Science.gov

Sample records for african weather service

  1. Aviation weather services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprinkle, C. H.

    1983-01-01

    The primary responsibilities of the National Weather Service (NWS) are to: provide warnings of severe weather and flooding for the protection of life and property; provide public forecasts for land and adjacent ocean areas for planning and operation; and provide weather support for: production of food and fiber; management of water resources; production, distribution and use of energy; and efficient and safe air operations.

  2. National Weather Service

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lightning Safe Boating Rip Currents Thunderstorms and Tornadoes Space Weather Sun (Ultraviolet Radiation) Safety Campaigns Wind Drought ... Outlook Hurricanes Fire Weather Outlooks UV Alerts Drought Space Weather NOAA Weather Radio NWS CAP Feeds PAST ...

  3. Space Weather Services of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, K.; Hong, S.; Park, S.; Kim, Y. Y.; Wi, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).

  4. Space Weather Services of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, KiChang; Kim, Jae-Hun; Kim, Young Yun; Kwon, Yongki; Wi, Gwan-sik

    2016-07-01

    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, DREAM model estimating electron in satellite orbit, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).

  5. Weather service upgrade too costly?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    America needs timely and accurate weather forecasting, said Ernest F. Hollings (D-S.C.), chairman of the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation on National Ocean Policy. Calling the existing warning and forecast system dangerously obsolete, Hollings said that new technology “should dramatically improve the accuracy and timeliness of weather predictions,” as we face the new challenge of bringing the National Weather Service into the 21st century. Hollings' committee heard testimony to consider the modernization of the NWS and pending legislation (S98, S916) on June 18.Major components of the Weather Service Modernization program, according to John A. Knauss, administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, are the Next Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD), a new generation of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES-NEXT), the Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS), and the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIA). The best defense against severe weather—early warnings—is probably hampered by outdated equipment, he added.

  6. Mexican Space Weather Service (SCIESMEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Esparza, A.; De la Luz, V.; Mejia-Ambriz, J. C.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Corona-Romero, P.; Gonzalez, L. X.

    2015-12-01

    Recent modifications of the Civil Protection Law in Mexico include now specific mentions to space hazards and space weather phenomena. During the last few years, the UN has promoted international cooperation on Space Weather awareness, studies and monitoring. Internal and external conditions motivated the creation of a Space Weather Service in Mexico (SCIESMEX). The SCIESMEX (www.sciesmex.unam.mx) is operated by the Geophysics Institute at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). The UNAM has the experience of operating several critical national services, including the National Seismological Service (SSN); besides that has a well established scientific group with expertise in space physics and solar- terrestrial phenomena. The SCIESMEX is also related with the recent creation of the Mexican Space Agency (AEM). The project combines a network of different ground instruments covering solar, interplanetary, geomagnetic, and ionospheric observations. The SCIESMEX has already in operation computing infrastructure running the web application, a virtual observatory and a high performance computing server to run numerical models. SCIESMEX participates in the International Space Environment Services (ISES) and in the Inter-progamme Coordination Team on Space Weather (ICTSW) of the Word Meteorological Organization (WMO).

  7. NASA Space Weather Center Services: Potential for Space Weather Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Yihua; Kuznetsova, Masha; Pulkkinen, Antti; Taktakishvili, A.; Mays, M. L.; Chulaki, A.; Lee, H.; Hesse, M.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Space Weather Center's primary objective is to provide the latest space weather information and forecasting for NASA's robotic missions and its partners and to bring space weather knowledge to the public. At the same time, the tools and services it possesses can be invaluable for research purposes. Here we show how our archive and real-time modeling of space weather events can aid research in a variety of ways, with different classification criteria. We will list and discuss major CME events, major geomagnetic storms, and major SEP events that occurred during the years 2010 - 2012. Highlights of major tools/resources will be provided.

  8. Aviation weather service requirements, 1980 - 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieurance, N. A.

    1977-01-01

    Future aviation weather needs are discussed. Priority weather requirements and deficiencies existing for weather observations and forecast services in terminal areas are presented. Needs in en route operations up to 30 km are addressed with emphasis on turbulence, presence of suspended ice and water particles, SST to supersonic speeds, solar radiation, ozone, and sonic booms. Some conclusions are drawn and recommendations are presented.

  9. An overview of aviation weather services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Safety of flight is the first concern of the aviation weather service, the economics of air transportation is a second major interest. Weather is a significant causal factor impacting on the efficiency of air transportation. A discussion is presented on the functions of various weather service agencies as they relate to one another in the dissemination of information to the pilot and to the air traffic controller. Improvements in the aviation weather service and weather knowledge are cited as future goals. The weather service at the present time is an efficient system but future aviation objectives dictate more improvements are needed (especially in automation technology) to enhance flight planning and for safe and efficient flight execution.

  10. Merging Space Weather With NOAA's National Weather Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzerotti, Louis

    2004-07-01

    A major change in the reporting structure of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Space Environment Center (SEC) is poised to occur later this year when Congress approves the fiscal year 2005 budget proposed by the Bush administration. The activities of the center, together with its proposed budget, will move from under NOAA's research budget and administration to that of the National Weather Service (NWS), which is also administered by NOAA. The weather service will receive augmented funding to accommodate the SEC as one of the service's National Centers for Environmental Prediction.

  11. Earth Observation Services Weather Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Microprocessor-based systems for processing satellite data offer mariners real-time images of weather systems, day and night, of large areas or allow them to zoom in on a few square miles. Systems West markets these commercial image processing systems, which have significantly decreased the cost of satellite weather stations. The company was assisted by the EOCAP program, which provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in, and to broaden the use of, NASA-developed technology for analyzing information about Earth and ocean resources.

  12. Development of a Space Weather forecast service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirsch, Peter; Isles, John; Burge, Christina

    2014-05-01

    Space weather describes changes in the near-Earth space environment, it includes the monitoring of magnetic fields, plasma, radiation and other matter. Ejections of plasma from the Sun and magnetic storms at the Earth can increase the number of high energy particles trapped in the Earth's magnetic field; these events can present risks and hazards to space-borne instrumentation and personnel. Improved knowledge of space weather processes acquired through monitoring via both satellite and ground based instruments and related collaborative research projects (European Union Framework 7 - SPACECAST) has allowed the further development of forecasting models such as the British Antarctic Survey (BAS) Radiation Belt model. A system is being developed which enables real-time access to a space weather forecast service. This service will provide a 3-hourly forward look, updated hourly. To enable this forecast, systems are in place to gather, in real-time, ancillary data required for input into the BAS model, in particular data from the GOES satellite instruments. Auxiliary information from other satellites (e.g. ACE) and ground based magnetometers are also gathered and presented to assist in the interpretation of current space weather activity. BAS is working in collaboration with satellite operators and other interested parties to provide an interface which will inform them, in a timely fashion, of events that may require mitigating action to prevent possible extensive (and costly) effects to, for example, communication services. Data can be obtained via a web service, or viewed directly via a browser interface. In addition, it is anticipated that a post-event analysis suite be available, enabling the more detailed view of recent and past events and the possibility of running the model to "replay" periods of space weather history.

  13. Russia's national space weather service in 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burov, Viatcheslav; Avdyushin, Sergei; Denisova, Valentina

    RWC Russia (Institute of Applied Geophysics, Moscow) -forecasting center unites activity of the National Heliogeophysics Service of Russia and the Regional Warning Center of ISES. Nowadays the centre operates and fulfils numerous functions such as space weather monitoring, collecting, working and handing out the data to both Russian and foreign customers, compiling and spreading various kinds of the space weather condition forecasts. The first regular space weather forecast is known to have been issued on June 10, 1974. Since then this kind of activity has been processed and issued permanently 7 days a week. During year 2009 there were more than 17000 various short terms (semi -day, 1,2,3 and five days) forecasts of the geomagnetic fields and ionosphere conditions, magnetic fields, flare activity, radiation hazard in polar zones and the satellites traces. In the end of 2008 the Institute of Applied Geophysics was provided with necessary subsidizing to support the Space Weather Center. The fundamental repairs of the Institute's building have begun and are being done at present. They are to be completed this year. The allocated funds are sufficient to start the technical renovation of the Service, including: provision of the staff with up-to-date computing machinery; up-grading the observation stations equipment; preparing the apparatus and instruments for monitoring the near-earth space by two of our satellites "Meteor" and "Electro" ("Electro" -geostationary satellite). The "Meteor" satellite (subpolar orbit on altitude of 900 km) equipped with complex including: measurements of electron fluxes with energy more than 0.15 MeV, and proton fluxes with energy more than 5 MeV (40 channels) was launched on September 2009. These data (as well as ionosphere and geomagnetic data) are available on Web page www.geospace.ru since 2 quarter of the2010.

  14. National Weather Service Forecast Reference Evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, H. D.; Palmer, C. K.; Krone-Davis, P.; Melton, F. S.; Hobbins, M.

    2013-12-01

    The National Weather Service (NWS), Weather Forecasting Offices (WFOs) are producing daily reference evapotranspiration (ETrc) forecasts or FRET across the Western Region and in other selected locations since 2009, using the Penman - Monteith Reference Evapotranspiration equation for a short canopy (12 cm grasses), adopted by the Environmental Water Resources Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE-EWRI, 2004). The sensitivity of these daily calculations to fluctuations in temperatures, humidity, winds, and sky cover allows forecasters with knowledge of local terrain and weather patterns to better forecast in the ETrc inputs. The daily FRET product then evolved into a suite of products, including a weekly ETrc forecast for better water planning and a tabular point forecast for easy ingest into local water management-models. The ETrc forecast product suite allows water managers, the agricultural community, and the public to make more informed water-use decisions. These products permit operational planning, especially with the impending drought across much of the West. For example, the California Department of Water Resources not only ingests the FRET into their soil moisture models, but uses the FRET calculations when determining the reservoir releases in the Sacramento and American Rivers. We will also focus on the expansion of FRET verification, which compares the daily FRET to the observations of ETo from the California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS) across California's Central Valley for the 2012 water year.

  15. Ionospheric research for space weather service support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanislawska, Iwona; Gulyaeva, Tamara; Dziak-Jankowska, Beata

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge of the behavior of the ionosphere is very important for space weather services. A wide variety of ground based and satellite existing and future systems (communications, radar, surveillance, intelligence gathering, satellite operation, etc) is affected by the ionosphere. There are the needs for reliable and efficient support for such systems against natural hazard and minimalization of the risk failure. The joint research Project on the 'Ionospheric Weather' of IZMIRAN and SRC PAS is aimed to provide on-line the ionospheric parameters characterizing the space weather in the ionosphere. It is devoted to science, techniques and to more application oriented areas of ionospheric investigation in order to support space weather services. The studies based on data mining philosophy increasing the knowledge of ionospheric physical properties, modelling capabilities and gain applications of various procedures in ionospheric monitoring and forecasting were concerned. In the framework of the joint Project the novel techniques for data analysis, the original system of the ionospheric disturbance indices and their implementation for the ionosphere and the ionospheric radio wave propagation are developed since 1997. Data of ionosonde measurements and results of their forecasting for the ionospheric observatories network, the regional maps and global ionospheric maps of total electron content from the navigational satellite system (GNSS) observations, the global maps of the F2 layer peak parameters (foF2, hmF2) and W-index of the ionospheric variability are provided at the web pages of SRC PAS and IZMIRAN. The data processing systems include analysis and forecast of geomagnetic indices ap and kp and new eta index applied for the ionosphere forecasting. For the first time in the world the new products of the W-index maps analysis are provided in Catalogues of the ionospheric storms and sub-storms and their association with the global geomagnetic Dst storms is

  16. National Weather Service: Watch, Warning, Advisory Display

    MedlinePlus

    weather.gov Site Map News Organization Search for: SPC NCEP All NOAA Search by city or zip ... Fire Wx Outlooks RSS Feeds E-Mail Alerts Weather Information Storm Reports Storm Reports Dev. NWS Hazards ...

  17. Highlights of Space Weather Services/Capabilities at NASA/GSFC Space Weather Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fok, Mei-Ching; Zheng, Yihua; Hesse, Michael; Kuznetsova, Maria; Pulkkinen, Antti; Taktakishvili, Aleksandre; Mays, Leila; Chulaki, Anna; Lee, Hyesook

    2012-01-01

    The importance of space weather has been recognized world-wide. Our society depends increasingly on technological infrastructure, including the power grid as well as satellites used for communication and navigation. Such technologies, however, are vulnerable to space weather effects caused by the Sun's variability. NASA GSFC's Space Weather Center (SWC) (http://science.gsfc.nasa.gov//674/swx services/swx services.html) has developed space weather products/capabilities/services that not only respond to NASA's needs but also address broader interests by leveraging the latest scientific research results and state-of-the-art models hosted at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC: http://ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov). By combining forefront space weather science and models, employing an innovative and configurable dissemination system (iSWA.gsfc.nasa.gov), taking advantage of scientific expertise both in-house and from the broader community as well as fostering and actively participating in multilateral collaborations both nationally and internationally, NASA/GSFC space weather Center, as a sibling organization to CCMC, is poised to address NASA's space weather needs (and needs of various partners) and to help enhancing space weather forecasting capabilities collaboratively. With a large number of state-of-the-art physics-based models running in real-time covering the whole space weather domain, it offers predictive capabilities and a comprehensive view of space weather events throughout the solar system. In this paper, we will provide some highlights of our service products/capabilities. In particular, we will take the 23 January and the 27 January space weather events as examples to illustrate how we can use the iSWA system to track them in the interplanetary space and forecast their impacts.

  18. Data Network Weather Service Reporting - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Frey

    2012-08-30

    A final report is made of a three-year effort to develop a new forecasting paradigm for computer network performance. This effort was made in co-ordination with Fermi Lab's construction of e-Weather Center.

  19. Updates on CCMC Activities and GSFC Space Weather Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhengm Y.; Hesse, M.; Kuznetsova, M.; Pulkkinen, A.; Rastaetter, L.; Maddox, M.; Taktakishvili, A.; Berrios, D.; Chulaki, A.; Lee, H.; Macneice, P.; Mays, L.; Mendoza, A. M.; Mullinix, R.

    2011-01-01

    In this presentation, we provide updates on CCMC modeling activities, CCMC metrics and validation studies, and other CCMC efforts. In addition, an overview of GSFC Space Weather Services (a sibling organization to the Community Coordinated Modeling Center) and its products/capabilities will be given. We show how some of the research grade models, if running in an operational mode, can help address NASA's space weather needs by providing forecasting/now casting capabilities of significant space weather events throughout the solar system.

  20. Non-standard Space Weather Products and Services from NOAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denig, W. F.; Viereck, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    The NOAA National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) have developed and are continuing to develop a variety of "non-standard" data products for near real-time space weather applications. Core space weather services provided by SWPC include access to space environmental data from NOAA operational satellites and leveraged data from NASA and USAF assets. Core services also include operational space weather model results providing environmental specifications and forecasts. Non-standard products to be discussed include space weather services and applications that have either not yet reached operational maturity or are being released as beta-version test products. Included are the Forecasting Ionospheric Real-time Scintillation Tool (FIRST), the Ovation Prime Real-Time product, the Space Environment Anomaly Expert System Real Time (SEAESRT) and the PEople Empowered Product (PEEP). The status of these products, including how to access and provide comments, will be presented.

  1. CCMC: Serving research and space weather communities with unique space weather services, innovative tools and resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yihua; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Pulkkinen, Antti; Maddox, Marlo

    2015-04-01

    With the addition of Space Weather Research Center (a sub-team within CCMC) in 2010 to address NASA’s own space weather needs, CCMC has become a unique entity that not only facilitates research through providing access to the state-of-the-art space science and space weather models, but also plays a critical role in providing unique space weather services to NASA robotic missions, developing innovative tools and transitioning research to operations via user feedback. With scientists, forecasters and software developers working together within one team, through close and direct connection with space weather customers and trusted relationship with model developers, CCMC is flexible, nimble and effective to meet customer needs. In this presentation, we highlight a few unique aspects of CCMC/SWRC’s space weather services, such as addressing space weather throughout the solar system, pushing the frontier of space weather forecasting via the ensemble approach, providing direct personnel and tool support for spacecraft anomaly resolution, prompting development of multi-purpose tools and knowledge bases, and educating and engaging the next generation of space weather scientists.

  2. 75 FR 43929 - National Weather Service (NWS) Strategic Plan, 2011-2020

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Weather Service (NWS) Strategic Plan, 2011-2020 AGENCY: National Weather Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: The National Weather Service's (NWS) Strategic Plan...

  3. Space Weather Services at Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, M.; Pulkkinen, A.; Zheng, Y.; Maddox, M.; Kuznetsova, M.; Taktakishvil, A.; Rastaetter, L.

    2010-01-01

    The Space Weather Laboratory (SWL) forms a focal point at GSFC for the generation of space weather tools and information. This information is based on data from space mission and ground observatories, as well as on forefront model calculations conducted at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC). CCMC works with the research community to bring to bear the power of communitydeveloped space science models on space weather problems. Data from primarily from NASA missions but also from NOAA and other partner agencies are combined with model results into a fully configurable space weather information display by means of the iSWA system. This information and iSWA form the basis for and SWL-provided service to NASA's robotic mission fleet, which includes forecasts, regular updates, and warnings. This service benefits from a strong partnership with NASA's Space Radiation Analysis Group, and with the US Air Force Weather Agency. In this presentation, we provide a summary of space weather capabilities and services and we present an outlook into the future.

  4. Weather and emotional state: a search for associations between weather and calls to telephone counseling services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driscoll, Dennis; Stillman, Daniel

    2002-08-01

    Previous research has revealed that an emotional response to weather might be indicated by calls to telephone counseling services. We analyzed call frequency from such "hotlines", each serving communities in a major metropolitan area of the United States (Detroit, Washington DC, Dallas and Seattle). The periods examined were all, or parts of, the years 1997 and 1998. Associations with subjectively derived synoptic weather types for all cities except Seattle, as well as with individual weather elements [cloudiness (sky cover), precipitation, windspeed, and interdiurnal temperature change] for all four cities, were investigated. Analysis of variance and t-tests (significance of means) were applied to test the statistical significance of differences. Although statistically significant results were obtained in scattered instances, the total number was within that expected by chance, and there was little in the way of consistency to these associations. One clear exception was the increased call frequency during destructive (severe) weather, when there is obvious concern about the damage done by it.

  5. Planetary Space Weather Services for the Europlanet 2020 Research Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, N.; Grande, M.

    2015-10-01

    Under Horizon 2020, the Europlanet 2020 Research Infrastructure (EPN2020-RI) will include an entirely new Virtual Access Service, WP5 VA1 "Planetary Space Weather Services" (PSWS) that will extend the concepts of space weather and space situational awareness to other planets in our Solar System and in particular to spacecraft that voyage through it. VA1 will make five entirely new 'toolkits' accessible to the research community and to industrial partners planning for space missions: a general planetary space weather toolkit, as well as three toolkits dedicated to the following key planetary environments: Mars (in support ExoMars), comets (building on the expected success of the ESA Rosetta mission), and outer planets (in preparation for the ESA JUICE mission to be launched in 2022). This will give the European planetary science community new methods, interfaces, functionalities and/or plugins dedicated to planetary space weather in the tools and models available within the partner institutes. It will also create a novel event-diary toolkit aiming at predicting and detecting planetary events like meteor showers and impacts. A variety of tools (in the form of web applications, standalone software, or numerical models in various degrees of implementation) are available for tracing propagation of planetary and/or solar events through the Solar System and modelling the response of the planetary environment (surfaces, atmospheres, ionospheres, and magnetospheres) to those events. But these tools were not originally designed for planetary event prediction and space weather applications. So WP10 JRA4 "Planetary Space Weather Services" (PSWS) will provide the additional research and tailoring required to apply them for these purposes. The overall objectives of this JRA will be to review, test, improve and adapt methods and tools available within the partner institutes in order to make prototype planetary event and space weather services operational in Europe at the end of

  6. Space weather services: now and in the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunches, J.; Murtagh, W.

    The NOAA Space Environment Center has provided continuous 24 hours per day 7 days per week space weather products and services to the United States and the international community via the International Space Environment Service for more than 30 years Over that time span an evolutionary process has occurred In the early days the products consisted of short text and coded messages to accommodate the communications technologies of the period The birth of the Internet made the sharing of graphical imagery and real-time data possible enabling service providers to communicate more information more quickly to the users Now in parallel with the advances in telecommunications the space weather user community has grown dramatically and is enunciating ever-stronger requirements back to the service providers The commercial airline community is probably the best example of an industry wanting more from space weather How are the users going to continue to change over the next 10-20 years and what services might they need How will they get this information and how might they use it This is the overall thrust of the presentation offering a look to the future and a challenge to the space weather community

  7. Verification of National Weather Service spot forecasts using surface observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammers, Matthew Robert

    Software has been developed to evaluate National Weather Service spot forecasts issued to support prescribed burns and early-stage wildfires. Fire management officials request spot forecasts from National Weather Service Weather Forecast Offices to provide detailed guidance as to atmospheric conditions in the vicinity of planned prescribed burns as well as wildfires that do not have incident meteorologists on site. This open source software with online display capabilities is used to examine an extensive set of spot forecasts of maximum temperature, minimum relative humidity, and maximum wind speed from April 2009 through November 2013 nationwide. The forecast values are compared to the closest available surface observations at stations installed primarily for fire weather and aviation applications. The accuracy of the spot forecasts is compared to those available from the National Digital Forecast Database (NDFD). Spot forecasts for selected prescribed burns and wildfires are used to illustrate issues associated with the verification procedures. Cumulative statistics for National Weather Service County Warning Areas and for the nation are presented. Basic error and accuracy metrics for all available spot forecasts and the entire nation indicate that the skill of the spot forecasts is higher than that available from the NDFD, with the greatest improvement for maximum temperature and the least improvement for maximum wind speed.

  8. African Americans' Access to Vocational Rehabilitation Services after Antidiscrimination Legislation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwachofi, Ari K.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine changes in African Americans' access to occasional rehabilitation (VR) services subsequent to landmark legislative and judicial antidiscrimination provisions of the mid-20th century. This study compared African American VR access before the antidiscrimination legislation in 1937 and after the legislation…

  9. Planetary Space Weather Services for the Europlanet 2020 Research Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Nicolas; Grande, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Under Horizon 2020, the Europlanet 2020 Research Infrastructure (EPN2020-RI) will include an entirely new Virtual Access Service, WP5 VA1 "Planetary Space Weather Services" (PSWS) that will extend the concepts of space weather and space situational awareness to other planets in our Solar System and in particular to spacecraft that voyage through it. VA1 will make five entirely new 'toolkits' accessible to the research community and to industrial partners planning for space missions: a general planetary space weather toolkit, as well as three toolkits dedicated to the following key planetary environments: Mars (in support ExoMars), comets (building on the expected success of the ESA Rosetta mission), and outer planets (in preparation for the ESA JUICE mission to be launched in 2022). This will give the European planetary science community new methods, interfaces, functionalities and/or plugins dedicated to planetary space weather in the tools and models available within the partner institutes. It will also create a novel event-diary toolkit aiming at predicting and detecting planetary events like meteor showers and impacts. A variety of tools (in the form of web applications, standalone software, or numerical models in various degrees of implementation) are available for tracing propagation of planetary and/or solar events through the Solar System and modelling the response of the planetary environment (surfaces, atmospheres, ionospheres, and magnetospheres) to those events. But these tools were not originally designed for planetary event prediction and space weather applications. So WP10 JRA4 "Planetary Space Weather Services" (PSWS) will provide the additional research and tailoring required to apply them for these purposes. The overall objectives of this Joint Research Aactivities will be to review, test, improve and adapt methods and tools available within the partner institutes in order to make prototype planetary event and space weather services operational in

  10. Federal Aviation Administration and National Weather Service Aviation Research and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    An overview is given of the developmental status of aviation weather services. Particular attention is given to justifying the need for better, more reliable service. The accomplishments of several automatic weather stations are discussed.

  11. Data requirements in support of the marine weather service program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Travers, J.; Mccaslin, R. W.; Mull, M.

    1972-01-01

    Data support activities for the Marine Weather Service Program are outlined. Forecasts, cover anomolous water levels, including sea and swell, surface and breakers, and storm surge. Advisories are also provided for sea ice on the Great Lake and Cook inlet in winter, and in the Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort Seas in summer. Attempts were made to deal with ocean currents in the Gulf Stream, areas of upwelling, and thermal structure at least down through the mixed layer.

  12. Urban African American Males' Perceptions of School Counseling Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Delila; Simmons, Robert W., III; Bryant, Rhonda M.; Henfield, Malik

    2011-01-01

    Using a qualitative framework, researchers explored urban African American male students' perceptions of their school counselors and the ways to improve school counseling services. While participants reported positive feelings toward their school counselors, they identified specific services school counselors can offer them to optimize academic…

  13. The CAMI Project - Weather and Climate Services for Caribbean Food Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trotman, Adrian; Van Meerbeeck, Cedric

    2013-04-01

    Food security is major focus of Caribbean governments, with production being of particular concern. For the past three decades, Caribbean agriculture has been declining in relative importance, both in terms of its contribution to GDP and its share of the labour force. One of the problems Caribbean agriculture faces is the destructive impacts from weather and climate extremes. These include flood, drought, extreme temperatures, and strong winds from tropical cyclones. Other potential disasters, such as from pests and diseases attacks, are also weather and climate driven. These make weather and climate information critically important to decision-making in agriculture in the Caribbean region. In an effort to help reduce weather and climate related risks to the food security sector, The Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology, along with its partners the Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and ten National Meteorological Services from within the Caribbean Community launched and implemented the Caribbean Agrometeorological Initiative (CAMI). From 2010 to 2013, CAMI set out to provide relevant information to farmers, and the industry in general, for decision and policy making. The project is funded by the European Union through the Science and Technology Programme of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of Countries' (ACP). The overarching objective of CAMI was to increase and sustain agricultural productivity at the farm level in the Caribbean region through improved applications of weather and climate information, using an integrated and coordinated approach. Currently, this is done through (i) provision of relevant climate information appropriately disseminated, (ii) predictions on seasonal rainfall and temperature, (iii) support for improved irrigation management, (iv) the development of strategically selected weather-driven pest and disease models, (v) use of crop simulation models

  14. Development of Weather Radar Mosaic Products in the U.S. National Weather Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitzmiller, D. H.; Guan, S.; Mello, C.; Dai, J.

