1. 37 CFR 1.476 - Determination of unity of invention before the International Searching Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Determination of unity of... Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN... (note § 1.445 and PCT Art. 17(3)(a) and PCT Rule 40). The applicant will be given a time period...

  2. 37 CFR 1.488 - Determination of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Determination of unity of..., and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF... evident before considering the claims in relation to any prior art, or after taking the prior art...

  3. 37 CFR 1.476 - Determination of unity of invention before the International Searching Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Determination of unity of... Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN... (note § 1.445 and PCT Art. 17(3)(a) and PCT Rule 40). The applicant will be given a time period...

  4. 37 CFR 1.476 - Determination of unity of invention before the International Searching Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Determination of unity of... Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN... (note § 1.445 and PCT Art. 17(3)(a) and PCT Rule 40). The applicant will be given a time period...

  5. 37 CFR 1.475 - Unity of invention before the International Searching Authority, the International Preliminary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unity of invention before the... stage. 1.475 Section 1.475 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... art. (b) An international or a national stage application containing claims to different categories...

  6. 37 CFR 1.488 - Determination of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Determination of unity of..., and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF... evident before considering the claims in relation to any prior art, or after taking the prior art...

  7. 37 CFR 1.475 - Unity of invention before the International Searching Authority, the International Preliminary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unity of invention before the... stage. 1.475 Section 1.475 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... art. (b) An international or a national stage application containing claims to different categories...

  8. Unity with PMA-2 attached awaits further processing in the SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The International Space Station's (ISS) Unity node, with Pressurized Mating Adapter (PMA)-2 attached, awaits further processing in the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF). The Unity node is the first element of the ISS to be manufactured in the United States and is currently scheduled to lift off aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour on STS-88 later this year. Unity has two PMAs attached to it now that this mate is completed. PMAs are conical docking adapters which will allow the docking systems used by the Space Shuttle and by Russian modules to attach to the node's hatches and berthing mechanisms. Once in orbit, Unity, which has six hatches, will be mated with the already orbiting Control Module and will eventually provide attachment points for the U.S. laboratory module; Node 3; an early exterior framework or truss for the station; an airlock; and a multi-windowed cupola. The Control Module, or Functional Cargo Block, is a U.S.- funded and Russian-built component that will be launched aboard a Russian rocket from Kazakstan.

  9. Unity with PMA-2 attached awaits further processing in the SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The International Space Station's (ISS) Unity node, with Pressurized Mating Adapter (PMA)-2 attached, awaits further processing by Boeing technicians in its workstand in the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF). The Unity node is the first element of the ISS to be manufactured in the United States and is currently scheduled to lift off aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour on STS-88 later this year. Unity has two PMAs attached to it now that this mate is completed. PMAs are conical docking adapters which will allow the docking systems used by the Space Shuttle and by Russian modules to attach to the node's hatches and berthing mechanisms. Once in orbit, Unity, which has six hatches, will be mated with the already orbiting Control Module and will eventually provide attachment points for the U.S. laboratory module; Node 3; an early exterior framework or truss for the station; an airlock; and a multi-windowed cupola. The Control Module, or Functional Cargo Block, is a U.S.-funded and Russian-built component that will be launched aboard a Russian rocket from Kazakstan.

  10. STS-88 Pilot Sturckow and Commander Cabana look over the payload Unity at pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    At Launch Pad 39A, STS-88 Pilot Frederick W. 'Rick' Sturckow and Mission Commander Robert D. Cabana look over the Unity connecting module that is in the payload bay of the orbiter Endeavour. Cabana, Sturckow and the STS-88 crew arrived at KSC in the early morning hours of Nov. 30 for pre-launch preparations. The other crew members are Mission Specialist Nancy J. Currie, Mission Specialist James H. Newman and Mission Specialist Sergei Konstantinovich Krikalev, a Russian cosmonaut. The scheduled lift-off is at 3:56 a.m. on Dec. 3. Unity is the primary payload of the mission, which is the first U.S. launch for the International Space Station. The crew will be mating Unity with the Russian-built Zarya control module already in orbit. In addition to Unity, two small replacement electronics boxes are on board for possible repairs to Zarya batteries. Endeavour is expected to land at KSC at 10:17 p.m. on Monday, Dec. 14.

  11. STS-88 Mission Commander Cabana looks at the mission payload Unity at pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    At Launch Pad 39A, STS-88 Mission Commander Robert D. Cabana gets a close look at the Unity connecting module that is in the payload bay of the orbiter Endeavour. Cabana and the STS-88 crew arrived at KSC in the early morning hours of Nov. 30 for pre- launch preparations. The other crew members are Pilot Frederick W. 'Rick' Sturckow, Mission Specialist Nancy J. Currie, Mission Specialist James H. Newman and Mission Specialist Sergei Konstantinovich Krikalev, a Russian cosmonaut. The scheduled lift-off is at 3:56 a.m. on Dec. 3. Unity is the primary payload of the mission, which is the first U.S. launch for the International Space Station. The crew will be mating Unity with the Russian-built Zarya control module already in orbit. In addition to Unity, two small replacement electronics boxes are on board for possible repairs to Zarya batteries. Endeavour is expected to land at KSC at 10:17 p.m. on Monday, Dec. 14.

  12. Bloom, Frye, and the Academic Aspiration after the Unity of Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Peter

    1991-01-01

    Examines the dark analyses of modern higher education presented in Allan Bloom's "The Closing of the American Mind" and Northrop Frye's "On Education." The University of Toronto proposes an Integrated Studies (Unity of Knowledge) program which would involve students in interdisciplinary studies in humanities, social sciences,…

  13. Adding Some Perspective to de Moivre's Theorem: Visualising the "n"-th Roots of Unity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardell, Nicholas S.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, "z" is assumed to be a complex number and the roots are usually determined by using de Moivre's theorem adapted for fractional indices. The roots are represented in the Argand plane by points that lie equally pitched around a circle of unit radius. The "n"-th roots of unity always include the real number 1, and…

  14. Band-Limited Wavefront Reconstruction with Unity Frequency Response from Shack-Hartmann Slopes Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bahk, S.-W.

    2008-06-17

    The analytic frequency responses of the traditional wavefront reconstructors of Hudgin, Fried, and Southwell are presented, which exhibit amplification or attenuation of the original signal at high spatial frequencies. To overcome this problem, a reconstructor with unity frequency response is developed based on a band-limited derivative calculation. The algorithm is both numerically and experimentally confirmed.

  15. Features of Capillary Breakup of a Liquid Jet at Ohnesorge Numbers Larger Than Unity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safronov, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    A theoretical study has been made of the forced capillary breakup of a jet of viscous liquid at a value of the Ohnesorge number larger than unity. The regions of breakup of the jet without the formation of satellites have been determined. The dependences of the dimensions of main and satellite droplets on the wave number have been obtained for different Ohnesorge numbers.

  16. 77 FR 5865 - American Unity Investments, Inc., China Display Technologies, Inc., China Wind Energy, Inc., Fuda...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION American Unity Investments, Inc., China Display Technologies, Inc., China Wind Energy, Inc., Fuda... current and accurate information concerning the securities of China Wind Energy, Inc. because it has...

  17. How James Kept the Pace?; A Look into the Organic Unity of "Daisy Miller"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Movaghati, Sina; Comcar, Milad

    2015-01-01

    Many Critics believe that Henry James has set the definitive standards of modern fiction writing. Undoubtedly his groundbreaking article "The Art of Fiction," which published for the first time in 1884, has a major contribution in developing the theories of fiction writing. The term Organic Unity has derived from a major Formalist…

  18. A Comparative Study on the Practice of Continuous Assessment between Addis Ababa and Unity Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeleke, Aytaged Sisay

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the practice of continuous assessment at Unity University College and Addis Ababa University. It has also investigated constraints instructors say they have been facing in implementing continuous assessment. Students' attitudes about the practice of this assessment mode towards their course achievements were explored.…

  19. Toward a Developmental Practice of Mental Health Counseling: Strategies for Training, Practice, and Political Unity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivey, Allen E.; Rigazio-DiGilio, Sandra A.

    1991-01-01

    Suggests that strategy for mental health counselors and other American Association for Counseling and Development (AACD) professionals is to focus on service to the consumer, unity within, and the clear articulation of the meaning of a developmental approach to counseling, therapy, and human growth. Practice within AACD is seen as…

  20. Some Thoughts about Literature as a Means of Advancing Sustainable Unity and Stability in the Contemporary Nigerian State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anaso, George Nwaorah; Nwabudike, Christopher Eziafa

    2014-01-01

    An in-depth investigation was conducted on the possibility of literature employed to enhance cohesion, sustainable unity, national stability, and security of lives and property in the contemporary Nigeria. These three elements--unity, national stability, and security of lives and property are considered the key pillars of a modern state, the…

  1. 37 CFR 1.489 - Protest to lack of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority. 1.489 Section 1.489 Patents, Trademarks... Protest to lack of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority. (a) If the applicant disagrees with the holding of lack of unity of invention by the International...

  2. 37 CFR 1.477 - Protest to lack of unity of invention before the International Searching Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... invention before the International Searching Authority. 1.477 Section 1.477 Patents, Trademarks, and... PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions Unity of Invention § 1.477 Protest to lack of unity of invention before the International Searching Authority. (a) If the applicant disagrees with the holding...

  3. African American Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... accounted for 83.8% of Caucasian elderly suicides. • Firearms were the predominant method of suicide among African ... per 100,000 annually. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Vital Statistics System. Mortality Data. ...

  4. Obesity and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Management System Report to Congress Knowledge Center Capacity Building Information Services Events Calendar Resource Guide Justice ... Workforce Diversity Grants Youth Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Black/African American ...

  5. Coccidioidomycosis in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Ruddy, Barbara E.; Mayer, Anita P.; Ko, Marcia G.; Labonte, Helene R.; Borovansky, Jill A.; Boroff, Erika S.; Blair, Janis E.

    2011-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is caused by Coccidioides species, a fungus endemic to the desert regions of the southwestern United States, and is of particular concern for African Americans. We performed a PubMed search of the English-language medical literature on coccidioidomycosis in African Americans and summarized the pertinent literature. Search terms were coccidioidomycosis, Coccidioides, race, ethnicity, African, black, and Negro. The proceedings of the national and international coccidioidomycosis symposia were searched. All relevant articles and their cited references were reviewed; those with epidemiological, immunologic, clinical, and therapeutic data pertaining to coccidioidomycosis in African Americans were included in the review. Numerous studies documented an increased predilection for severe coccidioidal infections, coccidioidomycosis-related hospitalizations, and extrapulmonary dissemination in persons of African descent; however, most of the published studies are variably problematic. The immunologic mechanism for this predilection is unclear. The clinical features and treatment recommendations are summarized. Medical practitioners need to be alert to the possibility of coccidioidomycosis in persons with recent travel to or residence in an area where the disease is endemic. PMID:21193657

  6. Mental Health and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  7. [Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's design of a unity of physics].

    PubMed

    Görnitz, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    As I learned in many conversations with Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker, he saw his place in the history of science deriving from his "Theory of Urs". This theory will establish the unity of science on the basis of quantum bits. Any attempts to find some "fundamental bricks"--of whatever kind--must fail because of the antinomies of atomism. An abstract quantum bit is a structure quantum that cannot be conceived as a particle in space and time. However, it is clear, solely for logical reasons, that a quantum bit is an ultimate and indecomposable entity. Weizsäcker's revolutionary goal was--already 50 years ago--to unite quantum theory with cosmology and, on these grounds, proceed to a theory of elementary particles. The article gives a short overview of Weizsäcker's approach to the unity of physics, ending with a brief summary of what has been achieved in that endeavour up to now.

  8. A panoramic view of the Space Station Processing Facility with Unity connecting module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In this panoramic view of the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) can be seen (left to right) Unity connecting module, the Rack Insertion Device and the first Multi-Purpose Launch Module, the Leonardo. Windows at the right above Leonardo allow visitors on tour to watch the activities in the SSPF. The Unity, scheduled to be launched on STS-88 in December 1998, will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will already be in orbit. STS-88 will be the first Space Shuttle launch for the International Space Station. The Italian-built MPLM, scheduled to be launched on STS-100 on Dec. 2, 1999, will be carried in the payload bay of the Shuttle orbiter, and will provide storage and additional work space for up to two astronauts when docked to the International Space Station.

  9. Unity versus multiplicity: a conceptual analysis of the term "self" and its use in personality theories.

    PubMed

    Katzko, Michael W

    2003-02-01

    There is no single answer to the unity-multiplicity problem regarding the self for the simple reason that the term "self" is used by too many different theorists in too many different ways. In fact, there are several important substantive topic areas that need to be distinguished and studied scientifically. The topic areas I examine in this article are reflexivity, unit coherence, agency, and subjectivity. Each of these areas will be evaluated in terms of what it contributes to, and can be interpreted in terms of, the unity-multiplicity issue. It is proposed that we need a more differentiated technical vocabulary if we are to better understand the phenomena we are examining. Matching our technical vocabulary to this empirical detail sharpens the questions being asked and places the empirical facts in better focus. A more elaborate framework of conceptual differentiation provides a better basis for developing an integrated theory.

  10. Cultural pluralism and the future of American unity: the impact of illegal aliens.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, L H

    1984-01-01

    This paper explores the question of the impact of illegal migration on American unity and cultural pluralism in the US. Assuming that over time the descendants of undocumented workers now in the US will behave substantially like descendants of those who immigrate legally, the long-term impact of illegal migration barely will be noticeable provided it is reduced substantially in the future. The process of acculturation will work in the same way for both groups as it has for other ethnic groups in the past, given comparable levels of education and length of family residence in the US. The author takes special notice of the illegal migration of Spanish-speaking workers and hypothesizes that the behavior of their descendants will not differ from that of the descendants of other immigrants, legal or illegal, in ways that disrupt fundamental patterns of American political unity and cultural pluralism.

  11. The one and the many: the search for unity in nature.

    PubMed

    Gleiser, Marcelo

    2015-12-01

    The essence of physical reality-what the world consists of-has been a heated focus of contention for millennia. First with philosophers and then with physicists, the debate has been polarized since the beginning: while those loosely known as Platonists search for an underlying unity in nature, others caution that such unity is unachievable in practice and in principle. In this essay, we review both positions, arguing strongly for the latter in anticipation of experimental results from the Large Hadron Collider, the particle accelerator from the European Center for Nuclear Research. We further argue that, for the first time in history, the material essence of reality could be determined from an empirical standpoint as opposed to a purely dialectic one, settling the age-old debate.

  12. Body-self unity and self-esteem in patients with rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Bode, Christina; van der Heij, Anouk; Taal, Erik; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2010-12-01

    Perceptions and evaluations of the own body are important sources of self-esteem. Having a rheumatic disease challenges maintenance of positive self-esteem due to consequences of the disease such as unfavorable sensations as pain and limited (physical) functioning. We expect that a positive experience of the own body in spite of a rheumatic disease (body-self harmony) will be associated with higher levels of self-esteem and that experiencing the body as unworthy part of the own person or as disabler for own strivings (body-self alienation) will result in lower levels of self-esteem. For this explorative study, the body experience questionnaire (BEQ) measuring body-self unity was developed and piloted. One hundred sixty-eight patients visiting the outpatient rheumatology clinic of the Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands, completed a questionnaire on touchscreen computers to measure body-self unity (BEQ), illness cognitions (illness cognition questionnaire), pain intensity, functional limitations (health assessment questionnaire disability index), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale) and demographics. To analyze predictors of self-esteem, hierarchical regression analyses were employed. The BEQ revealed a two-factor structure with good reliability (subscale harmony, four items, Cronbach's α = 0.76; subscale alienation, six items, Cronbach's α = 0.84). The final model of the hierarchical regression analyses showed that self-esteem can be predicted by the illness cognitions helplessness and acceptance, by harmony and most strongly by alienation from the body. R(2) of the final model was 0.50. The relationship between functional limitations and self-esteem was totally mediated by the psychological constructs body-self unity and illness cognitions. This explorative study showed the importance of the unity of body and self for self-esteem in patients with a rheumatic disease.

  13. Functional unity of the thymus and pineal gland and study of the mechanisms of aging.

    PubMed

    Polyakova, V O; Linkova, N S; Kvetnoy, I M; Khavinson, V Kh

    2011-09-01

    The data on the morphology and functions of the thymus and pineal gland in individuals of different age are analyzed and common mechanisms of involution of these organs during aging and the consequencies of this process are discussed. Based on the data on the molecular changes in the thymus and pineal gland during aging, the authors hypothesize the functional unity of these organs and their mutual complementarity in the maintenance of normal immune and endocrine status during aging.

  14. Quantum groups, roots of unity and particles on quantized Anti-de Sitter space

    SciTech Connect

    Steinacker, Harold

    1997-05-23

    Quantum groups in general and the quantum Anti-de Sitter group Uq(so(2,3)) in particular are studied from the point of view of quantum field theory. The author shows that if q is a suitable root of unity, there exist finite-dimensional, unitary representations corresponding to essentially all the classical one-particle representations with (half) integer spin, with the same structure at low energies as in the classical case. In the massless case for spin ≥ 1, "naive" representations are unitarizable only after factoring out a subspace of "pure gauges", as classically. Unitary many-particle representations are defined, with the correct classical limit. Furthermore, the author identifies a remarkable element Q in the center of Uq(g), which plays the role of a BRST operator in the case of Uq(so(2,3)) at roots of unity, for any spin ≥ 1. The associated ghosts are an intrinsic part of the indecomposable representations. The author shows how to define an involution on algebras of creation and anihilation operators at roots of unity, in an example corresponding to non-identical particles. It is shown how nonabelian gauge fields appear naturally in this framework, without having to define connections on fiber bundles. Integration on Quantum Euclidean space and sphere and on Anti-de Sitter space is studied as well. The author gives a conjecture how Q can be used in general to analyze the structure of indecomposable representations, and to define a new, completely reducible associative (tensor) product of representations at roots of unity, which generalizes the standard "truncated" tensor product as well as many-particle representations.

  15. Professional unity to be a key focus for CMA in 1996

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Patrick

    1996-01-01

    The need for professional unity in the face of growing government pressure is to be a key focus of the CMA's 1996 activities, the Board of Directors decided at its December meeting. This will become clear as its future of health care campaign develops, with twin components of patient and physician advocacy. The board also learned that details about a major antismoking project have been finalized and of potential expansion within the Department of Publications.

  16. Defining and Detecting Complex Peak Relationships in Mass Spectral Data: The Mz.unity Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Mahieu, Nathaniel G; Spalding, Jonathan L; Gelman, Susan J; Patti, Gary J

    2016-09-20

    Analysis of a single analyte by mass spectrometry can result in the detection of more than 100 degenerate peaks. These degenerate peaks complicate spectral interpretation and are challenging to annotate. In mass spectrometry-based metabolomics, this degeneracy leads to inflated false discovery rates, data sets containing an order of magnitude more features than analytes, and an inefficient use of resources during data analysis. Although software has been introduced to annotate spectral degeneracy, current approaches are unable to represent several important classes of peak relationships. These include heterodimers and higher complex adducts, distal fragments, relationships between peaks in different polarities, and complex adducts between features and background peaks. Here we outline sources of peak degeneracy in mass spectra that are not annotated by current approaches and introduce a software package called mz.unity to detect these relationships in accurate mass data. Using mz.unity, we find that data sets contain many more complex relationships than we anticipated. Examples include the adduct of glutamate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), fragments of NAD detected in the same or opposite polarities, and the adduct of glutamate and a background peak. Further, the complex relationships we identify show that several assumptions commonly made when interpreting mass spectral degeneracy do not hold in general. These contributions provide new tools and insight to aid in the annotation of complex spectral relationships and provide a foundation for improved data set identification. Mz.unity is an R package and is freely available at https://github.com/nathaniel-mahieu/mz.unity as well as our laboratory Web site http://pattilab.wustl.edu/software/ .

  17. Enhancing Unity of Effort in Homeland Defense, Homeland Security, and Civil Support Through Interdisciplinary Education

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Parameters, Winter 1998, 39–50. Walt Disney Pictures. (2004) Miracle. Burbank, CA. Wormuth, C. E., & Witkowsky, A. (2008). Managing the Next...prevention of or response to a natural disaster or act of terrorism, overseas or on American soil, unity of effort among multi-disciplinary and multi...Department of National Security Affairs iv THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK v ABSTRACT Whether in prevention of or response to a natural disaster or

  18. The Struggles over African Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maseko, Pam; Vale, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this interview, African Language expert Pam Maseko speaks of her own background and her first encounter with culture outside of her mother tongue, isiXhosa. A statistical breakdown of South African languages is provided as background. She discusses Western (originally missionary) codification of African languages and suggests that this approach…

  19. The development of systematic quality control method using laboratory information system and unity program.

    PubMed

    Min, Won-Ki; Lee, Woochang; Park, Hyosoon

    2002-01-01

    Quality control (QC) process is performed to detect and correct errors in the laboratory, of which systematic errors are repeated and affect all the laboratory process thereafter. This makes it necessary for all the laboratories to detect and correct errors effectively and efficiently. We developed an on-line quality assurance system for detection and correction of systematic error, and linked it to the Unity Plus/Pro (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Irvine, USA), a commercially available quality management system. The laboratory information system based on the client-server paradigm was developed using NCR3600 (NCR, West Columbia, USA) as the server and database for server was Oracle 7.2 (Oracle, Belmont, USA) and development tool was Powerbuilder (Powersoft Burlignton, UK). Each QC material is registered and gets its own identification number and tested the same way as patient sample. The resulting QC data is entered into the Unity Plus/Pro program by in-house data entering program or by manual input. With the implementation of in-house laboratory information system (LIS) and linking it to Unity Plus/Pro, we could apply Westgard's multi-rule for higher error detection rate, resulting in more systematic and precise quality assurance for laboratory product, as well as complementary to conventional external quality assessment.

  20. Evaluating the influence of the 'unity assumption' on the temporal perception of realistic audiovisual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Vatakis, Argiro; Spence, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Vatakis, A. and Spence, C. (in press) [Crossmodal binding: Evaluating the 'unity assumption' using audiovisual speech stimuli. Perception &Psychophysics] recently demonstrated that when two briefly presented speech signals (one auditory and the other visual) refer to the same audiovisual speech event, people find it harder to judge their temporal order than when they refer to different speech events. Vatakis and Spence argued that the 'unity assumption' facilitated crossmodal binding on the former (matching) trials by means of a process of temporal ventriloquism. In the present study, we investigated whether the 'unity assumption' would also affect the binding of non-speech stimuli (video clips of object action or musical notes). The auditory and visual stimuli were presented at a range of stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) using the method of constant stimuli. Participants made unspeeded temporal order judgments (TOJs) regarding which modality stream had been presented first. The auditory and visual musical and object action stimuli were either matched (e.g., the sight of a note being played on a piano together with the corresponding sound) or else mismatched (e.g., the sight of a note being played on a piano together with the sound of a guitar string being plucked). However, in contrast to the results of Vatakis and Spence's recent speech study, no significant difference in the accuracy of temporal discrimination performance for the matched versus mismatched video clips was observed. Reasons for this discrepancy are discussed.

  1. Narcolepsy in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Makoto; O'Hara, Ruth; Einen, Mali; Lin, Ling; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Although narcolepsy affects 0.02–0.05% of individuals in various ethnic groups, clinical presentation in different ethnicities has never been fully characterized. Our goal was to study phenotypic expression across ethnicities in the United States. Design/Setting: Cases of narcolepsy from 1992 to 2013 were identified from searches of the Stanford Center for Narcolepsy Research database. International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition diagnosis criteria for type 1 and type 2 narcolepsy were used for inclusion, but subjects were separated as with and without cataplexy for the purpose of data presentation. Information extracted included demographics, ethnicity and clinical data, HLA-DQB1*06:02, polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) data, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1 level. Patients: 182 African-Americans, 839 Caucasians, 35 Asians, and 41 Latinos with narcolepsy. Results: Sex ratio, PSG, and MSLT findings did not differ across ethnicities. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score was higher and age of onset of sleepiness earlier in African Americans compared with other ethnicities. HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity was higher in African Americans (91.0%) versus others (76.6% in Caucasians, 80.0% in Asians, and 65.0% in Latinos). CSF hypocretin-1 level, obtained in 222 patients, was more frequently low (≤ 110 pg/ml) in African Americans (93.9%) versus Caucasians (61.5%), Asians (85.7%) and Latinos (75.0%). In subjects with low CSF hypocretin-1, African Americans (28.3%) were 4.5 fold more likely to be without cataplexy when compared with Caucasians (8.1%). Conclusions: Narcolepsy in African Americans is characterized by earlier symptom onset, higher Epworth Sleepiness Scale score, higher HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity, and low cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 level in the absence of cataplexy. In African Americans, more subjects without cataplexy have type 1 narcolepsy. Citation: Kawai M, O'Hara R, Einen M, Lin L

  2. The genetic structure and history of Africans and African Americans.

    PubMed

    Tishkoff, Sarah A; Reed, Floyd A; Friedlaender, Françoise R; Ehret, Christopher; Ranciaro, Alessia; Froment, Alain; Hirbo, Jibril B; Awomoyi, Agnes A; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Juma, Abdalla T; Kotze, Maritha J; Lema, Godfrey; Moore, Jason H; Mortensen, Holly; Nyambo, Thomas B; Omar, Sabah A; Powell, Kweli; Pretorius, Gideon S; Smith, Michael W; Thera, Mahamadou A; Wambebe, Charles; Weber, James L; Williams, Scott M

    2009-05-22

    Africa is the source of all modern humans, but characterization of genetic variation and of relationships among populations across the continent has been enigmatic. We studied 121 African populations, four African American populations, and 60 non-African populations for patterns of variation at 1327 nuclear microsatellite and insertion/deletion markers. We identified 14 ancestral population clusters in Africa that correlate with self-described ethnicity and shared cultural and/or linguistic properties. We observed high levels of mixed ancestry in most populations, reflecting historical migration events across the continent. Our data also provide evidence for shared ancestry among geographically diverse hunter-gatherer populations (Khoesan speakers and Pygmies). The ancestry of African Americans is predominantly from Niger-Kordofanian (approximately 71%), European (approximately 13%), and other African (approximately 8%) populations, although admixture levels varied considerably among individuals. This study helps tease apart the complex evolutionary history of Africans and African Americans, aiding both anthropological and genetic epidemiologic studies.

  3. Out-Of Out-Of Abnormal Unity of Body and Self in Space and Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzy, Shahar; Landis, Theodor; Blanke, Olaf

    2005-10-01

    Under normal conditions, human subjects experience the self within the limits of the physical body and the limits of the present time. This unified experience of the self in space and time has been challenged by philosophers and physicists. The spatial unity between self and body has also been challenged by a well defined group of experiences called "autoscopic phenomena" (AP), during which subjects have the impression of seeing a second own body in extrapersonal space. Yet, with respect to the three main forms of AP -- autoscopic hallucination, heautoscopy, and out-of-body experience -- previous studies have concentrated on describing the spatial unity between self and body while neglecting to analyze the temporal unity of self and body. Here we describe several AP-cases with an altered experience of age or time for one's own body or self. In some AP-cases the second own body was seen as being younger or older than the subject's actual body. We show that the second own body is experienced as if "coming from another time" although the observing self is experienced in the present time. Other AP-subjects reported a feeling of timelessness of the observing self without any age difference between the subjects' actual and illusory body. We argue that these differences in age or time suggest that the temporal experience of one's own body and self is altered in these subjects. Collectively, these data suggest that AP may be associated not only with abnormal sensations with respect to spatial unity, but also with respect to temporal unity. Moreover, we found that out-of-body experiences were associated with feelings of timelessness and no age differences between self and body and that autoscopic hallucinations and heautoscopy were associated with age differences between self and body but not with feelings of timelessness. We conjecture that out-of-body experiences are characterized by disembodiment not only in space but also in time. For autoscopic hallucinations and

  4. Relief unity emulator and slope stability simulator applied to mass movement occurrence analysis in slope evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colangelo, Antonio C.

