This paper critically examines the morality of advertising by practitioners in spiritual healing and herbal medicine heretofore referred to as traditional medicine, in southern African urban societies. While the subject of traditional medicine has been heavily contested in medical studies in the last few decades, the monumental studies on the subject have emphasised the place of traditional medicine in basic health services. Insignificant attention has been devoted to examine the ethical problems associated with traditional medicine advertising. Critical look at the worthiness of some advertising strategies used by practitioners in traditional medicine in launching their products and services on market thus has been largely ignored. Yet, though advertising is key to helping traditional medicine practitioners' products and services known by prospective customers, this research registers a number of morally negative effects that seem to outweigh the merits that the activity brings to prospective customers. The paper adopts southern African urban societies, and in particular Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe as particular references. The choice of the trio is not accidental, but based on the fact that these countries have in the last few decades been flooded with traditional medicine practitioners/traditional healers from within the continent and from abroad. Most of these practitioners use immoral advertising strategies in communicating to the public the products and services they offer. It is against this background that this paper examines the morality of advertising strategies deployed by practitioners in launching their products and services. To examine the moral worthiness of the advertising strategies used by traditional medical practitioners, I used qualitative analysis of street adverts as well as electronic and print media. From the results obtained through thematic content analysis, the paper concludes that most of the practitioners in traditional
This paper critically examines the morality of advertising by practitioners in spiritual healing and herbal medicine heretofore referred to as traditional medicine, in southern African urban societies. While the subject of traditional medicine has been heavily contested in medical studies in the last few decades, the monumental studies on the subject have emphasised the place of traditional medicine in basic health services. Insignificant attention has been devoted to examine the ethical problems associated with traditional medicine advertising. Critical look at the worthiness of some advertising strategies used by practitioners in traditional medicine in launching their products and services on market thus has been largely ignored. Yet, though advertising is key to helping traditional medicine practitioners’ products and services known by prospective customers, this research registers a number of morally negative effects that seem to outweigh the merits that the activity brings to prospective customers. The paper adopts southern African urban societies, and in particular Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe as particular references. The choice of the trio is not accidental, but based on the fact that these countries have in the last few decades been flooded with traditional medicine practitioners/traditional healers from within the continent and from abroad. Most of these practitioners use immoral advertising strategies in communicating to the public the products and services they offer. It is against this background that this paper examines the morality of advertising strategies deployed by practitioners in launching their products and services. To examine the moral worthiness of the advertising strategies used by traditional medical practitioners, I used qualitative analysis of street adverts as well as electronic and print media. From the results obtained through thematic content analysis, the paper concludes that most of the practitioners in traditional
Underwood, Willard A.; Ferguson, Ralph E.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the increasing migration of African tribal members to urban centers and the resulting redefinition of cultural norms, social pressures, and human needs. First, several misconceptions about African societies are examined by briefly reviewing Africa's tribal history. Next, the phenomenon of tribalism is…
JONES, ARTHUR R., JR.; TAYLOR, LEE
WIDESPREAD CHANGES IN RURAL AMERICAN LIFE HAVE RESULTED IN THE CONCEPT OF URBANIZED SOCIAL ORGANIZATION--THE REACTION AND INTERACTION OF RURAL AND URBAN CITIZENS TO THE SAME PATTERN OF SOCIAL ORGANIZATION. THE ENTIRE POPULATION HAS BECOME SUBJECT TO URBAN-DERIVED SOCIAL STRUCTURES. FACTORS SUCH AS TRANSPORTATION IMPROVEMENT AND MASS MEDIA…
Joseph, Dawn; Human, Rene
This paper explores the notion of African music as a way forward to negotiate a "space" in contemporary society. The word "space" is used as a metaphor to explore and experiment with the dynamics of culture and hybridity. The authors view themselves as "agents of change" and knowledgeable professionals in the teaching…
Smith, Tyler K; Tandon, S Darius; Bair-Merritt, Megan H; Hanson, Janice L
Fathers play a critical role in children's development; similarly, fatherhood positively affects men's health. Among the larger population of fathers relatively little is known about the parenting knowledge of urban, African American fathers. Focusing on urban, African American fathers, the objectives of this study were to (1) understand the primary sources from which fathers learn about parenting, (2) determine where and how fathers prefer to receive future parenting education, and (3) explore the information perceived as most valuable to fathers and how this compares with the recommended anticipatory guidance (Bright Futures-based) delivered during well visits. Five focus groups, with a total of 21 participants, were conducted with urban fathers at a community-based organization. Study eligibility included being more than 18 years old, English speaking, and having at least one child 0 to 5 years old. During the focus groups, fathers were asked where they received parenting information, how and where they preferred to receive parenting information, and what they thought about Bright Futures parenting guidelines. Fathers most commonly described receiving parenting information from their own relatives rather than from their child's health care provider. Most fathers preferred to learn parenting from a person rather than a technology-based source and expressed interest in learning more about parenting at community-based locations. Although fathers viewed health care providers' role as primarily teaching about physical health, they valued Bright Futures anticipatory guidance about parenting. Fathers valued learning about child rearing, health, and development. Augmenting physician counseling about Bright Futures with community-based parenting education may be beneficial for fathers.
Jones, Sheila Kay
Low test scores in science and fewer career choices in science among African American high school students than their White counterparts has resulted in lower interest during high school and an underrepresentation of African Americans in science and engineering fields. Reasons for this underachievement are not known. This qualitative study used a grounded theory methodology to examine what influence parental involvement, ethnic identity, and early mentoring had on the academic achievement in science and career choice in science of African American urban high school 10th grade students. Using semi-structured open-ended questions in individual interviews and focus groups, twenty participants responded to questions about African American urban high school student achievement in science and their career choice in science. The median age of participants was 15 years; 85% had passed either high school biology or physical science. The findings of the study revealed influences and interactions of selected factors on African American urban high school achievement in science. Sensing potential emerged as the overarching theme with six subthemes; A Taste of Knowledge, Sounds I Hear, Aromatic Barriers, What Others See, The Touch of Others, and The Sixth Sense. These themes correlate to the natural senses of the human body. A disconnect between what science is, their own individual learning and success, and what their participation in science could mean for them and the future of the larger society. Insight into appropriate intervention strategies to improve African American urban high school achievement in science was gained.
Miller, Edgar R.; Cooper, Lisa A.; Carson, Kathryn A.; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Appel, Lawrence J.; Gayles, Debra; Charleston, Jeanne; White, Karen; You, Na; Weng, Yingjie; Martin-Daniels, L. Michelle; Bates-Hopkins, Barbara; Robb, Inez; Franz, Whitney K.; Brown, Emily L.; Halbert, Jennifer P.; Albert, Michael C.; Dalcin, Arlene T.; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh
Introduction Unhealthy diets, often low in potassium, likely contribute to racial disparities in blood pressure. We tested the effectiveness of providing weekly dietary advice, assistance with selection of higher potassium grocery items, and a $30 per week food allowance on blood pressure and other outcomes in African American adults with hypertension. Design We conducted an 8-week RCT with two parallel arms between May 2012 and November 2013. Setting/participants We randomized 123 African Americans with controlled hypertension from an urban primary care clinic in Baltimore, Maryland and implemented the trial in partnership with a community supermarket and the Baltimore City Health Department. Mean (SD) age was 58.6 (9.5) years, 71% were female, blood pressure was 131.3 (14.7)/77.2 (10.5) mmHg, BMI was 34.5 (8.2) kg/m2, and 28% had diabetes. Intervention Participants randomized to the active intervention group (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension [DASH]-Plus) received coach-directed dietary advice and assistance with weekly online ordering and purchasing of high-potassium foods ($30/week) delivered by a community supermarket to a neighborhood library. Participants in the control group received a printed DASH diet brochure along with debit account of equivalent value to that of the DASH-Plus group. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was blood pressure change. Analyses were conducted in January to October 2014. Results Compared with the control group, the DASH-Plus group increased self-reported consumption of fruits and vegetables (mean=1.4, 95% CI=0.7, 2.1 servings/day), estimated intake of potassium (mean=0.4, 95% CI=0.1, 0.7 grams/day), and urine potassium excretion (mean=19%, 95% CI=1%, 38%). There was no significant effect on blood pressure. Conclusions A program providing dietary advice, assistance with grocery ordering, and $30/week of high-potassium foods in African American patients with controlled hypertension in a community-based clinic did not
Tripathi, N. G.; Bedi, P.
Urban greens are integral components of urban ecosystem, contributing towards quality of life and sustainable urban development. Urban greens can help in creating Low Carbon Society (LCS) by playing an integral role through sequestering carbon. India is undergoing significant change in the process and pace of its urbanization. As the growing population becomes more urban, the importance of the way urban areas are developed and managed will be a central point of intervention for addressing climate change and maintaining low carbon trajectories in Indian cities.
Krummel, J.R.; Markin, J.B.; O'Neill, R.V.
Regional analyses of the interaction between human populations and natural resources must integrate landscape scale environmental problems. An approach that considers human culture, environmental processes, and resource needs offers an appropriate methodology. With this methodology, we analyze problems of food availability in African cattle-keeping societies. The analysis interrelates cattle biomass, forage availability, milk and blood production, crop yields, gathering, food subsidies, population, and variable precipitation. While an excess of cattle leads to overgrazing, cattle also serve as valuable food storage mechanisms during low rainfall periods. Food subsidies support higher population levels but do not alter drought-induced population fluctuations. Variable precipitation patterns require solutions that stabilize year-to-year food production and also address problems of overpopulation.
This study was designed to examine urban African American girls' participation in physical education and its association with academic performance. One hundred eighty four participants completed questionnaires assessing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and learning engagement in physical education while their academic performance was based…
The goal of this writing is to introduce the reader to the urban fiction genre, explore why adolescent African American girls may be engaging with novels from the genre, and how teachers may be able to use texts from the genre to increase literacy skills.
Owens, Delila; Simmons, Robert W., III; Bryant, Rhonda M.; Henfield, Malik
Using a qualitative framework, researchers explored urban African American male students' perceptions of their school counselors and the ways to improve school counseling services. While participants reported positive feelings toward their school counselors, they identified specific services school counselors can offer them to optimize academic…
Simonis, Ingo; Engelbrecht, Francois; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Mercogliano, Paola; Naidoo, Mogesh
Mainly driven by changes in the orbital characteristics of Earth around the sun, the planet's climate has been continuously changing over periods of tens of thousands of years. However, the warming that has been detected in the Earth's atmosphere over the last century is occurring at a rate that cannot be explained by any known natural cycle. Main-stream science has indeed reached consensus that the 'enhanced green house effect', caused by the interplay of incoming short-wave irradiation, outgoing long-wave radiation and the absorption of energy by enhanced levels of CO2 and water vapour in the troposphere, is the main forcing mechanism responsible for the phenomena of global warming. The enhanced greenhouse effect strengthens the 'natural green house effect' that results from the CO2 and water vapour occurring naturally in the atmosphere. The continuous burning of fossil fuels since the industrial revolution and the simultaneous degradation of large forests, are the main reasons for the increase in CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. The availability of climate change projection data varies considerably for different areas on Earth. Whereas the data centres storing climate change projections for Europe and North America now store petabytes of data, regionally downscaled projections for Africa are rarely available. In the context of the research project CLUVA, (Assessing vulnerability of urban systems, populations and goods in relation to natural and man-made disasters in Africa, co-funded by the European Commission under grant agreement no: 265137), the Council for Industrial and Scientific Research (CSIR) in South Africa and the Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC) in Italy have produced a large set of projections of climate change over Africa, covering the time period 1950 to 2100. Through the collaboration between CMCC and CSIR, a multi-model ensemble of eight high-resolution simulations of climate change over parts of West and East
Replacements resulting from competition are ubiquitous phenomena in both nature and society. The evolution of a self-organized system is always a physical process substituting one type of components for another type of components. A logistic model of replacement dynamics has been proposed in terms of technical innovation and urbanization, but it fails to arouse widespread attention in the academia. This paper is devoted to laying the foundations of general replacement principle by using analogy and induction. The empirical base of this study is urban replacement, including urbanization and urban growth. The sigmoid functions can be employed to model various processes of replacement. Many mathematical methods such as allometric scaling and head/tail breaks can be applied to analyzing the processes and patterns of replacement. Among varied sigmoid functions, the logistic function is the basic and the simplest model of replacement dynamics. A new finding is that replacement can be associated with chaos in a nonlinear system, e.g., urban chaos is just a part of replacement dynamics. The aim of developing replacement theory is at understanding complex interaction and conversion. This theory provides a new way of looking at urbanization, technological innovation and diffusion, Volterra-Lotka’s predator-prey interaction, man-land relation, and dynastic changes resulting from peasant uprising, and all that. Especially, the periodic oscillations and chaos of replacement dynamics can be used to explain and predict the catastrophic occurrences in the physical and human systems.
Baker, Christina M; Staiano, Amanda E; Calvert, Sandra L
Digital production is a means through which African American adolescents communicate and express their experiences with peers. This study examined the content and the form of the digital productions of 24 urban, low-income African American adolescents who attended a summer academic program. The content of student digital productions focused on academic experiences and friendships. Their production styles revealed that youth used perceptually salient production features, such as rapid scene changes and loud rap music. The results suggest that when placed in a supportive, academic environment and provided with digital production resources, students who traditionally face barriers due to cultural and economic inequalities digitally express to their peers an interest in academics and positive peer relationships, and that these youth communicate their experiences through a shared production style that reflects their broader cultural experiences.
Ahmed, Rashid; Ports, Katie A.; Simon, Christian
South African youth in low-income, urbanized communities are exposed to high levels of daily stressors, which increase their risk to negative outcomes. Resiliency can provide avenues for youth to transcend adversity and may contribute to their positive development. To provide a deeper understanding of the pathways that adolescents use to overcome adversity, this paper examined future aspirations of South African youth, and how these aspirations were connected to resiliency factors framed by their lived context. A phenomenological approach was used to explore the perceptions of high school students. Fourteen focus groups with girls and boys (N=112) were conducted. Data was analyzed using a thematic approach. Discussions of the harsh conditions undermining the community’s future highlighted opportunities for improvement. Community connectedness, hope and altruism were prevalent in youth’s responses and could be used to facilitate community and individual resiliency. Our overall findings have important implications for positive youth development efforts. PMID:25897181
Adams Tucker, Leigh; George, Gavin; Reardon, Candice; Panday, Saadhna
Objective: Drawing on the perceptions of various key stakeholders, the paper explores the strengths and limitations of involving civil society organisations in the delivery of HIV and AIDS and sexuality education in South African schools. Design: Qualitative study with a cross-sectional design. Setting: Research was conducted at 16 public…
This study examined the effective strategies, resources, and programs urban superintendents utilize to improve the academic achievement for African-American males. This study employed a mixed-methods approach to answer the following research questions regarding urban superintendents and the academic achievement for African-American males: What…
Tandon, Darius S.; Solomon, Barry S.
There is limited understanding of risk and protective factors associated with depression among African American adolescents living in impoverished, urban settings. A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify a range of risk and protective factors associated with depressive symptoms among low-income urban African American adolescents. The…
Newcomb, Whitney Sherman; Niemeyer, Arielle
African American women leaders are often found in urban schools that have been exhausted of resources and lack support. However, due to their disproportionate representation in urban schools, African American women principals have become adept at uniting and engaging stakeholders in marginalized school settings into action. The intent for this…
Pahl, Kerstin; Brook, David W; Morojele, Neo K; Brook, Judith S
Tobacco use and its concomitant, nicotine dependence, are increasing in African countries and other parts of the developing world. However, little research has assessed nicotine dependence in South Africa or other parts of the African continent. Previous research has found that adolescent problem behaviors, including tobacco use, tend to cluster. This study examined the relationship between nicotine dependence and adolescent problem behaviors in an ethnically diverse sample of urban South African adolescents. A community sample (N = 731) consisting of "Black," "White," "Coloured," and "Indian" youths aged 12-17 years was drawn from the Johannesburg metropolitan area. Structured interviews were administered by trained interviewers. Nicotine dependence was assessed by the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence. Logistic regression analyses showed that higher levels of nicotine dependence significantly predicted elevated levels of violent behavior, deviant behavior, marijuana and other illegal drug use, binge drinking, early sexual intercourse, multiple sexual partners, and inconsistent condom use, despite control on the adolescents' demographic characteristics, peer smoking, conflict with parents, peer deviance, and the availability of legal and illegal substances. These relationships were robust across ethnicity and gender. The findings indicate the need for policy makers and prevention and intervention programs in South Africa to consider adolescent nicotine dependence in conjunction with comorbid problem behaviors, including other substance use, sexual risk behaviors, and deviant behaviors.
This critical ethnography focused on five urban African American students, coming from economically disadvantaged homes in Philadelphia, who were considered at risk with regard to their position within society as well as within the small learning community of their low-academically performing school. As participants in the study, they were employed from June 11, 2001 from 9:00 AM until 1:00 PM and continuing until September 7, 2001 at $7.50 per hour under research grants from the Spencer Foundation and the National Science Foundation. Through this study, these five youth were provided with traditional and nontraditional opportunities to build understandings of some of the most essential concepts of physics as learners. Moreover, they also had the chance to work as research assistants, teacher educators and curriculum developers. The findings of the research conclusively reveal that African American, urban youth from some of the most challenging situations are capable of learning physics concepts. Moreover, the most success resulted when students' strategies of action were directed towards the objective of learning although, in the process of meaning-making, their personal goals unrelated to science were also met. In addition, the research results show that urban African American students come to school with strategies of action replete with cultural practices, symbols and their underlying meanings from fields outside of school including both the home and the neighborhood. These cultural resources, when triggered, then become apparent within learning environments and can powerfully assist learning when the desired outcomes of the student(s) are in tune with the objective of learning physics. Through the physics teaching and learning that occurred within this study, as well as their work as researchers, teacher educators and curriculum developers, April, Ebony, Markist, Pierre and Ya-Meer had opportunities to utilize their cultural capital to build new knowledge
The roles of urban superintendents are crucial to improving the educational outlook for the neediest students, specifically the African-American males. The roles and responsibilities of the urban school superintendent today are more numerous, complex, and demanding than in the past. The expectations of today's urban superintendents are to be…
Threlfall, Jennifer M.; Seay, Kristen D.; Kohl, Patricia L.
This qualitative study examines low-income African American fathers’ perceptions of their parenting role and the strategies they employ to bring up children in poor urban neighborhoods. Focus groups and individual interviews were conducted with 36 fathers who had contact with their children at least twice a month. Men in the study expressed conventional views of their fathering roles as provider, nurturer, and teacher, but placed the most emphasis on “being there” for their children, as their financial circumstances limited other forms of involvement. Many fathers felt their circumstances to be exacerbated by a hostile child-support system. They desired to teach their children alternatives to the negative practices and values they saw in their urban neighborhoods and to have the skills to prosper in mainstream society. Overall, the findings suggest that many low-income urban fathers already desire to be responsible fathers but see themselves as limited by material and structural challenges. Services and policies that promote the economic stability of low-income fathers are recommended. PMID:23914131
Threlfall, Jennifer M; Seay, Kristen D; Kohl, Patricia L
This qualitative study examines low-income African American fathers' perceptions of their parenting role and the strategies they employ to bring up children in poor urban neighborhoods. Focus groups and individual interviews were conducted with 36 fathers who had contact with their children at least twice a month. Men in the study expressed conventional views of their fathering roles as provider, nurturer, and teacher, but placed the most emphasis on "being there" for their children, as their financial circumstances limited other forms of involvement. Many fathers felt their circumstances to be exacerbated by a hostile child-support system. They desired to teach their children alternatives to the negative practices and values they saw in their urban neighborhoods and to have the skills to prosper in mainstream society. Overall, the findings suggest that many low-income urban fathers already desire to be responsible fathers but see themselves as limited by material and structural challenges. Services and policies that promote the economic stability of low-income fathers are recommended.
Gullan, Rebecca Lakin; Hoffman, Beth Necowitz; Leff, Stephen S
Achievement of a coherent and strong sense of self is critical to positive academic outcomes for urban minority youth. The present study utilized a mixed-methods approach to explore key aspects of identity development for African American adolescents living in a high-poverty, urban neighborhood. Results suggest that efforts to develop a sense of oneself as an individual and in relation to the world are impeded by mixed messages on African American culture and achievement. Findings are discussed in the context of teaching and working with urban African American adolescents in a way that promotes positive identity development.
The purposes of this two-part study were (1) to investigate urban middle school African American girls' physical activity levels and their relationships to attitudes and, (2) to explore urban middle school African American girls' attitude toward physical education. A total of (N = 649) African American girls from 14 New York City middle schools…
Simmons, Robert W., III
African American males from urban communities have been attending Jesuit high schools in urban spaces for many years, yet little to no literature exists that explores their experiences while attending these elite private schools. This qualitative study of 10 African American males from an urban community attending a similarly positioned Jesuit…
Holland, Nicole E.
Engagement in and transitions between academic institutions may be enhanced for African American urban youth if we consider the role of religiosity, spirituality, and places of worship. This article presents the manner by which African American university students, who attended public high schools, conveyed the influence of their religious and…
Wasserberg, Martin J.
This study investigated whether a diagnostic testing condition leads to stereotype threat effects for African American children (n = 198) at an urban elementary school. Results indicated that presenting a reading test as diagnostic of abilities hindered the performance of African American children aware of racial stereotypes but not of those…
Tatum, Alfred W.; Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.
Advancing the literacy development of African American males in contexts that are characteristically urban has been a challenging task for educators across the P-12 spectrum. Frames that have been traditionally used to improve the reading achievement of African American males have not reversed trends in reading achievement that find many of these…
Romano, Patrick S.; And Others
A random household survey of 569 African-American adults in Oakland and 568 in San Francisco (California) indicates a high prevalence of smoking (41.9 percent), with smoking more likely by those reporting high stress. Stressful environment may contribute to high-risk smoking behavior among urban African Americans. (SLD)
Gullan, Rebecca Lakin; Hoffman, Beth Necowitz; Leff, Stephen S.
Achievement of a coherent and strong sense of self is critical to positive academic outcomes for urban minority youth. The present study utilized a mixed-methods approach to explore key aspects of identity development for African American adolescents living in a high-poverty, urban neighborhood. Results suggest that efforts to develop a sense of…
Williams, Joseph M.; Portman, Tarrell Awe Agahe
This qualitative study examined high-achieving urban African American high school graduates' (N = 5) retrospective appraisal of what K-12 students from high-risk urban areas need to succeed academically despite seemingly insurmountable social, financial, and educational barriers. Findings revealed 6 themes: shared responsibility for…
Mawhinney, Lynnette; Mulero, Loribel; Perez, Cynthia
This paper aims to better understand African American pre-service teachers' perspectives on urban education. Over a 2-year period, pre-experience and post-experience surveys were conducted at a Historically Black University (HBCU) after pre-service teachers completed an urban education immersion course in order to frame their understanding of…
Johnson-Whitt, Eugenia Stacell
In order to inquire into the persistent underrepresentation of urban minority students in the sciences, this study explored three urban African American students' conceptualizations of school science and media science, with emphases on the representation of science in "Crime Scene Investigation" ("CSI"). Based on the data…
Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl C.
Although the author wanted to read Bemak, Chung, and Siroskey-Sabdo's article in an objective sense, her response to their article is most likely influenced by her own experiences as an African American female and mother of an African American daughter. To her, the paramount issue facing African American females is the double and sometimes triple…
Abayomi, Akin; Gevao, Sahr; Conton, Brian; Deblasio, Pasquale; Katz, Rebecca
This paper describes the formation of a civil society consortium, spurred to action by frustration over the Ebola crises, to facilitate the development of infrastructure and frameworks including policy development to support a harmonized, African approach to health crises on the continent. The Global Emerging Pathogens Treatment Consortium, or GET, is an important example of how African academics, scientists, clinicians and civil society have come together to initiate policy research, multilevel advocacy and implementation of initiatives aimed at building African capacity for timely and effective mitigations strategies against emerging infectious and neglected pathogens, with a focus on biobanking and biosecurity. The consortium has been able to establish it self as a leading voice, drawing attention to scientific infrastructure gaps, the importance of cultural sensitivities, and the power of community engagement. The GET consortium demonstrates how civil society can work together, encourage government engagement and strengthen national and regional efforts to build capacity.
Abayomi, Akin; Gevao, Sahr; Conton, Brian; Deblasio, Pasquale; Katz, Rebecca
This paper describes the formation of a civil society consortium, spurred to action by frustration over the Ebola crises, to facilitate the development of infrastructure and frameworks including policy development to support a harmonized, African approach to health crises on the continent. The Global Emerging Pathogens Treatment Consortium, or GET, is an important example of how African academics, scientists, clinicians and civil society have come together to initiate policy research, multilevel advocacy and implementation of initiatives aimed at building African capacity for timely and effective mitigations strategies against emerging infectious and neglected pathogens, with a focus on biobanking and biosecurity. The consortium has been able to establish it self as a leading voice, drawing attention to scientific infrastructure gaps, the importance of cultural sensitivities, and the power of community engagement. The GET consortium demonstrates how civil society can work together, encourage government engagement and strengthen national and regional efforts to build capacity. PMID:28154625
Litovka, O P; Mezhevich, M N
This is a philosophical analysis of the concept of urbanization in the contemporary Marxist setting from the geographical and sociological points of view. "The centripetal forces that used to concentrate industry in cities are said to be yielding to opposed centrifugal forces resulting from a combination of technological, ecological and economic processes. The new centrifugal trend has the effect of helping to restrain the growth of very large cities, a Soviet policy goal, and of giving rise to urban agglomerations." The benefits of the decentralization of urbanization are elaborated.
Harris, Allyssa L
Many African-American teenaged girls are reading urban literature. This genre of literature is known for its gritty portrayal of urban life and has themes of violence, promiscuity, substance abuse and misogyny. Although research has demonstrated that the portrayal of sex and violence in the media are influential on adolescent sexual behavior, to date there has been little research on the influence of "urban lit" on adolescent sexual risk behaviors. This qualitative study explores the influence of urban literature on the sexual risk behaviors among a group of African-American adolescent girls. Findings from this study suggest that African-American adolescent girls may be influenced by the sexual themes depicted in this genre of literature. Additional research is needed to gain a greater understanding of this phenomon.
Furuseth, Owen J.; Pierce, John T.
Intended for geography professors, researchers, and undergraduate students, this publication focuses on the important issues surrounding the urbanization of agricultural land, the assessment of the relative effectiveness of policy responses, and an assessment of opportunities for change in approaches toward farmland preservation. Emphasis is on…
Fergus, Stevenson; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.
Little is known of smoking trajectories or of the correlates of smoking trajectories among African American youth. Ninth-grade African American adolescents (n = 566) were interviewed in Year 1 and then were subsequently interviewed annually for 3 additional years. Five trajectories of cigarette smokers were identified: abstainers,…
Scott, Kimberly Ann
For an African American female researcher whose race, class, and gender work as oppressive intersecting units shaping my contextualized experiences, meaning-making, and self-definition, the implications of my work with African American communities are complicated. In this article, I draw on culturally sensitive research practices, critical race…
Bannon, William M; Cavaleri, Mary A; Rodriguez, James; McKay, Mary M
OBJECTIVE: To examine how parental endorsement of racial socialization parenting practices relates to child mental health service use among an urban sample of African American families. METHODS: A cross-sectional sample of urban African American parents (n = 96) provided ratings of their beliefs concerning various dimensions of racial socialization constructs, i.e., spiritual or religious coping (SRC), extended family caring (EFC), cultural pride reinforcement (CPR), and assessed regarding their use of child mental health services. RESULTS: At the multivariate level, the use of child mental health services was significantly positively associated with moderate levels of endorsement of SRC and EFC. Inversely, scores in the moderate range of CPR were associated with a reduced likelihood of child mental health service use. CONCLUSION: Parental endorsement of racial socialization parenting practices appear to play a salient role in child mental health service use among an urban African American families. Further research with larger and more representative samples should be pursued.
Ameling, Jessica M; Ephraim, Patti L; Bone, Lee R; Levine, David M; Roter, Debra L; Wolff, Jennifer L; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L; Noronha, Gary J; Fagan, Peter J; Lewis-Boyer, LaPricia; Hickman, Debra; Simmons, Michelle; Purnell, Leon; Fisher, Annette; Cooper, Lisa A; Aboumatar, Hanan J; Albert, Michael C; Flynn, Sarah J; Boulware, L Ebony
African Americans suffer disproportionately poor hypertension control despite the availability of efficacious interventions. Using principles of community-based participatory research and implementation science, we adapted established hypertension self-management interventions to enhance interventions' cultural relevance and potential for sustained effectiveness among urban African Americans. We obtained input from patients and their family members, their health care providers, and community members. The process required substantial time and resources, and the adapted interventions will be tested in a randomized controlled trial.
A study determined the effects of a pedagogical approach using rap music on the learning of musical forms among urban African American youth and whether there were differential effects among students of different levels of self-esteem. Urban African American youth (n=66) from the St. Louis County Public Schools who were enrolled in general music…
Morris, Jerome E.
The scholarly community has been neglectful in its study of those urban and predominantly African American schools that manifest agency in spite of persistent racial inequalities and poverty. Consequently, we are left to wonder whether anything good can come from urban African American schools, or from the communities where they are located. This…
Moore, James L., III, Ed.; Lewis, Chance W., Ed.
"African American Students in Urban Schools" offers readers a critical yet comprehensive examination of the issues affecting African American students' outcomes in urban school systems and beyond. Across disciplines including teacher education, school counseling, school psychology, gifted education, career and technical education, higher…
Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y; Wu, Chun Yi
African American women are at greater risk for complications related to high blood pressure. This study examined relationships between high blood pressure, pulse pressure, body mass index, family adaptability, family cohesion and social support among 146 Urban African American women. Significant relationships were found between family adaptability and systolic blood pressure (p = .03) and between adaptability and pulse pressure (p ≤ .01). Based on study results, practitioners should routinely assess family functioning, specifically family adaptability, in African American women who are at risk for high blood pressure or diagnosed with high blood pressure to minimize complications associated with hypertension.
Harris, Allyssa L
Adolescents spend an inordinate amount of time engaged with media, which is highly sexualized. Sexualized material can be found in music, on television and the Internet, as well as in magazines and books. Adolescents engaged with media are often influenced by this sexualized content, leading them to engage in risky sexual behavior. Urban literature (urban lit) is extremely popular among African-American female adolescents due to its portrayal of urban life and hip-hop culture. The purpose of this survey was to ascertain the extent to which African-American adolescent females are reading urban literature and to document whether this genre of literature had an effect on their sexual risk behaviors.
Lucey, Thomas A.; Giannangelo, Duane M.
Through this literature review, the authors explore financial educations' relevance to urban society. They consider research measuring children's financial development by observing environmental influences that affect both financial learning and personal judgments. These conditions necessitate financial curricula addressing associated challenges.…
Cross, P.C.; Lloyd-Smith, J. O.; Getz, W.M.
A description of the social network of a population aids us in understanding dispersal, the spread of disease, and genetic structure in that population. Many animal populations can be classified as fission–fusion societies, whereby groups form and separate over time. Examples discussed in the literature include ungulates, primates and cetaceans (Lott and Minta, 1983, Whitehead et al., 1991, Henzi et al., 1997, Christal et al., 1998 and Chilvers and Corkeron, 2002). In this study, we use a heuristic simulation model to illustrate potential problems in applying traditional techniques of association analysis to fission–fusion societies and propose a new index of association: the fission decision index (FDI). We compare the conclusions resulting from traditional methods with those of the FDI using data from African buffalo, Syncerus caffer, in the Kruger National Park. The traditional approach suggested that the buffalo population was spatially and temporally structured into four different ‘herds’ with adult males only peripherally associated with mixed herds. Our FDI method indicated that association decisions of adult males appeared random, but those of other sex and age categories were nonrandom, particularly when we included the fission events associated with adult males. Furthermore, the amount of time that individuals spent together was only weakly correlated with their propensity to remain together during fission events. We conclude with a discussion of the applicability of the FDI to other studies.
Weinburgh, Molly H.
Investigates the effectiveness of a local systemic change grant on 5th grade urban African American students' attitudes toward science. Measures students' attitudes by using the modified Attitude Toward Science Inventory (mATSI). Indicates a significant main effect for the program and for school but not for gender. Examines school characteristics…
Finlayson, Rosalie; Slabbert, Sarah
The status of the current standard African languages has been seriously undermined by factors such as the association of the standardisation process with colonial and neo-colonial structures, the lack of function of the standards and the rise of high status non-standard urban varieties. This paper describes the process leading to and some…
Agho, Augustine O; Mosley, Barbara W; Rivers, Patrick A; Parker, Shandowyn
Purpose: This study was a two-year educational intervention and research project aimed at increasing the awareness of breast cancer and the utilization of Clinical Breast Examination (CBE) services and Self-Breast Examination (SBE) among elderly rural and urban African American women who are Medicare beneficiaries. Design: The study was…
Kane, Justine M.
This is a qualitative study of identities constructed and enacted by four 3rd-grade African American children (two girls and two boys) in an urban classroom that engaged in a year-long, integrated science-literacy project. Juxtaposing narrative and discursive identity lenses, coupled with race and gender perspectives, I examined the ways in which…
Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Pack, Robert; Harris, Carole; Cottrell, Lesley; Burns, James
Analyzed data about urban African American youth to explore whether differences in exposure to violence, resilience, and distress symptoms between gang members and nonmembers resulted from risk behaviors in which youths participated or from gang membership itself. Results indicated that gang membership itself related to increased risk and…
Hall, Diane M.; Cassidy, Elaine F.; Stevenson, Howard C.
African American adolescents (132 males and 128 females; age M=14.8 years, SD=0.92) enrolled in an urban community social skills development program participated in a study assessing the relationship among perceptions of family and community social support, fear of calamitous events, depression, and anger expression. Expressing fear of calamitous…
McGee, Ebony O.
This study investigated the risk and protective factors of 11 high-achieving African American males attending 4 urban charter high schools in a Midwestern city to determine what factors account for their resilience and success in mathematics courses, and in high school more generally. This research was guided by a Phenomenological Variant of…
Natesan, Prathiba; Kieftenbeld, Vincent
Understanding urban teachers' beliefs about African American students has become important because (a) many teachers are reluctant to teach students from other cultures, and (b) most teachers are European American. To construct a psychometrically sound measure of teacher beliefs, the authors investigate the measurement properties of a teacher…
Sullivan, Terri N.; Erwin, Elizabeth H.; Helms, Sarah W.; Masho, Saba W.; Farrell, Albert D.
This qualitative study focused on the identification of problem situations associated with adolescent dating experiences and relationships, including those that placed youth at risk for dating violence perpetration or victimization. Interviews were conducted with 44 African American middle and high school students in an urban school system.…
Ayers, Teresa Horne
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between stress, coping resources, and academic achievement in fourth-grade urban youth. The intent was to examine if students' perceptions of their stress and coping resources could predict reading and math achievement. The data were collected from 24 low-income African American students…
D'Andrea, Michael; Daniels, Judy; Gaughen, Kiaka J. S.
Examines the Worry Survey (adapted from the Adolescent Health Survey) as regards the developmental concerns of urban African American youths (N=495). Results show that internal consistency of the factor-item ratings on the Personal and Family Worry subscales were acceptable. Less evidence of the reliability was noted among the Peer and…
This study examined the fatherhood experiences of 50 low-income, urban, African American fathers and father figures whose children were enrolled in an Early Head Start Program. Information was gathered via qualitative interviews conducted within participants' homes and communities and participant observation. Quantitative methods were used to…
Bivariate analyses showed that continuously married urban African American, non-Hispanic White, and Hispanic fathers and mothers reporting greater marital support and less relational control experienced a decrease in depressive symptoms. Multiple regression showed a stronger association between concurrent marital support and decreased depressive…
Sanchez, Yadira M.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Cooley-Strickland, Michele
African American youth residing in low income urban neighborhoods are at increased risk of experiencing negative life events in multiple domains, increasing their risk for internalizing and externalizing behaviors. However, little is known about youth's differential responses to life event stress, or protective processes and coping strategies for…
Steward, Robbie J.; Steward, Astin Devine; Blair, Jonathan; Jo, Hanik; Hill, Martin F.
Urban African American first-year high school students' absenteeism was found to be negatively related to grade point average (GPA) and avoidance as a means of coping (use of substances as a way to escape--food, alcohol, smoking, caffeine, etc.) and positively related to use of social support as a means of coping (efforts to stay emotionally…
Kane, Justine M.
In this paper, I offer a framework for exploring the academic and disciplinary identities young African American children construct in urban science classrooms. Using interviews, fieldnotes, and videotapes of classroom lessons, I juxtapose the ways in which two children tell about their experiences in school and science with their performances of…
Background: Improper dietary intake pattern is a risk factor for chronic disease. Few studies have examined the multifaceted aspects of dietary intake of low-income, urban African American adolescents. Objective: This study aimed to describe dietary intake patterns including energy, nutrient, food g...
Dolcini, M. Margaret; Catania, Joseph A.; Harper, Gary W.; Watson, Susan E.; Ellen, Jonathan M.; Towner, Senna L.
Using a probability-based neighborhood sample of urban African American youth and a sample of their close friends (N = 202), we conducted a one-year longitudinal study to examine key questions regarding sexual and drug using norms. The results provide validation of social norms governing sexual behavior, condom use, and substance use among…
Nasim, Aashir; Belgrave, Faye Z.; Corona, Rosalie; Townsend, Tiffany G.
This study sought to determine the relative contributions of individual, family, peer, and community risk and promotive factors in explaining alcohol and tobacco refusal attitudes among 227 African-American adolescents (ages 12 to 17) from urban and rural areas. Hierarchical linear regression (HLR) results revealed differences in the predictive…
Sagrestano, Lynda M.; McCormick, Sheila H.; Paikoff, Roberta L.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.
Examined associations between pubertal development and parent-adolescent conflict in urban, low-income African-American adolescents. Found that parents reported more verbal aggression with sons during midpuberty than early or late puberty, more violent tactics with younger than older daughters, and more "hot" discussions with early-…
Farrell, Albert D.; Erwin, Elizabeth H.; Allison, Kevin W.; Meyer, Aleta; Sullivan, Terri; Camou, Suzanne; Kliewer, Wendy; Esposito, Layla
Qualitative methods were used to identify problem situations encountered by adolescents in urban middle schools serving a predominantly African American student population. Interviews focusing on identifying problem situations and the context in which they occur were conducted with 60 adolescents including students and peer mediators at middle…
Mack, Yejide S.
African American women administrators working in urban educational settings have been found to be effective leaders of school improvement. Underutilized women and people of color are the untapped value that organizations of all types need to enhance creativity, change efforts, teamwork, and financial benefits (Northouse, 2001). During the last…
Lewin, Amy; Mitchell, Stephanie J.; Hodgkinson, Stacy; Burrell, Lori; Beers, Lee S. A.; Duggan, Anne K.
This study examined the relationship between a teen mother's perceptions of nurturance from her mother and father and her mental health and parenting attitudes. One-hundred and thirty-eight urban, primarily African American adolescent mothers were interviewed. Multivariate results indicate that teen mothers who felt nurtured by their mothers had…
Carswell, Steven B.; Hanlon, Thomas E.; Watts, Amy M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.
This study examined the link between developmental risk and protective factors and risky sexual activity among 222 urban African American youth attending an alternative education program (AEP) because of problematic behavior. Self-report information provided by these AEP participants revealed that, for the risk and protective factors examined, the…
Hedden, Sarra L.; Whitaker, Damiya E.; von Thomsen, Sarah; Severtson, S. Geoffrey; Latimer, William W.
Students who engage in high-risk behaviors, including early initiation of sexual intercourse, alcohol use, marijuana use, tobacco use, and externalizing behavior are vulnerable to a broad range of adverse outcomes as adults. Latent class analysis was used to determine whether varying patterns of risk behavior existed for 212 urban African-American…
Poplack, Shana, Ed.
Essays on the history of African American Vernacular English (AAVE) include: an introduction to the evolution of AAVE within the African American diaspora (Shana Poplack); "Rephrasing the Copula: Contraction and Zero in Early African American English" (James A. Walker); "Reconstructing the Source of Early African American English…
Focuses on cross-cultural perspectives of urbanization and urbanism by comparing the Yoruba cities of western Nigeria with cities of Europe and North America. Concludes that cross-cultural counselors working with Yoruba clients must understand Yoruba city clients and their home life, physical environment, family structure, parent attitudes, and…
Sawyerr, E S
This paper contains a review of the small literature on the association of rural/urban residence and attainment of distance conservation among African children and an account of a study of the age at which children in Sierra Leone, West Africa, attain conservation. 150 children from the ages of 8 to 18 years, from rural and urban schools, were assigned Piagetian tasks to judge their conservation of distance. Analysis showed that at 11 + years, conservation was observed and that there was no significant difference between the urban sample and the rural one. Several confounds in the data limit conclusions but use of the children's own languages was possible in some experiments.