    2002-05-01

    The Weather Surveillance Radar 1988 (Doppler) (WSR-88D) network contains 142 units within the conterminous United States, 7 units in Alaska, and 4 units in Hawaii. The units are maintained by several agencies of the federal government, including the National Weather Service, the Federal Aviation Administration, and the Department of Defense. Many users of the data require access to observations from multiple radars simultaneously, and various mechanisms have beendevised to create national- and regional-scale geographic composites. Within the National Weather Service, creation of mosaics at local forecast offices can take up a substantial portion of available computing resources. The Meteorological Development Laboratory has undertaken the development of a system that will centrally produce and disseminate a set of mosaic products covering the conterminous United States, thus reducing the need for local production of the products. The effort has been made possible by the recent completion of communications network upgrades that permit rapid central collection of data from all sites within the WSR-88D network. A review of the radar product suite will be presented. The suite presently includes reflectivity, precipitation ccumulation estimates, vertically-integrated liquid water estimates, 18-dBZ echo top heights, and convective storm cell information such as hail indications and Doppler indications of mesocyclones and tornadoes. The operational goal is the production of mosaics at approximately 2-km spatial resolution for reflectivity and 4-km resolution for other fields, on a 5-minute update cycle. Some products are currently made available in graphical format via the World-Wide Web. Substantial progress has been made in developing an automated procedure to identify nonprecipitation echoes, including birds, insects, ground clutter, and anomalous propagation. Tests comparing the outcome of automated target identification with manual identification will be presented.

  15. Interactive Forecasting with the National Weather Service River Forecast System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, George F.; Page, Donna

    1993-01-01

    The National Weather Service River Forecast System (NWSRFS) consists of several major hydrometeorologic subcomponents to model the physics of the flow of water through the hydrologic cycle. The entire NWSRFS currently runs in both mainframe and minicomputer environments, using command oriented text input to control the system computations. As computationally powerful and graphically sophisticated scientific workstations became available, the National Weather Service (NWS) recognized that a graphically based, interactive environment would enhance the accuracy and timeliness of NWS river and flood forecasts. Consequently, the operational forecasting portion of the NWSRFS has been ported to run under a UNIX operating system, with X windows as the display environment on a system of networked scientific workstations. In addition, the NWSRFS Interactive Forecast Program was developed to provide a graphical user interface to allow the forecaster to control NWSRFS program flow and to make adjustments to forecasts as necessary. The potential market for water resources forecasting is immense and largely untapped. Any private company able to market the river forecasting technologies currently developed by the NWS Office of Hydrology could provide benefits to many information users and profit from providing these services.

  16. The National Weather Service Ceilometer Planetary Boundary Layer Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, M.; Atkinson, D.; Demoz, B.; Vermeesch, K.; Delgado, R.

    2016-06-01

    The National Weather Service (NWS) is investigating the potential of utilizing the Automatic Surface Observing System's (ASOS) cloud base height indicator, the Vaisala CL31 ceilometer, to profile aerosols in the atmosphere. Field test sites of stand-alone CL31 ceilometers have been established, primarily, around the Washington DC metropolitan area, with additional systems in southwest USA and Puerto Rico. The CL31 PBL project examines the CL31 data collected for data quality, mixing height retrieval applicability, and its compliment to satellite data. This paper reviews the topics of the CL31 data quality and mixing height retrieval applicability.

  17. 32 CFR 644.406 - Transfers to Secretary of Transportation and the National Weather Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... National Weather Service. 644.406 Section 644.406 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... Property and Easement Interests § 644.406 Transfers to Secretary of Transportation and the National Weather... similarly authorizes transfer of meteorological facilities, without charge, to the National Weather Service....

  18. 32 CFR 644.406 - Transfers to Secretary of Transportation and the National Weather Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... National Weather Service. 644.406 Section 644.406 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... Property and Easement Interests § 644.406 Transfers to Secretary of Transportation and the National Weather... similarly authorizes transfer of meteorological facilities, without charge, to the National Weather Service....

  19. 32 CFR 644.406 - Transfers to Secretary of Transportation and the National Weather Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... National Weather Service. 644.406 Section 644.406 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... Property and Easement Interests § 644.406 Transfers to Secretary of Transportation and the National Weather... similarly authorizes transfer of meteorological facilities, without charge, to the National Weather Service....

  20. 32 CFR 644.406 - Transfers to Secretary of Transportation and the National Weather Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... National Weather Service. 644.406 Section 644.406 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... Property and Easement Interests § 644.406 Transfers to Secretary of Transportation and the National Weather... similarly authorizes transfer of meteorological facilities, without charge, to the National Weather Service....

  1. 32 CFR 644.406 - Transfers to Secretary of Transportation and the National Weather Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... National Weather Service. 644.406 Section 644.406 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... Property and Easement Interests § 644.406 Transfers to Secretary of Transportation and the National Weather... similarly authorizes transfer of meteorological facilities, without charge, to the National Weather Service....

  2. National Weatherization Assistance Program Impact Evaluation - Client Satisfaction Survey: WAP Service Delivery from the Client's Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Carolyn; Carroll, David; Berger, Jacqueline; Driscoll, Colleen; Tonn, Bruce Edward

    2015-10-01

    This report presents the results of a survey of recipients to measure satisfaction with services provided by local weatherization agencies being supported by funding from Department of Energy's Weatherization Assistance Program.

  3. Rurality and African American Perspectives on Children's Mental Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukolo, Abraham; Heflinger, Craig Anne

    2011-01-01

    The combined effect of race and place of residence on caregivers' perceptions of children's mental health services is underresearched. Differences in caregiver strain, barriers-to-care endorsement, and provider satisfaction are examined among 175 rural and urban African American caregivers from one Southern state whose children received Medicaid…

  4. Weather.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet K-8, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This subject guide to weather resources includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines, and professional resources. Related disciplines are indicated, age levels are specified, and a student activity is included. (LRW)

  5. Participation Levels of African Americans in the Profession of Blindness Services: Views of Service Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesen, J. Martin; And Others

    This study investigated possible reasons for the observed imbalance in the level of employment of African Americans in vocational rehabilitation (VR) services for persons with visual impairments in Alabama and Mississippi. A survey instrument was developed and administered to 126 administrators, professional service providers, and secretaries…

  6. The representation of low-level clouds during the West African monsoon in weather and climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kniffka, Anke; Hannak, Lisa; Knippertz, Peter; Fink, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The West African monsoon is one of the most important large-scale circulation features in the tropics and the associated seasonal rainfalls are crucial to rain-fed agriculture and water resources for hundreds of millions of people. However, numerical weather and climate models still struggle to realistically represent salient features of the monsoon across a wide range of scales. Recently it has been shown that substantial errors in radiation and clouds exist in the southern parts of West Africa (8°W-8°E, 5-10°N) during summer. This area is characterised by strong low-level jets associated with the formation of extensive ultra-low stratus clouds. Often persisting long after sunrise, these clouds have a substantial impact on the radiation budget at the surface and thus the diurnal evolution of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Here we present some first results from a detailed analysis of the representation of these clouds and the associated PBL features across a range of weather and climate models. Recent climate model simulations for the period 1991-2010 run in the framework of the Year of Tropical Convection (YOTC) offer a great opportunity for this analysis. The models are those used for the latest Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, but for YOTC the model output has a much better temporal resolution, allowing to resolve the diurnal cycle, and includes diabatic terms, allowing to much better assess physical reasons for errors in low-level temperature, moisture and thus cloudiness. These more statistical climate model analyses are complemented by experiments using ICON (Icosahedral non-hydrostatic general circulation model), the new numerical weather prediction model of the German Weather Service and the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology. ICON allows testing sensitivities to model resolution and numerical schemes. These model simulations are validated against (re-)analysis data, satellite observations (e.g. CM SAF cloud and

  7. Overview of Space Weather Impacts and NASA Space Weather Center Services and Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Y.

    2012-01-01

    The presentation is divided into two major components. First, I will give an overview of space weather phenomenon and their associated impacts. Then I will describe the comprehensive list of products and tools that NASA Space Weather Center has developed by leveraging more than a decade long modeling experience enabled by the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) and latest scientific research results from the broad science community. In addition, a summary of the space weather activities we have been engaged in and our operational experience will be provided.

  8. Improved weather services for helicopter operations in the Gulf of Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hilsenrod, A.

    1981-06-01

    Current weather services in support of the more than 800 helicopters operating in the Gulf of Mexico is reviewed and the limitations noted. Means of improving these services based on currently available facilities and ongoing research and development efforts are presented. Immediate improvements in weather services can be attained by the implementation of a plan agreed upon by personnel of the FAA, NWS, and helicopter operators. Near-term (to 1986) and longer-term (beyond 1986) developments in observations, forecasts, and communications that can improve weather services are presented.

  9. 15 CFR Appendix A to Part 946 - National Weather Service Modernization Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... forth in section I.A.1 of Appendix A to the Weather Service Modernization Regulations, 15 CFR part 946... responsibility for the affected service area has recommended certification in accordance with 15 CFR 946.7(a). 10... certification of no degradation of service to the affected service area in accordance with 15 CFR 946.8....

  10. 15 CFR Appendix A to Part 946 - National Weather Service Modernization Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... forth in section I.A.1 of Appendix A to the Weather Service Modernization Regulations, 15 CFR part 946... responsibility for the affected service area has recommended certification in accordance with 15 CFR 946.7(a). 10... certification of no degradation of service to the affected service area in accordance with 15 CFR 946.8....

  11. 15 CFR Appendix A to Part 946 - National Weather Service Modernization Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... forth in section I.A.1 of Appendix A to the Weather Service Modernization Regulations, 15 CFR part 946... responsibility for the affected service area has recommended certification in accordance with 15 CFR 946.7(a). 10... certification of no degradation of service to the affected service area in accordance with 15 CFR 946.8....

  12. 15 CFR Appendix A to Part 946 - National Weather Service Modernization Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... forth in section I.A.1 of Appendix A to the Weather Service Modernization Regulations, 15 CFR part 946... responsibility for the affected service area has recommended certification in accordance with 15 CFR 946.7(a). 10... certification of no degradation of service to the affected service area in accordance with 15 CFR 946.8....

  13. 15 CFR Appendix A to Part 946 - National Weather Service Modernization Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... forth in section I.A.1 of Appendix A to the Weather Service Modernization Regulations, 15 CFR part 946... responsibility for the affected service area has recommended certification in accordance with 15 CFR 946.7(a). 10... certification of no degradation of service to the affected service area in accordance with 15 CFR 946.8....

  14. REGIONAL COORDINATION OF NOAA/NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE CLIMATE SERVICES IN THE WEST (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bair, A.

    2009-12-01

    The climate services program is an important component in the National Weather Service’s (NWS) mission, and is one of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) top five priorities. The Western Region NWS started building a regional and local climate services program in late 2001, with input from local NWS offices and key partners. The original goals of the Western Region climate services program were to strive to provide climate services that were useful, easily accessible, well understood, coordinated and supported by partners, and reflect customer needs. While the program has evolved, and lessons have been learned, these goals are still guiding the program. Regional and local level Climate Services are a fundamental part of NOAA/NWS’s current and future role in providing climate services. There is an ever growing demand for climate information and services to aid the public in decision-making and no single entity alone can provide the range of information and services needed. Coordination and building strong partnerships at the local and regional levels is the key to providing optimal climate services. Over the past 8 years, Western Region NWS has embarked on numerous coordination efforts to build the regional and local climate services programs, such as: collaboration (both internally and externally to NOAA) meetings and projects, internal staff training, surveys, and outreach efforts. In order to gain regional and local buy-in from the NWS staff, multiple committees were utilized to plan and develop goals and structure for the program. While the regional and local climate services program in the NWS Western Region has had many successes, there have been several important lessons learned from efforts that have not been as successful. These lessons, along with past experience, close coordination with partners, and the need to constantly improve/change the program as the climate changes, form the basis for future program development and

  15. Space Weather Modeling Services at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) is a multi-agency partnership, which aims at the creation of next generation space weather models. The goal of the CCMC is to support the research and developmental work necessary to substantially increase the present-day modeling capability for space weather purposes, and to provide models for transition to the Rapid Prototyping Centers at the space weather forecast centers. This goal requires close collaborations with and substantial involvement of the research community. The physical regions to be addressed by CCMC-related activities range from the solar atmosphere to the Earth's upper atmosphere. The CCMC is an integral part of the National Space Weather Program Implementation Plan, of NASA's Living With a Star (LWS) initiative, and of the Department of Defense Space Weather Transition Plan. CCMC includes a facility at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. CCMC also provides, to the research community, access to state-of-the-art space research models. In this paper we will provide a description of the current CCMC status, discuss current plans, research and development accomplishments and goals, and describe the model testing and validation process undertaken as part of the CCMC mandate. Special emphasis will be on solar and heliospheric models currently residing at CCMC, and on plans for validation and verification.

  16. Discussion Part 2: Metrics and Validation Needs for Space Weather Models and Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, Alexi; Onsager, Terrance; Kuznetsova, Maria; Bingham, Suzy

    2016-07-01

    We invite the space weather community to contribute to a discussion on the main themes of this PSW1 event, with the aim of identifying and prioritising key issues and formulating recommendations and guidelines for policy makers, stakeholders, and data and service providers. This event particularly encourages dialogue between modellers, application developers, service providers and users of space weather products and services in order to review the state of model and service validation activities, to build upon successes, to identify challenges, and to develop a strategy for continuous assessment of space weather predictive capabilities and tracing the improvement over time, as recommended in the COSPAR Space Weather Roadmap. We discuss space weather verification & validation needs for the current generation of activities under development and in planning globally, together with perspectives for modellers and scientific community to further participate in the space weather endeavour. All Assembly participants are welcome to participate in this PSW discussion session and all are invited to submit input for the discussion to the authors ahead of the Assembly. The discussion will take place in two parts at the start and end of the PSW1 event. It is intended that the outcome of these discussion sessions will be formulated as a panel position paper on metrics and validation needs for space weather models and services.

  17. Introduction and Discussion Part 1: Metrics and Validation Needs for Space Weather Models and Services.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, Alexi; Onsager, Terrance; Kuznetsova, Maria; Bingham, Suzy

    2016-07-01

    We invite the space weather community to contribute to a discussion on the main themes of this PSW1 event, with the aim of identifying and prioritising key issues and formulating recommendations and guidelines for policy makers, stakeholders, and data and service providers. This event particularly encourages dialogue between modellers, application developers, service providers and users of space weather products and services in order to review the state of model and service validation activities, to build upon successes, to identify challenges, and to develop a strategy for continuous assessment of space weather predictive capabilities and tracing the improvement over time, as recommended in the COSPAR Space Weather Roadmap. We discuss space weather verification & validation needs for the current generation of activities under development and in planning globally, together with perspectives for modellers and scientific community to further participate in the space weather endeavour. All Assembly participants are welcome to participate in this PSW discussion session and all are invited to submit input for the discussion to the authors ahead of the Assembly. The discussion will take place in two parts at the start and end of the PSW1 event. It is intended that the outcome of these discussion sessions will be formulated as a panel position paper on metrics and validation needs for space weather models and services.

  18. Climate Modeling at the Austrian Weather Service (ZAMG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matulla, C.; Anders, I.; Auer, I.

    2009-05-01

    In later 2007 the Austrian Weather Service (ZAMG) established a group that shall deal with climate change modeling. Two of the group's main goals are to provide climate change scenarios for the assessment of the impact on ecosystems and to reconstruct past climate states along with their change. The former aim is to derive estimates of might happen to our ecosystems under different emission-pathways, whilst the latter goal is to better understand what has caused characteristical changes, which are to be found in proxies. Both aims can be achieved by empirical or dynamical downscaling models, which are ultimately based on the reliability of the driving GCMs results. It is well known that empirical and dynamical downscaling models do have advantages and disadvantages, which are different. As such it appears reasonable to use the approach which is better adapted to the considered question. It may be meaningful to apply empirical downscaling if long periods of time (such as substantial parts of the Holocene) are in the center of attention, whereas dynamical downscaling may be better suited to address questions that are related to decades. Up to now we were more involved with empirical downscaling that helped us to work together with scientists assessing the impact on ecosystems, as for instance, fish in a river (Matulla et al. 2007), forests (Lexer et al. 2002) or phenological phases (Scheifinger et al. 2007). After catching a glimpse of those results, we will turn to dynamical modeling. Here we would like to present findings from case studies, which are related to the more recent past. Our next target is the modelling of possible future climate conditions within the Greater Alpine Region (GAR, see e.g. Auer et al. 2007) as well as some characteristical periods throughout the Holocene as for instance the 8.2k event. This event is to be found in a variety of proxies within and also outside GAR. Auer I., Boehm R., Jurkovic A., Lipa W., Orlik A., Potzmann R., Schoener W

  19. National Weather Service (NWS) Implementation of the Hydrologic Ensemble Forecast Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, R. K.; Fresch, M. A.; Wells, E.

    2015-12-01

    Operational hydrologic forecasters as well as the communities that they serve have long recognized the value of including uncertainty in hydrologic projections. While single value (deterministic) forecasts are easy to understand and link to specific mitigation actions, the potential for using modern risk management strategies is very limited. This is particularly evident at lead times beyond a few days when forecast skill may be low but the value (and costs) of mitigation actions may be quite high. Based on nearly ten years of research and development, the NWS's National Water Center (NWC, formerly the Office of Hydrologic Development) implemented and evaluated the Hydrologic Ensemble Forecast Service (HEFS, see Demargne et al. 2014 Brown et al., 2013, Brown et al., 2014a/b/c). The HEFS provides hydrologic forecasts that reflect the total uncertainty, including that contributed by the meteorological forcing and the hydrologic modeling. The HEFS leverages the skill in weather and climate forecasts to produce ensemble forecasts of precipitation, temperature and streamflow at forecast lead times ranging from one hour to one year. The resulting ensembles represent a rich dataset from which a wide variety of risk-based decision support information can be derived. The NWS River Forecast Centers (RFCs) are starting to incorporate the Hydrologic Ensemble Forecast Service (HEFS,) into their routine operations. In 2012, five (of thirteen) RFCs began running and testing HEFS in an experimental mode. In 2015, HEFS was deployed (including training and software support) to the eight remaining RFCs. Currently, all RFCs are running the HEFS every day in real-time for an increasing number of forecast locations. Eventually, forecasts from the HEFS will be integrated into the warning/hazard services at the NWS Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs). This contribution describes the HEFS framework, the development and deployment strategy, and the operational plans for HEFS going forward.

  20. Space Weather Services and Studies at RWC-China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huaning

    In China, space weather programs have long been supported by Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Chinese Science and Technology Ministry (CSTM) and Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC). A series of major scientific programs was implemented after 1993. In order to provide users reliable space weather forecasts, members of RWC-China have been making great efforts to improve the forecasting methods. There are many scientists involved in model researches. The contents of the studied models cover a wild range including solar activity, interplanetary space environment, geomagnetic activity, ionosphere and atmosphere environment. The main purpose of the model researches is to integrate different models to form a forecast chain from the Sun to the Earth.

  1. An Africentric Model for AIDS Education, Prevention, and Psychological Services within the African American Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Pamela M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes an Africentric model for training psychologists who deliver Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) education, prevention, and services within the African-American community. Principles of the NTU philosophy (a Bantu concept) and Nguzo Saba were used in training 75 African-American psychologists to deliver prevention services. (SLD)

  2. Training for Effective National Weather Service (NWS) Communication in Chat and Conference Calls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    Staff of the National Weather Service Offices should be able to understand interpersonal communication and public relations in order to better serve their mission to "protect lives and property" as well as work with their internal and external partners (NWS Internet Services Team). Two technologies have been developed to assist the integration of…

  3. Performances of ionizing radiation detectors required as part of a space weather service system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyamukungu, Mathias; Benck, Sylvie

    2012-07-01

    The selection of space radiation monitoring instruments is an essential phase in the planning of a space science mission, specifically when the data are acquired for use in the frame of a space weather service. Customer requirements for space weather services have been expressed by users and collected in reference documents like the ESA's "SSA Space Weather Segment Customer Requirement Document", among others. A review of these requirements and their implications for measurements at LEO, HEO, GTO, MEO and GEO will be presented enriched with thoroughly derived priority ranks associated with each measurable parameter. Then, the authors will describe a Global Performance Index (GPI) on various orbits for more than a dozen of currently developed or existing instruments, to conclude on an optimal selection of instruments that would be suitable to acquire the highest quality data usable for space weather applications.

  4. South African managers in public service: on being authentic.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Antoni; Simbhoo, Nirvana

    2014-01-01

    South African managers in public service consistently face challenges related to managing a well-adjusted and productive diverse workforce. Following the notion that leadership authenticity fosters positive psychological employee capacity, the aim of this study was to explore the meaning essence of authenticity as lived in the work-life experiences of senior managers in public service. Five senior managers in public service were purposefully selected based on their articulated challenges with being authentic at work, whilst attending a diversity sensitivity workshop. From a hermeneutic phenomenological perspective, in-depth interviews were used, and an interpretative phenomenological analysis yielded two predominant themes offering a description of what it means to be authentic. Authenticity is experienced as an affective state that results from a continuous self-appraisal of the extent to which expression of self is congruent with a subjective and socially constructed expectation of self in relation to others. Authenticity seems to develop through a continuous process of internal and external adaptation, and it leads to ultimately building a differentiated yet integrated identity of self. A reciprocal dynamic between feeling authentic and self-confidence alludes to the potential importance of authenticity dynamics in identity work. PMID:24434054

  5. South African managers in public service: On being authentic

    PubMed Central

    Simbhoo, Nirvana

    2014-01-01

    South African managers in public service consistently face challenges related to managing a well-adjusted and productive diverse workforce. Following the notion that leadership authenticity fosters positive psychological employee capacity, the aim of this study was to explore the meaning essence of authenticity as lived in the work–life experiences of senior managers in public service. Five senior managers in public service were purposefully selected based on their articulated challenges with being authentic at work, whilst attending a diversity sensitivity workshop. From a hermeneutic phenomenological perspective, in-depth interviews were used, and an interpretative phenomenological analysis yielded two predominant themes offering a description of what it means to be authentic. Authenticity is experienced as an affective state that results from a continuous self-appraisal of the extent to which expression of self is congruent with a subjective and socially constructed expectation of self in relation to others. Authenticity seems to develop through a continuous process of internal and external adaptation, and it leads to ultimately building a differentiated yet integrated identity of self. A reciprocal dynamic between feeling authentic and self-confidence alludes to the potential importance of authenticity dynamics in identity work. PMID:24434054

  6. Development and Implementation of Dynamic Scripts to Support Local Model Verification at National Weather Service Weather Forecast Offices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavodsky, Bradley; Case, Jonathan L.; Gotway, John H.; White, Kristopher; Medlin, Jeffrey; Wood, Lance; Radell, Dave

    2014-01-01

    Local modeling with a customized configuration is conducted at National Weather Service (NWS) Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) to produce high-resolution numerical forecasts that can better simulate local weather phenomena and complement larger scale global and regional models. The advent of the Environmental Modeling System (EMS), which provides a pre-compiled version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and wrapper Perl scripts, has enabled forecasters to easily configure and execute the WRF model on local workstations. NWS WFOs often use EMS output to help in forecasting highly localized, mesoscale features such as convective initiation, the timing and inland extent of lake effect snow bands, lake and sea breezes, and topographically-modified winds. However, quantitatively evaluating model performance to determine errors and biases still proves to be one of the challenges in running a local model. Developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), the Model Evaluation Tools (MET) verification software makes performing these types of quantitative analyses easier, but operational forecasters do not generally have time to familiarize themselves with navigating the sometimes complex configurations associated with the MET tools. To assist forecasters in running a subset of MET programs and capabilities, the Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has developed and transitioned a set of dynamic, easily configurable Perl scripts to collaborating NWS WFOs. The objective of these scripts is to provide SPoRT collaborating partners in the NWS with the ability to evaluate the skill of their local EMS model runs in near real time with little prior knowledge of the MET package. The ultimate goal is to make these verification scripts available to the broader NWS community in a future version of the EMS software. This paper provides an overview of the SPoRT MET scripts, instructions for how the scripts are run, and example use

  7. Exploring the potential offered by legacy soil databases for ecosystem services mapping of Central African soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdoodt, Ann; Baert, Geert; Van Ranst, Eric

    2014-05-01

    Central African soil resources are characterised by a large variability, ranging from stony, shallow or sandy soils with poor life-sustaining capabilities to highly weathered soils that recycle and support large amounts of biomass. Socio-economic drivers within this largely rural region foster inappropriate land use and management, threaten soil quality and finally culminate into a declining soil productivity and increasing food insecurity. For the development of sustainable land use strategies targeting development planning and natural hazard mitigation, decision makers often rely on legacy soil maps and soil profile databases. Recent development cooperation financed projects led to the design of soil information systems for Rwanda, D.R. Congo, and (ongoing) Burundi. A major challenge is to exploit these existing soil databases and convert them into soil inference systems through an optimal combination of digital soil mapping techniques, land evaluation tools, and biogeochemical models. This presentation aims at (1) highlighting some key characteristics of typical Central African soils, (2) assessing the positional, geographic and semantic quality of the soil information systems, and (3) revealing its potential impacts on the use of these datasets for thematic mapping of soil ecosystem services (e.g. organic carbon storage, pH buffering capacity). Soil map quality is assessed considering positional and semantic quality, as well as geographic completeness. Descriptive statistics, decision tree classification and linear regression techniques are used to mine the soil profile databases. Geo-matching as well as class-matching approaches are considered when developing thematic maps. Variability in inherent as well as dynamic soil properties within the soil taxonomic units is highlighted. It is hypothesized that within-unit variation in soil properties highly affects the use and interpretation of thematic maps for ecosystem services mapping. Results will mainly be based

  8. Developing a robust methodology for assessing the value of weather/climate services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krijnen, Justin; Golding, Nicola; Buontempo, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    Increasingly, scientists involved in providing weather and climate services are expected to demonstrate the value of their work for end users in order to justify the costs of developing and delivering these services. This talk will outline different approaches that can be used to assess the socio-economic benefits of weather and climate services, including, among others, willingness to pay and avoided costs. The advantages and limitations of these methods will be discussed and relevant case-studies will be used to illustrate each approach. The choice of valuation method may be influenced by different factors, such as resource and time constraints and the end purposes of the study. In addition, there are important methodological differences which will affect the value assessed. For instance the ultimate value of a weather/climate forecast to a decision-maker will not only depend on forecast accuracy but also on other factors, such as how the forecast is communicated to and consequently interpreted by the end-user. Thus, excluding these additional factors may result in inaccurate socio-economic value estimates. In order to reduce the inaccuracies in this valuation process we propose an approach that assesses how the initial weather/climate forecast information can be incorporated within the value chain of a given sector, taking into account value gains and losses at each stage of the delivery process. By this we aim to more accurately depict the socio-economic benefits of a weather/climate forecast to decision-makers.