    2010-05-01

    This work refers to a part of my "Fellow" thesis "Geomorphosynthesis and Geomorphocinematic applied to slope stability and evolution" (Colangelo, 2007). Relief unity emulator (rue) is a device that permits to synthesize a slope unity by means of a single generatrix profile that determine the initial conditions for application of a set of a geotechnical, hydrological and morphological models. This initial profile is considered in equilibrium with original environmental conditions, and operates in an integrated manner with these models. The aim is to induce a boundary condition on initial profile and produce a new profile: a threshold profile. For this manner and by iterations we generate a set of new profiles that represents, each one, a meta-stable profile, or a descending profile. The evolution of these profiles is in according with the central geomorphologycal concepts of slope retreat, base level change and head retreat. This set of "descending profiles" will be now sliced at topographic equivalent points, that will linked for describe a "topographic equivalence line". The crossing of this kind of isolines with descending profiles composes a 3D slope unity. This descending slope unity is represented by a mesh built for the crossing of these new slope profiles with the topographic equivalence lines and, the result is a four-dimensional meta-stable object integrated to the slope stability simulator (sss). This composite "rue-sss" device operates with 10 main models and 16 variables. The models describe effective stress, shearing resistance, soil saturation level behavior, potential rupture surface depth, critical depth, potential rupture surface critical gradient, critical soil saturation level, top of percolation flow gradient and unit weight of soil. Of this manner, is possible to evaluate effective friction angles and cohesion, critical soil saturation levels, critical gradients for potential rupture surfaces, neutral stress, shear strength, shear stress

  5. Stress intensity factor extraction from the enriched partition of unity solution for a cracked linear elastic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Won-Tak

    2017-02-01

    The stress intensity factor is a useful tool for predicting material failure and describing the stress states of brittle materials. We present a technique to calculate the stress intensity factor for a linear elasticity problem on a cracked domain with an enriched partition of unity method. We use a particular partition of unity function, which is piecewise polynomial and has wide flat-top region. The flat-top area in the partition of unity function helps the displacements and the stress fields in the vicinity of the crack tip to be accurately represented, even with a coarse background mesh. Among other methods for calculating the stress intensity factor, we find that the direct extraction method is the most accurate and efficient one given a relatively coarse background mesh for the enriched partition of unity method.

  6. Elective: African Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Kenneth V.

    The make-up of a course in African literature for high school students is discussed. It is pointed out that the course can be constructed on already familiar lines. High school students will be able to describe clearly, for example, the relationship between environment and character or the dilemma of characters caught between traditional values…

  7. African Americans and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Joan

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the opportunities available in the field of agriculture for African American students and notes efforts of the 136 colleges of agriculture to publicize their offerings and recruit students. Profiles six black leaders in agriculture, highlighting their achievements in research and aid to developing countries. A table provides data on annual…

  8. African Literature: Selected Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deschenes, Martin O.; Waters, Harold A.

    This bibliography of resources for the teaching of African literature includes over 100 citations of books, textbooks, anthologies, plays, novels, short stories, and periodicals in French and English. Publishing house addresses, audiovisual aids, professional organizations, and a course list are also cited. The books are listed under the following…

  9. An African Perspective on Peace Education: Ubuntu Lessons in Reconciliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murithi, Tim

    2009-05-01

    This essay examines the value of educating for peace. It does this through a consideration of the African cultural world-view known as ubuntu, which highlights the essential unity of humanity and emphasises the importance of constantly referring to the principles of empathy, sharing and cooperation in efforts to resolve our common problems. The essay is not based on field research, but rather on a discussion of the issues pertaining to ubuntu and peace education. The discussion focuses on how Desmond Tutu utilised the principles of ubuntu during his leadership of the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission. It also outlines the five stages of the peacemaking process found among ubuntu societies: acknowledging guilt; showing remorse and repenting; asking for and giving forgiveness; and paying compensation or reparations as a prelude to reconciliation. Potential lessons for educating for peace and reconciliation are highlighted based on the premise that the ubuntu approach to human relationship-building can offer an example to the world.

  10. Implementation of Headtracking and 3D Stereo with Unity and VRPN for Computer Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noyes, Matthew A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores low-cost hardware and software methods to provide depth cues traditionally absent in monocular displays. The use of a VRPN server in conjunction with a Microsoft Kinect and/or Nintendo Wiimote to provide head tracking information to a Unity application, and NVIDIA 3D Vision for retinal disparity support, is discussed. Methods are suggested to implement this technology with NASA's EDGE simulation graphics package, along with potential caveats. Finally, future applications of this technology to astronaut crew training, particularly when combined with an omnidirectional treadmill for virtual locomotion and NASA's ARGOS system for reduced gravity simulation, are discussed.

  11. High Confinement Mode and Edge Localized Mode Characteristics in a Near-Unity Aspect Ratio Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Thome, K E; Bongard, M W; Barr, J L; Bodner, G M; Burke, M G; Fonck, R J; Kriete, D M; Perry, J M; Schlossberg, D J

    2016-04-29

    Tokamak experiments at near-unity aspect ratio A≲1.2 offer new insights into the self-organized H-mode plasma confinement regime. In contrast to conventional A∼3 plasmas, the L-H power threshold P_{LH} is ∼15× higher than scaling predictions, and it is insensitive to magnetic topology, consistent with modeling. Edge localized mode (ELM) instabilities shift to lower toroidal mode numbers as A decreases. These ultralow-A operations enable heretofore inaccessible J_{edge}(R,t) measurements through an ELM that show a complex multimodal collapse and the ejection of a current-carrying filament.

  12. [Organism as a functional unity of oscillation processes of varying frequency].

    PubMed

    Galichiĭ, V A

    2013-01-01

    The present concept of organism as an oscillating system is discussed in light of the biological rhythms theory. The phenomenon of biological rhythm is viewed as a result of unity and mutual confrontation of the fundamental conflicts in the life process - destruction and creation. Consideration is given to the system-making role of diurnal rhythms keeping the organism functioning as integration. Possible mechanisms of interrelationships of rhythms with different frequencies based on the principles of ascending from simple to complicated, biological amortization, level destabilization, multiple ratios and frequency locking are dealt with. Emphasis is placed on the necessity of conceptualizing the physiological norm as a rhythmic phenomenon.

  13. Stabilization and robustness of non-linear unity-feedback system - Factorization approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desoer, C. A.; Kabuli, M. G.

    1988-01-01

    The paper is a self-contained discussion of a right factorization approach in the stability analysis of the nonlinear continuous-time or discrete-time, time-invariant or time-varying, well-posed unity-feedback system S1(P, C). It is shown that a well-posed stable feedback system S1(P, C) implies that P and C have right factorizations. In the case where C is stable, P has a normalized right-coprime factorization. The factorization approach is used in stabilization and simultaneous stabilization results.

  14. Can the oscillator strength of the quantum dot bandgap transition exceed unity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hens, Z.

    2008-10-01

    We discuss the apparent contradiction between the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule for oscillator strengths and recent experimental data on the oscillator strength of the band gap transition of quantum dots. Starting from two simple single electron model systems, we show that the sum rule does not limit this oscillator strength to values below unity, or below the number of electrons in the highest occupied single electron state. The only upper limit the sum rule imposes on the oscillator strength of the quantum dot band gap transition is the total number of electrons in the quantum dot.

  15. Unity in function in the absence of consensus in sequence: role of leader peptides in export.

    PubMed

    Randall, L L; Hardy, S J

    1989-03-03

    Passage of proteins across membranes during export from their site of synthesis to their final destination is mediated by leader peptides that paradoxically exhibit a unity of function in spite of a diversity of sequence. These leader peptides act in at least two stages of the export process: at entry into the pathway and subsequently during translocation across the membrane. How selectivity is imposed on the system in the absence of a consensus among the sequences of leader peptides is the main issue discussed here.

  16. High confinement mode and edge localized mode characteristics in a near-unity aspect ratio tokamak

    DOE PAGES

    Thome, Kathreen E.; Bongard, Michael W.; Barr, Jayson L.; ...

    2016-04-27

    Tokamak experiments at near-unity aspect ratio A ≲ 1.2 offer new insights into the self-organized H-mode plasma confinement regime. In contrast to conventional A ~ 3 plasmas, the L–H power threshold PLH is ~15× higher than scaling predictions, and it is insensitive to magnetic topology, consistent with modeling. Edge localized mode (ELM) instabilities shift to lower toroidal mode numbers as A decreases. Furthermore, these ultralow-A operations enable heretofore inaccessible Jedge(R,t) measurements through an ELM that show a complex multimodal collapse and the ejection of a current-carrying filament.

  17. High confinement mode and edge localized mode characteristics in a near-unity aspect ratio tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Thome, Kathreen E.; Bongard, Michael W.; Barr, Jayson L.; Bodner, Grant M.; Burke, Marcus G.; Fonck, Raymond J.; Kriete, David M.; Perry, Justin M.; Schlossberg, David J.

    2016-04-27

    Tokamak experiments at near-unity aspect ratio A ≲ 1.2 offer new insights into the self-organized H-mode plasma confinement regime. In contrast to conventional A ~ 3 plasmas, the L–H power threshold PLH is ~15× higher than scaling predictions, and it is insensitive to magnetic topology, consistent with modeling. Edge localized mode (ELM) instabilities shift to lower toroidal mode numbers as A decreases. Furthermore, these ultralow-A operations enable heretofore inaccessible Jedge(R,t) measurements through an ELM that show a complex multimodal collapse and the ejection of a current-carrying filament.

  18. Understanding traditional African healing

    PubMed Central

    MOKGOBI, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of traditional healers as well as the role of traditional healers in their communities are discussed. In conclusion, the services of traditional healers go far beyond the uses of herbs for physical illnesses. Traditional healers serve many roles which include but not limited to custodians of the traditional African religion and customs, educators about culture, counselors, social workers and psychologists. PMID:26594664

  19. Ectoparasites of African Mammals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-30

    This study consisted of ectoparasites from approximately 100,000 African small mammals, representing probably more than 500 species of which many are...study of ectoparasites may provide information concerning interactions among animal reservoirs of disease, and (3) an understanding of ecological...parameters for ectoparasites and their hosts may enhance understanding of epidemiological patterns. Of the four major groups dealt with, considerably more

  20. Diversity among African Pygmies

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez Rozzi, Fernando V.; Sardi, Marina L.

    2010-01-01

    Although dissimilarities in cranial and post-cranial morphology among African pygmies groups have been recognized, comparative studies on skull morphology usually pull all pygmies together assuming that morphological characters are similar among them and different with respect to other populations. The main aim of this study is to compare cranial morphology between African pygmies and non-pygmies populations from Equatorial Africa derived from both the Eastern and the Western regions in order to test if the greatest morphological difference is obtained in the comparison between pygmies and non-pygmies. Thirty three-dimensional (3D) landmarks registered with Microscribe in four cranial samples (Western and Eastern pygmies and non-pygmies) were obtained. Multivariate analysis (generalized Procrustes analysis, Mahalanobis distances, multivariate regression) and complementary dimensions of size were evaluated with ANOVA and post hoc LSD. Results suggest that important cranial shape differentiation does occur between pygmies and non-pygmies but also between Eastern and Western populations and that size changes and allometries do not affect similarly Eastern and Western pygmies. Therefore, our findings raise serious doubt about the fact to consider African pygmies as a homogenous group in studies on skull morphology. Differences in cranial morphology among pygmies would suggest differentiation after divergence. Although not directly related to skull differentiation, the diversity among pygmies would probably suggest that the process responsible for reduced stature occurred after the split of the ancestors of modern Eastern and Western pygmies. PMID:21049030

  1. Human African trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Lejon, Veerle; Bentivoglio, Marina; Franco, José Ramon

    2013-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness is a neglected tropical disease that affects populations in sub-Saharan Africa. The disease is caused by infection with the gambiense and rhodesiense subspecies of the extracellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei, and is transmitted to humans by bites of infected tsetse flies. The disease evolves in two stages, the hemolymphatic and meningoencephalitic stages, the latter being defined by central nervous system infection after trypanosomal traversal of the blood-brain barrier. African trypanosomiasis, which leads to severe neuroinflammation, is fatal without treatment, but the available drugs are toxic and complicated to administer. The choice of medication is determined by the infecting parasite subspecies and disease stage. Clinical features include a constellation of nonspecific symptoms and signs with evolving neurological and psychiatric alterations and characteristic sleep-wake disturbances. Because of the clinical profile variability and insidiously progressive central nervous system involvement, disease staging is currently based on cerebrospinal fluid examination, which is usually performed after the finding of trypanosomes in blood or other body fluids. No vaccine being available, control of human African trypanosomiasis relies on diagnosis and treatment of infected patients, assisted by vector control. Better diagnostic tools and safer, easy to use drugs are needed to facilitate elimination of the disease.

  2. East African Rift Valley, Kenya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This rare, cloud free view of the East African Rift Valley, Kenya (1.5N, 35.5E) shows a clear view of the Turkwell River Valley, an offshoot of the African REift System. The East African Rift is part of a vast plate fracture which extends from southern Turkey, through the Red Sea, East Africa and into Mozambique. Dark green patches of forests are seen along the rift margin and tea plantations occupy the cooler higher ground.

  3. [Changes and establishment of the principle of "Unity of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine"].

    PubMed

    Li, Jian

    2014-11-01

    "Unity of traditional Chinese and western medicine" was one of the three major health work principles at the early founding of the People's Republic of China. It was not only a choice of political strategy in line with the lack of contemporary health-care resources, but also a part of the revolutionary heritage for more than 20 years in the process of the Chinese Communist Party from the preliminary "application of both traditional and western medicine" to the making of the principles of both "cooperation of traditional Chinese and western medicine" and "unity of traditional Chinese and western medicine". All this was closely related to the concrete environment of the Chinese health work of various stages of Yan'an period with strong revolutionary atmosphere and was not the professional demand of the health workers, rather, this principle set up in 1950 was the result of the careful consideration of Mao Zedong and an adjustment guided under the revolutionary framework of Neo-democracy set up under the guidance of the Common Principle which was a bettered adaptation to the contemporary national condition.

  4. Unity and diversity of executive functions: Individual differences as a window on cognitive structure.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Naomi P; Miyake, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Executive functions (EFs) are high-level cognitive processes, often associated with the frontal lobes, that control lower level processes in the service of goal-directed behavior. They include abilities such as response inhibition, interference control, working memory updating, and set shifting. EFs show a general pattern of shared but distinct functions, a pattern described as "unity and diversity". We review studies of EF unity and diversity at the behavioral and genetic levels, focusing on studies of normal individual differences and what they reveal about the functional organization of these cognitive abilities. In particular, we review evidence that across multiple ages and populations, commonly studied EFs (a) are robustly correlated but separable when measured with latent variables; (b) are not the same as general intelligence or g; (c) are highly heritable at the latent level and seemingly also highly polygenic; and (d) activate both common and specific neural areas and can be linked to individual differences in neural activation, volume, and connectivity. We highlight how considering individual differences at the behavioral and neural levels can add considerable insight to the investigation of the functional organization of the brain, and conclude with some key points about individual differences to consider when interpreting neuropsychological patterns of dissociation.

  5. Light trapping and near-unity solar absorption in a three-dimensional photonic-crystal.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Ping; Deinega, Alexei; Hsieh, Mei-Li; John, Sajeev; Lin, Shawn-Yu

    2013-10-15

    We report what is to our knowledge the first observation of the effect of parallel-to-interface-refraction (PIR) in a three-dimensional, simple-cubic photonic-crystal. PIR is an acutely negative refraction of light inside a photonic-crystal, leading to light-bending by nearly 90 deg over broad wavelengths (λ). The consequence is a longer path length of light in the medium and an improved light absorption beyond the Lambertian limit. As an illustration of the effect, we show near-unity total absorption (≥98%) in λ=520-620 nm and an average absorption of ~94% over λ=400-700 nm for our α-Si:H photonic-crystal sample of an equivalent bulk thickness of t˜=450 nm. Furthermore, we have achieved an ultra-wide angular acceptance of light over θ=0°-80°. This demonstration opens up a new door for light trapping and near-unity solar absorption over broad λs and wide angles.

  6. Energy reflectance in the ear canal can exceed unity near spontaneous otoacoustic emission frequencies.

    PubMed

    Burns, E M; Keefe, D H; Ling, R

    1998-01-01

    There is some controversy in the literature over whether the so-called "active mechanism" or "cochlear amplifier" is actually a power amplifier that can produce an output signal with more power than its input, or whether it simply minimizes dissipative losses within the cochlea without providing an actual power gain greater than unity. A corollary of this controversy is whether spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs) represent the output of a nonlinear oscillator mechanism, i.e., a power amplifier which can produce an oscillatory output signal in the absence of an input oscillatory signal, or whether they represent the output of a noise-driven, passive, nonlinear system. This paper describes measurements of energy reflectance, and acoustic impedance in the ear canals of human subjects with strong SOAEs. The reflectance, and the resistive and reactive parts of the acoustic impedance, all show a frequency fine structure which correlates with SOAE frequencies, and which becomes more pronounced at low stimulus levels. In some ears at some SOAE frequencies, energy reflectance exceeds unity, and correspondingly, acoustic resistance is negative. This result demonstrates that there is a power gain at these frequencies: The power reflected from the cochlea to the ear canal exceeds the power incident. It is also consistent with the theory that these SOAEs are produced by a nonlinear oscillator mechanism in the cochlea.

  7. An experimental study of laminar film condensation with Stefan number greater than unity

    SciTech Connect

    Mahajan, R.L.; Dickinson, D.A. ); Chu, T.Y. )

    1991-05-01

    Experimental laminar condensation heat transfer data are reported for fluids with Stefan number up to 3.5. The fluid is a member of a family of fluorinated fluids, which have been used extensively in the electronics industry for soldering, cooling, and testing applications. Experiments were performed by suddenly immersing cold copper spheres in the saturated vapor of this fluid, and heat transfer rates were calculated using the quasi-steady temperature response of the spheres. In these experiments, the difference between saturation and wall temperature varied from 0.5C to 190C. Over this range of temperature difference, the condensate properties vary significantly; viscosity of the condensate varies by a factor of nearly 50. Corrections for the temperature-dependent properties of the condensate therefore were incorporated in calculating the Nusselt number based on the average heat transfer coefficient. The results are discussed in light of past experimental data and theory for Stefan number less than unity. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first reported study of condensation heat transfer examining the effects of Stefan number greater than unity.

  8. Integrated But Not Whole? Applying an Ontological Account of Human Organismal Unity to the Brain Death Debate.

    PubMed

    Moschella, Melissa

    2016-10-01

    As is clear in the 2008 report of the President's Council on Bioethics, the brain death debate is plagued by ambiguity in the use of such key terms as 'integration' and 'wholeness'. Addressing this problem, I offer a plausible ontological account of organismal unity drawing on the work of Hoffman and Rosenkrantz, and then apply that account to the case of brain death, concluding that a brain dead body lacks the unity proper to a human organism, and has therefore undergone a substantial change. I also show how my view can explain hard cases better than one in which biological integration (as understood by Alan Shewmon and the President's Council) is taken to imply ontological wholeness or unity.

  9. The Unity in Community: Fostering Academic Success among Diverse Communities of Male Offenders in Correctional Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Jane E.; Voss, Maxilynn

    2003-01-01

    Two post-secondary correctional educators discuss how they have enhanced the rehabilitation of a diverse population of adult male offenders, including whites, African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans, by incorporating diversity initiatives into their instruction and curricula at two correctional facilities in Northwest Indiana. One way…

  10. Elder Abuse among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauriac, Jesse J.; Scruggs, Natoschia

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of extreme, moderate, and mild forms of elder abuse among African-American women (n=25) and men (n=10) were examined. African-American respondents emphasized physical abuse when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Along with physical abuse, verbal abuse was the most frequently identified form of abuse, and was significantly…

  11. African ethics and voluntary euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Omonzejele, P F

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines the relationship between euthanasia and its ethical norms and practices in a part of West Africa. The various sub-types of euthanasia are described in detail, parallel with the role of African ethical theories in determining their relevance. The author discusses the implications of this approach relative to the social and economic state of African communities.

  12. African American Administrators and Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Dianne; Taylor, Janice D.; Burrell, Charlotte; Stewart, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the issues of African American participation in the administrative ranks of the academy. The authors find that African Americans tend to hold positions that are marginal in academic organizations, lacking power and influence, and that not much has changed over recent decades. Forces influencing this condition are explored,…

  13. African-Americans and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigmon, Scott B.

    To better serve people in a counseling relationship, it is useful to understand them not only culturally, but demographically as well. This paper traces historical, religious, demographic aspects and treatment of alcohol abuse in African Americans. Historically, alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence have varied for African Americans. During the…

  14. Africanization in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, M. Alice; Rubink, William L.; Patton, John C.; Coulson, Robert N.; Johnston, J. Spencer

    2005-01-01

    The expansion of Africanized honeybees from South America to the southwestern United States in <50 years is considered one of the most spectacular biological invasions yet documented. In the American tropics, it has been shown that during their expansion Africanized honeybees have low levels of introgressed alleles from resident European populations. In the United States, it has been speculated, but not shown, that Africanized honeybees would hybridize extensively with European honeybees. Here we report a continuous 11-year study investigating temporal changes in the genetic structure of a feral population from the southern United States undergoing Africanization. Our microsatellite data showed that (1) the process of Africanization involved both maternal and paternal bidirectional gene flow between European and Africanized honeybees and (2) the panmitic European population was replaced by panmitic mixtures of A. m. scutellata and European genes within 5 years after Africanization. The post-Africanization gene pool (1998–2001) was composed of a diverse array of recombinant classes with a substantial European genetic contribution (mean 25–37%). Therefore, the resulting feral honeybee population of south Texas was best viewed as a hybrid swarm. PMID:15937139

  15. The periodogram and Allan variance reveal fractal exponents greater than unity in auditory-nerve spike trains.

    PubMed

    Lowen, S B; Teich, M C

    1996-06-01

    Auditory-nerve spike trains exhibit fractal behavior, and therefore traditional renewal-point-process models fail to describe them adequately. Previous measures of the fractal exponent of these spike trains are based on the Fano factor and consequently cannot exceed unity. Two estimates of the fractal exponent are considered which do not suffer from this limit: one derived from the Allan variance, which was developed by the authors, and one based on the periodogram. These measures indicate that fractal exponents do indeed exceed unity for some nerve-spike recordings from stimulated primary afferent cat auditory-nerve fibers.

  16. Cancer statistics for African Americans.

    PubMed

    Ghafoor, Asma; Jemal, Ahmedin; Cokkinides, Vilma; Cardinez, Cheryll; Murray, Taylor; Samuels, Alicia; Thun, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    The American Cancer Society provides estimates on the number of new cancer cases and deaths, and compiles health statistics on African Americans in a biennial publication, Cancer Facts and Figures for African Americans. The compiled statistics include cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and lifestyle behaviors using the most recent data on incidence and survival from the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program, mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), and behavioral information from the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), and National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). It is estimated that 132,700 new cases of cancer and 63,100 deaths will occur among African Americans in the year 2003. Although African Americans have experienced higher incidence and mortality rates of cancer than whites for many years, incidence rates have declined by 2.7 percent per year in African-American males since 1992, while stabilizing in African-American females. During the same period, death rates declined by 2.1 percent and 0.4 percent per year among African-American males and females, respectively. The decrease in both incidence and death rates from cancer among African-American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. Nonetheless, African Americans still carry the highest cancer burden among US racial and ethnic groups. Most cancers detectable by screening are diagnosed at a later stage and survival rates are lower within each stage of disease in African Americans than in whites. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors is an active area of research.

  17. East African ROAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekle, Kelali

    2016-10-01

    In the developing world astronomy had been treated as the science of elites. As a result of this overwhelming perception, astronomy compared with other applied sciences has got less attention and its role in development has been insignificant. However, the IAU General Assembly decision in 2009 opened new opportunity for countries and professionals to deeply look into Astronomy and its role in development. Then, the subsequent establishment of regional offices in the developing world is helping countries to integrate astronomy with other earth and space based sciences so as to progressively promote its scientific and development importance. Gradually nations have come to know that space is the frontier of tomorrow and the urgency of preeminence on space frontier starts at primary school and ascends to tertiary education. For this to happen, member nations in east African region have placed STEM education at the center of their education system. For instance, Ethiopian has changed University enrollment strategy to be in favor of science and engineering subjects, i.e. every year seventy percent of new University entrants join science and engineering fields while thirty percent social science and humanities. Such bold actions truly promote astronomy to be conceived as gateway to science and technology. To promote the concept of astronomy for development the East African regional office has actually aligned it activities to be in line with the focus areas identified by the IAU strategy (2010 to 2020).

  18. African oil plays

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, A.J. )

    1989-09-01

    The vast continent of Africa hosts over eight sedimentary basins, covering approximately half its total area. Of these basins, only 82% have entered a mature exploration phase, 9% have had little or no exploration at all. Since oil was first discovered in Africa during the mid-1950s, old play concepts continue to bear fruit, for example in Egypt and Nigeria, while new play concepts promise to become more important, such as in Algeria, Angola, Chad, Egypt, Gabon, and Sudan. The most exciting developments of recent years in African oil exploration are: (1) the Gamba/Dentale play, onshore Gabon; (2) the Pinda play, offshore Angola; (3) the Lucula/Toca play, offshore Cabinda; (4) the Metlaoui play, offshore Libya/Tunisia; (5) the mid-Cretaceous sand play, Chad/Sudan; and (6) the TAG-I/F6 play, onshore Algeria. Examples of these plays are illustrated along with some of the more traditional oil plays. Where are the future oil plays likely to develop No doubt, the Saharan basins of Algeria and Libya will feature strongly, also the presalt of Equatorial West Africa, the Central African Rift System and, more speculatively, offshore Ethiopia and Namibia, and onshore Madagascar, Mozambique, and Tanzania.

  19. Bioenergy and African transformation.

    PubMed

    Lynd, Lee R; Sow, Mariam; Chimphango, Annie Fa; Cortez, Luis Ab; Brito Cruz, Carlos H; Elmissiry, Mosad; Laser, Mark; Mayaki, Ibrahim A; Moraes, Marcia Afd; Nogueira, Luiz Ah; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem H

    2015-01-01

    Among the world's continents, Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern bioenergy production in Africa. Here we consider bioenergy as an enabler for development, and provide an overview of modern bioenergy technologies with a comment on application in an Africa context. Experience with bioenergy in Africa offers evidence of social benefits and also some important lessons. In Brazil, social development, agricultural development and food security, and bioenergy development have been synergistic rather than antagonistic. Realizing similar success in African countries will require clear vision, good governance, and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, and business models to myriad local circumstances. Strategies for integrated production of food crops, livestock, and bioenergy are potentially attractive and offer an alternative to an agricultural model featuring specialized land use. If done thoughtfully, there is considerable evidence that food security and economic development in Africa can be addressed more effectively with modern bioenergy than without it. Modern bioenergy can be an agent of African transformation, with potential social benefits accruing to multiple sectors and extending well beyond energy supply per se. Potential negative impacts also cut across sectors. Thus, institutionally inclusive multi-sector legislative structures will be more effective at maximizing the social benefits of bioenergy compared to institutionally exclusive, single-sector structures.

  20. Partition of unity isogeometric analysis of two dimensional elliptic singular perturbation problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Bongsoo; Kim, Hyunju; Oh, Hae-Soo; Kim, Sinae

    2016-12-01

    The design basis functions on the reference domain in IGA are diversified and enhanced by extra enrichment functions and various local refinements with the use of partition of unity (PU) function with flat-top. These reconditioned and modified basis functions are pushed forward to the physical domain by the original design mapping for analysis. With this method, the corresponding stiffness matrix has a small bandwidth and local refinement is simple. Moreover, we construct the PU functions in the reference domain and then move them to a physical domain through a geometric mapping to be used for the generation of global basis functions on a physical domain. Therefore, we also have several advantages in calculating stiffness matrices and load vectors. Here we apply this method to various boundary layer problems.

  1. To what extent did the 1858 Medical Act bring unity to the British medical profession?

    PubMed

    Beard, John A S

    2013-05-01

    The Medical Act of 1858 was the culmination of medical, political and social wrangling for several decades before its passage. This essay looks to place the Act in its correct historical context and will specifically consider whether it brought about unity to what was a disparate and factional profession. That it was an important piece of legislation in the history of British healthcare is unquestioned, but the extent to which it directly brought about change is more uncertain. In order to understand the background, content and repercussions of the Act, one must recognize the structure of the medical system at that time. One reason for doing this, as argued by some, is that the Medical Act, like the Apothecaries Act of 1815, was the result of changes to the profession and not the cause of them. Reformists hoped that the Medical Act would unify the profession, yet significant historical, hierarchical and political barriers stood in the way of reform.

  2. Linear stable unity-feedback system - Necessary and sufficient conditions for stability under nonlinear plant perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desoer, C. A.; Kabuli, M. G.