Joyce, Jeneka A; O'Neil, Maya E; Stormshak, Elizabeth A; McWhirter, Ellen H; Dishion, Thomas J
This study sought to examine the relationship between coping strategies and prosocial and deviant peer associations for urban, African American adolescents. In addition, the study analyzed the mediating role of ethnic identity for coping strategies and peer associations. Results of the African American models were then compared with models for European American adolescents. Results indicated that African American and European American adolescents who reported using distraction coping strategies were more likely to associate with prosocial peers, and those who reported using self-destruction strategies were less likely to associate with prosocial peers. Adolescents who reported using distraction coping strategies were less likely to associate with deviant peers, and adolescents who reported using self-destruction strategies were more likely to associate with deviant peers. Ethnic identity mediated the relationship between coping and prosocial peer association for African American adolescents. Limitations of the study and future research directions are also presented.
This study highlights the factors that contribute to excellence in urban science teaching as pinpointed by five urban African-American science teachers who have taught successfully in the urban system for over 10 years. These teachers shared their experiences and reflections on the qualities that contributed to their success and persistence as…
Ebanks, G E
A demographic perspective on urbanization patterns in Latin America and the Caribbean is provided. The level and rate of urbanization and the hierarchies of urban places are considered, along with the determinants and consequences of these trends. Latin America and the Caribbean are the most urbanized of the developing regions, with almost 70% of the population classified as urban in 1991. Most Latin American and Caribbean countries have rural populations capable of maintaining continuous growth of the urban population for some time through internal migration and reclassification of localities. Latin American societies are urban in nature, and it is unlikely that decentralization and deconcentration policies will have significant repercussions. The Latin American urban population is estimated to have increased from 164 million in 1970 to 320 million in 1990, while the rural population increased from 122 to 128 million in the same years. Most governments of the region are preoccupied by the size of the urban population. There are too many urban residents to be absorbed in productive activities, but all require public services generally financed through taxation. The small tax bases result in frequent decisions to finance services through deficit spending. The size of the population and the level of urbanization may not be the principal agents of ecological deterioration or the greatest obstacles to development, but they play a significant role in these problems. Incorporating millions of urban residents into the productive sector of the economy is an important challenge for the development of these societies. The urban population in Latin America and the Caribbean is expected to continue growing at significant rates until well into the next century. In most countries of the region, internal migration accounted for 30-40% of urban growth between 1950 and 1970, but its contribution loses importance as the level of urbanization exceeds 70% or so. The number of urban
Nath, D C; Land, K C; Goswami, G
The status of women, which is relative and multidimensional, has an important bearing on any long-term reduction in fertility. In Indian society, where cohabitation and childbearing are socially sanctioned only after marriage, the length of the first-birth interval affects the completed family size by influencing the spacing and childbearing pattern of a family. This study examines the influence of certain aspects of the status of married women--education, employment, role in family decision making, and age at marriage--along with three socioeconomic variables--per capita income of the family, social position of the household, and the caste system--on the duration of the first-birth interval in an urban Hindu society of the north-east Indian state of Assam. The data were analysed by applying life table and hazard regression techniques. The results indicate that a female's age at marriage, education, current age, role in decision making, and the per capita income of the household are the main covariates that strongly influence the length of the first-birth interval of Hindu females of urban Assam. Of all the covariates studied, a female's education appears to be a key mediating factor, through its influence on her probability of employment outside the home and thereby an earned income and on her role in family decision making. Unlike other Indian communities, the effect of the caste system does not have a significant effect on first-birth timing in this urban Hindu society.
Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2004
"Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The article summarized in this "Data Trends" presents the results of a survey investigation of the prevalence and predictors of suicidality among 879 urban adolescents. In the U. S., suicide is the third leading cause of…
Welch, Amy L.
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of poverty on the achievement of African American male high school students attending the same large Midwest urban school district. Cumulative grade point average (GPA) at the tenth grade level were compared to the level of poverty provided through census data of African American male tenth…
Thomas, Jackie C., Jr.; Wolters, Christopher; Horn, Catherine; Kennedy, Heidi
In this study, campus involvement, faculty mentorship, motivational beliefs (self-efficacy and utility value), and sense of belonging were examined as potential predictors of African-American college student academic persistence. Participants (n = 139) in the study were African-American college students from a large-urban university. Separate…
Dombrowski, Stefan C.; Noonan, Kelly; Martin, Roy P.
This study is one of the first to investigate the relationship between low birth weight and cognitive outcomes in an urban, poor, prospectively designed African-American birth cohort. Multivariate analyses of the Pathways to Adulthood study, a subset of the Johns Hopkins Collaborative Perinatal study, compared low birth weight African-American…
Bacon, La Shawn Catrice
The relationship between academic self-concept and academic achievement in African American students who have experienced geographic mobility was the focus of this study. Specifically, this study used quantitative methods to assess African American students from counties in Iowa to obtain information about the students' relocation from urban to…
Thompson, LaTasha; Davis, Julius
Many researchers, educators, administrators, policymakers and members of the general public doubt the prevalence of high-achieving African-American males in urban high schools capable of excelling in mathematics. As part of a larger study, the current study explored the educational experiences of four high-achieving African-American males…
Clark, Trenette T.; Nguyen, Anh B.; Belgrave, Faye Z.
The purpose of this study was to examine individual, family, peer, and community risk and protective factors associated with past-30-days alcohol and marijuana use among African-American adolescents living in rural and urban communities. This study used data collected from 907 tenth- and twelfth-grade African-American students who completed the…
Nasir, Na'ilah Suad; McLaughlin, Milbrey W.; Jones, Amina
In this article, the authors explore variation in the meanings of racial identity for African American students in a predominantly African American urban high school. They view racial identity as both related to membership in a racial group and as fluid and reconstructed in the local school setting. They draw on both survey data and observational…
Reboussin, Beth A; Green, Kerry M; Milam, Adam J; Furr-Holden, C Debra M; Ialongo, Nicholas S
African American male high school students have the highest rates of marijuana use among all racial, ethnic, and gender groups, yet there is limited research examining contextual factors salient to the African American community. The purpose of this study was to examine how neighborhood environment measured in 8th grade is related to longitudinal transitions in marijuana use during high school (9th to 12th grades) in a sample of urban African Americans. Four hundred and fifty-two African American children were interviewed annually beginning in 1st grade as part of a longitudinal field study in Baltimore city. Latent transition analysis indicated early in high school posed the greatest risk for initiation and progression of marijuana use. Community violence exposure was associated with an increased likelihood of transitioning from no marijuana use to infrequent use (adjusted odds ratios (AOR) = 2.40, p < 0.001). Higher perceived neighborhood disorder (AOR = 3.20, p = 0.004), drug activity and sales in the neighborhood (AOR = 2.28, p = 0.028), and community violence exposure (AOR = 4.54, p < 0.001) were associated with an increased risk of transitioning from no use to frequent/problematic marijuana use. There was evidence for partial mediation of these associations by perceptions of harm and depressed mood. Drug activity and sales was associated with progression from infrequent to frequent and problematic use (AOR = 2.87, p = 0.029). African American youth living in urban environments with exposure to drug activity, violence, and neighborhood disorder are at increased risk for both initiation and progression to more frequent and problematic marijuana use during high school. These findings highlight the need to develop interventions for African American youth that are mindful of the impact of the additional stressors of living in a high-risk urban environment during a critical developmental transition period. Reducing exposure
Mellman, Thomas A.; Hall Brown, Tyish S.; Kobayashi, Ihori; Abu-Bader, Soleman H.; Lavela, Joseph; Altaee, Duaa; McLaughlin, Latesha; Randall, Otelio S.
Background Blunted nocturnal blood pressure (BP) dipping is an early marker of cardiovascular risk that is prevalent among African Americans. Purpose We evaluated relationships of BP dipping to neighborhood and posttraumatic stress and sleep in urban residing young adult African Americans. Methods One hundred thirty six Black, predominately African American, men and women with a mean age of 22.9 (SD = 4.6) filled out surveys, were interviewed and had two, 24-hour ambulatory BP recordings. Results Thirty eight percent had BP dipping ratios < .10. Wake after sleep onset (WASO), neighborhood disorder and neighborhood poverty rates but not posttraumatic stress symptoms, and other sleep measures, correlated significantly with dipping ratios. Models with the neighborhood measures that also included WASO increased the explained variance. Conclusions Studies elucidating mechanisms underlying effects of neighborhoods on BP dipping and the role of disrupted sleep, and how they can be mitigated are important directions for future research. PMID:25623895
Leff, Stephen S.; Lefler, Elizabeth K.; Khera, Gagan S.; Paskewich, Brooke; Jawad, Abbas F.
The current study illustrates how researchers developed and validated a cartoon-based adaptation of a written hostile attributional bias measure for a sample of urban, low-income, African American boys. A series of studies were conducted to develop cartoon illustrations to accompany a standard written hostile attributional bias vignette measure (Study 1), to determine initial psychometric properties (Study 2) and acceptability (Study 3), and to conduct a test-retest reliability trial of the adapted measure in a separate sample (Study 4). These studies utilize a participatory action research approach to measurement design and adaptation, and suggest that collaborations between researchers and key school stakeholders can lead to measures that are psychometrically strong, developmentally appropriate, and culturally sensitive. In addition, the cartoon-based hostile attributional bias measure appears to have promise as an assessment and/or outcome measure for aggression and bullying prevention programs conducted with urban African American boys. PMID:21800228
Sealy-Jefferson, Shawnita; Hegner, Kristy; Misra, Dawn P.
Background Traditional risk factors for preterm delivery (PTD) do not account for the disparate rates among African-American women. Physical activity during pregnancy may protect women from PTD, but few studies exist in African Americans. Our objective was to examine the relationships between PTD and intensity and duration of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) as well as non-LTPA such as stair climbing and walking for a purpose during pregnancy. Methods Data were from a hybrid retrospective/prospective cohort study of urban low-income African-American women enrolled from 2001 to 2004 in the Baltimore PTD Study (n = 832). PTD was defined as birth before 37 completed weeks of gestation. Study participants reported physical activity during prenatal (n = 456) and post-partum (n = 376) interviews. Findings The rate of PTD was 16.7%. In unadjusted log-binomial regression models, we found no significant associations. However, in models adjusted for illicit drug use, locus of control, and a validated family resources scale, we found a significant decrease in prevalence of PTD for women who walked for a purpose more than 30 min/d (prevalence ratio, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.43–0.94), compared with women who walked less than or equal to 30 min/d. Conclusions These results suggest that walking for a purpose during pregnancy may confer protection against PTD among urban low-income African Americans. PMID:24981398
Anderson, Robert M; Wolf, Fredric M; Musch, David C; Fitzgerald, James T; Johnson, Mark W; Nwankwo, Robin B; Robins, Lynne S; Oh, Mary S; Gillard, Mary Lou
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the need for, and efficacy of, community-based culturally specific eye disease screening clinics for urban African Americans with diabetes. The study employed a variety of culturally specific methods in the design and performance of 43 community-based eye disease screening clinics in southeastern Michigan. One thousand, thirty-seven subjects were recruited for the study. Of that number, 817 identified themselves as African Americans and are the focus of this report. Of the 817 African-American patients screened, 84 (10%) needed to be examined by an ophthalmologist immediately (< 30 days), and 180 (22%) needed to be examined soon (within 1 to 3 months), while 544 (67%) were advised to return for another exam a year later. The project demonstrated that it was possible to use culturally specific techniques to identify a significant number of urban African Americans with diabetes in need of eye screening and treatment. However, lack of health insurance proved to be the primary barrier to receiving needed treatment. Although the project was successful, it is not a solution to what is essentially a health systems problem, ie, inadequate access to appropriate diabetes care for a significant number of our population.
Lavizzo-Mourey, R.; Cox, C.; Strumpf, N.; Edwards, W. F.; Lavizzo-Mourey, R.; Stinemon, M.; Grisso, J. A.
Older African Americans are less likely to exercise compared with their white counterparts. Few studies have examined the facilitating factors and barriers to exercise among older African Americans living in urban communities. This study represented the first phase of a program to develop an exercise intervention in an urban community. Qualitative research was conducted to identify culturally determined attitudes that could be useful in designing an effective exercise program. Five focus groups involving 38 persons from a variety of settings were facilitated by trained professionals. Transcripts were analyzed to identify themes and contrasts among group participants. Contrary to the expectations of the investigative team, focus-group participants: (1) uniformly preferred group exercises compared with exercising at home, (2) rejected walking as a feasible option because of safety concerns, and (3) expressed limited interest in using weights or Eastern exercises such as Tai Chi. Concepts and goals of exercise differed according to the physical capabilities of the participants. The analysis of these focus-group discussions provided valuable insights with regard to the development of our community-based exercise-intervention protocol. These findings may be important in designing effective exercise programs for older African Americans in urban settings. PMID:11800276
Ford, Donna Y.; Moore, James L., III
This article focuses on the achievement gap, with attention devoted to underachievement and low achievement among African American males in urban school contexts. More specifically, the article explains problems and issues facing or confronting these Black male students in urban education settings. A central part of this discussion is grounded in…
Waxman, Hersholt C.; Huang, Shwu-Yong L.
Investigates whether significant differences exist between effective and ineffective urban schools based on students' classroom behavior and students' motivation and perceptions of their classroom learning environment. Comparisons between eight urban elementary schools serving predominantly African American students are presented that show…
Polite, Vernon C., Ed.; Davis, James Earl, Ed.
This collection provides many insights into the condition of African American males, emphasizing educational attainment and achievement, and offers methodologies for documenting how the social and educational worlds of African American males intersect. The essays are: (1) "Teaching Black Males: Lessons from the Experts" (Michele Foster…
van Rooyen, Johannes M; Schutte, Aletta E; Huisman, Hugo W; Schutte, Rudolph; Fourie, Carla M T; Malan, Nicolaas T; Malan, Leoné
The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether active renin concentration is associated with markers of end-organ damage in urbanized Africans. This study forms part of the Sympathetic Activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans (SABPA) study. For this study, 81 men and 74 women were divided into low- and high-renin groups. Ambulatory blood pressure measurements were conducted. A resting 12-lead ECG was determined in order to determine the gender-specific Cornell voltage. Cardiovascular variables were continuously recorded with the Finometer. Carotid-dorsalis pedis pulse wave velocity was obtained with the Complior acquisition system. The carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) was obtained with the SonoSite MicroMaxx. Blood samples were collected; serum and plasma were stored at -80 °C for analysis. Anthropometric measurements were taken using standard methods. A general health questionnaire was also completed. The urinary creatinine was determined with a calorimetric method and albumin with a turbidimetric method. The serum sodium and potassium were determined by making use of the Konelab TM 20i Sequential Multiple Analyzer Computer (SMAC). The concentration of active renin in the plasma was analyzed by making use of a high-sensitivity radio-immunometric assay. A negative association (r=-0.29, p<0.01) exists between renal function (ACR) and plasma renin in the low-renin group (<6.18 pg/mL), which was not observed in Africans with high-renin levels. It seems evident that low renin in black South Africans may result in sub-clinical renal damage and impaired vascular function in a group of urbanized black South Africans.
Hou, Hao; Estoque, Ronald C.; Murayama, Yuji
Spatiotemporal analysis of urban growth patterns and dynamics is important not only in urban geography but also in landscape and urban planning and sustainability studies. Based on remote sensing-derived land-cover maps and LandScan population data of two time points (ca. 2000 and 2014), this study examines the spatiotemporal patterns and dynamics of the urban growth of three rapidly urbanizing African capital cities, namely, Bamako (Mali), Cairo (Egypt) and Nairobi (Kenya). A grid-cell-based analysis technique was employed to integrate the LandScan population and land-cover data, creating grid maps of population density and the density of each land-cover category. The results revealed that Bamako's urban (built-up) area has been expanding at a rate of 5.37% per year. Nairobi had a lower annual expansion rate (4.99%), but had a higher rate compared to Cairo (2.79%). Bamako's urban expansion was at the expense of its bareland and green spaces (i.e., cropland, grassland and forest), whereas the urban expansions of Cairo and Nairobi were at the cost of their bareland. In all three cities, there was a weak, but significant positive relationship between urban expansion (change in built-up density) and population growth (change in population density). Overall, this study provides an overview of the spatial patterns and dynamics of urban growth in these three African capitals, which might be useful in the context of urban studies and landscape and urban planning.
Bondima, Michelle Harris
This ethnographic in nature study explores how two middle school science teachers who have classes populated by urban African Americans teach their students and how their students perceive their teaching. Since urban African American students continue to perform lower than desired on measures of science achievement, there is an urgent need to understand what pedagogical methodologies assist and hinder urban African American students in achieving higher levels of success in science. A pedagogical methodology that theorists posit assists subordinated school populations is culturally responsive pedagogy. Culturally responsive pedagogy is defined as a teaching methodology concerned with preparing students to question inequality, racism, and injustice. Teachers who use culturally responsive pedagogy respect the culture students bring to the class, and require that the teachers willingly do whatever is necessary to educate students (Nieto, 2000). The teacher participants were two female African Americans who were identified by their school supervisors as being highly effective with urban African American students. The researcher presented the teachers in separate case studies conducted over a data collection period of nine months. Data were collected by participant observation, interviews, and artifact collection. Data were analyzed by application of grounded theory techniques. Findings of the teachers' (and the students') beliefs about pedagogy that both assisted and hindered the students' performance in science were reported in a rich and nuanced storytelling manner based on multiple perspectives (teachers', students', and the researcher's). Pedagogical methodologies that the teachers used that assisted their students were the use of cultural metaphors and images in science and applications of motivational techniques that encouraged a nurturing relationship between the teacher and her students. Pedagogical methodologies that hindered students varied by teacher
Walsh, Kate; Koenen, Karestan C; Aiello, Allison E; Uddin, Monica; Galea, Sandro
Sexual violence is prevalent nationally and contributes to psychopathology in the general population. Despite elevated traumatic event exposure among economically disadvantaged urban-dwelling African-Americans, there is insufficient information on lifetime sexual violence exposure and associated psychopathology in this population. In 2008-2009, 1,306 African-Americans from a Detroit household probability sample reported on lifetime rape and sexual assault and past-month and lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Lifetime sexual violence prevalence was 26.3 % for women and 5.1 % for men. Relative to non-victims, sexual violence victims: reported more other traumatic events; had 4 times greater unadjusted odds of past-month and lifetime PTSD; had 1.6 times greater adjusted odds of lifetime PTSD only after controlling for other traumatic events. Sexual violence was associated with increased risk for lifetime PTSD and exposure to other traumas. Findings highlight a need to screen for sexual violence and PTSD among urban African-Americans.
BORDERS, TYRONE F.; BOOTH, BRENDA M.; STEWART, KATHARINE E.; CHENEY, ANN M.; CURRAN, GEOFFREY M.
Objective To examine how rural/urban residence, perceived access, and other factors impede or facilitate perceived need for drug use treatment, a concept closely linked to treatment utilization. Study Design Two hundred rural and 200 urban African American cocaine users who were not receiving treatment were recruited via Respondent-Driven Sampling and completed a structured in-person interview. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to test the associations between perceived need and rural/urban residence, perceived access, and other predisposing (eg, demographics), enabling (eg, insurance), and health factors (eg, psychiatric distress). Principal Findings In bivariate analyses, rural relative to urban cocaine users reported lower perceived treatment need (37% vs 48%), availability, affordability, overall ease of access, and effectiveness, as well as lower perceived acceptability of residential, outpatient, self-help, and hospital-based services. In multivariate analyses, there was a significant interaction between rural/urban residence and the acceptability of religious counseling. At the highest level of acceptability, rural users had lower odds of perceived need (OR=.23); at the lowest level, rural users had higher odds of perceived need (OR=2.74) than urban users. Among rural users, the acceptability of religious counseling was negatively associated with perceived need (OR=.64). Ease of access was negatively associated (OR=.71) whereas local treatment effectiveness (OR=1.47) and the acceptability of hospital-based treatment (OR=1.29) were positively associated with perceived need among all users. Conclusions Our findings suggest rural/urban disparities in perceived need and access to drug use treatment. Among rural and urban cocaine users, improving perceptions of treatment effectiveness and expanding hospital-based services could promote treatment seeking. PMID:25213603
Ashipala, N; Armitage, N P
In recent decades South Africa has witnessed a substantial growth in its urban population. This growth has been accompanied by the mushrooming of informal settlements (shantytowns) flanking more formal development. The lack of adequate urban drainage in many of these informal settlements has resulted in extremely polluted environments which add to the disease burden of the poor people who live there. In many instances, informal settlements in South Africa are established on marginal land that is inherently difficult to service using conventional gravity sewerage. International experience has shown that various alternative wastewater collection systems may present more appropriate ways of providing water-borne sewerage in areas that are difficult to service by conventional means. Alternative sewerage schemes have however had a poor record of success in South African informal settlements - primarily stemming from the implementing agencies' failure to adequately address various social and institutional factors. In this paper, a review of South African experiences with simplified sewerage, settled sewerage and vacuum sewerage in urban informal settlements is used to highlight the key constraints that currently impede the application of these technologies.
Green, Kerry M.; Doherty, Elaine E.; Fothergill, Kate E.; Ensminger, Margaret E.
Although previous studies have identified a protective effect of marriage on risky health behaviors, gaps remain in our understanding of how marriage improves health, particularly among African Americans. This study uses longitudinal data to take selection into account and examines whether marital trajectories that incorporate timing, stability, and duration of marriage affect health risk behaviors among a community cohort of urban African Americans followed for 35 years (N = 1,049). For both men and women, we find six marital trajectories. Men and women in consistently married trajectories are less likely to smoke, drink heavily (women only), and use illegal drugs than those in unmarried or previously married trajectories. Late marrying men do not fare worse in midlife than men in earlier marrying trajectories, but late marrying women show increased risk of midlife drug use. Results suggest policies supporting marriage may have an impact on health but only if stable unions are achieved. PMID:26136611
Green, Kerry M; Doherty, Elaine E; Fothergill, Kate E; Ensminger, Margaret E
Although previous studies have identified a protective effect of marriage on risky health behaviors, gaps remain in our understanding of how marriage improves health, particularly among African Americans. This study uses longitudinal data to take selection into account and examines whether marital trajectories that incorporate timing, stability, and duration of marriage affect health risk behaviors among a community cohort of urban African Americans followed for 35 years (N = 1,049). For both men and women, we find six marital trajectories. Men and women in consistently married trajectories are less likely to smoke, drink heavily (women only), and use illegal drugs than those in unmarried or previously married trajectories. Late marrying men do not fare worse in midlife than men in earlier marrying trajectories, but late marrying women show increased risk of midlife drug use. Results suggest policies supporting marriage may have an impact on health but only if stable unions are achieved.
Sullivan, Terri N; Erwin, Elizabeth H; Helms, Sarah W; Masho, Saba W; Farrell, Albert D
This qualitative study focused on the identification of problem situations associated with adolescent dating experiences and relationships, including those that placed youth at risk for dating violence perpetration or victimization. Interviews were conducted with 44 African American middle and high school students in an urban school system. Qualitative analysis identified 18 individual themes representing six categories of problem situations: (a) approach and initiation; (b) conflict, conflict resolution, and break-ups; (c) communication, connection, and emotion; (d) aggression and victimization; (e) the role of others; and (f) media and technology. Identification of these problem situation themes has important implications for developing and evaluating prevention efforts designed to foster healthy adolescent dating relationships.
Graham, Camelia; Severtson, Stevan Geoffrey; Furr-Holden, C. Debra; Latimer, William
Motivational theorists in psychology have moved away from individual-based approaches to socio-cognitive and socio-ecological models to explain student engagement and motivation for learning. Such approaches consider, for example, the influence of family and neighborhood environments as important constructs in youth behavior. In this study, links between neighborhood condition (e.g. external appearance of the blocks nearest to the respondents’ home), family dysfunction, and motivation for learning are investigated. Data were obtained from two hundred and sixteen (216) urban African American middle school children enrolled in a substance use prevention intervention. Analytic models show associations between poor neighborhood condition and both family dysfunction and lower learning motivation. Family dysfunction was also found to mediate the effect of neighborhood condition on motivated learning. Neighborhood and family characteristics are important determinants of urban schoolchildren’s motivation for learning. PMID:22389576
Belgrave, Faye Z; Reed, Melba C; Plybon, Laura E; Corneille, Maya
This study examined the utility of the Specific Event Drug and Alcohol Refusal Efficacy scale (SEDARE) as an outcome of a culturally enhanced drug abuse prevention program for urban African-American girls in early adolescence. The SEDARE captures the perceived likelihood that youth will use drugs and alcohol in specific situations. Ninety-two girls participated in the program. Girls in the intervention group had higher drug refusal efficacy as measured by the SEDARE than girls in the comparison group. Girls varied in situations they perceived they could refuse drugs and alcohol. Findings are discussed with implications for drug abuse prevention programs for urban African-American girls.
Bail, Jennifer; Nolan, Timiya S; Vo, Jacqueline B; Gisiger-Camata, Silvia; Meneses, Karen
Little is known about cognitive changes among African American (AA) breast cancer survivors (BCS). Here, we report our experience with engagement of leaders of urban AA churches in Birmingham, Alabama to deliver and evaluate Think Well: Healthy Living to Improve Cognitive Function, an educational cognitive health program for BCS. The Think Well team engaged leaders of urban AA churches using a 7-step process: 1) identify leaders, 2) develop connection with leaders, 3) assess AA community preferences, 4) tailor for cultural relevance, 5) plan seminars, 6) deliver seminars, and 7) evaluate cultural relevance and overall program quality. Program evaluation was via a 22-item survey and sociodemographic questionnaire. Data from AA participants were analyzed using SPSS. The engagement process resulted in sustained partnerships with three urban AA churches and delivery of three Think Well seminars to 172 participants. Of the 172 participants, 138 (80%) AA participants (40 BCS, 98 co-survivors) returned the program survey. Respondents reported Think Well to be culturally relevant (90%) and of high quality (94%). Think Well was developed and evaluated with the collaboration of urban AA church leaders. Engaging church leaders facilitated reach of AA BCS. Partnership facilitated a culturally relevant, high quality program for AA BCS and co-survivors.
Watkins, William H., Ed.; Lewis, James H., Ed.; Chou, Victoria, Ed.
This book contains a collection of papers on race in U.S. education written by scholars who believe that improvement in the educational achievement of African American children will not occur by changing the curriculum or achieving desegregation. True change requires innovations based on replacing constructs rooted in past white hegemony and its…
Baldwin, Joseph A.
Discusses the Eurocentric nature of the United States social reality, and investigates psychological and mental health implications for the African-American community. Outlines the basic themes, emphases and criteria of Euro-American cosmology and describes how it can come to dominate the Afro-American's self-consciousness. Suggests ways to…
Bourhy, Hervé; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Hall, Matthew; Nouvellet, Pierre; Lepelletier, Anthony; Talbi, Chiraz; Watier, Laurence; Holmes, Edward C.; Cauchemez, Simon; Lemey, Philippe; Donnelly, Christl A.; Rambaut, Andrew
The development of novel approaches that combine epidemiological and genomic data provides new opportunities to reveal the spatiotemporal dynamics of infectious diseases and determine the processes responsible for their spread and maintenance. Taking advantage of detailed epidemiological time series and viral sequence data from more than 20 years reported by the National Reference Centre for Rabies of Bangui, the capital city of Central African Republic, we used a combination of mathematical modeling and phylogenetic analysis to determine the spatiotemporal dynamics of rabies in domestic dogs as well as the frequency of extinction and introduction events in an African city. We show that although dog rabies virus (RABV) appears to be endemic in Bangui, its epidemiology is in fact shaped by the regular extinction of local chains of transmission coupled with the introduction of new lineages, generating successive waves of spread. Notably, the effective reproduction number during each wave was rarely above the critical value of 1, such that rabies is not self-sustaining in Bangui. In turn, this suggests that rabies at local geographic scales is driven by human-mediated dispersal of RABV among sparsely connected peri-urban and rural areas as opposed to dispersion in a relatively large homogenous urban dog population. This combined epidemiological and genomic approach enables development of a comprehensive framework for understanding disease persistence and informing control measures, indicating that control measures are probably best targeted towards areas neighbouring the city that appear as the source of frequent incursions seeding outbreaks in Bangui. PMID:27058957
Hanlon, Thomas E.; Simon, Betsy D.; O’Grady, Kevin E.; Carswell, Steven B.; Callaman, Jason M.
The present study reports on the effectiveness at one-year follow-up of an after-school prevention program targeting 6th grade African American youth residing in high-risk urban areas. The program, conducted on-site over the school-year period, involved a group mentoring approach emphasizing remedial education and an appreciation of African American cultural heritage in promoting school bonding, social skills development, and greater academic achievement. Behavioral and adjustment outcome data were obtained from two participating middle-school sites (intervention and comparison, involving 237 and 241 students, respectively) serving essentially equivalent urban communities. Results of the study revealed significant effects for academic achievement and behavior in terms of grade point average and teacher ratings that favored students at the intervention site. At this site, greater participation of parents in the intervention program was found to be positively related to improvement of the children in grade point average. No differential site-related changes in negative behavior were observed. PMID:20300430
Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F. C.; Richardson, Jeanita W.; Kimeto, Pamela; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Sharps, Phyllis W.
A subsample of 12 African American women (6 urban and 6 rural) were selected from a larger longitudinal, randomized control trial, Domestic Violence Enhanced Home Visitation (DOVE-R01 900903 National Institute of Nursing Research [NINR]/National Institutes of Health [NIH]). All African American women were chosen to control for any racial- and/or race-related cultural differences that may exist among women across geographical areas. The experiences of abuse during the perinatal period are drawn from in-depth interviews conducted at five points in time during pregnancy and the post-partum period. The analysis describes three major themes that highlight the similarities and differences among rural and urban women. The main themes found were (1) types of abuse, (2) location of abuse, and (3) response to abuse. In addition, two sub-themes (a) defiance and compliance and (b) role of children were also identified. Implications for universal screening for women of reproductive age, safer gun laws, and the need for further research are discussed. PMID:25315478
Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F C; Richardson, Jeanita W; Kimeto, Pamela; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Sharps, Phyllis W
A subsample of 12 African American women (6 urban and 6 rural) were selected from a larger longitudinal, randomized control trial, Domestic Violence Enhanced Home Visitation (DOVE-R01 900903 National Institute of Nursing Research [NINR]/National Institutes of Health [NIH]). All African American women were chosen to control for any racial- and/or race-related cultural differences that may exist among women across geographical areas. The experiences of abuse during the perinatal period are drawn from in-depth interviews conducted at five points in time during pregnancy and the post-partum period. The analysis describes three major themes that highlight the similarities and differences among rural and urban women. The main themes found were (1) types of abuse, (2) location of abuse, and (3) response to abuse. In addition, two sub-themes (a) defiance and compliance and (b) role of children were also identified. Implications for universal screening for women of reproductive age, safer gun laws, and the need for further research are discussed.
Bourhy, Hervé; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Hall, Matthew; Nouvellet, Pierre; Lepelletier, Anthony; Talbi, Chiraz; Watier, Laurence; Holmes, Edward C; Cauchemez, Simon; Lemey, Philippe; Donnelly, Christl A; Rambaut, Andrew
The development of novel approaches that combine epidemiological and genomic data provides new opportunities to reveal the spatiotemporal dynamics of infectious diseases and determine the processes responsible for their spread and maintenance. Taking advantage of detailed epidemiological time series and viral sequence data from more than 20 years reported by the National Reference Centre for Rabies of Bangui, the capital city of Central African Republic, we used a combination of mathematical modeling and phylogenetic analysis to determine the spatiotemporal dynamics of rabies in domestic dogs as well as the frequency of extinction and introduction events in an African city. We show that although dog rabies virus (RABV) appears to be endemic in Bangui, its epidemiology is in fact shaped by the regular extinction of local chains of transmission coupled with the introduction of new lineages, generating successive waves of spread. Notably, the effective reproduction number during each wave was rarely above the critical value of 1, such that rabies is not self-sustaining in Bangui. In turn, this suggests that rabies at local geographic scales is driven by human-mediated dispersal of RABV among sparsely connected peri-urban and rural areas as opposed to dispersion in a relatively large homogenous urban dog population. This combined epidemiological and genomic approach enables development of a comprehensive framework for understanding disease persistence and informing control measures, indicating that control measures are probably best targeted towards areas neighbouring the city that appear as the source of frequent incursions seeding outbreaks in Bangui.
Butler Kahle, Jane; Meece, Judith; Scantlebury, Kathryn
The current reform movement in science education promotes standards-based teaching, including the use of inquiry, problem solving, and open-ended questioning, to improve student achievement. This study examines the influence of standards-based teaching practices on the achievement of urban, African-American, middle school science students. Science classes of teachers who had participated in the professional development (n = 8) of Ohio's statewide systemic initiative (SSI) were matched with classes of teachers (n = 10) who had not participated. Data were gathered using group-administered questionnaires and achievement tests that were specifically designed for Ohio's SSI. Analyses indicate that teachers who frequently used standards-based teaching practices positively influenced urban, African-American students' science achievement and attitudes, especially for boys. Additionally, teachers' involvement in the SSI's professional development was positively related to the reported use of standards-based teaching practices in the classroom. The findings support the efficacy of high-quality professional development to change teaching practices and to enhance student learning.
This study focuses on young children's chronic undernutrition and its association with maternal sensitivity, sociodemographic variables, children's play, and problem-solving measures. Data were obtained with home observations and laboratory procedures on 85 mothers and infants (M age = 18 months) in a low-income urban population in Santiago, Chile. Maternal sensitivity was correlated with maternal education, maternal weight, and marital satisfaction. Observed in a variety of maternal roles, maternal sensitivity was also significantly associated with children's nutritional status, attachment security, and mastery behavior. These findings demonstrate the relevance of the maternal sensitivity construct outside industrialized societies and underline the need for intervention strategies to extend beyond nutritional supplementation to address deficits of maternal care associated with specific caregiver's roles.
Ekirapa, Akaco; Mgomella, George S; Kyobutungi, Catherine
We conducted a needs assessment that describes the landscape of civil society organizations (CSOs) in three informal settlements around Nairobi, Kenya. The numbers of CSOs have rapidly increased in areas underserved by governments including poor urban neighbourhoods but little is known about CSOs capacity to meet the priority health needs of the urban poor. It is also unclear why, despite a proliferation of CSOs, residents still experience unimproved health outcomes. We collected data on core activities, financial management, and governance structures. Of the 952 CSOs assessed, 47 per cent reported HIV/AIDS counselling, prevention, and treatment as their core activity. Most CSOs reported good financial management systems and governance structures but responses were not validated. Representation in district health stakeholder fora was low; most CSOs did not have the capacity to effectively deliver services that would have impact. For CSOs to realize the desired goal to improve the well-being of low-income populations, programmes to build their management capacity are essential.
Whitney, Frances M.
The purpose of this paper is to give a voice to a dedicated group of professionals who unselfishly labored twenty-five plus years educating the children of America's poorest taxpaying citizens. These retired African American female urban middle school science teachers (RAAFUMSST) explain the experiences that gave them the fortitude to stay in the urban school system until their retirement. The goal is to give you a glimpse into the distractions, challenges, and victories the teachers encountered as they strove to teach science in an overcrowded, underserviced, and depressed urban school district of a major city. Most times sacrificing self for service, the participants of this study held fast to their beliefs that all of America's children, regardless of their parents' socioeconomic status, deserve a quality education. It is through individual interviews that the five retired science teachers of this project share their reflections on the events and circumstances that altered their labor of love. Critical Race Theory (CRT) serves as the theoretical frame for this study.
Higgins, Karen M.; Moule, Jean
Using methods of naturalistic inquiry, this study examines preservice teachers' conflict with classroom management strategies used in a predominantly African-American urban elementary school. It highlights the theory/practice dilemma, focusing on the tensions between the democratic strategies taught in university classes and the more authoritarian…
Corneille, Maya A.; Belgrave, Faye Z.
This study examined the impact of ethnic identity and neighborhood risk on drug and sex attitudes and refusal efficacy among early adolescent urban African American females (n = 175). The model also predicted a moderating relationship of ethnic identity on neighborhood risk for drug and sex attitudes and refusal efficacy. Data were collected as…
Larson, Kristine E.
The purpose of this paper was to review the literature in terms of professional development activities that researchers have enlisted to reduce student problem behaviors and improve classroom management competencies among teachers who work in urban environments serving predominately African American students. First, the author conducted a…
Murray, Kantahyanee W.; Haynie, Denise L.; Howard, Donna E.; Cheng, Tina L.; Simons-Morton, Bruce
This research examined the relation between early adolescent aggression and parenting practices in an urban, predominately African American sample. Sixth graders (N = 209) completed questionnaires about their overt and relational aggressive behaviors and perceptions of caregivers' parenting practices. Findings indicated that moderate levels of…
Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Raman, Aarthi; Sharma, Sushma; Fitch, Mark D.; Fleming, Sharon E.
Objective: To identify family and child nutrition and dietary attributes related to children's dietary intakes. Design: African American children (ages 8-11 years, n = 156), body mass index greater than 85th percentile, from urban, low-income neighborhoods. Baseline, cross-sectional data collected as part of an ongoing diabetes prevention…
Hammack, Phillip L.
Reviews theories of depression relevant to research on African American adolescents (socioecologic, cognitive, family stress, and biopsychosocial), asserting that all four emphasize the role of oppression in urban black youth's development and that an integrated theory would assume this underlying construct as its core focus. Presents a…
Mohamed, Roslyn J. F. Billy
With the signing of the No Child Left Behind Act in 2001, much emphasis has been placed on the accountability of schools and school districts to ensure higher academic achievement of all students. The achievement gap remains among African American male students in urban school districts. This purposed quantitative study explored the relationship…
Farrell, Albert D.; Erwin, Elizabeth H.; Bettencourt, Amie; Mays, Sally; Vulin-Reynolds, Monique; Sullivan, Terri; Allison, Kevin W.; Kliewer, Wendy; Meyer, Aleta
This qualitative study examined individual-level factors that influence adolescents' responses to problem situations involving peers. Interviews were conducted with 106 middle school students (97% African American) from an urban school system. Participants described factors that would make it easier and those that would make it more difficult for…
Baptiste, Donna R.; Tolou-Shams, Marina; Miller, Scott R.; Mcbride, Cami K.; Paikoff, Roberta L.
We investigated determinants of parental monitoring and the association between parental monitoring and preadolescent sexual risk situations among low-income, African American families living in urban public housing. Preadolescents and their parents or caregivers who participated in a longitudinal study of familial and contextual influences on…
Goldner, Jonathan; Peters, Tracy L.; Richards, Maryse H.; Pearce, Steven
This study examined protective and risky companionship and locations for exposure to community violence among African American young adolescents living in high crime, urban areas. The Experience Sampling Method (ESM), an in vivo data collection method, was employed to gather information from 233 students (62% female) over 3 years, beginning in the…
Kane, Justine M.