  9. Perception and use of uncertainty in severe weather warnings by emergency services in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kox, Thomas; Gerhold, Lars; Ulbrich, Uwe

    2015-05-01

    In the course of the WEXICOM project at the Hans-Ertel-Centre for Weather Research of the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD), a survey was conducted in autumn 2012 to question how weather warnings are communicated to professional end-users in the emergency community and how the warnings are converted into mitigation measures. 161 members of emergency services (e.g. fire fighters, police officers and civil servants) across Germany answered an online questionnaire. Questions included user's confidence in forecasts, their understanding of probabilistic information and their perception and use of uncertainty in forecasts and warnings. A large number of open questions were selected to identify new topics of interest, unknown problems, and research gaps in the field of communicating weather information in Germany. Results show that the emergency service personnel who participated in this survey generally have a good appreciation of the uncertainty of weather forecasts. Although no single probability threshold could be identified for organisations to start with preparatory mitigation measures, it became clear that emergency services tend to avoid forecast based on low probabilities as basis for their decisions. This paper suggests that when trying to enhance weather communication by reducing the uncertainty in forecasts, the focus should not only be on improving computer models and observation tools, but also on the communication aspect, as uncertainty also arises from linguistic origins. Here, improvements are also possible and thus uncertainty might be reducible.

  10. Community Service Partnerships: African-American Owned Radio's Commitment to Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Phylis; Birk, Thomas A.

    How African American owned ratio stations use their collective resources to deal with educational issues in the communities they serve was studied by examining their community service promotional activities. The type and frequency of activity at these stations during a typical year were studied through a survey of 96 African American broadcast…

  11. Black African Parents' Experiences of an Educational Psychology Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Zena

    2014-01-01

    The evidence base that explores Black African parents' experiences of an Educational Psychology Service (EPS) is limited. This article describes an exploratory mixed methods research study undertaken during 2009-2011, that explored Black African parents' engagement with a UK EPS. Quantitative data were gathered from the EPS preschool…

  12. Improved in Situ Space Weather Data Services from the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, J. V.; Denig, W. F.; Green, J. C.; Lotoaniu, T. M.; McGuire, R. E.; Redmon, R. J.; Rowland, W. F.; Turner, D. L.; Weigel, R. S.; Wilkinson, D. C.

    2014-12-01

    The international space weather enterprise relies heavily on in situ plasma, particle and magnetic field measurements from U. S. weather satellites. This year marks the 40th anniversary of the launch of the first U. S. geostationary weather satellite (SMS-1), which carried the direct ancestor of the current GOES Space Environment Monitor (SEM) suite. The GOES space weather observations support the issuance of real-time alerts by the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC). The publicly-available archive of space weather observations at the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) includes NOAA geostationary observations since 1974 and POES/MetOp and Air Force DMSP polar-orbiting observations since 1978 and 1982, respectively. This archive supports the retrospective aspect of the space weather enterprise, which includes model development and anomaly resolution efforts. Over the last several years, NGDC has made a concerted effort to improve its data services in cooperation with the broader space weather community. These improvements include (1) taking over the processing of existing products, (2) creating science-quality versions of existing products, (3) developing new products, (4) improving the distribution of these products, and (5) validating products via on-orbit cross-comparisons. Complementing this retrospective role, NGDC is also responsible for the next-generation GOES-R space weather instrument science and is working as part of the GOES-R calibration/validation group to ensure that these new instruments and their products meet NOAA's requirements. This presentation will survey NGDC's efforts in each of these areas, including (1) POES/MetOp SEM-2 fluxes and radiation belt indices, (2) GOES fluxes with data quality flags and error bars, (3) in situ products from GOES-R(S,T,U), (4) cooperative distribution efforts with the NASA Space Physics Data Facility (SPDF) and the Space Physics Environmental Data Analysis System (SPEDAS), and (5) inter

  13. Planetary Space Weather Service: Part of the the Europlanet 2020 Research Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grande, Manuel; Andre, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    Over the next four years the Europlanet 2020 Research Infrastructure will set up an entirely new European Planetary Space Weather service (PSWS). Europlanet RI is a part of of Horizon 2020 (EPN2020-RI, http://www.europlanet-2020-ri.eu). The Virtual Access Service, WP5 VA1 "Planetary Space Weather Services" will extend the concepts of space weather and space situational awareness to other planets in our Solar System and in particular to spacecraft that voyage through it. VA1 will make five entirely new 'toolkits' accessible to the research community and to industrial partners planning for space missions: a general planetary space weather toolkit, as well as three toolkits dedicated to the following key planetary environments: Mars (in support ExoMars), comets (building on the expected success of the ESA Rosetta mission), and outer planets (in preparation for the ESA JUICE mission to be launched in 2022). This will give the European planetary science community new methods, interfaces, functionalities and/or plugins dedicated to planetary space weather in the tools and models available within the partner institutes. It will also create a novel event-diary toolkit aiming at predicting and detecting planetary events like meteor showers and impacts. A variety of tools (in the form of web applications, standalone software, or numerical models in various degrees of implementation) are available for tracing propagation of planetary and/or solar events through the Solar System and modelling the response of the planetary environment (surfaces, atmospheres, ionospheres, and magnetospheres) to those events. But these tools were not originally designed for planetary event prediction and space weather applications. So WP10 JRA4 "Planetary Space Weather Services" (PSWS) will provide the additional research and tailoring required to apply them for these purposes. The overall objectives of this Joint Research Aactivities will be to review, test, improve and adapt methods and tools

  14. Designing Effective Library Services for African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes-Hassell, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    President Obama signed the "White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for African Americans" on July 26, 2012. This executive order recognizes that many "African Americans lack equal access to highly effective teachers and principals, safe schools, and challenging college preparatory classes, and disproportionately experience…

  15. Servitude to Service: African-American Women as Wage Earners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koman, Rita G.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that examines how the employment position of African-American women changed due to southern economic policies established after emancipation. Uses primary documents to assist in analyzing social and economic discrimination against African-American women in the work force. (MJP)

  16. Trade in Educational Services: Reflections on the African and South African Higher Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sehoole, Chika Trevor

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses and analyses the emergence of globalisation and its impact on developments within the African continent. Africa's response at a regional level through the New Partnership for Africa's Development and at a subregional level through the Southern African Development Community's "Protocol on Education" come under scrutiny. These…

  17. Web-based Weather and Climate Information Service of Forensic Disaster Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mühr, Bernhard; Kunz, Michael; Köbele, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Extreme meteorological events not only trigger natural disasters, they also control the impact of various catastrophes. Especially for cascading effects or in case of multihazards, for example when an earthquake occurs in conjunction with a cold wave, the actual weather situation might substantially boost the impact. Thus, reliable information on extreme meteorological events and the general weather condition during disasters is an important component of Forensic Disaster Analyses. The Web Service 'Wettergefahren-Frühwarnung' (early warning of weather hazards) provides information on imminent or just occurring unusual or extreme weather events worldwide. Of particular interest are events with a high impact and massive damage that occur around the globe, but with a special focus on Germany and Europe. The Service started on 1 February 2004 with an operational routine. During the last 10 years, 'Wettergefahren-Frühwarnun' examined and assessed more than 800 unusual or extreme weather events that occurred all over the world. Permanent availability, daily updated information, editorially enhanced reports on extreme or unusual weather events enriched by images and measured values, are the hallmarks of the internet project. All warnings, special notes, detailed and high-quality reports can be found in an ever-growing archive. In addition to daily monitoring and assessment of global weather events, 'Wettergefahren-Frühwarnung' also creates its own special maps and images. In recent years, increasingly complex codes have been developed that now produce many hundreds of weather charts for the entire world every 6 hours. Allegedly threatened areas or cities can be identified immediately. The maps give information about rainfall, temperature deviations, convection indices, wind, snow accumulation and much more. Additionally, for some 2800 cities worldwide, daily point forecasts are calculated and the predicted weather parameters are clearly arranged in tables for Germany

  18. Service-Learning and Civic Responsibility in a Sample of African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankson, A. Nayena; Rochester, Shana E.; Watkins, Angela Farris

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the impact of past and current service-learning on the civic attitudes of African American college women: 44 students enrolled in either service-learning or non-service-learning courses were given pretests and posttests measuring civic attitudes. Repeated measures analyses of variance were conducted to examine the…

  19. Elemental weathering fluxes and saprolite production rate in a Central African lateritic terrain (Nsimi, South Cameroon)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Jean-Jacques; Marechal, Jean-Christophe; Riotte, Jean; Boeglin, Jean-Loup; Bedimo Bedimo, Jean-Pierre; Ndam Ngoupayou, Jules Remy; Nyeck, Brunot; Robain, Henri; Sekhar, M.; Audry, Stéphane; Viers, Jérôme

    2012-12-01

    The comparison between contemporary and long-term weathering has been carried out in the Small Experimental Watershed (SEW) of Nsimi, South Cameroon in order to quantify the export fluxes of major and trace elements and the residence time of the lateritic weathering cover. We focus on the hillside system composed of a thick lateritic weathering cover topped by a soil layer. This study is built on the recent improvements of the hillside hydrological functioning and on the analyses of major and trace elements. The mass balance calculation at the weathering horizon scale performed with the parent rock as reference indicates (i) strong depletion profiles for alkalis (Na, K, Rb) and alkaline earths (Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba), (ii) moderate depletion profiles for Si, P, Cd, Cu, Zn, Ni and Co, (iii) depletion/enrichment profiles for Al, Ga, Ge, Sn, Pb, LREE, HREE, Y, U, Fe, V, Cr, Mn. It is noteworthy that (i) Mn and Ce are not significantly redistributed according to oxidative processes as it is the case for Fe, V and Cr, and (ii) Ge is fractionated compared to silica with enrichment in Fe-rich horizons. The calculations performed for the topsoil with iron crust as parent material reference reveal that the degradation of the iron crust is accompanied by the loss of most of the constituting elements, among which are those specifically accumulated as the redox sensitive elements (Fe, V, Cr) and iron oxide related elements like Th. The overall current elemental fluxes from the hillside system at the springs and the seepage zones are extremely low due to the inert lateritic mineralogy. Ninety-four percent of the whole Na flux generated from the hillside corrected from atmospheric deposits (77 mol/ha/yr) represents the current weathering rates of plagioclase (oligoclase) in the system, the other remaining 6% may be attributed to the dissolution of hornblende. The silica hillside flux is 300 mol/ha/yr and can be mostly attributed to the plagioclase and kaolinite dissolution. Al and Ga

  20. NEW TRAINING PARADIGM IN THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE LeRoy Spayd Chief, Training Division NOAA/National Weather Service Silver Spring, Maryland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spayd, L. E.

    2012-12-01

    The National Weather Service (NWS) implemented a new Learning Management System (LMS) in June 2007 as part of a Department of Commerce (DOC)-wide Learning Center (CLC). One of the key goals of this LMS was to provide accessible, low-cost training to develop and sustain a world-class NOAA workforce. Five years of training records have been analyzed for trends and accomplishments have been summarized. The NWS leads the entire DOC in usage of this LMS. NWS workforce of 4500 employees complete over 50,000 courses per year and account for over 40% of DOC completions even though the NWS represents only 12% of the users. This paper will highlight the lessons learned in implementing training in a diverse and widespread organization. The paper will also highlight the critical role of management engagement in setting expectations for training and education which resulted in service improvements to the public. This paper also address future training trends as the NWS moves forward in implementing NOAA's Strategic Plan to make this country a WeatherReady Nation. A mix of how synchronous/asynchronous and classroom/on-line/hybrid learning options is explained.;

  1. Real-Time and Near Real-Time Data for Space Weather Applications and Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, H. J.; Balch, C. C.; Biesecker, D. A.; Matsuo, T.; Onsager, T. G.

    2015-12-01

    Space weather can be defined as conditions in the vicinity of Earth and in the interplanetary environment that are caused primarily by solar processes and influenced by conditions on Earth and its atmosphere. Examples of space weather are the conditions that result from geomagnetic storms, solar particle events, and bursts of intense solar flare radiation. These conditions can have impacts on modern-day technologies such as GPS or electric power grids and on human activities such as astronauts living on the International Space Station or explorers traveling to the moon or Mars. While the ultimate space weather goal is accurate prediction of future space weather conditions, for many applications and services, we rely on real-time and near-real time observations and model results for the specification of current conditions. In this presentation, we will describe the space weather system and the need for real-time and near-real time data that drive the system, characterize conditions in the space environment, and are used by models for assimilation and validation. Currently available data will be assessed and a vision for future needs will be given. The challenges for establishing real-time data requirements, as well as acquiring, processing, and disseminating the data will be described, including national and international collaborations. In addition to describing how the data are used for official government products, we will also give examples of how these data are used by both the public and private sector for new applications that serve the public.

  2. Weather Knowledge: No Longer the Privilege of Meteorologists and Weather Services - Information and the Overturning of the Gods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, V. C.

    2006-05-01

    The advances in communications technology, sharing of data and information, are enabling the development of knowledge that was impossible a decade ago. A prime example is Meteorology students, regardless of their location, are now able to access and use massive amounts of current and historic hydro-meteorological data. This ability was the province of national weather services with their so expensive equipment in the not too distant past. Now, one only needs inexpensive personal computers and access to the Internet (with the help and vision of groups like Unidata) to study phenomena that affect society. There is no longer a need to operate expensive ground stations to be able to analyze satellite imagery, etc. Investigations of atmospheric phenomena are no longer restricted to students of Meteorology. Learners in diverse disciplines and increasingly amateurs are joining a vibrantly expanding community. There was a time when a medical doctor was a god. Now, as technology has allowed us to become better informed, we are increasingly capable of questioning diagnoses and making truly informed decisions. This talk will reflect the author's experience, thoughts, and some perspectives for the future, on "the extension of free and open information sharing in the pursuit of incubating international collaborations".

  3. Psychocultural Correlates of Mental Health Service Utilization Among African American and European American Girls.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Miwa; Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie D; Keenan, Kate

    2015-11-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of cultural factors (ethnic identity, perceived discrimination), family relations, and child problem type on mental health service utilization in a community sample of 1,480 adolescent girls (860 African American, 620 European American) between ages 15 and 17 years enrolled in the Pittsburgh Girls Study. Results revealed ethnic identity, caregiver attachment, and conduct disorder were related to service use among African American girls. Among European American girls, correlate patterns differed by clinical need. Findings highlight the need for research on health disparities to examine racially specific influences on service utilization. PMID:25380787

  4. Psychocultural Correlates of Mental Health Service Utilization Among African American and European American Girls

    PubMed Central

    Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Keenan, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of cultural factors (ethnic identity, perceived discrimination), family relations, and child problem type on mental health service utilization in a community sample of 1,480 adolescent girls (860 African American, 620 European American) between ages 15 and 17 years enrolled in the Pittsburgh Girls Study. Results revealed ethnic identity, caregiver attachment, and conduct disorder were related to service use among African American girls. Among European American girls, correlate patterns differed by clinical need. Findings highlight the need for research on health disparities to examine racially specific influences on service utilization. PMID:25380787

  5. Provider Types Utilized and Recency of Mental Health Service Use among African American Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Sha-Lai

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examined factors associated with mental health service utilization among African American emerging adults, specifically, when services were used (recency) and the types of providers utilized (mental health/non-mental health). Methods Guided by the Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations, secondary analysis of the National Survey of American Life (2001-2003) was conducted. A nationally representative sample of African American emerging adults, ages 18-29 (n=806), were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. “Evaluated need” was determined by endorsement for one of four DSM-IV diagnosis types (mood, anxiety, substance use, impulse control). Respondents who reported a need for services for emotional/substance use problems were considered to have a “perceived need”. Those who reported voluntary use of mental health/health services to address these problems were considered to have utilized services. Results 25%of the sample utilized services in their lifetime, while 9% utilized services in the past 12 months. Females were more likely than males to utilize services in three of the four service use categories (lifetime, mental health sector, and non-mental health sector).Respondents with an evaluated need for services were 2-12 times more likely to have utilized services compared to those without a need. Conclusions Little is known about why African American emerging adults underutilize mental health services. These findings indicate that being female and having an evaluated need for services were associated with greater odds of service use among this sample. This suggests the need for additional examination of gender differences in service utilization and greater mental health outreach/education among African American males. PMID:24981778

  6. African American Pre-Service Teachers' Perspectives on Urban Education: An Exploration at an HBCU

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawhinney, Lynnette; Mulero, Loribel; Perez, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to better understand African American pre-service teachers' perspectives on urban education. Over a 2-year period, pre-experience and post-experience surveys were conducted at a Historically Black University (HBCU) after pre-service teachers completed an urban education immersion course in order to frame their understanding of…

  7. Provision of Mental Health Services in South African Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Bronwyn; Fakier, Nuraan

    2009-01-01

    To date, South African research has not examined mental health service provision in substance abuse treatment facilities, even though these services improve client retention and treatment outcomes. To describe the extent to which substance abuse treatment facilities in Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal provinces provide clients with mental health services…

  8. Space Weather Impacts on Spacecraft Operations: Identifying and Establishing High-Priority Operational Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, G.; Reid, S.; Tranquille, C.; Evans, H.

    2013-12-01

    Space Weather is a multi-disciplinary and cross-domain system defined as, 'The physical and phenomenological state of natural space environments. The associated discipline aims, through observation, monitoring, analysis and modelling, at understanding and predicting the state of the Sun, the interplanetary and planetary environments, and the solar and non-solar driven perturbations that affect them, and also at forecasting and nowcasting the potential impacts on biological and technological systems'. National and Agency-level efforts to provide services addressing the myriad problems, such as ESA's SSA programme are therefore typically complex and ambitious undertakings to introduce a comprehensive suite of services aimed at a large number and broad range of end users. We focus on some of the particular threats and risks that Space Weather events pose to the Spacecraft Operations community, and the resulting implications in terms of User Requirements. We describe some of the highest-priority service elements identified as being needed by the Operations community, and outline some service components that are presently available, or under development. The particular threats and risks often vary according to orbit, so the particular User Needs for Operators at LEO, MEO and GEO are elaborated. The inter-relationship between these needed service elements and existing service components within the broader Space Weather domain is explored. Some high-priority service elements and potential correlation with Space Weather drivers include: solar array degradation and energetic proton storms; single event upsets at GEO and solar proton events and galactic cosmic rays; surface charging and deep dielectric charging at MEO and radiation belt dynamics; SEUs at LEO and the South Atlantic Anomaly and its variability. We examine the current capability to provide operational services addressing such threats and identify some advances that the Operations community can expect to benefit

  9. Pre-Service Teachers' Reflections of South African Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, S. K.; Singh, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of outcomes-based education in South Africa placed many challenges on the transformation of science classrooms. The 2009 National Education Evaluation and Development Unit (NEEDU) Report concluded that South African rural and township schools are largely dysfunctional. This article examined some of the reasons for the "collapse"…

  10. African American consumers' perceptions of racial disparities in mental health services.

    PubMed

    Newhill, Christina E; Harris, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    In 2001, former Surgeon General, Dr. David Satcher, reported that minorities in the United States suffer a disproportionate burden of mental illness because of a large gap between the need for mental health services and the services actually provided. While research findings and policy analyses show that racial disparities exist, there has been little exploration of how minority recipients of mental health services perceive such disparities. This paper reports findings from a study using consumer focus groups with African Americans to explore how African American mental health consumers perceive and personally experience the impact of racial disparities in accessing and utilizing mental health services. Findings showed that the consumers voiced similar concerns to those reported by the Surgeon General; however, they also identified problems in communicating with providers as a major obstacle to seeking services and engaging in treatment. The consumers suggested a number of specific recommendations to improve services in their community. PMID:19306590

  11. DEVELOPMENTS IN NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE METEOROLOGICAL DATA COLLECTION PROGRAMS AS RELATED TO EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) AIR POLLUTION MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the next decade, the National Weather Service (NWS) will be upgrading its meteorological instrumentation and data dissemination procedures. Because these changes will affect the operation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) air pollution models, the project...

  12. Access to HIV Care and Support Services for African American Transwomen Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Erin C.; Arayasirikul, Sean; Johnson, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Low access to HIV care and support has led to survival rates for transwomen that are half that of other populations at risk for HIV. Within the population, HIV disproportionately impacts African American transwomen. Interventions to increase access to HIV care and support are needed to better serve those most affected and vulnerable within the population. We conducted a study of barriers and facilitators to care and support services for African American transwomen to fill a gap in the literature to improve access for this particularly impacted population. A total of 10 in-depth interviews were conducted with African American transwomen living with HIV who lived outside the metro area of San Francisco. Three overarching thematic topics emerged-gender stigma, peer, and institutional distrust - giving insight into African American transwomen's barriers to HIV care and support services. A number of factors within these themes impacted access, such as whether organizations offered gender-related care, the geography of organizations as it relates to safe transportation and location, confidentiality and trust of peers and organizations, and trauma. Specific instrumental, institutional and emotional supports are provided that that may increase access to care and support services for African American transwomen living with HIV. PMID:24817835

  13. The CORE-OM Intake Norms of Students Attending a South African University Counseling Service: A Comparison with UK Counseling Service Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides CORE-OM intake norms for a South African university counseling service, and compares these to the United Kingdom counseling service data reported by Connell, Barkham and Mellor-Clark (2007). The South African norms are very similar to the United Kingdom norms, with no statistical differences in the total or domain scores. There…

  14. Utilization of Mammography Services among Elderly Rural and Urban African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agho, Augustine O; Mosley, Barbara W; Rivers, Patrick A; Parker, Shandowyn

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study was a two-year educational intervention and research project aimed at increasing the awareness of breast cancer and the utilization of Clinical Breast Examination (CBE) services and Self-Breast Examination (SBE) among elderly rural and urban African American women who are Medicare beneficiaries. Design: The study was…

  15. The Youth Book. A Directory of South African Youth Organisations, Service Providers and Resource Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, David, Ed.

    With the goal of enhancing cooperation and interaction among youth, youth organizations, and other service providers to the youth sector, this directory aims to give youth, as well as people and organizations involved and interested in youth-related issues, a comprehensive source of information on South African youth organizations and related…

  16. Developing an Efficient Planetary Space Weather Alert Service using Virtual Observatory Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecconi, Baptiste; Benson, Kevin; Le Sidaner, Pierre; André, Nicolas; Tomasik, Lukas

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this Task is to identify user requirements, develop the way to implement event alerts, and chain those to the 1) planetary event and 2) planetary space weather predictions. The expected service of alerts will be developed with the objective to facilitate discovery or prediction announcements within the PSWD user community in order to watch or warn against specific events. The ultimate objective is to set up dedicated amateur and/or professional observation campaigns, diffuse contextual information for science data analysis, and enable safety operations of planet-orbiting spacecraft against the risks of impacts from meteors or solar wind disturbances. OBSPARIS and UCL will study and adapt VOEvent to those purposes. CNRS-IRAP and SRC will study the way to implement VOEvent as a service for the PSWD tools.

  17. Developing an Efficient Planetary Space Weather Alert Service using Virtual Observatory Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecconi, B.; Benson, K.; André, N.; Tomasik, L.

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this Task is to identify user requirements, develop the way to implement event alerts, and chain those to the 1) planetary event and 2) planetary space weather predictions. The expected service of alerts will be developed with the objective to facilitate discovery or prediction announcements within the PSWD user community in order to watch or warn against specific events. The ultimate objective is to set up dedicated amateur and/or professional observation campaigns, diffuse contextual information for science data analysis, and enable safety operations of planet-orbiting spacecraft against the risks of impacts from meteors or solar wind disturbances. OBSPARIS and UCL will study and adapt VOEvent to those purposes. CNRS-IRAP and SRC will study the way to implement VOEvent as a service for the PSWD tools.

  18. Wind Climate Analyses for National Weather Service Stations in the Southeast

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, A.H.

    2003-02-10

    Wind speed and direction data have been collected by National Weather Service (NWS) Stations in the U.S. for a number of years and presented in various forms to help depict the climate for different regions. The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is particularly interested in the Southeast since mesoscale models using NWS wind observations are run on a daily basis for emergency response and other operational purposes at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Historically, wind roses have been a convenient method to depict the predominant wind speeds and directions at measurement sites. Some typical applications of wind rose data are for climate and risk assessment; air pollution exposure and dose calculations; siting industrial plants, wind turbine generators, businesses, and homes; city planning; and air stagnation and high ozone concentration studies. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the overall relationships of wind patterns for NWS stations in the Southeast. Since organized collection of wind data records in the NWS developed rapidly in conjunction with the expansion of commercial aviation after World War II there are now about 50 years of wind speed and direction data available for a large number of NWS stations in this area. In this study we used wind roses for relatively short time scales to show the progression of winds diurnally and monthly to span a typical year. The date used here consist of wind records from 13 National Weather Service Stations in the Southeastern U.S. for approximately 50-year periods.

  19. Systematic assessment of culturally competent chemical dependence treatment services for African Americans.

    PubMed

    Shorkey, Clayton; Windsor, Liliane Cambraia; Spence, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This project aimed to develop a tool for assessing and planning culturally competent and relevant chemical dependence treatment services for African American clients and their families. Focus groups were conducted with experts in African American culture and chemical dependence in eight substance abuse programs serving adult and adolescent African Americans and their families. Seventy-five statements were developed describing characteristics of culturally competent and relevant organizations. Concept mapping was used to produce a conceptual map displaying dimensions of culturally competent and relevant organizations and Cronbach's alpha was calculated to assess the internal consistency of each dimension. Analysis resulted in six reliable dimensions: Family Involvement (alpha = .81), Staff and Program Cultural Diversity (alpha = .98), Counselor Traits (alpha = .99), Linkage (alpha = .94), Community/Faith Services (alpha = .96), and Agency Culture (alpha = .97). The resulting instrument enables agencies to evaluate culturally competent and relevant services, set goals, and identify resources needed to implement desired services for both individual organizations and within networks of regional service providers. PMID:19459120

  20. Configuring the HYSPLIT Model for National Weather Service Forecast Office and Spaceflight Meteorology Group Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreher, Joseph; Blottman, Peter F.; Sharp, David W.; Hoeth, Brian; Van Speybroeck, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    The National Weather Service Forecast Office in Melbourne, FL (NWS MLB) is responsible for providing meteorological support to state and county emergency management agencies across East Central Florida in the event of incidents involving the significant release of harmful chemicals, radiation, and smoke from fires and/or toxic plumes into the atmosphere. NWS MLB uses the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model to provide trajectory, concentration, and deposition guidance during such events. Accurate and timely guidance is critical for decision makers charged with protecting the health and well-being of populations at risk. Information that can describe the geographic extent of areas possibly affected by a hazardous release, as well as to indicate locations of primary concern, offer better opportunity for prompt and decisive action. In addition, forecasters at the NWS Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have expressed interest in using the HYSPLIT model to assist with Weather Flight Rules during Space Shuttle landing operations. In particular, SMG would provide low and mid-level HYSPLIT trajectory forecasts for cumulus clouds associated with smoke plumes, and high-level trajectory forecasts for thunderstorm anvils. Another potential benefit for both NWS MLB and SMG is using the HYSPLIT model concentration and deposition guidance in fog situations.