    1989-01-01

    The authors consider a linear (not necessarily time-invariant) stable unity-feedback system, where the plant and the compensator have normalized right-coprime factorizations. They study two cases of nonlinear plant perturbations (additive and feedback), with four subcases resulting from: (1) allowing exogenous input to Delta P or not; 2) allowing the observation of the output of Delta P or not. The plant perturbation Delta P is not required to be stable. Using the factorization approach, the authors obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for all cases in terms of two pairs of nonlinear pseudostate maps. Simple physical considerations explain the form of these necessary and sufficient conditions. Finally, the authors obtain the characterization of all perturbations Delta P for which the perturbed system remains stable.

  3. THE LOGIC OF SCIENTIFIC UNITY? MEDAWAR, THE ROYAL SOCIETY AND THE ROTHSCHILD CONTROVERSY 1971-72.

    PubMed

    Calver, Neil; Parker, Miles

    2016-03-20

    In 1971 Lord (Victor) Rothschild published his report for the government, The organisation and management of government R&D, and Sir Peter Medawar launched a campaign for the election of Sir Karl Popper to Fellowship of the Royal Society. We explore these two developments in the contexts of the then current views of the role and purpose of science, and their underpinning philosophy. Although the political battle was won by Rothschild, resulting in major changes to the funding and management of applied R&D, we argue that, despite this, Medawar's campaign for Popper provided an embattled science community with a philosophical basis for defending pure research and the unity of basic and applied science.

  4. Near-Unity Reaction Probability in Olefin Hydrogenation Promoted by Heterogeneous Metal Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Maryam; Simonovis, Juan Pablo; Zaera, Francisco

    2014-06-19

    The kinetics of the hydrogenation of ethylene on platinum surfaces was studied by using high-flux effusive molecular beams and reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS). It was determined that steady-state ethylene conversion with probabilities close to unity could be achieved by using beams with ethylene fluxes equivalent to pressures in the mTorr range and high (≥100) H2:C2H4 ratios. The RAIRS data suggest that the high reaction probability is possible because such conditions lead to the removal of most of the ethylidyne layer known to form during catalysis. The observations from this study are contrasted with those under vacuum, where catalytic behavior is not sustainable, and with catalysis under more realistic atmospheric pressures, where reaction probabilities are estimated to be much lower (≤1 × 10(-5)).

  5. Ultrafast helicity control of surface currents in topological insulators with near-unity fidelity.

    PubMed

    Kastl, Christoph; Karnetzky, Christoph; Karl, Helmut; Holleitner, Alexander W

    2015-03-26

    In recent years, a class of solid-state materials, called three-dimensional topological insulators, has emerged. In the bulk, a topological insulator behaves like an ordinary insulator with a band gap. At the surface, conducting gapless states exist showing remarkable properties such as helical Dirac dispersion and suppression of backscattering of spin-polarized charge carriers. The characterization and control of the surface states via transport experiments is often hindered by residual bulk contributions. Here we show that surface currents in Bi2Se3 can be controlled by circularly polarized light on a picosecond timescale with a fidelity near unity even at room temperature. We reveal the temporal separation of such ultrafast helicity-dependent surface currents from photo-induced thermoelectric and drift currents in the bulk. Our results uncover the functionality of ultrafast optoelectronic devices based on surface currents in topological insulators.

  6. The Total Synthesis Problem of linear multivariable control. II - Unity feedback and the design morphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sain, M. K.; Antsaklis, P. J.; Gejji, R. R.; Wyman, B. F.; Peczkowski, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Zames (1981) has observed that there is, in general, no 'separation principle' to guarantee optimality of a division between control law design and filtering of plant uncertainty. Peczkowski and Sain (1978) have solved a model matching problem using transfer functions. Taking into consideration this investigation, Peczkowski et al. (1979) proposed the Total Synthesis Problem (TSP), wherein both the command/output-response and command/control-response are to be synthesized, subject to the plant constraint. The TSP concept can be subdivided into a Nominal Design Problem (NDP), which is not dependent upon specific controller structures, and a Feedback Synthesis Problem (FSP), which is. Gejji (1980) found that NDP was characterized in terms of the plant structural matrices and a single, 'good' transfer function matrix. Sain et al. (1981) have extended this NDP work. The present investigation is concerned with a study of FSP for the unity feedback case. NDP, together with feedback synthesis, is understood as a Total Synthesis Problem.

  7. High-frequency AC/DC converter with unity power factor and minimum harmonic distortion

    SciTech Connect

    Wernekinch, E.R.

    1987-01-01

    The power factor is controlled by adjusting the relative position of the fundamental component of an optimized PWM-type voltage with respect to the supply voltage. Current harmonic distortion is minimized by the use of optimized firing angles for the converter at a frequency where GTO's can be used. This feature makes this approach very attractive at power levels of 100 to 600 kW. To obtain the optimized PWM pattern, a steepest descent digital computer algorithm is used. Digital-computer simulations are performed and a low-power model is constructed and tested to verify the concepts and the behavior of the model. Experimental results show that unity power factor is achieved and that the distortion in the phase currents is 10.4% at 90% of full load. This is less than achievable with sinusoidal PWM, harmonic elimination, hysteresis control, and deadbeat control for the same switching frequency.

  8. Unity PF current-source rectifier based on dynamic trilogic PWM

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao Wang; Boon-Teck Ooi . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1993-07-01

    One remaining step in perfecting the stand-along, unity power factor, regulated current-source PWM rectifier is to reduce cost, by bringing the 12-valve converter (consisting of three single-phase full bridges that operate with two-level or bilogic PWM) to the six-valve bridge. However, the six-valve topology requires a three-level or trilogic PWM strategy that can handle feedback signals. This feature was not available until now. The paper describes a general method of translating three-phase bilogic PWM signals to three-phase trilogic PWM signals. The method of translation retains the characteristics of the bilogic PWM, including the frequency bandwidth. Experiments show that the trilogic PWM signals produced by the method can not only handle stabilizing feedback signals but also signals for active filtering.

  9. Ultrafast helicity control of surface currents in topological insulators with near-unity fidelity

    PubMed Central

    Kastl, Christoph; Karnetzky, Christoph; Karl, Helmut; Holleitner, Alexander W.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, a class of solid-state materials, called three-dimensional topological insulators, has emerged. In the bulk, a topological insulator behaves like an ordinary insulator with a band gap. At the surface, conducting gapless states exist showing remarkable properties such as helical Dirac dispersion and suppression of backscattering of spin-polarized charge carriers. The characterization and control of the surface states via transport experiments is often hindered by residual bulk contributions. Here we show that surface currents in Bi2Se3 can be controlled by circularly polarized light on a picosecond timescale with a fidelity near unity even at room temperature. We reveal the temporal separation of such ultrafast helicity-dependent surface currents from photo-induced thermoelectric and drift currents in the bulk. Our results uncover the functionality of ultrafast optoelectronic devices based on surface currents in topological insulators. PMID:25808213

  10. Ripple feedback for the resonant-filter unity-power-factor rectifier

    SciTech Connect

    Streng, S.A. ); King, R.J. )

    1992-07-01

    An unusual bucklike unity-power-factor rectifier with a resonant load-balancing network permits current-limited operation down to zero output voltage in a single-stage-topology. However, this rectifier has been found to be sensitive to ac-line voltage distortion and is potentially unstable with realistic values of ac-line impedance. In this paper, a new ripple feedback is proposed that solves both problems. A large-signal time-varying analysis is given along with incremental, quasi-static, and low-frequency approximations. Experimental verification is provided by a 500-W 50-kHz rectifier operating from the 120-V 60-Hz distribution system.

  11. High performance ripple feedback for the buck unity-power-factor rectifier

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, Y.W.; King, R.J.

    1995-03-01

    The buck unity-power-factor rectifier has harmonic-free input current with complete load regulation down to zero output voltage. A new ``nonlinear ripple feedback`` is proposed which exactly cancels the spoiling effect of dc-side current ripple on the low-distortion ac line current waveforms, even for large amounts of ripple. This cancellation is independent of operating point and readily implemented with analog hardware, thereby permitting economies in the design of the dc filter while maintaining harmonic-free operation. Both large-signal and incremental analyses of the rectifier are given. Confirming experimental results from a 1-kW 48-V isolated battery charger operating with current-ripple levels ranging from 50% to discontinuous-conduction-mode operation are given.

  12. Emittance of a finite scattering medium with refractive index greater than unity

    SciTech Connect

    Crosbie, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    Refractive index and scattering can significantly influence the transfer of radiation in a semitransparent medium such as water, glass, plastics, or ceramics. In a recent article (1979), the author presented exact numerical results for the emittance of a semiinfinite scattering medium with a refractive index greater than unity. The present investigation extends the analysis to a finite medium. The physical situation consists of a finite planar layer. The isothermal layer emits, absorbs, and isotropically scatters thermal radiation. It is characterized by single scattering albedo, optical thickness, refractive index, and temperature. A formula for the directional emittance is derived, the directional emittance being the emittance of the medium multiplied by the interface transmittance. The ratio of hemispherical to normal emittance is tabulated and discussed.

  13. Unity power factor converter based on a fuzzy controller and predictive input current.

    PubMed

    Bouafassa, Amar; Rahmani, Lazhar; Kessal, Abdelhalim; Babes, Badreddine

    2014-11-01

    This paper proposes analysis and control of a single-phase power factor corrector (PFC). The proposed control is capable of achieving a unity power factor for each DC link voltage or load fluctuation. The method under study is composed of two intelligent approaches, a fuzzy logic controller to ensure an output voltage at a suitable value and predictive current control. The fuzzy controller is used with minimum rules to attain a low cost. The method is verified and discussed through simulation on the MATLAB/Simulink platform. It presents high dynamic performance under various parameter changes. Moreover, in order to examine and evaluate the method in real-time, a test bench is built using dSPACE 1104. The implantation of the proposed method is very easy and flexible and allows for operation under parameter variations. Additionally, the obtained results are very significant.

  14. Near-unity absorption in a graphene-embedded defective photonic crystals array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Li-an; Liu, Peiguo; Han, Zhenzhong; Li, Gaosheng; Mao, Jian; Lu, Zhonghao

    2017-04-01

    Near-unity absorption is achieved theoretically at the terahertz frequencies by the graphene-based absorber under the condition of approaching critical coupling. The designed structure is composed of a defective photonic crystal array equal to the multilayer subwavelength grating, which possesses simultaneously the properties of photonic crystal and subwavelength grating so that both FP resonance and Fano resonance are excited. To simulate the structure accurately, rigorous coupled-wave analysis is employed. It is found that the dip can be introduced into the high absorption spectrum by the coupling of two resonances, which is realized by tuning the chemical potential of graphene, the geometry and equivalent thickness of grating as well as the angle of incident wave. The unusual absorption spectra are believed to be useful in the detection and modulation of terahertz waves.

  15. UNITY: Confronting Supernova Cosmology's Statistical and Systematic Uncertainties in a Unified Bayesian Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, D.; Aldering, G.; Barbary, K.; Boone, K.; Chappell, G.; Currie, M.; Deustua, S.; Fagrelius, P.; Fruchter, A.; Hayden, B.; Lidman, C.; Nordin, J.; Perlmutter, S.; Saunders, C.; Sofiatti, C.; Supernova Cosmology Project, The

    2015-11-01

    While recent supernova (SN) cosmology research has benefited from improved measurements, current analysis approaches are not statistically optimal and will prove insufficient for future surveys. This paper discusses the limitations of current SN cosmological analyses in treating outliers, selection effects, shape- and color-standardization relations, unexplained dispersion, and heterogeneous observations. We present a new Bayesian framework, called UNITY (Unified Nonlinear Inference for Type-Ia cosmologY), that incorporates significant improvements in our ability to confront these effects. We apply the framework to real SN observations and demonstrate smaller statistical and systematic uncertainties. We verify earlier results that SNe Ia require nonlinear shape and color standardizations, but we now include these nonlinear relations in a statistically well-justified way. This analysis was primarily performed blinded, in that the basic framework was first validated on simulated data before transitioning to real data. We also discuss possible extensions of the method.

  16. Integrated three-dimensional photonic nanostructures for achieving near-unity solar absorption and superhydrophobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Ping; Hsieh, Mei-Li; Lin, Shawn-Yu

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we proposed and realized 3D photonic nanostructures consisting of ultra-thin graded index antireflective coatings (ARCs) and woodpile photonic crystals. The use of the integrated ARC and photonic crystal structure can achieve broadband, broad-angle near unity solar absorption. The amorphous silicon based photonic nanostructure experimentally shows an average absorption of ˜95% for λ = 400-620 nm over a wide angular acceptance of θ = 0°-60°. Theoretical studies show that a Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) based structure can achieve an average absorption of >95% for λ = 400-870 nm. Furthermore, the use of the slanted SiO2 nanorod ARC surface layer by glancing angle deposition exhibits Cassie-Baxter state wetting, and superhydrophobic surface is obtained with highest water contact angle θCB ˜ 153°. These properties are fundamentally important for achieving maximum solar absorption and surface self-cleaning in thin film solar cell applications.

  17. Unity quantum yield of photogenerated charges and band-like transport in quantum-dot solids.

    PubMed

    Talgorn, Elise; Gao, Yunan; Aerts, Michiel; Kunneman, Lucas T; Schins, Juleon M; Savenije, T J; van Huis, Marijn A; van der Zant, Herre S J; Houtepen, Arjan J; Siebbeles, Laurens D A

    2011-09-25

    Solid films of colloidal quantum dots show promise in the manufacture of photodetectors and solar cells. These devices require high yields of photogenerated charges and high carrier mobilities, which are difficult to achieve in quantum-dot films owing to a strong electron-hole interaction and quantum confinement. Here, we show that the quantum yield of photogenerated charges in strongly coupled PbSe quantum-dot films is unity over a large temperature range. At high photoexcitation density, a transition takes place from hopping between localized states to band-like transport. These strongly coupled quantum-dot films have electrical properties that approach those of crystalline bulk semiconductors, while retaining the size tunability and cheap processing properties of colloidal quantum dots.

  18. The logic of scientific unity? Medawar, the Royal Society and the Rothschild controversy 1971–72

    PubMed Central

    Calver, Neil; Parker, Miles

    2016-01-01

    In 1971 Lord (Victor) Rothschild published his report for the government, The organisation and management of government R&D, and Sir Peter Medawar launched a campaign for the election of Sir Karl Popper to Fellowship of the Royal Society. We explore these two developments in the contexts of the then current views of the role and purpose of science, and their underpinning philosophy. Although the political battle was won by Rothschild, resulting in major changes to the funding and management of applied R&D, we argue that, despite this, Medawar's campaign for Popper provided an embattled science community with a philosophical basis for defending pure research and the unity of basic and applied science. PMID:27017681

  19. Explanatory Pluralism and the (Dis)Unity of Science: The Argument from Incompatible Counterfactual Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Gijsbers, Victor

    2016-01-01

    What is the relationship between different sciences or research approaches that deal with the same phenomena, for instance, with the phenomena of the human mind? Answers to this question range from a monist perspective according to which one of these approaches is privileged over the others, through an integrationist perspective according to which they must strive to form a unity greater than the sum of its parts, to an isolationist perspective according to which each of them has its own autonomous sphere of validity. In order to assess these perspectives in this article, I discuss the debates about the unity of science and about explanatory pluralism. The most pressing issue turns out to be the choice between the integrative and the isolationist perspective: the question is whether the integrative tendencies in science should be fully indulged in or whether they should be held in check by acknowledging that a certain amount of isolation is necessary. I argue that the issue can be further distilled into the question of whether two true explanations of the same fact can ever fail to be combinable into one single explanation. I show that this can indeed be the case, namely, when the explanations have incompatible counterfactual consequences, something that is often the case when we try to combine explanations from different sciences or research approaches. These approaches thus embody perspectives on the world that are to a certain extent autonomous. This leads to the conclusion that although interdisciplinarity may have many advantages, we should not take the project of integration too far. At the end of the day, the different research approaches with their different perspectives and insights must remain precisely that: different and somewhat disunified. PMID:27014099

  20. Explanatory Pluralism and the (Dis)Unity of Science: The Argument from Incompatible Counterfactual Consequences.

    PubMed

    Gijsbers, Victor

    2016-01-01

    What is the relationship between different sciences or research approaches that deal with the same phenomena, for instance, with the phenomena of the human mind? Answers to this question range from a monist perspective according to which one of these approaches is privileged over the others, through an integrationist perspective according to which they must strive to form a unity greater than the sum of its parts, to an isolationist perspective according to which each of them has its own autonomous sphere of validity. In order to assess these perspectives in this article, I discuss the debates about the unity of science and about explanatory pluralism. The most pressing issue turns out to be the choice between the integrative and the isolationist perspective: the question is whether the integrative tendencies in science should be fully indulged in or whether they should be held in check by acknowledging that a certain amount of isolation is necessary. I argue that the issue can be further distilled into the question of whether two true explanations of the same fact can ever fail to be combinable into one single explanation. I show that this can indeed be the case, namely, when the explanations have incompatible counterfactual consequences, something that is often the case when we try to combine explanations from different sciences or research approaches. These approaches thus embody perspectives on the world that are to a certain extent autonomous. This leads to the conclusion that although interdisciplinarity may have many advantages, we should not take the project of integration too far. At the end of the day, the different research approaches with their different perspectives and insights must remain precisely that: different and somewhat disunified.

  1. Sustainability Science as a Transdisciplinary Framework for Institutional Transformation at Unity College

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulkey, S. S.

    2012-12-01

    Interdisciplinary programming in higher education is accepted as necessary for effective instructional delivery of complex environmental problems. Difficulties in sharing resources among disciplinary units and the need for students to sequentially access information from different disciplines limit the effectiveness of this approach. In contrast, transdisciplinary programming requires that the perspectives of various disciplines be simultaneously integrated in problem-focused pedagogy. Unity College, an environmental college in Maine, has recently adopted Sustainability Science (sensu U.S. National Academy of Science) as a framework for transdisciplinary pedagogy throughout all of its degree programs. Sustainability Science is a promising alternative framework that focuses on the dynamics of coupled human-natural systems and is defined by the problems that it addresses rather than by the disciplines it employs. Students are empowered to become brokers of knowledge, while faculty perform a curatorial role to provide students with networked resources generally external to the classroom. Although the transdisciplinary framework is effective for delivery of Sustainability Science in upper division and capstone courses, we propose this approach also for elements of our general education curriculum during the first two years of our baccalaureate programs. Classroom time is liberated for experiential student engagement and recitation. Our experience suggests that transdisciplinary programming can provide students with critical thinking skills and thus enhance the postgraduate value of their baccalaureate degree. We are coordinating the development of this distinctive curriculum delivery with a marketing program that will make Unity College accessible to a wider range of clientele. Our implementation of transdisciplinary programming will occur over a four-year period and requires explicit and fundamental change in essentially all aspects of College administration and

  2. Non-unity molecular heritability demonstrated by continuous evolution in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, T.; Lehman, N.

    1999-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: When catalytic RNA is evolved in vitro, the molecule's chemical reactivity is usually the desired selection target. Sometimes the phenotype of a particular RNA molecule cannot be unambiguously determined from its genotype, however. This can occur if a nucleotide sequence can adopt multiple folded states, an example of non-unity heritability (i.e. one genotype gives rise to more than one phenotype). In these cases, more rounds of selection are required to achieve a phenotypic shift. We tested the influence of non-unity heritability at the molecular level by selecting for variants of a ligase ribozyme via continuous evolution. RESULTS: During 20 bursts of continuous evolution of a 152-nucleotide ligase ribozyme in which the Mg2+ concentration was periodically lowered, a nine-error variant of the starting 'wild-type' molecule became dominant in the last eight bursts. This variant appears to be more active than the wild type. Kinetic analyses of the mutant suggest that it may not possess a higher first-order catalytic rate constant, however. Examination of the multiple RNA conformations present under the continuous evolution conditions suggests that the mutant is superior to the wild type because it is less likely to misfold into inactive conformers. CONCLUSIONS: The evolution of genotypes that are more likely to exhibit a particular phenotype is an epiphenomenon usually ascribed only to complex living systems. We show that this can occur at the molecular level, demonstrating that in vitro systems may have more life-like characteristics than previously thought, and providing additional support for an RNA world.

  3. A Bibliography of African Languages and Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, John D., Comp.; Goff, Harry, Comp.

    The present bibliography of African languages and linguistics includes not only works relating to the "Negro-African" languages, but also those dealing with the African varieties of Arabic, the Hamitic languages, Malagasy, Afrikaans, and various Creoles. (The greater part of the entries relate to the indigenous languages of the African continent…

  4. Promoting Interagency Unity of Effort between AFRICOM and U.S. Embassy Country Teams (ECTs) in Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-04

    establishment of a Combatant Command for Africa known as (AFRICOM) in 2007 was to symbolize the United States government’s new engagement with the African ... African continent created vast impoverished spaces susceptible to exploitation by Al Qaeda and other anti-western terrorist organizations for use as...Congressional mandate. This mandate stipulated that U.S. military operations and activities for the African continent were to be consolidated under

  5. Mathematics Teachers' Visualization of Complex Number Multiplication and the Roots of Unity in a Dynamic Geometry Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caglayan, Gunhan

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative research, drawing on the theoretical frameworks by Even (1990, 1993) and Sfard (2007), investigated five high school mathematics teachers' geometric interpretations of complex number multiplication along with the roots of unity. The main finding was that mathematics teachers constructed the modulus, the argument, and the conjugate…

  6. Common Unity in the Community: A Forward Looking Program of Recreation and Leisure Services for the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairchild, Effie; Neal, Larry

    Presented are 12 readings related to the Common-Unity program for providing recreation and leisure services for the handicapped within the local community. Introductory papers present the philosophical basis of the project (Larry Neal), and summarize the conference proceedings and program (Ted Gordon). Four papers on community education have the…

  7. Public Data Set: High Confinement Mode and Edge Localized Mode Characteristics in a Near-Unity Aspect Ratio Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Thome, Kathreen E.; Bongard, Michael W.; Barr, Jayson L.; Bodner, Grant M.; Burke, Marcus G.; Fonck, Raymond J.; Kriete, David M.; Perry, Justin M.; Schlossberg, David J.

    2016-04-27

    This data set contains openly-documented, machine readable digital research data corresponding to figures published in K.E. Thome et al., 'High Confinement Mode and Edge Localized Mode Characteristics in a Near-Unity Aspect Ratio Tokamak,' Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 175001 (2016).

  8. 77 FR 74265 - In the Matter of the Designation of Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa; Also Known as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... Matter of the Designation of Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa; Also Known as Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa; Also Known as Unity Movement for Jihad in West Africa; Also Known as Jamat Tawhid Wal Jihad Fi Garbi Afriqqiya; Also Known as Tawhid Wal Jihad in West Africa; Also Known...

  9. The African Millennium Villages

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Pedro; Palm, Cheryl; Sachs, Jeffrey; Denning, Glenn; Flor, Rafael; Harawa, Rebbie; Jama, Bashir; Kiflemariam, Tsegazeab; Konecky, Bronwen; Kozar, Raffaela; Lelerai, Eliud; Malik, Alia; Modi, Vijay; Mutuo, Patrick; Niang, Amadou; Okoth, Herine; Place, Frank; Sachs, Sonia Ehrlich; Said, Amir; Siriri, David; Teklehaimanot, Awash; Wang, Karen; Wangila, Justine; Zamba, Colleen

    2007-01-01

    We describe the concept, strategy, and initial results of the Millennium Villages Project and implications regarding sustainability and scalability. Our underlying hypothesis is that the interacting crises of agriculture, health, and infrastructure in rural Africa can be overcome through targeted public-sector investments to raise rural productivity and, thereby, to increased private-sector saving and investments. This is carried out by empowering impoverished communities with science-based interventions. Seventy-eight Millennium Villages have been initiated in 12 sites in 10 African countries, each representing a major agroecological zone. In early results, the research villages in Kenya, Ethiopia, and Malawi have reduced malaria prevalence, met caloric requirements, generated crop surpluses, enabled school feeding programs, and provided cash earnings for farm families. PMID:17942701

  10. [African population in history].

    PubMed

    Yang, S

    1984-11-29

    The growth rate of the African population has been fluctuating throughout history, affected by political, social, and economic events. 6000 years ago, the majority of the population was based in North Africa, because farming had been developed there. However, between the 11th and the 16th centuries, there was a constant decline in the population of that region, due to invasions from Europe and the black plague. During the same period, the population in the area south of the Sahara grew rapidly, as people there had gone into the iron tool period and farming had been developed. From the 16th to the mid-17th Century, population growth was considerable in Africa; more people had learned the technology of irrigation, corn and potatoes had been introduced from South America, and colonialism was not yet an issue. From the mid-17th to the mid-19th Century, there was no growth, due to the slave trade and wars between tribes. One estimate sets the direct and indirect loss during this period, as a result of the slave trade, at 100 million people. From the 1850s to the end of World War I, population growth started up again, chiefly influenced by the fact that the slave trade had essentially come to a half and modern medical care had become available on the continent. However, in central Africa, the region which suffered the worst blow from the slave trade, growth was very slow, while in East Africa the population was declining because of wars between colonists and natives, as well as natural disasters. Increases in population during this period were a result of immigration from Europe and India. From the end of World War I to the present, growth has been rapid, given improvements in medical services and standards of living, while most of the former colonies became independent after the 1950s. Consequently, almost all African countries are under great pressure now with regard to their populations.

  11. Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    1989-11-01

    The Central African Republic contains 242,000 square miles, which rolling terrain almost 2000 feet above sea level. The climate is tropical, and it has a population of 2.8 million people with a 2.5% growth rate. There are more than 80 ethnic groups including Baya 34%, Banda 28%, Sara 10%, Mandja 9%, Mboum 9%, and M'Baka 7%. The religions are traditional African 35%, protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, and Muslim 15%, and the languages are French and Sangho. The infant mortality rate is 143/1000, with expectancy at 49 years and a 40% literacy rate. The work force of 1 million is 70% agricultural, industry 6% and commerce and service 6% and government 3%. The government consists of a president assisted by cabinet ministers and a single party. Natural resources include diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, and oil, and major industries are beverages, textiles, and soap. Agricultural products feature coffee, cotton, peanuts, tobacco, food crops and livestock. Most of the population live in rural areas and most of the 80 ethnic groups have their own language. This is one of the world's least developed countries, with a per capita income of $375/year. The main problems with development are the poor transportation infrastructure, and the weak internal and international marketing systems. The US and various international organizations have aided in agriculture development, health programs, and family planning. US investment is mainly in diamond and gold mining, and although oil drilling has been successful it is not economically feasible at current prices.

  12. African Passages: Journaling through Archetypes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Patricia

    1990-01-01

    Explores how students (through an awareness of literary archetypes and journal writing) can use African stories to cross cultures, time, and continents, making connections between their worlds and the worlds of others. (MG)

  13. Early African Hominids: Pedagogic Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, James L.

    1984-01-01

    By studying early African hominids, students can learn about the interactive testing and creative aspects of scientific thinking and sharpen their geographical skills. It is impossible to study this topic without giving prominence to space and time. (RM)

  14. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    MedlinePlus

    ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of Alzheimer's, ... two times more likely to develop late-onset Alzheimer's disease than whites and less likely to have a ...

  15. Hepatitis C in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Saab, Sammy; Jackson, Christian; Nieto, Jose; Francois, Fritz

    2014-10-01

    The care of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in African Americans represents an opportunity to address a major health disparity in medicine. In all facets of HCV infection, African Americans are inexplicably affected, including in the prevalence of the virus, which is higher among them compared with most of the racial and ethnic groups. Ironically, although fibrosis rates may be slow, hepatocellular carcinoma and mortality rates appear to be higher among African Americans. Sustained viral response (SVR) rates have historically significantly trailed behind Caucasians. The reasons for this gap in SVR are related to both viral and host factors. Moreover, low enrollment rates in clinical trials hamper the study of the efficacy of anti-viral therapy. Nevertheless, the gap in SVR between African Americans and Caucasians may be narrowing with the use of direct-acting agents. Gastroenterologists, hepatologists, primary care physicians, and other health-care providers need to address modifiable risk factors that affect the natural history, as well as treatment outcomes, for HCV among African Americans. Efforts need to be made to improve awareness among health-care providers to address the differences in screening and referral patterns for African Americans.