This is a qualitative study of identities constructed and enacted by four 3rd-grade African American children (two girls and two boys) in an urban classroom that engaged in a year-long, integrated science-literacy project. Juxtaposing narrative and discursive identity lenses, coupled with race and gender perspectives, I examined the ways in which the four children saw and performed themselves as students and as science students in their classroom. Interview data were used for the narrative analysis and classroom Discourse and artifacts were used for the discursive analysis. A constructivist grounded theory framework was adopted for both analyses. The findings highlight the diversity and richness of perspectives and forms of engagement these young children shared and enacted, and help us see African American children as knowers, doers, and talkers of science individually and collectively. In their stories about themselves, all the children identified themselves as smart but they associated with smartness different characteristics and practices depending on their strengths and preferences. Drawing on the children's social, cultural, and ethnolinguistic resources, the dialogic and multimodal learning spaces facilitated by their teacher allowed the children to explore, negotiate, question, and learn science ideas. The children in this study brought their understandings and ways of being into the "lived-in" spaces co-created with classmates and teacher and influenced how these spaces were created. At the same time, each child's ways of being and understandings were shaped by the words, actions, behaviors, and feelings of peers and teacher. Moreover, as these four children engaged with science-literacy activities, they came to see themselves as competent, creative, active participants in science learning. Although their stories of "studenting" seemed dominated by following rules and being well-behaved, their stories of "sciencing" were filled with exploration, ingenuity
This slim book (166 pages) shines a spotlight on pre-industrial African metallurgy, its global connections, and anthropological implications. It integrates seemingly disparate disciplines, such as history, geology, ethnography, archeology, and metallurgy, to illustrate the diversity and innovation in metallurgy across Africa and the role of metals in the rise of socio-economic inequalities and political power. The book has 7 chapters and the focus on metals as enablers of human needs and wants is evident in each chapter. The first chapter presents the context of the work and data sources. The second chapter focuses on the origin and development of mining and metallurgy in pre-industrial Africa. Chapter 3 is dedicated to the interaction of nature and culture in the process of mining. Chapter 4 deals with the transformation of the ore into metal by smelting and the sociocultural aspects of this process. Chapter 5 explores the social and cultural roles acquired by metals as a result of fabrication into objects. Chapter 6 examines the social role of metals, trade in metals, cultural contact, proto-globalization, and technology transfer. Finally, Chapter 7 draws lessons for global anthropology from the African experience. The sources of information are adequately cited and the long list of references at the end of each chapter will be a boon to researchers in this field. The author highlights the cultural aspects and social context of the adoption of metallurgy in Africa while drawing parallels between practices in pre-industrial Africa and those in other parts of the world. The book is peppered with delightful vignettes that offer insights into the process of transforming nature into culturally significant objects. For instance, African miners, like their counterparts in Nepal and Latin America, called upon deities, spirits and ancestors to mediate between nature and humans. Women had distinct roles in this process, but there were variations in these roles and in the
Yeakey, Carol Camp, Ed.; Henderson, Ronald D., Ed.
This volume includes papers 16-32 in a 32-paper collection: (16) "Mining the Fields of Teacher Education: Preparing Teachers to Teach African American Children in Urban Schools" (Patricia A. Edwards, Gwendolyn T. McMillon, and Clifford T. Bennett); (17) "Mentoring Adolescents At Risk or At Promise" (Tammie M. Causey and Kassie…
Bob, Ndeye Sakha; Diop, Bernard Marcel; Renaud, Francois; Marrama, Laurence; Durand, Patrick; Tall, Adama; Ka, Boubacar; Ekala, Marie Therese; Bouchier, Christiane; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Jambou, Ronan
Background Transmission of malaria in West African urban areas is low and healthcare facilities are well organized. However, malaria mortality remains high. We conducted a survey in Dakar with the general objective to establish who died from severe malaria (SM) in urban areas (particularly looking at the age-groups) and to compare parasite isolates associated with mild or severe malaria. Methodology/Principal Findings The current study included mild- (MM) and severe malaria (SM) cases, treated in dispensaries (n = 2977) and hospitals (n = 104), We analysed Pfdhfr/Pfcrt-exon2 and nine microsatellite loci in 102 matched cases of SM and MM. Half of the malaria cases recorded at the dispensaries and 87% of SM cases referred to hospitals, occurred in adults, although adults only accounted for 26% of all dispensary consultations. This suggests that, in urban settings, whatever the reason for this adult over-representation, health-workers are forced to take care of increasing numbers of malaria cases among adults. Inappropriate self treatment and mutations in genes associated with drug resistance were found associated with SM in adults. SM was also associated with a specific pool of isolates highly polymorphic and different from those associated with MM. Conclusion In this urban setting, adults currently represent one of the major groups of patients attending dispensaries for malaria treatment. For these patients, despite the low level of transmission, SM was associated with a specific and highly polymorphic pool of parasites which may have been selected by inappropriate treatment. PMID:20352101
Dolcini, M Margaret; Catania, Joseph A; Harper, Gary W; Watson, Susan E; Ellen, Jonathan M; Towner, Senna L
Using a probability-based neighborhood sample of urban African American youth and a sample of their close friends (N = 202), we conducted a one-year longitudinal study to examine key questions regarding sexual and drug using norms. The results provide validation of social norms governing sexual behavior, condom use, and substance use among friendship groups. These norms had strong to moderate homogeneity; and both normative strength and homogeneity were relatively stable over a one-year period independent of changes in group membership. The data further suggest that sex and substance using norms may operate as a normative set. Similar to studies of adults, we identified three distinct "norm-based" social strata in our sample. Together, our findings suggest that the norms investigated are valid targets for health promotion efforts, and such efforts may benefit from tailoring programs to the normative sets that make up the different social strata in a given adolescent community.
Aronson, Robert E.; Whitehead, Tony L.; Baber, Willie L.
In this article we describe and analyze the challenges faced by an intervention program that addresses the fatherhood needs of low-income urban African American males. We used life history as the primary research strategy for a qualitative evaluation of a program we refer to as the Healthy Men in Healthy Families Program to better understand the circumstances and trajectory of men’s lives, including how involvement in the program might have benefited them in the pursuit of their fatherhood goals. A model of masculine transformation, developed by Whitehead, was used to interpret changes in manhood/fatherhood attitudes and behaviors that might be associated with the intervention. We combined Whitehead’s model with a social ecology framework to further interpret challenges at intrapersonal, interpersonal, community, and broader societal levels. PMID:12721134
Aronson, Robert E; Whitehead, Tony L; Baber, Willie L
In this article we describe and analyze the challenges faced by an intervention program that addresses the fatherhood needs of low-income urban African American males. We used life history as the primary research strategy for a qualitative evaluation of a program we refer to as the Healthy Men in Healthy Families Program to better understand the circumstances and trajectory of men's lives, including how involvement in the program might have benefited them in the pursuit of their fatherhood goals. A model of masculine transformation, developed by Whitehead, was used to interpret changes in manhood/fatherhood attitudes and behaviors that might be associated with the intervention. We combined Whitehead's model with a social ecology framework to further interpret challenges at intrapersonal, interpersonal, community, and broader societal levels.
Penn, Claire; Watermeyer, Jennifer
The role of culture in community beliefs about HIV is important to understand, given poor adherence to treatment and the failure of prevention programs in some contexts. An exploration of such models may yield important insight into barriers to care, treatment-seeking paths, and intergenerational differences in cultural beliefs and practices. Our study aimed to understand South African grandmothers' traditional beliefs about HIV. Three focus groups were conducted with 15 grandmothers from different cultural backgrounds in an urban community. Results indicated a variety of cultural explanations for causes, treatments, and prevention strategies. The lack of coherence and fluidity in opinions in this group suggests ways in which grandmothers may have a bridging role in the clinic that may help to validate and alleviate uncertainty, harmonize the voices of medicine and the lifeworld, and provide greater insight into people's ideas about health and treatment seeking, also known as the healthworld.
Lindstrom Johnson, Sarah; Finigan, Nadine; Bradshaw, Catherine; Haynie, Denise; Cheng, Tina L.
Family socialization, which includes parental control and support, plays an important role in reducing the likelihood of adolescent involvement in conflict. This study examined the strategies that urban parents living in neighborhoods with high crime rates suggest to help their adolescent children avoid or deescalate conflict. Data come from 48 African American parent/adolescent dyads recruited through the youths’ middle school. Dyads responded to three video-taped scenarios depicting youth in potential conflict situations. Qualitative methods were used to identify 11 strategies parents suggested to help youth avoid or deescalate conflict. Although the majority of parents advocated for non-violent solutions, these same parents described situations in which their child may need to use violence. These findings have important implications for family-focused violence prevention programs. PMID:26726283
Nebbitt, Von E; Williams, James Herbert; Lombe, Margaret; McCoy, Henrika; Stephens, Jennifer
African American adolescents are disproportionately represented in urban public housing developments. These neighborhoods are generally characterized by high rates of poverty, crime, violence, and disorganization. Although evidence is emerging on youths in these communities, little is known about their depressive symptoms, perceived efficacy, or frequency of substance use and sex-risk behavior. Further, even less is known about their exposure to community and household violence, their parents' behavior, or their sense of connection to their communities. Using a sample of 782 African American adolescents living in public housing neighborhoods located in four large U.S. cities, this article attempts to rectify the observed gap in knowledge by presenting a descriptive overview of their self-reported depressive symptoms; self-efficacy; frequencies of delinquent and sexual-risk behavior; and alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use. The self-reported ratings of their parents' behavior as well as their exposure to community and household violence are presented. Analytic procedures include descriptive statistics and mean comparisons between genders and across research cities. Results suggest several differences between genders and across research sites. However, results are not very different from national data. Implications for social work practice are discussed.
Ford, K; Rubinstein, S; Norris, A
Low income, urban, African-American, and Hispanic youth have been identified as a group for which there is concern about the spread of HIV. Using data from a household probability sample of 1,435 minority youth aged 15 to 24 in Detroit, this paper evaluates levels of sexual activity, condom use, and reasons for condom use and non-use. Comparisons with national samples of minority youth indicated that Detroit low-income youth have similar patterns of sexual behavior to national samples, although males and African-American females began their sexual experiences earlier and were less likely to have used condoms or other protection from pregnancy or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) at first intercourse. Recent levels of condom use also left many Detroit youth unprotected from STDs. Less than half used a condom at least intercourse in the last year with nonmarital partners that they "knew well." In addition, condom use with partners that they "did not know well" was very low for Hispanic youth: Among those who had at least one casual partner in the last year, only 30% to 33% had ever used a condom with that partner. Analysis of reasons for use indicate that both pregnancy prevention and disease prevention were important motivations for condom use. However, many youth did not use condoms for reasons such as unavailability of condoms or unplanned sex.
Smith, Sharon Irene
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the influences of spirituality on decisions made by African American women principals at the elementary school level in schools where children of color and poverty exist in significant numbers and to gain an understanding of how African moral virtues were evidenced in the day to day professional…
Compton, Michael T; Esterberg, Michelle L; Broussard, Beth
Although mental health professionals' "etiologic beliefs" concerning schizophrenia have evolved in accordance with diathesis-stress and neurodevelopmental models, little is known about etiologic attributions in nonclinical general population samples in the United States. Yet, course and outcome for people with the illness may be indirectly influenced by beliefs about causes in the larger community. Because of very limited research in this area, especially among African Americans in particular, this descriptive study investigated the causes of schizophrenia reported by 127 urban African Americans from the general population. The aim of this study was to assess the most commonly reported causes of schizophrenia, as well as the frequency of endorsing items from a list of 30 factors, some of which are congruent with current psychiatric conceptualizations of schizophrenia, whereas others are not. Results of this report complement previously reported findings from the same setting involving family members of patients with schizophrenia [Esterberg ML, Compton MT. Causes of schizophrenia reported by family members of urban African American hospitalized patients with schizophrenia. Compr Psychiatry 2006;47:221-226]. The 5 most commonly reported causes were disturbance of brain biochemistry (49.6%), drug/alcohol abuse (42.5%), hereditary factors (40.9%), brain injury (40.2%), and avoidance of problems in life (37.8%). The mean number of likely or very likely causes endorsed by participants was 7.5 +/- 5.7. Some 47.9% reported one or more esoteric factors as a cause. Of the 6 esoteric factors, possession by evil spirits (28.3%), radiation (20.2%), and punishment by God (19.7%) were most common. Esoteric causes were more commonly chosen by male participants, those with 12 years of education or less, and participants who reported never having known someone with schizophrenia. Future research should seek to better understand how esoteric beliefs about causation affect attitudes
The sociology of death, dying and bereavement tends to take as its implicit frame either the nation state or a homogenous modernity. Between-nation differences in the management of death and dying are either ignored or untheorized. This article seeks to identify the factors that can explain both similarities and differences in the management of death between different modern western nations. Structural factors which affect all modern nations include urbanization and the division of labour leading to the dominance of professionals, migration, rationality and bureaucracy, information technology and the risk society. How these sociologically familiar structural features are responded to, however, depends on national histories, institutions and cultures. Historically, key transitional periods to modernity, different in different nations, necessitated particular institutional responses in the management of dying and dead bodies. Culturally, key factors include individualism versus collectivism, religion, secularization, boundary regulation, and expressivism. Global flows of death practices depend significantly on subjugated nations' perceptions of colonialism, neo-colonialism and modernity, which can lead to a dominant power's death practices being either imitated or rejected.
Cheong, JeeWon; Tucker, Jalie A; Simpson, Cathy A; Chandler, Susan D
Transitioning from adolescence to full-fledged adulthood is often challenging, and young people who live in disadvantaged urban neighborhoods face additional obstacles and experience disproportionately higher negative outcomes, including substance abuse and related risk behaviors. This study investigated whether substance use among African Americans ages 15 to 25 (M=18.86 years) living in such areas was related to present-dominated time perspectives and higher delay discounting. Participants (N=344, 110 males, 234 females) living in Deep South disadvantaged urban neighborhoods were recruited using Respondent Driven Sampling, an improved peer-referral sampling method suitable for accessing this hard-to-reach target group. Structured field interviews assessed alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use and risk/protective factors, including time perspectives (Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory [ZTPI]) and behavioral impulsivity (delay discounting task). As predicted, substance use was positively related to a greater ZTPI orientation toward present pleasure and a lower tendency to plan and achieve future goals. Although the sample as a whole showed high discounting of delayed rewards, discount rates did not predict substance use. The findings suggest that interventions to lengthen time perspectives and promote enriched views of future possible selves may prevent and reduce substance use among disadvantaged youths. Discontinuities among the discounting and time perspective variables in relation to substance use merit further investigation.
Godoy, Leandra; Shabazz, Kanya
Background There is considerable potential for mobile technologies to empower pediatric patients and families by improving their communication with health professionals. National surveys suggest minority parents frequently communicate via mobile technology, but it is uncertain how amenable they are to receiving health care information in this format. Although the low cost and far reach characteristics of mobile health (mHealth) technology makes it advantageous for communication with minority parents, data on acceptance are needed. Objective The objective of the study was to determine utilization of mobile and Internet technology by African American parents in an urban, underserved population, and to assess their interest in receiving health information via text messaging or other technologies (eg, social media and the Internet). Methods A survey was administered to parents of children aged 1-12 years covered by public insurance receiving care at 3 pediatric primary care centers in Washington, DC. Results The African American sample (N=302) was composed of primarily single (75.8%, 229/302) mothers. Almost half had more than a high school education (47.7%, 144/302) and incomes above US $25,000 per year (43.0%, 130/302). Most (97.0%, 293/302) reported owning a cell phone, of which 91.1% (275/302) used it to text and 78.5% (237/302) used it to access the Internet. Most had service plans with unlimited text and data, but 26.5% (80/302) experienced service interruptions in the previous year. Home Internet access was more prevalent among those with higher income (86.2%, 112/130), but it was still relatively pervasive among lower income families (66.9%, 83/124). In adjusted logistic regression models, African American mothers with income greater than US $25,000 annually were 4 times as likely to own a tablet computer than their lower income counterparts. Of the participants, 80.8% (244/302) used social networking, primarily Facebook, and 74.2% (224/302) were interested in
Lukwago, S N; Kreuter, M W; Bucholtz, D C; Holt, C L; Clark, E M
This article describes the development and pilot-testing of brief scales to measure four cultural constructs prevalent in urban African American women. Internal consistency and temporal stability were assessed in two convenience samples (n=47 and n=25) of primarily lower-income African American women. All scales performed well: collectivism alpha=.93, r=.85, p<.001); religiosity (alpha=.88, r=.89, p<.001); racial pride (alpha=.84, r=.52, p<.001); present time orientation (alpha=.73, r=.52, p<.01) and future time orientation (alpha=.72, r=.54, p=.07).
Joseph, Christine L. M.; Peterson, Edward; Havstad, Suzanne; Johnson, Christine C.; Hoerauf, Sarah; Stringer, Sonja; Gibson-Scipio, Wanda; Ownby, Dennis R.; Elston-Lafata, Jennifer; Pallonen, Unto; Strecher, Victor
Rationale: Urban African-American youth, aged 15–19 years, have asthma fatality rates that are higher than in whites and younger children, yet few programs target this population. Traditionally, urban youth are believed to be difficult to engage in health-related programs, both in terms of connecting and convincing. Objectives: Develop and evaluate a multimedia, web-based asthma management program to specifically target urban high school students. The program uses “tailoring,” in conjunction with theory-based models, to alter behavior through individualized health messages based on the user's beliefs, attitudes, and personal barriers to change. Methods: High school students reporting asthma symptoms were randomized to receive the tailored program (treatment) or to access generic asthma websites (control). The program was made available on school computers. Measurements and Main Results: Functional status and medical care use were measured at study initiation and 12 months postbaseline, as were selected management behaviors. The intervention period was 180 days (calculated from baseline). A total of 314 students were randomized (98% African American, 49% Medicaid enrollees; mean age, 15.2 yr). At 12 months, treatment students reported fewer symptom-days, symptom-nights, school days missed, restricted-activity days, and hospitalizations for asthma when compared with control students; adjusted relative risk and 95% confidence intervals were as follows: 0.5 (0.4–0.8), p = 0.003; 0.4 (0.2–0.8), p = 0.009; 0.3 (0.1–0.7), p = 0.006; 0.5 (0.3–0.8), p = 0.02; and 0.2 (0.2–0.9), p = 0.01, respectively. Positive behaviors were more frequently noted among treatment students compared with control students. Cost estimates for program delivery were $6.66 per participating treatment group student. Conclusions: A web-based, tailored approach to changing negative asthma management behaviors is economical, feasible, and effective in improving asthma outcomes in a
Polite, Vernon C.
This paper is an ethnographic study of African American male students at an urban high school and an examination of the quality of education received by those students. The study population was composed of 115 African American males in the high school class of 1989 observed from January, 1987, through the December following their expected…
Benson, Shanelle R.
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine, to what degree, African American teachers in five selected, urban charter schools in New York performed the historical roles of counselor, advocate, disciplinarian, surrogate parent, and role model in, to determine how African American Teachers perceived the importance of performing the…
Cavan, Gina; Lindley, Sarah; Kibassa, Deusdedit; Shemdoe, Riziki; Capuano, Paolo; De Paola, Francesco; Renner, Florian; Pauleit, Stephan
Urban green structure provides important regulating ecosystem services, such as temperature and flood regulation, and thus, has the potential to increase the resilience of African cities to climate change. Green structures within urban areas are not only limited to discrete units associated with recreational parks, agricultural areas and open spaces: they also exist within zones which have other primary functions, such as church yards, along transport routes, and within residential areas. Differing characteristics of urban areas can be conceptualised and subsequently mapped through the idea of urban morphology types. Urban morphology types are classifications which combine facets of urban form and function. When mapped, UMT units provide biophysically relevant meso-scale geographical zones which can be used as the basis for understanding climate-related impacts and adaptations. For example, they support the assessment of urban temperature patterns and the temperature regulating services provided by urban green structures. There are some examples of the use of UMTs for assessing regulating ecosystem services in European cities but little similar knowledge is available in an African context. This paper outlines the concept of urban morphology types (UMTs) and how they were applied to African case study cities (Cavan et al., 2012). It then presents the methods used to understand temperature regulating ecosystem services across an example African case study city, including (i) a GIS-based assessment of urban green structures, and (ii) applying an energy balance model to estimate current and future surface temperatures under climate change projections. The assessment is carried out for Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Existing evidence suggests increases in both mean and extreme temperatures in the city. Historical analysis of the number of hot days per year suggests a rise from a maximum of 47 days per year in the period 1961-87 to 72 days per year in 2003-2011 (Giugni et al
Nebbitt, Von E; Voisin, Dexter R; Tirmazi, M Taqi
Mass incarceration, substance use, and adolescent early onset of sex (e.g., initiate sexual intercourse at 13 years of age or younger) are social problems with disparate impacts on low-income African American communities. Two out of every five inmates in state and federal prisons are African American and the vast majority of these inmates are from low-income communities. Furthermore, this population experiences more severe consequences of substance use and abuse compared to other populations. In sum, African American youth endure the lion share of problems that mass incarceration and substance use leave in their wake. It is likely that the early onset of sex reported by African American youth in national data is related to mass incarceration and substance use in their communities. Using a sample of 142 African American youth, this paper assesses whether parental incarceration or substance, or both, are related to the likelihood of early onset of sex. Analytic procedures included chi-square and sequential logistic regression. The sample reported a mean age of 19 and 36% reported early onset of sex. Being male, paternal incarcerated, and maternal alcohol problems were associated with an increased likelihood of early onset of sex. Results point to a need for supportive services for the children of incarcerated parents, particularly those living in urban public housing developments.
Weinburgh, Molly H.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a National Science Foundation-funded Local Systemic Change grant on fifth grade, urban, African American students' attitudes toward science. Seven schools, representative of the district, were randomly selected to participate in the study. The modified Attitude Toward Science Inventory (mATSI), consisting of five attitudinal scales, was used to measure students' attitudes. Project records, school district records, and focus groups provided school-level data. Analyses of the mATSI data indicated a significant main effect for the program and for school but not for gender. A small overall difference in positive attitudes was seen for fifth grade students who experienced the science reform program compared to those who had not. The most important variable influencing attitudes toward science was the school in which the students were assigned. The seven schools varied greatly in the effectiveness of the science program. School characteristics were examined to try to explain the differences.
McMahon, Susan D; Todd, Nathan R; Martinez, Andrew; Coker, Crystal; Sheu, Ching-Fan; Washburn, Jason; Shah, Seema
We use longitudinal multilevel modeling to test how exposure to community violence and cognitive and behavioral factors contribute to the development of aggressive and prosocial behaviors. Specifically, we examine predictors of self-, peer-, and teacher-reported aggressive and prosocial behavior among 266 urban, African American early adolescents. We examine lagged, within-person, between-person, and protective effects across 2 years. In general, results suggest that higher levels of violence exposure and aggressive beliefs are associated with more aggressive and less prosocial peer-reported behavior, whereas greater self-efficacy to resolve conflict peacefully is associated with less aggression across reporters and more teacher-reported prosocial behavior. Greater knowledge and violence prevention skills are associated with fewer aggressive and more prosocial teacher-reported behaviors. Results also suggest that greater self-efficacy and lower impulsivity have protective effects for youth reporting higher levels of exposure to community violence, in terms of teacher-reported aggressive behavior and peer-reported prosocial behavior. Differences among reporters and models are discussed, as well as implications for intervention.
Haughton, Lorna Tanya; Kreuter, Matthew; Hall, Jasmine; Holt, Cheryl L; Wheetley, Eric
This exploratory study examines access to communication technologies, its association with health-related variables and study attrition, and its stability over time in a study of lower income African American women visiting urban public health centers. Participants (n = 1,227) provided information about cancer-related behaviors in a baseline questionnaire that also assessed their e-mail and cell phone/pager access. Interviews conducted at 1-, 6-, and 18-month follow up determined attrition, and an e-mail message sent to participants at 6-month follow up determined stability of access. Fewer than 10% of women reported e-mail access; 26% reported cell/phone pager access. At 6-month follow up, 45% of e-mail accounts were inactive; accounts from pay access providers were more likely to be inactive than work- or school-based accounts (58% versus 25%). Cell phone/pager access was positively associated with mammography knowledge. Attrition rates were lower among women with access than among those without access. Priorities for future research based on these preliminary findings are discussed.
Jones, Joffery, III.
Purpose: This study examined African American teachers' perceptions of their teaching experiences in schools that were once primarily populated with African American students but have experienced shifts in demographics to primarily consisting of Hispanic students. The study focused on three areas. The first area was African American teachers'…
Ainscow, Mel; West, Mel
Drawing on research evidence, this book addresses the question of how primary and secondary urban schools can be improved in a more inclusive way. The authors argue that urban schools and their communities have within them expertise that tends to be overlooked, and latent creativity that should be mobilised to move thinking and progress forward.…
Ainslie, Gillian M.; Dheda, Keertan; Allwood, Brian W.; Wong, Michelle L.; Lalloo, Umesh G.; Abdool-Gaffar, Mohamed S.; Khalfey, Hoosain; Irusen, Elvis M.
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a very specific form of a chronic, progressive fibroproliferative interstitial pneumonia of unknown aetiology. The disease is generally associated with a poor prognosis. Several international evidence-based guidelines on the diagnosis and management of IPF and other interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) have been published and updated in the last decade, and while the body of evidence for the use of some treatment modalities has grown, others have been shown to be futile and even harmful to patients. In a patient who presents with the classic clinical features, restrictive ventilatory impairment with impaired diffusion and a high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scan of the lungs showing a usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern, a definitive diagnosis of IPF can be made, provided all other causes of a radiological UIP pattern are excluded. Patients who present with atypical clinical features or an HRCT pattern classified as “possible” UIP, should be referred for a surgical lung biopsy. Once the diagnosis of IPF is confirmed, a patient-centred approached should be followed, as the stage of the disease, degree of impairment, rate of disease progression, comorbid illnesses and patient preferences all impact on long-term management. The South African Thoracic Society (SATS) suggests that anti-fibrotic treatment should be offered to appropriate candidates [confirmed IPF with a forced vital capacity (FVC) of 50–80%], but discontinued should there be evidence of disease progression (a decline in FVC of ≥10% within any 12-month period). The routine use of high dose oral steroids, immunosuppressive drugs and anticoagulants is not recommended whilst anti-acid therapy may be considered in patients without advanced disease. PMID:28149568
Black, Maureen M.; Hager, Erin; Le, Katherine; Anliker, Jean; Arteaga, S. Sonia; DiClemente, Carlo; Gittelsohn, Joel; Levy, Lauren; Magder, Laurence; Papas, Mia; Shebl, Fatma; Snitker, Soren; Treuth, Margarita S.; Wang, Yan
Objective To evaluate a 12-session home and community-based health promotion/obesity prevention program (Challenge!) on changes in BMI, body composition, physical activity (PA), and diet. Methods 235 African-American adolescents (11–16 yrs, 38% overweight/obese) were recruited from low-income urban communities. Baseline measures included weight, height, body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and bioelectrical impedance), physical activity (PA) (accelerometry), and diet (food frequency). PA was measured by time in play-equivalent physical activity (PEPA≥1800 activity counts/min). Participants were randomized into a home- and community-based health promotion/obesity prevention controlled trial, anchored in social cognitive theory and involving motivational interviewing techniques, and delivered by college-enrolled, African-American mentors. Control adolescents did not receive the intervention or a mentor. Post-intervention (10 mos) and delayed follow-up (24 mos) evaluations were conducted. Longitudinal analyses using random mixed effects models and generalized estimating equations (GEE) examined direct and moderated effects of time, gender, and baseline BMI category on changes at both follow-ups. Results Retention was 76% (178/235) over 2 years; overweight/obese status declined 5.3% among intervention adolescents and increased 11.3% among control adolescents (χ2=5.8, p=0.02, GEE). Among males, but not females, fat free mass was significantly higher among intervention members at both follow-up evaluations. PA effects were moderated by baseline BMI category; among adolescents ≥ 85th percentile, control adolescents averaged 25.5 min less daily activity than intervention adolescents (p=0.018) at the 10-mo, but not the 24-mo follow-up. Intervention adolescents declined significantly more in snack and dessert consumption than control adolescents (p=0.045). Conclusion A 12-session, home-and community-based intervention, based on social cognitive
Theoretical concepts of spatial organization appropriate to bringing about humanizing social change are identified. This resource paper is part of a series designed to supplement existing texts and to fill a gap between research and accessible materials in geography. Part 1, societies and cities, introduces three basic forms of society:…
Calvert, James; Burney, Peter
Background Populations with endemic parasitosis have high levels of IgE but low levels of allergic disease. We investigated the association between infection with the parasite Ascaris allergic sensitization, and exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB). Objective We sought to investigate the effect of Ascaris infection on bronchial hyperreactivity, skin testing, and specific IgE levels. Methods A cross-sectional prevalence survey was conducted in urban and rural South African children to measure levels of EIB. A sample of children was enrolled in a nested case-control study for further investigation based on response to exercise. Analyses used weighted logistic regression. Results Geometric mean total IgE levels were higher in Ascaris–infected subjects (infected subjects: 451 IU (95% CI, 356-572) vs uninfected subjects: 344 IU (95% CI, 271-437), P 5.04), and high levels of total IgE were positively associated with detection of specific IgE to the aeroallergens tested, but there was no significant association between Ascaris infection and titers of specific IgE. Ascaris infection was associated with a decreased risk of a positive skin test response (odds ratio, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.42–0.94; P 5 .03) but an increased risk of EIB (odds ratio, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.23-2.11; P 5 .001). Conclusion In areas of high parasite endemicity, Ascaris might induce an inflammatory response in the lungs independent of its effect on IgE production. This could explain some of the contradictory findings seen in studies examining the association between geohelminth infection, atopy, and asthma. PMID:19962746
Engels, Hermann-J; Gretebeck, Randall J; Gretebeck, Kimberlee A; Jiménez, Linda
This study examined the effectiveness of a unique extracurricular after-school initiative designed to promote healthy diets and exercise in urban African Americans. The Students and Parents Actively Involved in Being Fit after-school program was offered for 12 weeks to students and their parents/guardians at an urban middle school. Specific aims of the intervention were to increase participants' vegetable and fruit intake by using established 5 A Day for Better Health educational resource materials/activities and to affect their health-related fitness through dance, games, and fitness activities. Fifty-six children and 25 parents/guardians completed a standard battery of evaluations before and after the program. Pre-post pairwise t test revealed that both children and their parents/guardians showed an increase in fruit consumption and a reduction in diastolic blood pressure (P <.05). Moreover, children showed improvements in systolic blood pressure and fruit juice, salad, and nonfried potato consumption while parents/guardians showed a decrease in body fat, body mass index, and endurance walk/run time (P <.05). Overall, findings indicate that children tended to gain more diet-related benefits while parents/guardians tended to derive more fitness-related benefits. After-school programs like the Students and Parents Actively Involved in Being Fit initiative can potentially contribute to improved health levels in urban African Americans.
Dinizulu, Sonya Mathies; Grant, Kathryn E; McIntosh, Jeanne M
African-American youth residing in urban poverty have been shown to be at increased risk for exposure to violence and internalizing symptoms, but there has been little investigation of moderating processes that might attenuate or exacerbate this association. The current study examined nondisclosure as a possible moderator of the association between community violence and internalizing symptoms with a sample of 152 low-income urban African-American early adolescents using hierarchical regression analyses. Results revealed that nondisclosure for relationship reasons (e.g., adults could not be trusted to provide needed support) moderated the association between exposure to community violence and internalizing symptoms. Unexpectedly, however, results of simple effects analyses revealed a stronger association between exposure to violence and internalizing symptoms for youth who disclosed more to adults. Although unexpected, this pattern builds upon prior research indicating that adult-child relationships are compromised within the context of urban poverty and that protective factors may lose their power under conditions of extreme stress.
Corneille, Maya A; Belgrave, Faye Z
This study examined the impact of ethnic identity and neighborhood risk on drug and sex attitudes and refusal efficacy among early adolescent urban African American females (n = 175). The model also predicted a moderating relationship of ethnic identity on neighborhood risk for drug and sex attitudes and refusal efficacy. Data were collected as part of a larger drug education program and analyzed via hierarchical multiple regression. The analyses controlled for household structure and menarche. Results indicated a direct relationship of higher ethnic identity and higher sexual refusal efficacy, higher disapproval of drug use, and lowered intentions to use drugs. Neighborhood risk was directly related to lower disapproval of drug use. There was a small moderating effect of ethnic identity on neighborhood risk for intention to use drugs. Findings provide support for prevention programs for African American youth that seek to reduce risk behaviors by increasing ethnic identity, particularly in low resource communities.
Wilson, Kimi Leemar
experiences impact mathematics-science identity development. The goal of the study seeks to inform educational, psychological and sociological theory about how urban adolescent African American males understand, develop and make use of their mathematics and science knowledge. Finally, this work seeks to inform mathematics and science educational research to include identity theory, beyond a personal or individual identity perspective, but also to include relational, collective, and material identity components to understand how the culture of mathematics and science within and outside of K-12 public schooling impacts African American males in an endeavor to become learners of mathematics and science.
Catania, Joseph A; Dolcini, M Margaret
The authors employ a social-ecological framework to aid our understanding of the complex array of factors in the immediate and broader environment that influence adolescent sexual development. Further, sexual development is viewed as normative and critical to positive growth. The authors provide an overview of the Two-Cities Study, a multi-stage qualitative investigation that aims to contribute to an understanding of sexual development and to illuminate gender differences in sexuality. The current studies focus on urban African American youth living in low-income neighborhoods, offering new data on sexual development among these youth.
Sudduth, Charletta D.
Parent involvement may have implications for student achievement (Epstein, 1986; Hoover-Dempsey, Bassler, & Brisse, 1987; Lopez, Scribner, & Mahitivanichcha, 2001). Today African-American parents are frequently criticized for not being involved enough in their students' education (Dearing, Kreider, Simpkins, & Weiss, 2006). African-American parent…
James, LaNora Marcell
The purpose of the qualitative collective case study is to identify the weaknesses in the methods used to recruit highly qualified African American preservice teachers in the Washington, DC metropolitan area. The data collection process consisted of one-on-one, open-ended interview questions with 10 highly qualified African American public school…
Huff, Carlton L.
Although there are more African American male students in higher education, they do not succeed to the same extent as other demographic groups. The purpose of this Action Research qualitative interpretative phenomenological analysis is to explore the lived experiences of African American male high school students in regards to their academic…
Stolley, Melinda R.; Sharp, Lisa K.; Wells, Anita M.; Simon, Nolanna; Schiffer, Linda
Breast-cancer survival rates are lower among African American women compared to White women. Obesity may contribute to this disparity. More than 77% of African American women are overweight or obese. Adopting health behaviors that promote a healthy weight status may be beneficial because obesity increases risk for recurrence. Studies among White…
This paper provides an analysis of language shift from African languages to English (and Afrikaans) in South Africa, using home language data from the South African population census (1996 and 2001). Although census data have been criticised for its "essentialist" construction of language, they nevertheless provide sociolinguists with a…
Frazier, Charlotte; Mintz, Laurie B.; Mobley, Michael
Although the importance of religion in the lives of older African Americans is well documented, this is the 1st study to examine the relations between religious involvement and psychological well-being among a sample comprised exclusively of older African Americans. Eighty six participants completed multidimensional measures of religious…
Hall Brown, Tyish; Mellman, Thomas A
African Americans residing in stressful urban environments have high rates of insomnia and short sleep duration, both of which are associated with adverse health outcomes. However, limited data exist that explore factors influencing inadequate sleep in this high-risk population. This study sought to evaluate the contributions of demographics, trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, sleep fears, and neighborhood stress to both insomnia and short sleep in urban African American young adults. Data were analyzed from self-report measures completed by 378 participants 18-35 years of age. PTSD symptom severity and sleep fears were independently associated with insomnia severity, and sleep fears was associated with sleep duration. Results have implications for preventative health intervention strategies for urban African American young adults.
Borders, Tyrone F; Booth, Brenda M; Curran, Geoffrey M
To encourage access, policy makers and providers need information about variations in drug users' treatment preferences. This study examined how rural/urban residence, stigma surrounding drug use, and perceived treatment availability and effectiveness are associated with African American cocaine users' preferences for the site of treatment (local, or in one's home town; nearby, or in a town nearby; and distant, or in a town farther away). Two hundred rural and 200 urban cocaine users were recruited using respondent-driven sampling and completed in-person interviews. Multinomial logit regression analyses were conducted to estimate the relative odds of preferring local vs. nearby and local vs. distant treatment. Rural cocaine users preferred distant (58%), and urban users preferred local (57%) treatment. Rural residence and a lifetime history of treatment were associated with higher odds of preferring nearby vs. local treatment; older age and greater perceived local treatment effectiveness were associated with lower odds of preferring nearby vs. local treatment. Rural residence, access to an automobile, higher rejection/discrimination stigma scores, and higher Brief Symptom Inventory-Global Severity Index scores were associated with higher odds of preferring distant vs. local treatment; older age, lower educational attainment, and greater perceived discrimination after treatment were associated with lower odds of preferring distant vs. local treatment. The findings from this study suggest that a regional approach to organizing drug use treatment services could better satisfy the preferences of rural African American cocaine users, whereas local treatment services should be expanded to meet the needs of urban cocaine users.
Poliakoff, Lorraine, Comp.
This bibliography on urban education cites 111 documents acquired and processed by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Teacher Education from July 1968 to December 1969. Organization is in terms of document types: bibliographies--7 items; manuals--7 items; programs--58 items; research--12 items; reviews--1 item; and others, e.g., conference papers and…
Allen, Delenya; Belcher, Harolyn M.E.; Young, Allen; Gibson, Lillian Williams; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Trent, Maria
IMPORTANCE While urban African American adolescents face significant health disparities associated with overweight and obesity that follow them into adulthood; there is limited data on body image, emotional well-being, and weight control behaviors in this population to design effective public health interventions. OBJECTIVE This study was designed to understand the association of weight status to adolescent weight control, body image, and emotional well-being responses, in African American high school students. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS The study cohort consisted of 776 students, mean age 15.8 years (±1.2). Data from Guidelines for Adolescent Preventive Services (GAPS) student surveys and anthropometric studies were collected at School-Based Health Centers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Associations between adolescent responses on the GAPS and body mass index (BMI) status (healthy weight: 5th to less than 85th percentile, overweight: 85th to less than 95th percentile, obese: 95th percentile or greater) were estimated using logistic regression and dose- response plots. RESULTS There were statistically significant associations between BMI category and weight control (ranging from a mean 5.18 to 7.68 odds of obesity) and body image (3.40 to 13.26 odds of obesity) responses. Responses to weight control and body image questions exhibited a dose-response for odds of overweight and obesity. Feelings of depressed mood were associated with obesity (1.47 times the odds of obesity compared to students who did not endorse depressed mood; 95% CI, 1.01 to 2.13) but not overweight status. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE Overweight and obese urban African American adolescents are more likely to screen positively on weight control risk behaviors and negative body image questions than their normal weight peers. The weight control and body image measures on the GAPS may provide information to identify youth in need of services and those motivated for brief school-based weight control
Public Affairs Series. No. 3, The Rural Society in Transition; An Historical Examination of the Rural Society with Emphasis on Ways To Assist our Rural Society to Maximize Its Economic and Social Positions During the Present Period of Rapid Transition to an Urban-Industrial Culture.
Nesius, Ernest J.
Four lectures are directed at reviewing and analyzing the changes that have taken place over the years in the structure and society of agriculture. An historical review of changes in American rural life points out that rural society is in a rapid period of transition toward urban-industrial culture. Agricultural development and technological…
Phillips, Roy G.
The view that people of black African descent have made few significant contributions to the history of mankind is a widely held concept in the social science and humanities curricula of U.S. secondary and higher education. Prior to celebrating the cultural diversity of the United States, the curriculum and materials should be analyzed and…
Ortiz-Martínez, Mario G.; Rodríguez-Cotto, Rosa I.; Ortiz-Rivera, Mónica A.; Pluguez-Turull, Cedric W.; Jiménez-Vélez, Braulio D.
African Dust Events (ADE) are a seasonal phenomenon that has been suggested to exacerbate respiratory and proinflammatory diseases in Puerto Rico (PR). Increases in PM10 concentration and the effects of biological endotoxins (ENX) are critical factors to consider during these storms. ENX promote proinflammatory responses in lungs of susceptible individuals through activation of the Toll-like receptors (TLR2/4) signaling pathways. The objective of the study was to evaluate the toxicological and proinflammatory responses stimulated by ADE PM10 ENX reaching PR using human bronchial epithelial cells. PM10 organic extracts from a rural and urban site in PR (March 2004) were obtained from ADE and non-ADE and compared. A retrospective data analysis (PM10 concentration, aerosol images, and pediatric asthma claims) was performed from 2000 to 2012 with particular emphasis in 2004 to classify PM samples. Urban extracts were highly toxic, proinflammatory (IL-6/IL-8 secretion), and induced higher TLR4 expression and NF-κB activation compared to rural extracts. ENX were found to contribute to cytotoxicity and inflammatory responses provoked by urban ADE PM10 exposure suggesting a synergistic potency of local and natural ENX incoming from ADE. The contribution of ADE PM10 ENX is valuable in order to understand interactions and action mechanisms of airborne pollutants as asthma triggers in PR. PMID:26681839
Prelow, Hazel M.; Weaver, Scott R.; Swenson, Rebecca R.
Structural equation modeling was used to test [Sandler, "American Journal of Community Psychology" 29: 19-61.] a theoretical model of risk and resilience in an urban sample of African American and European American adolescents. The aims of the present study were to examine whether self-system processes (i.e., competence, self-esteem, and coping…
The purpose of this dissertation was to understand how young, urban, African American girls learn new science discourse. The research questions focused on three units of analysis: the teacher, the student, and the discourse. These research questions were the following: (1) How is a congruent Third Space constructed by the teacher in this…
Cameron, Mark; Taggar, Carolyn E.