  1. Configuring the HYSPLIT Model for National Weather Service Forecast Office and Spaceflight Meteorology Group Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreher, Joseph G.

    2009-01-01

    For expedience in delivering dispersion guidance in the diversity of operational situations, National Weather Service Melbourne (MLB) and Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) are becoming increasingly reliant on the PC-based version of the HYSPLIT model run through a graphical user interface (GUI). While the GUI offers unique advantages when compared to traditional methods, it is difficult for forecasters to run and manage in an operational environment. To alleviate the difficulty in providing scheduled real-time trajectory and concentration guidance, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) configured a Linux version of the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) (HYSPLIT) model that ingests the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) guidance, such as the North American Mesoscale (NAM) and the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) models. The AMU configured the HYSPLIT system to automatically download the NCEP model products, convert the meteorological grids into HYSPLIT binary format, run the model from several pre-selected latitude/longitude sites, and post-process the data to create output graphics. In addition, the AMU configured several software programs to convert local Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model output into HYSPLIT format.

  2. Evaluation of the National Weather Service Extreme Cold Warning Experiment in North Dakota

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Cindy H.; Vagi, Sara J.; Wolkin, Amy F.; Martin, John Paul; Noe, Rebecca S.

    2016-01-01

    Dangerously cold weather threatens life and property. During periods of extreme cold due to wind chill, the National Weather Service (NWS) issues wind chill warnings to prompt the public to take action to mitigate risks. Wind chill warnings are based on ambient temperatures and wind speeds. Since 2010, NWS has piloted a new extreme cold warning issued for cold temperatures in wind and nonwind conditions. The North Dakota Department of Health, NWS, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collaborated in conducting household surveys in Burleigh County, North Dakota, to evaluate this new warning. The objectives of the evaluation were to assess whether residents heard the new warning and to determine if protective behaviors were prompted by the warning. This was a cross-sectional survey design using the Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) methodology to select a statistically representative sample of households from Burleigh County. From 10 to 11 April 2012, 188 door-to-door household interviews were completed. The CASPER methodology uses probability sampling with weighted analysis to estimate the number and percentage of households with a specific response within Burleigh County. The majority of households reported having heard both the extreme cold and wind chill warnings, and both warnings prompted protective behaviors. These results suggest this community heard the new warning and took protective actions after hearing the warning.

  3. Learning Other People's History: Pre-Service Teachers' Developing African American Historical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, LaGarrett Jarriel

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from the historical lens of cultural memory, I examined the development of three social studies pre-service teachers' African American history knowledge. The participants were engaged in a rigorous summer reading program dedicated to learning African American history. This qualitative case study examined both pre and post…

  4. THE USDA/AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE RESEARCH WEATHER NETWORK IN LAKE COUNTY, OHIO - 2002 UPDATE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Permanent meteorological stations have been installed in Northeast Ohio production nurseries to archive weather data during horticultural experiments. Insect and disease management research require detailed knowledge of weather conditions. Data such as soil moisture and temperature, air temperature...

  5. [Perceptions of nursing service managers in the South African Military Health Service on their level of motivation].

    PubMed

    Fischer, A; Muller, M

    2000-12-01

    The process of transformation in the South African Military Health Services, has influenced the nursing service managers' level of motivation and the following research question is applicable: what are the perceptions of the nursing service managers within the South African Military Health Services on their level of motivation? The purpose with this study was to explore and describe the perceptions of nursing service managers on their level of motivation within these health services. A qualitative research design was utilized and four focus group interviews were conducted with 33 nursing service managers country wide. The transcribed interviews were exposed to a content analysis. The results confirm that the level of motivation amongst these nursing service managers is low. The demotivators relate mainly to the following: inadequate acknowledgement, job insecurity in relation to the future, problems with the process of integration, transformation and rationalization, problems with management, many labour related issues, poor/inadequate communication, inadequate support, increased work load, poor physical environment, negative publicity and poor self motivation. Although there were a few motivators identified, they were of less importance. These results were interpreted within Herzberg's motivation theory to identify the hygiene/maintenance factors and to assess whether the important motivators were in place. During any process of change, and/or when the level of motivation amongst employees is low, it is important to adequately manage the environment (hygiene/maintenance factors within the Herzberg theory). But it is even more important to ensure that the motivators are in place or to intensify them. It is therefore recommended that a motivation strategy, based on the Herzberg theory as well as the Hackman-Oldham job enrichment model, be developed, implemented and evaluated. PMID:11949294

  6. A space weather information service based upon remote and in-situ measurements of coronal mass ejections heading for Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartkorn, O. A.; Ritter, B.; Meskers, A. J. H.; Miles, O.; Russwurm, M.; Scully, S.; Roldan, A.; Juestel, P.; Reville, V.; Lupu, S.; Ruffenach, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Earth's magnetosphere is formed as a consequence of the interaction between the planet's magnetic field and the solar wind, a continuous plasma stream from the Sun. A number of different solar wind phenomena have been studied over the past forty years with the intention of understandingand forcasting solar behavior and space weather. In particular, Earth-bound interplanetary coronal mass ejections (CMEs) can significantly disturb the Earth's magnetosphere for a short time and cause geomagnetic storms. We present a mission concept consisting of six spacecraft that are equally spaced in a heliocentric orbit at 0.72 AU. These spacecraft will monitor the plasma properties, the magnetic field's orientation and magnitude, and the 3D-propagation trajectory of CMEs heading for Earth. The primary objective of this mission is to increase space weather forecasting time by means of a near real-time information service, that is based upon in-situ and remote measurements of the CME properties. The mission secondary objective is the improvement of scientific space weather models. In-situ measurements are performed using a Solar Wind Analyzer instrumentation package and flux gate magnetometers. For remote measurements, coronagraphs are employed. The proposed instruments originate from other space missions with the intention to reduce mission costs and to streamline the mission design process. Communication with the six identical spacecraft is realized via a deep space network consisting of six ground stations. This network provides an information service that is in uninterrupted contact with the spacecraft, allowing for continuos space weather monitoring. A dedicated data processing center will handle all the data, and forward the processed data to the SSA Space Weather Coordination Center. This organization will inform the general public through a space weather forecast. The data processing center will additionally archive the data for the scientific community. This concept

  7. Winter Weather Checklists

    MedlinePlus

    ... Planning Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Winter Weather Checklists Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... emergency instructions National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) weather radio receiver for listening to National Weather Service ...

  8. Factors Leading African Americans and Black Caribbeans to Use Social Work Services for Treating Mental and Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Tyrone C.; Robinson, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    This secondary analysis of 5,000 African Americans and black Caribbeans explored how their use of social work services to address mental and substance use disorders was associated with the disorder involved as well as their perceived need for services, belief system, family resources, proximity to services, social-structural factors, and…

  9. Improving health services for African migrants in China: A health diplomacy perspective

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Megan M.; Lee, Margaret C.; Hall, Brian J.; Bulterys, Marc; Ling, Li; Tucker, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    Global health has been an increasingly prominent component of foreign policy in the last decade. The term health diplomacy has been used to describe this growing interface between foreign policy and global health, and it encompasses both the concept of using health to further foreign policy objectives, as well as the idea that diplomatic tools can be helpful for attaining public health goals. The Chinese presence in Africa has grown in the last 15 years, generating increased interest in Sino-African relations. While much has been written in recent years about the Chinese presence in Africa, the growing numbers of Africans in China have attracted considerably less attention. Many are small-scale traders and might be expected to face many of the health challenges common among foreign migrants, but their health needs have been largely unrecognised. In this paper, we consider how a health diplomacy approach could be applied to African migrants in China, and the potential advantages and limitations of this strategy. We identify areas of overlap between public health, trade, and foreign policy goals that can be emphasised to generate support for improved services for African migrants in China and to engage partners from a diversity of sectors. PMID:24807820

  10. Improving health services for African migrants in China: A health diplomacy perspective.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Megan M; Lee, Margaret C; Hall, Brian J; Bulterys, Marc; Ling, Li; Tucker, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    Global health has become an increasingly prominent component of foreign policy in the last decade. The term health diplomacy has been used to describe this growing interface between foreign policy and global health, and it encompasses both the concept of using health to further foreign policy objectives as well as the idea that diplomatic tools can be helpful for attaining public health goals. The Chinese presence in Africa has grown in the last 15 years, generating increased interest in Sino-African relations. While much has been written in recent years about the Chinese presence in Africa, the growing numbers of Africans in China have attracted considerably less attention. Many are small-scale traders and might be expected to face many of the health challenges common among foreign migrants, but their health needs have been largely unrecognised. In this paper, we consider how a health diplomacy approach could be applied to African migrants in China, and the potential advantages and limitations of this strategy. We identify areas of overlap between public health, trade and foreign policy goals that can be emphasised to generate support for improved services for African migrants in China and to engage partners from a diversity of sectors. PMID:24807820

  11. When Weather Matters: Science and Service to Meet Critical Societal Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    The goal of weather prediction is to provide information people and organizations can use to reduce weather-related losses and enhance societal benefits, including protection of life and property, public health and safety, and support of economic prosperity and quality of life. In economic terms, the benefit of the investment in public weather forecasts and warnings is substantial: the estimated annualized benefit is about $31.5 billion, compared to the $5.1 billion cost of generating the information. Between 1980 and 2009, 96 weather disasters in the United States each caused at least $1 billion in damages, with total losses exceeding $700 billion. Between 1999 and 2008, there were an average of 629 direct weather fatalities per year. The annual impacts of adverse weather on the national highway system and roads are staggering: 1.5 million weather-related crashes with 7,400 deaths, more than 700,000 injuries, and $42 billion in economic losses.

  12. Integration between solar and space science data for space weather forecast using web services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, S.

    2007-08-01

    As the technology develops, the opportunity that the human beings behave in space, and it is still understood that the solar activities (especially the solar flare) influence the airlines communication, the ship communication and the power generator of the electric power company, etc. Forecasting the effects of the solar activities is becoming very important because there is such a background. Our goal is that constructs the detailed model from the Sun to the magnetosphere of the earth and simulates the solar activities and the effects. We try to integrate the existing observational data including the ground observational data and satellite observational data using by web service technology as a base to construct the model. We introduce our activity to combine the solar and space science data in Japan. Methods Generally, it is difficult to develop the virtual common database, but web service makes interconnection among different databases comparatively easy. We try to connect some databases in the portal site. Each different data objects is aggregated to a common data object. We can develop more complex services. We use RELAX NG in order to develop these applications easily. We begin the trial of the interconnection among the solar and space science data in Japan. In the case of solar observational data, we find the activity such as VO, for example, VSO and EGSO, but space science data seems to be very complex. In addition to this, there is time lag that solar activity has an effect on the magnetosphere of the Earth. We discuss these characteristic in the data analysis between the solar and space data. This work was supported by the Grant-in-Aid for Creative Scientific Research `The Basic Study of Space Weather Prediction' (17GS0208) from the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports, Technology, and Culture of Japan

  13. Space Weather Models, Tools and Services at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuznetsova, M. M.; Hesse, M.; Maddox, M.; Rastaetter, L.; Berrios, D.; Pulkkinen, A.; Zheng, Y.; MacNeice, P. J.; Shim, J.; Takakishvili, A.; Chulaki, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling center (CCMC) is a multi-agency partnership to support the research and developmental work necessary to substantially increase space weather modeling capabilities and to facilitate advanced models deployment in forecasting operations. The CCMC conducts unbiased model testing and validation and evaluates model readiness for operational environment. Space weather models and coupled model chains hosted at the CCMC range from the solar corona to the Earth's upper atmosphere. CCMC has developed a number of real-time modeling systems, as well as a large number of modeling and data products tailored to address the space weather needs of NASA's robotic missions. The presentation will demonstrate the rapid progress towards development the system allowing using products derived from space weather models in applications associated with National Space Weather needs. The adaptable Integrated Space Weather Analysis (ISWA) System developed at CCMC for NASA-relevant space weather information combines forecasts based on advanced space weather models hosted at CCMC with concurrent space environment information. The system is also enabling post-impact analysis and flexible dissemination of space weather information.

  14. Bridging the Gap Between Research and Operations in the National Weather Service: The Huntsville Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darden, C.; Carroll, B.; Lapenta, W.; Jedlovec, G.; Goodman, S.; Bradshaw, T.; Gordon, J.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The National Weather Service Office (WFO) in Huntsville, Alabama (HUN) is slated to begin full-time operations in early 2003. With the opening of the Huntsville WFO, a unique opportunity has arisen for close and productive collaboration with scientists at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the University of Alabama Huntsville (UAH). As a part of the collaboration effort, NASA has developed the Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center. The mission of the SPoRT center is to incorporate NASA earth science technology and research into the NWS operational environment. Emphasis will be on improving mesoscale and short-term forecasting in the first 24 hours of the forecast period. As part of the collaboration effort, the NWS and NASA will develop an implementation and evaluation plan to streamline the integration of the latest technologies and techniques into the operational forecasting environment. The desire of WFO HUN, NASA, and UAH is to provide a model for future collaborative activities between research and operational communities across the country.

  15. The German Weather Service's Aeronautical Nowcasting System NowcastMIX-ITWS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heuer, Kai Oliver; Beckmann, Björn; Julia, Bachmann; Frank, Lehrnickel; Paul, James; Ralf, Thehos

    2013-04-01

    At the German Weather Service, a Nowcasting system for convective events called NowcastMIX has been developed. In aeronautical meteorology, the goal is to provide a nowcasting process (NowcastMIX-ITWS) with a spatial and temporal high resolution analysis and prediction for convective events. The forecast horizon is up to 2h. Relevant convective areas are shown as cells with severity warning information classified into four warning categories. The core of the system is based on already existing internal DWD modules, based prevailingly on 2D and 3D radar information and satellite data. This leads to a forecast of the occurrence and behaviour of convective cells and the influencing regional wind field. Absence of modules or single radar stations is indicated. The warning area of the NowcastMIX-ITWS covers the whole territory of Germany. The severity of the predicted convective events is clustered into four warning categories meeting aeronautical requirements using Fuzzy-logic. The model is tested with analysis data in the summer months of 2012. A cell evolution module and the data from LIDAR systems located at the airports in Frankfurt and Munich will be added in 2013. Also, within the summer of 2013, the system shall be fully tested and verified and delivered ready for operational use to the forecasters.

  16. A Novel Hydro-information System for Improving National Weather Service River Forecast System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Z.; Wang, S.; Liang, X.; Adams, T. E.; Teng, W. L.; Liang, Y.

    2009-12-01

    A novel hydro-information system has been developed to improve the forecast accuracy of the NOAA National Weather Service River Forecast System (NWSRFS). An MKF-based (Multiscale Kalman Filter) spatial data assimilation framework, together with the NOAH land surface model, is employed in our system to assimilate satellite surface soil moisture data to yield improved evapotranspiration. The latter are then integrated into the distributed version of the NWSRFS to improve its forecasting skills, especially for droughts, but also for disaster management in general. Our system supports an automated flow into the NWSRFS of daily satellite surface soil moisture data, derived from the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), and the forcing information of the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS). All data are custom processed, archived, and supported by the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data Information and Services Center (GES DISC). An optional data fusing component is available in our system, which fuses NEXRAD Stage III precipitation data with the NLDAS precipitation data, using the MKF-based framework, to provide improved precipitation inputs. Our system employs a plug-in, structured framework and has a user-friendly, graphical interface, which can display, in real-time, the spatial distributions of assimilated state variables and other model-simulated information, as well as their behaviors in time series. The interface can also display watershed maps, as a result of the integration of the QGIS library into our system. Extendibility and flexibility of our system are achieved through the plug-in design and by an extensive use of XML-based configuration files. Furthermore, our system can be extended to support multiple land surface models and multiple data assimilation schemes, which would further increase its capabilities. Testing of the integration of the current system into the NWSRFS is

  17. Hydrologic ensemble hindcasting and verification in the U.S. National Weather Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demargne, Julie; Liu, Yuqiong; Brown, James; Seo, Dong-Jun; Wu, Limin; Weerts, Albrecht; Werner, Micha

    2010-05-01

    Quantifying the predictive uncertainty in hydrologic forecasts is one of the most pressing needs in operational hydrologic forecasting, to support risk-based decision making for a wide range of applications (e.g. flood risk management, water supply management, streamflow regulation, and recreation planning). Towards this goal, the Office of Hydrologic Development of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS), in collaboration with the NWS River Forecast Centers, Deltares and other partners, has been developing the Experimental Ensemble Forecast System (XEFS). The XEFS includes the Ensemble Pre-Processor, the Ensemble Streamflow Prediction subsystem, the Ensemble Post-Processor, the Hydrologic Model Output Statistics streamflow ensemble processor, as well as the Ensemble Verification System for assessing the quality of the probabilistic forecasts generated therein. It is currently being integrated into the NWS's Community Hydrologic Prediction System (CHPS), which builds on the service-oriented architecture of the Delft FEWS Flood Early Warning System. The CHPS-XEFS also provides ensemble hindcasting capabilities to retroactively apply the newly developed ensemble forecasting approaches, and produce large samples of ensemble hindcasts that are necessary for verification. The verification results based on these hindcasts may be used to evaluate the benefits of new or improved ensemble forecasting approaches. Additionally these can be used to analyze the various sources of uncertainty and error in the forecasting system, as well as guide targeted improvements. Hindcasts may also be required by sophisticated forecast users to calibrate their decision support system, and could help operational forecasters identify historical analogue forecasts to make informed decisions in real-time. In this paper, we describe our hindcasting procedures using CHPS-XEFS, present verification results of ensemble hindcasts generated therein

  18. Visible and infrared properties of unaltered to weathered rocks from Precambrian granite-greenstone terrains of the West African Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metelka, Václav; Baratoux, Lenka; Jessell, Mark W.; Naba, Séta

    2015-12-01

    In situ and laboratory 0.35 μm-2.5 μm spectra of rocks from a Paleoproterozoic granite-greenstone terrain along with its Neoproterozoic sedimentary cover and derived regolith materials were examined in western Burkina Faso. The reflectance spectra show the influence of typical arid to semi-arid weathering with the formation of desert varnish, iron films, and dust coatings. Fe and Mg-OH absorption features related to chlorite, amphibole, pyroxene, epidote, and biotite are observable in the mafic and intermediate meta-volcanic rocks as well as in the granodiorites and tonalites. Al-OH absorption caused by kaolinite, smectite, illite/muscovite are typical for meta-volcano-sedimentary schists, Tarkwaian-type detrital meta-sediments, sandstones of the Taoudeni basin, all of the weathered surfaces and regolith materials. Ferric and ferrous iron absorptions related to both primary rock-forming minerals and secondary weathering minerals (goethite, hematite) were observed in most of the sampled materials. The results show that although weathering alters the spectral signature of the fresh rock, indicative absorption features located in the short wave infrared region remain detectable. In addition, spectra of soils partially reflect the mineral composition of the weathered rock surfaces. The analysis of the hyperspectral data shows the potential of differentiating between the sampled surfaces. The library presents a primary database for the geological and regolith analysis of remote sensing data in West Africa.

  19. The Role of African American-Owned Radio in Health Promotion: Community Service Projects Targeting Young African American Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Phylis; Birk, Thomas A.

    1993-01-01

    Surveys African-American-owned radio stations to determine how effective they are in addressing health issues among African Americans. Responses from more than 50 stations indicate that they serve as change agents by encouraging community partnerships and emphasizing drug awareness, nonviolent behavior, education, and other health issues. (SLD)

  20. Utilisation and Further Development of Space Science Results in the ESA SSA Programme Space Weather Service Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, Alexi; Luntama, Juha-Pekka; Keil, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    ESA SSA Programme is approaching the end of its second period. Service development activities within the current period aim at advancing the SSA SWE Service Network from the initial utilisation of existing European assets toward development of these and new assets together with the associated coordination infrastructure necessary to provide consistently reliable services. The SSA SWE Service Network is based on a federated architecture where service provision is carried out by Expert Service Centres in the Programme Member States with overall coordination and helpdesk functions provided by a central node and coordination centre located at the Space Pole in Brussels, Belgium. The SSA SWE Service Network builds on the wealth of space weather expertise available within the Member States, and consequently, as the network continues to develop, emphasis will continue to be placed on building services based on demonstrated space science advances in key areas such as those highlighted by the COSPAR-ILWS Space Weather Roadmap, published in 2015. Activities supported by programmes including the ESA technology programmes, EC FP7 and H2020 have all demonstrated promising results, and the SSA SWE Network is actively investigating their potential application to SSA SWE Customer Requirements, and in many cases already adopting these as part of the suite of products provided via the Network to its registered users. This presentation will provide an overview of recent advances in the SSA SWE Service Network, emphasising the utilisation of scientific results within a pre-operational context. The presentation will show the layout of the federated Expert Service Centres, highlighting ongoing and upcoming service developments and provide a perspective on the service development plans for the next phase of the programme.

  1. Service Quality and Students' Satisfaction with the Professional Teacher Development Programmes by Distance Mode in a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oduaran, A. B.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the relationship between seven factors that described dimensions of education service quality and overall service quality on one hand, and students' satisfaction with the professional teacher development programmes by distance mode in a South African University on the other. We sought to find out whether students enrolled…

  2. Evolution of the NOAA National Weather Service Satellite Broadcast Network (SBN) to Europe's DVB-S satellite communications technology standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cragg, Phil; Brockman, William E.

    2006-08-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS) uses a commercial Satellite Broadcast Network (SBN) to distribute weather data to the NWS AWIPS workstations and National Centers and to NWS Family of Service Users. Advances in science and technology from NOAA's observing systems, such as remote sensing satellites and NEXRAD radars, and advances in Numeric Weather Prediction have greatly increased the volume of data to be transmitted via the SBN. The NOAA-NWS SBN Evolution Program did a trade study resulting in the selection of Europe's DVB-S communication protocol as the basis for enabling a significant increase in the SBN capacity. The Digital Video Broadcast (DVB) group, started to develop digital TV for Europe through satellite broadcasting, has become the current standard for defining technology for satellite broadcasting of digital data for much of the world. NOAA-NWS implemented the DVB-S with inexpensive, Commercial Off The Shelf receiving equipment. The modernized NOAA-NWS SBN meets current performance goals and provides the basis for continued future expansion with no increase in current communication costs. This paper discusses aspects of the NOAA-NWS decision and the migration to the DVB-S standard for its commercial satellite broadcasts of observations and Numerical Weather Prediction data.

  3. Significant impacts of radiation physics in the Weather Research and Forecasting model on the precipitation and dynamics of the West African Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R.; Jin, J.; Wang, S.-Y.; Gillies, R. R.

    2015-03-01

    Precipitation from the West African Monsoon (WAM) provides food security and supports the economy in the region. As a consequence of the intrinsic complexities of the WAM's evolution, accurate simulations of the WAM and its precipitation regime, through the application of regional climate models, are challenging. We used the coupled Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and Community Land Model (CLM) to explore impacts of radiation physics on the precipitation and dynamics of the WAM. Our results indicate that the radiation physics schemes not only produce biases in radiation fluxes impacting radiative forcing, but more importantly, result in large bias in precipitation of the WAM. Furthermore, the different radiation schemes led to variations in the meridional gradient of surface temperature between the north that is the Sahara desert and the south Guinean coastline. Climate diagnostics indicated that the changes in the meridional gradient of surface temperature affect the position and strength of the African Easterly Jet as well as the low-level monsoonal inflow from the Gulf of Guinea. The net result was that each radiation scheme produced differences in the WAM precipitation regime both spatially and in intensity. Such considerable variances in the WAM precipitation regime and dynamics, resulting from radiation representations, likely have strong feedbacks within the climate system and so have inferences when it comes to aspects of predicted climate change both for the region and globally.