  16. Near-unity transparency of a continuous metal film via cooperative effects of double plasmonic arrays.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zheng-qi; Liu, Gui-qiang; Zhou, Hai-qing; Liu, Xiao-shan; Huang, Kuan; Chen, Yuan-hao; Fu, Guo-lan

    2013-04-19

    Metal structures with high optical transparency and conductivity are of great importance for practical applications in optoelectronic devices. Here we investigate the transparency response of a continuous metal film sandwiched by double plasmonic nanoparticle arrays. The upper nanoparticle array shows efficient light trapping of the incident field, acting as a light input coupler, and the lower nanoparticle array shows a light release gate opening at the other side, acting as the light output coupler. The strong near-field light-matter interactions of the nano-scale separated plasmonic nanoparticles, the excitation of surface plasmon waves of the metal film, and their cooperative coupling effects result in broadband scattering cancellation and near-unity transparency (up to 96%) in the optical regime. The transparency response in such a structure can be efficiently modified by varying the gap distance of adjacent nanoparticles, dielectric environments, and the distance between the plasmonic array and the metal film. This motif may provide a new alternative approach to obtain transparent and highly conducting metal structures with potential applications in transparent conductors, plasmonic filters, and highly integrated light input and output components.

  17. Colloidal Spherical Quantum Wells with Near-Unity Photoluminescence Quantum Yield and Suppressed Blinking.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Byeong Guk; Park, Young-Shin; Chang, Jun Hyuk; Cho, Ikjun; Kim, Jai Kyeong; Kim, Heesuk; Char, Kookheon; Cho, Jinhan; Klimov, Victor I; Park, Philip; Lee, Doh C; Bae, Wan Ki

    2016-10-02

    Thick inorganic shell endows colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) with enhanced photochemical stability and suppression of photoluminescence intermittency (also known as blinking). However, the progress of using thick-shell heterostructure NCs in applications has been limited, due to low photoluminescence quantum yield (PL QY  60%) at room temperature. Here, we demonstrate thick-shell NCs with CdS/CdSe/CdS seed/spherical quantum well/shell (SQW) geometry that exhibit near-unity PL QY at room temperature and suppression of blinking. In SQW NCs, the lattice mismatch is diminished between the emissive CdSe layer and the surrounding CdS layers as a result of coherent strain, which suppresses the formation of misfit defects and consequently permits ~ 100% PL QY for SQW NCs with thick CdS shell (≥ 5 nm). High PL QY of thick-shell SQW NCs are preserved even in concentrated dispersion and in film under thermal stress, which makes them promising candidates for applications in solid-state lightings and luminescent solar concentrators.

  18. Pre-mixed flame simulations for non-unity Lewis numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutland, C. J.; Trouve, A.

    1990-01-01

    A principal effect of turbulence on premixed flames in the flamelet region is to wrinkle the flame fronts. For non-unity Lewis numbers (Le), the local flame structure is altered in curved regions. This effect is examined using direct numerical simulations of the three dimensional, constant density, decaying isotropic turbulence with a single step, finite rate chemical reaction. Simulations of Lewis numbers 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2 are compared. The turbulent flame speed, S(sub T), increases as Le decreases. The correlation between S(sub T) and u prime found in previous Le = 1 simulations has a strong Lewis number dependency. The variance of the pdf of the flame curvature increases as Le decreases, indicating that the flames become more wrinkled. A strong correlation between local flame speed and curvature was found. For Le greater than 1, the flame speed increases in regions concave towards the products and decreases in convex regions. The opposite correlation was found for Le less than 1. The mean temperature of the products was also found to vary with Lewis number. For Le = 0.8, it is less than the adiabatic flame temperature and for Le = 1.2 it is greater.

  19. Remembering Our Forebears: Albert Jan Kluyver and the Unity of Life.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Rivers; Singleton, David R

    2017-02-01

    The Dutch microbiologist/biochemist Albert Jan Kluyver (1888-1956) was an early proponent of the idea of biochemical unity, and how that concept might be demonstrated through the careful study of microbial life. The fundamental relatedness of living systems is an obvious correlate of the theory of evolution, and modern attempts to construct phylogenetic schemes support this relatedness through comparison of genomes. The approach of Kluyver and his scientific descendants predated the tools of modern molecular biology by decades. Kluyver himself is poorly recognized today, yet his influence at the time was profound. Through lens of today however, it has been argued that the focus by Kluyver and others to create taxonomic and phylogenetic schemes using morphology and biochemistry distorted and hindered progress of the discipline of microbiology, because of a perception that the older approaches focused too much on a reductionist worldview. This essay argues that in contrast the careful characterization of fundamental microbial metabolism and physiology by Kluyver made many of the advances of the latter part of the twentieth century possible, by offering a framework which in many respects anticipated our current view of phylogeny, and by directly and indirectly training a generation of scientists who became leaders in the explosive growth of biotechnology.

  20. Moral psychology is relationship regulation: moral motives for unity, hierarchy, equality, and proportionality.

    PubMed

    Rai, Tage Shakti; Fiske, Alan Page

    2011-01-01

    Genuine moral disagreement exists and is widespread. To understand such disagreement, we must examine the basic kinds of social relationships people construct across cultures and the distinct moral obligations and prohibitions these relationships entail. We extend relational models theory (Fiske, 1991) to identify 4 fundamental and distinct moral motives. Unity is the motive to care for and support the integrity of in-groups by avoiding or eliminating threats of contamination and providing aid and protection based on need or empathic compassion. Hierarchy is the motive to respect rank in social groups where superiors are entitled to deference and respect but must also lead, guide, direct, and protect subordinates. Equality is the motive for balanced, in-kind reciprocity, equal treatment, equal say, and equal opportunity. Proportionality is the motive for rewards and punishments to be proportionate to merit, benefits to be calibrated to contributions, and judgments to be based on a utilitarian calculus of costs and benefits. The 4 moral motives are universal, but cultures, ideologies, and individuals differ in where they activate these motives and how they implement them. Unlike existing theories (Haidt, 2007; Hauser, 2006; Turiel, 1983), relationship regulation theory predicts that any action, including violence, unequal treatment, and "impure" acts, may be perceived as morally correct depending on the moral motive employed and how the relevant social relationship is construed. This approach facilitates clearer understanding of moral perspectives we disagree with and provides a template for how to influence moral motives and practices in the world.

  1. Numerical modeling of undersea acoustics using a partition of unity method with plane waves enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hospital-Bravo, Raúl; Sarrate, Josep; Díez, Pedro

    2016-05-01

    A new 2D numerical model to predict the underwater acoustic propagation is obtained by exploring the potential of the Partition of Unity Method (PUM) enriched with plane waves. The aim of the work is to obtain sound pressure level distributions when multiple operational noise sources are present, in order to assess the acoustic impact over the marine fauna. The model takes advantage of the suitability of the PUM for solving the Helmholtz equation, especially for the practical case of large domains and medium frequencies. The seawater acoustic absorption and the acoustic reflectance of the sea surface and sea bottom are explicitly considered, and perfectly matched layers (PML) are placed at the lateral artificial boundaries to avoid spurious reflexions. The model includes semi-analytical integration rules which are adapted to highly oscillatory integrands with the aim of reducing the computational cost of the integration step. In addition, we develop a novel strategy to mitigate the ill-conditioning of the elemental and global system matrices. Specifically, we compute a low-rank approximation of the local space of solutions, which in turn reduces the number of degrees of freedom, the CPU time and the memory footprint. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the model and to assess its accuracy.

  2. Spinal shock and brain death': somatic pathophysiological equivalence and implications for the integrative-unity rationale.

    PubMed

    Shewmon, D A

    1999-05-01

    The somatic pathophysiology of high spinal cord injury (SCI) not only is of interest in itself but also sheds light on one of the several rationales proposed for equating 'brain death' (BD) with death, namely that the brain confers integrative unity upon the body, which would otherwise constitute a mere conglomeration of cells and tissues. Insofar as the neuropathology of BD includes infarction down to the foramen magnum, the somatic pathophysiology of BD should resemble that of cervico-medullary junction transection plus vagotomy. The endocrinologic aspects can be made comparable either by focusing on BD patients without diabetes insipidus or by supposing the victim of high SCI to have pre-existing therapeutically compensated diabetes insipidus. The respective literatures on intensive care for BD organ donors and high SCI corroborate that the two conditions are somatically virtually identical. If SCI victims are alive at the level of the 'organism as a whole', then so must be BD patients (the only significant difference being consciousness). Comparison with SCI leads to the conclusion that if BD is to be equated with death, a more coherent reason must be adduced than that the body as a biological organism is dead.

  3. An experimental study of laminar film condensation with Stefan number greater than unity

    SciTech Connect

    Mahajan, R.L.; Dickinson, D.A. ); Chu, T.Y. )

    1990-01-01

    Experimental laminar condensation heat transfer data is reported for fluids with Stefan number up to 3.5. The fluid is a member of a family of fluorinated fluids developed in the last decade which have been extensively used in the electronics industry for soldering, cooling, and testing applications. Experiments were performed by suddenly immersing cold copper spheres in the saturated vapor of this fluid, and heat transfer rates were calculated using the quasi-steady temperature response of the spheres. In these experiments, the difference between saturation and wall temperature varied from 0.5{degree}C to 190{degree}C. Over this range of temperature difference, the condensate properties vary significantly. For example, viscosity of the condense varies by a factor of over 50. Corrections for the temperature dependent properties of the condensate therefore were incorporated in calculating the Nusselt number based on the average heat transfer coefficient. The results are discussed in light of past experimental data theory for Stefan number less than 1. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first reported study of condensation heat transfer for Stefan number greater that unity. 24 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Single-state electronic ballast with dimming feature and unity power factor

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, T.F.; Yu, T.H.; Chiang, M.C.

    1998-05-01

    Analysis, design, and practical consideration of a single-stage electronic ballast with dimming feature and unity power factor are presented in this paper. The proposed single-stage ballast is the combination of a boost converter and a half-bridge series-resonant parallel-loaded inverter. The boost semistage working in the discontinuous conduction mode functions as a power factor corrector and the inverter semistage operated above resonance are employed to ballast the lamp. Replacing the lamp with the plasma model, analysis of the ballast is fulfilled. The dimming feature is carried out by pulse-width modulation (PWM) and variable-frequency controls simultaneously. The proposed single-stage ballast is suitable for applications with moderate power level and low-line voltage while requiring a high-output voltage. It can save a controller, an active switch and its driver, reduce size, and possibly increase system reliability while requiring two additional diodes over a conventional two-stage system. A prototype was implemented to verify the theoretical discussion. The hardware measurements have shown that the desired performance can be achieved feasibly.

  5. F response and H reflex analysis of physiological unity of gravity and antigravity muscles in man.

    PubMed

    García, H A; Fisher, M A

    1977-01-01

    Observational differences between reflex (H reflex) and antidromic (F response) activation of segmental motoneurons by a peripheral electrical stimulus are described. In contrast to H reflexes, the percentage of F responses found after a series of stimuli is directly related to the pick-up field of the recording electrode consistent with this response being due to the variable activation of a small fraction of the available motoneuron pool. Despite the differing physiological mechanisms, both F responses and H reflexes can be used to demonstrate similar relative "central excitatory states" for antigravity muscles (i.e. extensors in the lower extremity and flexors in the upper extremity) and their antagonist gravity muscles. H reflexes were elicited not only in their usual location in certain antigravity muscles but also in unusual locations by length/tension changes in agonist and antagonist groups as well as by passive stretch. The data argue for the physiological unity of similarly acting gravity and antigravity muscles as well as supporting a meaningful role of group II afferents in normal segmental motoneuron pool excitability.

  6. Integrated three-dimensional photonic nanostructures for achieving near-unity solar absorption and superhydrophobicity

    SciTech Connect

    Kuang, Ping; Lin, Shawn-Yu; Hsieh, Mei-Li

    2015-06-07

    In this paper, we proposed and realized 3D photonic nanostructures consisting of ultra-thin graded index antireflective coatings (ARCs) and woodpile photonic crystals. The use of the integrated ARC and photonic crystal structure can achieve broadband, broad-angle near unity solar absorption. The amorphous silicon based photonic nanostructure experimentally shows an average absorption of ∼95% for λ = 400–620 nm over a wide angular acceptance of θ = 0°–60°. Theoretical studies show that a Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) based structure can achieve an average absorption of >95% for λ = 400–870 nm. Furthermore, the use of the slanted SiO{sub 2} nanorod ARC surface layer by glancing angle deposition exhibits Cassie-Baxter state wetting, and superhydrophobic surface is obtained with highest water contact angle θ{sub CB} ∼ 153°. These properties are fundamentally important for achieving maximum solar absorption and surface self-cleaning in thin film solar cell applications.

  7. The African Pediatric Fellowship Program: Training in Africa for Africans.

    PubMed

    Wilmshurst, Jo M; Morrow, Brenda; du Preez, Avril; Githanga, David; Kennedy, Neil; Zar, Heather J

    2016-01-01

    Africa has a significant burden of childhood disease, with relatively few skilled health care professionals. The African Paediatric Fellowship Programme was developed by the Department of Pediatrics and Child Health at the University of Cape Town to provide relevant training for African child health professionals, by Africans, within Africa. Trainees identified by partner academic institutions spend 6 months to 2 years training in the Department of Pediatrics and allied disciplines. They then return to their home institution to build practice, training, research, and advocacy. From 2008 to 2015, 73 physicians have completed or are completing training in general pediatrics or a pediatric subspecialty. At 1 year posttraining, 98% to 100% are practicing back in their home institution. The impact of the returning fellows is evident from their practice interventions, research collaborations, and positions as stakeholders who can change health care policies. Thirty-three centers in 13 African countries are partners with the program, and the program template is now followed by other partner sites in Africa. Increasing and retaining the skills pool of African child health specialists is building a network of motivated, highly skilled clinicians who are equipped to advance child health in Africa.

  8. Phylogenomics of African guenons.

    PubMed

    Moulin, Sibyle; Gerbault-Seureau, Michèle; Dutrillaux, Bernard; Richard, Florence Anne

    2008-01-01

    The karyotypes of 28 specimens belonging to 26 species of Cercopithecinae have been compared with each other and with human karyotype by chromosome banding and, for some of them, by Zoo-FISH (human painting probes) techniques. The study includes the first description of the karyotypes of four species and a synonym of Cercopithecus nictitans. The chromosomal homologies obtained provide us with new data on a large number of rearrangements. This allows us to code chromosomal characters to draw Cercopithecini phylogenetic trees, which are compared to phylogenetic data based on DNA sequences. Our findings show that some of the superspecies proposed by Kingdon (1997 The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals, Academic Press.) and Groves (2001 Primates Taxonomy, Smithsonian Institution Press) do not form homogeneous groups and that the genus Cercopithecus is paraphyletic, in agreement with previous molecular analyses. The evolution of Cercopithecini karyotypes is mainly due to non-centromeric chromosome fissions and centromeric shifts or inversions. Non-Robertsonian translocations occurred in C. hamlyni and C. neglectus. The position of chromosomal rearrangements in the phylogenetic tree leads us to propose that the Cercopithecini evolution proceeded by either repeated fission events facilitated by peculiar genomic structures or successive reticulate phases, in which heterozygous populations for few rearranged chromosomes were present, allowing the spreading of chromosomal forms in various combinations, before the speciation process.

  9. An African ethic for nursing?

    PubMed

    Haegert, S

    2000-11-01

    This article derives from a doctoral thesis in which a particular discourse was used as a 'paradigm case'. From this discourse an ethic set within a South African culture arose. Using many cultural 'voices' to aid the understanding of this narrative, the ethic shows that one can build on both a 'justice' and a 'care' ethic. With further development based on African culture one can take the ethic of care deeper and reveal 'layers of understanding'. Care, together with compassion, forms the foundation of morality. Nursing ethics has followed particular western moral philosophers. Often nursing ethics has been taught along the lines of Kohlberg's theory of morality, with its emphasis on rules, rights, duties and general obligations. These principles were universalistic, masculine and noncontextual. However, there is a new ethical movement among Thomist philosophers along the lines to be expounded in this article. Nurses such as Benner, Bevis, Dunlop, Fry and Gadow--to name but a few--have welcomed the concept of an 'ethic of care'. Gilligan's work gave a feminist view and situated ethics in the everyday aspects of responsiveness, responsibility, context and concern. Shutte's search for a 'philosophy for Africa' has resulted in finding similarities in Setiloane and in Senghor with those of Thomist philosophers. Using this African philosophy and a research participant's narrative, an African ethic evolves out of the African proverb: 'A person is a person through other persons', or its alternative rendering: 'I am because we are: we are because I am.' This hermeneutic narrative reveals 'the way affect imbues activity with ethical meaning' within the context of a black nursing sister in a rural South African hospital. It expands upon the above proverb and incorporates the South African constitutional idea of 'Ubuntu' (compassion and justice or humanness).

  10. Pre-colonial culture, post-colonial economic success? The Tswana and the African economic miracle.

    PubMed

    Hjort, Jonas

    2010-01-01

    Cultural explanations of economic phenomena have recently enjoyed a renaissance among economists. This article provides further evidence for the salience of culture through an in-depth case study of one of the fastest-growing economies in the world during the last 50 years-Botswana. The unique culture that developed among the Tswana before and during the early days of colonialism, which shared many features with those of western nation-states, appears to have contributed significantly to the factors widely seen as determinants of Botswana's post-colonial economic success: state legitimacy, good governance and democracy, commercial traditions, well-established property rights, and inter-ethnic unity. Neighbouring Southern African cultures typically did not exhibit these traits.

  11. Positioning women's and children's health in African union policy-making: a policy analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background With limited time to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, progress towards improving women's and children's health needs to be accelerated. With Africa accounting for over half of the world's maternal and child deaths, the African Union (AU) has a critical role in prioritizing related policies and catalysing required investments and action. In this paper, the authors assess the evolution of African Union policies related to women's and children's health, and analyze how these policies are prioritized and framed. Methods The main method used in this policy analysis was a document review of all African Union policies developed from 1963 to 2010, focusing specifically on policies that explicitly mention health. The findings from this document review were discussed with key actors to identify policy implications. Results With over 220 policies in total, peace and security is the most common AU policy topic. Social affairs and other development issues became more prominent in the 1990s. The number of policies that mentioned health rose steadily over the years (with 1 policy mentioning health in 1963 to 7 in 2010). This change was catalysed by factors such as: a favourable shift in AU priorities and systems towards development issues, spurred by the transition from the Organization of African Unity to the African Union; the mandate of the African Commission on Human and People's Rights; health-related advocacy initiatives, such as the Campaign for the Accelerated Reduction of Maternal Mortality in Africa (CARMMA); action and accountability requirements arising from international human rights treaties, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and new health-funding mechanisms, such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Prioritization of women's and children's health issues in AU policies has been framed primarily by human rights, advocacy and accountability considerations, more by economic and health frames looking at investments and

  12. Condition for unity absorption in an ultrathin and highly lossy film in a Gires-Tournois interferometer configuration.

    PubMed

    Park, Junghyun; Kim, Soo Jin; Brongersma, Mark L

    2015-05-01

    We present a condition for unity absorption for a Gires-Tournois interferometer configuration constructed from an ultrathin and highly lossy film on top of metallic mirror. From the impedance matching condition in the transmission line theory, we identify a solution space for the required complex refractive index of the lossy film in various film thickness and dielectric constants of the metallic mirror. It is shown that strong absorption requires the imaginary part of the refractive index of the ultrathin lossy film be larger than 0.64, and the physical origin of this condition is elucidated. The proposed method is useful in identifying candidate semiconductor materials that can be used as the lossy film in a unity-absorption Gires-Tournois interferometer configuration and designing the thickness of this film to maximize absorption.

  13. The rule of unity for human intestinal absorption 2: application to pharmaceutical drugs that are marketed as salts.

    PubMed

    Patel, Raj B; Admire, Brittany; Yalkowsky, Samuel H

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of the human intestinal absorption (HIA) of the 59 drugs which are marketed as salts is predicted using the rule of unity. Intrinsic aqueous solubilities and partition coefficients along with the drug dose are used to calculate modified absorption potential (MAP) values. These values are shown to be related to the fraction of the dose that is absorbed upon oral administration in humans (FA). It is shown that the MAP value can distinguish between drugs that are poorly absorbed (FA <0.5) and those that are well absorbed (FA ≥ 0.5). Inspection of the data as well as a receiver operative characteristic (ROC) plot shows that a single critical MAP value can be used for predicting efficient human absorption of drugs. This forms the basis of a simple rule of unity based solely on in vitro data for predicting whether or not a drug will be well absorbed at a given dose.

  14. High Rayleigh number convection in rectangular enclosures with differentially heated vertical walls and aspect ratios between zero and unity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kassemi, Siavash A.

    1988-01-01

    High Rayleigh number convection in a rectangular cavity with insulated horizontal surfaces and differentially heated vertical walls was analyzed for an arbitrary aspect ratio smaller than or equal to unity. Unlike previous analytical studies, a systematic method of solution based on linearization technique and analytical iteration procedure was developed to obtain approximate closed-form solutions for a wide range of aspect ratios. The predicted velocity and temperature fields are shown to be in excellent agreement with available experimental and numerical data.

  15. High Rayleigh number convection in rectangular enclosures with differentially heated vertical walls and aspect ratios between zero and unity

    SciTech Connect

    Kassemi, S.A.

    1988-04-01

    High Rayleigh number convection in a rectangular cavity with insulated horizontal surfaces and differentially heated vertical walls was analyzed for an arbitrary aspect ratio smaller than or equal to unity. Unlike previous analytical studies, a systematic method of solution based on linearization technique and analytical iteration procedure was developed to obtain approximate closed-form solutions for a wide range of aspect ratios. The predicted velocity and temperature fields are shown to be in excellent agreement with available experimental and numerical data.

  16. African American Preschoolers' Language, Emergent Literacy Skills, and Use of African American English: A Complex Relation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Craig, Holly K.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relation between African American preschoolers' use of African American English (AAE) and their language and emergent literacy skills in an effort to better understand the perplexing and persistent difficulties many African American children experience learning to read proficiently. Method: African American…

  17. Technical Consulting: The African-American Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Tracy N.

    2010-01-01

    The qualitative research study explored the organizational characteristics necessary in addressing the low concentration of African American technical consultants employed in the information technology industry. Using research participants' professional experience, participants responded to a developed questionnaire. African American technical…

  18. African N Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekunda, M.; Galford, G. L.; Hickman, J. E.; Palm, C.

    2011-12-01

    Africa's smallholder agricultural systems face unique challenges in planning for reducing poverty, concurrent with adaptation and mitigation to climate change. At continental level, policy seeks to promote a uniquely African Green Revolution to increase crop yields and food production, and improve local livelihoods. However, the consequences on the environment and climate are not clear; these pro-economic development measures should be linked to climate change adaptation and mitigation measures, and research is required to help achieve these policy proposals by identifying options, and testing impacts. In particular, increased nitrogen (N) inputs are essential for increasing food production in Africa, but are accompanied by inevitable increases in losses to the environment. These losses appear to be low at input levels promoted in agricultural development programs, while the increased N inputs both increase current food production and appear to reduce the vulnerability of food production to changes in climate. We present field and remote sensing evidence from Malawi that subsidizing improved seed and fertilizers increases resilience to drought without adding excess N to the environment. In Kenya, field research identified thresholds in N2O losses, where emissions are very low at fertilization rates of less than 200 kg ha-1. Village-scale models have identified potential inefficiencies in the food production process where the largest losses of reactive N occur, and which could be targeted to reduce the amount of N released to the environment. We further review some on-going research activities and progress in Africa that compare different methods of managing resources that target resilience in food production and adaptation to climate change, using nutrient N as an indicator, while evaluating the effects of these resource management practices on ecosystems and the environment.

  19. Plio-pleistocene African climate

    SciTech Connect

    deMenocal, P.B.

    1995-10-06

    Marine records of African climate variability document a shift toward more arid conditions after 2.8 million years ago (Ma), evidently resulting from remote forcing by cold North Atlantic sea-surface temperatures associated with the onset of Northern Hemisphere glacial cycles. African climate before 2.8 Ma was regulated by low-latitude insolation forcing of monsoonal climate due to Earth orbital precession. Major steps in the evolution of African hominids and other vertebrates are coincident with shifts to more arid, open conditions near 2.8 Ma, 1.7 Ma, and 1.0 Ma, suggesting that some Pliocene (Plio)-Pleistocene speciation events may have been climatically mediated. 65 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Plio-Pleistocene African Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demenocal, Peter B.

    1995-10-01

    Marine records of African climate variability document a shift toward more arid conditions after 2.8 million years ago (Ma), evidently resulting from remote forcing by cold North Atlantic sea-surface temperatures associated with the onset of Northern Hemisphere glacial cycles. African climate before 2.8 Ma was regulated by low-latitude insolation forcing of monsoonal climate due to Earth orbital precession. Major steps in the evolution of African hominids and other vertebrates are coincident with shifts to more arid, open conditions near 2.8 Ma, 1.7 Ma, and 1.0 Ma, suggesting that some Pliocene (Plio)-Pleistocene speciation events may have been climatically mediated.

  1. African perceptions of female attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, Vinet; Faerber, Stella J; Greeff, Jaco M; Lefevre, Carmen E; Re, Daniel E; Perrett, David I

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about mate choice preferences outside Western, educated, industrialised, rich and democratic societies, even though these Western populations may be particularly unrepresentative of human populations. To our knowledge, this is the first study to test which facial cues contribute to African perceptions of African female attractiveness and also the first study to test the combined role of facial adiposity, skin colour (lightness, yellowness and redness), skin homogeneity and youthfulness in the facial attractiveness preferences of any population. Results show that youthfulness, skin colour, skin homogeneity and facial adiposity significantly and independently predict attractiveness in female African faces. Younger, thinner women with a lighter, yellower skin colour and a more homogenous skin tone are considered more attractive. These findings provide a more global perspective on human mate choice and point to a universal role for these four facial cues in female facial attractiveness.

  2. The African Cultural Astronomy Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urama, Johnson O.; Holbrook, Jarita C.

    2011-06-01

    Indigenous, endogenous, traditional, or cultural astronomy focuses on the many ways that people and cultures interact with celestial bodies. In most parts of Africa, there is very little or no awareness about modern astronomy. However, like ancient people everywhere, Africans wondered at the sky and struggled to make sense of it. The African Cultural Astronomy Project aims to unearth the body of traditional knowledge of astronomy possessed by peoples of the different ethnic groups in Africa and to consider scientific interpretations when appropriate for cosmogonies and ancient astronomical practices. Regardless of scientific validity, every scientist can relate to the process of making observations and creating theoretical mechanisms for explaining what is observed. Through linking the traditional and the scientific, it is believed that this would be used to create awareness and interest in astronomy in most parts of Africa. This paper discusses the vision, challenges and prospects of the African Cultural Astronomy Project in her quest to popularize astronomy in Africa.

  3. Analysis of pulsating spray flames propagating in lean two-phase mixtures with unity Lewis number

    SciTech Connect

    Nicoli, C.; Haldenwang, P.; Suard, S.

    2005-11-01

    Pulsating (or oscillatory) spray flames have recently been observed in experiments on two-phase combustion. Numerical studies have pointed out that such front oscillations can be obtained even with very simple models of homogeneous two-phase mixtures, including elementary vaporization schemes. The paper presents an analytical approach within the simple framework of the thermal-diffusive model, which is complemented by a vaporization rate independent of gas temperature, as soon as the latter reaches a certain thermal threshold ({theta}{sub v} in reduced form). The study involves the Damkoehler number (Da), the ratio of chemical reaction rate to vaporization rate, and the Zeldovich number (Ze) as essential parameters. We use the standard asymptotic method based on matched expansions in terms of 1/Ze. Linear analysis of two-phase flame stability is performed by studying, in the absence of differential diffusive effects (unity Lewis number), the linear growth rate of 2-D perturbations added to steady plane solutions and characterized by wavenumber k in the direction transverse to spreading. A domain of existence is found for the pulsating regime. It corresponds to mixture characteristics often met in air-fuel two-phase systems: low boiling temperature ({theta}{sub v} << 1), reaction rate not higher than vaporization rate (Da < 1, i.e., small droplets), and activation temperature assumed to be high compared with flame temperature (Ze {>=} 10). Satisfactory comparison with numerical simulations confirms the validity of the analytical approach; in particular, positive growth rates have been found for planar perturbations (k = 0) and for wrinkled fronts (k {ne} 0). Finally, comparison between predicted frequencies and experimental measurements is discussed.