This qualitative study examined perceptions of the causes and nature of conflicts and violence among African-American girls in an urban high school. In-depth, iterative interviewing was used to explore the perceptions of these girls, male students, teachers, and other school personnel. Ethnographic observation was also used. Conflicts and violence…
Chadiha, Letha A.; Washington, Olivia G. M.; Lichtenberg, Peter A.; Green, Carmen R.; Daniels, Karen L.; Jackson, James S.
Purpose of the study: An emerging strategy for increasing public participation in health research is volunteer registries. Using a community-based participatory research framework, we describe recruitment processes and outcomes in building a research volunteer registry of older urban African Americans. The specific research question examined…
Pitchford-Nicholas, Gloria Jean
The preparedness of students to enter college is an ongoing issue of national concern. The purpose of the study was to conduct a mixed method descriptive case study to answer the question: "How African-American and Hispanic High School Students in an Urban Charter High School may benefit from the Early College High School Model of receiving…
Background Modern declarations on human rights have often proceeded without reference to the cultural content of rights, the existence of rights in African indigenous backgrounds, and the embodiment of certain key rights in the community itself. This paper is an attempt at developing an ‘inventory’ of rights in African cultures as a prelude to the generation both of a holistic theory of rights as well as a research agenda that can recognize the multifaceted nature of rights. Methods We use an interpretive ethnographic approach built on three sources of data: 1) our continuing ethnographic work among two distinct ethnic groups in southeastern Nigeria – the Ubang and the Igbo; 2) informal conversational interviews with individuals from a range of African countries; and 3) a review of relevant literature based on African cultures which provides a context for some of the issues we raise. Results An examination of selected indigenous rights, entitlements, or privileges among the Ubang and Igbo illustrates indigenous culture as a key, but often neglected, axis of rights, as a critical framework for understanding human relationships with rights, and as a resource for, and challenge to, contemporary programmatic efforts focusing on universalized notions of rights. Understanding or interpreting rights in African settings within the framework defined by contemporary human rights discourse poses steep challenges to making progress in the realization of sexual and reproductive rights. Conclusions Despite the potential dangers of privileging group rights over individual rights, when important rights are vested in the community; rights, entitlements, and privileges can also be recognized through community experiences, and realized through engagement with communities. Building on communal conceptualizations of rights in order to realize an even wider range of rights remains a largely unexplored strategy which holds promise for the achievement of sexual and reproductive
Bowe, Anica G.; Desjardins, Christopher D.; Covington Clarkson, Lesa M.; Lawrenz, Frances
This study utilized a mixed-methods approach to holistically examine single-sex and coeducational urban elementary mathematics classes through situated cognitive theory. Participants came from two urban low-income Midwestern elementary schools with a high representation of minority students (n = 77 sixth graders, n = 4 teachers, n = 2 principals).…
Bannon, William M; McKay, Mary M; Chacko, Anil; Rodriguez, James A; Cavaleri, Mary
The study objective was to examine how parental endorsement of cultural pride reinforcement messages may explain African American child anxiety. Data were gathered from 72 African American parents and their elementary school-aged children. Results indicated stronger parental endorsement of cultural pride reinforcement messages predicted less child anxiety. Additionally parental endorsement of these messages moderated the relationship between child mental health risk factor exposure and child anxiety. Specifically in the presence of high exposure, children of parents who endorsed high levels of cultural pride reinforcement messages had significantly lower anxiety scores relative to children of parents who endorsed low levels of these messages. Findings indicated parental endorsement of these messages may be an important factor in explaining African American child anxiety.
Martin, Robin L.
Leadership remains an important topic across various disciples. The continuous demonstration of effective leadership and its impact on institutions and society fuels the inquiry into the various ways, behaviors, traits, and situations in which leaders and leadership are successful (Kezar & Lester, 2011). As more African Americans advance in…
Streletskiy, D. A.; Shiklomanov, N. I.; Efimov, S. V.; Shkolnik, I.
The discoveries of mineral resources followed by an extensive economic development of the Russian North in 1960s led to a development of complex infrastructure on permafrost and urbanization of the Russian Arctic. Despite the mass migration from the northern regions, followed by the collapse of the Soviet Union and the diminishing government support, the Russian Arctic inherited massive infrastructure and remained predominantly urban. Currently, only in five districts bordering Arctic Ocean more than 1.4 million people live in urban-style buildings built on permafrost. Majority of the buildings are constructed assuming the equilibrium conditions of heat-exchange between atmosphere and permafrost underneath. This is usually achieved by construction on piles with ventilated cellars allowing ground cooling in a winter and shading in a summer. The ability of the foundations to carry structural load or foundation bearing capacity (FBC) depends on permafrost properties and changes according to permafrost temperature and active-layer depth. Climate warming observed in recent decades created conditions of diminishing FBC and resulted in deformations and failures of structures built on permafrost. This work is focused on quantitative assessment of these changes at a regional scale. In order to estimate the role of climate change on stability of structures build according to the passive principle, the permafrost-geotechnical model was developed. The historical changes were assessed by comparing model results for period associated with industrialization and construction boom in the Russian North (1965-1975) and present conditions (1995-2005) using NCEP climatic datasets. Projected changes in FBC according to A2 IPCC scenario for the mid-21st century (2041-2060) relative to baseline period (1981-2000) were assessed using output from the ensemble of MGO RCM climate change simulations. It has been found that substantial decrease in FBC will likely occur for the majority of
Background The community case management of malaria (CCMm) is now an established route for distribution of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in rural areas, but the feasibility and acceptability of the approach through community medicine distributors (CMD) in urban areas has not been explored. It is estimated that in 15 years time 50% of the African population will live in urban areas and transmission of the malaria parasite occurs in these densely populated areas. Methods Pre- and post-implementation studies were conducted in five African cities: Ghana, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia and Malawi. CMDs were trained to educate caregivers, diagnose and treat malaria cases in < 5-year olds with ACT. Household surveys, focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were used to evaluate impact. Results Qualitative findings: In all sites, interviews revealed that caregivers' knowledge of malaria signs and symptoms improved after the intervention. Preference for CMDs as preferred providers for malaria increased in all sites. Quantitative findings: 9001 children with an episode of fever were treated by 199 CMDs in the five study sites. Results from the CHWs registers show that of these, 6974 were treated with an ACT and 6933 (99%) were prescribed the correct dose for their age. Fifty-four percent of the 3,025 children for which information about the promptness of treatment was available were treated within 24 hours from the onset of symptoms. From the household survey 3700 children were identified who had an episode of fever during the preceding two weeks. 1480 (40%) of them sought treatment from a CMD and 1213 of them (82%) had received an ACT. Of these, 1123 (92.6%) were administered the ACT for the correct number of doses and days; 773 of the 1118 (69.1%) children for which information about the promptness of treatment was available were treated within 24 hours from onset of symptoms, and 768 (68.7%) were treated promptly and correctly. Conclusions The concept of
Green, Kerry M.; Doherty, Elaine E.; Fothergill, Kate E.; Ensminger, Margaret E.
Although previous studies have identified a protective effect of marriage on risky health behaviors, gaps remain in our understanding of how marriage improves health, particularly among African Americans. This study uses longitudinal data to take selection into account and examines whether marital trajectories that incorporate timing, stability,…
Towner, Senna L.; Dolcini, M. Margaret; Harper, Gary W.
Relationship dynamics develop early in life and are influenced by social environments. STI/HIV prevention programs need to consider romantic relationship dynamics that contribute to sexual health. The aim of this study was to examine monogamous patterns, commitment, and trust in African American adolescent romantic relationships. The authors also…
Shujaa, Mwalimu J., Ed.
School desegregation strategies are examined in political contexts to focus on the politics of quality schooling for African Americans. Through this approach, racialized uses of power in white self-interest are shown to influence policy making and policy implementation related to education. Essays include: (1) "Reclaiming Historical Visions…
Robinson, Theresa Y.; Jeremiah, Maxine
As part of the Small Schools movement in Chicago Public Schools, a high school dedicated to African-centered education was chartered. The virtues of Ma'at and the Nguzo Saba, otherwise known as the seven principles of Kwanza, were the foundational principles of the school and were to be integrated into all of the practices and policies of the…
Bloom, Collette M.; Erlandson, David A.
Using a naturalistic inquiry approach, analysis of indepth interviews reveals portraits of three African American women administrators emerging from their visible absences, illusionary opportunities, and imaginary schools with stories of strength, identity formation, and a collective consciousness in working for and with the black community in…
Sato, Takahiro; Fisette, Jennifer; Walton, Theresa
Presently, most physical education teachers in the United States are White Americans and from middle class families. In fact, 83% of all teachers in public schools are White Americans, whereas approximately 10% of all African American teachers are representative of all teachers in the United States. A student might feel cultural dissonance that…
Morrison Gutman, Leslie; McLoyd, Vonnie C.; Tokoyawa, Teru
Using latent variable structural equation modeling, we tested a theoretical model linking financial strain, neighborhood stress, parenting behavior, and adolescent adjustment. The sample consisted of 305 African American families living in inner city neighborhoods. Of the families, 40% were living at or below the U.S. poverty threshold. The…
McKechnie, Jessica Diaz
This study examined the relationship between college-going self-efficacy and high school students' perceived levels of achievement goal orientations (mastery-approach, performance-approach, performance-avoidance), vocational identity, need for occupational information, and barriers to occupational goals for a sample of African American urban…
Ball, Joanna; Armistead, Lisa; Austin, Barbara-jeanne
Study provides a description of religiosity in a sample of African-American female teens and examines religion as a resource for these adolescents by focusing on the association between religiosity and sexual activity, self-esteem, and general psychological functioning. Results reveal that greater overall religiosity was associated with greater…
Black, Maureen M.; And Others
Studied factors associated with sexual intercourse and substance use among young, low income, African-American adolescents. Found that sexual activity was associated with parental conflict and having sexually active friends. Boys reported less parental monitoring and family and community support than girls and were more likely to report sexual…
MURRAY, KANTAHYANEE W.; HAYNIE, DENISE L.; HOWARD, DONNA E.; CHENG, TINA L.; SIMONS-MORTON, BRUCE
This research examined the relation between early adolescent aggression and parenting practices in an urban, predominately African American sample. Sixth graders (N = 209) completed questionnaires about their overt and relational aggressive behaviors and perceptions of caregivers’ parenting practices. Findings indicated that moderate levels of parental expectations for peaceful solutions at Time 1 were associated with a lower likelihood of overt aggression at Time 2. Furthermore, findings suggest that when caregivers’ support and knowledge of adolescents’ whereabouts were relatively low or when caregivers’ exerted high psychological control, moderate levels of parental expectations for peaceful solutions protected early adolescents against engagement in both overt and relational aggression. The implications of the findings for schools and other youth violence prevention settings are discussed. PMID:26855618
Mays, Sally; Bettencourt, Amie; Erwin, Elizabeth H.; Vulin-Reynolds, Monique; Allison, Kevin W.
This qualitative study explored environmental factors that influence adolescents’ responses to problem situations involving peers. Interviews were conducted with 106 middle school students (97% African American) from an urban school system. Participants were asked to describe factors that would make it easier and those that would make it more difficult for adolescents to make specific responses to problem situations. Two types of responses were presented: nonviolent responses identified as effective in a previous study, and fighting responses. Qualitative analysis identified 24 themes representing family, peer, school, and neighborhood and broader social factors that were related to both nonviolent behavior and fighting. The identification of environmental influences on fighting and nonviolent responses has important implications for efforts to reduce aggression and promote effective nonviolent responses to problem situations encountered by adolescents. PMID:20526663
Ekúndayò, Olúgbémiga T; Tataw, David B
This article describes the use of survey research in collaboration with the African American urban community of Georgetown, Jackson, Mississippi to identify and understand prostate cancer knowledge, resource utilization, and health education strategies considered most effective in reaching the community with prostate cancer prevention messages. The study revealed profound needs in disease identification and resources awareness and utilization. Barriers to utilization were identified by participants to include lack of self-efficacy, low self-esteem, lack of trust in the health care system, limited knowledge of prostate pathology, and limited ability to pay. Participants' recommended strategies for reaching the community with prostate cancer education include traditional and nontraditional strategies. The list of recommendations exclude modern-day outlets such as handheld devices, Twitter, Facebook, blogs, wikis, and other Internet-based outlets. The findings provide a road map for program development and an intervention research agenda custom-tailored to the Georgetown community of Jackson, Mississippi.
Flynn, Sarah J; Ameling, Jessica M; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Wolff, Jennifer L; Bone, Lee R; Levine, David M; Roter, Debra l; Lewis-Boyer, LaPricia; Fisher, Annette R; Purnell, Leon; Ephraim, Patti L; Barbers, Jeffrey; Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L; Albert, Michael C; Cooper, Lisa A; Fagan, Peter J; Martin, Destiny; Ramamurthi, Hema C; Boulware, L Ebony
Introduction We aimed to inform the design of behavioral interventions by identifying patients’ and their family members’ perceived facilitators and barriers to hypertension self-management. Materials and methods We conducted focus groups of African American patients with hypertension and their family members to elicit their views about factors influencing patients’ hypertension self-management. We recruited African American patients with hypertension (n = 18) and their family members (n = 12) from an urban, community-based clinical practice in Baltimore, Maryland. We conducted four separate 90-minute focus groups among patients with controlled (one group) and uncontrolled (one group) hypertension, as well as their family members (two groups). Trained moderators used open-ended questions to assess participants’ perceptions regarding patient, family, clinic, and community-level factors influencing patients’ effective hypertension self-management. Results Patient participants identified several facilitators (including family members’ support and positive relationships with doctors) and barriers (including competing health priorities, lack of knowledge about hypertension, and poor access to community resources) that influence their hypertension self-management. Family members also identified several facilitators (including their participation in patients’ doctor’s visits and discussions with patients’ doctors outside of visits) and barriers (including their own limited health knowledge and patients’ lack of motivation to sustain hypertension self-management behaviors) that affect their efforts to support patients’ hypertension self-management. Conclusion African American patients with hypertension and their family members reported numerous patient, family, clinic, and community-level facilitators and barriers to patients’ hypertension self-management. Patients’ and their family members’ views may help guide efforts to tailor behavioral
Smith, Dawn K; Toledo, Lauren; Smith, Donna Jo; Adams, Mary Anne; Rothenberg, Richard
We elicited attitudes about, and service access preferences for, daily oral antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) from urban, African-American young men and women, ages 18-24 years, at risk for HIV transmission through their sexual and drug-related behaviors participating in eight mixed-gender and two MSM-only focus groups in Atlanta, Georgia. Participants reported substantial interest in PrEP associated with its perceived cost, effectiveness, and ease of accessing services and medication near to their homes or by public transportation. Frequent HIV testing was a perceived benefit. Participants differed about whether risk-reduction behaviors would change, and in which direction; and whether PrEP use would be associated with HIV stigma or would enhance the reputation for PrEP users. This provides the first information about the interests, concerns, and preferences of young adult African Americans that can be used to inform the introduction of PrEP services into HIV prevention efforts for this critical population group.
Parker, V; Sussman, S; Crippens, D; Elder, P; Scholl, D
Primarily African American and Latino seventh graders (N = 545) attending health and science classes at three urban Southern California junior high schools were administered a 13-item ethnic identification assessment during one class period, to investigate the relationship between ethnic identification and tobacco use. For African Americans, the perception of looking different from other ethnic groups was found to be associated with avoidance of peer tobacco use. Among Latinos, the perception of being liked by other ethnic groups, and enjoying interaction with people outside of their ethnic group, were found to be associated with negating peer influence for tobacco use. Watching television shows with main characters of same ethnic group was associated with being able to make friends without using tobacco, for both ethnic groups. For Latinos, ever trying a cigarette was associated with the perception of being liked by other ethnic groups. These results suggest there may be elements inherent in ethnic identification protective against peer influence for smoking among ethnic minority youth. Also, acculturation of Latinos to the majority population may increase their risk for experimentation with tobacco products.
Ferguson, Yuna L; Ferguson, Kim T; Ferguson, Gail M
One impact of globalisation is that adolescents today are frequently exposed to the values, attitudes and norms of other nations without leaving their own backyards. This may lead to remote acculturation-cultural and psychological changes experienced by non-migrant individuals having indirect and/or intermittent contact with a geographically separate culture. Using quantitative and qualitative data, we examined multidimensional remote acculturation among 83 urban Zambian adolescents who are routinely exposed to U.S., U.K. and South African cultures through traditional and social media and materials/goods. Cluster analyses showed 2 distinct groups of adolescents. "Traditional Zambians, TZs" (55.4%) were significantly more oriented towards Zambian culture and reported a higher level of obligation to their families and greater interdependent self-construal compared with "Westernised Multicultural Zambians, WMZs" (44.6%), who were more oriented towards U.S., U.K. and South African cultures. Furthermore, remote acculturation predicted somewhat lower life satisfaction among WMZs. These results demonstrate that individuals' behaviours, values and identity may be influenced by multiple geographically distant cultures simultaneously and may be associated with psychological costs.
Odeh, Issam; Hussein, Tareq
Knowledge of human activity patterns is needed in air pollution exposure and health risk assessment. However, human activity patterns have never been evaluated in the Eastern Mediterranean societies. Therefore, we investigated the activity pattern of 285 subjects (17-63 years) in Amman, Jordan during October to November, 2015. The subjects spent >80% of their time indoors during weekend days and >85% on workdays. They spent ~4.8% and ~5.7% in transportation during weekend days and workdays, respectively. Males had a different activity pattern than females on weekend days, but both genders had similar activity patterns on workdays. On workdays, males spent less time indoors than females. The activity pattern found in this study is a bit different than that for North Americans and Europeans, who spend more time indoors and in transit. The activity pattern found in this study was very different than that observed for Koreans, who spent about 59% and 67% indoors on workdays and weekend, respectively. The main outcomes of this survey can be utilized in human exposure studies. This study and the upcoming future studies have been encouraged and supported by the regional WHO office in Amman.
Jalayer, Fatemeh; De Risi, Raffaele; De Paola, Francesco; Iervolino, Iunio; Giugni, Maurizio; Topa, Maria Elena; Yonas, Nebyou; Nebebe, Alemu; Kibassa, Deusdedit; Cavan, Gina; Renner, Florian; Lindley, Sarah
. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 16 (10):781-790, 2011. Pauleit, S. and Duhme, F. (2000). Assessing the environmental performance of land cover types for urban planning. Landscape and Urban Planning, 52 (1): 1-20. Gill, S.E., Handley, J.F., Ennos, A.R. Pauleit, S., Theuray, N., and Lindley, S.J. (2008). Characterising the urban environment of UK cities and towns: a template for landscape planning in a changing climate. Landscape and Urban Planning, 87: 210-222. Cavan, G., Lindley, S., Yeshitela, K., Nebebe, A., Woldegerima, T., Shemdoe, R., Kibassa, D., Pauleit, S., Renner, R., Printz, A., Buchta, K., Coly, A., Sall, F., Ndour, N. M., Ouédraogo, Y., Samari, B. S., Sankara, B. T., Feumba, R. A., Ngapgue, J. N., Ngoumo, M. T., Tsalefac, M., Tonye, E. (2012) Green infrastructure maps for selected case studies and a report with an urban green infrastructure mapping methodology adapted to African cities CLUVA project deliverable D2.7. Available at http://www.cluva.eu/deliverables/CLUVA_D2.7.pdf. Date last accessed, Dec. 18th 2012
Sirugo, Giorgio; Williams, Scott M.; Royal, Charmaine D. M.; Newport, Melanie J.; Hennig, Branwen J.; Mariani-Costantini, Renato; Buonaguro, Franco M.; Velez Edwards, Digna R.; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Soodyall, Himla; Wonkam, Ambroise; Ramesar, Raj; Rotimi, Charles N.
The African Society of Human Genetics (AfSHG), founded in 2003 with its inaugural meeting in Accra, Ghana,1 has the stated missions of (1) disseminating information about human genetics research in Africa, (2) establishing a mentorship network providing educational resources, including the development of appropriate technology transfer, (3) providing advocacy for human genetic research in Africa, and (4) encouraging collaborative research. Despite its young age, the AfSHG has developed a strong cadre of active researchers, both within and outside of Africa, with more than 400 members (from 16 countries across Africa as well as 8 other countries), and has held six successful meetings, five in Africa and one in the United States. PMID:20682860
Towner, Senna L.; Dolcini, M. Margaret; Harper, Gary W.
Relationship dynamics develop early in life and are influenced by social environments. STI/HIV prevention programs need to consider romantic relationship dynamics that contribute to sexual health. The aim of this study was to examine monogamous patterns, commitment, and trust in African American adolescent romantic relationships. The authors also focused on the differences in these dynamics between and within gender. The way that such dynamics interplay in romantic relationships has the potential to influence STI/HIV acquisition risk. In-depth interviews were conducted with 28 African American adolescents aged 14 to 21 living in San Francisco. Our results discuss data related to monogamous behaviors, expectations, and values; trust and respect in romantic relationships; commitment to romantic relationships; and outcomes of mismatched relationship expectations. Incorporating gender-specific romantic relationships dynamics can enhance the effectiveness of prevention programs. PMID:26691404
Hirata, Mario H.; Luchessi, Andre D.; Genvigir, Fabiana D.V.; Cerda, Alvaro; Rodrigues, Alice C.; Willrich, Maria A.V.; Arazi, Simone S.; Dorea, Egidio L.; Bernik, Marcia M.S.; Faludi, Andre A.; Bertolami, Marcelo C.; Santos, Carla; Carracedo, Ángel; Salas, Antonio; Freire, Ana; Lareu, Maria Victoria; Phillips, Christopher; Porras-Hurtado, Liliana; Fondevila, Manuel; Hirata, Rosario D.C.
Background: Balancing the subject composition of case and control groups to create homogenous ancestries between each group is essential for medical association studies. Methods: We explored the applicability of single-tube 34-plex ancestry informative markers (AIM) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to estimate the African Component of Ancestry (ACA) to design a future case–control association study of a Brazilian urban sample. Results: One hundred eighty individuals (107 case group; 73 control group) self-described as white, brown-intermediate or black were selected. The proportions of the relative contribution of a variable number of ancestral population components were similar between case and control groups. Moreover, the case and control groups demonstrated similar distributions for ACA <0.25 and >0.50 categories. Notably a high number of outlier values (23 samples) were observed among individuals with ACA <0.25. These individuals presented a high probability of Native American and East Asian ancestral components; however, no individuals originally giving these self-described ancestries were observed in this study. Conclusions: The strategy proposed for the assessment of ancestry and adjustment of case and control groups for an association study is an important step for the proper construction of the study, particularly when subjects are taken from a complex urban population. This can be achieved using a straight forward multiplexed AIM-SNPs assay of highly discriminatory ancestry markers. PMID:22288895
KENNEDY, S. B.; NOLEN, S.; APPLEWHITE, J.; WAITERS, E.; VANDERHOFF, J.
The purpose of this pilot project was to develop, administer and assess a brief male-focused and behavioural-driven condom promotion programme for young adult African American males in an urban setting. To achieve the aims of this study, linkages with local community centres were initially fostered and both quantitative and qualitative research methods were employed. Based on relevant tenets of the social cognitive theory and the stages of change model, a series of focus groups were conducted among the target population, recruited from non-traditional urban settings, to identify and further explore their perceived condom use barriers and facilitators in order to support programme development. Specifically, the topical items addressed those young men’s perceptions of sexuality and condom use within three broad contexts: general sexual behaviours, condom use behaviours, and the relationship between condoms and substance use. The focus group discussions were audiotaped and the transcribed data summarized and analysed based on those thematic topics. The findings revealed that significant myths, misconceptions and knowledge gaps exist regarding HIV/STD-related prevention, condom promotion and substance use. The findings imply that there is a critical need to develop target group suitable condom promotion programmes in order to successfully promote, foster and sustain condom use among high-risk populations. PMID:17852001
Davis, Gareth G.; Muhlhausen, David B.
To measure the extent of the progress that has been made in the fight against violent crime over the past decade and to get some perspective on the progress that must still be made, this analysis examines the data for one of the most vulnerable groups in the United States, young African American males who reside in eight of the largest U.S.…
Levin, M E; Le Souëf, P N; Motala, C
Total IgE levels are usually elevated in allergic diseases, being highest in atopic eczema, followed by atopic asthma and allergic rhinitis. Genetic factors are believed to play a role in total IgE levels, with higher levels seen in Black African subjects. Total IgE is also raised in parasite infection. Thus, the higher total IgE levels in Black Africans could be because of environmental rather than genetic factors. Few studies have investigated the usefulness of total IgE levels in the evaluation of atopy in Black Africans. The objective of this study was to determine the total IgE levels in unselected urban Black African high school children and to correlate this with atopy and ascaris sensitization. Atopic status was assessed by means of specific allergen sensitization (skin prick tests to eight inhalant and four food allergens), self-reported asthma and bronchial hyper-responsiveness measured by methacholine challenge. Ascaris sensitization was assessed by means of ascaris IgE measured by CAP-RAST. Total IgE levels were markedly skewed toward the left and were not distributed in a Gaussian or a log-normal distribution. Skin prick tests were positive for aeroallergens in 32.3% of subjects. Thirty four percent had elevated ascaris IgE. Total IgE was higher in atopic vs. non-atopic subjects and correlated with the number of positive skin prick tests, self-reported asthma and bronchial hyper-responsiveness. Subjects without allergy (or) atopy had a median total IgE of 80-90 kU/I. In addition total IgE correlated with ascaris IgE. Subjects with no ascaris sensitization had median total IgE of 77.1 kU/l. Subjects with neither atopy/asthma nor ascaris sensitisation had a median total IgE of 69.9 kU/I, similar to the levels seen in people of other genetic origins. This study suggests that helminthic infection rather than genetic differences, may be the major determining factor of IgE levels in certain populations.
Alba, Richard; Silberman, Roxane
Background/Context: The educational fate of the children of low-wage immigrants is a salient issue in all the economically developed societies that have received major immigration flows since the 1950s. The article considers the way in which educational systems in the two countries structure the educational experiences and shape the opportunities…
Rosenbloom, Susan Rakosi; Way, Niobe
Interviews and participant observation are used to describe how ethnic minority students in an urban high school experience discrimination. The findings suggest critical variations among students that contributed to a hostile school environment. Asian American students discussed physical and verbal harassment by peers, while Black and Latino…
Klein, H; Sterk, CE; Elifson, KW
Purpose Race and HIV are intertwined in complex ways. African Americans, particularly those residing in the southern United States, are at great risk for contracting and subsequently transmitting HIV. Research on the extent to which members of this population understand the risks associated with engaging in specific behaviors is limited. This paper examines HIV knowledge among at-risk adult African American men and women and the factors associated with levels of HIV knowledge. Methods Based on a conceptual model derived from Social Disorganization Theory and Syndemics Theory, interviews were conducted between 2009 and 2011. Questionnaire-based interviews were conducted with 1,864 respondents from 80 strategically-chosen census block groups in Atlanta, Georgia. An innovative approach to assessing amount of HIV knowledge was implemented, to derive better estimates of the extent of knowledge. Results Overall, HIV knowledge was low (average=43.5% correct answers). Seven factors were identified as contributing uniquely to having higher levels of knowledge about HIV transmission: (1) younger age, (2) being educated beyond the high school level, (3) being gay, lesbian or bisexual, (4) experiencing sexual abuse during childhood and/or adolescence, (5) drinking alcohol less frequently, (6) knowing a larger number of HIV-infected persons and (7) knowing anyone currently living with “full blown” AIDS. Conclusion HIV educational and intervention programs targeting at-risk African American adults need to develop effective ways of bolstering a solid understanding of how HIV is/not transmitted. In particular, efforts need to be targeted toward older adults, those with lower levels of educational attainment and persons who are not acquainted with anyone who is HIV-infected. PMID:27891291
Hutton, Heidi E.; McCaul, Mary E.; Norris, Jeanette; Valliant, Julia D.; Abrefa-Gyan, Tina; Chander, Geetanjali
African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Alcohol use is a significant risk factor for HIV/STI acquisition. Sex related alcohol expectancies (SRAE) may partially account for alcohol related risky sexual behaviors. Using qualitative interviews we explored the link between alcohol use and risky sex among 20 African American women attending an STI clinic who had consumed ≥4 alcoholic drinks per drinking day (binge drinking) and/or reported vaginal or anal sex while under the influence of alcohol. Four SRAE emerged which we named: drink for sexual desire, drink for sexual power, drink for sexual excuse, and drink for anal sex. While the desire SRAE has been documented, this study identified three additional SRAEs not currently assessed by expectancy questionnaires. These SRAEs may contribute to high-risk sex when under the influence of alcohol, and suggests the importance of developing integrated alcohol-sexual risk reduction interventions for high-risk women. PMID:25110958
Tomlinson, Mark; Cooper, Peter; Murray, Lynne
A sample of 147 mother-infant dyads was recruited from a peri-urban settlement outside Cape Town and seen at 2- and 18-months postpartum. At 18 months, 61.9% of the infants were rated as securely attached (B); 4.1% as avoidant (A); 8.2% as resistant (C); and 25.8% disorganized (D). Postpartum depression at 2 months, and indices of poor parenting…
Harper, Felicity W. K.; Eggly, Susan; Crider, Beverly; Kobayashi, Hitomi; Meert, Kathleen L.; Ball, Allison; Penner, Louis A.; Gray, Herman; Albrecht, Terrance L.
Background Patient- and family-centered care (PFCC) has the potential to address disparities in access and quality of healthcare for African American pediatric asthma patients by accommodating and responding to the individual needs of patients and families. Study Objectives To identify and evaluate research on the impact of family–provider interventions that reflect elements of PFCC on reducing disparities in the provision, access, quality, and use of healthcare services for African American pediatric asthma patients. Methods Electronic searches were conducted using PubMed, CINAHL, and Psyclnfo databases. Inclusion criteria were peer-reviewed, English-language articles on family–provider interventions that (a) reflected one or more elements of PFCC and (b) addressed healthcare disparities in urban African American pediatric asthma patients (≤18years). Results Thirteen interventions or programs were identified and reviewed. Designs included randomized clinical trials, controlled clinical trials, pre-and post-interventions, and program evaluations. Conclusions Few interventions were identified as explicitly providing PFCC in d pediatric asthma context, possibly because of a Iack of consensus on what constitutes PFCC in practice. Some studies have demonstrated that PFCC improves satisfaction and communication during clinical interactions. More empirical research is needed to understand whether PFCC interventions reduce care disparities and improve the provision, access, and quality of asthma healthcare for urban African American children. Electronic databases used PubMed, CINAHL, and Psyclnfo PMID:27269485
Nebbitt, Von; Tirmazi, Taqi M; Lombe, Margaret; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana; French, Shelby
African-American youth are disproportionately affected by parental incarceration and the consequences of parental substance use. Many adapt to the loss of their parents to prison or drug addiction by engaging in sex-risk behavior, particularly the sex trade. These youth may engage in this risky behavior for a number of reasons. Although previous research has examined this issue, most of these studies have focused on runaway or street youth or youth in international settings. Empirical evidence on correlates of trading sex for money among urban African-American youth is practically missing. Using a sample of 192 African-American youth living in urban public housing, this paper attempts to rectify this gap in knowledge by assessing how individual and parental factors are related to the likelihood of a youth trading sex for money. The sample for this study reported a mean age of 19; 28 % reported having traded sex for money; 30 % had a father currently in prison; and 7 % reported having a mother currently in prison. Maternal incarceration and paternal substance use were associated with a higher likelihood of trading sex for money. Given the potential health risks associated with trading sex for money, understanding correlates of this behavior has important implications for the health of this vulnerable population of youth and urban health in general.
Introduction Low and middle income countries bear the majority burden of self-harm, yet there is a paucity of evidence detailing risk-factors for self-harm in these populations. This study aims to identify environmental, socio-economic and demographic household-level risk factors for self-harm in five impoverished urban communities in Johannesburg, South Africa. Methods Annual serial cross-sectional surveys were undertaken in five impoverished urban communities in Johannesburg for the Health, Environment and Development (HEAD) study. Logistic regression analysis using the HEAD study data (2006–2011) was conducted to identify household-level risk factors associated with self-harm (defined as a self-reported case of a fatal or non-fatal suicide attempt) within the household during the preceding year. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to identify factors associated with self-harm. Results A total of 2 795 household interviews were conducted from 2006 to 2011. There was no significant trend in self-harm over time. Results from the final model showed that self-harm was significantly associated with households exposed to a violent crime during the past year (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 5.72; 95% CI 1.64–19.97); that have a member suffering from a chronic medical condition (AOR 8.95; 95% 2.39–33.56) and households exposed to indoor smoking (AOR 4.39; CI 95% 1.14–16.47). Conclusion This study provides evidence on household risk factors of self-harm in settings of urban poverty and has highlighted the potential for a more cost-effective approach to identifying those at risk of self-harm based on household level factors. PMID:26731114
Carswell, Steven B.; Hanlon, Thomas E.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Watts, Amy M.; Pothong, Pattarapan
This paper presents background, implementation, and feasibility findings associated with planning and conducting an after-school intervention program in an alternative education setting designed to prevent the initiation and escalation of violence and substance abuse among urban African American youth at high risk for life-long problem behaviors. Evolving from earlier preventive interventions implemented in clinic and school settings, the program, entitled The Village Model of Care, consisted of structured group mentoring, parental support, and community outreach services administered to alternative education students and their primary caregiver(s) during the school year. Over a two-year intake period, 109 youth participated in the present process evaluation study. Findings from the study not only provided relevant demographic information on the characteristics of youth likely to be included in such programs but also indicated the importance of including the family in the rehabilitation effort and the need for school administrative system support for the underlying alternative education approach. The information presented in this report has a direct bearing on the planning of future prevention efforts conducted in similar settings that are aimed at reducing problem behaviors and promoting positive lifestyles among high-risk youth. PMID:20054423
Cooley-Strickland, Michele R.; Griffin, Robert S.; Darney, Dana; Otte, Katherine; Ko, Jean
This study evaluated the efficacy of a school-based anxiety prevention program among urban children exposed to community violence. Students who attended Title 1 public elementary schools were screened. Ninety-eight 3-5th grade students (ages 8-12; 48% female; 92% African American) were randomized into preventive intervention versus wait-list comparison groups. Students attended 13 bi-weekly one-hour group sessions of a modified version of FRIENDS, a cognitive-behavioral anxiety intervention program. Results indicated that both intervention and control groups manifested significant reductions in anxiety symptomatology and total exposure to community violence, along with improved standardized reading achievement scores. Additional gains observed only in the intervention group were increased standardized mathematics achievement scores, decreased life stressors, and reduced victimization by community violence. The intervention was equally efficacious for both genders and for children exposed to higher, compared to lower, levels of community violence. Implications for comprehensive, culturally and contextually relevant prevention programs and research are discussed. PMID:21480032
Broussard, Beth; Goulding, Sandra M; Talley, Colin L; Compton, Michael T
Because schizophrenia is arguably among the most stigmatized health conditions, research assessing correlates of stigma is essential. This study examined factors associated with stigma in predominantly Protestant, low-income, urban African Americans in the Southeastern United States. A survey was distributed to 282 patrons of an inner-city food court/farmers' market. Associations were assessed between two measures of stigma--an adapted version of the Social Distance Scale (SDS) and a Semantic Differential Measure (SDM) of attributes such as dangerousness, dirtiness, and worthlessness--and several key variables addressing sociodemographic characteristics and exposure to/familiarity with mental illnesses. Independent predictors of scores on the two measures were identified using linear regression modeling. Higher stigma (as measured by the SDM) was predicted by a family history of psychiatric treatment, whereas lower stigma (as indicated by the SDS) was predicted by personal psychiatric treatment history and higher annual income. The results suggest special considerations when working with disenfranchised populations, especially family members of individuals with mental illnesses, in treatment settings.
Cooley-Strickland, Michele R; Griffin, Robert S; Darney, Dana; Otte, Katherine; Ko, Jean
This study evaluated the efficacy of a school-based anxiety prevention program among urban children exposed to community violence. Students who attended Title 1 public elementary schools were screened. Ninety-eight 3rd-5th-grade students (ages 8-12; 48% female; 92% African American) were randomized into preventive intervention versus wait list comparison groups. Students attended 13 biweekly one-hour group sessions of a modified version of FRIENDS, a cognitive-behavioral anxiety intervention program. Results indicated that both intervention and control groups manifested significant reductions in anxiety symptomatology and total exposure to community violence, along with improved standardized reading achievement scores. Additional gains observed only in the intervention group were increased standardized mathematics achievement scores, decreased life stressors, and reduced victimization by community violence. The intervention was equally efficacious for both genders and for children exposed to higher, compared to lower, levels of community violence. Implications for comprehensive, culturally and contextually relevant prevention programs and research are discussed.
Oberlander, Sarah E; Agostini, Wendy R Miller; Houston, Avril Melissa; Black, Maureen M
Welfare reform has targeted marriage promotion among low-income women. This study explores patterns of marital expectations and marriage among 181 urban, low-income, African American adolescent mothers and their mothers. Using PROC TRAJ to analyze developmental trajectories of adolescent mother-grandmother relationship quality over 24 months, we categorized relationships as either high or low support. We examined the effects of intergenerational marriage models and adolescent mother-grandmother relationship quality on marital expectations and marriage over the first 7 years postpartum. At 24 months, half (52%) of adolescent mothers expected to marry, but marital expectations did not predict marriage. Marital expectations were associated with concurrent involvement in a romantic relationship, not intergenerational marriage models or a supportive adolescent mother-grandmother relationship. After 7 years, 14% of adolescent mothers were married. Married mothers lived in families characterized by the joint effects of intergenerational marriage models and supportive adolescent mother-grandmother relationships. They were older and had more children than did single mothers, suggesting that they were in a family formation phase of life. Policies that promote the education and employment opportunities necessary to support a family are needed.
Doyle, Otima; Clark Goings, Trenette; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana R; Lombe, Margaret; Stephens, Jennifer; Nebbitt, Von E
Structural factors associated with public housing contribute to living environments that expose families to adverse life events that may in turn directly impact parenting and youth outcomes. However, despite the growth in research on fathers, research on families in public housing has practically excluded fathers and the role fathers play in the well-being of their adolescents. Using a sample of 660 African American adolescents recruited from public housing, we examined the relationship between paternal caregivers' (i.e., fathers' and father figures') parenting practices and adolescents' depressive symptoms, attitudes toward deviance, and self-efficacy. Using a latent profile analysis (LPA), we confirmed a four-class model of paternal parenting practices ranging from high to low levels of monitoring and encouragement. Results from a one-way ANOVA indicated that paternal caregivers with high (compared to moderate) levels of encouragement and monitoring were associated with youth who reported less depressive symptoms, higher levels of self-efficacy, and less favorable attitudes toward deviance. Discriminant analysis results indicated that approximately half of the sample were correctly classified into two paternal caregiver classes. The findings provide evidence that some of these caregivers engage in parenting practices that support youths' psychological functioning. More research is needed to determine what accounts for the variability in levels of paternal encouragement and supervision, including environmental influences, particularly for paternal caregivers exhibiting moderate-to-low levels of paternal encouragement and monitoring.
Carey, Devin C.; Richards, Maryse H.