  4. A study of HIV positive undocumented African migrants' access to health services in the UK.

    PubMed

    Whyte, James; Whyte, Maria D; Hires, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Newly immigrated persons, whatever their origin, tend to fall in the lower socioeconomic levels. In fact, failure of an asylum application renders one destitute in a large proportion of cases, often resulting in a profound lack of access to basic necessities. With over a third of HIV positive failed asylum seekers reporting no income, and the remainder reporting highly limited resources, poverty is a reality for the vast majority. The purpose of the study was to determine the basic social processes that guide HIV positive undocumented migrant's efforts to gain health services in the UK. The study used the Grounded Theory Approach. Theoretical saturation occurred after 16 participants were included in the study. The data included reflections of the prominent factors related to the establishment of a safe and productive life and the ability of individuals to remain within the UK. The data reflected heavily upon the ability of migrants to enter the medical care system during their asylum period, and on an emerging pattern of service denial after loss on immigration appeal. The findings of this study are notable in that they have demonstrated sequence of events along a timeline related to the interaction between the asylum process and access to health-related services. The results reflect that African migrants maintain a degree of formal access to health services during the period that they possess legal access to services and informal access after the failure of their asylum claim. The purpose of this paper is to examine the basic social processes that characterize efforts to gain access to health services among HIV positive undocumented African migrants to the UK. The most recent estimates indicate that there are a total of 618,000 migrants who lack legal status within the UK. Other studies have placed the number of undocumented migrants within the UK in the range of 525,000-950,000. More than 442,000 are thought to dwell in the London metropolitan area. Even in

  5. Exploring the CIGALA/CALIBRA network data base for supporting space weather service over Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galera Monico, Joao Francisco; Shimabukuro, Milton; Vani, Bruno; Stuani, Vinicius

    Most of Brazil region is surrounded by equatorial anomaly northwards and southwards. Therefore, investigations related to space weather are quite important and very demanding. For example, GNSS applications are widely affected by ionospheric disturbances, a significant field within space weather. A network for continuous monitoring of ionosphere was deployed over its territory, starting on February/2011. This network was named CIGALA/CALIBRA according to the names of the two projects which originated it. Through CIGALA (Concept for Ionospheric Scintillation Mitigation for Professional GNSS in Latin America), which was funded by European Commission (EC) in the framework of the FP7-GALILEO-2009-GSA (European GNSS Agency), the first stations were deployed at Presidente Prudente, São Paulo state, at February 2011. CIGALA Project was finalized at February 2012 with eight stations distributed over the Brazilian territory. Through CALIBRA (Countering GNSS high Accuracy applications Limitations due to Ionospheric disturbances in BRAzil), which is also funded by the European Commission now in the framework of the FP7-GALILEO-2011-GSA, new stations were deployed. All monitoring stations were specifically placed at locations following geomagnetic arrangements for supporting development of ionospheric models. CALIBRA project started at November 2012 and will have two years of duration, focusing on development of new algorithms that can be applied to high accuracy GNSS techniques (RTK, PPP) in order to tackle the effects of ionospheric disturbances. All the stations have PolarRxS-PRO receivers, manufactured by Septentrio®. This multi-GNSS receiver can collect data up to 100 Hz rates, providing ionospheric indices like TEC, scintillation parameters like S4 and Sigma-Phi, and other signal metrics like locktime for all satellites and frequencies tracked. All collected data is sent to a central facility located at the Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade Estadual

  6. Assimilation of Satellite Based Soil Moisture Data in the National Weather Service's Flash Flood Guidance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, D.; Lakhankar, T.; Cosgrove, B.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change and variability increases the probability of frequency, timing, intensity, and duration of flood events. After rainfall, soil moisture is the most important factor dictating flash flooding, since rainfall infiltration and runoff are based on the saturation of the soil. It is difficult to conduct ground-based measurements of soil moisture consistently and regionally. As such, soil moisture is often derived from models and agencies such as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service (NOAA/NWS) use proxy estimates of soil moisture at the surface in order support operational flood forecasting. In particular, a daily national map of Flash Flood Guidance (FFG) is produced that is based on surface soil moisture deficit and threshold runoff estimates. Flash flood warnings are issued by Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) and are underpinned by information from the Flash Flood Guidance (FFG) system operated by the River Forecast Centers (RFCs). This study analyzes the accuracy and limitations of the FFG system using reported flash flood cases in 2010 and 2011. The flash flood reports were obtained from the NWS Storm Event database for the Arkansas-Red Basin RFC (ABRFC). The current FFG system at the ABRFC provides gridded flash flood guidance (GFFG) System using the NWS Hydrology Laboratory-Research Distributed Hydrologic Model (HL-RDHM) to translate the upper zone soil moisture to estimates of Soil Conservation Service Curve Numbers. Comparison of the GFFG and real-time Multi-sensor Precipitation Estimator derived Quantitative Precipitation Estimate (QPE) for the same duration and location were used to analyze the success of the system. Improved flash flood forecasting requires accurate and high resolution soil surface information. The remote sensing observations of soil moisture can improve the flood forecasting accuracy. The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) and Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellites are two

  7. Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC): Using innovative tools and services to support worldwide space weather scientific communities and networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, A. M.; Bakshi, S.; Berrios, D.; Chulaki, A.; Evans, R. M.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Lee, H.; MacNeice, P. J.; Maddox, M. M.; Mays, M. L.; Mullinix, R. E.; Ngwira, C. M.; Patel, K.; Pulkkinen, A.; Rastaetter, L.; Shim, J.; Taktakishvili, A.; Zheng, Y.

    2012-12-01

    the general public about the importance and impacts of space weather effects. Although CCMC is organizationally comprised of United States federal agencies, CCMC services are open to members of the international science community and encourages interagency and international collaboration. In this poster, we provide an overview of using Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) tools and services to support worldwide space weather scientific communities and networks.;

  8. The Spanish Space Weather Service SeNMEs. A Case Study on the Sun-Earth Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios, J.; Cid, C.; Guerrero, A.; Saiz, E.; Cerrato, Y.; Rodríguez-Bouza, M.; Rodríguez-Bilbao, I.; Herraiz, M.; Rodríguez-Caderot, G.

    2016-04-01

    The Spanish Space Weather Service SeNMEs, www.senmes.es, is a portal created by the SRG-SW of the Universidad de Alcalá, Spain, to meet societal needs of near real-time space weather services. This webpage-portal is divided in different sections to fulfill users needs about space weather effects: radio blackouts, solar energetic particle events, geomagnetic storms and presence of geomagnetically induced currents. In less than one year of activity, this service has released a daily report concerning the solar current status and interplanetary medium, informing about the chances of a solar perturbation to hit the Earth's environment. There are also two different forecasting tools for geomagnetic storms, and a daily ionospheric map. These tools allow us to nowcast a variety of solar eruptive events and forecast geomagnetic storms and their recovery, including a new local geomagnetic index, LDiñ, along with some specific new scaling. In this paper we also include a case study analysed by SeNMEs. Using different high resolution and cadence data from space-borne solar telescopes SDO, SOHO and GOES, along with ionospheric and geomagnetic data, we describe the Sun-Earth feature chain for the event.

  9. [Ethnic disparities in the use of reproductive health services by indigenous and African-descendant Colombian women].

    PubMed

    Noreña-Herrera, Camilo; Leyva-Flores, René; Palacio-Mejía, Lina Sofía; Duarte-Gómez, María Beatriz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study in Colombia was to analyze the use of reproductive health services (prenatal care, childbirth, and postpartum) according to women's ethnicity, based on the National Demographic and Health Survey for 2010. Ethnicity was self-reported (indigenous, African-descendant, or neither), and logistic models were performed for each service. The use of reproductive health services was lower among indigenous and African-descendant Colombian women when compared to those that did not declare their ethnicity. According to the regression models, indigenous women showed lower odds of having an adequate number of prenatal visits (OR = 0.61), and the same was true for African-descendant women. The same situation prevailed for institutional childbirth care: indigenous women (OR = 0.33) and African-descendant women (OR = 0.60); and postpartum follow-up: indigenous (OR = 0.80), African-descendant (OR = 0.80). In conclusion, there are inequities in the use of reproductive health services by women belonging to ethnic groups in Colombia, who should be targeted with government strategies to guarantee their right to health. PMID:26872239

  10. Ionosphere Waves Service (IWS) - a problem-oriented tool in ionosphere and Space Weather research produced by POPDAT project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferencz, Csaba; Lizunov, Georgii; Crespon, François; Price, Ivan; Bankov, Ludmil; Przepiórka, Dorota; Brieß, Klaus; Dudkin, Denis; Girenko, Andrey; Korepanov, Valery; Kuzmych, Andrii; Skorokhod, Tetiana; Marinov, Pencho; Piankova, Olena; Rothkaehl, Hanna; Shtus, Tetyana; Steinbach, Péter; Lichtenberger, János; Sterenharz, Arnold; Vassileva, Any

    2014-05-01

    In the frame of the FP7 POPDAT project the Ionosphere Waves Service (IWS) has been developed and opened for public access by ionosphere experts. IWS is forming a database, derived from archived ionospheric wave records to assist the ionosphere and Space Weather research, and to answer the following questions: How can the data of earlier ionospheric missions be reprocessed with current algorithms to gain more profitable results? How could the scientific community be provided with a new insight on wave processes that take place in the ionosphere? The answer is a specific and unique data mining service accessing a collection of topical catalogs that characterize a huge number of recorded occurrences of Whistler-like Electromagnetic Wave Phenomena, Atmosphere Gravity Waves, and Traveling Ionosphere Disturbances. IWS online service (http://popdat.cbk.waw.pl) offers end users to query optional set of predefined wave phenomena, their detailed characteristics. These were collected by target specific event detection algorithms in selected satellite records during database buildup phase. Result of performed wave processing thus represents useful information on statistical or comparative investigations of wave types, listed in a detailed catalog of ionospheric wave phenomena. The IWS provides wave event characteristics, extracted by specific software systems from data records of the selected satellite missions. The end-user can access targets by making specific searches and use statistical modules within the service in their field of interest. Therefore the IWS opens a new way in ionosphere and Space Weather research. The scientific applications covered by IWS concern beyond Space Weather also other fields like earthquake precursors, ionosphere climatology, geomagnetic storms, troposphere-ionosphere energy transfer, and trans-ionosphere link perturbations.

  11. Exploitation, dissemination, education and outreach in the frame of the COST action ES0803 "developing space weather products and services in Europe"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanlommel, Petra; Messerotti, Mauro; Lilensten, Jean; Calders, Stijn; Bonte, Katrien; D'Huys, Elke; Žigman, Vida

    2014-01-01

    COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) is one of the longest-running European frameworks supporting cooperation among scientists and researchers across Europe. Its action ES0803 "Developing Space Weather Products and Services in Europe" involves the task "Exploitation, Dissemination, Education and Outreach". To meet the objectives of this task, we describe how we developed and maintained the Space Weather Portal, initiated the electronic Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate, took care of the scientific organization of the annual European Space Weather Week conference and of two schools for scientists and students from the space weather community. We also describe several dissemination projects supported by the action, which target the non-specialist in the field of space weather.

  12. Estimating reflectivity values from wind turbines for analyzing the potential impact on weather radar services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angulo, I.; Grande, O.; Jenn, D.; Guerra, D.; de la Vega, D.

    2015-05-01

    The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has repeatedly expressed concern over the increasing number of impact cases of wind turbine farms on weather radars. Current signal processing techniques to mitigate wind turbine clutter (WTC) are scarce, so the most practical approach to this issue is the assessment of the potential interference from a wind farm before it is installed. To do so, and in order to obtain a WTC reflectivity model, it is crucial to estimate the radar cross section (RCS) of the wind turbines to be built, which represents the power percentage of the radar signal that is backscattered to the radar receiver. For the proposed model, a representative scenario has been chosen in which both the weather radar and the wind farm are placed on clear areas; i.e., wind turbines are supposed to be illuminated only by the lowest elevation angles of the radar beam. This paper first characterizes the RCS of wind turbines in the weather radar frequency bands by means of computer simulations based on the physical optics theory and then proposes a simplified model to estimate wind turbine RCS values. This model is of great help in the evaluation of the potential impact of a certain wind farm on the weather radar operation.

  13. Services available at the Brazilian Study and Monitoring of Space Weather (Embrace) Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal Lago, A.; Cecatto, J. R.; Costa, J. E. R.; Da Silva, L. A.; Rockenbach, M.; Braga, C. R.; Mendonca, R. R. S.; Mendes, O., Jr.; Koga, D.; Alves, L. R.; Becker-Guedes, F.; Wrasse, C. M.; Takahashi, H.; Banik de Padua, M.; De Nardin, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2008, Brazilian government has been supporting a Space Weather Program at the National Institute for Space Research (INPE). The main objective of the "Brazilian Study and Monitoring of Space Weather (Embrace) Program" is to proceed with data collection and maintenance of Space Weather observation, modeling processes of the Sun-Earth on a global and regional scale, provide information in real time and make Space Weather forecast, and provide diagnostics of their effects on different technology systems through the collection of satellite data, surface and computational modeling. Advantage was taken on the long lasting expertise of the local scientific community, specially regarding local phenomena, such as the equatorial ionosphere and effects of the South American Magnetic Anomaly. Since April 2012, weekly briefings are held where scientists discuss and evaluate in a comprehensive manner all the chains of events from the sun, interplanetary space, earth magnetosphere, radiation belts, ionosphere, upper atmosphere, and reaching the effects on ground. One unique aspect of Embrace program is the strong emphasis on ionospheric and upper atmospheric disturbances. Recently, strong focus on radiation belt variability is progressively been included. Another important particularity of this program is the use of cosmic ray observations to develop nowcasting and forecasting of solar wind structures. In this work, we present an overview of activities and contributions related to the EMBRACE Program.

  14. Use of Remote Sensing Data to Enhance the National Weather Service (NWS) Storm Damage Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary; Molthan, Andrew; White, Kris; Burks, Jason; Stellman, Keith; Smith, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    SPoRT is improving the use of near real-time satellite data in response to severe weather events and other diasters. Supported through NASA s Applied Sciences Program. Planned interagency collaboration to support NOAA s Damage Assessment Toolkit, with spinoff opportunities to support other entities such as USGS and FEMA.

  15. Using Digital Counterstories as Multimodal Pedagogy among South African Pre-Service Student Educators to Produce Stories of Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gachago, Daniela; Cronje, Franci; Ivala, Eunice; Condy, Janet; Chigona, Agnes

    2014-01-01

    While digital storytelling has entered higher education as a vehicle to reflect on issues of identity and difference, there is a paucity of research framed by a critical perspective unpacking underlying power structures in the classroom. This study reports on an ongoing project in a South African pre-service Teacher Education course in which…

  16. The Audio-Visual Services in Fifteen African Countries. Comparative Study on the Administration of Audio-Visual Services in Advanced and Developing Countries. Part Four. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jongbloed, Harry J. L.

    As the fourth part of a comparative study on the administration of audiovisual services in advanced and developing countries, this UNESCO-funded study reports on the African countries of Cameroun, Republic of Central Africa, Dahomey, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Libya, Mali, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Swaziland, Tunisia, Upper Volta and Zambia. Information…

  17. Trans-African Hydro-Meteorological Observatory (TAHMO): A network to monitor weather, water, and climate in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van De Giesen, N.; Hut, R.; Andreini, M.; Selker, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    The Trans-African Hydro-Meteorological Observatory (TAHMO) has a goal to design, build, install and operate a dense network of hydro-meteorological monitoring stations in sub-Saharan Africa; one every 35 km. This corresponds to a total of 20,000 stations. By applying ICT and innovative sensors, each station should cost not more than $500. The stations would be placed at schools and integrated in the environmental curriculum. Data will be combined with models and satellite observations to obtain a very complete insight into the distribution of water and energy stocks and fluxes. Within this project, we have built a prototype of an acoustic disdrometer (rain gauge) that can be produced for much less than the cost of a commercial equivalent with the same specifications. The disdrometer was developed in The Netherlands and tested in Tanzania for a total project cost of Euro 5000. First tests have been run at junior high schools in Ghana to incorporate hydro-meteorological measurements in the science curriculum. The latest activity concerns the organization of a crowdsourcing competitions across Africa to address business development and the design and building of new robust sensors. This has resulted in a wide network throughout the continent to bring this program forward.

  18. Estimating reflectivity values from wind turbines for analyzing the potential impact on weather radar services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angulo, I.; Grande, O.; Jenn, D.; Guerra, D.; de la Vega, D.

    2015-02-01

    The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has repeatedly expressed concern over the increasing number of impact cases of wind turbine farms on weather radars. Since nowadays signal processing techniques to mitigate Wind Turbine Clutter (WTC) are scarce, the most practical approach to this issue is the assessment of the potential interference from a wind farm before it is installed. To do so, and in order to obtain a WTC reflectivity model, it is crucial to estimate the Radar Cross Section (RCS) of the wind turbines to be built, which represents the power percentage of the radar signal that is backscattered to the radar receiver. This paper first characterizes the RCS of wind turbines in the weather radar frequency bands by means of computer simulations based on the Physical Optics theory, and then proposes a simplified model to estimate wind turbine RCS values. This model is of great help in the evaluation of the potential impact of a certain wind farm on the weather radar operation.

  19. Severe weather study. [for evaluating dissemination of storm forecasts meteorological services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, C. J.

    1973-01-01

    Current methods of severe weather information dissemination and the impact of this information on the general public are studied. The study is based on the responses of the general public and the local broadcasters to a severe weather incident which occurred on August 14, 1972 in the Dane County-Madison Metropolitan area. The results of the study were somewhat startling. From the sample, for instance, it was found that 45% of the Dane County population was not aware of the severe thunderstorm warning. In this case this may or may not have been critical, but had the storm been extremely severe or had a tornado and flooding been associated with the storm, a large segment of the population would have been in great danger. What this study has shown, is that the real problem with the dissemination of severe weather information is not the lack of it, but the inability to transfer it in useful form to an overwhelming majority of the general public.

  20. Calls Forecast for the Moscow Ambulance Service. The Impact of Weather Forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordin, Vladimir; Bykov, Philipp

    2015-04-01

    We use the known statistics of the calls for the current and previous days to predict them for tomorrow and for the following days. We assume that this algorithm will work operatively, will cyclically update the available information and will move the horizon of the forecast. Sure, the accuracy of such forecasts depends on their lead time, and from a choice of some group of diagnoses. For comparison we used the error of the inertial forecast (tomorrow there will be the same number of calls as today). Our technology has demonstrated accuracy that is approximately two times better compared to the inertial forecast. We obtained the following result: the number of calls depends on the actual weather in the city as well as on its rate of change. We were interested in the accuracy of the forecast for 12-hour sum of the calls in real situations. We evaluate the impact of the meteorological errors [1] on the forecast errors of the number of Ambulance calls. The weather and the Ambulance calls number both have seasonal tendencies. Therefore, if we have medical information from one city only, we should separate the impacts of such predictors as "annual variations in the number of calls" and "weather". We need to consider the seasonal tendencies (associated, e. g. with the seasonal migration of the population) and the impact of the air temperature simultaneously, rather than sequentially. We forecasted separately the number of calls with diagnoses of cardiovascular group, where it was demonstrated the advantage of the forecasting method, when we use the maximum daily air temperature as a predictor. We have a chance to evaluate statistically the influence of meteorological factors on the dynamics of medical problems. In some cases it may be useful for understanding of the physiology of disease and possible treatment options. We can assimilate some personal archives of medical parameters for the individuals with concrete diseases and the relative meteorological archive. As a

  1. A Feasibility Study of a Field-specific Weather Service for Small-scale Farms in a Topographically Complex Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. O.; Shim, K. M.; Shin, Y. S.; Yun, J. I.

    2015-12-01

    Adequate downscaling of synoptic forecasts is a prerequisite for improved agrometeorological service to rural areas in South Korea where complex terrain and small farms are common. Geospatial schemes based on topoclimatology were used to scale down the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) temperature forecasts to the local scale (~30 m) across a rural catchment. Local temperatures were estimated at 14 validation sites at 0600 and 1500 LST in 2013/2014 using these schemes and were compared with observations. A substantial reduction in the estimation error was found for both 0600 and 1500 temperatures compared with uncorrected KMA products. Improvement was most remarkable at low lying locations for the 0600 temperature and at the locations on west- and south-facing slopes for the 1500 temperature. Using the downscaled real-time temperature data, a pilot service has started to provide field-specific weather information tailored to meet the requirements of small-scale farms. For example, the service system makes a daily outlook on the phenology of crop species grown in a given field using the field-specific temperature data. When the temperature forecast is given for tomorrow morning, a frost risk index is calculated according to a known phenology-frost injury relationship. If the calculated index is higher than a pre-defined threshold, a warning is issued and delivered to the grower's cellular phone with relevant countermeasures to help protect crops against frost damage. The system was implemented for a topographically complex catchment of 350km2with diverse agricultural activities, and more than 400 volunteer farmers are participating in this pilot service to access user-specific weather information.

  2. Unravelling Barriers to Accessing HIV Prevention Services Experienced by African and Caribbean Communities in Canada: Lessons from Toronto

    PubMed Central

    Amibor, Paulson; Ogunrotifa, Ayodeji Bayo

    2012-01-01

    Barriers to accessing HIV-prevention services, experienced by African and Caribbean communities in Canada, is an issue warranting sustained research. This study seeks to achieve a better understanding of the nature of HIV-prevention services in Canada, and to explore the dynamics, which underpin barriers to accessing these services confronting African and Caribbean populations in Toronto (Canada). This study also endeavours to assess what is being done to reduce these barriers. Semi-structured qualitative interviews with 7 professionals and community workers who were involved in organizing, researching and delivering HIV-prevention services were conducted for this study. Four themes pertaining to barriers to accessing HIV-prevention services, including, levels of cultural competence and sensitivity among service providers; cultural and social stigma directed at persons living with HIV/AIDS; various social determinants of health, including gender, race and precarious immigration status’; as well as constrained funding resources that are available for service providers; were uncovered in the findings of the study. The paper concludes that several health promotion and health education initiatives exist, which can help reduce these barriers to HIV-prevention service access for these populations. However, in order to ensure their effectiveness there will be much needed involvement from community and other relevant government agencies, which will need to work separately and in conjunction with one another, in order to tackle some of the broader issues that affect these populations. PMID:22980228

  3. Space Weather Activities at SERC for IHY: (1) Local Education, (2) Global Outreach and (3) Data Base Service (P61)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, K.; Magdas/Cpmn Group

    2006-11-01

    arnoldyuki@serc.kyushu-u.ac.jp The Space Environment Research Center (SERC), Kyushu University (KU), conducts everyday space weather “now casting”. There are two main goals in this effort: (1) to train and educate KU students about the complexities of the Sun-Earth system so that they can become space weather forecasters in the future, (2) to globally disseminate space weather information from SERC as a service to the scientific community and the general public. In order to understand the complexities of the Sun-Earth system, KU students analyze the data of four regions: (1) solar surface, (2) solar wind, (3) geospace, and (4) the Earth’s surface. Using real-time public data from SOHO Real Time Movies, Solar Monitor, NASA/GSFC/SDAC, and SEC‘s Anonymous FTP Server, they check each day the Sun Spot Number, locations of active regions and coronal holes, and identify solar flare events: GOES X-Ray Flux, CME: SOHO/ LASCO- C2, 3, and Proton Event: GOES Proton Flux. By analyzing ACE Real Time Data, KU students examine the solar wind (Speed, Density, Temperature) and Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF: Bt, Bz, Phi), and identify events of sector boundary, CIR, CME, and Shock/Discontinuity. To understand magnetic circumstances in geospace and on the Earth’s Surface, KU students analyze storms and substorms using Dst index (Kyoto Univ.), Kp index (NOAA), and Magnetic Pulsation Index (Pc 3, 4, and 5: SERC). Every morning KU students create a space weather report and then discuss it with the staff at SERC for local training and education. The report and its details are disseminated on the SERC Home Page (http://www.serc.kyushu-u.ac.jp) to provide "global outreach" for space weather information. MAGDAS (Magnetic Data Acquisition System) data are obtained from the Circum-pan Pacific Magnetometer Network (CPMN) locations during the IHY period (2007-2008). MAGDAS magnetometers are installed at 50 stations along the 210o magnetic meridian and the magnetic dip equator

  4. Finding what works: Predicting health or social service linkage in drug using, African American, female sex workers in Miami, FL.

    PubMed

    Levi-Minzi, Maria A; Surratt, Hilary L; O'Grady, Catherine L; Kurtz, Steven P

    2016-07-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) encounter numerous challenges in accessing health and social services. In this study of drug using, African American FSWs, the authors examine specific factors associated with health or social service linkage among participants in a randomized intervention trial. Respondent linkage was significantly associated with individual factors (living alone, severe internal mental distress, and traumatic victimization) and project-related variables (attending five case management sessions and client engagement rating). In the multivariate model, higher client engagement and session attendance remained significant. The researchers conclude by discussing the importance of intervention attendance and engagement as key contributors to health and social service linkage among FSWs. PMID:26933839

  5. Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus: A Preliminary South African Health Promotion Activity Using Service-Learning Principles.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Sunitha C; Paphitis, Sharli Anne

    2016-06-01

    A marked increase in the chronic non-communicable diseases such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus in the South African population is in concert with global trends. A health promotion activity carried out by pharmacy students for school learners during the Sasol National Festival of Science and Technology (SciFest) in South Africa was used as a service-learning opportunity. Pilot tested quizzes on hypertension and diabetes were used to determine the level of knowledge of attendees before and after taking the computer based quiz. Posters, information leaflets and interactive models on these two conditions were also used to reach out to the larger population. Of the 203 participants for the hypertension quiz, 169 completed both the pre- and post-intervention quizzes. Similarly, 86 of the 104 participants for the diabetes quiz, completed both the pre- and post-intervention quizzes. The results show that the post-intervention quiz resulted in a significant increase in the scores from 78.2 to 85.6 % in the case of Hypertension while a marginal increase from 94.2 to 95.5 % was obtained in the case of diabetes. The knowledge of the SciFest attendees with regard to both conditions is above average and improved further after the educational intervention. Health promotion activities which include interactive educational methods and culturally appropriate materials carried out by pharmacy students during service-learning courses are important for improving the awareness on the prevention of these chronic health conditions. Heath promotion service-learning courses can assist in addressing the health care gaps which arise because of a lack of co-ordinated efforts between NGO's and local Government to address the prevention and management of non-communicable diseases such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus. PMID:26659854

  6. AutoWARN - Automatic Support for the Weather Warning Service at Deutscher Wetterdienst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichert, B. K.

    2009-09-01

    The AutoWARN system integrates various meteorological products in an automated warning process with manual monitoring and decision possibilities for the forecaster. It exploits and combines observations, radar products, nowcasting products, statistical forecast products, and model forecasts of Numerical Weather Prediction. It generates and permanently updates forecast-time dependant automatic warning status proposals. The forecaster manually controls and, if necessary, modifies the automatic proposals. The generated warning status is exported to an external system outside of AutoWARN for the generation of textual and graphical warning products for customers. The development of the AutoWARN system was part of the future strategy 2006 to 2015 of the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD); headwords within this strategy are centralization and automation of the entire warning process. On the basis of the formerly developed system AutoMON (Automatic Monitoring and Alerting of significant Weather Events), AutoWARN is fully integrated into the meteorological workstation NinJo and is currently being evaluated by the forecasters of DWD. The project was finished in spring 2009. The presentation will focus on illuminating the concept of AutoWARN and demonstrating the currently running pre-operational version of the system at the National Warning Centre (NWC) of DWD.

  7. "In the Interest of the Colored Boys": Christopher J. Atkinson, William T. Coleman, and the Extension of Boys' Clubs Services to African-American Communities, 1906-1931

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Carter Julian

    2011-01-01

    This paper details how African-American boys' club workers, their Clubs as well as their service to African-American youth, gained legitimacy within the Boys' Club Federation, now Boys & Girls Clubs of America (BGCA). Specifically, it illustrates what facilitated a predominantly urban, northeastern organization to begin opening Clubs for…

  8. An overview of the use of Twitter in National Weather Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaztelumendi, S.; Martija, M.; Principe, O.; Palacio, V.