  4. Towards a Norm in South African Englishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Walt, Johann L.; van Rooy, Bertus

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the perception and application of the norm in South African English with specific reference to Black South African English. Hypothesizes that South African English is in the hibernation and expansion phase. Three sets of data are presented and analyzed. (Author/VWL)

  5. African American Teaching and the Matriarchal Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffries, Rhonda Baynes

    This paper discusses the role of matriarchs in African-American culture, explaining that traditionally, African-American matriarchs arise from a combination of African norms and American social positions that naturally forces them to assume leadership conditions. The roles these women assume are a response to the desire to survive in a society…

  6. Freedom Road: Adult Education of African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Elizabeth A., Ed.

    This book contains six chapters by various authors about the history of African Americans' contributions and participation in adult education. The book reports on how some African American leaders saw the connection between education and the eventual freedom or uplift of the African American people. Following a foreword (Phyllis M. Cunningham) and…

  7. Engaging African Americans in Smoking Cessation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…

  8. Increasing Reading Engagement in African American Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husband, Terry

    2014-01-01

    Much has been written concerning the challenges many teachers face in engaging African American males in reading practices. While much of this extant scholarship focuses on African American males at the pre-adolescent stage of development and beyond, little has been written regarding increasing reading engagement in African American boys in P-5…

  9. African Expressions in Hispano-American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Ben C.

    This revised version of a lecture on the relationship of African language and Hispano-American literature illustrates the historical influence of the African slave on representative literature and modern culture of the Caribbean Islands. Introductory remarks focus on the migratory patterns of the African slaves. The concept of negritude is then…

  10. An Introduction to West African Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taiwo, Oladele

    Intended to provide help for those interested in studying West African literature, this book is divided into three parts. Part One provides background information: the various African oral traditions are discussed, related to the way of life of the people, and examined for the extent to which they form the basis of present West African literary…

  11. Empowering African genomics for infectious disease control.

    PubMed

    Folarin, Onikepe A; Happi, Anise N; Happi, Christian T

    2014-11-07

    At present, African scientists can only participate minimally in the genomics revolution that is transforming the understanding, surveillance and clinical treatment of infectious diseases. We discuss new initiatives to equip African scientists with knowledge of cutting-edge genomics tools, and build a sustainable critical mass of well-trained African infectious diseases genomics scientists.

  12. Heart failure in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Yancy, Clyde W

    2005-10-10

    The demographics of the United States are changing, and in the next few decades there will no longer be a racial/ethnic majority population. Increased awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in special populations is warranted as these populations increase. Heart failure carries a substantial burden on those affected, particularly African Americans, who have a disproportionate burden of heart disease. Current treatments for heart failure include angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers, angiotensin II-receptor antagonists, and vasodilating agents. This review discusses the unique characteristics of CVD in African Americans and addresses the need for targeted treatments to reduce the excess burden found in this population.

  13. Whole of Government Approach: Maximizing Unity of Effort Between the Department of Defense (DOD), Department of State (DOS), and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-13

    WHOLE OF GOVERNMENT APPROACH: MAXIMIZING UNITY OF EFFORT BETWEEN THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE (DOD), DEPARTMENT OF STATE (DOS), AND THE...UNITED STATES AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (USAID) A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff...Government Approach: Maximizing Unity of Effort between the Department of Defense (DoD), Department of State (DoS), and the United States Agency for

  14. African-American spirituality: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Newlin, Kelley; Knafl, Kathleen; Melkus, Gail D'Eramo

    2002-12-01

    Culturally competent care for African Americans requires sensitivity to spirituality as a component of the cultural context. To foster understanding, measurement, and delivery of the spiritual component of culturally competent care, this article presents an evolutionary concept analysis of African-American spirituality. The analysis is based on a sample of multidisciplinary research studies reflecting spirituality of African Americans. Findings indicate that African-American spirituality involves quintessential, internal, external, consoling, and transformative attributive dimensions. Findings are considered in relation to previous conceptual analyses of spirituality and suggest that defining attributes of African-American spirituality are both global and culturally prominent. Implications for practice and research are discussed.

  15. Cryptococcal meningitis in African children.

    PubMed

    Subramanyam, V R; Mtitimila, E; Hart, C A; Broadhead, R L

    1997-06-01

    Three cases of cryptococcal meningitis in Malawian children aged 6 weeks, 3 years and 9 years are described. Only 23 cases of cryptococcal meningitis in children have been described previously, but in children from Europe and the USA. These are therefore the first cases of cryptococcosis to be described in African children.

  16. Wellness among African American Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day-Vines, Norma L.; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    Although there are various definitions of wellness, few conceptual definitions have addressed the contextual dimensions of wellness relative to African American counselors. The authors present an overview of generic models of wellness, discuss factors that both inhibit and promote wellness, offer some culture-specific models of wellness, and…

  17. African American Men in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuyjet, Michael J., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This book is a much-needed resource that includes examples of real-world programs and activities to enhance academic success in the college environment for African American men. The examples are collected from a variety of institutions across the country. With contributions from leading practitioners and scholars in the field, this book explores…

  18. Improvisation in West African Musics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, David

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is music of the sub-Sahara. Vocal, instrumental, and dance drumming from the Sudan Desert, the North Coast, East Horn, Central and West Africa, and contrapuntal yodeling of Pygmies is described. For African musicians, the ability to improvise, and creativity, are gifts from God. Includes selected readings and recordings. (KC)

  19. Developing anatomical terms in an African language.

    PubMed

    Madzimbamuto, Farai Daniel

    2012-02-23

    Clinical and technical information imparted in most African languages involves inexact terminology and code switching, so it lacks the explanatory power characterised by the English language. African languages are absent in the tertiary science education environment and forums where African scientists could present scientific material in the medium of African languages. This limits the development of African languages in the scientific domain. There has recently been a trend in several African languages to develop and intellectualise them, especially in the field of medical sciences. The ChiShona language is used to explore the ability of an African language to develop new terminology, to name the vertebral skeleton and describe it scientifically. It uses word compounding to demonstrate terminology development. ChiShona has similarities with several hundred other Bantu languages in East, Central and Southern Africa. Advancing this language can promote similar developments in others, making them more explanatory for the lay public and health professionals.

  20. The Third African Population Conference adopts the draft Dakar / Ngor Declaration on Population, Family and Sustainable Development.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    The 3rd African Population Conference, held in Dakar, Senegal, December 7-12, 1992, adopted the draft Dakar/Ngor Declaration on Population, Family and Sustainable Development in preparation for the 1994 Cairo International Conference on Population and Development. The meeting was attended by 50 member states and many observers from various United Nations Organizations and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). The Conference reviewed the lessons learned from the implementation of the Kilimanjaro Program of Action on Population (KAP), which had been adopted in 1984. The draft Declaration focused on the following areas: a) population, sustained economic growth, and sustainable development; family; fertility and family planning; mortality, morbidity and AIDS; urbanization and migration; refugees and displaced persons; women in development; children; data collection and analysis, information dissemination, training and research; information, education and communication; b) the role of: private and nongovernmental organizations; the subregional and regional groupings; the World Bank and relevant organizations of the United Nations System; and the international community; c) resource mobilization; and d) implementation of the Declaration. African countries should integrate population policies so as to reduce population growth from the present rate of 3.0% per annum to 2.5% by the year 2000 and to 2% by the year 2010. Environmental issues and food security were given special attention. The targets set on the contraceptive prevalence rate for Africa were to reach 20% by the year 2000 and 40% by the year 2010. The following targets were to be attained by the year 2000: life expectancy in Africa at least 55 years; an infant mortality rate of less than 50 per 1000 live births; childhood mortality rate of 70 or less. Programs to prevent AIDS were also stressed. The Declaration called on UN organizations, the World Bank, the Organization of African Unity, and the African

  1. Optimizing Unity of Effort During Humanitarian Assistance Operations: Civil-Military Operations Centers "Inside and Outside the Wire"

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    mission and avoids working at cross-purposes to achieve unity of effort.൭ In Operation RESTORE HOPE: Summary Report. D. J. Zvijac and K. W. McGrady...Draft (Joint Pub 5-00.2) (Washington D.C: March 19, 1996), IX-37. 35 Seiple, 173. 36 Davis, 54. 37 JP 3-08,111-24. 19 38 David J. Zvijac and...Policy." February 7, 1994. Joint Warfighting Center Peace Operations CD-ROM. Ft. Monroe, VA: Joint Warfighting Center, June 1997. Zvijac , David J

  2. Some African American Males' Perspectives on the Black Woman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrow, Rufus, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Presents views of Frederick Douglass, W. E. B. Du Bois, Malcolm X, and James Hal Cone (African-American male leaders) toward African-American women in the United States. Discusses the role of African-American men in addressing and eradicating sexism in African-American churches and the African-American community. (SLD)

  3. Time variations of geopotential, gravity and vertical crustul deformations: nature and unity of cyclicities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yu. V.

    2003-04-01

    TIME VARIATIONS OF GEOPOTENTIAL, GRAVITY AND VERTICAL CRUSTAL DEFORMATIONS: NATURE AND UNITY OF CYCLICITIES Yu.V.Barkin Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow, Russia, barkin@sai.msu.ru Gravitational action of the Moon and the Sun on the Earth generates very big additional mechanical forces and moments of the interaction of its neighboring shells (liquid core, mantle and another layers) and produces cyclic perturbations of the tensional state of the shells, their deformations, small relative translational displacements and small relative rotational oscillations of the shells, redistribution of the plastic and fluid masses and others. These additional forces and moments of the cyclic celestial-mechanical nature produce deformations of the all layers of the Earth and organize and control practically all natural processes. In given report we analyze these forces and moments caused by the Moon attraction. We have shown that they are conditionally periodic functions of time with definite basis of frequencies, which are some combinations of the frequencies of perturbations in the Moon orbital motion. Very important conclusion follows from our approach - natural processes are controlled and dictated by pointed mechanism and are subjected by cyclic variations with general for all processes base of frequencies. The fundamental basis of frequencies was established in result of theoretical study of the gravitational interaction of the Earth’s core and mantle with the Moon and the Sun and in result of analysis of observed variations of the many natural processes [1]. Predicted periods of variations of the natural processes were conformed by last results of the spectral analysis of gravity at Moscow fidicial station and by similar studies of the Earth rotation, vertical crustul deformations [2]. In particular periods, amplitudes (in a few microGal) and phases for about 20 harmonics of gravity variations were discovered in result of spectral analysis of the absolute

  4. The UCAR Africa Initiative: Enabling African Solutions to African Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, R.; Bruintjes, R.; Foote, B.; Heck, S.; Hermann, S.; Hoswell, L.; Konate, M.; Kucera, P.; Laing, A.; Lamptey, B.; Moncrieff, M.; Ramamurthy, M.; Roberts, R.; Spangler, T.; Traoré, A.; Yoksas, T.; Warner, T.

    2007-12-01

    The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) Africa Initiative (AI) is a coordinated effort aimed at building sustainable partnerships between UCAR and African institutions in order to pursue research and applications for the benefit of the African people. The initiative is based on four fundamental operating principles, concisely summarized by the overall philosophy of enabling African solutions to African needs. The four principles are: • Collaborate with African institutions • Focus on institutional capacity building and research support • Explore science research themes critical to Africa and important for the world • Leverage the research infrastructure in UCAR to add value These principles are realized in a set of pilot activities, chosen for their high probability of short-term results and ability to set the stage for longer-term collaboration. The three pilot activities are listed below. 1. A modest radar network and data-distribution system in Mali and Burkina Faso, including a data-sharing MOU between the Mail and Burkina Faso Weather Services. 2. A partnership among UCAR, the Ghana Meteorological Agency, and the Ghana university community to develop an operational Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for West Africa. The output is used by researchers and operational forecasters in Africa. Model output is also part of a demonstration project that aims to allow humanitarian agencies to share geo-referenced information in Africa via a web portal. 3. A workshop in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from April 2-6, 2007, with the theme Improving Lives by Understanding Weather. The workshop, co-organized with Programme SAAGA and the Commité Permanent Inter-Etats de Lutte Contre la Sécheresse dans le Sahel (CILSS), included over 80 participants from 18 countries, and produced a set of recommendations for continued collaboration. Our presentation will provide an update of these pilot activities and point to future directions. Recognizing

  5. [Return of African sleeping sickness].

    PubMed

    Stingl, Peter

    2006-09-14

    At present there is a steady rise in African sleeping sickness (trypanosomiasis) transmitted by the Tsetse fly, and which if left untreated, is fatal. Thanks to more than so years of neglect by research, our therapeutic repertoire is limited to medications with a high level of toxicity. Both WHO and international aid organizations are pushing hard for the development of new, more efficient drugs that can be readily applied in the field.

  6. Genome-wide patterns of population structure and admixture in West Africans and African Americans.

    PubMed

    Bryc, Katarzyna; Auton, Adam; Nelson, Matthew R; Oksenberg, Jorge R; Hauser, Stephen L; Williams, Scott; Froment, Alain; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Wambebe, Charles; Tishkoff, Sarah A; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2010-01-12

    Quantifying patterns of population structure in Africans and African Americans illuminates the history of human populations and is critical for undertaking medical genomic studies on a global scale. To obtain a fine-scale genome-wide perspective of ancestry, we analyze Affymetrix GeneChip 500K genotype data from African Americans (n = 365) and individuals with ancestry from West Africa (n = 203 from 12 populations) and Europe (n = 400 from 42 countries). We find that population structure within the West African sample reflects primarily language and secondarily geographical distance, echoing the Bantu expansion. Among African Americans, analysis of genomic admixture by a principal component-based approach indicates that the median proportion of European ancestry is 18.5% (25th-75th percentiles: 11.6-27.7%), with very large variation among individuals. In the African-American sample as a whole, few autosomal regions showed exceptionally high or low mean African ancestry, but the X chromosome showed elevated levels of African ancestry, consistent with a sex-biased pattern of gene flow with an excess of European male and African female ancestry. We also find that genomic profiles of individual African Americans afford personalized ancestry reconstructions differentiating ancient vs. recent European and African ancestry. Finally, patterns of genetic similarity among inferred African segments of African-American genomes and genomes of contemporary African populations included in this study suggest African ancestry is most similar to non-Bantu Niger-Kordofanian-speaking populations, consistent with historical documents of the African Diaspora and trans-Atlantic slave trade.

  7. Predictors of personal recovery for persons with psychiatric disabilities: An examination of the Unity Model of Recovery.

    PubMed

    Song, Li-Yu

    2017-04-01

    This study examined a comprehensive set of potential correlates of recovery based on the Unity Model of Recovery. Thirty-two community psychiatric rehabilitation centers in Taiwan agreed to participate in this study. A sample of 592 participants were administered the questionnaires. Five groups of independent variables were included in the model: socio-demographic variables, illness variables, resilience, informal support, and formal support. The results of regression analysis provided support for the validity of the Unity Model of Recovery. The independent variables explained 53.5% of the variance in recovery for the full sample, and 55.5% for the subsample of the consumers who have been ever employed. The significance of the three cornerstones (resilience, family support, and symptoms) for recovery was confirmed. Other critical support variables, including the extent of rehabilitation service use, professional relationship, and professional support were also found to be significant factors. Among all the significant correlates, resilience, family support, and extent of rehabilitation service use ranked in the top three. The findings could shed light on paths to recovery. Implications for psychiatric services were discussed and suggested.

  8. Quantum yields lower than unity in photo- induced dissociative electron transfers: the reductive cleavage of carbon tetrachloride.

    PubMed

    Pause, L; Robert, M; Savéant, J M

    2000-12-15

    It has been shown recently that the electrochemical reduction of carbon tetrachloride in N,N'-dimethylformamide follows a mechanism in which electron transfer and bond cleavage are concerted. We report here results concerning photoinduced electron transfer from the singlet excited state of two aromatic molecules, 2-ethyl-9,10-dimethoxyanthracene and perylene, to CCl4 , which is characterised by a quantum yield of complete quenching fragmentation ranging from 0.7 to 0.8. It is shown that a quantum yield below unity is compatible with a dissociative mechanism and arises from partitioning of the system at the intersection of the product- and ground-state potential energy surfaces. This phenomenon predominates over back electron transfer from the clustered fragments state. The photoinduced reductive cleavage of CCl4 thus provides a clear illustration of the recent theoretical prediction, that photoinduced dissociative electron transfers are not necessarily endowed with a unity quantum yield. This offers an opportunity to estimate the magnitude of the electronic matrix element that couples the fragmented product state and the ground reactant state.

  9. Utilising E-on Vue and Unity 3D scenes to generate synthetic images and videos for visible signature analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, Christopher S.; Richards, Noel J.; Culpepper, Joanne B.

    2016-10-01

    This paper investigates the ability to develop synthetic scenes in an image generation tool, E-on Vue, and a gaming engine, Unity 3D, which can be used to generate synthetic imagery of target objects across a variety of conditions in land environments. Developments within these tools and gaming engines have allowed the computer gaming industry to dramatically enhance the realism of the games they develop; however they utilise short cuts to ensure that the games run smoothly in real-time to create an immersive effect. Whilst these short cuts may have an impact upon the realism of the synthetic imagery, they do promise a much more time efficient method of developing imagery of different environmental conditions and to investigate the dynamic aspect of military operations that is currently not evaluated in signature analysis. The results presented investigate how some of the common image metrics used in target acquisition modelling, namely the Δμ1, Δμ2, Δμ3, RSS, and Doyle metrics, perform on the synthetic scenes generated by E-on Vue and Unity 3D compared to real imagery of similar scenes. An exploration of the time required to develop the various aspects of the scene to enhance its realism are included, along with an overview of the difficulties associated with trying to recreate specific locations as a virtual scene. This work is an important start towards utilising virtual worlds for visible signature evaluation, and evaluating how equivalent synthetic imagery is to real photographs.

  10. African-Centered Education: An Approach to Schooling for Social Justice for African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Jay B.; Tonso, Karen L.

    2006-01-01

    This essay argues that offering African American students an African-centered education is one way to promote social justice in public education. We begin with a summary of the inadequate educations offered to many African American students, and then use philosophical interpretations of equal educational opportunity to delineate the requirements…

  11. Investigating Instructional Practices of an African American Male Mathematics Teacher with Underachieving African American Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammad, Rhonda K.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the instructional practices of an experienced African American mathematics teacher to determine his perceived capabilities in augmenting academic proficiency for his African American male students. Provided in this descriptive case study are the lived experiences of an African American male teacher working to move…

  12. 75 FR 2844 - African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ...; ] AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting Time: Tuesday, January 26, 2010, 8:30 a.m. to 1 p.m. Place: African Development Foundation, Conference Room, 1400...

  13. 75 FR 45600 - African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ...; ] AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting Time: Tuesday, August 17, 2010, 8:30 a.m. to 1 p.m. Place: African Development Foundation, Conference Room, 1400...

  14. Race, health, and the African Diaspora.

    PubMed

    Spigner, Clarence

    Health inequalities exist throughout the African Diaspora and are viewed in this article as largely color-coded. In developed, developing, and undeveloped nations today, "racial" stratification is consistently reflected in an inability to provide adequate health regardless of national policy or ideology. For instance, African Americans experience less than adequate health care very similar to Blacks in Britain, in spite of each nations differing health systems. Latin America's Africana Negra communities experience poorer health similar to Blacks throughout the Caribbean. The African continent itself is arguably the poorest on earth. A common history of racism correlates with health disparities across the African Diaspora.

  15. African American girls and the challenges ahead.

    PubMed

    Rozie-Battle, Judith L

    2002-01-01

    The research on the psychosocial development of African American girls is limited. Information that is available focuses on teen pregnancy and health issues such as nutrition and physical activity. African American girls are facing challenges, including poverty, crime, poor self-esteem, and peer pressure. Despite some of the negative characteristics attributed to African American girls, many are achieving some success. Policy makers and service providers need to recognize the resiliency and unique needs of African American girls and develop services that ensure their needs are being fully met.

  16. Rhinoplasty in the African-American patient.

    PubMed

    Rohrich, Rod J; Muzaffar, Arshad R

    2003-03-01

    Because of the increasing popularity of rhinoplasty in the African-American patient, we delineate how a rhinoplasty surgeon can perform this challenging technique to obtain uniform and consistent results. First, we address how one can appreciate and analyze the various aesthetic concepts of beauty and the unique anatomic characteristics of the African-American nose. Second, we present a pragmatic, systematic analysis of the African-American nose. Last, we describe the techniques consistently used to modify the African-American nose while achieving or maintaining facial harmony using the open approach to rhinoplasty. Specific case analyses are presented to demonstrate utilization of the technique.

  17. The African diaspora: history, adaptation and health.

    PubMed

    Rotimi, Charles N; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Baker, Jennifer L; Shriner, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    The trans-Atlantic slave trade brought millions of Africans to the New World. Advances in genomics are providing novel insights into the history and health of Africans and the diasporan populations. Recent examples reviewed here include the unraveling of substantial hunter-gatherer and 'Eurasian' admixtures across sub-Saharan Africa, expanding our understanding of ancestral African genetics; the global ubiquity of mixed ancestry; the revealing of African ancestry in Latin Americans that likely derived from the slave trade; and understanding of the ancestral backgrounds of APOL1 and LPL found to influence kidney disease and lipid levels, respectively, providing specific insights into disease etiology and health disparities.

  18. Gentle Africanized bees on an oceanic island.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Marchand, Bert; Oskay, Devrim; Giray, Tugrul

    2012-11-01

    Oceanic islands have reduced resources and natural enemies and potentially affect life history traits of arriving organisms. Among the most spectacular invasions in the Western hemisphere is that of the Africanized honeybee. We hypothesized that in the oceanic island Puerto Rico, Africanized bees will exhibit differences from the mainland population such as for defensiveness and other linked traits. We evaluated the extent of Africanization through three typical Africanized traits: wing size, defensive behavior, and resistance to Varroa destructor mites. All sampled colonies were Africanized by maternal descent, with over 65% presence of European alleles at the S-3 nuclear locus. In two assays evaluating defense, Puerto Rican bees showed low defensiveness similar to European bees. In morphology and resistance to mites, Africanized bees from Puerto Rico are similar to other Africanized bees. In behavioral assays on mechanisms of resistance to Varroa, we directly observed that Puerto Rican Africanized bees groomed-off and bit the mites as been observed in other studies. In no other location, Africanized bees have reduced defensiveness while retaining typical traits such as wing size and mite resistance. This mosaic of traits that has resulted during the invasion of an oceanic island has implications for behavior, evolution, and agriculture.

  19. Gentle Africanized bees on an oceanic island

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Marchand, Bert; Oskay, Devrim; Giray, Tugrul

    2012-01-01

    Oceanic islands have reduced resources and natural enemies and potentially affect life history traits of arriving organisms. Among the most spectacular invasions in the Western hemisphere is that of the Africanized honeybee. We hypothesized that in the oceanic island Puerto Rico, Africanized bees will exhibit differences from the mainland population such as for defensiveness and other linked traits. We evaluated the extent of Africanization through three typical Africanized traits: wing size, defensive behavior, and resistance to Varroa destructor mites. All sampled colonies were Africanized by maternal descent, with over 65% presence of European alleles at the S-3 nuclear locus. In two assays evaluating defense, Puerto Rican bees showed low defensiveness similar to European bees. In morphology and resistance to mites, Africanized bees from Puerto Rico are similar to other Africanized bees. In behavioral assays on mechanisms of resistance to Varroa, we directly observed that Puerto Rican Africanized bees groomed-off and bit the mites as been observed in other studies. In no other location, Africanized bees have reduced defensiveness while retaining typical traits such as wing size and mite resistance. This mosaic of traits that has resulted during the invasion of an oceanic island has implications for behavior, evolution, and agriculture. PMID:23144660

  20. African American eighth-grade female students' perceptions and experiences as learners of science literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crim, Sharan R.

    The National Assessment of Educational Progress (2000) reports an achievement gap between male and female students and majority and minority students in science literacy. Rutherford and Algren (2000) describe a scientifically literate person as one who is aware that science, mathematics, and technology are interdependent human enterprises with strengths and limitations; understands key concepts and principles of science; is familiar with the natural world and recognizes both its diversity and unity; and uses scientific knowledge and scientific ways of thinking for individual and social purposes. The purpose of this qualitative case study research was to investigate African American eighth grade female students' perceptions and experiences as learners of science literacy. A social learning theory (Bandura, 1986) and constructivist theory (Vygotsky, 1977) served as a guide for the researcher. Two questions were explored: (1) What are African American eighth grade female students' perceptions and experiences as learners of science literacy? (2) In what ways do the perceptions and experiences of African American eighth grade female students influence their learning of science literacy? Purposeful sampling (Merriam, 1998) was used with four African American eighth grade female students selected as participants for the study. Data collection and analysis occurred between February and August in a single year. Data sources included an open-ended questionnaire, two in-depth interviews with each participant (Seidman, 1991); classroom observations, participant reflective journals, student artifacts, and a researcher's log. Data were analyzed through the constant comparative method (Glaser & Strauss, 1967), and richly descriptive participant portraits and qualitative case studies (Merriam, 1998) were used to report the findings. Three themes emerged from the study that positively affected the perceptions and experiences of African American eighth grade female students as

  1. Suburban migration and the birth outcome of Chicago-born white and African-American women: the merit of the healthy migrant theory?

    PubMed

    Collins, James W; Rankin, Kristin M; Janowiak, Christine M

    2013-11-01

    The healthy migrant theory posits that women who migrate before pregnancy are intrinsically healthier and therefore have better birth outcomes than those who don't move. Objective. To determine whether migration to the suburbs is associated with lower rates of preterm (<37 weeks) birth among Chicago-born White and African-American mothers. We performed stratified and multilevel logistic regression analyses on an Illinois transgenerational dataset of non-Latino White and African-American infants (1989-1991) and their mothers (1956-1976) with appended US census income information. Forty percent of Chicago-born White mothers (N = 45,135) migrated to Suburban Cook County and 30 % migrated to the more geographically distant collar counties. In contrast, 10 % of Chicago-born African-American mothers (N = 41,221) migrated to Suburban Cook and only two percent migrated to the collar counties. Chicago-born White and African-American migrant mothers to Suburban Cook County had lower preterm birth rates than their non-migrant counterparts; RR = 0.8 (0.8-0.9) and 0.8 (0.7-0.8), respectively. When neighborhood income was singularly taken into account, the protective association of suburban migration and preterm birth disappeared among Chicago-born Whites. In race-specific multilevel multivariate regression models which included neighborhood income, the adjusted odds ratio of preterm birth, low birth weight, and small for gestational-age for Chicago-born White and African-American migrant (compared to non-migrant) mothers approximated unity. Neighborhood income underlies the protective association of suburban migration and birth outcome among Chicago-born White and African-American mothers. These findings do not support the healthy migrant hypothesis of reproductive outcome.

  2. Coastal East Africa and the Western Indian Ocean: Long-Distance Trade, Empire, Migration, and Regional Unity, 1750-1970

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Erik

    2002-01-01

    In this article, the author looks closely at the recent history of the East African coast and the Swahili people who live there. In doing so he hopes to highlight the inadequacy of the area studies/continentalist approach to studying and teaching the Swahili and to propose a different way of considering their past. His contention is that one can…

  3. The unity assumption facilitates cross-modal binding of musical, non-speech stimuli: The role of spectral and amplitude envelope cues.

    PubMed

    Chuen, Lorraine; Schutz, Michael

    2016-07-01

    An observer's inference that multimodal signals originate from a common underlying source facilitates cross-modal binding. This 'unity assumption' causes asynchronous auditory and visual speech streams to seem simultaneous (Vatakis & Spence, Perception & Psychophysics, 69(5), 744-756, 2007). Subsequent tests of non-speech stimuli such as musical and impact events found no evidence for the unity assumption, suggesting the effect is speech-specific (Vatakis & Spence, Acta Psychologica, 127(1), 12-23, 2008). However, the role of amplitude envelope (the changes in energy of a sound over time) was not previously appreciated within this paradigm. Here, we explore whether previous findings suggesting speech-specificity of the unity assumption were confounded by similarities in the amplitude envelopes of the contrasted auditory stimuli. Experiment 1 used natural events with clearly differentiated envelopes: single notes played on either a cello (bowing motion) or marimba (striking motion). Participants performed an un-speeded temporal order judgments task; viewing audio-visually matched (e.g., marimba auditory with marimba video) and mismatched (e.g., cello auditory with marimba video) versions of stimuli at various stimulus onset asynchronies, and were required to indicate which modality was presented first. As predicted, participants were less sensitive to temporal order in matched conditions, demonstrating that the unity assumption can facilitate the perception of synchrony outside of speech stimuli. Results from Experiments 2 and 3 revealed that when spectral information was removed from the original auditory stimuli, amplitude envelope alone could not facilitate the influence of audiovisual unity. We propose that both amplitude envelope and spectral acoustic cues affect the percept of audiovisual unity, working in concert to help an observer determine when to integrate across modalities.