Objective Because of the evidence that children living in inner city communities are chronically exposed to violence, the goal of the present study was to longitudinally explore the reciprocal and perpetuating relationship between exposure to violence and child social maladjustment. Method Participants were 268 African American students (M age = 11.65 years, 40% males and 60% females) from six inner city Chicago public schools in high crime neighborhoods. Data was collected longitudinally over three years on measures of demographic information, exposure to community violence, and social adjustment. It was hypothesized that high levels of exposure to community violence, would be related to higher reports of social maladjustment (both cross-sectionally and longitudinally) and these variables would interact transactionally, leading to a greater risk of exposure to violence. Results These hypotheses were tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and results revealed that exposure to community violence was not consistently linked to social maladjustment. Transactional results revealed that there are certain periods in development in which being more socially maladjusted may put a youth in risk for more exposure to violence. Conclusions Results of the present study have important implications for interventions for inner-city youth exposed to violence. PMID:25171169
Donatello, Robin A; De Rosa, Christine J; Moulton, Bret D; Chung, Emily Q; Viola, Rachel; Rohrbach, Louise Ann; Afifi, Abdelmonem A
This analysis assessed patterns of sexual experience, the order in which behaviors were initiated, and associated factors, among Latino and African American ninth grade students (average age 15.2) who self-administered audio-computer-assisted surveys on netbooks in classes at 10 Los Angeles-area public high schools. Lifetime experiences with vaginal and oral sex were most common (19% and 16%, respectively); fewer reported anal sex (6%). Of the 23% reporting any sex, 91% fell into four categories: 36% reporting both oral and vaginal sex; 23% vaginal only; 18% all three; and 13% oral only. Most sexually experienced students (88%) initiated with vaginal or oral sex (46% vaginal, 33% oral, 9% both same day). No dominant pathway of sexual onset emerged for those reporting all three types of sex. We found no evidence that oral or anal sex substituted for or delayed vaginal sex. Males, those with a current partner, and those reporting multiple partners were more likely than others to report all three sexual behaviors versus vaginal only (odds ratios [ORs] 2.0, 1.5, 3.0; p = .02, .06, < .01, respectively). Although vaginal intercourse dominated their early sexual behavior, one-fifth of sexually experienced students reported anal intercourse, highlighting the need for specific prevention messages surrounding this higher-risk behavior.
Kabisch, Sigrun; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie
Social vulnerability assessment remains central in discourses on global climatic change and takes a more pertinent meaning considering that natural disasters in African countries continue to deeply affect human settlements and destroys human livelihoods. In recent years, in particular large territories and growing cities have experienced severe weather events. Among them are river and flash floods, affecting the social and economic assets of local populations. The impact of the damage related to floods is not only perceptible during seasonal events but also during unexpected larger disasters which place a particular burden on local population and institutions to adapt effectively to increasing climatic pressures. Important features for social vulnerability assessment are the increasing severity of the physical damages, the shortcoming of social and technical infrastructure, the complexity of land management/market, the limited capacity of local institutions and last but not least the restricted capacities of local population to resist these events. Understanding vulnerability implies highlighting and interlinking relevant indicators and/or perceptions encompassed in four main dimensions: social, institutional, physical and attitudinal vulnerability. Case studies in Dar es Salaam, Ouagadougou and Addis Ababa were carried out to obtain insights into the context-related conditions, behavior routines and survival networks in urban areas in west and east Africa. Using a combination of tools (e.g. focus group discussions, transect walks, interviews) we investigated in close cooperation with African partners how households and communities are being prepared to cope with, as well as to recover from floods. A comprehensive process of dealing with floods can be described based on sequential attributes concerning i) Anticipation before a flood occurs, ii) Resistance and coping activities during a flood event and, iii) Recovery and reconstruction afterwards. A participatory
Current practice of epidemiology in Africa: highlights of the 3rd conference of the African epidemiological association and 1st conference of the Cameroon society of epidemiology, Yaoundé, Cameroon, 2014.
Nkwescheu, Armand Seraphin; Fokam, Joseph; Tchendjou, Patrice; Nji, Akindeh; Ngouakam, Hermann; Andre, Bita Fouda; Joelle, Sobngwi; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Akinroye, Kingsley; Mbacham, Wilfred; Colizzi, Vittorio; Leke, Rose; Victora, Cesar
As the study of disease occurrence and health indicators in human populations, Epidemiology is a dynamic field that evolves with time and geographical context. In order to update African health workers on current epidemiological practices and to draw awareness of early career epidemiologists on concepts and opportunities in the field, the 3(rd) African Epidemiology Association and the 1st Cameroon Society of Epidemiology Conference was organized in June 2-6, 2014 at the Yaoundé Mont Febe Hotel, in Cameroon. Under the theme«Practice of Epidemiology in Africa: Stakes, Challenges and Perspectives», the conference attracted close to five hundred guest and participants from all continents. The two main programs were the pre-conference course for capacity building of African Early Career epidemiologists, and the conference itself, providing a forum for scientific exchanges on recent epidemiological concepts, encouraging the use of epidemiological methods in studying large disease burden and neglected tropical diseases; and highlighting existing opportunities.
Baker, K. S.; Todd, S.; Marsh, G.; Fernandez-Loras, A.; Suu-Ire, R.; Wood, J. L. N.; Wang, L. F.
Bats constitute a reservoir of zoonotic infections and some bat paramyxoviruses are capable of cross-species transmission, often with fatal consequences. Determining the level of viral diversity in reservoir populations is fundamental to understanding and predicting viral emergence. This is particularly relevant for RNA viruses where the adaptive mutations required for cross-species transmission can be present in the reservoir host. We report the use of non-invasively collected, pooled, neat urine samples as a robust sample type for investigating paramyxoviruses in bat populations. Using consensus PCR assays we have detected a high incidence and genetic diversity of novel paramyxoviruses in an urban fruit bat population over a short period of time. This may suggest a similarly unique relationship between bats and the members of the family Paramyxoviridae as proposed for some other viral families. Additionally, the high rate of bat–human contact at the study site calls for the zoonotic potential of the detected viruses to be investigated further. PMID:22205718
Wang, Yan; Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Nair, Prasanna; Zhu, Shijun; Magder, Larry; Black, Maureen M.
Purpose To examine how prenatal heroin/cocaine exposure (PDE) and behavioral problems relate to adolescent drug experimentation. Methods The sample included African American adolescents (mean age=14.2 yr, SD=1.2) with PDE (n=73) and a non-exposed community comparison (n=61). PDE status was determined at delivery through toxicology analysis and maternal-report. Internalizing/externalizing problems were assessed during adolescence with the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition. Drug experimentation was assessed by adolescent-report and urine analysis. Logistic regression evaluated the likelihood of drug experimentation related to PDE and behavioral problems, adjusting for age, gender, prenatal tobacco/alcohol exposure, perceived peer drug use and caregiver drug use. Interaction terms examined gender modification. Results 67 (50%) used drugs. 25 (19%) used tobacco/alcohol only and 42 (31%) used marijuana/illegal drugs. 94 (70%) perceived peer drug use. PDE significantly increased the risk of tobacco/alcohol experimentation (OR=3.07, 95% CI: 1.09–8.66, p=0.034), but not after covariate adjustment (aOR=1.31, 95% CI: 0.39–4.36, p>0.05). PDE was not related to overall or marijuana/illegal drug experimentation. The likelihood of overall drug experimentation was doubled per Standard Deviation (SD) increase in externalizing problems (aOR=2.28, 95% CI: 1.33–3.91, p=0.003) and, among girls, 2.82 times greater (aOR=2.82, 95% CI: 1.34–5.94, p=0.006) per SD increase in internalizing problems. Age and perceived peer drug use were significant covariates. Conclusions Drug experimentation was relatively common (50%), especially in the context of externalizing problems, internalizing problems (girls only), age, and perceived peer drug use. Findings support Problem Behavior Theory and suggest that adolescent drug prevention address behavioral problems and promote prosocial peer groups. PMID:24768161
Dempster, Robert; Davis, Deborah Winders; Faye Jones, V; Keating, Adam; Wildman, Beth
Significant numbers of children have diagnosable mental health problems, but only a small proportion of them receive appropriate services. Stigma has been associated with help-seeking for adult mental health problems and for Caucasian parents. The current study aims to understand factors, including stigma, associated with African American parents' help-seeking behavior related to perceived child behavior problems. Participants were a community sample of African American parents and/or legal guardians of children ages 3-8 years recruited from an urban primary care setting (N = 101). Variables included child behavior, stigma (self, friends/family, and public), object of stigma (parent or child), obstacles for engagement, intention to attend parenting classes, and demographics. Self-stigma was the strongest predictor of help-seeking among African American parents. The impact of self-stigma on parents' ratings of the likelihood of attending parenting classes increased when parents considered a situation in which their child's behavior was concerning to them. Findings support the need to consider parent stigma in the design of care models to ensure that children receive needed preventative and treatment services for behavioral/mental health problems in African American families.
Finigan-Carr, Nadine M; Cheng, Tina L; Gielen, Andrea; Haynie, Denise L; Simons-Morton, Bruce
Aggressive and weapons carrying behaviors are indicative of youth violence. The theory of planned behavior is used in the current analysis to improve our understanding of violence-related behaviors. We examine the influence of perceived behavioral control (self-control and decision making) as a part of the overall framework for understanding the risk and protective factors for aggressive behaviors and weapons carrying. As the baseline assessment of an intervention trial, survey data were collected on 452 sixth-grade students (50% girls; 96.6% African American; mean age 12.0 years) from urban middle schools. A total of 18.4% carried a weapon in the prior 12 months, with boys more likely to carry a weapon than girls (22.5% vs. 14.2%, p = .02). Of the youth, 78.4% reported aggressive behaviors with no significant differences found between girls (81.3%) and boys (75.5%). In logistic regression models, having peers who engage in problem behaviors was found to be a significant risk factor. Youth with peers who engaged in numerous problem behaviors were five times more likely to be aggressive than those who reported little or no peer problem behaviors. Teens who reported that their parents opposed aggression (odds ratio [OR] = 0.76; confidence interval [CI] = 0.66, 0.88) and who used self-control strategies (OR = 0.59; CI = 0.39, 0.87) were found to report less aggressive behaviors. For weapons carrying, being a girl (OR = 0.56; CI = 0.32, 0.97) and self-control (OR = 0.52; CI = 0.29, 0.92) were protective factors. This study demonstrated that the theory of planned behavior may provide a useful framework for the development of violence prevention programs. Practitioners should consider integrating strategies for developing healthy relationships and improving self-control.
Cleveland-Solomon, Tanya E.
What beliefs and cultural models do youth who are underrepresented in science have about the domain of science and about themselves as science learners? What do they imagine is possible for them in relation to science both now and in the future? In other words, what constitutes their figured world of science? This dissertation study, using a mixed methods design, offers new perspectives on the ways that underrepresented youth's unexamined assumptions or cultural models and resources may shape their identities and motivation to learn science. Through analyses of survey and interview data, I found that urban African American youths' social context, gender, racial identity, and perceptions of the science they had in school influenced their motivation to learn science. Analyses of short-term classroom observations and interviews suggested that students had competing cultural models that they used in their constructions of identities as science learners, which they espoused and adopted in relation to how well they leveraged the science-related cultural resources available to them. Results from this study suggested that these 7th graders would benefit from access to more expansive cultural models through access to individuals with scientific capital as a way to allow them to create fruitful identities as science learners. If we want to ensure that students from groups that are underrepresented in science not only have better outcomes, but aspire to and enter the science career pipeline, we must also begin to support them in their negotiations of competing cultural models that limit their ability to adopt science-learner identities in their classrooms. This study endeavored to understand the particular cultural models and motivational beliefs that drive students to act, and what types of individuals they imagine scientists and science workers to be. This study also examined how cultural models and resources influence identity negotiation, specifically the roles youths
Green, Kerry M.; Zebrak, Katarzyna A.; Robertson, Judith A.; Fothergill, Kate E.; Ensminger, Margaret E.
Background Substance use and psychological problems are major public health issues because of their high prevalence, co-occurrence, clustering in socio-economically disadvantaged groups, and serious consequences. However, their interrelationship over time is not well understood. Methods This study identifies and compares the developmental epidemiology from age 6 to 42 of substance use and psychological distress in a population of African American men and women. Data come from the Woodlawn Study, a longitudinal study of an urban community cohort followed since 1966. We use structural equation modeling to examine pathways between substance use (i.e., alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine) and psychological distress over time by gender. Results We find significant continuity from adolescence to midlife for substance use and for psychological distress, as well as significant correlations within time periods between substance use and psychological distress, particularly among women. We also find greater adolescent substance use predicts psychological distress in young adulthood for men, but no cross-lag associations for women. Women’s adolescent psychological distress and substance use are linked uniquely to that of their mothers. Findings show additional gender differences in the developmental etiology of substance use and psychological distress. Conclusions Findings demonstrate the continuity of substance use and psychological distress over time; the contemporaneous relationships between psychological distress and substance use within time periods, and minimal cross-lagged relationships. Findings also show that adolescent substance use may set boys on a pathway of long-term psychological distress, thus adding to evidence of negative consequences of frequent use. PMID:22189347
Holt, Cheryl L; Schulz, Emily; Wynn, Theresa A
Extensive literature reviews suggest that religiousness is positively associated with health. Much less understood is the particular nature of the religion-health connection. Religion and the church play a central role in the lives of many African Americans. This study used a mixed-methods approach to examine perceptions of the religion-health connection among African Americans in urban and rural areas. Four hundred participants were randomly selected and interviewed by telephone, answering open-ended questions about their perceptions of the role of religiousness in their health. Data were analyzed using an open-coding technique. Codes were arranged into families involving the role of a higher power, health behavior, physical factors, social support, mental health, and contextual factors in determining physical health, as well as the potential negative role of religiousness. Quantitative analysis revealed the stronger presence of themes among women, older participants, and those in rural counties. Applications for theory and health promotion are discussed.
Perenyi, Agnes; Katz, Joanne S; Sklar, Tzipporah; Flom, Peter
We aimed 1) to define risk factors for adverse outcome in urban African American patients, 2) to determine whether clinical variables as risk factors are congruent with previously published data, and 3) to identify the proportion of infants with different outcomes. The study included African American infants who were born and participated in neurodevelopmental follow-up. Infants with gestational age range of 23 to 41 weeks, and birth weight (BW) range of 495 to 3,965 g were classified by developmental outcome. Among the smallest infants, BW, gestational age, gender and respiratory distress syndrome were significantly (p<.05) associated with adverse outcome. No significant risk factors were identified for adverse outcome in the two other birth weight categories. Adverse outcomes were seen more frequently in infants with BW ≤1,500 g than in larger infants. The number of infants with severe outcome was found higher than previously reported and may be related to different racial/generational origin.
Kennedy, Angie C; Bybee, Deborah; Kulkarni, Shanti J; Archer, Gretchen
Guided by an intersectional feminist perspective, we examined sexual victimization, witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV) in the family, and familial physical abuse among a sample of 180 urban African American adolescent women. We used cluster analysis to better understand the profiles of cumulative victimization, and the relationships between profiles and IPV victimization and personal exposure to the sex trade. Just under one third of the sample reported sexual victimization, with cooccurrence with both forms of family violence common. The cluster profile with high levels of severe family violence was associated with the highest rate of IPV victimization and sex trade exposure.
Randle, James P.
A recent study by the Council of the Great City Schools reports that "the nation's young African-American males are in a state of crisis" and describes the situation as "a national catastrophe" (Lewis, Simon, Uzzell, Horwitz, & Casserly, 2010; Herbert, 2010). The report indicates that African-American males still lag…
This article describes a qualitative research study that explored how a middle school case-study class read and responded to "culturally conscious" African American children's books (Sims, 1982, p. 49). First, I relied on literary analyses conducted mainly by Sims (1982) and Harris (1995) to identify African American textual features contained in…
Beachum, Locke; Horsky, Faith
This eighth grade unit is one of a sequential learning series of the Focus on Inner City Social Studies (FICSS) project developed in accordance with the needs and problems of an urban society. A description of the project is provided in SO 008 271. This unit focuses on the history of African-Americans. Specific student inquiry areas include the…
Rosenbaum, Janet E; Zenilman, Jonathan; Rose, Eve; Wingood, Gina; DiClemente, Ralph
Reproductive coercion has been hypothesized as a cause of unprotected sex and unplanned pregnancies, but research has focused on a narrow set of potential sources of reproductive coercion. We identified and evaluated eight potential sources of reproductive coercion from the Theory of Gender and Power including economic inequality between adolescent girls and their boyfriends, cohabitation, and age differences. The sample comprised sexually active African-American female adolescents, ages 15-21. At baseline (n = 715), 6 months (n = 607), and 12 months (n = 605), participants completed a 40-min interview and were tested for semen Y-chromosome with polymerase chain reaction from a self-administered vaginal swab. We predicted unprotected sex and pregnancy using multivariate regression controlling for demographics, economic factors, relationship attributes, and intervention status using a Poisson working model. Factors associated with unprotected sex included cohabitation (incidence risk ratio (IRR) 1.48, 95 % confidence interval (1.22, 1.81)), physical abuse (IRR 1.55 (1.21, 2.00)), emotional abuse (IRR 1.31 (1.06, 1.63)), and having a boyfriend as a primary source of spending money (IRR 1.18 (1.00, 1.39)). Factors associated with unplanned pregnancy 6 months later included being at least 4 years younger than the boyfriend (IRR 1.68 (1.14, 2.49)) and cohabitation (2.19 (1.35, 3.56)). Among minors, cohabitation predicted even larger risks of unprotected sex (IRR 1.93 (1.23, 3.03)) and unplanned pregnancy (3.84 (1.47, 10.0)). Adolescent cohabitation is a marker for unprotected sex and unplanned pregnancy, especially among minors. Cohabitation may have stemmed from greater commitment, but the shortage of affordable housing in urban areas could induce women to stay in relationships for housing. Pregnancy prevention interventions should attempt to delay cohabitation until adulthood and help cohabiting adolescents to find affordable housing.
Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad; Khadivzadeh, Talat; Bahrami, Masoud
Background: More than 30% of pregnancies in Iran are unintended and most of them happen among the women who use various contraceptive methods. Results of Integrated Monitoring and Evaluation System (IMES) showed that the rate of innovative contraceptive use in Mashhad has been 41.5%-57% in different urban areas. This study was conducted to explore the process of making decision toward using family planning methods in women of reproductive age in urban society of Mashhad, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this grounded theory study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 45 purposefully selected participants including 28 women and 17 key informants including family health providers and managers, and participants’ mothers and husbands, who lived in urban society of Mashhad, Iran, in 2011-2012. Participants’ recruitment continued until data saturation occurred. Data were analyzed using Strauss and Corbin's mode of analysis through constant comparative method, applying levels of open, axial, and selective coding with MAXqda software. Study rigor was confirmed through prolonged engagement, member check, expert debriefing, and thick description of the data. Results: The core category of “caring the comprehensive health of my family,” which emerged from the data, described the process of couples’ decision making toward using family planning methods in this study. Other developed categories which were presented into a theoretical scheme consisted of 1) shaping the ideas of fertility control, 2) developing cognition about the fertility control methods, 3) appraising available choices and choosing the most appropriate one, 4) managing the course of using methods, and 5) realizing the fertility intentions. Conclusion: It is important that family planning providers understand the motivations, perceptions, and knowledge of women about contraceptive methods in their contextual situation, which illustrates their mode of interaction in the arenas of family planning
Kruger, Marlena C; Kruger, Iolanthé M; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss; Kruger, Annamarie
Globally, rural to urban migration is accompanied by changes in dietary patterns and lifestyle that have serious health implications, including development of low bone mass. We hypothesized that serum 25 (OH) vitamin D3 (25[OH]D3) levels will be lower, bone turnover higher, and nutrition inadequate in urban postmenopausal black women, increasing risk for low bone mass. We aimed to assess the prevalence of risk factors for low bone mass in 1261 black women from rural and urban areas in the North West Province of South Africa (Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology-South Africa project). Fasting blood samples were taken; and participants were interviewed to complete questionnaires on self-reported diseases, fractures, and dietary intakes. Bone health markers were assessed in a subgroup of 658 women older than 45 years. Specific lifestyle risk factors identified were inactivity, smoking, injectable progestin contraception use, and high alcohol consumption. Dietary risk factors identified were low calcium and high animal protein, phosphorous, and sodium intakes. The 25(OH)D3 and C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) levels were significantly higher in the rural vs the urban women older than 50 years. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels increased with age in both groups. The 25(OH)D levels were inversely correlated with CTX and PTH in rural women. In urban women, PTH and CTX were correlated while dietary calcium was inversely correlated with CTX and PTH with 25(OH)D3. The combination of low dietary calcium (<230 mg/d), marginally insufficient 25(OH)D3 status, and raised PTH may result in increased bone resorption. Further research is required to assess bone health and fracture risk in black African women.
Reed, E; Santana, M C; Bowleg, L; Welles, S L; Horsburgh, C R; Raj, A
This study aimed to examine racial discrimination and relation to sexual risk for HIV among a sample of urban black and African American men. Participants of this cross-sectional study were black and African American men (N = 703) between the ages of 18 and 65 years, recruited from four urban clinical sites in the northeast. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze the relation of reported racial discrimination to the following: (1) sex trade involvement, (2) recent unprotected sex, and (3) reporting a number of sex partners in the past 12 months greater than the sample average. The majority of the sample (96%) reported racial discrimination. In adjusted analyses, men reporting high levels of discrimination were significantly more likely to report recent sex trade involvement (buying and/or selling) (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) range = 1.7-2.3), having recent unprotected vaginal sex with a female partner (AOR = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1-2.0), and reporting more than four sex partners in the past year (AOR = 1.4, 95% CI, 1.1-1.9). Findings highlight the link between experiences of racial discrimination and men's sexual risk for HIV.
From Handcuffs to Hallucinations: Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates of Prior Incarcerations in an Urban, Predominantly African American Sample of Hospitalized Patients with First-Episode Psychosis
Ramsay, Claire E.; Goulding, Sandra M.; Broussard, Beth; Cristofaro, Sarah L.; Abedi, Glen R.; Compton, Michael T.
High rates of incarceration and criminal justice system recidivism among individuals with serious mental illnesses have long been topics of concern, but few studies have examined rates of prior incarceration at the point of first treatment contact. In a sample of 109 urban, low-income, predominantly African American patients hospitalized for first-episode psychosis, 57.8% reported a history of incarceration. Among those who reported having ever been incarcerated, 58.1% had more than one past incarceration, and the mean number of incarcerations was 2.9±3.4. Patients with a history of incarceration had completed fewer years of education, had poorer premorbid academic functioning, reported an earlier age at initiation of cannabis use, and were more likely to have cannabis and alcohol dependence or abuse. Incarceration was also associated with a greater number of psychosocial problems and more severe positive and general psychopathology symptoms. These findings of excessively high rates of past incarceration among urban, predominantly African American, first-episode psychosis patients—along with the associations between past incarceration and diverse adverse psychosocial and clinical characteristics—serve as a call to action for early psychosis researchers, program developers, policy makers, and clinical and forensic psychiatrists. PMID:21389167
Parisi, Lynn; Thompson, Sara; Williams, Patterson
This eight-lesson unit introduces students to developments in Tokugawa, Japan, from 1630-1867. Students explore art, literature, and other primary sources to compile a picture of the stable, hierarchical society that the Tokugawa rulers sought to establish and maintain; students then draw on these sources to analyze social, economic, and cultural…
de Lange, Zelda; Rijken, Dingeman C; Hoekstra, Tiny; Conradie, Karin R; Jerling, Johann C; Pieters, Marlien
Data on genetic and environmental factors influencing PAI-1 levels and their consequent effect on clot lysis in black African populations are limited. We identified polymorphisms in the promoter area of the PAI-1 gene and determined their influence on PAI-1act levels and plasma clot lysis time (CLT). We also describe gene-environment interactions and the effect of urbanisation. Data from 2010 apparently healthy urban and rural black participants from the South African arm of the PURE study were cross-sectionally analysed. The 5G allele frequency of the 4G/5G polymorphism was 0.85. PAI-1act increased across genotypes in the urban subgroup (p = 0.009) but not significantly in the rural subgroup, while CLT did not differ across genotypes. Significant interaction terms were found between the 4G/5G polymorphism and BMI, waist circumference and triglycerides in determining PAI-1act, and between the 4G/5G polymorphism and fibrinogen and fibrinogen gamma prime in determining CLT. The C428T and G429A polymorphisms did not show direct relationships with PAI-1act or CLT but they did influence the association of other environmental factors with PAI-1act and CLT. Several of these interactions differed significantly between rural and urban subgroups, particularly in individuals harbouring the mutant alleles. In conclusion, although the 4G/5G polymorphism significantly affected PAI-1act, it contributed less than 1% to the PAI-1act variance. (Central) obesity was the biggest contributor to PAI-1act variance (12.5%). Urbanisation significantly influenced the effect of the 4G/5G polymorphism on PAI-1act as well as gene-environment interactions for the C428T and G429A genotypes in determining PAI-1act and CLT.
This collection for children tells the stories of 16 African Americans who helped make America what it is today. African Americans can take pride in the heritage of these contributors to society. Biographies are given for the following: (1) Sojourner Truth, preacher and abolitionist; (2) Frederick Douglass, abolitionist; (3) Harriet Tubman, leader…
Adon, Marcellin; Yoboué, Véronique; Galy-Lacaux, Corinne; Liousse, Catherine; Diop, Babakar; Doumbia, El Hadji Thierno; Gardrat, Eric; Ndiaye, Seydi Ababacar; Jarnot, Christian
In this paper, we present the measurements of atmospheric gas concentrations of NO2, SO2, NH3, HNO3, and O3 performed at two traffic sites in the context of the POLCA (Pollution of African Capitals) program. These gases were measured using a passive sampling technique from Jan. 2008 to Dec. 2009 at Dakar and from Jun. 2008 to Dec. 2009 at Bamako. In addition, during these periods there were two intensive measurement campaigns (from 19 Jan. to 2 Feb. 2009 at Bamako and from 30 Nov. to 13 Dec. 2009 at Dakar) where real-time active analysers were used to measure NO2 and SO2. Results show that Dakar has a pollution level for NO2 and SO2 higher than that of Bamako, whereas it is lower for NH3 concentrations. Monthly values of NO2 range between 21.1 and 43.5 ppb in Dakar with an annual mean concentration of 31.7 ppb (59.6 μg/m3). NO2 values in Bamako are 9.4-22.6 ppb with a mean of 16.2 ppb. At Dakar, the mean annual NO2 limit value (21.3 ppb or 40 μg/m3) recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) is widely exceeded. The mean annual concentration of SO2 is 15.9 ppb in Dakar and 3.6 ppb in Bamako. These differences may be explained by different sources of traffic between Bamako (with mainly gasoline vehicles) and Dakar (with mainly diesel vehicles). The annual mean NH3 concentration is about two times higher in Bamako (46.7 ppb) than in Dakar (21.1 ppb). In addition to other possible sources, we assume that the ammonia from domestic fires and uncontrolled garbage incineration may have more influence at Bamako than at Dakar. The mean annual concentrations of HNO3 and O3 are 1.3 ppb and 7.7 ppb in Dakar and 0.6 ppb and 5.1 ppb in Bamako, respectively. Seasonal variation in measured gas concentrations are low in Bamako and more pronounced in Dakar, except for HNO3 and NH3. At Dakar, NO2 and SO2 daily mean concentrations are higher during the weekdays than on weekends, when urban activities are reduced, whereas at Bamako, no significant difference was observed
Byerlee, Derek; And Others
Study objectives were to: increase the understanding of rural to urban migration processes in Africa and Sierra Leone; develop and test a theoretical schema and survey methodology for migration research; and evaluate the effects of policy on migration. The migration survey was conducted in rural areas, urban areas, and again in the rural areas…
Thomas, Duane E.; Coard, Stephanie I.; Stevenson, Howard C.; Bentley, Keisha; Zamel, Pamela
The present study investigated the predictive influence of students' reactive emotional coping and racial socialization experiences on teachers' perceptions of classroom behavior adjustment problems. Participants were 148 African American male youth attending a secondary school in a large northeastern city. Behavioral outcomes included teacher…
Fleshman, Paula Jenniver
As mathematics identity affects students' learning and doing of mathematics, it is critical to understand the mathematics identities of African American and Hispanic students as the mathematical performance and pursuits of far too many continue to lag behind. Further, as community schools have been shown to positively impact students in urban…
This study examines whether participating in competitive policy debate influences high school completion, academic achievement, and college readiness for African American male students. The analysis examines data from the Chicago Debate League from 1997 to 2006. Debate participants were 70% more likely to graduate and three times less likely to…
Dolcini, M. Margaret; Harper, Gary W.; Boyer, Cherrie B.; Pollack, Lance M.
There is an urgent need for continued innovation in the design of HIV/STI prevention interventions for African American females, a group at high risk for STIs and HIV. In particular, attention to social development and to culture is needed. The present study reports on a group randomized controlled trial of a friendship-based HIV/STI prevention…
Jones, Rachel; Lacroix, Lorraine J
Love, Sex, and Choices is a 12-episode soap opera video series created as an intervention to reduce HIV sex risk. The effect on women's HIV risk behavior was evaluated in a randomized controlled trial in 238 high risk, predominately African American young adult women in the urban Northeast. To facilitate on-demand access and privacy, the episodes were streamed to study-provided smartphones. Here, we discuss the development of a mobile platform to deliver the 12-weekly video episodes or weekly HIV risk reduction written messages to smartphones, including; the technical requirements, development, and evaluation. Popularity of the smartphone and use of the Internet for multimedia offer a new channel to address health disparities in traditionally underserved populations. This is the first study to report on streaming a serialized video-based intervention to a smartphone. The approach described here may provide useful insights in assessing advantages and disadvantages of smartphones to implement a video-based intervention.
Leff, Stephen S; Gullan, Rebecca Lakin; Paskewich, Brooke S; Abdul-Kabir, Saburah; Jawad, Abbas F; Grossman, Michael; Munro, Melissa A; Power, Thomas J
Recent research demonstrating that relational aggression is associated with peer relationship difficulties, internalizing and externalizing behaviors, social processing deficits, and possibly later mental health disorders among girls has emphasized the need to address the unique expression of aggression among females. Despite these findings, almost all aggression interventions have been directed toward physically aggressive boys. In the current article, the authors describe the acceptability and initial effectiveness of a culturally adapted social problem-solving/social skills intervention for inner-city 3rd- to 5th-grade urban, African American, relationally aggressive girls called the Friend to Friend Program. The authors partnered with youth, teachers, parents, and playground supervisors to design the program, and the current study presents preliminary data suggesting that the intervention is viewed as highly acceptable by participating girls and teachers. Further, the intervention appears to have promise for decreasing at-risk girls' levels of relationally and physically aggressive behaviors, hostile attributions, and loneliness.
American Industrial Arts Association, Washington, DC.
General session addresses focus on urban society and its impact on environment, government, and education with special emphasis on the industrial arts. Seventeen speeches within the AIA divisions of ACESIA, ACIAS, ACIATE, and AIACSA are included. Representative addresses from the major group and special interest sessions deal with the following…
Reed, Wornie L., Ed.
In 1987 a project was undertaken to assess the status of African Americans in the United States in the topical areas to be addressed by the National Research Council's (NRC) Study Committee on the Status of Black Americans: education, employment, income and occupations, political participation and the administration of justice, social and cultural…
Yeakey, Carol Camp, Ed.; Henderson, Ronald D., Ed.
This volume includes the first 15 papers in a 32-paper collection. After a prologue by Mkhululi David Graham Du Bois entitled "Seeking Truth in Research", the papers are: (1) "`Knowledge is Light, Knowledge is Power': African American Education in Antebellum America" (Christopher M. Span); (2) "Curriculum, Culture, and…
Önnerud, Hans; Wallin, Sara; Östmark, Henric; Menning, Dennis; Ek, Stefan; Ellis, Hanna; Kölhed, Malin
Results of dispersion experiments and dispersion modelling of explosives, drugs, and their precursors will be presented. The dispersion of chemicals evolving during preparation of home made explosives and a drug produced in an improvised manner in an ordinary kitchen has been measured. Experiments with concentration of hydrogen peroxide have been performed during spring and summer of 2009 and 2010 and further experiments with concentration of hydrogen peroxide, synthesis and drying of TATP and Methamphetamine are planned for the spring and summer of 2011. Results from the experiments are compared to dispersion modelling to achieve a better understanding of the dispersion processes and the resulting substances and amounts available for detection outside the kitchen at distances of 10-30 m and longer. Typical concentration levels have been determined as a function of environmental conditions. The experiments and modelling are made as a part of the LOTUS project aimed at detecting and locating the illicit production of explosives and drugs in an urban environment. It can be concluded that the proposed LOTUS system concept, using mobile automatic sensors, data transfer, location via GSM/GPS for on-line detection of illicit production of explosive or precursors to explosives and drugs is a viable approach and is in accordance with historical and today's illicit bomb manufacturing. The overall objective and approach of the LOTUS project will also be presented together with two more projects called PREVAIL and EMPHASIS both aiming at hindering or finding illicit production of home made explosives.
Doherty, Elaine Eggleston; Cwick, Jaclyn M; Green, Kerry M; Ensminger, Margaret E
The life course perspective has traditionally examined prevalent adult life events, such as marriage and employment, and their potential to redirect offending trajectories. However, for African Americans, the life events of arrest and incarceration are becoming equally prevalent in young adulthood. Therefore, it is critical to understand how these "standard" criminal justice practices, which are designed to deter as well as punish, affect deviance among this population. This study evaluates the long-term consequences of criminal justice intervention on substance use and offending into midlife among an African American community cohort using propensity score matching and multivariate regression analyses. The results largely point to a criminogenic effect of criminal justice intervention on midlife deviance with a particularly strong effect of young adult arrest on rates of violent and property arrest counts into midlife. The theoretical and policy implications of the findings are discussed.
Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Greener, Judith R.; Ruggieri, Dominique; Parvanta, Claudia; Mora, Gabriella; Wolak, Caitlin; Normile, Rebecca; Gordon, Thomas F.
Objectives Radiological terror presents a real threat, but little is known about how low-income, urban African Americans may respond to such threats. The aim of this study was to understand the unique challenges of this group and to explore their knowledge of what a “dirty bomb” is, their intended behaviors should one occur, and their barriers to complying with “shelter in place” recommendations. Methods Thirty-seven 18–65-year-olds who were users of community centers in disadvantaged areas participated in 3 focus groups in Philadelphia. Results were analyzed by using the Krueger method of analyzing narrative text. Results The responses highlighted little knowledge or concern about a dirty bomb. Lack of trust in local authorities was expressed, with participants indicating that they did not feel their needs were addressed. While shelter in place was understood, most said they would still check on family or talk with others to get the “whole truth” because the most trusted information sources were neighbors and community leaders. Conclusion Our results indicate that a risk communication intervention for urban minorities may support desirable behaviors in the event of a dirty bomb, but successful communication will require establishing a local leader as a spokesperson to convince people of the importance of sheltering in place. PMID:25611688
Reed, Elizabeth; Lawrence, Danielle A; Santana, M C; Welles, C Seth L; Horsburgh, C Robert; Silverman, Jay G; Rich, John A; Raj, Anita
The purpose of this study is to determine if experiences of physical violence during early and late adolescence (12-21 years) places urban Black males at increased risk for interpersonal violence perpetration beyond young adulthood (30 years and older). Participants of this cross-sectional study were Black and African American men (N = 455) between the ages of 30 and 65 years, recruited from four urban clinical sites in the Northeast. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze the relation of adolescent experiences of violence to: (1) past 6 month street violence involvement and (2) past year intimate partner violence perpetration. Ten percent of the sample reported that they experienced adolescent victimization. Men reporting adolescent victimization were significantly more likely to report past 6-month street violence involvement (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 3.2, 95 % CI = 1.7-6.3) and past 6 month intimate partner violence perpetration (AOR = 2.8, 95 % CI = 1.8-5.4) compared to men who did not report such victimization. Study findings suggest that in order to prevent adulthood perpetration of violence, more work is needed to address experiences of victimization among young Black males, particularly violence experienced during adolescence.
Himelhoch, Seth; Mohr, David; Maxfield, Jennifer; Clayton, Sara; Weber, Elyssa; Medoff, Deborah; Dixon, Lisa
Given the burden of depression among those with HIV, and the impact of HIV on urban minority communities there is an urgent need to assess innovative treatment interventions that not only treat depression but do so in a way that allows for increased access to mental health care. This single site, uncontrolled, pilot study sought to determine the feasibility and depression outcomes of an 11-session telephone-based cognitive behavioral therapy intervention delivered over 14 weeks targeting low-income, urban-dwelling, HIV-infected African-American people with major depression. The diagnosis of major depression was made using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The primary outcome was the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) and the secondary outcome was the Quick Inventory of Depression Symptomatology-Self Report (QIDS-SR). Feasibility and satisfaction were also assessed. Assessments occurred at baseline, midpoint and at study conclusion (14 weeks). Fifteen people were screened for the study. Six HIV-infected, low-income, African-American people individuals (five females and one male) were eligible and participated in the study. All patients finished the study. On average, participants completed nine sessions. The sessions lasted for an average of 48 min (SD = 11.5). Compared to mean HAM-D score at baseline (HAM-D = 22.8 (SD = 3.1), the mean HAM-D score was significantly reduced at study conclusion (HAM-D = 9.8 (SD = 7.4); (t (5) = 4.6, p = 0.006); (Cohen d = 1.9)). Compared to the mean QIDS-SR score at baseline (QIDS-SR = 15.5 (SD = 4.2) the mean QIDS score was significantly reduced at study conclusion (QIDS = 7.0 (SD = 5.4);(t (5) = 3.2, p = 0.02); (Cohen d = 1.3)).The mean satisfaction scores across all participants at post-treatment was 5.7 (SD = 0.3) with of a maximum score of 6. Telephone-based CBT can be delivered to low-income, urban-dwelling ethnic minority HIV-infected people resulting in significant reductions in depression symptoms with
Himelhoch, Seth; Mohr, David; Maxfield, Jennifer; Clayton, Sara; Weber, Elyssa; Medoff, Deborah; Dixon, Lisa
Given the burden of depression among those with HIV, and the impact of HIV on urban minority communities there is an urgent need to assess innovative treatment interventions that not only treat depression but do so in a way that allows for increased access to mental health care. This single site, uncontrolled, pilot study sought to determine the feasibility and depression outcomes of an 11 session telephone based cognitive behavioral therapy intervention delivered over 14 weeks targeting low income, urban dwelling, HIV infected African-Americans with major depression. The diagnosis of major depression was made using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The primary outcome was the HAM-D and the secondary outcome was the Quick Inventory of Depression Symptomatology -Self Report (QIDS-SR). Feasibility and satisfaction were also assessed. Assessments occurred at baseline, midpoint and at study conclusion (14 weeks). Fifteen people were screened for the study. Six HIV infected, low-income, African American individuals (5 Female, 1 Male) were eligible and participated in the study. All patients finished the study. On average, participants completed 9 sessions. The sessions lasted for an average of 48 minutes (SD=11.5). Compared to mean HAM-D score at baseline (HAM-D= 22.8 (SD =3.1), the mean HAM-D score was significantly reduced at study conclusion (HAM-D= 9.8 (SD =7.4);(t (5) =4.6, p=.006);(Cohen d=1.9)). Compared to the mean QIDS-SR score at baseline (QIDS-SR=15.5 (SD =4.2) the mean QIDS score was significantly reduced at study conclusion (QIDS=7.0 (SD =5.4);(t (5) = 3.2, p=.02); (Cohen d=1.3)). The mean satisfaction scores across all participants at post treatment was 5.7 (SD=.3) with of a maximum score of 6. Telephone based CBT can be delivered to low-income, urban dwelling ethnic minority HIV infected people resulting in significant reductions in depression symptoms with high satisfaction. The efficacy of this intervention will be assessed in a planned
O'Donnell, Philip; Richards, Maryse; Pearce, Steven; Romero, Edna
Juvenile delinquency is an ongoing social problem particularly among low-income urban youth who are regularly exposed to numerous risk factors. Although much research has been conducted in this area, the most at-risk youth have been largely neglected. This study examines the role of peer deviance in mediating the influence of adult monitoring on…
Hunter, Jaimie C.; Foy, Capri G.; Quandt, Sara A.; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Leng, Iris; Hornbuckle, Lyndsey M.; Sanya, Kara A.; Bertoni, Alain G.