    2015-06-01

    Twitter is a service that enables users to post messages ("tweets") of up to 140 characters supporting a variety of communicative practices. In this paper we analyze different aspects related to the use of Twitter in different National Meteorological Services (NMS) worldwide. Firstly, we will review the general position of NMS worldwide regarding the use of Twitter technology. Secondly, we will focus on different practices of some selected meteorological services. Thirdly, we will deal specifically with the Basque Meteorology Agency (Euskalmet) case. Finally some conclusions are presented.

  9. A Qualitative Study of Barriers to the Utilization of HIV Testing Services Among Rural African American Cocaine Users

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Patricia B.; Stewart, Katharine E.; Curran, Geoffrey M.; Booth, Brenda M.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study is about barriers to the utilization of HIV testing as perceived by African Americans who have recently used cocaine and who live in the rural Delta region of Arkansas. Affordability, physical accessibility, and geographic availability were not perceived as barriers to HIV testing in this sample, yet acceptability was still perceived as poor. Acceptability due to social mores and norms was a major barrier. Many said testing was unacceptable because of fear of social costs. Many were confident of being HIV-negative based on risky assumptions about testing and the notification process. Small-town social and sexual networks added to concerns about reputation and risk. System approaches may fail if they focus solely on improving access to HIV services but do not take into consideration deeply internalized experiences of rural African Americans as well as involvement of the community in developing programs and services. PMID:24039279

  10. A Qualitative Study of Barriers to the Utilization of HIV Testing Services Among Rural African American Cocaine Users.

    PubMed

    Wright, Patricia B; Stewart, Katharine E; Curran, Geoffrey M; Booth, Brenda M

    2013-07-01

    This qualitative study is about barriers to the utilization of HIV testing as perceived by African Americans who have recently used cocaine and who live in the rural Delta region of Arkansas. Affordability, physical accessibility, and geographic availability were not perceived as barriers to HIV testing in this sample, yet acceptability was still perceived as poor. Acceptability due to social mores and norms was a major barrier. Many said testing was unacceptable because of fear of social costs. Many were confident of being HIV-negative based on risky assumptions about testing and the notification process. Small-town social and sexual networks added to concerns about reputation and risk. System approaches may fail if they focus solely on improving access to HIV services but do not take into consideration deeply internalized experiences of rural African Americans as well as involvement of the community in developing programs and services. PMID:24039279

  11. Abundance of African invader fly, Bactrocera invadens drew, tsuruta and white (diptera: tephritidae) and influence of weather parameters on trap catches in mango in the Volta region of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adzim, Charles Amankwa; Billah, Maxwell Kelvin; Afreh-Nuamah, Kwame

    2016-01-01

    The seasonal abundance of African Invader fly, Bactrocera invadens and the influence of temperature and rainfall on fly catches was determined in two agro ecological zones; moist semi-deciduous forest area and the coastal grassland area of the Volta Region of Ghana for year of mango production. Traps containing methyl eugenol were used in monitoring the abundance of the Africa invader fly, Bactrocera invadens where data on both temperature and rainfall were collected from Meteorological Services of Ghana in Volta region. A total of 49,322 organisms captured, 45,829 were identified as Bactrocera invadens and 3493 were non-fruit fly. There were significant differences (p < 0.05) in the number of Bactrocera invadens captured between the agro ecological zones with relative fly densities of 5.06 F/T/D in moist semi deciduous forest area and 2.38 F/T/D in the coastal grassland zone. The result shows that climatic factors affected Bactrocera invadens differently in different agro ecological area. There was negative correlation and highly significant (p < 0.001) correlation between fruit flies and temperature whereas there was negative correlation and high significant (p < 0.01) difference between rainfall in the moist semi deciduous forest area. In the coastal grassland area, there was negative correlation and highly significant (p < 0.001) between Bactrocera invadens for both rainfall and temperature. Bactrocera invadens activities peaked differently during the study period due to favourable climatic conditions. The activities of Bactrocera invadens peaked during weeks 7 and 29 in the moist semi deciduous forest area while their activities peaked during weeks 3 and 24 for the coastal grassland areas. Both agro ecological zones recorded the presence of Bactrocera invadens, their number and proportion varied considerably with associated effects of the weather parameters on their abundance. The effect of weather parameters on the abundance of bactrocera invadens

  12. Teaching Mesoscale Meteorology in the Age of the Modernized National Weather Service: A Report on the Unidata/COMET Workshop.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramamurthy, Mohan K.; Murphy, Charles; Moore, James; Wetzel, Melanie; Knight, David; Ruscher, Paul; Mullen, Steve; Desouza, Russel; Hawk, Denise S.; Fulker, David

    1995-12-01

    This report summarizes discussions that took place during a Unidata Cooperative Program for Operational Meteorology, Education, and Training (COMET) workshop on Mesoscale Meteorology Instruction in the Age of the Modernized Weather Service. The workshop was held 13-17 June 1994 in Boulder, Colorado, and it was organized by the Unidata Users Committee, with help from Unidata, COMET, and the National Center for Atmospheric Research staff. The principal objective of the workshop was to assess the need for and to initiate those changes at universities that will be required if students are to learn mesoscale and synoptic meteorology more effectively in this era of rapid technological advances. Seventy-one participants took part in the workshop, which included invited lectures, breakout roundtable discussions on focused topics, electronic poster sessions, and a forum for discussing recommendations and findings in a plenary session. Leading scientists and university faculty in the area of synoptic and mesoscale meteorology were invited to share their ideas for integrating data from new observing systems, research and operational weather prediction models, and interactive computer technologies into the classroom. As a result, many useful ideas for incorporating mesoscale datasets and analysis tools into the classroom emerged. Also, recommendations for future coordinated activities to create, catalog, and distribute case study datasets were made by the attendees.

  13. Trio Student Support Services: A Comparative Study of African American Students at Three Texas Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Hattie Marie

    2013-01-01

    Although access to postsecondary education for ethnic minorities has increased since desegregation in 1954, the college completion rates for these groups have not, particularly for African Americans. For this reason, it is important to continue to examine strategies that contribute to increases in completion rates for African Americans. The…

  14. How should forensic anthropologists correct national weather service temperature data for use in estimating the postmortem interval?

    PubMed

    Dabbs, Gretchen R

    2015-05-01

    This study examines the correlation between site-specific and retrospectively collected temperature data from the National Weather Service (NWS) over an extended time period. Using iButtonLink thermochrons (model DS1921G), hourly temperature readings were collected at 15 sites (1 validation; 14 experimental) from December 2010 to January 2012. Comparison between the site-specific temperature data and data retrieved from an official reporter of NWS temperature data shows statistically significant differences between the two in 71.4% (10/14) of cases. The difference ranged between 0.04 and 2.81°C. Examination of both regression and simple adjustment of the mean difference over extended periods (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, & 9 months) suggests that on the timescale typical in forensic anthropology cases neither method of correction is consistent or reliable and that forensic anthropologists would be better suited using uncorrected NWS temperature data when the postmortem interval is extended. PMID:25678225

  15. The African Field Epidemiology Network-Networking for effective field epidemiology capacity building and service delivery

    PubMed Central

    Gitta, Sheba Nakacubo; Mukanga, David; Babirye, Rebecca; Dahlke, Melissa; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Nsubuga, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Networks are a catalyst for promoting common goals and objectives of their membership. Public Health networks in Africa are crucial, because of the severe resource limitations that nations face in dealing with priority public health problems. For a long time, networks have existed on the continent and globally, but many of these are disease-specific with a narrow scope. The African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) is a public health network established in 2005 as a non-profit networking alliance of Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs) and Field Epidemiology Training Programs (FETPs) in Africa. AFENET is dedicated to helping ministries of health in Africa build strong, effective and sustainable programs and capacity to improve public health systems by partnering with global public health experts. The Network's goal is to strengthen field epidemiology and public health laboratory capacity to contribute effectively to addressing epidemics and other major public health problems in Africa. AFENET currently networks 12 FELTPs and FETPs in sub-Saharan Africa with operations in 20 countries. AFENET has a unique tripartite working relationship with government technocrats from human health and animal sectors, academicians from partner universities, and development partners, presenting the Network with a distinct vantage point. Through the Network, African nations are making strides in strengthening their health systems. Members are able to: leverage resources to support field epidemiology and public health laboratory training and service delivery notably in the area of outbreak investigation and response as well as disease surveillance; by-pass government bureaucracies that often hinder and frustrate development partners; and consolidate efforts of different partners channelled through the FELTPs by networking graduates through alumni associations and calling on them to offer technical support in various public health capacities as the need arises

  16. DOC/WSNSO (Department of Commerce/Weather Service Nuclear Support Office) operational support to Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, P.

    1989-01-01

    The National Weather Service (NWS) is an agency of the Department of Commerce. The NWS has hundreds of weather offices throughout the United States. The Weather Service Nuclear Support Office (WSNSO) is a highly specialized unit of NWS that provides direct support to the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) underground nuclear testing program. The WSNSO has been associated with the DOE for >33 yr. As a result of the unique relationship with the DOE, all WSNSO emergency response meteorologists and meteorological technicians are allowed access to classified material. Meteorological phenomena play a significant role during a Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) event, and WSNSO meteorologists provide direct support to ARAC. The marriage of state-of-the-art computer systems together with proven technology provides the on-scene WSNSO meteorologist with essentially a portable fully equipped, fully functional, advanced NWS weather station. The WSNSO's emergency response personnel and hardware are at the ready and can be mobilized within 2 h. WSNSO can provide on-scene weather forecasts and critical weather data collection whenever and wherever necessary.

  17. Ensuring Access to HIV Prevention Services in South African HIV Vaccine Trials: Correspondence Between Guidelines and Practices

    PubMed Central

    Essack, Zaynab

    2014-01-01

    Researchers and sponsors are required to assist HIV prevention trial participants to remain HIV-uninfected by ensuring access to prevention services. Ethics guidelines require that these HIV risk-reduction services be state of the art. This and related ethics recommendations have been intensely debated. This descriptive study aimed to identify actual HIV prevention practices for two HIV vaccine trials at five South African sites, to explore whether actual practices meet guideline recommendations and to discuss implications for practices and ethics guidelines. Practices were examined through a review of site documents and interviews with site staff and network representatives, as well as community advisory board and research ethics committee representatives. A thematic analysis of HIV prevention practices, perspectives and perceived challenges was undertaken. Findings indicated that there was a high degree of correspondence between actual practices in South African HIV vaccine trials and guideline recommendations. Key challenges for implementing prevention services were identified as partnerships, provider-promotion of services and participant uptake of services. Practices deviated most from guidelines with regard to the description of prevention plans in informed consent forms. Recommendations are made for both practices and ethics guidelines. PMID:25031609

  18. Evaluating National Weather Service Seasonal Forecast Products in Reservoir Operation Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielson, A.; Guihan, R.; Polebistki, A.; Palmer, R. N.; Werner, K.; Wood, A. W.

    2014-12-01

    Forecasts of future weather and streamflow can provide valuable information for reservoir operations and water management. A challenge confronting reservoir operators today is how to incorporate both climate and streamflow products into their operations and which of these forecast products are most informative and useful for optimized water management. This study incorporates several reforecast products provided by the Colorado Basin River Forecast Center (CBRFC) which allows a complete retrospective analysis of climate forecasts, resulting in an evaluation of each product's skill in the context of water resources management. The accuracy and value of forecasts generated from the Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2) are compared to the accuracy and value of using an Ensemble Streamflow Predictions (ESP) approach. Using the CFSv2 may offer more insight when responding to climate driven extremes than the ESP approach because the CFSv2 incorporates a fully coupled climate model into its forecasts rather than using all of the historic climate record as being equally probable. The role of forecast updating frequency will also be explored. Decision support systems (DSS) for both Salt Lake City Parley's System and the Snohomish County Public Utility Department's (SnoPUD) Jackson project will be used to illustrate the utility of forecasts. Both DSS include a coupled simulation and optimization model that will incorporate system constraints, operating policies, and environmental flow requirements. To determine the value of the reforecast products, performance metrics meaningful to the managers of each system are to be identified and quantified. Without such metrics and awareness of seasonal operational nuances, it is difficult to identify forecast improvements in meaningful ways. These metrics of system performance are compared using the different forecast products to evaluate the potential benefits of using CFSv2 seasonal forecasts in systems decision making.

  19. Tropical convective systems life cycle characteristics from geostationary satellite and precipitating estimates derived from TRMM and ground weather radar observations for the West African and South American regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiolleau, T.; Roca, R.; Angelis, F. C.; Viltard, N.

    2012-12-01

    In the tropics most of the rainfall comes in the form of individual storm events embedded in the synoptic circulations (e.g., monsoons). Understanding the rainfall and its variability hence requires to document these highly contributing tropical convective systems (MCS). Our knowledge of the MCS life cycle, from a physical point of view mainly arises from individual observational campaigns heavily based on ground radar observations. While this large part of observations enabled the creation of conceptual models of MCS life cycle, it nevertheless does not reach any statistically significant integrated perspective yet. To overcome this limitation, a composite technique, that will serve as a Day-1 algorithm for the Megha-Tropiques mission, is considered in this study. this method is based on a collocation in space and time of the level-2 rainfall estimates (BRAIN) derived from the TMI radiometer onboard TRMM with the cloud systems identified by a new MCS tracking algorithm called TOOCAN and based on a 3-dimensional segmentation (image + time) of the geostationary IR imagery. To complete this study, a similar method is also developed collocating the cloud systems with the precipitating features derived from the ground weather radar which has been deployed during the CHUVA campaign over several Brazilian regions from 2010 up to now. A comparison of the MCSs life cycle is then performed for the 2010-2012 summer seasons over the West African, and South American regions. On the whole region of study, the results show that the temporal evolution of the cold cloud shield associated to MCSs describes a symmetry between the growth and the decay phases. It is also shown that the parameters of the conceptual model of MCSs are strongly correlated, reducing thereby the problem to a single degree of freedom. At the system scale, over both land and oceanic regions, rainfall is described by an increase at the beginning (the first third) of the life cycle and then smoothly decreases

  20. Survey of Recipients of WAP Services Assessment of Household Budget and Energy Behaviors Pre to Post Weatherization DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, Bruce Edward; Rose, Erin M.; Hawkins, Beth A.

    2015-10-01

    This report presents results from the national survey of weatherization recipients. This research was one component of the retrospective and Recovery Act evaluations of the U.S. Department of Energy s Weatherization Assistance Program. Survey respondents were randomly selected from a nationally representative sample of weatherization recipients. The respondents and a comparison group were surveyed just prior to receiving their energy audits and then again approximately 18 months post-weatherization. This report focuses on budget issues faced by WAP households pre- and post-weatherization, whether household energy behaviors changed from pre- to post, the effectiveness of approaches to client energy education, and use and knowledge about thermostats.

  1. Hourly forecasts of renewable energy sources by an operating MOS-system of the German Weather Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Gernot; Sebastian, Trepte

    2016-04-01

    Model Output Statistics (MOS) is a powerful tool for optimizing the direct output of numerical weather forecast models. By developing multiple linear regressions with predictors, derived from observations and numerical weather prediction (NWP) at DWD (German Meteorological Service), a reduction of 50% of the error variance in the forecast has been achieved. Moreover, statistical post-processing yields numerous advantages in forecasting, e. g. down-scaling to point forecasts at observation stations with specific topographic and climatologic characteristics, correction of biases and systematic errors produced by numerical models, the derivation of further predictands of interest (e. g. exceedance probabilities) and the combination of several models. In the German project EWeLiNE (Simultaneous improvement of weather and power forecasts for the grid integration of renewable energies), which is carried out in collaboration by DWD and IWES (Fraunhofer Institute for Wind Energy and Energy System Technology), one of the main goals is an adjustment of the DWD-system MOSMIX (combining numerical forecasts of the global models IFS and ICON) to the demands of transmission system operators (TSO). This includes the implementation of new predictands like wind elements in altitudes > 10m or solar radiance. To meet the demands of the TSOs the temporal resolution of MOSMIX, currently delivering forecasts in 3-hour time-steps, needs to be enhanced to 1-hour time-steps. This can be achieved by adjusting the statistical equations to take account of hourly SYNOP observations. Thus, diverse input parameters and internal processing schemes have to be re-specified for example in terms of precipitation. We show a comparative verification of 1-hour MOS and 3-hour MOS for different forecast elements. Raw data comprising of acquired point measurements of wind observations have been converted and implemented into the MOS-system. Sensitivity studies have then been conducted investigating the fit

  2. Federal Aviation Administration weather program to improve aviation safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wedan, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    The implementation of the National Airspace System (NAS) will improve safety services to aviation. These services include collision avoidance, improved landing systems and better weather data acquisition and dissemination. The program to improve the quality of weather information includes the following: Radar Remote Weather Display System; Flight Service Automation System; Automatic Weather Observation System; Center Weather Processor, and Next Generation Weather Radar Development.

  3. Understanding client satisfaction with HIV testing and counseling services: a mixed-methods study in four African countries.

    PubMed

    Osborn, Michelle; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf

    2016-06-01

    This paper uses mixed methods to provide comparative evidence across four African countries and identify those aspects of the testing experience that are the most important components of clients' satisfaction with services. We analyze data from three sources: a survey of clients at health facilities that included closed-ended questions about specific services and interactions around testing; responses to open-ended questions about testing experiences that were part of the same survey; and semi-structured interviews with a subsample of respondents who described their experience of testing and being diagnosed with HIV. High levels of reported satisfaction are found in both the survey and interview. The critical factors contributing to client satisfaction included: the three C's of testing-counseling, consent, and confidentiality, client-provider interactions, convenience of location, "good services", and reliable test results. PMID:26872848

  4. Web services interface for Space Weather: NeQuick 2 web and experimental TEC Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migoya Orue, Yenca O.; Nava, Bruno; Radicella, Sandro M.; Alazo Cuartas, Katy; Luigi, Ciraolo

    2013-04-01

    A web front-end has been recently developed and released to allow retrieving and plotting ionospheric parameters computed by the latest version of the model, NeQuick 2. NeQuick is a quick-run ionospheric electron density model particularly designed for trans-ionospheric propagation applications. It has been developed at the Aeronomy and Radiopropagation Laboratory (now T/ICT4D Laboratory) of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) - Trieste, Italy with the collaboration of the Institute for Geophysics, Astrophysics and Meteorology (IGAM) of the University of Graz, Austria. To describe the electron density of the ionosphere up to the peak of the F2 layer, NeQuick uses a profile formulation which includes five semi-Epstein layers with modelled thickness parameters. Through a simple web interface users can exploit all the model features including the possibility of computing the electron density and visualizing the corresponding Total Electron Content (TEC) along any ground-to-satellite straight line ray-path. Indeed, the TEC is the ionospheric parameter retrieved from the GPS measurements. It complements the experimental data obtained with diverse kinds of sensors and can be considered a major source of ionospheric information. Since the TEC is not a direct measurement, a "de-biasing" procedure or calibration has to be applied to obtain the relevant values from the raw GPS observables. Using the observation and navigation RINEX files corresponding to a single receiver as input data, the web application allows the user to compute the slant and/or vertical TEC following the concept of the "arc-by-arc" offsets estimation. The combined use of both tools, freely available from the T/ICT4D Web site, will allow the comparison of experimentally derived slant and vertical TEC with modelled values. An online demonstration of the capabilities of the mentioned web services will be illustrated.

  5. African American Women's Beliefs, Coping Behaviors, and Barriers to Seeking Mental Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Earlise C.; Clark, Le Ondra; Heidrich, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about African American women's beliefs about mental illness. In this qualitative study we employed the Common Sense Model (CSM) to examine African American women's beliefs about mental illness, coping behaviors, barriers to treatment seeking, and variations in beliefs, coping, and barriers associated with aging. Fifteen community-dwelling African American women participated in individual interviews. Dimensional analysis, guided by the CSM, showed that participants believed general, culturally specific, and age-related factors can cause mental illness. They believed mental illness is chronic, with negative health outcomes. Participants endorsed the use of prayer and counseling as coping strategies, but were ambivalent about the use of medications. Treatment-seeking barriers included poor access to care, stigma, and lack of awareness of mental illness. Few age differences were found in beliefs, coping behaviors, and barriers. Practice and research implications are discussed. PMID:19843967

  6. Measuring conditions and trends in ecosystem services at multiple scales: the Southern African Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (SAfMA) experience.

    PubMed

    van Jaarsveld, A S; Biggs, R; Scholes, R J; Bohensky, E; Reyers, B; Lynam, T; Musvoto, C; Fabricius, C

    2005-02-28

    The Southern African Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (SAfMA) evaluated the relationships between ecosystem services and human well-being at multiple scales, ranging from local through to sub-continental. Trends in ecosystem services (fresh water, food, fuel-wood, cultural and biodiversity) over the period 1990-2000 were mixed across scales. Freshwater resources appear strained across the continent with large numbers of people not securing adequate supplies, especially of good quality water. This translates to high infant mortality patterns across the region. In some areas, the use of water resources for irrigated agriculture and urban-industrial expansion is taking place at considerable cost to the quality and quantity of freshwater available to ecosystems and for domestic use. Staple cereal production across the region has increased but was outstripped by population growth while protein malnutrition is on the rise. The much-anticipated wood-fuel crisis on the subcontinent has not materialized but some areas are experiencing shortages while numerous others remain vulnerable. Cultural benefits of biodiversity are considerable, though hard to quantify or track over time. Biodiversity resources remain at reasonable levels, but are declining faster than reflected in species extinction rates and appear highly sensitive to land-use decisions. The SAfMA sub-global assessment provided an opportunity to experiment with innovative ways to assess ecosystem services including the use of supply-demand surfaces, service sources and sink areas, priority areas for service provision, service 'hotspots' and trade-off assessments. PMID:15814355

  7. Measuring conditions and trends in ecosystem services at multiple scales: the Southern African Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (SAfMA) experience

    PubMed Central

    van Jaarsveld, A.S; Biggs, R; Scholes, R.J; Bohensky, E; Reyers, B; Lynam, T; Musvoto, C; Fabricius, C

    2005-01-01

    The Southern African Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (SAfMA) evaluated the relationships between ecosystem services and human well-being at multiple scales, ranging from local through to sub-continental. Trends in ecosystem services (fresh water, food, fuel-wood, cultural and biodiversity) over the period 1990–2000 were mixed across scales. Freshwater resources appear strained across the continent with large numbers of people not securing adequate supplies, especially of good quality water. This translates to high infant mortality patterns across the region. In some areas, the use of water resources for irrigated agriculture and urban–industrial expansion is taking place at considerable cost to the quality and quantity of freshwater available to ecosystems and for domestic use. Staple cereal production across the region has increased but was outstripped by population growth while protein malnutrition is on the rise. The much-anticipated wood-fuel crisis on the subcontinent has not materialized but some areas are experiencing shortages while numerous others remain vulnerable. Cultural benefits of biodiversity are considerable, though hard to quantify or track over time. Biodiversity resources remain at reasonable levels, but are declining faster than reflected in species extinction rates and appear highly sensitive to land-use decisions. The SAfMA sub-global assessment provided an opportunity to experiment with innovative ways to assess ecosystem services including the use of supply–demand surfaces, service sources and sink areas, priority areas for service provision, service ‘hotspots’ and trade-off assessments. PMID:15814355

  8. Urban morphological determinants of temperature regulating ecosystem services in African cities: the case of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavan, Gina; Lindley, Sarah; Kibassa, Deusdedit; Shemdoe, Riziki; Capuano, Paolo; De Paola, Francesco; Renner, Florian; Pauleit, Stephan

    2013-04-01

    Urban green structure provides important regulating ecosystem services, such as temperature and flood regulation, and thus, has the potential to increase the resilience of African cities to climate change. Green structures within urban areas are not only limited to discrete units associated with recreational parks, agricultural areas and open spaces: they also exist within zones which have other primary functions, such as church yards, along transport routes, and within residential areas. Differing characteristics of urban areas can be conceptualised and subsequently mapped through the idea of urban morphology types. Urban morphology types are classifications which combine facets of urban form and function. When mapped, UMT units provide biophysically relevant meso-scale geographical zones which can be used as the basis for understanding climate-related impacts and adaptations. For example, they support the assessment of urban temperature patterns and the temperature regulating services provided by urban green structures. There are some examples of the use of UMTs for assessing regulating ecosystem services in European cities but little similar knowledge is available in an African context. This paper outlines the concept of urban morphology types (UMTs) and how they were applied to African case study cities (Cavan et al., 2012). It then presents the methods used to understand temperature regulating ecosystem services across an example African case study city, including (i) a GIS-based assessment of urban green structures, and (ii) applying an energy balance model to estimate current and future surface temperatures under climate change projections. The assessment is carried out for Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Existing evidence suggests increases in both mean and extreme temperatures in the city. Historical analysis of the number of hot days per year suggests a rise from a maximum of 47 days per year in the period 1961-87 to 72 days per year in 2003-2011 (Giugni et al

  9. Bringing Weather into Your Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogil, H. Michael

    1979-01-01

    Discusses meteorological resources available to classroom teachers. Describes in detail the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Weather Radio and the A.M. Weather Show on Public Broadcasting Service (PBS). Includes addresses where teachers can get more information. (MA)

  10. [Suicide and weather].

    PubMed

    Breuer, H W; Fischbach-Breuer, B R; Breuer, J; Goeckenjan, G; Curtius, J M

    1984-11-01

    In 151 patients, admitted to an intensive care unit after attempted suicide, the possible influence of weather at the time of the attempt was analysed retrospectively. The "biosynoptic daily analysis" of the German Weather Service provided the weather data. There was a 5% and 1%, respectively, significant level for the positive correlation between the time of the attempted suicide and the weather parameters "stable upslide, labile upslide, fog and thunderstorm" and the summarized parameters "warm air, upslide and weather drier than on the two preceding days". Significantly fewer attempts than expected occurred when the weather description was "low pressure and trough situation, labile ground layer--upslide above" and the summarized parameters "subsidence or downslide motion". Besides the individual factors such as the reaction to conflicts and the spectrum of reactions, exogenous factors like weather must be considered as important for the time of suicidal attempt. PMID:6499669

  11. National Weather Service, Emergency Medical Services, Scripps Institution of Oceanography/UCSD and California EPA Collaboration on Heat Health Impact and Public Notification for San Diego County

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardy, A. O.; Corcus, I.; Guirguis, K.