  4. Conflict and human African trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Berrang-Ford, Lea; Lundine, Jamie; Breau, Sebastien

    2011-02-01

    Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) has reemerged in sub-Saharan Africa as a disease of major public health importance. The success of HAT elimination in sub-Saharan Africa is subject to the feasibility of controlling, eliminating, or mitigating the determinants of incidence in affected countries. Conflict has been widely recognized and cited as a contributing factor to the resurgence of HAT in many countries, as well as to continuing HAT incidence in politically unstable and resource-poor regions. Despite extensive anecdotal and qualitative recognition of the role of conflict, there has been no quantitative research of this topic at the population level in affected African countries. We characterize the qualitative and quantitative associations between HAT incidence and conflict-related processes in HAT-affected African countries over the past 30 years. HAT and conflict-related data were collected for 35 affected countries in sub-Saharan Africa for the years 1976-2004. Descriptive and univariate inferential statistics, as well as negative binomial regression modeling, are used to assess the associations between HAT and conflict. A space-time scan statistic is used to identify significant incidence clusters. Clusters of HAT incidence over the past 30 years have predominantly coincided with periods of conflict or socio-political instability. HAT cases occurred significantly more often in countries and during years with conflict, high political terror, and internationalized civil war. The results indicate a lag period between the start of conflict events and a peak in incidence of approximately 10 years. We recommend explicit consideration and quantification of socio-political measures such as conflict and terror indices in GIS (Geographic Information Systems)-based risk assessments for HAT policy and intervention.

  5. Hydrogenotrophic microbiota distinguish native Africans from African and European Americans.

    PubMed

    Nava, Gerardo M; Carbonero, Franck; Ou, Junhai; Benefiel, Ann C; O'Keefe, Stephen J; Gaskins, H Rex

    2012-06-01

    Reduced susceptibility to sporadic colorectal cancer in native Africans (NA) is correlated with low consumption of animal products and greater microbial production of colonic methane. In this context, two hydrogenotrophic microbial groups are of interest, methanogenic Archaea (MA) utilizing H2 to produce methane and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) generating hydrogen sulfide, which has been linked with chronic inflammatory disorders of the colon. In the present study, stool samples from NA, consuming a diet high in resistant starch and low in animal products, and from African Americans (AA) and European Americans (EA), both consuming a typical Western diet, were examined for genetic diversity and structure of Archaea, MA and SRB communities. In general, a greater proportion of NA than AA and EA harboured the full range of targeted hydrogenotrophic groups. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S rRNA genes and specific functional genes, combined with multivariate statistical analyses, revealed that NA harboured more diverse and different Archaea and MA populations than AA and EA. Also, NA harboured significantly distinct SRB populations compared with AA and EA. Taken together, these data are consistent with diet selecting for distinct hydrogenotrophic microbiota.

  6. France: Africans and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatunde, Tunde

    1989-01-01

    The French Revolution had profound and long-term effects for Africans, both in Africa and throughout the Western hemisphere. Revolutionary leaders not only opposed the emancipation of slaves in French territories but supported an intensified slave trade, sparking numerous rebellions. French exploitation of Africans extended well into the twentieth…

  7. African (Black) Psychology: Issues and Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Joseph A.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the recent attempts of Black psychologists and social scientists to formulate a conceptual-operational framework for the study of psychological phenomena as they bear on the cultural-survival conditions of Black-African people. Outlines issues and problems in the attempt to define African (Black) psychology and discusses its relation to…

  8. Kunta Kinte's Struggle to be African

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courlander, Harold

    1986-01-01

    This article reveals the differences between the character Kunta Kinte and the historical record concerning African males in the preslavery period. Kunta's non-African behaviors include displays of blind anger and rage, prudishness, and actions unknown in his Mandinka culture. These represent the many misrepresentations and ambiguities in Alex…

  9. Multicultural Curriculum: African American Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Violet J.

    1991-01-01

    Traces and analyzes the history of African American children's literature defined as "culturally conscious," an authentic body of literature written about and for African American children. Discusses the current status of this literature and indicates a change in focus in the last century. Authors' perspectives, and the implications for…

  10. African American Undergraduates and the Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmire, Ethelene

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the academic library experiences of African American undergraduates attending a research university in the Midwest. Data collection techniques included questionnaires and ethnographic observations. The results indicated that African American undergraduates are using the academic library primarily to read and to study with their…

  11. African Education and Globalization: Critical Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdi, Ali A., Ed.; Puplampu, Korbla P., Ed.; Dei, George J. Sefa, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Containing both theoretical discussions of globalization and specific case analyses of individual African countries, this collection of essays examines the intersections of African education and globalization with multiple analytical and geographical emphases and intentions. The 11 essays critically analyze the issues from historical, cultural,…

  12. Smoking Cessation in African-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    1996-01-01

    Because the smoking behavior of African Americans differs considerably from that of other groups, researchers examined differences between African Americans who did and did not use the nicotine patch as an adjunct to counseling and education for smoking cessation. Results indicated the nicotine patch significantly improved six-month cessation…

  13. Genetics Home Reference: African iron overload

    MedlinePlus

    ... of a genetic condition? Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Frequency African iron overload is common in rural areas of central and ... more about the gene associated with African iron overload SLC40A1 Related Information What is a gene? What is a gene ...

  14. Cultural Expressions of the African American Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akbar, Na'im

    Interpretations of the differences between the African American child and the Caucasian child in North America follow two major trends. In one the differences in the African American child are viewed as deviance from the Euro-American norm and therefore inferior or pathological. In the other, the differences are viewed as deviant but adaptive…

  15. A Mirror Image African American Student Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon Dawson, Candice

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a narrative inquiry research project that focuses on the collegiate experiences of African American students at both historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly white institutions (PWIs). I look at how African American college students who engage in race or culturally specific activities, the degree…

  16. Syntactic Variation in West African English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamiro, Edmund O.

    1995-01-01

    Describes syntactic variation in West African English with examples from West African English literature and identifies and describes subjectless sentences, deletion of the -ly morpheme in manner adjuncts, omission of function words, reduplication, tag questions, substitution of prepositions in idiomatic usage, and focus constructions. (53…

  17. Experiences of African American College Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Aundria Chephan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the reasons that African-American alumni from a historically Black university (HBCU) and a predominantly White university (PWI) chose to attend, remain in, and graduate from college. The central research question was how do African Americans describe their college experiences? The secondary research…

  18. Hidden Education among African Americans during Slavery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundaker, Grey

    2007-01-01

    Background/Context: Historical studies examine aspects of African American education in and out of school in detail (Woodson 1915, 1933, Bullock 1970, Anderson 1988, Morris 1982, Rachal 1986, Rose 1964, Webber 1978, Williams 2005). Scholars of African American literacy have noted ways that education intersects other arenas such as religion and…

  19. African Americans in the Early Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Gary B.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses five topics on African Americans that are essential to studying United States History in the years between 1760 and 1830: (1) African Americans in the Revolutionary War ; (2) the rise of free black communities; (3) early abolitionism; (4) the spread of slavery; and (5) black resistance to slavery. (CMK)

  20. A Reader's Guide to African Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zell, Hans M., Ed.; Silver, Helene, Ed.

    This annotated bibliography lists 820 literary works by black African authors south of the Sahara writing in English and in French. Reference material, critical works, and anthologies (many by non-Africans) are also included. The bibliography--excluding reference and critical works and anthologies--is divided into two sections. "Writings in…

  1. Precolonial African History. AHA Pamphlets, 501.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Philip D.

    This pamphlet surveys western historiography of precolonial Africa. Prior to World War II, African history emphasized the European role in Africa, relegating African history before European colonization to minor importance. Only after the increase in university enrollments and funding in the 1960's did opportunities for innovative research and new…

  2. New data on African health professionals abroad

    PubMed Central

    Clemens, Michael A; Pettersson, Gunilla

    2008-01-01

    Background The migration of doctors and nurses from Africa to developed countries has raised fears of an African medical brain drain. But empirical research on the causes and effects of the phenomenon has been hampered by a lack of systematic data on the extent of African health workers' international movements. Methods We use destination-country census data to estimate the number of African-born doctors and professional nurses working abroad in a developed country circa 2000, and compare this to the stocks of these workers in each country of origin. Results Approximately 65,000 African-born physicians and 70,000 African-born professional nurses were working overseas in a developed country in the year 2000. This represents about one fifth of African-born physicians in the world, and about one tenth of African-born professional nurses. The fraction of health professionals abroad varies enormously across African countries, from 1% to over 70% according to the occupation and country. Conclusion These numbers are the first standardized, systematic, occupation-specific measure of skilled professionals working in developed countries and born in a large number of developing countries. PMID:18186916

  3. Depression, Sociocultural Factors, and African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunn, Vanessa Lynn; Craig, Carlton David

    2009-01-01

    The authors discuss depression in African American women from a sociocultural perspective, including aspects of oppression and racism that affect symptom manifestation. The authors highlight John Henryism as a coping mechanism, the history and continuing role of the African American church as a safe haven, and strategies for culturally competent…

  4. An African Perspective on Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiman, David

    1992-01-01

    Presents a series of classroom activities comparing differing views of human rights in the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the African Charter on Human and People's Rights. Includes excerpts from the African Charter on Human and People's Rights and the full text of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. (CFR)

  5. Prostate Cancer Genetics in African Americans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-11-1-0566 TITLE: Prostate Cancer Genetics in African Americans PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Henry T. Lynch, MD CONTRACTING...W81XWH-11-1-0566 November 2015 Final 15Aug2011 - 14Aug2015 Prostate Cancer Genetics in African Americans Henry T. Lynch Nothing listed 36

  6. South African Students' Views of the Universe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemmer, M.; Lemmer, T. N.; Smit, J. J. A.

    2003-01-01

    Investigates perceptions of the universe of (n=232) first-year physics students from two South African universities. Compared results with Aristotelian and Newtonian views as well as with those of children as revealed in a literature survey. Results also showed that a statistically significant larger number of African than European students have…

  7. Supporting Change: Working with South African Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Anne D.; Volmink, John

    1986-01-01

    University and pre-university education in South Africa is briefly described, along with areas where U.S. universities can assist South African organizations working to promote equal access to quality education. Three basic areas are explored: financial aid for South African students; manpower support to help in tutorials and academic research;…

  8. British African Caribbean Women and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla; Maynard, Donna; Johnson, Phillip; Carter, Stephaney

    2009-01-01

    Depression is a common condition among women in the United Kingdom. However, little is known about the context of depression among British African Caribbean women. This article offers a preliminary discussion regarding issues and information pertaining to depression among British African Caribbean women. Characteristics and symptoms of depression…

  9. The Process of Africanizing the Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merryfield, Merry M.; Tlou, Josiah

    1995-01-01

    Investigates social studies curriculum reform in Botswana, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, and Zimbabwe. Reports on each country contain a brief overview of the historical situation and current syllabus, and a discussion of the ongoing "Africanization" process. Concludes with a definition of "Africanization," its purpose, and…

  10. Improving African American Achievement in Geometry Honors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mims, Adrian B.

    2010-01-01

    This case study evaluated the significance of implementing an enrichment mathematics course during the summer to rising African American ninth graders entitled, "Geometry Honors Preview." In the past, 60 to 70 percent of African American students in this school district had withdrawn from Geometry Honors by the second academic quarter. This study…

  11. A Reevaluation of African Education: Woodson Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okafor, Victor Oguejiofor

    1992-01-01

    Reviews the ideas of C. G. Woodson (1875-1950) about the inappropriate education received by African Americans. Although Woodson's book, "The Mis-Education of the Negro," was written in 1933, his diagnosis of the state of the African-American community appears to hold up well today. (SLD)

  12. African Americans and World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersten, Andrew E.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the experience of African Americans during World War II on the homefront and in the armed forces. States that African Americans not only fought fascism overseas but also apartheid in the United States, also known as the "Double V." (CMK)

  13. Prostate cancer in men of African origin.

    PubMed

    McGinley, Kathleen F; Tay, Kae Jack; Moul, Judd W

    2016-02-01

    Men of African origin are disproportionately affected by prostate cancer: prostate cancer incidence is highest among men of African origin in the USA, prostate cancer mortality is highest among men of African origin in the Caribbean, and tumour stage and grade at diagnosis are highest among men in sub-Saharan Africa. Socioeconomic, educational, cultural, and genetic factors, as well as variations in care delivery and treatment selection, contribute to this cancer disparity. Emerging data on single-nucleotide-polymorphism patterns, epigenetic changes, and variations in fusion-gene products among men of African origin add to the understanding of genetic differences underlying this disease. On the diagnosis of prostate cancer, when all treatment options are available, men of African origin are more likely to choose radiation therapy or to receive no definitive treatment than white men. Among men of African origin undergoing surgery, increased rates of biochemical recurrence have been identified. Understanding differences in the cancer-survivorship experience and quality-of-life outcomes among men of African origin are critical to appropriately counsel patients and improve cultural sensitivity. Efforts to curtail prostate cancer screening will likely affect men of African origin disproportionately and widen the racial disparity of disease.

  14. The TG/HDL-C ratio does not predict insulin resistance in overweight women of African descent: a study of South African, African American and West African women.

    PubMed

    Knight, Michael G; Goedecke, Julia H; Ricks, Madia; Evans, Juliet; Levitt, Naomi S; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K; Sumner, Anne E

    2011-01-01

    Women of African descent have a high prevalence of diseases caused by insulin resistance. To positively impact cardiometabolic health in Black women, effective screening tests for insulin resistance must be identified. Recently, the TG/HDL-C ratio has been recommended as a tool to predict insulin resistance in overweight people. While the ratio predicts insulin resistance in White women, it is ineffective in African American women. As there are no data for African women, we tested the ability of the TG/HDL-C ratio to predict insulin resistance in Black women from South Africa, West Africa and the United States. For comparison, the ratio was also tested in White women from South Africa. Participants were 801 women (157 Black South African, 382 African American, 119 West African, 143 White South African, age 36 +/- 9y [mean +/- SD]). Standardized scores were created from log-transformed homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance values from each population. Participants in the upper third of their population distribution were classified as insulin-resistant. To predict insulin resistance by the TC/HDL-C ratio, area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC-ROC) curve was used and criteria were: 0.50 for no discrimination and > or = 0.70 for acceptable. Seventy-one percent of the Black women were overweight vs 51% of White women (P<.01). In overweight White women, AUC-ROC curve for prediction of insulin resistance by TG/HDL-C was 0.76 +/- 0.06, but below the 0.70 threshold in each group of overweight Black women (Black South African: 0.64 +/- 0.06, African American: 0.66 +/- 0.03, and West African: 0.63 +/- 0.07). Therefore, TG/HDL-C does not predict insulin resistance in overweight African American women and this investigation extends that finding to overweight Black South African and West African women. Resources to identify effective markers of insulin resistance are needed to improve cardiometabolic health in women of African descent.

  15. The extent of burning in African savanna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahoon, D. R. JR.; Levine, J. S.; Cofer, W. R. Iii; Stocks, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    The temporal and spatial distribution of African savanna grassland fires has been examined, and the areal extent of these fires has been estimated for the subequatorial African continent. African savanna fires have been investigated using remote sensing techniques and imagery collected by low-light sensors on Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites and by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) which is aboard polar orbiting National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellites. DMSP imagery has been used to map the evolution of savanna burning over all of the African continent and the analysis of AVHRR imagery has been used to estimate the areal extent of the burning in the southern hemispheric African savannas. The work presented primarily reflects the analysiscompleted for the year 1987. However, comparisons have been made with other years and the representativeness of the 1987 analysis is discussed.

  16. Intimate partner violence in African American women.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Doris Williams; Sharps, Phyllis W; Gary, Faye A; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Lopez, Loretta M

    2002-01-01

    Violence against African American women, specifically intimate partner abuse, has a significant impact on their health and well being. Intimate partner femicide and near fatal intimate partner femicide are the major causes of premature death and disabling injuries for African American women. Yet, despite this, there is a paucity of research and interventions specific and culturally relevant for these women. This article focuses on issues relevant to intimate partner violence and abuse against African American women by examining existing empirical studies of prevalence and health outcomes of intimate partner violence against women in general, plus what limited research there is about African American women, specifically. It includes a discussion of specific recommendations for research, practice, education, and policy to reduce and prevent intimate partner violence against African American women.

  17. African Americans and the medical establishment.

    PubMed

    Smith, C

    1999-09-01

    The African American community's response to the AIDS epidemic has reflected the profound mistrust of the medical establishment which many African Americans feel. Among African Americans, the belief that the epidemic originated in a genocidal plot is widespread. It is thought that organized medicine has been significantly involved in this plot. If we look at African Americans' historical relationship to the medical establishment from the era of slavery to the recent past, the suspicious attitudes which make such beliefs possible can be seen as an intelligible response to a new disease which disproportionately affects African Americans. Successful medical and public health responses to the epidemic have depended and will continue to depend upon overcoming the historical legacy of suspicion and gaining the trust of the community.

  18. Implementation of transformed lenses in bed of nails reducing refractive index maximum value and sub-unity regions.

    PubMed

    Prado, Daniel R; Osipov, Andrey V; Quevedo-Teruel, Oscar

    2015-03-15

    Transformation optics with quasi-conformal mapping is applied to design a Generalized Maxwell Fish-eye Lens (GMFEL) which can be used as a power splitter. The flattened focal line obtained as a result of the transformation allows the lens to adapt to planar antenna feeding systems. Moreover, sub-unity refraction index regions are reduced because of the space compression effect of the transformation, reducing the negative impact of removing those regions when implementing the lens. A technique to reduce the maximum value of the refractive index is presented to compensate for its increase because of the transformation. Finally, the lens is implemented with the bed of nails technology, employing a commercial dielectric slab to improve the range of the effective refractive index. The lens was simulated with a 3D full-wave simulator to validate the design, obtaining an original and feasible power splitter based on a dielectric lens.

  19. On the application of the partition of unity method for nonlocal response of low-dimensional structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natarajan, Sundararajan

    2014-12-01

    The main objectives of the paper are to (1) present an overview of nonlocal integral elasticity and Aifantis gradient elasticity theory and (2) discuss the application of partition of unity methods to study the response of low-dimensional structures. We present different choices of approximation functions for gradient elasticity, namely Lagrange intepolants, moving least-squares approximants and non-uniform rational B-splines. Next, we employ these approximation functions to study the response of nanobeams based on Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko theories as well as to study nanoplates based on first-order shear deformation theory. The response of nanobeams and nanoplates is studied using Eringen's nonlocal elasticity theory. The influence of the nonlocal parameter, the beam and the plate aspect ratio and the boundary conditions on the global response is numerically studied. The influence of a crack on the axial vibration and buckling characteristics of nanobeams is also numerically studied.

  20. An eutomer/distomer ratio near unity does not justify non-enantiospecific assay methods in bioequivalence studies.

    PubMed

    García-Arieta, Alfredo; Abad-Santos, Francisco; Rodríguez-Martínez, M Angeles; Varas-Polo, Yolanda; Novalbos, Jesús; Laparidis, Nikos; Gallego-Sandín, Sonia; Orfanidis, Kyriakos; Torrado, Juan

    2005-10-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to compare the pharmacokinetics of two tablet formulations of 600 mg of racemic ibuprofen obtained using enantiospecific and non-enantiospecific assays, in order to explore if chiral assays should be employed in bioequivalence studies of chiral active substances. The stereoselective assay showed that, for both formulations, there was an initial phase where (R)-ibuprofen was the predominant enantiomer followed by a final phase where (S)-ibuprofen was the predominant one. Results from both analytical methods proved that the two formulations were bioequivalent. However, the chiral bioanalytical method detected a larger difference in the eutomer than that showed by the nonchiral bioanalytical method. In conclusion, although the exposure ratios of enantiomers are near unity, the measurement of unresolved ibuprofen alone is not an adequate measure of bioequivalence since it may mask the actual difference in the eutomer exposure among formulations.

  1. Real-time multi-DSP control of three-phase current-source unity power factor PWM rectifier

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao Wang; Boon-Teck Ooi . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1993-07-01

    The design of a real-time multi-DSP controller for a high-quality six-valve three-phase current-source unity power factor PWM rectifier is discussed in this paper. With the decoupler preprocessor and the dynamic trilogic PWM trigger scheme, each of the three input currents can be controlled independently. Based on the a-b-c frame system model and the fast parallel computer control, the pole-placement control method is implemented successfully to achieve fast response in the ac currents. The low-frequency resonance in the ac filter L-C networks has been damped effectively. The experimental results are obtained from a 1-kVA bipolar transistor current-source PWM rectifier with a real-time controller using three TMS320C25 DSP's.

  2. A close to unity and all-solar-spectrum absorption by ion-sputtering induced Si nanocone arrays.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Ying; Hao, Hong-Chen; Zhou, Jing; Lu, Ming

    2012-09-24

    Si nanocone arrays are formed on Si(100) by Ar(+) ion sputtering combined with metal ion co-deposition. The aspect ratio of Si cone is found to increases steadily with increasing sample temperature, but decreases slowly with increasing ion dose. Furthermore, the height and base diameter of Si cone increase monotonously with increasing dose at a constant temperature. The absorptivity increases in general with increasing aspect ratio and height. A close to unity and all-solar-spectrum absorption by the nanostructured Si is finally achieved, with the absorbance for λ = 350 to 1100 nm being higher than 96%, and that for λ = 1100 to 2000 nm higher than 92%. Photocurrents for different Si samples are also investigated.

  3. Nearly Unity Power-Factor of the Modular Three-Phase AC to DC Converter with Minimized DC Bus Capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chunkag, Viboon; Kamnarn, Uthen

    The analysis and design of nearly unity power-factor and fast dynamic response of the modular three-phase ac to dc converter using three single-phase isolated SEPIC rectifier modules with minimized dc bus capacitor is discussed, based on power balance control technique. The averaged small-signal technique is used to obtain the inductor current compensator, thus resulting in the output impedance and audio susceptibility become zero, that is, the output voltage of the converter presented in this paper is independent of the variations of the dc load current and the utility voltage. The proposed system significantly improves the dynamic response of the converter to load steps with minimized dc bus capacitor for Distributed Power System (DPS). A 600W prototype modular three-phase ac to dc converter comprising three 200W single-phase SEPIC rectifier modules with the proposed control scheme has been designed and implemented. The proposed system is confirmed by experimental implementation.

  4. A THREE-DIMENSIONAL NUMERICAL SOLUTION FOR THE SHAPE OF A ROTATIONALLY DISTORTED POLYTROPE OF INDEX UNITY

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald; Anderson, John E-mail: K.Zhang@exeter.ac.uk

    2013-02-15

    We present a new three-dimensional numerical method for calculating the non-spherical shape and internal structure of a model of a rapidly rotating gaseous body with a polytropic index of unity. The calculation is based on a finite-element method and accounts for the full effects of rotation. After validating the numerical approach against the asymptotic solution of Chandrasekhar that is valid only for a slowly rotating gaseous body, we apply it to models of Jupiter and a rapidly rotating, highly flattened star ({alpha} Eridani). In the case of Jupiter, the two-dimensional distributions of density and pressure are determined via a hybrid inverse approach by adjusting an a priori unknown coefficient in the equation of state until the model shape matches the observed shape of Jupiter. After obtaining the two-dimensional distribution of density, we then compute the zonal gravity coefficients and the total mass from the non-spherical model that takes full account of rotation-induced shape change. Our non-spherical model with a polytropic index of unity is able to produce the known mass of Jupiter with about 4% accuracy and the zonal gravitational coefficient J {sub 2} of Jupiter with better than 2% accuracy, a reasonable result considering that there is only one parameter in the model. For {alpha} Eridani, we calculate its rotationally distorted shape and internal structure based on the observationally deduced rotation rate and size of the star by using a similar hybrid inverse approach. Our model of the star closely approximates the observed flattening.

  5. HMO employment and African-American physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Briscoe, Forrest; Konrad, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the level and determinants of African-American physicians' employment in health maintenance organizations (HMOs), particularly early in their careers. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 1991 and 1996 Young Physicians Surveys to assess racial differences in the likelihood of HMO employment (n = 3,705). Using multinomial logistic regression, we evaluated four explanations for an observed relationship between African-American physicians and HMO employment: human capital stratification among organizations, race-based affinity between physicians and patients, financial constraints due to debt burden, and different organizational hiring practices. Using binomial logistic regression, we also evaluated differences in the odds of being turned down for a prior practice position, of subsequently leaving the current practice organization and of later having career doubts. RESULTS: Without any controls, African-American physicians were 4.52 times more likely to practice in HMOs than Caucasian physicians. After controlling for human capital stratification, racial concordance and financial constraints, African-American physicians remained 2.48 times more likely to practice in HMOs than Caucasian physicians. In addition, 19.2% of African-American physicians in HMOs reported being turned down for another job, far more than any other racial/ethnic group in the HMO setting and any racial/ethnic group, including African-American physicians in the non-HMO setting (including all other practice locations). Five years later, those same African-American physicians from HMOs also reported significantly more turnover (7.50 times more likely than non-HMO African-American physicians to leave their current practice) and doubt about their careers (2.17 times more likely than non-HMO African-American physicians to express serious career doubts). CONCLUSIONS: African-American physicians were disproportionately hired into HMO settings, impacting their subsequent careers. PMID

  6. The African Folktale. An Instructional Unit for Seventh Grade English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, Sherry

    The document presents a 3-week seventh grade English unit on the African folktale. The guide is one of a number of products developed by a summer workshop for teachers on African curriculum development. The objectives are to help students develop respect for African cultures and lifestyles, compare values of African and American ethnic…

  7. School Counseling for African American Adolescents: The Alfred Adler Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Marty

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses how Adlerian counseling can be used as a form of school counseling for African American adolescents. Moreover, school counseling for African American adolescents is discussed within the context of African American culture. Due to the strength-based nature of Adlerian approach, it can capitalize on African American…

  8. Towards an Africological Pedagogical Approach to African Civilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okafor, Victor Oguejiofor

    1996-01-01

    Presents a case study of controversies related to African studies and makes the case for an Africological pedagogical approach to African Civilization. The title "African Civilization" reflects the African place in the whole of world civilization even though that place is itself a multiple entity. (SLD)

  9. Online 3D terrain visualisation using Unity 3D game engine: A comparison of different contour intervals terrain data draped with UAV images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafiz Mahayudin, Mohd; Che Mat, Ruzinoor

    2016-06-01

    The main objective of this paper is to discuss on the effectiveness of visualising terrain draped with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) images generated from different contour intervals using Unity 3D game engine in online environment. The study area that was tested in this project was oil palm plantation at Sintok, Kedah. The contour data used for this study are divided into three different intervals which are 1m, 3m and 5m. ArcGIS software were used to clip the contour data and also UAV images data to be similar size for the overlaying process. The Unity 3D game engine was used as the main platform for developing the system due to its capabilities which can be launch in different platform. The clipped contour data and UAV images data were process and exported into the web format using Unity 3D. Then process continue by publishing it into the web server for comparing the effectiveness of different 3D terrain data (contour data) draped with UAV images. The effectiveness is compared based on the data size, loading time (office and out-of-office hours), response time, visualisation quality, and frame per second (fps). The results were suggest which contour interval is better for developing an effective online 3D terrain visualisation draped with UAV images using Unity 3D game engine. It therefore benefits decision maker and planner related to this field decide on which contour is applicable for their task.

  10. Between Mutuality and Diversity: The Project in Intergroup Education and the Discourse of National Unity in Post World War II America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevier, Brian R.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author posits a dual argument. First, he contends that the post-WWII discourse of national unity pushed intolerance to the forefront of the domestic agenda linking its elimination with social cohesion while simultaneously advancing assimilationist and meritocratic beliefs about "the" American experience. Here, he…

  11. Direct numerical simulations of temporally developing hydrocarbon shear flames at elevated pressure: effects of the equation of state and the unity Lewis number assumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korucu, Ayse; Miller, Richard

    2016-11-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of temporally developing shear flames are used to investigate both equation of state (EOS) and unity-Lewis (Le) number assumption effects in hydrocarbon flames at elevated pressure. A reduced Kerosene / Air mechanism including a semi-global soot formation/oxidation model is used to study soot formation/oxidation processes in a temporarlly developing hydrocarbon shear flame operating at both atmospheric and elevated pressures for the cubic Peng-Robinson real fluid EOS. Results are compared to simulations using the ideal gas law (IGL). The results show that while the unity-Le number assumption with the IGL EOS under-predicts the flame temperature for all pressures, with the real fluid EOS it under-predicts the flame temperature for 1 and 35 atm and over-predicts the rest. The soot mass fraction, Ys, is only under-predicted for the 1 atm flame for both IGL and real gas fluid EOS models. While Ys is over-predicted for elevated pressures with IGL EOS, for the real gas EOS Ys's predictions are similar to results using a non-unity Le model derived from non-equilibrium thermodynamics and real diffusivities. Adopting the unity Le assumption is shown to cause misprediction of Ys, the flame temperature, and the mass fractions of CO, H and OH.