Introduction Randomized trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) program for lowering blood pressure; however, program participation has been limited in some populations. The objective of this pilot study was to test the feasibility of using a culturally modified version of DASH among African Americans in an underresourced community. Methods This randomized controlled pilot study recruited African Americans in 2 North Carolina neighborhoods who had high blood pressure and used fewer than 3 antihypertension medications. We offered 2 individual and 9 group DASH sessions to intervention participants and 1 individual session and printed DASH educational materials to control participants. We collected data at baseline (March 2010) and 12 weeks (June 2010). Results Of 152 potential participants, 25 were randomly assigned to either the intervention (n = 14) or the control (n = 11) group; 22 were women, and 21 were educated beyond high school. At baseline, mean blood pressure was 130/78 mm Hg; 19 participants used antihypertension medications, and mean body mass index was 35.9 kg/m2. Intervention participants attended 7 of 9 group sessions on average. After 12 weeks, we observed significant increases in fruit and vegetable consumption and increases in participants’ confidence in their ability to reduce salt and fat consumption and eat healthier snacks in intervention compared with control participants. We found no significant decreases in blood pressure. Conclusion Implementation of a culturally modified, community-based DASH intervention was feasible in our small sample of African Americans, which included people being treated for high blood pressure. Future studies should evaluate the long-term effect of this program in a larger sample. PMID:23306077
Davis, Stacy N; Diefenbach, Michael A; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis; Chen, Tianle; Hall, Simon J; Thompson, Hayley S
Discussion of the pros and cons of prostate cancer screening tests, rather than routine screening, is recommended to support informed screening decisions, particularly among African American men. This study explored physician explanation of pros and cons of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and digital rectal exam (DRE) and its association with knowledge and screening attitudes. Two hundred-one African American men were asked if a physician had ever provided a comprehensive explanation of pros and cons of the PSA test and DRE. All men completed a 10-item prostate cancer knowledge scale and a subset completed a 26-item attitudes measure. Only 13% of the sample reported receiving a comprehensive explanation. Also, prostate cancer knowledge in the sample was low (mean = 43% correct). Multivariate analyses revealed that total prostate cancer knowledge was associated with men receiving a comprehensive explanation (p = .05), as well as past prostate cancer screening (p = .02) and younger age (p = .009). Although comprehensive explanation of prostate cancer screening was related to total prostate cancer knowledge, it was unrelated to a subset of items that may be central to fully informed screening decisions. Furthermore, comprehensive explanation of prostate cancer screening (p = .02), along with DRE recommendation (p = .009) and older age (p = .02), were related to fewer negative screening attitudes. Findings suggest that continued focus on patient education and physician communication is warranted.
Kuczmarski, Andrew V; Cotugna, Nancy; Mason, Marc A; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B
Background: Recent research has linked caffeine consumption with a lower risk for depression and cognitive decline. However, no studies have examined the relationship in an African American compared to a white, socioeconomically diverse representative urban sample. Methods: Data from a cross-sectional study were used to determine the associations of caffeine use with depressive symptomatology and cognition in a sample of 1,724 participants in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study. The United States Department of Agriculture's Automated Multiple Pass Method was used by trained interviewers to collect two, in-person 24-hour dietary recalls. Depressive symptoms and global cognition were assessed using two well-validated measures: the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depressive Scale (CES-D) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), respectively. Usual caffeine intake was based on both recalls. Data were analyzed with t- and chi-square tests, correlation analysis, and ordinal logistic regression. Results: African Americans consumed significantly less caffeine than did whites (89.0±3.2 and 244.0±8.7 mg respectively). Caffeine consumption was not associated with depressive symptomatology or global cognition. Age, less than 5th grade literacy, and less than high school education were significantly associated with both depressive symptoms and cognitive function. Smokers had a 43% greater risk for depression but only a 3% higher risk for cognitive impairment. Conclusion: The low level of dietary caffeine intake in combination with smoking among HANDLS study participants may have influenced the lack of association with depressive symptomatology or global cognition. For this sample, low literacy and education appear more highly associated with depressive symptoms and cognitive function than caffeine intake.
Kuczmarski, Andrew V.; Mason, Marc A.; Evans, Michele K.; Zonderman, Alan B.
Background: Recent research has linked caffeine consumption with a lower risk for depression and cognitive decline. However, no studies have examined the relationship in an African American compared to a white, socioeconomically diverse representative urban sample. Methods: Data from a cross-sectional study were used to determine the associations of caffeine use with depressive symptomatology and cognition in a sample of 1,724 participants in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study. The United States Department of Agriculture's Automated Multiple Pass Method was used by trained interviewers to collect two, in-person 24-hour dietary recalls. Depressive symptoms and global cognition were assessed using two well-validated measures: the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depressive Scale (CES-D) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), respectively. Usual caffeine intake was based on both recalls. Data were analyzed with t- and chi-square tests, correlation analysis, and ordinal logistic regression. Results: African Americans consumed significantly less caffeine than did whites (89.0±3.2 and 244.0±8.7 mg respectively). Caffeine consumption was not associated with depressive symptomatology or global cognition. Age, less than 5th grade literacy, and less than high school education were significantly associated with both depressive symptoms and cognitive function. Smokers had a 43% greater risk for depression but only a 3% higher risk for cognitive impairment. Conclusion: The low level of dietary caffeine intake in combination with smoking among HANDLS study participants may have influenced the lack of association with depressive symptomatology or global cognition. For this sample, low literacy and education appear more highly associated with depressive symptoms and cognitive function than caffeine intake. PMID:25785235
White, Tarsha D.
Broad inferences have been made that the election of a Black American President indicates that America now functions in a post-racist society. This optimism has fueled a major discussion for changes in American policies which directly affect minorities; in particular, those related to affirmative action in higher education are under attack. Due to…
Gary, Tiffany L; Batts-Turner, Marian; Bone, Lee R; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Levine, David M; Powe, Neil R; Hill, Martha N; Saudek, Christopher; McGuire, Maura; Brancati, Frederick L
The objective of the study was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of primary care and community-oriented interventions in managing HbA1c, blood pressure, and lipids, and reducing hospitalizations and emergency room visits over 2 years. We describe an ongoing, randomized controlled trial of 542 urban African-Americans with type 2 diabetes ages 25 years and older who are members of a university-affiliated managed-care organization in Baltimore, MD. The participants are 74% female, have a mean age of 58 years, and 35% have yearly incomes greater than 7500 US dollars. Participants were randomized to one of two intervention groups for a period of 2 years: (1) usual medical care plus minimal telephone intervention implemented by a trained lay health educator (control group) or (2) usual medical care plus intensive intervention implemented by a nurse case manager (NCM)/community health worker (CHW) team. The intensive NCM/CHW team executes individual plans of care using evidence-based algorithms that focus on traditional diabetes self-management, screening and management of diabetes-related complications, and social issues surrounding diabetes care. Face-to-face NCM visits are conducted in the clinic once per year and CHW visits are conducted in the participant's home one to three times per year, both with additional follow-up contacts as needed. Written and verbal feedback (when necessary) is provided to the participant's primary care physician. All participants are expected to attend a 24-month follow-up visit where data are collected by interviewers blinded to intervention assignment. As of May 1, 2003, recruitment is complete, interventions are being fully implemented, and 24-month follow-up visits are beginning. Baseline sociodemographic characteristics, health-care utilization, health behaviors, and clinical characteristics of the study population are reported. This study is designed to test the hypothesis that a primary-care-based NCM plus CHW
Cunningham, Jera Nelson; Kliewer, Wendy; Garner, Pamela W
The prospective relation of maternal emotion philosophy to children's emotion understanding and regulation and positive and negative adjustment was investigated. Sixty-nine African American youth (50% male; M age = 11.29 years) and their maternal caregivers living in high violence areas of a midsized city participated in this interview study. Caregivers' meta-emotion philosophy predicted child emotion understanding and emotion regulation, which also were associated with Time 2 grades, internalizing behaviors, externalizing behaviors, and social skills after controlling for Time 1 adjustment. Emotional understanding mediated the relationship between caregivers' emotional socialization and boys' internalizing behaviors and between caregivers' emotional socialization and girls' social skills. In addition, emotion regulation mediated the relationships between emotional socialization and all four outcomes for boys. Implications for future work on emotion socialization and clinical intervention, particularly related to emotion regulation, are discussed.
Ajrouch, Kristine J; Reisine, Susan; Lim, Sungwoo; Sohn, Woosung; Ismail, Amid
We investigated the role of social support in the stress process by focusing on African-American women caring for young children in a high-poverty socio-economic context. Data came from 736 women living in Detroit who completed face-to-face interviews in 2002-2003 and 2004-2005. Regression analyses illustrated that the influence of social support varied according to instrumental and emotional support types as well as the stressor examined. Transportation and childcare support partially buffered the negative effects of food insufficiency on psychological distress. Financial support buffered the influence of neighborhood disorganization on psychological distress. Findings help to explicate further the complex role of social support in the stress process and have implications for social policy.
Musci, Rashelle J.; Hart, Shelley R.; Ialongo, Nicholas
The etiology of problem-eating behaviors is often overlooked in research as it typically shares many symptoms with other more common psychiatric illnesses. Binge-eating problems are at the forefront of the popular media because of the connection to obesity; therefore, increased knowledge of binge eating problems, particularly the internalizing antecedents and consequences will have implications in a multitude of domains, including prevention programs aimed at physical and mental health. The current study examines the antecedents of binge-eating behaviors by exploring how the growth of internalizing symptoms influences the proximal outcome of a binge-eating inventory in a longitudinal sample of African American girls. Additional consequences of binge-eating problems are also explored. This study focuses on binge-eating problems in order to present valuable information for prevention scientists who wish to develop target individuals at high risk for internalizing problems such as suicide. PMID:23873475
Wilson, Helen W; Samuelson, Sarah L; Staudenmeyer, Anna H; Widom, Cathy Spatz
The current study examined patterns of psychopathology, drug and alcohol use, and sexual behavior associated with childhood abuse and neglect in a high-risk sample of low-income African American girls seeking mental health treatment. Participants (N=177) were African American girls recruited from mental health clinics serving low-income communities in Chicago, IL and followed over six waves of data collection (T1-T6) reflecting early (mean age 14) to late (mean age 17) adolescence. Child abuse and neglect history was determined from adolescent and caregiver reports. Latent curve modeling examined patterns of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, drug and alcohol use, sexual experience, and risky sexual behavior reported by girls and associations with reported child abuse and neglect. Overall, these trajectories indicated a decrease in internalizing and externalizing symptoms, stability of drug and alcohol use, and an increase in sexual experience and risky sexual behaviors over time. Child abuse and neglect was associated with increased internalizing symptoms and sexual experience at baseline and with externalizing symptoms and risky sexual behavior both at baseline and the final point. Child abuse and neglect was not significantly associated with alcohol or drug use. This study adds to the literature on the long-term consequences of child abuse and neglect by demonstrating patterns of psychopathology and risky behavior that persist over time in a high-risk group of girls with self or parent reported histories of abuse and neglect. Interventions that address externalizing problems and health risk behaviors may be of particular importance for this population.
Doherty, Elaine Eggleston; Green, Kerry M; Reisinger, Heather Schacht; Ensminger, Margaret E
Cross-sectional analyses and the little existing longitudinal analyses on substance use over the life course have been integral in providing information about the epidemiology of substance use in the United States. However, it is unclear whether these estimates provide an accurate portrayal of long-term substance use patterns among African-American men and women who have grown up in an inner city environment. The current study uses longitudinal data from a community cohort of African-American inner-city males and females followed from first grade through mid-adulthood. It identifies the substance use patterns through mid-adulthood, including lifetime prevalence, age of onset and termination, and sequencing of substance classes, as well as the risk of initiation of substance use changes over the life course using survival analysis. It also investigates whether early family structure and process play a role in drug use initiation throughout the life course, and whether the relationship between family factors and drug initiation differs by gender. Overall, among the general trends of use, we find a considerable amount of abstention with over 40% of the participants never using illegal drugs by mid-adulthood, over 70% never using cocaine, and over 90% never using heroin. With respect to onset, we find a long-term influence of early family factors on substance use, particularly for females. Family discipline in childhood and family cohesion and parental rule setting during adolescence seem to be key factors in predicting later substance use for females. The implications of these findings for future research and policy are discussed.
Stanton, B; Black, M; Feigelman, S; Ricardo, I; Galbraith, J; Li, X; Kaljee, L; Keane, V; Nesbitt, R
The creation of developmentally and culturally appropriate data-gathering instruments is necessary as health researchers and interventionists expand their investigations to community-based minority adolescent populations. The creation of such instruments is a complex process, requiring the integration of multiple data-gathering and analytic approaches. Recent efforts have delineated several issues to be considered in survey design for minority populations: community collaboration; problem conceptualization; application of the presumed model of behavioral change; and dialect and format of delivery. This paper describes the process of creating a culturally and developmentally appropriate, theoretically grounded instrument for use in monitoring the impact of an AIDS educational intervention on the behavior and health outcomes of urban African-American pre-adolescents and early adolescents. Three phases of research were involved: preliminary (and ongoing) ethnographic research including extensive participant observation, as well as, focus group and individual interviews with 65 youths; construction and testing of the preliminary instrument involving two waves of pilot testing (N1 = 57; N2 = 45); and, finalization of the instrument including reliability testing and assessment of tool constructs and selection of the mode of delivery (involving 2 additional waves of pilot testing (N3 = 91; N4 = 351). The essential role played by the community in all phases of instrument development is underscored.
Green, Kerry M; Doherty, Elaine E; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Ensminger, Margaret E
While marijuana use is common during adolescence, it can have adverse long-term consequences, with serious criminal involvement being one of them. In this study, we utilize longitudinal data from the Woodlawn Study of a community cohort of urban African Americans (N=702) to examine the effects of heavy adolescent marijuana use (20 or more times) on adult criminal involvement, including perpetration of drug, property and violent crime, as well as being arrested and incarcerated. Utilizing propensity score matching to take into account the shared risk factors between drug use and crime, regression analyses on the matched samples show that heavy adolescent marijuana use may lead to drug and property crime and criminal justice system interactions, but not violent crime. The significant associations of early heavy marijuana use with school dropout and the progression to cocaine and/or heroin use only partially account for these findings. Results suggest that the prevention of heavy marijuana use among adolescents could potentially reduce the perpetration of drug and property crime in adulthood, as well as the burden on the criminal justice system, but would have little effect on violent crime.
Lyn-Sue, Jerome; Siram, Suryanarayana; Williams, Daniel; Mezghebe, Haile
This is a retrospective review to determine demographics, presentation and injury characteristics of trauma deaths at Howard University Hospital over an 1-year period (1994-2005) and to make recommendations for education and prevention in the community based on our findings. Data was obtained from the Howard University Hospital trauma registry. From the study period 1994-2005, there was a total of 365 trauma deaths. The injuries sustained were mainly intentional, which accounted for almost 75% of cases--the majority of deaths being due to penetrating injuries. There was an almost two-fold increase in trauma deaths on Saturdays compared to the rest of the week. The demographics of our study population were similar to those reported in the trauma literature. These were younger patients and predominantly male. Unique to our population was the overwhelming predominance of African-American patients (90%). With these unique features, injury prevention would be better served focusing on social and community prevention and education rather than the usual methods of blunt-trauma prevention--e.g., pedestrian- and motor-vehicle-oriented policies, which may be more beneficial in other trauma systems. PMID:17225838
Goldmark, Peter C.
The New Rural Society project concerns itself with the deterioration of America through urban overcrowding and rural depletion. Coupled with experimentation and pilot testing, the study is designed to demonstrate that imaginative application of telecommunication will enable business and government departments to function effectively though their…
Kinser, Patricia; Masho, Saba
Purpose Perinatal health disparities are of particular concern with pregnant urban African American adolescents who have high rates of stress and depression during pregnancy, higher rates of adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes, and many barriers to effective treatment. The purpose of this study was to explore pregnant urban African American teenagers’ experience of stress and depression and examine their perceptions of adjunctive non-pharmacologic management strategies, such as yoga. Methods This community-based qualitative study utilized non-therapeutic focus groups to allow for exploration of attitudes, concerns, beliefs and values regarding stress and depression in pregnancy and non-pharmacologic management approaches, such as mind-body therapies and other prenatal activities. Findings The sample consisted of pregnant African-American low-income adolescents (n=17) who resided in a large urban area in the United States. The themes that arose in the focus group discussions were: (1) stress and depression symptoms are pervasive in daily life; (2) participants felt a generalized sense of isolation; (3) stress/depression-management techniques should be group-based, interactive, and focused on the specific needs of teenagers; (4) yoga is an appealing stress-management technique to this population. Conclusions The findings from this study suggest that pregnant urban adolescents are highly stressed, they interpret depression-like symptoms to be signs of stress, they desire group-based, interactive activities, and they are interested in yoga classes for stress/depression management and relationship-building. It is imperative that healthcare providers and researchers focus on these needs, particularly when designing prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:25648492
Phillips, Julie S.; Igumbor, Ehimario U.
The increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in both developed and developing countries is associated with musculoskeletal and other non-communicable diseases. To address this, an accurate measure of body adiposity, bearing in mind several shortcomings of body mass index (BMI), should be used. This study determined the relationship between BMI and body fat (BF)% among adult Nigerians of different ethnic groups residing in an urban setting. Using multistage cluster sampling technique were recruited 1571 subjects (>18 years; male=51.2%) in a cross-sectional study. Body adiposity indices were assessed using BMI and BF%. Using BF%, the result shows that a total number of 156 (9.9%) had low BF% while 291 (18.5%) had very high BF%, while the BMI classifications of body adiposity, 68 (4.3%) were underweight while 271 (17.3%) were obese. There was a strong and positive statistical relationship between BF% and BMI when both were paired without controlling for gender and age (r=0.81, P<0.01). The results show that there is a strong positive association between BMI and BF%, and age and sex are predictors of this association. PMID:28299149
Yamaguchi, Miwa; Steeves, Elizabeth Anderson; Shipley, Cara; Hopkins, Laura C.; Cheskin, Lawrence J.; Gittelsohn, Joel
Background To prevent obesity, it is important to assess dietary habits through self-reported energy intake (EI) in children. We investigated how EI is associated with body mass index and which elements of dietary habits and status are associated with EI among African-American (AA) children. Methods We assessed and included data from 218 10–14-year-old AA children in Baltimore, MD, USA. EI was calculated using a food frequency questionnaire. The basal metabolic rate (BMR) was used as the predicted minimal rate of energy expenditure of children. A fully adjusted multiple logistic regression was used to determine the prevalence of obesity (≥ 95th BMI-for-age percentile) among the quartiles of EI/BMR ratio using the third quartile for the reference. The differences in the age-adjusted mean EI/BMR among the categories of dietary habits, social support, and socio economic status were analyzed using a general linear model. Results Children with the lowest EI/BMR had significantly higher adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of obesity as compared to those in the third quartile of EI/BMR (boys aOR 4.3; 95% confidence interval 1.08, 20 and girls aOR 4.1; 1.02, 21). In girls, the adjusted mean EI/BMR in the group that prepared food less than the means (3.8 times/week) was significantly lower than the group that prepared food over the means (P = 0.03). Further, the group that reported eating breakfast under 4 times/week indicated an adjusted mean EI/BMR lower than the group that ate breakfast over 5 times/week in both sexes. Conclusions When EI was under-reported with reference to BMR, we may observe high prevalence of obesity. Further, food preparation by children and frequent consumption of breakfast may instill food cognition with usual dietary habits. Therefore, holistic assessments including dietary habits are required to examine self-reported food intake especially among overweight/obese children. PMID:27977776
Bradley, Bekh; Westen, Drew; Mercer, Kristina B; Binder, Elisabeth B; Jovanovic, Tanja; Crain, Daniel; Wingo, Aliza; Heim, Christine
The ability to effectively regulate emotions and a secure attachment style are critical for maintaining mental health across the life span. The experience of childhood maltreatment interferes with normal development of emotional regulation and dramatically increases risk for a wide range of psychiatric disorders in adulthood. The central nervous system oxytocin systems are critically involved in mediating social attachment and buffering psychophysiological responses to stress. We therefore investigated the impact of childhood maltreatment and an oxytocin receptor (OXTR) single nucleotide polymorphism (rs53576) and their interaction on emotional dysregulation and attachment style in adulthood in a sample of low-income, African American men and women recruited from primary care clinics of an urban, public hospital. Consistent with prior research, we found that the severity of childhood maltreatment was associated with increased levels of emotional dysregulation in adulthood. Childhood maltreatment was also positively associated with ratings of disorganized/unresolved adult attachment style and negatively associated with ratings of secure adult attachment style. There was no direct association between rs53576 and emotional dysregulation or ratings of adult attachment style. However, there were significant interactions between rs53576 and childhood maltreatment in predicting level of adult emotional dysregulation and attachment style. Specifically, G/G genotype carriers were at risk for increased emotional dysregulation when exposed to three or more categories of childhood abuse. In addition, G/G genotype carriers exhibited enhanced disorganized adult attachment style when exposed to severe childhood abuse compared to A/A and A/G carriers. Our findings suggest that A allele carriers of OXTR rs53576 are resilient against the effects of severe childhood adversity, by protection against emotional dysregulation and disorganized attachment.
Stenchly, Kathrin; Dao, Juliane; Lompo, Désiré Jean-Pascal; Buerkert, Andreas
The usage of inadequately processed industrial waste water (WW) can lead to strong soil alkalinity and soil salinization of agricultural fields with negative consequences on soil properties and biota. Gypsum as a soil amendment to saline-sodic soils is widely used in agricultural fields to improve their soil physical, chemical and hence biological properties. This study aimed at analysing the effects of intensive WW irrigation on the structure and composition of soil-dwelling arthropods on spinach fields (Spinacia oleracea L.) in a West African urban vegetable production system. We used gypsum as a soil amendment with the potential to alleviate soil chemical stress resulting in a potentially positive impact on soil arthropods. A total of 32 plots were established that showed a gradient in soil pH ranging from slight to strong soil alkalinity and that were irrigated with WW (n = 12) or clean water (CW; n = 20), including eight plots into which gypsum was incorporated. Our study revealed a high tolerance of soil-dwelling arthropods for alkaline soils, but spinach fields with increased soil electrical conductivity (EC) showed a reduced abundance of Hymenoptera, Diptera and Auchenorrhyncha. Arthropod abundance was positively related to a dense spinach cover that in turn was not affected by WW irrigation or soil properties. Gypsum application reduced soil pH but increased soil EC. WW irrigation and related soil pH affected arthropod composition in the investigated spinach fields which may lead to negative effects on agronomical important arthropod groups such as pollinators and predators.
Ntyintyane, Lucas; Panz, Vanessa; Raal, Frederick; Gill, Geoffrey
Coronary artery disease (CAD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are increasing in urban black South Africans during their transition from a rural to a western lifestyle. Insulin resistance is associated with CAD and DM. Fasting-based indices [homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA IR), log HOMA IR, and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI)] were calculated and their correlations with the glucose disposal rate (M) obtained from the hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic glucose clamp were compared in 40 patients with CAD and 20 patients without CAD. Normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and DM were categorised using the oral glucose tolerance test. M and QUICKI were lower in patients with CAD (p<0.0001 and p<0.02); HOMA IR and log HOMA IR were higher (p<0.02). M and QUICKI decreased and HOMA IR and log HOMA IR increased progressively across the NGT, IGT and DM categories in patients with and without CAD. Glucose concentrations increased across the glucose tolerance categories in patients with CAD (p<0.001) and without CAD (p<0.01). Linear regression analysis revealed significant correlations between M and log HOMA IR (r=-0.3412; p<0.02) and QUICKI (r=0.4078; p<0.003), and between waist circumference (WC) and log HOMA IR (r=0.4637) and QUICKI (r=-0.4680) both p<0.001. We concluded that patients with CAD were more insulin resistant than patients without CAD. As glucose tolerance declined, insulin resistance worsened. Log HOMA IR and QUICKI were comparable to the hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic glucose clamp and these surrogate indices provided a valid method to estimate insulin sensitivity/resistance in our patients.
Wang, Lidan; Wang, Anjue; Zhou, Detong; FitzGerald, Gerry; Ye, Dongqing; Jiang, Qicheng
Objective The paper examines whether out-of-pocket health care expenditure also has regional discrepancies, comparing to the equity between urban and rural areas, and across households. Method Sampled data were derived from Urban Household Survey and Rural Household Survey data for 2011/2012 for Anhui Province, and 11049 households were included in this study. The study compared differences in out-of-pocket expenditure on health care between regions (urban vs. rural areas) and years (2011 vs. 2012) using two-sample t-test, and also investigated the degree of inequality using Lorenz and concentration curves. Result Approximately 5% and 8% of total household consumption expenditure was spent on health care for urban and rural populations, respectively. In 2012, the wealthiest 20% of urban and rural population contributed 49.7% and 55.8% of urban and rural total health expenditure respectively, while the poorest 20% took only 4.7% and 4.4%. The concentration curve for out-of-pocket expenditure in 2012 fell below the corresponding concentration curve for 2011 for both urban and rural areas, and the difference between curves for rural areas was greater than that for urban areas. Conclusion A substantial and increasing gap in health care expenditures existed between urban and rural areas in Anhui. The health care financing inequality merits ample attention, with need for policymaking to focus on improving the accessibility to essential health care services, particularly for rural and poor residents. This study may provide useful information on low income areas of China. PMID:27223811
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Staples, Jeanine M.
In this article, and from the standpoint of an African American woman teacher/researcher, the author explores what happened when one African American adolescent boy known inside of school as a "severely disengaged" student cultivated literacy practices and events of his own volition in an after-school program. The author asks, how does race and…
The purpose of this study is twofold. First, this research seeks to illuminate best practices of teachers who advance learning and achievement of African American students. Second, this study seeks to provide educators and administrators strategies they might utilize to increase the achievement of their African-American students in order to…
Murphy, Robert L.
African American males consistently perform at significantly lower academic levels, than their peers, at every age level and on almost every national assessment (Lewis, Simon, Uzzell, Horwitz, & Casserly, 2010; Harvey, 2010; Tsoi-A-Fatt, 2010; Fergus & Noguera, 2010), and of all racial/ethnic and gender groups, African American males…
Geronimus, Arline T; Colen, Cynthia G; Shochet, Tara; Ingber, Lori Barer; James, Sherman A
Black youth residing in high-poverty areas have dramatically lower probabilities of surviving to age 65 if they are urban than if they are rural. Chronic disease deaths contribute heavily. We begin to probe the reasons using the Harlem Household Survey (HHS) and the Pitt County, North Carolina Study of African American Health (PCS). We compare HHS and PCS respondents on chronic disease rates, health behaviors, social support, employment, indicators of health care access, and health insurance. Chronic disease profiles do not favor Pitt County. Smoking uptake is similar across samples, but PCS respondents are more likely to quit. Indicators of access to health care and private health insurance are more favorable in Pitt County. Findings suggest rural mortality is averted through secondary or tertiary prevention, not primary. Macroeconomic and health system changes of the past 20 years may have left poor urban Blacks as medically underserved as poor rural Blacks.
Background The involvement of particulate matter (PM) in cardiorespiratory diseases is now established in developed countries whereas in developing areas such as Africa with a high level of specific pollution, PM pollution and its effects are poorly studied. Our objective was to characterize the biological reactivity of urban African aerosols on human bronchial epithelial cells in relation to PM physico-chemical properties to identify toxic sources. Methods Size-speciated aerosol chemical composition was analyzed in Bamako (BK, Mali, 2 samples with one having desert dust event BK1) and Dakar (DK; Senegal) for Ultrafine UF, Fine F and Coarse C PM. PM reactivity was studied in human bronchial epithelial cells investigating six biomarkers (oxidative stress responsive genes and pro-inflammatory cytokines). Results PM mass concentrations were mainly distributed in coarse mode (60%) and were impressive in BK1 due to the desert dust event. BK2 and DK samples showed a high content of total carbon characteristic of urban areas. The DK sample had huge PAH quantities in bulk aerosol compared with BK that had more water soluble organic carbon and metals. Whatever the site, UF and F PM triggered the mRNA expression of the different biomarkers whereas coarse PM had little or no effect. The GM-CSF biomarker was the most discriminating and showed the strongest pro-inflammatory effect of BK2 PM. The analysis of gene expression signature and of their correlation with main PM compounds revealed that PM-induced responses are mainly related to organic compounds. The toxicity of African aerosols is carried by the finest PM as with Parisian aerosols, but when considering PM mass concentrations, the African population is more highly exposed to toxic particulate pollution than French population. Regarding the prevailing sources in each site, aerosol biological impacts are higher for incomplete combustion sources resulting from two-wheel vehicles and domestic fires than from diesel
Framingham Public Schools, MA.
GRADE OR AGES: Junior high school. SUBJECT MATTER: The black man in American society. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: There are four major parts each with an overview. The four parts concern a) the African heritage of the black man, b) the American exploitation of the black man, c) the black man's contribution to American society, d) the…
Carl Sagan, Bruce Murray and Louis Friedman founded the non-profit Planetary Society in 1979 to advance the exploration of the solar system and to continue the search for extraterrestrial life. The Society has its headquarters in Pasadena, California, but is international in scope, with 100 000 members worldwide, making it the largest space interest group in the world. The Society funds a var...
Data were collected in five countries (The Gambia, Ghana, Mauritius, Nigeria, Sierra Leone) between 1976 and 1981 from secondary students to examine five variables affecting occupational aspirations: sex, culture, religion, socioeconomic status, and environment and opportunities of the school. School quality and sex affected attitudes most. (LC)
Foster, Claudia C.
Abolitionists in the late 18th and early 19th centuries contended that even though blacks had been debased under American slavery, they could and must be prepared through education programs to function as Christians and American Citizens. As a result of this education, the new Afro-American would merit and gain white America's respect and…
Hird, Thomas R.; Pirie, Fraser J.; Esterhuizen, Tonya M.; O’Leary, Brian; McCarthy, Mark I.; Young, Elizabeth H.; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Motala, Ayesha A.
Objective Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) is recommended as an additional tool to glucose-based measures (fasting plasma glucose [FPG] and 2-hour plasma glucose [2PG] during oral glucose tolerance test [OGTT]) for the diagnosis of diabetes; however, its use in sub-Saharan African populations is not established. We assessed prevalence estimates and the diagnosis and detection of diabetes based on OGTT, FPG, and HbA1c in an urban black South African population. Research Design and Methods We conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey using multistage cluster sampling of adults aged ≥18 years in Durban (eThekwini municipality), KwaZulu-Natal. All participants had a 75-g OGTT and HbA1c measurements. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to assess the overall diagnostic accuracy of HbA1c, using OGTT as the reference, and to determine optimal HbA1c cut-offs. Results Among 1190 participants (851 women, 92.6% response rate), the age-standardised prevalence of diabetes was 12.9% based on OGTT, 11.9% based on FPG, and 13.1% based on HbA1c. In participants without a previous history of diabetes (n = 1077), using OGTT as the reference, an HbA1c ≥48 mmol/mol (6.5%) detected diabetes with 70.3% sensitivity (95%CI 52.7–87.8) and 98.7% specificity (95%CI 97.9–99.4) (AUC 0.94 [95%CI 0.89–1.00]). Additional analyses suggested the optimal HbA1c cut-off for detection of diabetes in this population was 42 mmol/mol (6.0%) (sensitivity 89.2% [95%CI 78.6–99.8], specificity 92.0% [95%CI: 90.3–93.7]). Conclusions In an urban black South African population, we found a high prevalence of diabetes and provide the first evidence for the utility of HbA1c for the diagnosis and detection of diabetes in black Africans in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:27560687
Martiniano, Rui; Coelho, Catarina; Ferreira, Maria Teresa; Neves, Maria João; Pinhasi, Ron; Bradley, Daniel G.
An archaeological excavation in Valle da Gafaria (Lagos, Portugal), revealed two contiguous burial places outside the medieval city walls, dating from the 15th–17th centuries AD: one was interpreted as a Leprosarium cemetery and the second as an urban discard deposit, where signs of violent, unceremonious burials suggested that these remains may belong to slaves captured in Africa by the Portuguese. We obtained random short autosomal sequence reads from seven individuals: two from the latter site and five from the Leprosarium and used these to call SNP identities and estimate ancestral affinities with modern reference data. The Leprosarium site samples were less preserved but gave some probability of both African and European ancestry. The two discard deposit burials each gave African affinity signals, which were further refined toward modern West African or Bantu genotyped samples. These data from distressed burials illustrate an African contribution to a low status stratum of Lagos society at a time when this port became a hub of the European trade in African slaves which formed a precursor to the transatlantic transfer of millions. PMID:25104065
Martiniano, Rui; Coelho, Catarina; Ferreira, Maria Teresa; Neves, Maria João; Pinhasi, Ron; Bradley, Daniel G
An archaeological excavation in Valle da Gafaria (Lagos, Portugal), revealed two contiguous burial places outside the medieval city walls, dating from the 15(th)-17(th) centuries AD: one was interpreted as a Leprosarium cemetery and the second as an urban discard deposit, where signs of violent, unceremonious burials suggested that these remains may belong to slaves captured in Africa by the Portuguese. We obtained random short autosomal sequence reads from seven individuals: two from the latter site and five from the Leprosarium and used these to call SNP identities and estimate ancestral affinities with modern reference data. The Leprosarium site samples were less preserved but gave some probability of both African and European ancestry. The two discard deposit burials each gave African affinity signals, which were further refined toward modern West African or Bantu genotyped samples. These data from distressed burials illustrate an African contribution to a low status stratum of Lagos society at a time when this port became a hub of the European trade in African slaves which formed a precursor to the transatlantic transfer of millions.
The notion of "ubuntu" and "communalism" is of great importance in an African educational discourse, as well as in African Philosophy of Education and in African philosophical discourse. "Ubuntu" is a philosophy that promotes the common good of society and includes humanness as an essential element of human growth. In…
Carter, Norvella P.; Hawkins, Torrance N.; Natesan, Prathiba
Since its inception, the United States has struggled with its responsibility for educating African American students. Its history of denial and discrimination in the education of Black children has created a national crisis in which academic difficulty and school failure is disproportionately high. In an effort to improve the education of African…
Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Juarez, Lucia
Investigated gender-specific contextual and individual socioeconomic predictors of the timing of first intercourse among low-achieving African American high school students, following financial deprivation and collective socialization theories. Data from 3 years of surveys indicated that males and females were affected differently by social…
Parson, Gail C.; Kritsonis, William Allan
The purpose of this article is to assess six habits of academic achievement by African American male students from households of poverty whom been successful in completing a 5-A high school program of study. Despite the wealth of research that indicates a great disparity among racial and gender groups with regard to standardized assessment,…
Purpose: Black history as represented in social studies textbooks often lacks depth demanded by historians and authenticity required for cultural relevance to African American students. However, important Black historical narratives sometimes contain difficult prose and refer to times or circumstances that are far removed from students' life…
Holt, Cheryl L.; Schulz, Emily; Wynn, Theresa A.
Extensive literature reviews suggest that religiousness is positively associated with health. Much less understood is the particular nature of the religion-health connection. Religion and the church play a central role in the lives of many African Americans. This study used a mixed-methods approach to examine perceptions of the religion-health…
Milan, Stephanie; Ethier, Kathleen; Lewis, Jessica; Kershaw, Trace; Niccolai, Linda; Ickovics, Jeannette
Although ethnic and racial disparities exist in adolescent reproductive health, few studies have examined differences between members of different minority groups. This paper describes differences in measures of reproductive health behaviors, cognitions and social context between African-American (n=170) and Puerto Rican (n=150) adolescent females…
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between five factors: teacher efficacy, teacher beliefs, cultural responsive classroom management, cultural awareness, and cultural sensitivity among African American, European American and Hispanic American elementary school teachers. The five factors were part of eight factors originating…
Toms, Ozalle Marie
According to Planty et al. (2009) in 2006, nearly 3.3 million students in the United States received out of school suspensions, demonstrating that exclusionary discipline is on the rise and a frequently used practice in schools across the country. Research shows that African Americans are suspended at higher rates and are more likely to receive…
Kinyanda, Eugene; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Musisi, Seggane
Psychological factors associated with deliberate self-harm (DSH) as seen in an African population in Uganda are described. A case-control study design was employed in which a Luganda version (predominant language in the study area) of the modified European Parasuicide Interview Schedule I (EPSIS I) was used to collect data. The controls were…
Cwick, Jaclyn M.; Green, Kerry M.; Ensminger, Margaret E.
The life course perspective has traditionally examined prevalent adult life events, such as marriage and employment, and their potential to redirect offending trajectories. However, for African Americans, the life events of arrest and incarceration are becoming equally prevalent in young adulthood. Therefore, it is critical to understand how these “standard” criminal justice practices, which are designed to deter as well as punish, affect deviance among this population. This study evaluates the long-term consequences of criminal justice intervention on substance use and offending into midlife among an African American community cohort using propensity score matching and multivariate regression analyses. The results largely point to a criminogenic effect of criminal justice intervention on midlife deviance with a particularly strong effect of young adult arrest on rates of violent and property arrest counts into midlife. The theoretical and policy implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:27616814
African nations have been experiencing rapid rates of urbanization accompanied by serious problems of urban unemployment due to the rate of rural-urban migration and the lack of an adequate understanding of the migration process for economic policy formulation. The aim of this paper was to review the present knowledge of African rural-urban…
George, Jaya A; Norris, Shane A; van Deventer, Hendrick E; Pettifor, John M; Crowther, Nigel J
Vitamin D deficiency has been implicated in the aetiology of infectious diseases and metabolic syndrome. These diseases are prevalent in the African and Asian-Indian populations of South Africa; however, there is limited data on 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations in these populations. The aim of the present study was to assess the vitamin D status and its predictors in healthy adults in Johannesburg. We assessed the vitamin D status of 730 adult African and Asian-Indian subjects residing in Johannesburg. The contributions of sun exposure, season, dietary intake of Ca and vitamin D, total body fat and body fat distribution to 25(OH)D concentrations were assessed. The concentrations of 25(OH)D were measured by HPLC. The contribution of 25(OH)D₃ to total 25(OH)D concentrations was assessed. The mean age of the subjects was 42·6 (SD 13·1) years (range: 18-65). Concentrations of 25(OH)D < 30 nmol/l were found in 28·6 % of the Asian-Indian subjects in comparison with 5·1 % of the African subjects (P< 0·0001). Parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations were negatively associated with 25(OH)D concentrations, while season and sun exposure were positive predictors explaining 16 % of the variance in 25(OH)D concentrations (P< 0·0001) in the African subjects. In the Asian-Indian subjects, PTH concentrations were negatively associated with 25(OH)D concentrations, while male sex, season and Ca supplementation were positive predictors and explained 17 % of the variance in 25(OH)D concentrations (P< 0·0001). In the multivariate regression analysis, neither total body fat nor body fat distribution was predictive of 25(OH)D concentrations in either group. In conclusion, factors such as sun exposure, dietary supplement use and ethnicity are important determinants of plasma 25(OH)D concentrations.
Ghafoor, Asma; Jemal, Ahmedin; Cokkinides, Vilma; Cardinez, Cheryll; Murray, Taylor; Samuels, Alicia; Thun, Michael J
The American Cancer Society provides estimates on the number of new cancer cases and deaths, and compiles health statistics on African Americans in a biennial publication, Cancer Facts and Figures for African Americans. The compiled statistics include cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and lifestyle behaviors using the most recent data on incidence and survival from the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program, mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), and behavioral information from the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), and National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). It is estimated that 132,700 new cases of cancer and 63,100 deaths will occur among African Americans in the year 2003. Although African Americans have experienced higher incidence and mortality rates of cancer than whites for many years, incidence rates have declined by 2.7 percent per year in African-American males since 1992, while stabilizing in African-American females. During the same period, death rates declined by 2.1 percent and 0.4 percent per year among African-American males and females, respectively. The decrease in both incidence and death rates from cancer among African-American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. Nonetheless, African Americans still carry the highest cancer burden among US racial and ethnic groups. Most cancers detectable by screening are diagnosed at a later stage and survival rates are lower within each stage of disease in African Americans than in whites. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors is an active area of research.
Hines, Robert B.; Markossian, Talar W.
Purpose: Disparities in health outcomes due to a diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) have been reported for a number of demographic groups. This study was conducted to examine the outcomes of late-stage diagnosis, treatment, and cancer-related death according to race and geographic residency status (rural vs urban). Methods: This study utilized…
Sesep, N'Sial Bal-Nsien
A study explored, from a sociolinguistic perspective, the phenomenon of indoubill, patterns and usage of a special variety of Lingala, among a group of delinquent urban youth in Kinshasa (Zaire). It is proposed that: (1) at a particular moment in its social history, the community experienced sociocultural change that brought with it a special…
Berndt, Harry Edward
The activities of the Community Development Corporation (CDC), founded in 1967 to alleviate urban poverty in the United States, are analyzed in this book. The overall strategies used by the CDC, including the acquisition of existing businesses, development of new businesses, investments in physical assets of the community, assistance through loans…
Wright, Christopher G.