    2015-12-01

    The National Weather Service (NWS) has issued official heat alerts in the form of either a heat advisory or excessive heat warning product to the public and core partners for many years. This information has traditionally been developed through the use of triggers for heat indices which combine humidity and temperature. The criteria typically used numeric thresholds and did not consider impact from a particular heat episode, nor did it factor seasonality or population acclimation. In 2013, the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego in collaboration with the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, of the California Environmental Protection Agency and the NWS completed a study of heat health impact in California, while the NWS San Diego office began modifying their criteria towards departure from climatological normal with much less dependence on humidity or heat index. The NWS changes were based on initial findings from the California Department of Public Health, EpiCenter California Injury Data Online system which documents heat health impacts. Results from the UCSD study were finalized and published in 2014; they supported the need for significant modification of the traditional criteria. In order to better understand the impacts of heat on community health, medical outcome data were provided by the County of San Diego Emergency Medical Services Branch, which is charged by the County's Public Health Officer to monitor heat-related illness and injury daily from June through September. The data were combined with UCSD research to inform the modification of local NWS heat criteria and establish trigger points to pilot new procedures for the issuance of heat alerts. Finally, practices and procedures were customized for each of the county health departments in the NWS area of responsibility across extreme southwest California counties in collaboration with their Office of Emergency Services. The end result of the

  12. Weather Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratt, Herschell Marvin

    1973-01-01

    Suggests a number of ways in which Federal Aviation Agency weather report printouts can be used in teaching the weather section of meteorology. These weather sequence reports can be obtained free of charge at most major airports. (JR)

  13. Caution! All data are not created equal: The hazards of using National Weather Service data for calculating accumulated degree days.

    PubMed

    Dabbs, Gretchen R

    2010-10-10

    An increasing number of anthropological decomposition studies are utilizing accumulated degree days (ADD) to quantify and estimate the post-mortem interval (PMI) at given decompositional stages, or the number of ADD required for certain events, such as tooth exfoliation, to occur. This study addresses the utility of retroactively applying temperature data from the closest National Weather Service (NWS) station to these calculations as prescribed in the past. Hourly temperature readings were collected for 154 days at a research site in Farmington, AR between June 30 and December 25, 2008. These were converted to average daily temperatures by calculating the mean of the 24 hourly values, following the NWS reporting procedure. These data were compared to comparable data from the Owl Creek and Drake Field NWS stations, the two closest to the research site, located 5.7 and 9.9km away, respectively. Paired samples t-tests between the research site and each of the NWS stations show significant differences between the average daily temperature data collected at the research station, and both Owl Creek (2.0°C, p<0.001) and Drake Field (0.6°C, p<0.001). When applied to a simulated recovery effort, the further NWS station also proved to represent the better model for the recovery site. Using a published equation for estimating post-mortem interval using ADD and total body decomposition scores (Megyesi et al., 2005 [1]), the Drake Field data produced estimates of PMI more closely mirroring those of the research site than did Owl Creek. This demonstrates that instead of automatically choosing the nearest NWS station, care must be taken when choosing an NWS station for retroactively gathering temperature data for application of PMI estimation techniques using accumulated degree days to ensure the station adequately reflects temperature conditions at the recovery site. PMID:20303684

  14. Challenges facing providers of imported malaria-related healthcare services for Africans visiting friends and relatives (VFRs)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In many non-malarious countries, imported malaria disproportionately affects Africans visiting friends and relatives (VFRs). Most previous research has focused on understanding the knowledge, attitudes and practices of these travellers, but has not examined the quality of prevention, diagnosis and treatment services provided. The aim of this study was to understand the perspective of providers of malaria-related healthcare services to VFRs about factors impacting on the quality of these and to make recommendations about improvements. Methods Thirty semi-structured interviews were conducted with practice nurses providing pre-travel health advice (n = 10), general practitioners (GPs) (n = 10), hospital consultants (n = 3), and community pharmacists (n = 7) working in areas of London with large African communities and a relatively high burden of imported malaria. A thematic analysis of the results was undertaken. Results Time constraints in GPs’ surgeries and competing priorities, lack of confidence in issuing advice on mosquito avoidance, the cost of chemoprophylaxis and travel at short notice prevented the provision of adequate malaria prevention advice. Long GP waiting times, misdiagnoses, lack of disclosure by VFRs about recent travel, and the issue of where malaria treatment should be provided were raised as potential barriers to diagnosis and treatment. Conclusions Some issues raised by respondents are relevant to all travellers, irrespective of their reason for travel. The challenge for healthcare providers to reduce the burden of imported malaria in VFRs is to provide services of sufficient quality to persuade them to adopt these in preference to those with which they may be familiar in their country of birth. Although no single intervention will significantly lower the burden of imported malaria, addressing the issues raised in this research could make a significant impact. PMID:24405512

  15. Severe Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Evan B.

    2004-01-01

    Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This article deals with a poster entitled, "Severe Weather," that has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in…

  16. Severe Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Evan B.

    2004-01-01

    Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This month's insert, Severe Weather, has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in this poster are hurricanes,…

  17. Integration of Weather Research Forecast (WRF) Hurricane model with socio-economic data in an interactive web mapping service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehnert, J.; Wilhelmi, O.; Sampson, K. M.

    2009-12-01

    The integration of weather forecast models and socio-economic data is key to better understanding of the weather forecast and its impact upon society. Whether the forecast is looking at a hurricane approaching land or a snow storm over an urban corridor; the public is most interested in how this weather will affect day-to-day activities, and in extreme events how it will impact human lives, property and livelihoods. The GIS program at NCAR is developing an interactive web mapping portal which will integrate weather forecasts with socio-economic and infrastructure data. This integration of data is essential to better communication of the weather models and their impact on society. As a pilot project, we are conducting a case study on hurricane Ike, which made landfall at Galveston, Texas on 13 September, 2008, with winds greater than 70 mph. There was heavy flooding and loss of electricity due to high winds. This case study is an extreme event, which we are using to demonstrate how the Weather Research Forecasts (WRF) model runs at NCAR can be used to answer questions about how storms impact society. We are integrating WRF model output with the U.S. Census and infrastructure data in a Geographic Information System (GIS) web mapping framework. In this case study, we have identified a series of questions and custom queries which can be viewed through the interactive web portal; such as who will be affected by rain greater than 5 mm/h, or which schools will be affected by winds greater than 90 mph. These types of queries demonstrate the power of GIS and the necessity of integrating weather models with other spatial data in order to improve its effectiveness and understanding for society.

  18. A Tale of Two Cities: Access to Care and Services Among African-American Transgender Women in Oakland and San Francisco

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Taylor M.; Iwamoto, Mariko; Sakata, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: The San Francisco Bay Area attracts people from all over the country due to the perception of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) acceptance and affirmation. African-American transgender women are severely marginalized across society and as such have many unmet health and social service needs. This study sought to quantitatively assess unmet needs among African-American transgender women with a history of sex work by comparing residents of Oakland versus San Francisco. Methods: A total of 235 African-American transgender women were recruited from San Francisco (n=112) and Oakland (n=123) through community outreach and in collaboration with AIDS service organizations. Participants were surveyed regarding basic, health, and social needs and HIV risk behaviors. Pearson Chi-squared tests and a linear regression model examined associations between city of residence and unmet needs. Results: While participants from both cities reported unmet needs, Oakland participants had a greater number of unmet needs in receiving basic assistance, mental health treatment, and health care services. Oakland participants also reported less transgender community identification but higher social support from the family. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate the enormity of African-American transgender women's needs within the Bay Area. Greater resources are needed for social service provision targeting this marginalized group of people, particularly in Oakland. PMID:26788672

  19. Weather & Weather Maps. Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metro, Peter M.; Green, Rachel E.

    This guide is intended to provide an opportunity for students to work with weather symbols used for reporting weather. Also included are exercises in location of United States cities by latitude and longitude, measurement of distances in miles and kilometers, and prediction of weather associated with various types of weather fronts. (RE)

  20. The UCAR Africa Initiative: Enabling African Solutions to African Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, R.; Bruintjes, R.; Foote, B.; Heck, S.; Hermann, S.; Hoswell, L.; Konate, M.; Kucera, P.; Laing, A.; Lamptey, B.; Moncrieff, M.; Ramamurthy, M.; Roberts, R.; Spangler, T.; Traoré, A.; Yoksas, T.; Warner, T.

    2007-12-01

    The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) Africa Initiative (AI) is a coordinated effort aimed at building sustainable partnerships between UCAR and African institutions in order to pursue research and applications for the benefit of the African people. The initiative is based on four fundamental operating principles, concisely summarized by the overall philosophy of enabling African solutions to African needs. The four principles are: • Collaborate with African institutions • Focus on institutional capacity building and research support • Explore science research themes critical to Africa and important for the world • Leverage the research infrastructure in UCAR to add value These principles are realized in a set of pilot activities, chosen for their high probability of short-term results and ability to set the stage for longer-term collaboration. The three pilot activities are listed below. 1. A modest radar network and data-distribution system in Mali and Burkina Faso, including a data-sharing MOU between the Mail and Burkina Faso Weather Services. 2. A partnership among UCAR, the Ghana Meteorological Agency, and the Ghana university community to develop an operational Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for West Africa. The output is used by researchers and operational forecasters in Africa. Model output is also part of a demonstration project that aims to allow humanitarian agencies to share geo-referenced information in Africa via a web portal. 3. A workshop in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from April 2-6, 2007, with the theme Improving Lives by Understanding Weather. The workshop, co-organized with Programme SAAGA and the Commité Permanent Inter-Etats de Lutte Contre la Sécheresse dans le Sahel (CILSS), included over 80 participants from 18 countries, and produced a set of recommendations for continued collaboration. Our presentation will provide an update of these pilot activities and point to future directions. Recognizing

  1. Specific Remedy for Specific Problem: Measuring Service Quality in South African Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jager, Johan; Gbadamosi, Gbolahan

    2010-01-01

    This study commences a process of developing a scale for the measurement of service quality in higher education in South Africa and also examines the relationship between the measures of service quality on the one hand and some other related variables such as intention to leave the university, trust in management of the university and the overall…

  2. Cross-Cultural Design of Mobile Mathematics Learning Service for South African Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Tanja; Vainio, Teija; Varsaluoma, Jari

    2014-01-01

    In the era of mobile devices and services, researchers in the educational domain have been interested in how to support learning with mobile technology in both local and global contexts. Recent human-computer interaction (HCI) research in the educational domain has particularly focused on how to develop mobile learning services and how to evaluate…

  3. Measuring Service Quality in Higher Education: A South African Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to report on the SERVQUAL gap which causes unsuccessful service delivery at a University of Technology in South Africa. Using a quantitative research design, the study adopts a SERVQUAL model adapted to a tertiary environment containing five dimensions of service quality (tangibles, responsiveness, empathy, assurance, and…

  4. NOAA/National Weather Service Operational Applications and Training of S-NPP Imagery and Products in Preparation for JPSS Mission Readiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motta, B.; Miller, S. D.; Folmer, M. J.; Lindstrom, S.; Nietfeld, D.; Stevens, E.; Dankers, T.; Baker, M.; Meier, B.; Mostek, A. J.; Hillger, D.

    2014-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS), in collaboration with the NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service (NESDIS) and its Cooperative Institutes, have been prototyping various operational applications of Suomi-NPP satellite imagery and products. Some of these new satellite capabilities are NOAA and S-NPP mission unique and have resulted in new science applications for high impact events and related impact-based decision support services. From detection to monitoring to recovery-phase operations, S-NPP debuts new NOAA-unique capabilities for true color RGB imagery, Near Constant Contrast Day-Night Band Imagery, Flood/Ice Detection and Monitoring, Wildfire and Smoke Detection and Monitoring, Severe Weather Environmental and Storm Analysis, Dust Detection and Monitoring, and Global Infrared and Microwave Atmospheric Soundings. These newly demonstrated applications have been part of the research to operations transitions occurring in the NOAA Satellite Proving Ground (JPSS and GOES-R) and NOAA training developed as part of the Virtual Institute for Satellite Integration and Training (VISIT).

  5. Insolation data manual: Long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days and global KT for 248 National Weather Service stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, C. L.; Stoffel, T. L.; Whitaker, S. D.

    1980-10-01

    Monthly averaged data is presented which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service stations. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data. Average daily maximum, minimum, and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3 (0) C (65(0)F). For each station, global anti K/sub T/ (cloudiness index) were calculated on a monthly and annual basis.

  6. Direct normal solar radiation data manual: Long-term, monthly mean, daily totals for 235 National Weather Service stations. Addendum to the Insolation Data Manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, C. L.; Stoffel, T. L.

    1982-07-01

    Average monthly data are presented that depict the long-term geographic distribution of direct normal solar radiation in the US. Some terms are defined, the model for estimating hourly direct normal insolation is described, and its validation is discussed. Direct normal radiation is then tabulated for 235 National Weather Service Stations, given as monthly and annual averages in units of kJ/m(2)-day, Btu/ft(2)-day, and kWh/m(2)-day. Direct normal solar radiation contour maps are then given for each month, and station histories are tabulated giving the station location and number, latitude, longitude, elevation, and period recorded.

  7. Insolation data manual: long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days and global anti K/sub T/ for 248 national weather service stations

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, C L; Stoffel, T L; Whitaker, S D

    1980-10-01

    Monthly averaged data is presented which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service stations. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data. Average daily maximum, minimum, and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3/sup 0/C (65/sup 0/F). For each station, global anti K/sub T/ (cloudiness index) were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. (MHR)

  8. Space Weather Forecasting at NASA GSFC Space Weather Research Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Pulkkinen, A.; Maddox, M. M.; Taktakishvili, A.; Mays, M. L.; Chulaki, A.; Lee, H.; Hesse, M.; Evans, R. M.; Berrios, D.; Mullinix, R.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA GSFC Space Weather Research Center (http://swrc.gsfc.nasa.gov) is committed to providing research forecasts and notifications to address NASA's space weather needs - in addition to its critical role in space weather education. We provide a host of services including spacecraft anomaly resolution, historical impact analysis, real-time monitoring and forecasting, tailored space weather alerts and products, weekly summaries and reports, and most recently - video casts. In this presentation, we will focus on how near real-time data (both in space and on ground), in combination with modeling capabilities and an innovative dissemination system called the Integrated Space Weather Analysis System (iSWA http://iswa.gsfc.nasa.gov), enable space weather forecasting and quality space weather products provided by our Center. A few critical near real-time data streams for space weather forecasting will be identified and discussed.

  9. Ecosystem services from southern African woodlands and their future under global change.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Casey M; Pritchard, Rose; McNicol, Iain; Owen, Matthew; Fisher, Janet A; Lehmann, Caroline

    2016-09-19

    Miombo and mopane woodlands are the dominant land cover in southern Africa. Ecosystem services from these woodlands support the livelihoods of 100 M rural people and 50 M urban dwellers, and others beyond the region. Provisioning services contribute $9 ± 2 billion yr(-1) to rural livelihoods; 76% of energy used in the region is derived from woodlands; and traded woodfuels have an annual value of $780 M. Woodlands support much of the region's agriculture through transfers of nutrients to fields and shifting cultivation. Woodlands store 18-24 PgC carbon, and harbour a unique and diverse flora and fauna that provides spiritual succour and attracts tourists. Longstanding processes that will impact service provision are the expansion of croplands (0.1 M km(2); 2000-2014), harvesting of woodfuels (93 M tonnes yr(-1)) and changing access arrangements. Novel, exogenous changes include large-scale land acquisitions (0.07 M km(2); 2000-2015), climate change and rising CO2 The net ecological response to these changes is poorly constrained, as they act in different directions, and differentially on trees and grasses, leading to uncertainty in future service provision. Land-use change and socio-political dynamics are likely to be dominant forces of change in the short term, but important land-use dynamics remain unquantified.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tropical grassy biomes: linking ecology, human use and conservation'. PMID:27502377

  10. The impact of service-learning on two groups of South African dental students.

    PubMed

    Bhayat, Ahmed; Vergotine, Glynnis; Yengopal, Veerasamy; Rudolph, Michael J

    2011-11-01

    Service-learning has become an important component in the education of medical and dental students around the world. Dental students at the University of Witwatersrand, South Africa, provide dental services to rural communities via the Phelophepa train or a Public Oral Health Facility (POHF). The Phelophepa train is a mobile primary health care facility offering dental, pharmacy, nursing, and medical services provided by health professions students. The objective of this study was to determine the impact this experience with service-learning has had on dental students. Final-year dental students in 2008 and 2009 participated in the study by completing a self-administered questionnaire. There was a 100 percent response rate (N=55) on the demographic questions and a 98 percent response rate (N=54) on the opinion questions. Students on the Phelophepa train performed more extractions and examinations than those at the POHFs. Most students (95 percent), both on the train and at the clinics, reported that their clinical skills and efficiency had improved, and 96 percent felt more aware of the communities' needs. Almost all the students (96 percent) reported that the experience had helped them define their personal strengths and weaknesses. Complaints they mentioned included large numbers of patients (87 percent), long working hours (60 percent), and equipment being inadequate (48 percent) or not working (40 percent). This program positively impacted these students and enhanced their personal growth and social responsibility by exposing them to the needs of rural and urban communities in South Africa. PMID:22058398

  11. Hydrologic Forecasting at the US National Weather Service in the 21st Century: Transition from the NWS River Forecast System (NWSRFS) to the Community Hydrologic Prediction System (CHPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Pedro; Roe, Jon; Dietz, Christine; Werner, Micha; Gijsbers, Peter; Hartman, Robert; Opitz, Harold; Olsen, Billy; Halquist, John; Shedd, Robert

    2010-05-01

    The US National Weather Service developed the River Forecast System (NWSRFS) since the 1970s as the platform for performing hydrologic forecasts. The system, originally developed for the computers of that era, was optimized for speed of execution and compact and fast data storage and retrieval. However, with modern computers those features became less of a driver, and, instead, the ability to maintain and transition of new developments in data and modeling research into operations have become the top system priorities for hydrologic forecasting software applications. To address those two new priorities, and to allow the hydrologic research community at large to be able to contribute models and forecasting techniques, the National Weather Service proposed the development of the Community Hydrologic Prediction System (CHPS). CHPS must be sufficiently flexible not only to ensure current operational models and data remain available, but also to integrate readily modeling approaches and data from the wider community of practitioners and scientists involved in hydro-meteorological forecasting. Portability considerations require the computational infrastructure to be programmed in a language such as Java, and data formats conform to open standards such as XML. After examining a number of potential candidates, the NWS settled on the Delft Flood Early Warning System (Delft FEWS) from Deltares as the basis for CHPS, since it shares the basic design characteristics, the underlying community philosophy and was being successfully used in operations in several countries. This paper describes the characteristics of CHPS and the transition path to make it operational and available to the community.

  12. Perceived Barriers for Accessing Health Services among Individuals with Disability in Four African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Eide, Arne H.; Mannan, Hasheem; Khogali, Mustafa; van Rooy, Gert; Swartz, Leslie; Munthali, Alister; Hem, Karl-Gerhard; MacLachlan, Malcolm; Dyrstad, Karin

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness among researchers and others that marginalized and vulnerable groups face problems in accessing health care. Access problems in particular in low-income countries may jeopardize the targets set by the United Nations through the Millennium Development Goals. Thus, identifying barriers for individuals with disability in accessing health services is a research priority. The current study aimed at identifying the magnitude of specific barriers, and to estimate the impact of disability on barriers for accessing health care in general. A population based household survey was carried out in Sudan, Namibia, Malawi, and South Africa, including a total of 9307 individuals. The sampling strategy was a two-stage cluster sampling within selected geographical areas in each country. A listing procedure to identify households with disabled members using the Washington Group six screening question was followed by administering household questionnaires in households with and without disabled members, and questionnaires for individuals with and without disability. The study shows that lack of transport, availability of services, inadequate drugs or equipment, and costs, are the four major barriers for access. The study also showed substantial variation in perceived barriers, reflecting largely socio-economic differences between the participating countries. Urbanity, socio-economic status, and severity of activity limitations are important predictors for barriers, while there is no gender difference. It is suggested that education reduces barriers to health services only to the extent that it reduces poverty. Persons with disability face additional and particular barriers to health services. Addressing these barriers requires an approach to health that stresses equity over equality. PMID:25993307

  13. Access to health care services as a justiciable socio-economic right under the South African constitution.

    PubMed

    Ngwena, Charles

    2003-01-01

    This commentary describes and analyses the decision of the Constitutional Court of South Africa in Minister of Health and Others v Treatment Action Campaign and Others where the South African government was found to have violated the right of access to health care under the Constitution. Section 27(1) guarantees everyone the right of access to health care services. Section 27(2) imposes on the state a duty to take reasonable measures within its available resources to achieve the progressive realisation of this right. To the extent that government was unreasonably delaying access to patently affordable life-saving therapy for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV to a class of persons that was largely vulnerable and indigent, it is submitted that the case was correctly decided. However, there is little doubt that the decision, and in particular the prescriptive nature of the remedy granted by the Court and its budgetary implications, do no sit easily with a traditional notion of separation of powers between the judiciary on the one hand, and the executive and Parliament on the other. At the same time, it must be accepted that the remedy and its budgetary implications are an inevitable consequence of the inclusion of justiciable socio-economic rights in the Bill of Rights. The principles that were applied by the Court in determining the case were largely drawn from jurisprudence developed by organs under treaty bodies, and in particular the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. PMID:14983892

  14. The Status of Archives and Records Management Systems and Services in African Member States: A RAMP Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Laar, Evert

    A comprehensive questionnaire was sent to 49 African national archival agencies in April 1982 to survey the needs of African Member States for assistance in the development of archives. This study is based on the 27 (55%) questionnaires that were returned. The participating agencies were grouped into three categories: agencies located in…

  15. Online resources for culturally and linguistically appropriate services for home healthcare and hospice, part 5: resources for African patients.

    PubMed

    Young, Judith S

    2013-05-01

    Providing culturally and linguistically appropriate home healthcare and hospice care to patients who have emigrated from the African continent can be a challenge. This article reviews Web sites that provide introductions to some of the predominant cultures in Africa. Web sites providing patient education material in 13 African languages are also discussed. PMID:23652979

  16. Infusing Culture into Practice: Developing and Implementing Evidence-Based Mental Health Services for African American Foster Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Harold Eugene; McBeath, Bowen

    2010-01-01

    The lack of culturally appropriate health and mental health care has contributed to the large number of African American youth and families involved in the child welfare system. This article reviews the consequences of the insufficient access to culturally sensitive, evidence-supported interventions for African American foster youth. The authors…

  17. From placement to prison revisited: Do mental health services disrupt the delinquency pipeline among Latino, African American and Caucasian youth in the child welfare system?

    PubMed

    Garcia, Antonio R; Greeson, Johanna K P; Kim, Minseop; Thompson, Allison; DeNard, Christina

    2015-12-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities in delinquency among child welfare-involved youth are well documented. However, less is known about the mechanisms through which these disparities occur. This study explores the extent to which sets of variables predict the occurrence of juvenile delinquency and whether race/ethnicity moderates the strength of the relationships between (1) social, emotional, and behavioral (SEB) problems and delinquency and (2) mental health service use and delinquency. We used a nationally representative sample of 727 African American, Caucasian, and Latino youth between the ages of 12-17 who were referred to the child welfare system. Controlling for age, gender, placement instability, maltreatment history, poverty, and urbanicity, linear regression analyses revealed that African American and Latino youth engaged in more delinquent acts than Caucasian youth did. However, service use decreased the likelihood of engaging in more delinquent acts for African Americans. Additional efforts are needed to illuminate and address the contextual and organizational barriers to delivering effective mental health services as a strategy to reduce racial disparities in delinquent behavior. PMID:26536399

  18. Modelling water provision as an ecosystem service in a large East African river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notter, B.; Hurni, H.; Wiesmann, U.; Abbaspour, K. C.

    2012-01-01

    Reconciling limited water availability with an increasing demand in a sustainable manner requires detailed knowledge on the benefits people obtain from water resources. A frequently advocated approach to deliver such information is the ecosystem services concept. This study quantifies water provision as an ecosystem service for the 43 000 km2 Pangani Basin in Tanzania and Kenya. The starting assumption that an ecosystem service must be valued and accessible by people necessitates the explicit consideration of stakeholders, as well as fine spatial detail in order to determine their access to water. Further requirements include the use of a simulation model to obtain estimates for unmeasured locations and time periods, and uncertainty assessment due to limited data availability and quality. By slightly adapting the hydrological model Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), developing and applying tools for input pre-processing, and using Sequential Uncertainty Fitting ver. 2 (SUFI-2) in calibration and uncertainty assessment, a watershed model is set up according to these requirements for the Pangani Basin. Indicators for water provision for different uses are derived from model results by combining them with stakeholder requirements and socio-economic datasets such as census or water rights data. Overall water provision is rather low in the basin, however with large spatial variability. On average, for domestic use, livestock, and industry, 86-105 l per capita and day (95% prediction uncertainty, 95 PPU) are available at a reliability level of 95%. 1.19-1.50 ha (95 PPU) of farmland on which a growing period with sufficient water of 3-6 months is reached at the 75% reliability level - suitable for the production of staple crops - are available per farming household, as well as 0.19-0.51 ha (95 PPU) of farmland with a growing period of ≥6 months, suitable for the cultivation of cash crops. The indicators presented reflect stakeholder information needs and can be

  19. Modelling water provision as an ecosystem service in a large East African river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notter, B.; Hurni, H.; Wiesmann, U.; Abbaspour, K. C.