  12. African American cancer patients' pain experience.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Lim, Hyun-Ju; Clark, Maresha; Chee, Wonshik

    2008-01-01

    Although very little is known about African American cancer patients' pain experience, a few studies have indicated that their cancer pain experience is unique and somewhat different from that of other ethnic groups. The purpose of the study reported in this article was to explore African American cancer patients' pain experience using an online forum. This study was a qualitative online forum designed from a feminist perspective and conducted among 11 African American cancer patients who were recruited through both Internet and real settings. Nine online forum topics were used to administer the 6-month online forum, and the data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Four themes emerged through the data analysis process. First, participants viewed cancer as a challenge in life that they should fight against. Second, cancer pain was differentiated from ordinary pain because cancer was stigmatized in their culture. Third, participants viewed that African Americans, especially women, were culturally raised to be strong, and this African American cultural heritage inhibited cancer patients from expressing pain and seeking help for pain management. Finally, the findings indicated certain changes in perspectives among African American cancer patients during the disease process, which might make them tolerate pain through praying to God and reading the Bible. Based on the findings, we suggest further studies among diverse groups of African American cancer patients, with a focus on cultural attitudes toward cancer pain and influences of family on cancer pain experience.

  13. Enslaved Africans and doctors in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Goodson, Martia Graham

    2003-03-01

    This interpretation of the relationship between enslavement and American medicine in 19th century South Carolina reveals the intimacy that existed between Africans enslaved in that state and the doctors who practiced and taught there. Enslaved Africans were resourceful and reliable medical figures in the slave community. Their knowledge of medical botany permeated the slave quarters and plantation hospitals and was appropriated into southern medical knowledge. The trajectories of the careers of three South Carolina physicians are tied to their practice around and on the enslaved. The beginnings of gynecological surgery are linked to 1840s experimentation on enslaved African women performed by one of them.

  14. Henipavirus RNA in African Bats

    PubMed Central

    Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Seebens, Antje; Annan, Augustina; Ipsen, Anne; Kruppa, Thomas; Müller, Marcel A.; Kalko, Elisabeth K. V.; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Oppong, Samuel; Drosten, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Background Henipaviruses (Hendra and Nipah virus) are highly pathogenic members of the family Paramyxoviridae. Fruit-eating bats of the Pteropus genus have been suggested as their natural reservoir. Human Henipavirus infections have been reported in a region extending from Australia via Malaysia into Bangladesh, compatible with the geographic range of Pteropus. These bats do not occur in continental Africa, but a whole range of other fruit bats is encountered. One of the most abundant is Eidolon helvum, the African Straw-coloured fruit bat. Methodology/Principal Findings Feces from E. helvum roosting in an urban setting in Kumasi/Ghana were tested for Henipavirus RNA. Sequences of three novel viruses in phylogenetic relationship to known Henipaviruses were detected. Virus RNA concentrations in feces were low. Conclusions/Significance The finding of novel putative Henipaviruses outside Australia and Asia contributes a significant extension of the region of potential endemicity of one of the most pathogenic virus genera known in humans. PMID:19636378

  15. Enhancing the African bioethics initiative

    PubMed Central

    Ogundiran, Temidayo O

    2004-01-01

    Background Medical ethics has existed since the time of Hippocrates. However, formal training in bioethics did not become established until a few decades ago. Bioethics has gained a strong foothold in health sciences in the developed world, especially in Europe and North America. The situation is quite different in many developing countries. In most African countries, bioethics – as established and practiced today in the west- is either non-existent or is rudimentary. Discussion Though bioethics has come of age in the developed and some developing countries, it is still largely "foreign" to most African countries. In some parts of Africa, some bioethics conferences have been held in the past decade to create research ethics awareness and ensure conformity to international guidelines for research with human participants. This idea has arisen in recognition of the genuine need to develop capacity for reviewing the ethics of research in Africa. It is also a condition required by external sponsors of collaborative research in Africa. The awareness and interest that these conferences have aroused need to be further strengthened and extended beyond research ethics to clinical practice. By and large, bioethics education in schools that train doctors and other health care providers is the hook that anchors both research ethics and clinical ethics. Summary This communication reviews the current situation of bioethics in Africa as it applies to research ethics workshops and proposes that in spite of the present efforts to integrate ethics into biomedical research in Africa, much still needs to be done to accomplish this. A more comprehensive approach to bioethics with an all-inclusive benefit is to incorporate formal ethics education into health training institutions in Africa. PMID:15488145

  16. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Coombs, Catherine C; Falchi, Lorenzo; Weinberg, J Brice; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Lanasa, Mark C

    2012-11-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most prevalent leukemia in the United States with almost 4390 attributable deaths per year. Epidemiologic data compiled by the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program identifies important differences in incidence and survival for African Americans with CLL. Although the incidence of CLL is lower among African Americans than among Caucasians (4.6 and 6.2 per 100 000 men, respectively), age-adjusted survival is inferior. African American patients with CLL are almost twice as likely to die from a CLL-related complication in the first 5 years after diagnosis as are Caucasian patients with CLL. The biologic basis for these observations is almost entirely unexplored, and a comprehensive clinical analysis of African American patients with CLL is lacking. This is the subject of the present review.

  17. HIV/AIDS among African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... person’s chance of getting or transmitting HIV. The poverty rate is higher among African Americans than other racial/ethnic groups. The socioeconomic issues associated with poverty—including limited access to high-quality health care, ...

  18. Cardiac assessment of African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris).

    PubMed

    Black, Peter A; Marshall, Cecilia; Seyfried, Alice W; Bartin, Anne M

    2011-03-01

    Cardiomyopathy is a common finding in captive African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) at postmortem exam. To date, treatment attempts have been mostly empirical and unrewarding. The objective of this study was to determine reference cardiac values for captive African hedgehogs based on echocardiogram, electrocardiogram (ECG), and radiographs. Adult African hedgehogs with no clinical signs of cardiac disease (n = 13) were selected. Each animal was anesthetized with isoflurane via facemask and an echocardiogram, ECG, and radiographs were performed. Standard measurements were taken and the descriptive statistics performed. Values were comparable to limited data available in other hedgehog species and other similar-sized exotic species. Two animals were removed from consideration of reference values due to valvular defects that were considered significant. These data are the first establishing cardiac parameters in normal African hedgehogs using radiographic cardiac measurement, echocardiogram, and ECG. Evaluating animals with possible cardiomyopathy may allow for earlier diagnosis and more successful treatment.

  19. Mellonee Burnim on African American Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Patricia Shehan

    1995-01-01

    Describes the role and influence of Mellonee Burnim on U.S. music education. Discusses the origins and impact of African American gospel music. Includes a list of selected resources and two lesson plans featuring gospel music. (CFR)

  20. What physicians should know about Africanized honeybees.

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, R A

    1995-01-01

    The Africanized honeybee, popularly known as the "killer bee," is already well established in Texas and has recently entered California and Arizona. As the Africanized honeybee spreads in North America, the medical community must become aware of the problems associated with this insect and ensure that sting emergencies can be handled quickly and appropriately. The major differences between Africanized and European honeybees are that the former are more irritable, they swarm more readily and frequently, they defend their hives more vehemently, and they sting more collectively. It is not the composition nor the volume of an individual bee's venom, but rather the cumulative dose of multiple stings that accounts for the morbidity and mortality associated with Africanized honeybee-sting incidents. Even nonallergic persons are susceptible to the toxic effects of these large combined venom loads. Africanized honeybee-sting victims are treated the same as victims of European honeybee stings. Authorities will prepare for the bees' arrival by expanding public awareness, teaching risk-avoidance behavior, providing for the removal of troublesome hives, and developing sting treatment protocols that can be initiated rapidly in the field or emergency departments. Health care professionals should participate in the educational efforts and in the development of needed emergency response protocols so that the effects of the Africanized honeybee will be merely a nuisance rather than a plague. PMID:8553637

  1. Partiality and distributive justice in African bioethics.

    PubMed

    Wareham, Christopher Simon

    2017-04-01

    African ethical theories tend to hold that moral agents ought to be partial, in the sense that they should favour members of their family or close community. This is considered an advantage over the impartiality of many Western moral theories, which are regarded as having counterintuitive implications, such as the idea that it is unethical to save a family member before a stranger. The partiality of African ethics is thought to be particularly valuable in the context of bioethics. Thaddeus Metz, in particular, argues that his African-derived theory best accounts for a number of plausible intuitions, such as the intuition that health care practitioners ought to be biased towards the patients for whom they are directly responsible. In this article, I claim that the plausible intuitions drawn on in favour of partiality can be satisfactorily explained on the basis of impartial moral theories. Moreover, I argue that blanket acceptance of partiality has problematic consequences for distributive justice in resource allocation in biomedical contexts. By contrast, impartial theories can justify plausible instances of partiality whilst avoiding the pitfalls of fully partial moral theories. Although this provides grounds for abandoning partiality in principle, I claim that this finding should not be seen as damaging to African medical ethics. Instead, it prompts investigation of underexplored possibilities of impartial African moral theories. To demonstrate the value of this direction, I sketch some novel and attractive conceptions that combine impartiality with elements of African ethics.

  2. Vapor-solid growth of high optical quality MoS₂ monolayers with near-unity valley polarization.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sanfeng; Huang, Chunming; Aivazian, Grant; Ross, Jason S; Cobden, David H; Xu, Xiaodong

    2013-03-26

    Monolayers of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are atomically thin direct-gap semiconductors with potential applications in nanoelectronics, optoelectronics, and electrochemical sensing. Recent theoretical and experimental efforts suggest that they are ideal systems for exploiting the valley degrees of freedom of Bloch electrons. For example, Dirac valley polarization has been demonstrated in mechanically exfoliated monolayer MoS2 samples by polarization-resolved photoluminescence, although polarization has rarely been seen at room temperature. Here we report a new method for synthesizing high optical quality monolayer MoS2 single crystals up to 25 μm in size on a variety of standard insulating substrates (SiO2, sapphire, and glass) using a catalyst-free vapor-solid growth mechanism. The technique is simple and reliable, and the optical quality of the crystals is extremely high, as demonstrated by the fact that the valley polarization approaches unity at 30 K and persists at 35% even at room temperature, suggesting a virtual absence of defects. This will allow greatly improved optoelectronic TMDC monolayer devices to be fabricated and studied routinely.

  3. The Partition of Unity Finite Element Method for the simulation of waves in air and poroelastic media.

    PubMed

    Chazot, Jean-Daniel; Perrey-Debain, Emmanuel; Nennig, Benoit

    2014-02-01

    Recently Chazot et al. [J. Sound Vib. 332, 1918-1929 (2013)] applied the Partition of Unity Finite Element Method for the analysis of interior sound fields with absorbing materials. The method was shown to allow a substantial reduction of the number of degrees of freedom compared to the standard Finite Element Method. The work is however restricted to a certain class of absorbing materials that react like an equivalent fluid. This paper presents an extension of the method to the numerical simulation of Biot's waves in poroelastic materials. The technique relies mainly on expanding the elastic displacement as well as the fluid phase pressure using sets of plane waves which are solutions to the governing partial differential equations. To show the interest of the method for tackling problems of practical interests, poroelastic-acoustic coupling conditions as well as fixed or sliding edge conditions are presented and numerically tested. It is shown that the technique is a good candidate for solving noise control problems at medium and high frequency.

  4. Near-infrared quarter-waveplate with near-unity polarization conversion efficiency based on silicon nanowire array.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yanmeng; Cai, Hongbing; Ding, Huaiyi; Ning, Zhen; Pan, Nan; Zhu, Hong; Shi, Qinwei; Wang, Xiaoping

    2015-04-06

    Metasurfaces made of subwavelength resonators can modify the wave front of light within the thickness much less than free space wavelength, showing great promises in integrated optics. In this paper, we theoretically show that electric and magnetic resonances supported simultaneously by a subwavelength nanowire with high refractive-index can be utilized to design metasurfaces with near-unity transmittance. Taking silicon nanowire for instance, we design numerically a near-infrared quarter-waveplate with high transmittance using a subwavelength nanowire array. The operation bandwidth of the waveplate is 0.14 μm around the center wavelength of 1.71 μm. The waveplate can convert a 45° linearly polarized incident light to circularly polarized light with conversion efficiency ranging from 94% to 98% over the operation band. The performance of quarter waveplate can in principle be tuned and improved through optimizing the parameters of nanowire arrays. Its compatibility to microelectronic technologies opens up a distinct possibility to integrate nanophotonics into the current silicon-based electronic devices.

  5. Conversion efficiency limits and bandgap designs for multi-junction solar cells with internal radiative efficiencies below unity.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Yoshita, Masahiro; Chen, Shaoqiang; Kim, Changsu; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko

    2016-05-16

    We calculated the conversion-efficiency limit ηsc and the optimized subcell bandgap energies of 1 to 5 junction solar cells without and with intermediate reflectors under 1-sun AM1.5G and 1000-sun AM1.5D irradiations, particularly including the impact of internal radiative efficiency (ηint) below unity for realistic subcell materials on the basis of an extended detailed-balance theory. We found that the conversion-efficiency limit ηsc significantly drops when the geometric mean ηint* of all subcell ηint in the stack reduces from 1 to 0.1, and that ηsc degrades linearly to logηint* for ηint* below 0.1. For ηint*<0.1 differences in ηsc due to additional intermediate reflectors became very small if all subcells are optically thick for sun light. We obtained characteristic optimized bandgap energies, which reflect both ηint* decrease and AM1.5 spectral gaps. These results provide realistic efficiency targets and design principles.

  6. Cavity-excited Huygens' metasurface antennas for near-unity aperture illumination efficiency from arbitrarily large apertures.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Ariel; Wong, Joseph P S; Eleftheriades, George V

    2016-01-21

    One of the long-standing problems in antenna engineering is the realization of highly directive beams using low-profile devices. In this paper, we provide a solution to this problem by means of Huygens' metasurfaces (HMSs), based on the equivalence principle. This principle states that a given excitation can be transformed to a desirable aperture field by inducing suitable electric and (equivalent) magnetic surface currents. Building on this concept, we propose and demonstrate cavity-excited HMS antennas, where the single-source-fed cavity is designed to optimize aperture illumination, while the HMS facilitates the current distribution that ensures phase purity of aperture fields. The HMS breaks the coupling between the excitation and radiation spectra typical to standard partially reflecting surfaces, allowing tailoring of the aperture properties to produce a desirable radiation pattern, without incurring edge-taper losses. The proposed low-profile design yields near-unity aperture illumination efficiencies from arbitrarily large apertures, offering new capabilities for microwave, terahertz and optical radiators.

  7. Biochemistry of terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase. Identification and unity of ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate binding site in terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, V.N.; Modak, M.J.

    1989-01-15

    Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase is the only DNA polymerase that is strongly inhibited in the presence of ATP. We have labeled calf terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase with (/sup 32/P)ATP in order to identify its binding site in terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase. The specificity of ATP cross-linking to terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase is shown by the competitive inhibition of the overall cross-linking reaction by deoxynucleoside triphosphates, as well as the ATP analogs Ap4A and Ap5A. Tryptic peptide mapping of (/sup 32/P)ATP-labeled enzyme revealed a peptide fraction that contained the majority of cross-linked ATP. The properties, chromatographic characteristics, amino acid composition, and sequence analysis of this peptide fraction were identical with those found associated with dTTP cross-linked terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase peptide. The involvement of the same 2 cysteine residues in the crosslinking of both nucleotides further confirmed the unity of the ATP and dTTP binding domain that contains residues 224-237 in the primary amino acid sequence of calf terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase.

  8. Cavity-excited Huygens' metasurface antennas for near-unity aperture illumination efficiency from arbitrarily large apertures

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Ariel; Wong, Joseph P. S.; Eleftheriades, George V.

    2016-01-01

    One of the long-standing problems in antenna engineering is the realization of highly directive beams using low-profile devices. In this paper, we provide a solution to this problem by means of Huygens' metasurfaces (HMSs), based on the equivalence principle. This principle states that a given excitation can be transformed to a desirable aperture field by inducing suitable electric and (equivalent) magnetic surface currents. Building on this concept, we propose and demonstrate cavity-excited HMS antennas, where the single-source-fed cavity is designed to optimize aperture illumination, while the HMS facilitates the current distribution that ensures phase purity of aperture fields. The HMS breaks the coupling between the excitation and radiation spectra typical to standard partially reflecting surfaces, allowing tailoring of the aperture properties to produce a desirable radiation pattern, without incurring edge-taper losses. The proposed low-profile design yields near-unity aperture illumination efficiencies from arbitrarily large apertures, offering new capabilities for microwave, terahertz and optical radiators. PMID:26790605

  9. Port of Sanctuary: The Aesthetic of the African/African American and the Barnes Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Charles H.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that, although it has been ignored by most art historians and art educators, the Barnes Foundation was founded upon a unique African/African American esthetic influence. Describes influences on the life of Dr. Albert C. Barnes, his world view, and the decision to establish the Barnes Foundation and its art collection. (CFR)

  10. Trade in Educational Services: Reflections on the African and South African Higher Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sehoole, Chika Trevor

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses and analyses the emergence of globalisation and its impact on developments within the African continent. Africa's response at a regional level through the New Partnership for Africa's Development and at a subregional level through the Southern African Development Community's "Protocol on Education" come under…

  11. "Women ... Mourn and Men Carry on": African Women Storying Mourning Practices--A South African Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotze, Elmarie; Els, Lishje; Rajuili-Masilo, Ntsiki

    2012-01-01

    African mourning of loss of lives in South Africa has been shaped by discursive practices of both traditional African cultures and the sociopolitical developments under apartheid and in post-apartheid South Africa. This article reports on changes in mourning practices on the basis of a literature review and uses a collection of examples to…

  12. African American Pastors' Beliefs and Actions Regarding Childhood Incest in the African American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Tesia Denis

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study sought to explore African American pastors' beliefs and actions regarding childhood incest in the African American community and their decisions to inform the proper authorities. This exploratory study was developed in order to draw both public and academic attention to the understudied phenomenon of childhood incest within…

  13. An Ambivalent Community: International African Students in Residence at a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Everard

    2016-01-01

    This is a qualitative case study of the experiences and perceptions of South African and especially international, African students living in university residences in South Africa. The concept, community, is used to interpret interview data. This community was characterised by ambivalent social relations: There was discrimination by South Africans…

  14. The Pedagogy of African American Parents: Learning from Educational Excellence in the African American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Audrey P.

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study of how parents teach their children to excel academically in the African American community seeks to establish the validity of the pedagogical practices of working class African American families by investigating the educational leadership of two families on Chicago's south side. The study acknowledges the significance of…

  15. African swine fever virus serotype-specific proteins are significant protective antigens for African swine fever

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African swine fever (ASF) is an emerging disease threat for the swine industry worldwide. No ASF vaccine is available and progress is hindered by lack of knowledge concerning the extent of African swine fever virus (ASFV) strain diversity and the viral antigens conferring type specific protective im...

  16. Changing Fatherhood: An Exploratory Qualitative Study with African and African Caribbean Men in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert; Hewison, Alistair; Wildman, Stuart; Roskell, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a qualitative study undertaken with 46 African and African Caribbean men exploring their experiences of fatherhood. Data analysis was informed by Connell's theoretical work on changing gender relations. Findings indicate that fathers' lives were mediated by masculinities, racism, gender, migration and generational…

  17. A SNP test to identify Africanized honeybees via proportion of 'African' ancestry.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Nadine C; Harpur, Brock A; Lim, Julianne; Rinderer, Thomas E; Allsopp, Michael H; Zayed, Amro; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2015-11-01

    The honeybee, Apis mellifera, is the world's most important pollinator and is ubiquitous in most agricultural ecosystems. Four major evolutionary lineages and at least 24 subspecies are recognized. Commercial populations are mainly derived from subspecies originating in Europe (75-95%). The Africanized honeybee is a New World hybrid of A. m. scutellata from Africa and European subspecies, with the African component making up 50-90% of the genome. Africanized honeybees are considered undesirable for bee-keeping in most countries, due to their extreme defensiveness and poor honey production. The international trade in honeybees is restricted, due in part to bans on the importation of queens (and semen) from countries where Africanized honeybees are extant. Some desirable strains from the United States of America that have been bred for traits such as resistance to the mite Varroa destructor are unfortunately excluded from export to countries such as Australia due to the presence of Africanized honeybees in the USA. This study shows that a panel of 95 single nucleotide polymorphisms, chosen to differentiate between the African, Eastern European and Western European lineages, can detect Africanized honeybees with a high degree of confidence via ancestry assignment. Our panel therefore offers a valuable tool to mitigate the risks of spreading Africanized honeybees across the globe and may enable the resumption of queen and bee semen imports from the Americas.

  18. African Games of Strategy: A Teaching Manual. African Outreach Series, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Louise

    Appreciation of African games has increased in this country; especially board games which have been popularized through commercial versions. African games are invaluable resources for studying subjects requiring mathematical concepts, as well as social studies, history, geography, and languages. This manual presents some of the better known…

  19. Antigenic variation in African trypanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Horn, David

    2014-01-01

    Studies on Variant Surface Glycoproteins (VSGs) and antigenic variation in the African trypanosome, Trypanosoma brucei, have yielded a remarkable range of novel and important insights. The features first identified in T. brucei extend from unique to conserved-among-trypanosomatids to conserved-among-eukaryotes. Consequently, much of what we now know about trypanosomatid biology and much of the technology available has its origin in studies related to VSGs. T. brucei is now probably the most advanced early branched eukaryote in terms of experimental tractability and can be approached as a pathogen, as a model for studies on fundamental processes, as a model for studies on eukaryotic evolution or often all of the above. In terms of antigenic variation itself, substantial progress has been made in understanding the expression and switching of the VSG coat, while outstanding questions continue to stimulate innovative new approaches. There are large numbers of VSG genes in the genome but only one is expressed at a time, always immediately adjacent to a telomere. DNA repair processes allow a new VSG to be copied into the single transcribed locus. A coordinated transcriptional switch can also allow a new VSG gene to be activated without any detectable change in the DNA sequence, thereby maintaining singular expression, also known as allelic exclusion. I review the story behind VSGs; the genes, their expression and switching, their central role in T. brucei virulence, the discoveries that emerged along the way and the persistent questions relating to allelic exclusion in particular. PMID:24859277

  20. African female sexuality and the heterosexual form.

    PubMed

    Mcfadden, P

    1994-03-01

    All women find sexuality problematical, especially women living in countries that were colonized or colonized others. The stereotype of repressed sexuality in Victorian England found its antithesis in the stereotype of promiscuous African sexuality which had to be "civilized" and controlled through religion and repression. Colonizing nations have seen the discourse on sexuality move from the private to the public domain, while Africa maintains its silence on the subject. Sexuality is a difficult topic because it embraces the most intimate and individual of our human emotions, thus, it is difficult even to voice sexual preferences to a lifetime partner. In addition, especially in Africa, sexuality is a very gender-specific social construct. Africans foster heterosexuality through socialization from early childhood and discourage any sign of sexual stimulation in their children. After teaching that humans are "naturally" heterosexual, Africans teach their children that marriage is essential for the moral uprightness of society, although most Africans are, in fact, raised in many types of alternative families. Critique of the heterosexual form is literally nonexistent in African feminist genre because African sexuality is really male sexuality. When people assert that an African culture exists, they really mean that patriarchal constructs about maleness and femaleness pervade the continent. Women are not expected to experience sexual satisfaction, and, indeed, the practice of female genital mutilation assures that they will never experience sexual pleasure. This practice assures that female sexuality exists only through men. It represents a misogynist point of view about the female body and is equally repulsive whether it takes the form of "excision" of a part of the clitoris or removal of all of the external genitalia. This practice controls female sexuality by depriving women of the opportunity to masturbate or to engage in homosexual relations. The resulting option

  1. Fast algorithm for computing a primitive /2 to power p + 1/p-th root of unity in GF/q squared/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, I. S.; Truong, T. K.; Miller, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    A quick method is described for finding the primitive (2 to power p + 1)p-th root of unity in the Galois field GF(q squared), where q = (2 to power p) - 1 and is known as a Mersenne prime. Determination of this root is necessary to implement complex integer transforms of length (2 to power k) times p over the Galois field, with k varying between 3 and p + 1.

  2. Inversion of the anomalous diffraction approximation for variable complex index of refraction near unity. [numerical tests for water-haze aerosol model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. B.

    1982-01-01

    The Fymat analytic inversion method for retrieving a particle-area distribution function from anomalous diffraction multispectral extinction data and total area is generalized to the case of a variable complex refractive index m(lambda) near unity depending on spectral wavelength lambda. Inversion tests are presented for a water-haze aerosol model. An upper-phase shift limit of 5 pi/2 retrieved an accurate peak area distribution profile. Analytical corrections using both the total number and area improved the inversion.

  3. Afriphone Literature as a Prototypical Form of African Literature: Insights from Prototype Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodomo, Adams

    2016-01-01

    What is the most prototypical form of African literature? Shouldn't we be using African languages to produce African literary texts, shouldn't we produce more Afriphone African literature compared to Europhone African literature or Afro-Europhone literature? This issue underlies the reality that the vast majority of African writers presumably…

  4. Pattern of breast cancer among white-American, African-American, and nonimmigrant west-African women.

    PubMed Central

    Ijaduola, T. G.; Smith, E. B.

    1998-01-01

    This study reviews the current understanding of the pattern of breast cancer among whites, African Americans, and West Africans who have never immigrated to the US to find better ways of improving the prevention, early detection, and care of breast cancer world-wide. In the United States, the behavior pattern of breast cancer in African-American women differs from that of white women. Among the three populations, breast cancer appears to be least common in nonimmigrant West-African women. The peak incidence in African Americans and West Africans occurs around the premenopausal period while it occurs postmenopausal period in whites. Also, unlike white women, West-African and African-American women present late for treatment with a greater cancer burden and consequently lower survival rates. The predominant histological type is infiltrating ductal carcinoma in the three groups but the highest percentage (33%) of infiltrating poorly differentiated anaplastic carcinoma occurs in West Africans. Menstrual and obstetric history, obesity, and high body mass index status appear to be greater specific risk factors among African Americans than among West Africans. African Americans and West Africans have three "Ls" in common: late stage in seeking treatment, lower age at peak incidence with severe tumor burden, and consequently lower survival rates. There is a need for more detailed population-based research at molecular levels to elucidate the basis for some of these features. PMID:9770955

  5. The African University and the Duty to Co-Operate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agblemagnon, N'Sougan

    1984-01-01

    Because of their history rooted in human rights, African universities can now practically and politically undertake international and interinstitutional cooperative projects for human rights and intercultural understanding, especially through such alliances as the Association of African Universities. (MSE)

  6. Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium collaborates on epidemiologic studies to address the high burden of prostate cancer and to understand the causes of etiology and outcomes among men of African ancestry.

  7. What about African Americans and High Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? The prevalence of high blood pressure in African Americans is among the highest in ...

  8. Chemotherapy of human African trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Burchmore, Richard J S; Ogbunude, Patrick O J; Enanga, Bertin; Barrett, Michael P

    2002-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness is resurgent [1,2]. The disease is caused by subspecies of the parasitic haemoflagellate, Trypanosoma brucei. Infection starts with the bite of an infected tsetse fly (Glossina spp.). Parasites move from the site of infection to the draining lymphatic vessels and blood stream. The parasites proliferate within the bloodstream and later invade other tissues including the central nervous system. Once they have established themselves within the CNS, a progressive breakdown of neurological function accompanies the disease. Coma precedes death during this late phase. Two forms of the disease are recognised, one caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, endemic in Eastern and Southern Africa, in which parasites rapidly invade the CNS causing death within weeks if untreated. T. b. gambiense, originally described in West Africa, but also widespread in Central Africa, proliferates more slowly and can take several years before establishing a CNS-involved infection. Many countries are in the midst of epidemics caused by gambiense-type parasites. Four drugs have been licensed to treat the disease [3]; two of them, pentamidine and suramin, are used prior to CNS involvement. The arsenic-based drug, melarsoprol is used once parasites are established in the CNS. The fourth, eflornithine, is effective against late stage disease caused by T. b. gambiense, but is ineffective against T. b. rhodesiense. Another drug, nifurtimox is licensed for South American trypanosomiasis but also been used in trials against melarsoprol-refractory late sage disease. This review focuses on what is known about modes of action of current drugs and discusses targets for future drug development.