This research examines the intellectual and linguistic resources that a group of African American boys brought to the study of the science of sound and the practice of representation. By taking a resource-rich view of the boys' linguistic and representational practices, my objective is to investigate children's abilities in producing, using, critiquing, and modifying representations. Specifically, this research looks to explore and identify the varieties of resources that African American boys utilize in developing scientific understanding. Using transcripts from group sessions, as well as the drawings produced during these sessions, I utilized a combination of discourse analysis to explore the boys' linguistic interactions during the critique of drawings with a focus on the boys' manipulation of line segments in order to explore their representational competencies. Analysis of the transcripts and the boys' drawings revealed several important findings. First, elements of Signifying were instrumental in the group's collective exploration of each other's drawings, and the ideas of sound transmission being represented in the drawings. Thus, I found that the boys' use of Signifying was key to their engagement win the practice of critique. Second, the boys' ideas regarding sound transmission were not fixed, stable misconceptions that could be "fixed" through instruction. Instead, I believe that their explanations and drawings were generated from a web of ideas regarding sound transmission. Lastly, the boys exhibited a form of meta-representational competency that included the production, modification, and manipulation of notations used to represent sound transmission. Despite this competency, the negotiation process necessary in constructing meaning of a drawing highlighted the complexities in developing a conventional understanding or meaning for representations. Additional research is necessary for exploring the intellectual and lingustic resources that children from
One of the hottest literary phenomena of recent years has been the explosion of what has been variously termed hip-hop, street, or urban fiction. Especially popular with younger African Americans, books in this genre are reaching an increasingly broad readership through ties to hip-hop music and culture. These crime stories generally revolve…
Mason, Marc A; Kuczmarski, Marie Fanelli; Allegro, Deanne; Zonderman, Alan B; Evans, Michele K
Objective Analysing dietary data to capture how individuals typically consume foods is dependent on the coding variables used. Individual foods consumed simultaneously, like coffee with milk, are given codes to identify these combinations. Our literature review revealed a lack of discussion about using combination codes in analysis. The present study identified foods consumed at mealtimes and by race when combination codes were or were not utilized. Design Duplicate analysis methods were performed on separate data sets. The original data set consisted of all foods reported; each food was coded as if it was consumed individually. The revised data set was derived from the original data set by first isolating coded foods consumed as individual items from those foods consumed simultaneously and assigning a code to designate a combination. Foods assigned a combination code, like pancakes with syrup, were aggregated and associated with a food group, defined by the major food component (i.e. pancakes), and then appended to the isolated coded foods. Setting Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study. Subjects African-American and White adults with two dietary recalls (n 2177). Results Differences existed in lists of foods most frequently consumed by mealtime and race when comparing results based on original and revised data sets. African Americans reported consumption of sausage/luncheon meat and poultry, while ready-to-eat cereals and cakes/doughnuts/pastries were reported by Whites on recalls. Conclusions Use of combination codes provided more accurate representation of how foods were consumed by populations. This information is beneficial when creating interventions and exploring diet–health relationships. PMID:25435191
Di Ruocco, Angela; Weets, Guy; Gasparini, Paolo; Jørgensen, Gertrud; Lindley, Sarah; Pauleit, Stephan; Vahed, Anwar; Schiano, Pasquale; Kabisch, Sigrun; Vedeld, Trond; Coly, Adrien; Tonye, Emmanuel; Touré, Hamidou; Kombe, Wilbard; Yeshitela, Kumelachew
CLUVA (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa; http://www.cluva.eu/) is a 3 years project, funded by the European Commission in 2010. Its main objective is the estimate of the impacts of climate changes in the next 40 years at urban scale in Africa. The mission of CLUVA is to develop methods and knowledge to assess risks cascading from climate-changes. It downscales IPCC climate projections to evaluate threats to selected African test cities; mainly floods, sea-level rise, droughts, heat waves and desertification. The project evaluates and links: social vulnerability; vulnerability of in-town ecosystems and urban-rural interfaces; vulnerability of urban built environment and lifelines; and related institutional and governance dimensions of adaptation. A multi-scale and multi-disciplinary quantitative, probabilistic, modelling is applied. CLUVA brings together climate experts, risk management experts, urban planners and social scientists with their African counterparts in an integrated research effort focusing on the improvement of the capacity of scientific institutions, local councils and civil society to cope with climate change. The CLUVA approach was set-up in the first year of the project and developed as follows: an ensemble of eight global projections of climate changes is produced for east and west Africa until 2050 considering the new IPCC (International Panel on Climate Changes; http://www.ipcc.ch/) scenarios. These are then downscaled to urban level, where territorial modeling is required to compute hazard effects on the vulnerable physical system (urban ecosystems, informal settlements, lifelines such as transportation and sewer networks) as well as on the social context, in defined time frames, and risk analysis is then employed to assess expected consequences. An investigation of the existing urban planning and governance systems and its interface with climate risks is performed. With the aid of the African partners, the developed approach
L'Esperance, V S; Ekong, T; Cox, S E; Makani, J; Newton, C R; Soka, D; Komba, A; Kirkham, F J; Hill, C M
Low haemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2) predicts complications in children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) in the North but there are few data from Africa, where the majority of the patients reside. We measured daytime and overnight SpO2 in children with SCA in routine follow-up clinic, and controls without symptoms of SCA, comparing rural (Kilifi, Kenya) and urban (Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania) cohorts. Daytime SpO2 was lower in 65 Tanzanian children with SCA (TS; median 97 (IQR 94-100)%); p<0.0001) than in 113 Kenyan children with SCA (KS; 99 (98-100)%) and 20 Tanzanian controls (TC; 100 (98-100)%). Compared with 95 Kenyan children with SCA, in 54 Tanzanian children with SCA and 19 TC who returned for overnight oximetry, mean (KS 99.0 (96.7-99.8)%; TS 97.9 (95.4-99.3)%; TC 98.4 (97.5-99.1)%; p=0.01) and minimum nocturnal SpO2 (92 (86-95)%; 87 (78.5-91)%; 90 (83.5-93)% p=0.0001) were lower. The difference between children with SCA persisted after adjustment for haemoglobin (p=0.004). Urban Tanzanian children, with and without SCA, experience greater exposure to low daytime and night-time SpO2 compared with rural Kenyan children with SCA. Possible explanations include differences in the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea or asthma, alterations in the oxyhaemoglobin desaturation curve or cardiovascular compromise, for example, to shunting at atrial or pulmonary level secondary to increased pulmonary artery pressure. The fact that non-SCA siblings in the urban area are also affected suggests that environmental exposures, for example, air pollution, nutrition or physical exercise, may play a role. Further studies should determine aetiology and clinical relevance for the SCA phenotype in children resident in Africa.
L'Esperance, VS; Ekong, T; Cox, SE; Newton, CR; Komba, A; Hill, CM
Low haemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2) predicts complications in children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) in the North but there are few data from Africa, where the majority of the patients reside. We measured daytime and overnight SpO2 in children with SCA in routine follow-up clinic, and controls without symptoms of SCA, comparing rural (Kilifi, Kenya) and urban (Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania) cohorts. Daytime SpO2 was lower in 65 Tanzanian children with SCA (TS; median 97 (IQR 94–100)%); p<0.0001) than in 113 Kenyan children with SCA (KS; 99 (98–100)%) and 20 Tanzanian controls (TC; 100 (98–100)%). Compared with 95 Kenyan children with SCA, in 54 Tanzanian children with SCA and 19 TC who returned for overnight oximetry, mean (KS 99.0 (96.7–99.8)%; TS 97.9 (95.4–99.3)%; TC 98.4 (97.5–99.1)%; p=0.01) and minimum nocturnal SpO2 (92 (86–95)%; 87 (78.5–91)%; 90 (83.5–93)% p=0.0001) were lower. The difference between children with SCA persisted after adjustment for haemoglobin (p=0.004). Urban Tanzanian children, with and without SCA, experience greater exposure to low daytime and night-time SpO2 compared with rural Kenyan children with SCA. Possible explanations include differences in the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea or asthma, alterations in the oxyhaemoglobin desaturation curve or cardiovascular compromise, for example, to shunting at atrial or pulmonary level secondary to increased pulmonary artery pressure. The fact that non-SCA siblings in the urban area are also affected suggests that environmental exposures, for example, air pollution, nutrition or physical exercise, may play a role. Further studies should determine aetiology and clinical relevance for the SCA phenotype in children resident in Africa. PMID:26699539
Parker, K A; Koumans, E H; Hawkins, R V; Massanga, M; Somse, P; Barker, K; Moran, J
This study examines the feasibility of providing comprehensive, low-cost sexually transmitted disease (STD) services through the existing primary care infrastructure in two semi-urban health centers in the Central African Republic. The results showed that out of the 9552 visits made by index patients and partners over a 28-month period, 60% were made by women. Among these women, 90% were symptomatic, 77% had vaginal discharge, 70% had lower abdominal pain, and 7% had genital ulcer. In addition, 44% of men, as compared to 18% of women, had looked for treatment elsewhere prior to the clinic visit. The average cost per STD treated with the recommended drugs was $3.90. Furthermore, condom use was low in both areas and etiologic data suggest that a large proportion of patients was infected with an STD. The findings suggest that a comprehensive and affordable model for STD control can be implemented in primary care systems to prevent the spread of STDs in Africa.
African-American Inst., New York, NY. School Services Div.
Four modules dealing with African culture are combined in this document. The first module discusses various life-styles of African women, including warrior, queen, ruler, and matriarch. A lesson plan uses a question-and-answer format to encourage discussion of the effects of tradition, society, and nation upon African women. Questions asked…
Bergdall, Anna R; Kraft, Joan Marie; Andes, Karen; Carter, Marion; Hatfield-Timajchy, Kendra; Hock-Long, Linda
Communication technology is a central feature of young people's lives, but its role in romantic and sexual relationships has not been thoroughly examined. This article describes how young adults use communication technology for partnering across relationship stages (formation, maintenance, and dissolution) and types (serious/casual), and proposes implications of usage in relationships. This study analyzed qualitative data from a five-week, prospective, coital diary method with related debriefing interviews (N = 70) of African American and Puerto Rican men and women aged 18 to 25 years in Hartford and Philadelphia. Cell phones, including calls, text messaging, and mobile Internet, were the most common forms of communication technology used for partnering goals. Participants reported using cell phones to pursue partnering goals across all relationship stages, including formation (meeting, screening, and getting to know new partners), maintaining existing relationships, and breaking up. Cell phone uses depended on the type of relationship (serious/casual) and the participants' intentions and desires. Results indicated that cell phones are an important element of communication among young adults in romantic and sexual relationships. Specific features of cell phone communication shape the process and context of partnering. Future research should explore emerging communication technologies and implications for psychosocial development, dating violence, and sexual behavior.
Conway, Francine; Magai, Carol; Jones, Samuel; Fiori, Katherine; Gillespie, Michael
This study explores dynamic changes in network size and composition by examining patterns of older adults' social network change over time, that is: types of movements; the reason for the loss of network members; and the relation of movement and composition in concert. This study is a 6-year follow up of changes in the social networks of U.S.-Born Caucasian, African-American, and Caribbean older adults. One hundred and twenty-four community-dwelling older adults were interviewed during 2 data collection points over a 6-year period. Differences between Wave 1 and Wave 2 data were examined using paired sample t-tests confirmed with post-hoc tests and multivariate analyses. Results regarding types of movement showed that network changes were attributed to attrition--the "loss" of network members and a novel movement--the "addition" of network members not heretofore discussed. The results show an interaction between kinship status, ethnicity, and time--the attrition of non-kin members was underscored by ethnic differences. The type of network change was specific for type of network affiliation, such that children were more likely to be added to the networks of the young-old and kin were more likely to be lost in networks of the old-old. Older adults engage in social network interactions marked by compensatory processes beyond loss of network members such as social promotion and demotion. These social network processes are of emotional and functional significance for the older adult.
Coetzee, Vinet; Faerber, Stella J; Greeff, Jaco M; Lefevre, Carmen E; Re, Daniel E; Perrett, David I
Little is known about mate choice preferences outside Western, educated, industrialised, rich and democratic societies, even though these Western populations may be particularly unrepresentative of human populations. To our knowledge, this is the first study to test which facial cues contribute to African perceptions of African female attractiveness and also the first study to test the combined role of facial adiposity, skin colour (lightness, yellowness and redness), skin homogeneity and youthfulness in the facial attractiveness preferences of any population. Results show that youthfulness, skin colour, skin homogeneity and facial adiposity significantly and independently predict attractiveness in female African faces. Younger, thinner women with a lighter, yellower skin colour and a more homogenous skin tone are considered more attractive. These findings provide a more global perspective on human mate choice and point to a universal role for these four facial cues in female facial attractiveness.
Jones, Philip H.
Domestic and industrial wastes are treated for two distinct purposes: (1) separation of water from the putrescible organic material, dissolved and particulates; (2) disinfection of the water to prevent the transmission of water-borne pathogens. Currently, in North America, disinfection is accomplished by the addition of a powerful oxidizing chemical such as chlorine or a related compound. Separation of solids from liquid is achieved by flocculation followed by sedimentation. Flocculation may be biologically or chemically induced, the former being more economical where practical. Methods of bioflocculation described include the following processes: (1) activated sludge, (2) contact stabilization, (3) tapered aeration, (4) step aeration, (5) total oxidation, and (6) trickling filter. Non-mechanical processes of sewage treatment are economically and technically sound in many rural and semi-rural applications. The oxidation pond ((lagoon) is not mechanical, but this consideration must not lead rural municipalities to a program of neglect. All plants treating human wastes should provide a disinfection process at the effluent. PMID:14308906
Ukpokodu, Omiunota N.
This qualitative study examined the question: How do African-born teachers in U.S. urban schools conceptualize the "teacher" and his/her role and characteristics in an African school context? The data resulted in the conceptualization of the teacher as "the community teacher" who is intimately invested and integrated into the community,…
Clardy, Pauline; Cole-Robinson, Cynthia; Jones, Terrence O'C.; Michie, Gregory
In studying urban schools, researchers have identified several critical curriculum issues related to the miseducation and alienation of African American students. This paper looks at three such issues: the disconnection between the school curriculum and African American students' cultural backgrounds and environments (e.g., black dialect versus…
Kusimo, Patricia S.
This paper examines the interests, perceptions, and participation of 16 African American girls in a program designed to improve girls' persistence in science, mathematics, and technology (SMT). The girls are among 33 African American and 73 total original participants in "Rural and Urban Images: Voices of Girls in Science, Mathematics, and…
Griffith, Derek M.; Allen, Julie Ober; Gunter, Katie
Objective: To examine the factors that influenced African American men's medical help seeking. Method: Thematic analysis of 14 focus groups with 105 older, urban African American men. Results: African American men described normative expectations that they did not go to the doctor and that they were afraid to go, with little explanation. When they…
Coussens, Anna K.; Naude, Celeste E.; Goliath, Rene; Chaplin, George; Wilkinson, Robert J.; Jablonski, Nina G.
Cape Town, South Africa, has a seasonal pattern of UVB radiation and a predominantly dark-skinned urban population who suffer high HIV-1 prevalence. This coexistent environmental and phenotypic scenario puts residents at risk for vitamin D deficiency, which may potentiate HIV-1 disease progression. We conducted a longitudinal study in two ethnically distinct groups of healthy young adults in Cape Town, supplemented with vitamin D3 in winter, to determine whether vitamin D status modifies the response to HIV-1 infection and to identify the major determinants of vitamin D status (UVB exposure, diet, pigmentation, and genetics). Vitamin D deficiency was observed in the majority of subjects in winter and in a proportion of individuals in summer, was highly correlated with UVB exposure, and was associated with greater HIV-1 replication in peripheral blood cells. High-dosage oral vitamin D3 supplementation attenuated HIV-1 replication, increased circulating leukocytes, and reversed winter-associated anemia. Vitamin D3 therefore presents as a low-cost supplementation to improve HIV-associated immunity.
Coussens, Anna K.; Naude, Celeste E.; Goliath, Rene; Chaplin, George; Wilkinson, Robert J.; Jablonski, Nina G.
Cape Town, South Africa, has a seasonal pattern of UVB radiation and a predominantly dark-skinned urban population who suffer high HIV-1 prevalence. This coexistent environmental and phenotypic scenario puts residents at risk for vitamin D deficiency, which may potentiate HIV-1 disease progression. We conducted a longitudinal study in two ethnically distinct groups of healthy young adults in Cape Town, supplemented with vitamin D3 in winter, to determine whether vitamin D status modifies the response to HIV-1 infection and to identify the major determinants of vitamin D status (UVB exposure, diet, pigmentation, and genetics). Vitamin D deficiency was observed in the majority of subjects in winter and in a proportion of individuals in summer, was highly correlated with UVB exposure, and was associated with greater HIV-1 replication in peripheral blood cells. High-dosage oral vitamin D3 supplementation attenuated HIV-1 replication, increased circulating leukocytes, and reversed winter-associated anemia. Vitamin D3 therefore presents as a low-cost supplementation to improve HIV-associated immunity. PMID:26080414
No single traditional discipline can adequately supply answers to the many unresolved questions in African art history. Because of the aesthetic, cultural, historical, and, not infrequently, political biases, already built into the conception and development of Western art history, the discipline of art history as defined and practiced in the West…
Garrard, David J.
The diversity of African Pentecostalism, its early colonial and missionary history and its current characteristics are described and analysed. Reference is made to methods of training and forms of leadership, and suggestions are made about the reasons for its growth and persistence. (Contains 19 notes.)
Rivers, Celeste A.
For many decades, society has struggled with academic underachievement, particularly among African American males. Although a myriad of studies have identified significant causal factors of African American academic underachievement from the perspectives and circumstances of the student, limited studies focus on this problem from the perspective…
Marbley, Aretha Faye; Rouson, Leon
For the African-American family, life ain't been no crystal stair. The African-American family has trotted for over 400 years through a wilderness of racism, poverty, discrimination of all kinds, crossing seas of monsters and forests of demons. Yet, despite the numerous obstacles and attacks that society has mounted against it since slavery, the…
This essay explores the growth of boxing among the African populations on the Witwatersrand region of South Africa between 1924 and 1959. It details how the sport's jump in popularity with Africans paralleled migration to Johannesburg. Africans increasingly saw boxing as an activity and skill conducive with survival in this new environment, and thus the sport grew in popularity, stature, and skill-level amongst this emergent urban population. The essay further explores the various ways that the sport was disseminated and popularized during the era, thus detailing how the sport reached both the African masses and petit-bourgeois educated elite. As their presence in Johannesburg became more and more permanent, boxing came to encompass various meanings and ideals, such as notions of discipline, independence and civility, to these urban populations.
Oelofse, A; Van Raaij, J M A; Benade, A J S; Dhansay, M A; Tolboom, J J M; Hautvast, J G A J
The study was conducted to look at the effectiveness of a multimicronutrient-fortified complementary food on the micronutrient status, linear growth and psychomotor development of 6- to 12-month-old infants from a black urban disadvantaged community in the Western Cape, South Africa. The study was designed as an intervention study. In both the experimental and control groups, serum retinol concentration showed a decline over the intervention period of 6 months. The decline was less pronounced in the experimental group. This resulted in a significantly (P<005) higher serum retinol concentration at 12 months in the experimental group (26.8+/-5.8 microg/dl) compared with the control group (21.4+/-5 microg/dl). Serum iron concentration also declined over the intervention period. The decline was less pronounced in the experimental group. No difference was observed in haemoglobin levels between the groups at 12 months. Serum zinc concentration did not differ significantly between the two groups at follow up. Weight gain over the 6 months period did not differ significantly between the experimental (2.1+/-0.9 kg) and control groups (2.1+/-1.2 kg). There was no difference in linear growth between the experimental (10.0+/-1.5 cm) and control group (10.1+/-2.1 cm) at the end of the follow-up period. Weight and length at 6 months significantly predicted weight and length at 12 months. No difference was observed in psychomotor developmental scores between the two groups after 6 months of intervention. Introducing a multimicronutrient-fortified complementary food into the diet of 6- to 12-month-old infants seemed to have an arresting effect on declining serum retinol and iron concentration in the experimental group. No benefit was observed in serum zinc concentration, linear growth and psychomotor development.
Mogensen, Søren Wengel; Aaby, Peter; Smedman, Lars; Martins, Cesário L; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Benn, Christine S; Ravn, Henrik
Objective To examine the effect of the first introduction of measles vaccine (MV) in Guinea-Bissau in 1979. Setting Urban community study of the anthropometric status of all children under 6 years of age. Participants The study cohort included 1451 children in December 1978; 82% took part in the anthropometric survey. The cohort was followed for 2 years. Intervention In December 1979, the children were re-examined anthropometrically. The participating children, aged 6 months to 6 years, were offered MV if they did not have a history of measles infection. There were no routine vaccinations in 1979–1980. Primary and secondary outcome measures Age-adjusted mortality rate ratios (MRRs) for measles vaccinated and not vaccinated children; changes in nutritional status. Results The nutritional status deteriorated significantly from 1978 to 1979. Nonetheless, children who received MV at the December 1979 examination had significantly lower mortality in the following year (1980) compared with the children who had been present in the December 1978 examination but were not measles vaccinated. Among children still living in the community in December 1979, measles-vaccinated children aged 6–71 months had a mortality rate of 18/1000 person-years during the following year compared with 51/1000 person-years for absent children who were not measles vaccinated (MRR=0.30 (0.12–0.73)). The effect of MV was not explained by prevention of measles infection as the unvaccinated children did not die of measles infection. Conclusions MV may have beneficial non-specific effects on child survival not related to the prevention of measles infection. PMID:27998896
Suggests sources of information for African American History Month for library media specialists who work with students in grades four through eight. Gale Research's "African-American Reference Library," which includes "African-America Biography,""African-American Chronology," and "African-American Almanac,"…
WILLIE, CHARLES V.
THE AUTHOR DEALS WITH THE ROLE OF THE UNIVERSITY IN EDUCATING STUDENTS TO BE CITIZENS AND LEADERS IN OUR URBANIZED SOCIETY. HE SEES URBANIZATION AS BEING DIFFERENT FROM, THOUGH RELATED TO, INDUSTRIALIZATION, AND HE SEES DISTINCT DIFFERENCES IN THE SOCIAL AND EDUCATIONAL RESPONSES NEEDED TO DEAL WITH THEM. WHILE INDUSTRIALIZATION, THE MAIN FOCUS OF…
Thompson, Vetta L. Sanders; Akbar, Maysa D.; Bazile, Anita
The attitudes and beliefs about utilization of mental health services of 201 African Americans, 18 years and older, are explored. One hundred and thirty-four females and 66 males participated in mixed sex focus groups conducted in an urban, Midwestern city. Discussion probes addressed participant perceptions of psychotherapists and psychotherapy,…
Explores recent studies in anthropology, art history, and archeology on African women's art from a feminist theoretical perspective. Relates women's arts to several sociological and economic factors and suggests new avenues of exploration, especially in the face of urbanization and modernization. (CJS)
infection by protozoan hemo- flagellates of the Trypanosoma brucei complex, 2 subspe- cies of which cause disease in humans: Trypanosoma bru- cei gambiense...public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES See also ADA545141. Chapter 3 from e-book, Topics on the Pathology of Protozoan and...the brief ferry crossing. 2 3 • Topics on The paThology of proTozoan and invasive arThropod diseases Three severe epidemics of African trypanosomiasis
The Society of Reproductive Surgeons Home About Us About SRS Mission Statement Officers The Role of Reproductive Surgeons For ... Fact Sheets and Booklets SRS is an affiliated society to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine . Below ...
Ellis, Auburn E.
In 2012 an African Centered single case study was conducted in the United States. The problem is as follows: K-12 practitioners in urban areas are faced with unique circumstances while serving marginalized students in urban areas. As a response to this issue, the purpose of this study was to identify and describe curricula used in three African…
Green, Robert L.
This paper analyzes the relationship between levels of educational attainment and outcomes for African American males, in particular the likelihood of conflict with the criminal justice system. The analysis begins with a look at society's belief system and political and economic forces, and argues that these have combined to promote failure among…
Jaja, Jones M.
Myths are accounts of the origin of societies and institutions not subject to rationalization but often used by historians and philosophers in their quest to study African history; for it is only thus that we can comprehend the various aspects of the continent's history and culture. This paper examines the critical understanding of African…
The author provides a critical examination of the arguments and support for conclusions in "copperbelt writings" about the urban Kalela dance and the relationship to urban and rural differences. There is a critical discussion of relationships between the dance forms: the kalela, asafo, beni, and ingoma. The origins of the dance are traced to the rural Beni in the writings of Mitchel, however Ranger's treatise on the Beni in east Africa indicates a locally quite distinct tradition associated with Swahili dance associations in towns. The author finds strong parallels between the Beni and Swahili dance associations and derivation from the Akan asafo companies. It is suggested that both east and west African dances reflected a European impact and the fundamental values of African people as well as a form of entertainment. It was a public display of progress and skill. The spread of the Swahili Beni between the 2 World Wars was complex and varied, but the form conformed well to rural villages which traditionally competed against each other. The Mitchel assertion that the costumes which imitated the uniforms of colonial civil and military hierarchy allowed vicarious participation in social relationships which they were excluded from is refuted. It is suggested by the author and Ranger that African dancers were asserting as traditional their individual and collective status and prestige in their own society and the costumes were the new fashion. The change to modern dress is though by Mitchell to reflect similarly a fictitious upward mobility and urban influence, and is considered to be unsubstantiated by the lower class population assuming the behavior. The author views the behavior as directed to unskilled, uneducated migrant workers groups which included them and provided a strong link to their rural homes and children. In dispute is also the Mitchell interpretation of lyrics to the songs which the author finds reflect rural themes and influences as well. It is
Wilmington Public Schools, DE.
The focus of the urban sociology teaching guide for grade 12 is on the effect of urbanization upon four of the major social institutions: familial, governmental, economic, and educational. An overall educational objective is to prepare students for developing rational solutions to problems confronting urban society. Objectives are stated in…
Wood, James L.; And Others
This bibliography on urban sociology cites studies which discuss the structures and processes of urban society from an historical and comparative perspective. Although it includes studies that discuss population growth, decline, size, and density, the prime concern of this bibliography is not with urban demography. After a brief look at some…
Bruton, Chantrell Anita
African American boys are the lowest achieving academic group in public schools. Current research has delved into why this occurs and into implications for African American boys and communities. However, current research has focused on this in urban populations and has not looked at length at the status of African American boys in rural…
Ferrari, Joseph R.; Athey, Robert B.; Moriarty, Meghan O.; Appleby, Drew C.
Academic honor society alumni in two samples reported their undergraduate and post-baccalaureate education and employment experiences. In Study 1 of 108 honor society alumni leaders at an urban, private, faith-based liberal arts college, more men graduated cum laude yet attended top-tier graduate institutions and earned doctoral degrees than women…
Schmidt, Nancy J.
This report discusses the 1974 African Outreach Workshop planned and coordinated by the African Studies Program at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Its major aim was to assist teachers in developing curriculum units on African using materials available in their local community. A second aim was for the African Studies Program to…
Hart, Ayanna; Spangler, Earl
This book introduces African-American history and culture to children. The first Africans in America came from many different regions and cultures, but became united in this country by being black, African, and slaves. Once in America, Africans began a long struggle for freedom which still continues. Slavery, the Civil War, emancipation, and the…
Kono, Yoshiaki; Kohn, Joshua R.
Africanized honey bees entered California in 1994 but few accounts of their northward expansion or their frequency relative to European honey bees have been published. We used mitochondrial markers and morphometric analyses to determine the prevalence of Africanized honeybees in San Diego County and their current northward progress in California west of the Sierra Nevada crest. The northernmost African mitotypes detected were approximately 40 km south of Sacramento in California’s central valley. In San Diego County, 65% of foraging honey bee workers carry African mitochondria and the estimated percentage of Africanized workers using morphological measurements is similar (61%). There was no correlation between mitotype and morphology in San Diego County suggesting Africanized bees result from bidirectional hybridization. Seventy percent of feral hives, but only 13% of managed hives, sampled in San Diego County carried the African mitotype indicating that a large fraction of foraging workers in both urban and rural San Diego County are feral. We also found a single nucleotide polymorphism at the DNA barcode locus COI that distinguishes European and African mitotypes. The utility of this marker was confirmed using 401 georeferenced honey bee sequences from the worldwide Barcode of Life Database. Future censuses can determine whether the current range of the Africanized form is stable, patterns of introgression at nuclear loci, and the environmental factors that may limit the northern range of the Africanized honey bee. PMID:26361047
Kono, Yoshiaki; Kohn, Joshua R
Africanized honey bees entered California in 1994 but few accounts of their northward expansion or their frequency relative to European honey bees have been published. We used mitochondrial markers and morphometric analyses to determine the prevalence of Africanized honeybees in San Diego County and their current northward progress in California west of the Sierra Nevada crest. The northernmost African mitotypes detected were approximately 40 km south of Sacramento in California's central valley. In San Diego County, 65% of foraging honey bee workers carry African mitochondria and the estimated percentage of Africanized workers using morphological measurements is similar (61%). There was no correlation between mitotype and morphology in San Diego County suggesting Africanized bees result from bidirectional hybridization. Seventy percent of feral hives, but only 13% of managed hives, sampled in San Diego County carried the African mitotype indicating that a large fraction of foraging workers in both urban and rural San Diego County are feral. We also found a single nucleotide polymorphism at the DNA barcode locus COI that distinguishes European and African mitotypes. The utility of this marker was confirmed using 401 georeferenced honey bee sequences from the worldwide Barcode of Life Database. Future censuses can determine whether the current range of the Africanized form is stable, patterns of introgression at nuclear loci, and the environmental factors that may limit the northern range of the Africanized honey bee.
Boas Hall, Marie
Henry Oldenburg, born in 1619 in Bremen, Germany, first came to England as a diplomat on a mission to see Oliver Cromwell. He stayed on in England and in 1662 became the Secretary of the Royal Society, and its best known member to the entire learned world of his time. Through his extensive correspondence, now published, he disseminated the Society's ideals and methods at home and abroad. He fostered and encouraged the talents of many scientists later to be far more famous than he, including Newton, Flamsteed, Malpighi, and Leeuwenhoek with whom, as with many others, he developed real friendship. He founded and edited the Philosophical Transactions, the world's oldest scientific journal.His career sheds new light on the intellectual world of his time, especially its scientific aspects, and on the development of the Royal Society; his private life expands our knowledge of social mobility, the urban society, and the religious views of his time.
Increasing urbanization has resulted in an uneven distribution of population, industries, and water in urban areas; thus, imposing unprecedented pressures on water supplies and water pollution control. These pressures are exacerbated during the periods of drought and climatic uncertainties. The purpose of this paper is to summarize emergence of water reclamation, recycling and reuse as a vital component of sustainable water resources in the context of integrated water resources management in urban and rural areas. Water quality requirements and health and public acceptance issues related to water reuse are also discussed. Reclaimed water is a locally controllable water resource that exists right at the doorstep of the urban environment, where water is needed the most and priced the highest. Closing the water cycle loop not only is technically feasible in agriculture, industries, and municipalities but also makes economic sense. Society no longer has the luxury of using water only once.
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In addition to Dr. Robert Goddard's pioneering work, American experimentation in rocketry prior to World War II grew, primarily in technical societies. This is an early rocket motor designed and developed by the American Rocket Society in 1932.
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The inclusion of college preparation programs promote and forecast academic success in postsecondary studies among individual at-risk, African American urban high school students. Past research has shown ongoing, college acceptance, performance, and graduation gaps between at-risk, African American urban high school students when compared to…
Richardson, Joseph B., Jr.
This article examines the role of the African American uncle as a vital yet overlooked form of social support and social capital in the lives of adolescent African American male sons living in single-female-headed households. Research rarely examines the affective roles and functions of men in Black families; moreover, poor urban Black male youth…
Literature on the impact of serious AIDS epidemics anticipates severe outcomes, and places special emphasis on the epidemic's likely effects on productive and governance capacities. Implicit in many impact scenarios is the assumption that the effects are distributed more or less uniformly across society, and are channeled 'naturally' through and across sectors. This article examines evidence of the AIDS epidemic's impact at household level, and in the health, education and economic sectors of South Africa. It shows that the epidemic's impact is strongly shaped by the highly unequal distribution of power, entitlement, risk and responsibility in South Africa. The article concludes that many of the costs associated with the AIDS epidemic are being displaced into the lives, homes and neighbourhoods of poorer South Africans, especially black African women - thus deepening poverty trends, as well as reproducing and hardening the polarized character of South African society. Priority steps to remedy these trends are outlined.
Sorvillo, F.; Smith, L.; Kerndt, P.; Ash, L.
Trichomonas vaginalis may be emerging as one of the most important cofactors in amplifying HIV transmission, particularly in African-American communities of the United States. In a person co-infected with HIV, the pathology induced by T. vaginalis infection can increase HIV shedding. Trichomonas infection may also act to expand the portal of entry for HIV in an HIV-negative person. Studies from Africa have suggested that T. vaginalis infection may increase the rate of HIV transmission by approximately twofold. Available data indicate that T. vaginalis is highly prevalent among African-Americans in major urban centers of the United States and is often the most common sexually transmitted infection in black women. Even if T. vaginalis increases the risk of HIV transmission by a small amount, this could translate into an important amplifying effect since Trichomonas is so common. Substantial HIV transmission may be attributable to T. vaginalis in African-American communities of the United States. PMID:11747718
... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to a ... glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in African Americans. Half of those with glaucoma don't know ...
Discusses the traditional number systems and the origin of the number names used by several African peoples living south of the Sahara. Also included are limitations in African mathematical development, and possible topics for research. (RP)
MacKinnon, Aran S
The South African mining industry relied upon a massive African migrant workforce from the rural areas. Rural transformations in this migrant labor system form an important part of the story of developing capitalism in industrializing South Africa. Yet, recent historical studies on southern African migrant and rural wage labor have paid little attention to life adjustments made by the elderly and those 'burned out' by the mines and forced to leave formal wage employment in the urban areas. The South African segregationist state's rhetoric implied that 'retired' Africans could find economic security in their designated rural reserves. Indeed, legislation sought to prohibit Africans who were not employed from remaining in the 'white' urban areas. By the 1930s, however, the reserves were rapidly deteriorating. Many elderly Africans could not retire and were forced to seek wage labor. This raises significant questions about how retirement came to be defined and experienced by Africans in South Africa during a critical period of dramatic economic decline in the 1930s and 40s, and what the underlying material circumstances of African South Africans were with regard to adaptations to employment and ageing-related life changes. In many cases, elderly Africans were forced to forgo retirement, and find wage labor, usually in the most poorly paid, least sought-after or dangerous fields of employment. This article thus seeks to illuminate critical generational dimensions of the impact of segregation and racism in South Africa prior to the formal articulation of Apartheid.
Pool, John E; Corbett-Detig, Russell B; Sugino, Ryuichi P; Stevens, Kristian A; Cardeno, Charis M; Crepeau, Marc W; Duchen, Pablo; Emerson, J J; Saelao, Perot; Begun, David J; Langley, Charles H
Drosophila melanogaster has played a pivotal role in the development of modern population genetics. However, many basic questions regarding the demographic and adaptive history of this species remain unresolved. We report the genome sequencing of 139 wild-derived strains of D. melanogaster, representing 22 population samples from the sub-Saharan ancestral range of this species, along with one European population. Most genomes were sequenced above 25X depth from haploid embryos. Results indicated a pervasive influence of non-African admixture in many African populations, motivating the development and application of a novel admixture detection method. Admixture proportions varied among populations, with greater admixture in urban locations. Admixture levels also varied across the genome, with localized peaks and valleys suggestive of a non-neutral introgression process. Genomes from the same location differed starkly in ancestry, suggesting that isolation mechanisms may exist within African populations. After removing putatively admixed genomic segments, the greatest genetic diversity was observed in southern Africa (e.g. Zambia), while diversity in other populations was largely consistent with a geographic expansion from this potentially ancestral region. The European population showed different levels of diversity reduction on each chromosome arm, and some African populations displayed chromosome arm-specific diversity reductions. Inversions in the European sample were associated with strong elevations in diversity across chromosome arms. Genomic scans were conducted to identify loci that may represent targets of positive selection within an African population, between African populations, and between European and African populations. A disproportionate number of candidate selective sweep regions were located near genes with varied roles in gene regulation. Outliers for Europe-Africa F(ST) were found to be enriched in genomic regions of locally elevated
Ogah, Okechukwu S; Okpechi, Ikechi; Chukwuonye, Innocent I; Akinyemi, Joshua O; Onwubere, Basden JC; Falase, Ayodele O; Stewart, Simon; Sliwa, Karen
To review studies on hypertension in Nigeria over the past five decades in terms of prevalence, awareness and treatment and complications. Following our search on Pubmed, African Journals Online and the World Health Organization Global cardiovascular infobase, 1060 related references were identified out of which 43 were found to be relevant for this review. The overall prevalence of hypertension in Nigeria ranges from 8%-46.4% depending on the study target population, type of measurement and cut-off value used for defining hypertension. The prevalence is similar in men and women (7.9%-50.2% vs 3.5%-68.8%, respectively) and in the urban (8.1%-42.0%) and rural setting (13.5%-46.4%).The pooled prevalence increased from 8.6% from the only study during the period from 1970-1979 to 22.5% (2000-2011). Awareness, treatment and control of hypertension were generally low with attendant high burden of hypertension related complications. In order to improve outcomes of cardiovascular disease in Africans, public health education to improve awareness of hypertension is required. Further epidemiological studies on hypertension are required to adequately understand and characterize the impact of hypertension in society. PMID:23272273
From student and faculty exchanges to joint research projects, U.S. universities maintain a broad spectrum of collaborative relationships with African universities. It's unclear how many U.S. colleges and universities have partnerships with African universities. The African Studies Association, an organization of scholars, doesn't keep that kind…
AD _ _ _ _ GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-96-1-6272 TITLE: Obstacles to the Primary and Secondary Prevention of Breast Cancer in African-American Women...FUNDING NUMBERS Obstacles to the Primary and Secondary Prevention of DAMD17-96-1-6272 Breast Cancer in African American Women 6. AUTHOR(S) Margaret K...barriers to primary and secondary prevention of breast cancer , to use this tool to establish preliminary norms in an urban, southern, African American
Miles Brown, Tammy Melitta
This narrative case study research project focused on African American women principals and the leadership qualities and competencies that they bring to an urban school setting. The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experiences of African American women principals and examine the influence of this past experience, identify common…
Hurd, Noelle M.; Stoddard, Sarah A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.
This study explored how neighborhood characteristics may relate to African American adolescents' internalizing symptoms via adolescents' social support and perceptions of neighborhood cohesion. Participants included 571 urban, African American adolescents (52% female; "M" age = 17.8). A multilevel path analysis testing both direct and…
Drake, Carl Timothy
The purpose of this study was to investigate factors affecting the attitudes that African-American college students have towards introductory college physics. The population targeted for this study consisted of African-American males and females enrolled in introductory college physics classes at an urban public historical black college or…
Sandoval-Lucero, Elena; Maes, Johanna B.; Klingsmith, Libby
Using a framework of social and cultural capital, this study examined successful African American and Latina/o community college students. Based on focus group interviews with twenty two African American and Latina/o undergraduates at an urban community college, the authors reveal how social and cultural capital gained from students' relationships…
Lindsey, Michael A.; Korr, Wynne S.; Broitman, Marina; Bone, Lee; Green, Alan; Leaf, Philip J.
This study examined the help-seeking behaviors of depressed, African American adolescents. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 18 urban, African American boys, ages 14 to 18, who were recruited from community-based mental health centers and after-school programs for youths. Interviews covered sociodemographic information, questions…
Griffith, Derek M.; Gunter, Katie; Allen, Julie Ober
Despite the potential health consequences, African American men tend to treat their roles as providers, fathers, spouses, and community members as more important than engaging in health behaviors such as physical activity. We conducted 14 exploratory focus groups with 105 urban, middle-aged African American men from the Midwest to examine factors…
Vega, Desireé; Moore, James L., III; Miranda, Antoinette H.
Drawing on a larger study, this qualitative investigation explored the factors that African American and Latino high school students perceived as barriers to positive educational opportunities. Eighteen African American and Latino urban high school students comprised the sample. The findings indicated that perceived barriers to positive…
Conchas, Gilberto Q.; Lin, Alex R.; Oseguera, Leticia; Drake, Sean J.
Through a Multiple Marginality Framework, this exploratory case study highlights how African American male youth in an urban high school setting perceive the opportunity structure during the historic election of the first African American President. Youth optimism generated by Obama's election gives students a sense of hope despite the persistent…
Ellis, Addie Lucille; Geller, Kathy D.
This narrative study is based on stories told by African American adolescents experiencing homelessness. It offers insights into their lived experiences and describes the challenges faced in negotiating the urban education system. African American youth are disproportionately represented in the adolescent homeless demographic. "Unheard and…
Bonvillain, Jocelyn Freeman; Honora, Detris
The purpose of the present study was to explore the extent to which racial identity attitudes and self-esteem could predict academic performance for African American middle school students. A total of 175 African American adolescents in 7th grade attending one of two urban schools participated in the study. The Multi-Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM)…
Cokley, Kevin; McClain, Shannon; Jones, Martinique; Johnson, Samoan
The purpose of this study was to examine academic disidentification along with demographic and psychological factors related to the academic achievement of African American adolescents. Participants included 96 African American students (41 males, 55 females) in an urban high school setting located in the Southwest. Consistent with previous…
Clark, Leon E., Ed.
This book, second in a series of six dealing with African culture and intended for secondary level students, deals with the processes of industrialization and urbanization that are transforming the traditional way of life in Africa. Almost all of the selections in this volume were written by Africans, and they come from a variety of sources…
In July 2007 physicians, biologists and physicists that have collaborated in previous meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society constituted the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism with the purpose of promote scientific study of the interaction of electromagnetic energy (at frequencies ranging from zero Hertz through those of visible light) and acoustic energy with biological systems. A second goal was to increase the contribution of medical and biological professionals in the meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society. The following paragraphs summarize some objectives of the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism for the next two years.
Kalu, A C
Because a footnote of Marxism teaches that capitalism must first destroy primitive cultures that lack a dynamic social change mechanism and then rejuvenate them as modern industrialized states, the economic and cultural bases of social relationships in developing countries have been deemed irrelevant. In a similar way, Western feminist paradigms fail to acknowledge epistemological differences from those of African women. This article explores these contradictions and analyzes social change mechanisms within the Igbo culture in Africa that were stunted by colonialism. The first topic considered is the relationship of African literature (using Toni Morrison's "Beloved" as a point of reference) with sustainable African development and African women. The remainder of the article is devoted to an examination of the role of women in light of precolonial and colonial literary traditions. It is noted that continued use of Western feudal and capitalist terms for self-identification alienates Africans from Africa's problems. Traditional African thought assigned women the power to feed the family and to serve as protectors of children and society, and ancestral wisdom directed how societies responded to threats, took charge of their world, and resolved conflict. Problems faced by contemporary African researchers are shown to center on the dilemma faced by those who wish to design a program that analyzes the content of African development and provides contemporary solutions without completely deriving the program completely from contemporary thought. It is, thus, concluded that redefinition of the African development agenda must involve recognition of the essential role of African women as a change agent and a rearticulation of the male role within traditional thought.
Napier, Diane Brook
The purpose of this study was to examine features of the contemporary migrant and refugee flows across Africa northward to the Mediterranean and then to European countries (sometimes called the "new mass migration" and also migrant flows southward to South Africa. In addition, the purpose was to examine dimensions of response and…
This paper explores the empirical, conceptual and theoretical gains that can be made using cosmopolitan social theory to think through the urban transformations that scholars have in recent years termed planetary urbanization. Recognizing the global spread of urbanization makes the need for a cosmopolitan urban sociology more pressing than ever. Here, it is suggested that critical urban sociology can be invigorated by focusing upon the disconnect that Henri Lefebvre posits between the planetarization of the urban - which he views as economically and technologically driven - and his dis-alienated notion of a global urban society. The first aim of this paper is to highlight the benefits of using 'cosmopolitan' social theory to understand Lefebvre's urban problematic (and to establish why this is also a cosmopolitan problematic); the second is to identify the core cosmopolitan contradictions of planetary urbanization, tensions that are both actually existing and reproduced in scholarly accounts. The article begins by examining the challenges presented to urban sociology by planetary urbanization, before considering how cosmopolitan sociological theory helps provide an analytical 'grip' on the deep lying social realities of contemporary urbanization, especially in relation to questions about difference, culture and history. These insights are used to identify three cosmopolitan contradictions that exist within urbanized (and urbanizing) space; tensions that provide a basis for a thoroughgoing cosmopolitan investigation of planetary urbanization.
Gordon, Beverly M.
Background/Context: Today, in the era of the first African American president, approximately one third of all African Americans live in suburban communities, and their children are attending suburban schools. Although most research on the education of African American students, particularly males, focuses on their plight in urban schooling, what…
le Roux, Elizabeth
South Africa's academic publishing history has been profoundly influenced by its colonial heritage. This is reflected in the publication of Transactions of the South African Philosophical Society (later, the Royal Society of South Africa) from 1878. Although the Society and journal sought to promote original research about South Africa, it was modelled after the Royal Society in London and formed part of an imperial scientific community. As the local higher education institutions grew more independent and research-focused, local scholarly publishing developed as well, with university presses playing an increasingly important role. The University of South Africa (Unisa) Press started publishing departmental journals in the 1950s, with a focus on journals that ‘speak to the student’, and it is today the only South African university press with an active journals publishing programme. As external funding declined and the country became intellectually isolated in the high apartheid period, the Press managed to attract journals that could no longer be subsidized by learned societies and other universities. More recently, new co-publishing arrangements have brought South African journals back into an international intellectual community. Although some argue that this constitutes a re-colonization of South African knowledge production, it is also an innovative strategy for positioning local research in a global context. PMID:26495579
Research on the history of civic education in United States has rarely reflected the perspectives of African American teachers and students. Through analysis of archival data, I document how African American educators in one Southern state reported teaching civic values to students in a racially segregated society before the modern Civil Rights…
Jordan, A. C.
This collection of essays, originally published in the 1950's, discusses South African literature from a perspective which emphasizes writers who resisted the society of the colonizers. All of the essays were written by a native black South African scholar. The essays deal with (1) the people and their languages; (2) traditional poetry; (3) the…
DeGruy, Joy; Kjellstrand, Jean M.; Briggs, Harold E.; Brennan, Eileen M.
African American adolescents must negotiate the transition to adulthood in a society that makes the achievement of positive cultural identity and self-respect difficult. Frequently, young men turn to violence in an attempt to achieve respect in their communities. This article explores factors that predict the use of violence among African American…
The revitalisation of African higher education has been a policy imperative on the agenda of many international and African organisations in the last decade, as well as a focus for research and debate. Revitalisation is a theme which is itself framed by a larger set of current discourses about the powerful role of knowledge in society and in the…
Baggerly, Jennifer; Parker, Max
African American boys face numerous challenges in society within the United States, including prejudice, discrimination, racism, economic hardship, limited access to support services, educational biases, and community violence. According to Pierce (1988), the psychic assault of subtle racism against African American boys erode their…
Henderson, Davetta A.
Many African Americans are leaving high school prior to graduation and are entering college for the first time beyond the age of 30 years, a phenomenon that has an effect on school systems, the community, and society as a whole. The research problem addressed was the need to understand the experience of an increasing number of African Americans…
African-American male students are systematically forced to confine themselves to the social construct that European-American society has developed for them. Actions, behaviors, and words that communicate this message spread both interracially and intraracially within schools and affect African-American males tremendously in terms of their…
Parker, Ashley Dawn
This research seeks to understand the experiences of African American female undergraduates in STEM. It investigates how familial factors and science identity formation characteristics influence persistence in STEM while considering the duality of African American women's status in society. This phenomenological study was designed using critical…
Watson, Jarvis M.
African American male college students are graduating at rates lower than their White male college counterparts. This epidemic is a result of the historical implications of institutional racism within American society. Despite these barriers, there are African American males that achieve academically and graduate college. This phenomenological…
All women find sexuality problematical, especially women living in countries that were colonized or colonized others. The stereotype of repressed sexuality in Victorian England found its antithesis in the stereotype of promiscuous African sexuality which had to be "civilized" and controlled through religion and repression. Colonizing nations have seen the discourse on sexuality move from the private to the public domain, while Africa maintains its silence on the subject. Sexuality is a difficult topic because it embraces the most intimate and individual of our human emotions, thus, it is difficult even to voice sexual preferences to a lifetime partner. In addition, especially in Africa, sexuality is a very gender-specific social construct. Africans foster heterosexuality through socialization from early childhood and discourage any sign of sexual stimulation in their children. After teaching that humans are "naturally" heterosexual, Africans teach their children that marriage is essential for the moral uprightness of society, although most Africans are, in fact, raised in many types of alternative families. Critique of the heterosexual form is literally nonexistent in African feminist genre because African sexuality is really male sexuality. When people assert that an African culture exists, they really mean that patriarchal constructs about maleness and femaleness pervade the continent. Women are not expected to experience sexual satisfaction, and, indeed, the practice of female genital mutilation assures that they will never experience sexual pleasure. This practice assures that female sexuality exists only through men. It represents a misogynist point of view about the female body and is equally repulsive whether it takes the form of "excision" of a part of the clitoris or removal of all of the external genitalia. This practice controls female sexuality by depriving women of the opportunity to masturbate or to engage in homosexual relations. The resulting option
Saha, T. K.
The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970. It has over 800 members including many from Industry and R & D Institutions spread throughout India. The society has an active chapter at Kolkata. The society was formed with the main aim to promote, encourage and develop the growth of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications in India. In order to achieve this aim it has conducted a number of short term courses at graduate and technician levels on vacuum science and technology on topics ranging from low vacuum to ultrahigh vacuum So far it has conducted 39 such courses at different parts of the country and imparted training to more than 1200 persons in the field. Some of these courses were in-plant training courses conducted on the premises of the establishment and designed to take care of the special needs of the establishment. IVS also regularly conducts national and international seminars and symposia on vacuum science and technology with special emphasis on some theme related to applications of vacuum. A large number of delegates from all over India take part in the deliberations of such seminars and symposia and present their work. IVS also arranges technical visits to different industries and research institutes. The society also helped in the UNESCO sponsored post-graduate level courses in vacuum science, technology and applications conducted by Mumbai University. The society has also designed a certificate and diploma course for graduate level students studying vacuum science and technology and has submitted a syllabus to the academic council of the University of Mumbai for their approval, we hope that some colleges affiliated to the university will start this course from the coming academic year. IVS extended its support in standardizing many of the vacuum instruments and played a vital role in helping to set up a Regional Testing Centre along with BARC. As part of the development of vacuum education, the society arranges the participation of
Britain's education system is a beleaguered service accused of failing young people who leave school early without developing their potential. Education will always fail if youngsters' capacities are sectioned off to match a pyramidal, hierarchical society. The conditions for a learning society are basically political, requiring creation of a…
Hoffman, Allan M., Ed.
The seeming increase of violence in American society and its schools has become a pressing issue. Some researchers argue that the American education system mirrors the dynamics of society. The articles in this book address the following issues: the extent of violence in American schools; the forms that violence takes; its root causes; the effects…
Bally, A. W.; And Others
At a meeting sponsored by the Geological Society of America, earth scientists examined their function in society. Participants concluded that earth scientists are not providing a rationale for value judgments concerning the use and limitations of the earth and a program aimed at understanding solid-Earth resource systems is needed. (BT)
Baker, Robert B; Washington, Harriet A; Olakanmi, Ololade; Savitt, Todd L; Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Hoover, Eddie; Wynia, Matthew K; Blanchard, Janice; Boulware, L Ebony; Braddock, Clarence; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Crawley, LaVera; LaVeist, Thomas A; Maxey, Randall; Mills, Charles; Moseley, Kathryn L; Williams, David R
An independent panel of experts, convened by the American Medical Association (AMA) Institute for Ethics, analyzed the roots of the racial divide within American medical organizations. In this, the first of a 2-part report, we describe 2 watershed moments that helped institutionalize the racial divide. The first occurred in the 1870s, when 2 medical societies from Washington, DC, sent rival delegations to the AMA's national meetings: an all-white delegation from a medical society that the US courts and Congress had formally censured for discriminating against black physicians; and an integrated delegation from a medical society led by physicians from Howard University. Through parliamentary maneuvers and variable enforcement of credentialing standards, the integrated delegation was twice excluded from the AMA's meetings, while the all-white society's delegations were admitted. AMA leaders then voted to devolve the power to select delegates to state societies, thereby accepting segregation in constituent societies and forcing African American physicians to create their own, separate organizations. A second watershed involved AMA-promoted educational reforms, including the 1910 Flexner report. Straightforwardly applied, the report's population-based criterion for determining the need for phySicians would have recommended increased training of African American physicians to serve the approximately 9 million African Americans in the segregated south. Instead, the report recommended closing all but 2 African American medical schools, helping to cement in place an African American educational system that was separate, unequal, and destined to be insufficient to the needs of African Americans nationwide.
Goldweber, Asha; Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Bradshaw, Catherine P.
Research on the role of race and urbanicity in bullying involvement has been limited. The present study examined bullying involvement subgroups that relate to race, urbanicity, and the perceived reason for the bullying. Self-report data were collected from 10,254 middle school youth (49.8% female; 62.4% Caucasian, 19.0% African American, and 5.6%…
Rothenberg, Julia Johnson; And Others
The perceptions of novice and expert teachers in urban schools about their preparation through teacher education were studied. It is generally recognized that middle-class white teachers are strangers to urban cultures, and that they often believe the mass media's negative images about low- income African American and Latino communities.…
van Klinken, Adriaan S; Gunda, Masiiwa Ragies
Against the background of the HIV epidemic and the intense public controversy on homosexuality in African societies, this article investigates the discourses of academic African Christian theologians on homosexuality. Distinguishing some major strands in African theology, that is, inculturation, liberation, women's and reconstruction theology, the article examines how the central concepts of culture, liberation, justice, and human rights function in these discourses. On the basis of a qualitative analysis of a large number of publications, the article shows that stances of African theologians are varying from silence and rejection to acceptance. Although many African theologians have taken up the cudgels against gay rights, some "dissident voices" break the taboo and develop more inclusive concepts of African identity and African Christianity.
Thomas, Kevin J A
This study examines whether previous findings of an immigrant schooling advantage among Blacks in the United States reflect a declining significance of race in the enrollment patterns of immigrants’ children. Using data from the 2000 US census, the study finds that, despite their advantage within the Black population, the children of Black Africans are collectively disadvantaged relative to the children of White Africans. Disparate enrollment trajectories are found among children in Black and White African families. Specifically, between the first and second generations, enrollment outcomes improved among the children of White Africans but declined among Black Africans’ children. The results also suggest that among immigrants from African multi-racial societies, pre-migration racial schooling disparities do not necessarily disappear after immigration to the United States. Additionally, the children of Black Africans from these contexts have worse outcomes than the children of other Black African immigrants and their relative disadvantage persists even after other factors are controlled.
Thomas, Kevin J.A.
This study examines whether previous findings of an immigrant schooling advantage among Blacks in the US reflect a declining significance of race in the enrollment patterns of immigrants’ children. Using data from the 2000 US census the study finds that, despite their advantage within the Black population, the children of Black Africans are collectively disadvantaged relative to the children of White Africans. Disparate enrollment trajectories are found among children in Black and White African families. Specifically, between the first and second generations, enrollment outcomes improved among the children of White Africans but declined among Black Africans’ children. The results also suggest that among immigrants from African multi-racial societies, pre-migration racial schooling disparities do not necessarily disappear after immigration to the US. Additionally, the children of Black Africans from these contexts have worse outcomes than the children of other Black African immigrants and their relative disadvantage persists even after other factors are controlled. PMID:22741163
Snowden, Lonnie R
African Americans' poverty and deep-poverty rates are higher than those of Whites, and African Americans' poverty spells last longer. Furthermore, nonpoor African Americans are especially likely to slip into poverty, and over the course of a lifetime, very many African Americans will experience poverty. Accordingly, African Americans are disproportionately likely to be assisted by safety net programs providing income support and health and social assistance. When mental health-related outcomes are assessed, U.S.-focused and international studies of safety net programs sometimes find that adults and children show a decline in symptoms of mental illness after participating. All things being equal, these improvements can disproportionately benefit African Americans' mental health. Safety net programs' mental health-related impact should be routinely assessed when evaluating the programs' economic and social outcomes and the impact they have on African Americans' mental health. Policy research of this kind can help us to understand whether these very large interventions show society-wide mental health-related improvement in the disproportionately large number of African Americans who participate in them.
Robinson, W. LaVome; Droege, Jocelyn R.; Case, Mary H.; Jason, Leonard A.
Evidenced-based and culturally adapted stress-reduction interventions for urban African American adolescents who are at risk for anxiety and other problems related to stress are needed. This study presents intervention components and preliminary outcome findings of a culturally adapted stress-reduction intervention for urban African American adolescents. Preliminary findings support the efficacy of the intervention to reduce anxiety and enhance general cognitive competencies, such as coping strategies, self-efficacy, and positive thinking, among participants, in comparison to controls. Clinical implications of the stress-reduction intervention for the prevention of psychopathology, particularly among African American adolescents, are discussed. PMID:27042702
Over the course of the 20th century, the United States became an urban nation: 80% of Americans now live in metropolitan areas. Supplying basic sanitary services—drinking water, sewers, and garbage removal—to these cities is a gargantuan task, yet most people have little understanding of urban infrastructure systems and their enormous regional ecologic impacts. Municipalization of sanitary services, especially since 1880, distanced people from their wastes and gave city dwellers a simplistic experience of one-way material flow through cities, without knowledge of the environmental costs. Most sanitary infrastructures were built primarily for durability and lack the elasticity to meet changing needs. The challenge now is to adapt sanitary systems for flexibility and simultaneously move from unchecked material consumption toward resource-based thinking. PMID:11726370
Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Seebens, Antje; Annan, Augustina; Ipsen, Anne; Kruppa, Thomas; Müller, Marcel A.; Kalko, Elisabeth K. V.; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Oppong, Samuel; Drosten, Christian
Background Henipaviruses (Hendra and Nipah virus) are highly pathogenic members of the family Paramyxoviridae. Fruit-eating bats of the Pteropus genus have been suggested as their natural reservoir. Human Henipavirus infections have been reported in a region extending from Australia via Malaysia into Bangladesh, compatible with the geographic range of Pteropus. These bats do not occur in continental Africa, but a whole range of other fruit bats is encountered. One of the most abundant is Eidolon helvum, the African Straw-coloured fruit bat. Methodology/Principal Findings Feces from E. helvum roosting in an urban setting in Kumasi/Ghana were tested for Henipavirus RNA. Sequences of three novel viruses in phylogenetic relationship to known Henipaviruses were detected. Virus RNA concentrations in feces were low. Conclusions/Significance The finding of novel putative Henipaviruses outside Australia and Asia contributes a significant extension of the region of potential endemicity of one of the most pathogenic virus genera known in humans. PMID:19636378
Barnett, Tracey E.; Rowley, Stephanie; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Vansadia, Preeti; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard
Few studies have examined the effects of household change on adolescent development. We study household composition change and its effect on development, as measured by both internalizing symptoms and externalizing behaviors, in a sample of urban African American adolescents. Household change was defined based on the movement in or out of the…
Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.
This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…
Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Nettles, Saundra Murray; O'Campo, Patricia J.; Lohrfink, Kimberly Fraleigh
Differences in racial socialization practices and their effects were examined in a sample of 241 African American 1st graders (average age 6.59 years) living in an urban area. Child outcomes included cognitive development, receptive language skills, and child problem behavior. The cultural environment of the home was associated with higher…
Shen, Bo; Reinhart-Lee, Tamara; Janisse, Heather; Brogan, Kathryn; Danford, Cynthia; Jen, K-L. C.
The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels of urban inner city preschoolers while attending Head Start, the federally funded preschool program for children from low-income families. Participants were 158 African American children. Their physical activity during Head Start days was measured using programmed RT-3…
Rozario, Philip A.; DeRienzis, Daniel
Purpose: Drawing from stress and coping models, we examined heterogeneity in the expression of familism (i.e., beliefs about the caregiving role) and its impact on psychological distress among African American women caregivers. Design and Methods: We relied on data from the Black Rural and Urban Caregivers Mental Health and Functioning study, a…
Quimby, Julie L.; Wolfson, Jane L.; Seyala, Nazar D.
This study examined the influence of social cognitive variables on African American adolescents' interest in environmental science. The sample consisted of 132 (57 male, 75 female) high school seniors enrolled in an urban scientific and technical high school from which 95% of graduates continue in higher education. Results of the regression…
Graham, Sandra; Taylor, April; Hudley, Cynthia
A 12-week, 32-lesson afterschool intervention was conducted with third-to fifth-grade urban African American boys classified as aggressive. Grounded in attribution theory and organized around the construct of perceived responsibility in self and others, the intervention focused on increasing both social skills and academic motivation. Participants…
Jeffers, Adam R.
This project examines the early educational experiences of 6 young African American males (ages 18-25) who attended urban schools in San Diego, California. All 6 men were incarcerated for at least 1-year before participating in a pre-release program. The participants were part of a pre-release program in San Diego, California, which was selected…
Miller-Johnson, Shari; C. Winn, Donna-Marie; Coie, John D.; Malone, Patrick S.; Lochman, John
This study examined childhood and adolescent risk factors for males' reports of getting someone pregnant during adolescence. These questions were examined in an urban sample of 335 African American males involved in a prospective, longitudinal study. Childhood aggression significantly predicted reported pregnancies during adolescence. Boys who…
A review of the literature reveals that African-American males do not achieve at the same academic levels as their White counterparts. This article reports the effectiveness of a school-based male mentoring program established by a professional school counselor in an urban high school that formed a relationship of support for male students…
Herman, Keith C.; Trotter, Reid; Reinke, Wendy M.; Ialongo, Nicholas
The present study used a person-centered latent variable approach to classify types of perfectionism among 6th-grade African American children living in an urban setting. In particular, the authors were interested in determining whether an adaptive subtype could be found and validated against external criteria. The authors also attempted to…
Herman, Keith C.; Wang, Kenneth; Trotter, Reid; Reinke, Wendy M.; Ialongo, Nicholas
This study examined the developmental trajectories of maladaptive perfectionism over a 7-year period among African American youth living in an urban setting (N = 547). In particular, the study attempted to determine whether two maladaptive aspects of perfectionism (socially prescribed and self-critical) changed over time and could be distinguished…
Tonso, Karen L.; Colombo, Marie
This article unpacks the decision to decharter a successful urban middle school serving African American students, especially focusing on parental choice in a school caught between two urban reform initiatives: charter schooling and state takeovers of urban districts. Originally chartered by a university, DeCharter became a "school of choice" in…
More than a decade after it was first published, Chris Toumey revisits a report from the Royal Society on the opportunities and uncertainties of nanotechnology, and finds that it still has plenty to offer.
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Shaw, Edward I.
Presents a discussion of the risks, to society, from radiation-associated technologies and urges that science teachers help the public understand the decision-making process relative to nuclear power as well as the problems and alternatives. (PEB)
Zherebin, V. M.; Ermakova, N. A.; Makhrova, O. N.
The current state of the economy in the developed countries make it possible to characterize them using concepts and terms such as the postindustrial society, the new economy, the service economy, the creative economy, the posteconomic society, the information society, the knowledge society, and the consumer society. Among these terms and…
Nyblade, Andrew A.; Robinson, Scott W.
Maps of residual bathymetry in the ocean basins around the African continent reveal a broad bathymetric swell in the southeastern Atlantic Ocean with an amplitude of about 500 m. We propose that this region of anomalously shallow bathymetry, together with the contiguous eastern and southern African plateaus, form a superswell which we refer to as the African superswell. The origin of the African superswell is uncertain. However, rifting and volcanism in eastern Africa, as well as heat flow measurements in southern Africa and the southeastern Atlantic Ocean, suggest that the superswell may be attributed, at least in part, to heating of the lithosphere.
Alexander, E. Curtis
The Nguzo Saba or "Seven Principles of Blackness" provide the fundamental basis for the development of an African America value system that is based on the cultural and historical particularisms of being Black in an American society that devalues Black efficacy and Black people. The fundamentals of this value system, foundational to the Kwanzaa…
Walker, Melanie; Loots, Sonja
The paper considers citizenship formation at universities, drawing on the example of a student leadership project at the University of the Free State, a formerly White South African university, in a higher education context and society where racialised difference continues to influence peer relationships. The paper proposes a multi-dimensional…
Research into the social history of African American men in deteriorating socioeconomic conditions has enhanced the understanding of the family. This research helps to understand the different experiences of diverse groups within the society and different group reactions to social change. Yet, social scientists and policymakers have shown a…
Mast, B T; Fitzgerald, J; Steinberg, J; MacNeill, S E; Lichtenberg, P A
Relatively little data exist concerning the utility of brief cognitive measures to detect dementia among African Americans. The current study evaluated the clinical utility of the Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE) and the Fuld Object Memory Evaluation (FOME) in detecting Alzheimer's disease (AD) among both African American and European American older adults. One hundred and forty geriatric patients from a large urban academic medical center were examined. Overall, the FOME appeared to be more effective in detecting AD than was the MMSE (93% sensitivity vs. 75% sensitivity, respectively), although both measures suffered from relatively low specificity (63.5) in the full sample. The FOME demonstrated exceptional clinical utility among African American patients (sensitivity 98.3%; specificity = 64.5; positive predictive power 83.8%; negative predictive power 95.2%). The results of this study support the use of the FOME among older African Americans to detect dementia.
DeSantis, Carol; Naishadham, Deepa; Jemal, Ahmedin
In this article, the American Cancer Society estimates the number of new cancer cases and deaths for African Americans and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and screening prevalence based upon incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. It is estimated that 176,620 new cases of cancer and 64,880 deaths will occur among African Americans in 2013. From 2000 to 2009, the overall cancer death rate among males declined faster among African Americans than whites (2.4% vs 1.7% per year), but among females, the rate of decline was similar (1.5% vs 1.4% per year, respectively). The decrease in cancer death rates among African American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. The reduction in overall cancer death rates since 1990 in men and 1991 in women translates to the avoidance of nearly 200,000 deaths from cancer among African Americans. Five-year relative survival is lower for African Americans than whites for most cancers at each stage of diagnosis. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors remains an active area of research. Overall, progress in reducing cancer death rates has been made, although more can and should be done to accelerate this progress through ensuring equitable access to cancer prevention, early detection, and state-of-the-art treatments.
Ferdinand, Keith C; Armani, Annemarie M
The prevalence of hypertension in blacks in the United States is among the highest in the world. Compared with whites, blacks develop hypertension at an earlier age, their average blood pressures are much higher and they experience worse disease severity. Consequently, blacks have a 1.3 times greater rate of nonfatal stroke, 1.8 times greater rate of fatal stroke, 1.5 times greater rate of heart disease death, 4.2 times greater rate of end-stage kidney disease, and a 50% higher frequency of heart failure; overall, mortality due to hypertension and its consequences is 4 to 5 times more likely in African Americans than in whites. The increased prevalence of hypertension and excessive target organ damage is due to a combination of genetic and, most likely, environmental factors. There are no clinical trial data at present to suggest that lower-than-usual BP targets should be set for high-risk demographic groups such as African Americans. The primary means of prevention and early treatment of hypertension in African Americans will be the appropriate use of lifestyle modification. The International Society of Hypertension in Blacks guidelines realize that most patients will require combination therapy, many of them first-line, to reach appropriate BP goals. Although certain classes and combinations of antihypertensive agents have been well-established to be effective, the choice of drugs for combination therapy in African American patients may be different. Within the African American group, the responsiveness to monotherapy with ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and beta blockers may be less than the responsiveness to diuretics and calcium channel blockers, but these differences are corrected when diuretics are added to the neurohormonal antagonists. Of note, African American patients with systolic BP >15 mm Hg or a diastolic BP >10 mm Hg above goal should be treated with first-line combination therapy.
Wilson, Derek; Foster, Jennifer; Anderson, Shawanda; Mance, GiShawn
Research indicates that African Americans living in an oppressive society may be at an increased risk of experiencing psychological symptoms. Oppressive society has been defined as the continual denial of resources to marginalized groups. This study examined the possible moderating effects of racial socialization (using Scale of Racial…
Blake, Charles Carlos, III
The number of refugees from Africa seeking asylum in Israel has recently skyrocketed, raising issues as to how to integrate them into Israeli society. Education is one of the mediums being used to encourage the cultural integration and inclusion of the refugees into Israeli society; very little is known, however, about how Africans are…
Williams, Renee; White, Pascale; Nieto, Jose; Vieira, Dorice; Francois, Fritz; Hamilton, Frank
This review is an update to the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) Committee on Minority Affairs and Cultural Diversity's paper on colorectal cancer (CRC) in African Americans published in 2005. Over the past 10 years, the incidence and mortality rates of CRC in the United States has steadily declined. However, reductions have been strikingly much slower among African Americans who continue to have the highest rate of mortality and lowest survival when compared with all other racial groups. The reasons for the health disparities are multifactorial and encompass physician and patient barriers. Patient factors that contribute to disparities include poor knowledge of benefits of CRC screening, limited access to health care, insurance status along with fear and anxiety. Physician factors include lack of knowledge of screening guidelines along with disparate recommendations for screening. Earlier screening has been recommended as an effective strategy to decrease observed disparities; currently the ACG and American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopists recommend CRC screening in African Americans to begin at age 45. Despite the decline in CRC deaths in all racial and ethnic groups, there still exists a significant burden of CRC in African Americans, thus other strategies including educational outreach for health care providers and patients and the utilization of patient navigation systems emphasizing the importance of screening are necessary. These strategies have been piloted in both local communities and Statewide resulting in notable significant decreases in observed disparities. PMID:27467183
Malhi, Yadvinder; Adu-Bredu, Stephen; Asare, Rebecca A.; Lewis, Simon L.; Mayaux, Philippe
The rainforests are the great green heart of Africa, and present a unique combination of ecological, climatic and human interactions. In this synthesis paper, we review the past and present state processes of change in African rainforests, and explore the challenges and opportunities for maintaining a viable future for these biomes. We draw in particular on the insights and new analyses emerging from the Theme Issue on ‘African rainforests: past, present and future’ of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. A combination of features characterize the African rainforest biome, including a history of climate variation; forest expansion and retreat; a long history of human interaction with the biome; a relatively low plant species diversity but large tree biomass; a historically exceptionally high animal biomass that is now being severely hunted down; the dominance of selective logging; small-scale farming and bushmeat hunting as the major forms of direct human pressure; and, in Central Africa, the particular context of mineral- and oil-driven economies that have resulted in unusually low rates of deforestation and agricultural activity. We conclude by discussing how this combination of factors influences the prospects for African forests in the twenty-first century. PMID:23878339
Bell, Edward Earl
The purpose of this study was to assess the socialization skills, self-esteem, and academic readiness of African American males in a school environment. Discussions with students and the School Perceptions Questionnaire provided data for this investigation. The intended targets for this investigation were African American students; however, there…
Clarke, John Henrik
Africans who were brought across the Atlantic as slaves never fully adjusted to slavery or accepted its inevitability. Resistance began on board the slave ships, where many jumped overboard or committed suicide. African slaves in South America led the first revolts against tyranny in the New World. The first slave revolt in the Caribbean occurred…
Bell, Edward E.
Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American…
Art is a good place to learn about our multicultural planet, and African masks are prized throughout the world as powerfully expressive artistic images. Unfortunately, multicultural education, especially for young children, can perpetuate stereotypes. Masks taken out of context lose their meaning and the term "African masks" suggests that there is…
Presents a test stressing back-of-the-envelope questions most academic scientists should be able to answer. Topics include laser fusion, emergency core cooling, solar sea power, urban transportation, etc. Suggests that question-answer format can be used to transmit science and society subject matter more effectively than sophisticated computer…
This article examines moral education in the schools of Singapore, a highly complex society with considerable pluralism plus rapid urbanization and industrialization. Analysis of recent government reports indicates an inadequate response to moral education issues--concern for political stability and ethnic sensibilities promote generalizations…
Blakely, Edward J.
The major features previously used to define rural life now fail to describe much of rural America, as changes that place rural areas in the vanguard of American society are manifest in rural landscape, institutions, economic activity, and life. The principal policy thrusts of modernization and urbanization and the related theories of product…
Our modern life is full of information and information infiltrates into our daily life. Networking of the telecommunication is extended to society, company, and individual level. Although we have just entered the advanced information society, business world and our daily life have been steadily transformed by the advancement of information network. This advancement of information brings a big influence on economy, and will play they the main role in the expansion of domestic demands. This paper tries to view the image of coming advanced information society, focusing on the transforming businessman's life and the situation of our daily life, which became wealthy by the spread of daily life information and the visual information by satellite system, in the development of the intelligent city.
Hoehn, Jessica L.; Riekert, Kristin A.; Borrelli, Belinda; Rand, Cynthia S.; Eakin, Michelle N.
Objective: To identify barriers and motivators for reducing secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) for families of African-American, low-income, urban children. Method: Audiotaped intervention sessions of 52 African-American caregivers of Head Start children who reported being a smoker and/or had at least one smoker in the home were randomly sampled…
Murry, Velma McBride; Heflinger, Craig Anne; Suiter, Sarah V.; Brody, Gene H.
Rural African American children living in poverty have a higher prevalence rate of mental health disorders than their urban counterparts. While access to mental health services is lacking in resource scarce rural communities, African American rural residents may also be the most likely to confront significant barriers to care and help-seeking.…
Hamlet, Conrad E.
There has been no shortage of calls to improve teaching. Even the federal law, the No Child Left Behind Act, has mandated high quality teaching in the nation's public schools. But the question still remains "What makes an effective teacher, particularly of African-American males in an urban environment?" African-American males in…
Objective: To examine iron metabolism during the second and third trimesters in African American women with high-risk pregnancies. Design: Longitudinal pilot study. Setting: Large, university-based, urban Midwestern U.S. medical center. Participants: Convenience sample of 32 African American wome...
The purpose of this study was to examine self-determination and achievement motivation as predictors of successful school performance for high school African American males enrolled in an urban Texas school district. The students (N = 108) were placed into two distinct groups: higher-performing and lower-performing African American males based…
Research on the prediction of recidivism has largely been an enterprise of Western criminology. Therefore, the identification and selection of predictors has tended to follow the individualistic traditions of the West. Important advances in models and methods have not been extended to non-Western societies such as China. This article explores the implications of communitarian features of Chinese urban communities for prediction of recidivism. The article applies the perspective of social capital to the specification of predictors. Available community social-capital measures are included in the prediction model to capture the effects of communitarian cultural features. The results indicate that social capital variables generally have significant effects.
Mr. Randi will give an update of his lecture to the American Physical Society on the occasion of his award of the 1989 Forum Prize. The citation said: "for his unique defense of Science and the scientific method in many disciplines, including physics, against pseudoscience, frauds and charlatans. His use of scientific techniques has contributed to refuting suspicious and fraudulent claims of paranormal results. He has contributed significantly to public understanding of important issues where science and society interact". He is a professional magician and author of many books. He worked with John Maddox, the Editor of Nature to investigate the claims of "water with memory".
Sir Edmund Leach argues that doctors in the modern world, fortified by the traditional concept that the life of the sick person must at all costs be preserved, are to some extent guilty of the false antitheses current today between youth and age. Moreover youth means health, age illness and senility. Until this imbalance is corrected society will be in danger of `a kind of civil war between the generations'. Society must be taught again that mortality cannot be avoided or conquered by medical science, and at the same time that `health' is not enshrined in the young alone. PMID:1177271
Various threats are hiding in advanced informationalized society. As we see car accident problems in motorization society light aspects necessarily accompy shady ones. Under the changing circumstances of advanced informationalization added values of information has become much higher. It causes computer crime, hacker, computer virus to come to the surface. In addition it can be said that infringement of intellectual property and privacy are threats brought by advanced information. Against these threats legal, institutional and insurance measures have been progressed, and newly security industry has been established. However, they are not adequate individually or totally. The future vision should be clarified, and countermeasures according to the visions have to be considered.
Mr. Randi will give an update of his lecture to the American Physical Society on the occasion of his award of the 1989 Forum Prize. The citation said: "for his unique defense of Science and the scientific method in many disciplines, including physics, against pseudoscience, frauds and charlatans. His use of scientific techniques has contributed to refuting suspicious and fraudulent claims of paranormal results. He has contributed significantly to public understanding of important issues where science and society interact". He is a professional magician and author of many books. He worked with John Maddox, the Editor of Nature to investigate the claims of "water with memory".
Smith, D R; Taylor, O R; Brown, W M
Non-indigenous African honey bees have invaded most of South and Central America in just over 30 years. The genetic composition of this population and the means by which it rapidly colonizes new territory remain controversial. In particular, it has been unclear whether this 'Africanized' population has resulted from interbreeding between African and domestic European bees, or is an essentially pure African population. Also, it has not been known whether this population expanded primarily by female or by male migration. Restriction site mapping of 62 mitochondrial DNAs of African bees from Brazil, Venezuela and Mexico reveals that 97% were of African (Apis mellifera scutellata) type. Although neotropical European apiary populations are rapidly Africanized by mating with neotropical African males, there is little reciprocal gene flow to the neotropical African population through European females. These are the first genetic data to indicate that the neotropical African population could be expanding its range by female migration.
Goldmark, Peter C.
The population explosion and the trend to urban-suburban living means that 80% of the nation's population lives on less than 10% of the land. A long-term solution to this problem calls for a total change in our population distribution as well as our life style--and the key to this plan lies in new applications for existing communication…
Hatchett, Lena; Brown, Loretta; Hopkins, Joan; Larsen, Kelly; Fournier, Eliza
Food security is a challenge facing many African-American low-income communities nationally. Community and university partners have established urban agriculture programs to improve access to high quality affordable fruits and vegetables by growing, distributing, and selling food in urban neighborhoods. While the challenge of food security is within communities of color, few studies have described these urban agriculture programs and documented their impact on the crew members who work in the programs and live in the low-income communities. More information is needed on the program impact for crew and community health promotion. Using a survey and focus group discussion from the crew and staff we describe the program and activities of four Chicago Urban Agriculture programs. We summarized the impact these programs have on crew members' perception of urban agriculture, health habits, community engagement, and community health promotion in low-income African-American neighborhoods.
Sutherland, Vickie Mecshell
Epidemiological studies have shown that substance abuse among African American women is occurring at an alarming rate that exceeds rates for White women. The heightened use of alcohol and drugs among African American women is a problem that resulted from their racial, historical, and structural position in American society. The literature reveals…
Nelson, Jack L.
The idea of a democratic society based on human rights and social justice is the social issue examined in this book which is one of a series on challenges and choices in American values. The format followed in the series includes the following for secondary students: case studies illustrating the issue by focusing on human institutions, factual…
Tasmanian Education Dept., Hobart (Australia).
This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of the role of school in Tasmania as seen in a report by a committee appointed to determine that question. At present, Tasmanian children are required to attend school between the ages of 6 and 16. About 20% of children attend private schools. The demands of society for…
Taxis, Linda A., Ed.
The 32nd annual American Industrial Arts Association (AIAA) Convention was held in Louisville in 1970. Topics for the AIAA general session addresses were: (1) "Industrial Arts--The Blender Between Social Form and Technical Function," (2) "Technology and Society: Present and Future Challenges," (3) "A Student-Oriented Industrial Arts," (4) "Man:…
Describes the course, "Global Society," for first-year International Studies students at a Massachusetts liberal arts college. The course, which takes a historical approach, informs students about the nature, history, and present characteristics of the global system, taking theoretical, historical, and critical approaches that stress the…
Kazancigil, Ali, Ed.
The articles in this issue review the history of the sociological study of different societies' conceptions of time. Social time is the way people regard and employ time dependent on economic conditions, the organization of daily life, the cultural setting, and religion. (JDH)
Smith, Ralph A.
In considering the relation of art with society the author comments on the ideas of the American philosopher, John Dewey, the art historian, Lord Kenneth Clark, a popular humanistic educator, Clifton Fadiman, and a major cultural critic, Jacques Barzun. (Author/RK)
Sidorkin, Alexander M.
The advent of societies with low employment rates will present a challenge to education. Education must move away from the discourse of skills and towards the discourse of meaning and motivation. The paper considers three kinds of non-waged optional labor that may form the basis of the future economy: prosumption, volunteering, and self-design.…
van der Zee, Hendrik
Strategic issues in the development of a learning society are (1) broadening the definition of learning; (2) making the goal of learning growth toward completeness; (3) increasing collective competence; (4) fostering autonomy in learners; and (5) stressing a political approach to learning (the right to learn as a civil right). (SK)
Political leaders like to put forward guiding ideas or themes which pull their individual decisions into a broader narrative. For John Major it was Back to Basics, for Tony Blair it was the Third Way and for David Cameron it is the Big Society. While Mr. Blair relied on Lord Giddens to add intellectual weight to his idea, Mr. Cameron's legacy idea…
Air pollution is as much a product of our society as it is one of chemistry and meteorology. Social variables such as gender, age, health status and poverty are often linked with our exposure to air pollutants. Pollution can also affect our behaviour, while regulations to improve the environment can often challenge of freedom.