  9. KSC kicks off African-American History Month

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Clothed in her traditional African garb, Michelle Amos, mistress of ceremonies, welcomes the audience on Feb. 3 at the kick-off of African-American History Month. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.

  10. Lift every voice: voices of African-American lesbian elders.

    PubMed

    Woody, Imani

    2015-01-01

    Old lesbians of African descent have experienced racism, heterosexism, homophobia, and ageism. This article explores the topics of aging, ageism, heterosexism, and minority stress among older African-American lesbians. The narratives and subsequent analysis offer significant contributions to the dialogue regarding Black aging lesbians in the aging and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities generally and in the African-American and African-American lesbian communities specifically.

  11. Population Genomics of sub-saharan Drosophila melanogaster: African diversity and non-African admixture.

    PubMed

    Pool, John E; Corbett-Detig, Russell B; Sugino, Ryuichi P; Stevens, Kristian A; Cardeno, Charis M; Crepeau, Marc W; Duchen, Pablo; Emerson, J J; Saelao, Perot; Begun, David J; Langley, Charles H

    2012-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has played a pivotal role in the development of modern population genetics. However, many basic questions regarding the demographic and adaptive history of this species remain unresolved. We report the genome sequencing of 139 wild-derived strains of D. melanogaster, representing 22 population samples from the sub-Saharan ancestral range of this species, along with one European population. Most genomes were sequenced above 25X depth from haploid embryos. Results indicated a pervasive influence of non-African admixture in many African populations, motivating the development and application of a novel admixture detection method. Admixture proportions varied among populations, with greater admixture in urban locations. Admixture levels also varied across the genome, with localized peaks and valleys suggestive of a non-neutral introgression process. Genomes from the same location differed starkly in ancestry, suggesting that isolation mechanisms may exist within African populations. After removing putatively admixed genomic segments, the greatest genetic diversity was observed in southern Africa (e.g. Zambia), while diversity in other populations was largely consistent with a geographic expansion from this potentially ancestral region. The European population showed different levels of diversity reduction on each chromosome arm, and some African populations displayed chromosome arm-specific diversity reductions. Inversions in the European sample were associated with strong elevations in diversity across chromosome arms. Genomic scans were conducted to identify loci that may represent targets of positive selection within an African population, between African populations, and between European and African populations. A disproportionate number of candidate selective sweep regions were located near genes with varied roles in gene regulation. Outliers for Europe-Africa F(ST) were found to be enriched in genomic regions of locally elevated

  12. Antineoplastic constituents of some Southern African plants.

    PubMed

    Charlson, A J

    1980-12-01

    Extracts of several Southern African plants which have been used in folk remedies have been prepared, and the extracts were tested in a variety of experimental tumour test-systems. Raphionacme hirsuta and Cheilanthes contracta have been used in African anticancer medicines. Extracts of these plants showed antitumor activity in some rodent test-systems, but the results were not confirmed. In the folk-lore, Haemanthus natalensis has been used in emetics and Urginea capitata preparations have been used to vaccinate African chiefs. Extracts of these plants showed significant cytotoxicity in the KB cell culture test-system. Infusions of Brunsvigia radulosa have been used as folk remedies for abdominal troubles. An extract of this Amaryllis plant increased the life span of P-388 leukaemic mice. Amaryllis bellandonna has also been investigated. Extracts of Amaryllis belladonna had to be fractionated in order to produce significant antitumour activity in the P-388 lymphocytic leukaemia test-system.

  13. IDEAL Symposium on the East African Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, T. C.; Kelts, K.; Lehman, J. T.; Wuest, A.

    A vast array of interdisciplinary problems presented by the African Great Lakes were highlighted at the International Symposium on the Limnology, Climatology and Paleoclimatology of the East African Lakes, organized by the International Decade for the East African Lakes (IDEAL) February 17-21 in Jinja, Uganda. Approximately 125 scientists attended from North America, Europe, Africa, and New Zealand. Jinja is located on the northern shore of Lake Victoria at the head-waters of the Nile and is the site of the host institution for the symposium, the Uganda Freshwater Fisheries Research Organization (UFFRO). The conveners of the symposium were Tom Johnson of Duke University, George Kitaka of UNESCO-ROSTA, and Eric Odada of the University of Nairobi.

  14. Trichomonas vaginalis, HIV, and African-Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Sorvillo, F.; Smith, L.; Kerndt, P.; Ash, L.

    2001-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis may be emerging as one of the most important cofactors in amplifying HIV transmission, particularly in African-American communities of the United States. In a person co-infected with HIV, the pathology induced by T. vaginalis infection can increase HIV shedding. Trichomonas infection may also act to expand the portal of entry for HIV in an HIV-negative person. Studies from Africa have suggested that T. vaginalis infection may increase the rate of HIV transmission by approximately twofold. Available data indicate that T. vaginalis is highly prevalent among African-Americans in major urban centers of the United States and is often the most common sexually transmitted infection in black women. Even if T. vaginalis increases the risk of HIV transmission by a small amount, this could translate into an important amplifying effect since Trichomonas is so common. Substantial HIV transmission may be attributable to T. vaginalis in African-American communities of the United States. PMID:11747718

  15. The Routes of Unity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCartney, Mark; Gibson, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    A model for car following on a closed loop is defined. The stability of the solutions of the model is investigated by considering the evolution of the roots of the corresponding characteristic equation in the complex plane. The solution provides a motivation for investigating the behaviour of the roots of a simple class of algebraic equation.…

  16. The Maghreb: Building Unity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-29

    necoaauy a" Idenl ty by block number) The Arab Maghreb Union (AMU) was born in Marrakech on February 17, 1989. It is composed of five countries--Morocco...Study Project DATE: March 1990 PAGES: 32 CLASSIFICATION: Unclassified The Arab Maghreb Union (AMU) was born in Marrakech on February 17, 1989. It is...living under strange and even very strained relations. Finally, on February 17, 1989, in Marrakech , joined by Libya and Mauritania, they decided to unite

  17. When unity makes strength

    PubMed Central

    Messaoudene, Meriem; Avril, Marie-Françoise; Caignard, Anne

    2014-01-01

    In metastatic melanoma patients, circulating natural killer (NK) cells display phenotypic and functional alterations that appear to correlate with the duration of stage IV disease. Moreover, specific NK cell subsets that exhibit robust tumoricidal functions upon activation by cytokines infiltrate the diseased lymph nodes of these patients. These data suggest that NK cells may be harnessed for the development of novel combinatorial immunotherapies against melanoma. PMID:25340005

  18. Model of flavor unity

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.E.

    1980-12-15

    An SU(7) model is presented toward a flavor unification for known particles. The t quark is not a partner of the b quark. There are three types of neutrinos and several: so far unobserved: light detectable particles (masses <300 GeV): a doubly charged lepton T/sup - -/, a Q=-4/3 quark x, and a Q=5/3 quark y. An intermediate mass scale is a necessity and there is no problem of magnetic monopoles.

  19. Cancer statistics for African Americans, 2013.

    PubMed

    DeSantis, Carol; Naishadham, Deepa; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2013-05-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society estimates the number of new cancer cases and deaths for African Americans and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and screening prevalence based upon incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. It is estimated that 176,620 new cases of cancer and 64,880 deaths will occur among African Americans in 2013. From 2000 to 2009, the overall cancer death rate among males declined faster among African Americans than whites (2.4% vs 1.7% per year), but among females, the rate of decline was similar (1.5% vs 1.4% per year, respectively). The decrease in cancer death rates among African American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. The reduction in overall cancer death rates since 1990 in men and 1991 in women translates to the avoidance of nearly 200,000 deaths from cancer among African Americans. Five-year relative survival is lower for African Americans than whites for most cancers at each stage of diagnosis. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors remains an active area of research. Overall, progress in reducing cancer death rates has been made, although more can and should be done to accelerate this progress through ensuring equitable access to cancer prevention, early detection, and state-of-the-art treatments.

  20. The management of hypertension in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, Keith C; Armani, Annemarie M

    2007-06-01

    The prevalence of hypertension in blacks in the United States is among the highest in the world. Compared with whites, blacks develop hypertension at an earlier age, their average blood pressures are much higher and they experience worse disease severity. Consequently, blacks have a 1.3 times greater rate of nonfatal stroke, 1.8 times greater rate of fatal stroke, 1.5 times greater rate of heart disease death, 4.2 times greater rate of end-stage kidney disease, and a 50% higher frequency of heart failure; overall, mortality due to hypertension and its consequences is 4 to 5 times more likely in African Americans than in whites. The increased prevalence of hypertension and excessive target organ damage is due to a combination of genetic and, most likely, environmental factors. There are no clinical trial data at present to suggest that lower-than-usual BP targets should be set for high-risk demographic groups such as African Americans. The primary means of prevention and early treatment of hypertension in African Americans will be the appropriate use of lifestyle modification. The International Society of Hypertension in Blacks guidelines realize that most patients will require combination therapy, many of them first-line, to reach appropriate BP goals. Although certain classes and combinations of antihypertensive agents have been well-established to be effective, the choice of drugs for combination therapy in African American patients may be different. Within the African American group, the responsiveness to monotherapy with ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and beta blockers may be less than the responsiveness to diuretics and calcium channel blockers, but these differences are corrected when diuretics are added to the neurohormonal antagonists. Of note, African American patients with systolic BP >15 mm Hg or a diastolic BP >10 mm Hg above goal should be treated with first-line combination therapy.

  1. Assessing the contributions of East African and West Pacific warming to the 2014 boreal spring East African drought

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, Christopher C.; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Hoell, Andrew; Livneh, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic warming contributed to the 2014 East African drought by increasing East African and west Pacific temperatures, and increasing the gradient between standardized western and central Pacific SST causing reduced rainfall, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture.

  2. Oral Cancer in African Americans: Addressing Health Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Virginia J.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Choi, Youjin; Tomar, Scott L.; Logan, Henrietta L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To explore factors underlying African Americans' perceptions of oral cancer and the oral cancer exam. Study findings were used to guide development of oral cancer messages designed to increase oral cancer exams among African Americans. Methods: Focus groups were conducted to understand African Americans' attitudes and expectations…

  3. African American Acculturation and Black Racial Identity: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope-Davis, Donald B.; Liu, William M.; Ledesma-Jones, Shannon; Nevitt, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    Examines the relationship between acculturation and racial identity among African Americans. One hundred eighty-seven African American students completed the Black Racial Identity Attitude Scale and the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS). Acculturation was associated with three of the five AAAS subscales: Dissonance, Immersion, and…

  4. Exposure of African-American Youth to Alcohol Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The marketing of alcohol products in African-American communities has, on occasion, stirred national controversy and met with fierce resistance from African Americans and others. Despite occasional media and community spotlights on the marketing of alcohol products in the African-American community, there has been no systematic review of the…

  5. Teaching African Politics at American Colleges and Universities: A Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenski, Henry C.; Kenski, Margaret C.

    Political scientists who teach African politics courses at U.S. colleges and universities were surveyed in 1973 to (1) discover successful teaching techniques, approaches, and texts; (2) determine the popularity of courses in African politics; and (3) collect data on the status of African politics as a research area. A questionnaire was mailed to…

  6. Neo-African Literature: A History of Black Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahn, Janheinz

    Chapters in this book classify the literature reflecting the overlap of African and Western cultures according to its content, stylistic features, and patterns of literary expression. Areas covered are (1) early writers of African descent; (2) the African scene--oral, Afro-Arabic, "apprentice" and "protest," and Southern Bantu literatures; (3) the…

  7. Exploring How African American Faculty Cope with Classroom Racial Stressors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Chavella T.

    2010-01-01

    This study was an examination of how African American faculty discussed their coping with racially stressful classrooms. Despite aims for racial equality in higher education, the classroom has been a significant site of racial stressors for African American facility. Analysis of interviews with 16 (8 women, 8 men) African American faculty at a…

  8. Engaging Youth through African-Derived Dance and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Kikora

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of African and African-derived dance and culture and highlights the physical health, dance education, historical, and cultural benefits of a school-based program that incorporates African dance as its core component. The article also includes the phases of the programming and brings attention to potential…

  9. The Notion of Ubuntu and Communalism in African Educational Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venter, Elza

    2004-01-01

    The notion of "ubuntu" and "communalism" is of great importance in an African educational discourse, as well as in African Philosophy of Education and in African philosophical discourse. "Ubuntu" is a philosophy that promotes the common good of society and includes humanness as an essential element of human growth. In…

  10. Achievement and Underachievement: The Experiences of African Caribbeans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhamie, Jasmine

    2012-01-01

    The disproportionate representation of African Caribbeans in all the negative educational statistics has been well documented. Despite this, there are African Caribbeans who achieve academically but relatively few studies have explored this area. This study aimed to investigate the factors that contribute to African Caribbean academic success,…

  11. African-American Males' Health Perceptions and Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeal, CoSandra; Perkins, Isaac; Lyons, Shenia

    2006-01-01

    Research on African American men's health is limited. Perception and knowledge of health may have a significant effect on health seeking behavior and self care. This study was designed to examine factors that may influence health perception and knowledge among African American males. This is a cross-sectional study of 343 African American males…

  12. Perceptions of Domestic Violence: A Dialogue with African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bent-Goodley, Tricia B.

    2004-01-01

    Although empirical research has accumulated over the past 20 years regarding African Americans and domestic violence, many questions remain about African American perceptions of domestic violence. This article explores African American women's perceptions about domestic violence through three focus groups held at a New York social services agency.…

  13. African American Educational Leadership in the School Superintendency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Eva C.

    2013-01-01

    African American educational leadership has long been part of American education and African American activism to resist oppression. However, the field of educational leadership has rarely included the contributions of African American leaders, particularly women leaders, into mainstream leadership theory and practices. This omission is difficult…

  14. Some Growth Points in African Child Development Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serpell, Robert; Marfo, Kofi

    2014-01-01

    We reflect on ways in which research presented in earlier chapters responds to challenges of generating an African child development field and identify additional issues calling for the field's attention. The chapters collectively display a variety of African contexts and reflexive evidence of the authors' African cultural roots. Connecting…

  15. 77 FR 5375 - National African American History Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8776 of January 31, 2012 National African American History Month, 2012 By the... for the better. During National African American History Month, we celebrate the rich legacy of... African American women are not limited to those recorded and retold in our history books. Their impact...

  16. 76 FR 6519 - National African American History Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... February 4, 2011 Part II The President Proclamation 8627--National African American History Month, 2011 #0..., 2011 National African American History Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A... breaking down barriers. During National African American History Month, we celebrate the vast...

  17. From Crisis to Empowerment: African American Women in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Marcie Ann

    2012-01-01

    Social challenges tear at the fabric of the African American family, revealing complexities that identify a de facto leader, the African American woman. She exists in a chasm of overt circumstances which heavily influences her successes. The purpose of this study is to identify factors that motivated seven female African American community college…

  18. The African Storybook and Language Teacher Identity in Digital Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stranger--Johannessen, Espen; Norton, Bonny

    2017-01-01

    The African Storybook (ASb) is a digital initiative that promotes multilingual literacy for African children by providing openly licenced children's stories in multiple African languages, as well as English, French, and Portuguese. Based on Darvin and Norton's (2015) model of identity and investment, and drawing on the Douglas Fir Group's (2016)…

  19. Barriers to Hospice Use among African Americans: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Karla T.; Bickel-Swenson, Denise; Stephens, Nathan

    2008-01-01

    The present review was undertaken to explore recent evidence in the professional literature pertaining to use of hospice services by African Americans. The article addresses the research methods that have been used to study African American hospice use, obstacles to African American participation in hospice that have been identified, and…

  20. Persistence among African American Males in the Honors College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson Goins, Johnell Roxann

    2014-01-01

    Retaining African American students, specifically African American males, is an issue that plagues the American higher education system. Research shows that African American male students are the lowest represented group in the gifted studies programs (Ford, 2010). Lockie and Burke (1999); Chen and DeJardins (2010) and Bell (2010a) found that…

  1. African American Males in Counseling: Who's Pulling the Trigger Now?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethea-Whitfield, Patricia

    African American males face numerous challenges to their physical and psychological well-being. This project is a survey of the literature and trends relative to African American males from 1987 to the present. In reviewing the fifteen years since Parham and McDavis published their now famous article on African American men as an endangered…

  2. Student-Centered Designs of Pan-African Literature Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    M'Baye, Babacar

    2010-01-01

    A student-centered teaching methodology is an essential ingredient of a successful Pan-African literary course. In this article, the author defines Pan-Africanism and how to go about designing a Pan-African literature course. The author combines reading assignments with journals, film presentations, and lectures in a productive learning…

  3. Representing African American Women in U.S. History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schocker, Jessica B.; Woyshner, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the dearth of African American women in high school U.S. history textbooks. The authors conducted a content analysis of the images in an African American history textbook and found that black women are underrepresented. Women are found in less than 15 percent of the images in the African American history text, while they…

  4. Empowerment Groups for Urban African American Girls: A Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl C.

    2005-01-01

    Although the author wanted to read Bemak, Chung, and Siroskey-Sabdo's article in an objective sense, her response to their article is most likely influenced by her own experiences as an African American female and mother of an African American daughter. To her, the paramount issue facing African American females is the double and sometimes triple…

  5. Women of African Descent: Persistence in Completing Doctorates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iddrisu, Vannetta Bailey

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the educational persistence of women of African descent (WOAD) in pursuit of a doctorate degree at universities in the southeastern United States. WOAD are women of African ancestry born outside the African continent. These women are heirs to an inner dogged determination and spirit to survive despite all odds (Pulliam, 2003,…

  6. Against the Wind: Five South Africans Follow Their Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lesley

    This book for beginning readers tells the story of five South Africans who, though not very famous, all did things that no black South African had ever done before. They include: Simon Mkhize who, year after year, ran the Comrades Marathon unofficially, ignoring its racial bans; Magema M. Fuze, who was the first black South African to publish a…

  7. An Exploration of African American Students' Attitudes toward Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okwumabua, Theresa M.; Walker, Kristin M.; Hu, Xiangen; Watson, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The current work presents exploratory research findings concerning African American students' attitudes toward online learning. The Online Tutoring Attitudes Scale (OTAS; Graff, 2003) was administered to 124 African American students in a positive youth development program. Findings suggest that African American students' attitudes toward…

  8. Perceived Attractiveness, Facial Features, and African Self-Consciousness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, John W., Jr.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigated relationships between perceived attractiveness, facial features, and African self-consciousness (ASC) among 149 African American college students. As predicted, high ASC subjects used more positive adjectives in descriptions of strong African facial features than did medium or low ASC subjects. Results are discussed in the context of…

  9. African Education Research. Part One: Issues and Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Ross Edgar

    This study of 416 African Education Research (AER) projects was conducted to: (a) provide information on current studies by Africans on African education; (b) provide a framework for critical analysis of research based on a classification of the issues; and (c) provide a listing and discussion of continuing research resources which would aid…

  10. Diversity and origin of South African chickens.

    PubMed

    Mtileni, B J; Muchadeyi, F C; Maiwashe, A; Chimonyo, M; Groeneveld, E; Weigend, S; Dzama, K

    2011-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to analyze the genetic diversity and structure of South African conserved and field chicken populations and to investigate the maternal lineages of these chicken populations. Four South African conserved chicken populations (n = 89), namely, Venda (VD_C), Ovambo, Naked Neck, and Potchefstroom Koekoek from the Animal Production Institute of the Agricultural Research Council, and 2 field populations, the Venda and Ovambo (OV_F), from which the Ovambo and the Venda conservation flocks were assumed to have been sampled, were genotyped for 460 bp of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequence. Haplotypes of these chickens were aligned to 7 Japanese and 9 Chinese and Eurasian chicken mtDNA D-loop sequences taken from GenBank and reflecting populations from presumed centers of domestication. Sequence analysis revealed 48 polymorphic sites that defined 13 haplotypes in the South African chicken populations. All 6 South African conserved and field chicken populations observed were found to be polymorphic, with the number of haplotypes ranging from 3 for VD_C to 8 for OV_F. The lowest haplotype diversity, 0.54 ± 0.08, was observed in VD_C chickens, whereas the highest value, 0.88 ± 0.05, was observed in OV_F chickens. Genetic diversity between the 4 South African conserved and 2 field chicken populations constituted 12.34% of the total genetic variation, whereas within-population diversity constituted 87.66% of the total variation. The median network analysis of the mtDNA D-loop haplotypes observed in the South African conserved and field populations and the reference set resulted in 5 main clades. All 6 South African chickens were equally represented in the major clade, E, which is presumed to be of Indian subcontinent maternal origin and may have its roots in Southeast Asia. The results showed multiple maternal lineages of South African chickens. Conservation flocks and field chicken populations shared the major haplotypes A, D and E

  11. Mammary gland tumors in captive African hedgehogs.

    PubMed

    Raymond, J T; Gerner, M

    2000-04-01

    From December 1995 to July 1999, eight mammary gland tumors were diagnosed in eight adult captive female African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris). The tumors presented as single or multiple subcutaneous masses along the cranial or caudal abdomen that varied in size for each hedgehog. Histologically, seven of eight (88%) mammary gland tumors were malignant. Tumors were classified as solid (4 cases), tubular (2 cases), and papillary (2 cases). Seven tumors had infiltrated into the surrounding stroma and three tumors had histologic evidence of neoplastic vascular invasion. Three hedgehogs had concurrent neoplasms. These are believed to be the first reported cases of mammary gland tumors in African hedgehogs.

  12. E-Voting: A South African Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanepoel, E.; Thomson, K.; van Niekerk, J. F.

    The South African democracy, despite being worthy of admiration, is in its infancy. As such its electoral processes still needs to be nurtured and protected. Since 1994 there has been four national elections. All of these have been declared "free and fair" by the Independent Electoral Commission. However, there has been some problems and growing pains. This paper firstly discusses the current electoral system in South Africa. It then examines E-voting systems and discusses the feasibility of such a voting system for use in the South African context.

  13. The African VLBI network project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loots, Anita

    2015-01-01

    larger teams in science, engineering and technology issues and collaborate with the broader global science community to develop new African radio astronomy science communities.

  14. Epidemiology of human African trypanosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Jose R; Simarro, Pere P; Diarra, Abdoulaye; Jannin, Jean G

    2014-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), or sleeping sickness, is caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, which is a chronic form of the disease present in western and central Africa, and by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, which is an acute disease located in eastern and southern Africa. The rhodesiense form is a zoonosis, with the occasional infection of humans, but in the gambiense form, the human being is regarded as the main reservoir that plays a key role in the transmission cycle of the disease. The gambiense form currently assumes that 98% of the cases are declared; the Democratic Republic of the Congo is the most affected country, with more than 75% of the gambiense cases declared. The epidemiology of the disease is mediated by the interaction of the parasite (trypanosome) with the vectors (tsetse flies), as well as with the human and animal hosts within a particular environment. Related to these interactions, the disease is confined in spatially limited areas called “foci”, which are located in Sub-Saharan Africa, mainly in remote rural areas. The risk of contracting HAT is, therefore, determined by the possibility of contact of a human being with an infected tsetse fly. Epidemics of HAT were described at the beginning of the 20th century; intensive activities have been set up to confront the disease, and it was under control in the 1960s, with fewer than 5,000 cases reported in the whole continent. The disease resurged at the end of the 1990s, but renewed efforts from endemic countries, cooperation agencies, and nongovernmental organizations led by the World Health Organization succeeded to raise awareness and resources, while reinforcing national programs, reversing the trend of the cases reported, and bringing the disease under control again. In this context, sustainable elimination of the gambiense HAT, defined as the interruption of the transmission of the disease, was considered as a feasible target for 2030. Since rhodesiense HAT is a zoonosis

  15. "Brothers Gonna Work It Out:" Understanding the Pedagogic Performance of African American Male Teachers Working with African American Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony L.

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from ethnographic data, this paper explores how African American male teachers working with African American male students performed their pedagogy. This paper highlights how teachers' understanding of African American males social and educational needs shaped their pedagogical performance. Interestingly however, teachers' performance was…

  16. "Now the African reigns supreme": the rise of African boxing on the Witwatersrand, 1924-1959.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Tyler

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores the growth of boxing among the African populations on the Witwatersrand region of South Africa between 1924 and 1959. It details how the sport's jump in popularity with Africans paralleled migration to Johannesburg. Africans increasingly saw boxing as an activity and skill conducive with survival in this new environment, and thus the sport grew in popularity, stature, and skill-level amongst this emergent urban population. The essay further explores the various ways that the sport was disseminated and popularized during the era, thus detailing how the sport reached both the African masses and petit-bourgeois educated elite. As their presence in Johannesburg became more and more permanent, boxing came to encompass various meanings and ideals, such as notions of discipline, independence and civility, to these urban populations.

  17. The African Renaissance and its relation to the geosciences: a South African perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mtimkulu, M. N.; Motloung, M.; Graham, I. T.; Eriksson, P. G.; Bumby, A. J.

    2001-08-01

    Implicit in the African Renaissance is the synergy between government, the private sector, the educated minority and the disadvantaged majority. For this concept to work, belief and commitment must arise first from the African individual, whatever his or her potential contribution may be. The geosciences in South Africa provide a currently vibrant example of such cooperation, which has the potential to contribute significantly to the upliftment of the country and its neighbouring states. Based largely on personal interviews with various role players, from the Presidency of South Africa, through ministerial levels, the corporate sector and down to the individual, we present a spectrum of viewpoints and initiatives which are starting to result in practical implementation of the African revival. An end to conflict and xenophobia, the entrenchment of democratic government and corporate expression of the entrepreneurial spirit are essential to provide the framework within which the individual African can become a "Renaissance Man or Woman".

  18. African-American mitochondrial DNAs often match mtDNAs found in multiple African ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    Ely, Bert; Wilson, Jamie Lee; Jackson, Fatimah; Jackson, Bruce A

    2006-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes have become popular tools for tracing maternal ancestry, and several companies offer this service to the general public. Numerous studies have demonstrated that human mtDNA haplotypes can be used with confidence to identify the continent where the haplotype originated. Ideally, mtDNA haplotypes could also be used to identify a particular country or ethnic group from which the maternal ancestor emanated. However, the geographic distribution of mtDNA haplotypes is greatly influenced by the movement of both individuals and population groups. Consequently, common mtDNA haplotypes are shared among multiple ethnic groups. We have studied the distribution of mtDNA haplotypes among West African ethnic groups to determine how often mtDNA haplotypes can be used to reconnect Americans of African descent to a country or ethnic group of a maternal African ancestor. The nucleotide sequence of the mtDNA hypervariable segment I (HVS-I) usually provides sufficient information to assign a particular mtDNA to the proper haplogroup, and it contains most of the variation that is available to distinguish a particular mtDNA haplotype from closely related haplotypes. In this study, samples of general African-American and specific Gullah/Geechee HVS-I haplotypes were compared with two databases of HVS-I haplotypes from sub-Saharan Africa, and the incidence of perfect matches recorded for each sample. Results When two independent African-American samples were analyzed, more than half of the sampled HVS-I mtDNA haplotypes exactly matched common haplotypes that were shared among multiple African ethnic groups. Another 40% did not match any sequence in the database, and fewer than 10% were an exact match to a sequence from a single African ethnic group. Differences in the regional distribution of haplotypes were observed in the African database, and the African-American haplotypes were more likely to match haplotypes found in ethnic groups from

  19. African-American women and abortion: a neglected history.

    PubMed

    Ross, L J

    1992-01-01

    The history of African-American women's efforts to control their fertility is largely unknown. From slavery to the present, the growth rate of the African-American population has been cut in half. Demographers and historians frequently attribute this change to external factors such as poverty, disease, and coerced birth control, rather than the deliberate agency of African-American women. This essay assembles a brief historical record of the ways African-American women have sought to control their fertility through the use of abortion and birth control. It also examines the activism of African-American women in the establishment of family planning clinics and in defense of abortion rights.

  20. An Exploration of African Students in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lian, Irene Tan Ai

    2011-01-01

    The exploratory study is an attempt to understand the reasons that prompted African students to study in Malaysia, the challenges encountered and the coping strategies used. The research on such topics among international students is well documented, but studies on international students in Malaysia are scarce. The sample included 155 African…