    2011-08-01

    Reconciling limited water availability with an increasing demand in a sustainable manner requires detailed knowledge on the benefits people obtain from water resources. A frequently advocated approach to deliver such information is the ecosystem services concept. This study quantifies water provision as an ecosystem service for the 43 000 km2 Pangani Basin in Tanzania and Kenya. The starting assumption that an ecosystem service must be valued and accessible by people necessitates the explicit consideration of stakeholders, as well as fine spatial detail in order to determine their access to water. Further requirements include the use of a simulation model to obtain estimates for unmeasured locations and time periods, and uncertainty assessment due to limited data availability and quality. By slightly adapting the hydrological model Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), developing and applying tools for input pre-processing, and using Sequential Uncertainty Fitting ver. 2 (SUFI-2) in calibration and uncertainty assessment, a watershed model is set up according to these requirements for the Pangani Basin. Indicators for water provision for different uses are derived from model results by combining them with stakeholder requirements and socio-economic datasets such as census or water rights data. Overall water provision is rather low in the Basin, however with large spatial variability. On average, for domestic use, livestock, and industry, 86-105 l per capita and day (95 % prediction uncertainty, 95 PPU) are available at a reliability level of 95%. 1.19-1.50 ha (95 PPU) of farmland on which a growing period with sufficient water of 3-6 months is reached at the 75 % reliability level - suitable for the production of staple crops - are available per farming household, as well as 0.19-0.51 ha (95 PPU) of farmland with a growing period of ≥6~months, suitable for the cultivation of cash crops. The indicators presented reflect stakeholder information needs and can be

  20. Cockpit weather information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tu, Jeffrey Chen-Yu (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Weather information, periodically collected from throughout a global region, is periodically assimilated and compiled at a central source and sent via a high speed data link to a satellite communication service, such as COMSAT. That communication service converts the compiled weather information to GSDB format, and transmits the GSDB encoded information to an orbiting broadcast satellite, INMARSAT, transmitting the information at a data rate of no less than 10.5 kilobits per second. The INMARSAT satellite receives that data over its P-channel and rebroadcasts the GDSB encoded weather information, in the microwave L-band, throughout the global region at a rate of no less than 10.5 KB/S. The transmission is received aboard an aircraft by means of an onboard SATCOM receiver and the output is furnished to a weather information processor. A touch sensitive liquid crystal panel display allows the pilot to select the weather function by touching a predefined icon overlain on the display's surface and in response a color graphic display of the weather is displayed for the pilot.

  1. Impact of a variational objective analysis scheme on a regional area numerical model: The Italian Air Force Weather Service experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonavita, M.; Torrisi, L.

    2005-03-01

    A new data assimilation system has been designed and implemented at the National Center for Aeronautic Meteorology and Climatology of the Italian Air Force (CNMCA) in order to improve its operational numerical weather prediction capabilities and provide more accurate guidance to operational forecasters. The system, which is undergoing testing before operational use, is based on an “observation space” version of the 3D-VAR method for the objective analysis component, and on the High Resolution Regional Model (HRM) of the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) for the prognostic component. Notable features of the system include a completely parallel (MPI+OMP) implementation of the solution of analysis equations by a preconditioned conjugate gradient descent method; correlation functions in spherical geometry with thermal wind constraint between mass and wind field; derivation of the objective analysis parameters from a statistical analysis of the innovation increments.

  2. Weather Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of…

  3. Wacky Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabarre, Amy; Gulino, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    What do a leaf blower, water hose, fan, and ice cubes have in common? Ask the students who participated in an integrative science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (I-STEM) education unit, "Wacky Weather," and they will tell say "fun and severe weather"--words one might not have expected! The purpose of the unit…

  4. Space Weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, Dennis L.

    2010-01-01

    This video provides a narrated exploration of the history and affects of space weather. It includes information the earth's magnetic field, solar radiation, magnetic storms, and how solar winds affect electronics on earth, with specific information on how space weather affects space exploration in the future.

  5. Privatisation of South African health services--are the underlying assumptions correct?

    PubMed

    Naylor, C D

    1987-11-21

    Six key assumptions made by proponents of privatisation are critically appraised in the light of Canadian, US and UK studies. 'Counter' assumptions, equally credible, are: (i) the economic behaviour of the health-care market does not correspond to the idealized rules of the free market nor, given the nature of health care as a 'public good', should it do so; (ii) national health-care systems with a heavy emphasis on private insurance are as or more costly than universal public systems; (iii) private for-profit hospitals do not usually enjoy any cost-efficiency advantages over public hospitals; (iv) subsidizing individuals to purchase private care carries a risk of adding administrative costs, fueling the inflationary spiral in health care, and reducing public accountability of tax money; (v) user-fees and co-insurance will not deter over-utilisation without penalising and reducing legitimate use of health services; and (vi) savings from privatisation are unlikely except for the more affluent citizens of the RSA who will carry a slightly reduced tax burden--all others will pay more and may be deterred from seeking necessary care. PMID:3317922

  6. African Studies Computer Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    African studies computer resources that are readily available in the United States with linkages to Africa are described, highlighting those most directly corresponding to African content. Africanists can use the following four fundamental computer systems: (1) Internet/Bitnet; (2) Fidonet; (3) Usenet; and (4) dial-up bulletin board services. The…

  7. African American Female Offender's Use of Alternative and Traditional Health Services After Re-Entry: Examining the Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations.

    PubMed

    Oser, Carrie B; Bunting, Amanda M; Pullen, Erin; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle

    2016-01-01

    This is the first known study to use the Gelberg-Andersen Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations to predict African American women's use of three types of health services (alternative, hospitalization, and ambulatory) in the 18 months after release from prison. In the multivariate models, the most robust predictors of all three types of service utilization were in the vulnerable theoretical domains. Alternative health services were predicted by ethnic community membership, higher religiosity, and HIV/HCV. Hospitalizations were predicted by the lack of barriers to health care and disability. Ambulatory office visits were predicted by more experiences of gendered racism, a greater number of physical health problems, and HIV/HCV. Findings highlight the importance of cultural factors and HIV/HCV in obtaining both alternative and formal health care during community re-entry. Clinicians and policymakers should consider the salient role that the vulnerable domain plays in offender's accessing health services. PMID:27133515

  8. An Integrative Approach to Improving an Introductory Weather & Climate Course and Developing an Allied NASA Earth & Space Science Certificate Program for Pre-service Secondary Teachers (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, C. A.; Martin-Hansen, L.; Diem, J.; Elliott, W.

    2009-12-01

    An Atlanta-based partnership made up of leaders in science, education, and Georgia’s state-wide STEM Education Initiative are creating an enduring legacy of climate science education for pre-service and in-service teachers in Georgia as well as for underrepresented high school students who participate in an "Early College" program with Georgia State University (GSU). The core elements of our NASA-funded program are to infuse NASA global climate change resources and best pedagogical practice into a popular 4-credit lecture/lab course called “Introduction to Weather & Climate” (GEOG 1112) at GSU, and to establish a sustainable academic program for pre-service teachers in the College of Education called the NASA Earth & Space Science (ESS) Teacher Certificate. The NASA ESS Certificate will require candidates to accomplish the following as part of (or in addition to) standard degree and licensure requirements: 1. successfully complete a graduate section of “Introduction to Weather and Climate” (GEOG 7112), which requires lesson planning related to course content and engagement with GSU's new CO2 monitoring station whose research-quality data will provide unique hands-on opportunities for Metro Atlanta students and teachers; 2) complete an additional advanced course in climate change (GEOG 6784) plus elective hours in physical science disciplines (e.g. astronomy and physics); 3) serve as a lab teaching assistant for GEOG 1112 and a coach for a cadre of Carver Early College students who are taking the course; 4) make at least one of two teaching practica at a Georgia-based NASA Explorer School; and 5) participate or co-present in a week-long, residential, field-based, Summer Institute in Earth & Space Science intended to increase the interest, knowledge, and ability of in-service secondary science educators to fulfill climate-related standards in Earth Science and Earth Systems Science. We will evaluate, document, and disseminate (to the University System of

  9. Worldwide Marine Weather Broadcasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Navy, Washington, DC.

    This publication is a source of marine weather broadcast information in all areas of the world where such service is provided. This publication was designed for the use of U.S. naval and merchant ships. Sections 1 through 4 contain details of radio telegraph, radio telephone, radio facsimile, and radio teleprinter transmissions, respectively. The…

  10. Weatherizing America

    ScienceCinema

    Stewart, Zachary; Bergeron, T.J.; Barth, Dale; Qualis, Xavier; Sewall, Travis; Fransen, Richard; Gill, Tony;

    2013-05-29

    As Recovery Act money arrives to expand home weatherization programs across the country, Zachary Stewart of Phoenix, Ariz., and others have found an exciting opportunity not only to start working again, but also to find a calling.

  11. Weatherizing America

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Zachary; Bergeron, T.J.; Barth, Dale; Qualis, Xavier; Sewall, Travis; Fransen, Richard; Gill, Tony

    2009-01-01

    As Recovery Act money arrives to expand home weatherization programs across the country, Zachary Stewart of Phoenix, Ariz., and others have found an exciting opportunity not only to start working again, but also to find a calling.

  12. Space weather: Challenges and Opportunities (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdan, T. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) has the following legal mandates to: a) Continuously monitor, measure, and specify the space environment, b) Provide timely and accurate space weather data, operational forecasts, alerts, and warnings of hazardous space weather phenomena, c) Provide scientific stewardship of, and public access to, space weather data and products, d) Understand the processes that influence space weather and develop applications for the user community and e) Develop new and improved products and transition them into operations to meet evolving space weather user needs. This presentation will discuss the challenges and opportunities that NOAA and the SWPC face in addressing these mandates. This includes coordination of space environment activities across federal agencies and the strategic planning for NOAA's space weather services, integration of space weather activities as well as critical dependencies of space weather services on current and future operational environmental satellites.

  13. Bishop Paiute Weatherization Training Program

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos Hernandez

    2010-01-28

    The DOE Weatherization Training Grant assisted Native American trainees in developing weatherization competencies, creating employment opportunities for Bishop Paiute tribal members in a growing field. The trainees completed all the necessary training and certification requirements and delivered high-quality weatherization services on the Bishop Paiute Reservation. Six tribal members received all three certifications for weatherization; four of the trainees are currently employed. The public benefit includes (1) development of marketable skills by low-income Native individuals, (2) employment for low-income Native individuals in a growing industry, and (3) economic development opportunities that were previously not available to these individuals or the Tribe.

  14. New weather radar coming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, William Ward

    What would you call the next generation of radar for severe weather prediction? NEXRAD, of course. A prototype for the new system was recently completed in Norman, Okla., and by the early 1990s up to 195 stations around the United States will be tracking dangerous weather and sending faster, more accurate, and more detailed warnings to the public.NEXRAD is being built for the Departments of Commerce, Transportation, and Defense by the Unisys Corporation under a $450 million contract signed in December 1987. Th e system will be used by the National Weather Service, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the U.S. Air Force and Navy. The NEXRAD radar tower in Norman is expected to be operational in October.

  15. Spaceborne weather radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneghini, Robert; Kozu, Toshiaki

    1990-01-01

    The present work on the development status of spaceborne weather radar systems and services discusses radar instrument complementarities, the current forms of equations for the characterization of such aspects of weather radar performance as surface and mirror-image returns, polarimetry, and Doppler considerations, and such essential factors in spaceborne weather radar design as frequency selection, scanning modes, and the application of SAR to rain detection. Attention is then given to radar signal absorption by the various atmospheric gases, rain drop size distribution and wind velocity determinations, and the characteristics of clouds, as well as the range of available estimation methods for backscattering, single- and dual-wavelength attenuation, and polarimetric and climatological characteristics.

  16. Neither snow nor rain: contingency planning by a clinical reference laboratory courier service for weather related emergencies.

    PubMed

    Bankson, Daniel D; Heim, Joseph A

    2014-01-01

    To optimize transportation processes, we present herein a contingency plan that coordinates interim measures used to ensure continued and timely services when climate based events might cause an interruption of the usual specimen transportation processes. As an example, we outline the implementation and effectiveness of a contingency plan for network laboratory courier automobile transportation during times of mountain pass highway closure. Data available from an approximately 3-year period from October 10, 2010 through August 29, 2013 revealed a total of 690 complete closures in the eastbound or westbound lanes of the Interstate-90 highway in the Snoqualmie Pass area in the state of Washington. Despite the frequency of closures, the Washington State Department of Transportation was effective in limiting the duration of closures. Road closures of less than 1 hour accounted for 58.7% of the total closures. No recorded closures prevented dispatched couriers from completing a prescheduled Snoqualmie Pass route. We identified no delays as being clinically significant, despite that there were 5 instances of delays greater than 4 hours. We implemented a contingency plan of aiding courier logistics during all times of pass closure. The plan includes an easy to interpret Condition Dashboard as a status indicator and a Decision Tree that references and summarizes information. Overall, the contingency plan allows for an objective, robust, proactive decision support system that has enabled operational flexibility and has contributed to continued safe, on-time specimen transportation; clients and courier and reference laboratory staff have appreciated these features and associated outcomes. PMID:25217517

  17. Novel deep-space radar systems and topside HF wave measurements as new sources of data for Space Weather services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothkaehl, H.; Thidé, B.; Baan, W. A.; Bergman, J.; Hanuise, C.; Moussas, X.; Watermann, J.

    To understand the properties of the solar terrestrial environment and to develop a quantitative model of the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere subsystem which is strongly coupled via the electric field particle precipitation heat flows and small scale interaction it is necessary to design and build new generation multi-point and multi-type sensor diagnostics as the LOFAR-LOIS system Ground-based multi-frequency and multi-polarisation netted radio and radar facilities and observation clusters in space will be helpful to find solutions to problems in space physics and to detect long-term environmental changes The innovative radio spectrometer on board the COMPASS satellite was designed to investigate the still largely unknown mechanisms which govern these turbulent interactions of natural and man-made origin Future simultaneous investigation and monitoring of the Earth environment by the combined LOIS-LOFAR system will be coordinated with space-borne low orbiting experiments Real-time access to such high-resolution multi-region data is likely to improve the quality of different types of space related services

  18. An Operational Assessment of the MODIS False Color Composite with the Great Falls, Montana National Weather Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loss, GIna; Mercer, Michael; Fuell, Kevin K.; Stano, Geoffrey T.

    2009-01-01

    The close and productive collaborations between the NWS Warning and Forecast Office (WFO) in Great Falls, MT and the Short Term Prediction and Research Transition (SPORT) Center at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center have provided a unique opportunity for science sharing and technology transfer. In particular, SPoRT has provided a false color composite product derived from MODIS data, which is part of NASA's Earth Observing System. This product is designed to delineate snow and ice covered ground, bare ground and clouds. The Great Falls WFO has been a test bed of the MODIS false color composite as a tool in operations to monitor the development and dissipation of snow cover In particular, preliminary applications have shown that the product can be used to monitor snow cover in remote locations as well as ice in rivers. This information can lead to improved assessments of flooding potential during post event conditions where rapid melting and runoff are anticipated. The potential of this product on future geostationary satellites may substantially contribute to the NWS mission by providing enhanced situational awareness. The operational use of this product has been transitioned at WFO Great Falls through a process of product implementation, discussions with the service hydrologist and forecasters, and post event analysis. A concentrated assessment period from January to March, 2008 was initiated to investigate the impact of the MODIS false color product on WFO Great Falls' operations. This presentation will emphasize the impact the MODIS false color product had in the WFO's situational awareness and how best this information can be used to influence operational decisions.

  19. PV powering a weather station for severe weather

    SciTech Connect

    Young, W. Jr.; Schmidt, J.

    1997-12-31

    A natural disaster, such as Hurricane Andrew, destroys thousands of homes and businesses. The destruction from this storm left thousands of people without communications, potable water, and electrical power. This prompted the Florida Solar Energy Center to study the application of solar electric power for use in disasters. During this same period, volunteers at the Tropical Prediction Center at the National Hurricane Center (NHC), Miami, Florida and the Miami Office of the National Weather Service (NWS) were working to increase the quantity and quality of observations received from home weather stations. Forecasters at NHC have found surface reports from home weather stations a valuable tool in determining the size, strength and course of hurricanes. Home weather stations appear able to record the required information with an adequate level of accuracy. Amateur radio, utilizing the Automatic Packet Report System, (APRS) can be used to transmit this data to weather service offices in virtually real time. Many weather data collecting stations are at remote sites which are not readily serviced by dependable commercial power. Photovoltaic (solar electric) modules generate electricity and when connected to a battery can operate as a stand alone power system. The integration of these components provides an inexpensive standalone system. The system is easy to install, operates automatically and has good communication capabilities. This paper discusses the design criteria, operation, construction and deployment of a prototype solar powered weather station.

  20. Expansion of the Real-Time SPoRT-Land Information System for NOAA/National Weather Service Situational Awareness and Local Modeling Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L; White, Kristopher D.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center in Huntsville, AL is running a real-time configuration of the Noah land surface model (LSM) within the NASA Land Information System (LIS) framework (hereafter referred to as the "SPoRT-LIS"). Output from the real-time SPoRT-LIS is used for (1) initializing land surface variables for local modeling applications, and (2) displaying in decision support systems for situational awareness and drought monitoring at select NOAA/National Weather Service (NWS) partner offices. The experimental CONUS run incorporates hourly quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) from the National Severe Storms Laboratory Multi- Radar Multi-Sensor (MRMS) which will be transitioned into operations at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) in Fall 2014.This paper describes the current and experimental SPoRT-LIS configurations, and documents some of the limitations still remaining through the advent of MRMS precipitation analyses in the SPoRT-LIS land surface model (LSM) simulations.

  1. Agriculture: Weather dilemma for African maize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auffhammer, Maximilian

    2011-04-01

    The impact of climate change on food production remains uncertain, particularly in the tropics. Research that exploits the results of historical crop trials indicates that Africa's maize crop could be at risk of significant yield losses.

  2. Expansion of the Real-time Sport-land Information System for NOAA/National Weather Service Situational Awareness and Local Modeling Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has been running a real-time version of the Land Information System (LIS) since summer 2010 (hereafter, SPoRTLIS). The real-time SPoRT-LIS runs the Noah land surface model (LSM) in an offline capacity apart from a numerical weather prediction model, using input atmospheric and precipitation analyses (i.e., "forcings") to drive the Noah LSM integration at 3-km resolution. Its objectives are to (1) produce local-scale information about the soil state for NOAA/National Weather Service (NWS) situational awareness applications such as drought monitoring and assessing flood potential, and (2) provide land surface initialization fields for local modeling initiatives. The current domain extent has been limited by the input atmospheric analyses that drive the Noah LSM integration within SPoRT-LIS, specifically the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Stage IV precipitation analyses. Due to the nature of the geographical edges of the Stage IV precipitation grid and its limitations in the western U.S., the SPoRT-LIS was originally confined to a domain fully nested within the Stage IV grid, over the southeastern half of the Conterminous United States (CONUS). In order to expand the real-time SPoRT-LIS to a full CONUS domain, alternative precipitation forcing datasets were explored in year-long, offline comparison runs of the Noah LSM. Based on results of these comparison simulations, we chose to implement the radar/gauge-based precipitation analyses from the National Severe Storms Laboratory as a replacement to the Stage IV product. The Multi-Radar Multi-Sensor (MRMS; formerly known as the National Mosaic and multi-sensor Quantitative precipitation estimate) product has full CONUS coverage at higher-resolution, thereby providing better coverage and greater detail than that of the Stage IV product. This paper will describe the expanded/upgraded SPoRT-LIS, present comparisons between the

  3. A Space weather information service based upon remote and in-situ measurements of coronal mass ejections heading for Earth. A concept mission consisting of six spacecraft in a heliocentric orbit at 0.72 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Birgit; Meskers, Arjan J. H.; Miles, Oscar; Rußwurm, Michael; Scully, Stephen; Roldán, Andrés; Hartkorn, Oliver; Jüstel, Peter; Réville, Victor; Lupu, Sorina; Ruffenach, Alexis

    2015-02-01

    The Earth's magnetosphere is formed as a consequence of interaction between the planet's magnetic field and the solar wind, a continuous plasma stream from the Sun. A number of different solar wind phenomena have been studied over the past 40 years with the intention of understanding and forecasting solar behavior. One of these phenomena in particular, Earth-bound interplanetary coronal mass ejections (CMEs), can significantly disturb the Earth's magnetosphere for a short time and cause geomagnetic storms. This publication presents a mission concept consisting of six spacecraft that are equally spaced in a heliocentric orbit at 0.72 AU. These spacecraft will monitor the plasma properties, the magnetic field's orientation and magnitude, and the 3D-propagation trajectory of CMEs heading for Earth. The primary objective of this mission is to increase space weather forecasting time by means of a near real-time information service, that is based upon in-situ and remote measurements of the aforementioned CME properties. The obtained data can additionally be used for updating scientific models. This update is the mission's secondary objective. In-situ measurements are performed using a Solar Wind Analyzer instrumentation package and fluxgate magnetometers, while for remote measurements coronagraphs are employed. The proposed instruments originate from other space missions with the intention to reduce mission costs and to streamline the mission design process. Communication with the six identical spacecraft is realized via a deep space network consisting of six ground stations. They provide an information service that is in uninterrupted contact with the spacecraft, allowing for continuous space weather monitoring. A dedicated data processing center will handle all the data, and then forward the processed data to the SSA Space Weather Coordination Center which will, in turn, inform the general public through a space weather forecast. The data processing center will

  4. Weather control

    SciTech Connect

    Leepson, M.

    1980-09-05

    Weather modification, the intentional altering of atmospheric conditions to suit the purposes of humankind, has five basic forms: (1) fog dissipation; (2) rain and snow enhancement; (3) hail suppression; (4) lightning suppression; and (5) the abatement of severe storms such as hurricanes and tornadoes. The dissipation of fog and the seeding of clouds with dry ice or silver iodide to produce rain are the most successful weather modification techniques. Both are used extensively and with varying degrees of success in the United States and around the world. Cloud seeding, though, is not effective in easing the harshness of a drought, such as the one that hit the Southwest, Midwest and Great Plains this summer.

  5. Public Awareness of Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzerotti, Louis J.

    2009-08-01

    As society increasingly relies on space-based infrastructure for communication and national security, there is a growing need to improve public awareness of the risks space weather poses. The National Space Weather Program (NSWP) should consider this need as it develops new strategic plans. The 2006 “Report of the Assessment Committee for the National Space Weather Program” (http://www.ofcm.gov/r24/fcm-r24.htm) continues to guide this important national program, which aims to improve space weather forecasting services and reduce technological vulnerabilities. NSWP, under the auspices of the Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorology (OFCM), is coordinated by the NSWP Council, which consists of eight federal agencies. This council, through its Committee for Space Weather, is in the process of formulating new Strategic and Implementation plans for the NSWP using recommendations from the Assessment Committee.

  6. Expansion of the Real-time Sport-land Information System for NOAA / National Weather Service Situational Awareness and Local Modeling Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; White, Kristopher D.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center in Huntsville, AL (Jedlovec 2013; Ralph et al. 2013; Merceret et al. 2013) is running a real-time configuration of the Noah land surface model (LSM) within the NASA Land Information System (LIS) framework (hereafter referred to as the "SPoRT-LIS"). Output from the real-time SPoRT-LIS is used for (1) initializing land surface variables for local modeling applications, and (2) displaying in decision support systems for situational awareness and drought monitoring at select NOAA/National Weather Service (NWS) partner offices. The SPoRT-LIS is currently run over a domain covering the southeastern half of the Continental United States (CONUS), with an additional experimental real-time run over the entire CONUS and surrounding portions of southern Canada and northern Mexico. The experimental CONUS run incorporates hourly quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) from the National Severe Storms Laboratory Multi- Radar Multi-Sensor (MRMS) product (Zhang et al. 2011, 2014), which will be transitioned into operations at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) in Fall 2014. This paper describes the current and experimental SPoRT-LIS configurations, and documents some of the limitations still remaining through the advent of MRMS precipitation analyses in the SPoRT-LIS land surface model (LSM) simulations. Section 2 gives background information on the NASA LIS and describes the realtime SPoRT-LIS configurations being compared. Section 3 presents recent work done to develop a training module on situational awareness applications of real-time SPoRT-LIS output. Comparisons between output from the two SPoRT-LIS runs are shown in Section 4, including a documentation of issues encountered in using the MRMS precipitation dataset. A summary and future work in given in Section 5, followed by acknowledgements and references.

  7. Space Weather - the Economic Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisi, M. M.; Gibbs, M.

    2015-12-01

    Following on from the UK Government's placement of space weather on it's National Risk Register, in 2011, and the Royal Academy of Engineering's study into the impacts of a severe space weather event, the next piece of key evidence, to underpin future investment decisions, is understanding the socio-economic impact of space weather This poster outlines a study, funded by the UK Space Agency, which will assess the socio-economic cost of space weather, both severe events, such as 1989 & a modern day repeat of the Carrington storm and also the cost of day-to-day impacts. The study will go on to estimate the cost benefit of forecasting and also investigate options for an operational L5 spacecraft mission and knowledge exchange activities with the South African Space Agency. The findings from the initial space weather socio-economic literature review will be presented along with other findings to date and sets out the tasks for the remainder of this programme of work.

  8. A Qualitative Analysis of the Use of Financial Services and Saving Behavior Among Older African Americans and Latinos in the Los Angeles Area

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Luisa R.; Ponce, Maria; Gongora, Arturo; Duru, O. Kenrik

    2015-01-01

    For this study, we conducted seven focus groups in the Los Angeles area with a total of 70 participants (42 Latinos and 28 African Americans) recruited from three senior centers and a church. There was a wide variety of responses in relation to the usage of financial services among participants. We found that although some participants seem to participate more in the formal financial sector and show a higher level of sophistication when managing their finances, other participants’ use of formal financial institutions is minimal. Among African American participants, we found several instances in which individuals feel very comfortable using banks. Lower levels of participation in the formal financial sector were found among the lower income Latino participants. In relation to barriers to participate in the financial sector, supply was not an issue, but demand and behavioral factors seem more important. Overall, no participants saved very much on a regular basis. We also find that participants in general do not want to ask their children for money, and also do not want to save and accumulate wealth to leave to their children. PMID:26064788

  9. Progress in Multi-Center Probabilistic Wave Forecasting and Ensemble-Based Data Assimilation using LETKF at the US National Weather Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Jose-Henrique; Bernier, Natacha; Etala, Paula; Wittmann, Paul

    2015-04-01

    The combination of ensemble predictions of Hs made by the US National Weather Service (NEW) and the US Navy Fleet Numerical Meteorological and Oceanography Center (FNMOC) has established the NFCENS, a probabilistic wave forecast system in operations at NCEP since 2011. Computed from 41 combined wave ensemble members, the new product outperforms deterministic and probabilistic forecasts and nowcasts of Hs issued separately at each forecast center, at all forecast ranges. The successful implementation of the NFCENS has brought new opportunities for collaboration with Environment Canada (EC). EC is in the process of adding new global wave model ensemble products to its existing suite of operational regional products. The planned upgrade to the current NFCENS wave multi-center ensemble includes the addition of 20 members from the Canadian WES. With this upgrade, the NFCENS will be renamed North American Wave Ensemble System (NAWES). As part of the new system implementation, new higher-resolution grids and upgrades to model physics using recent advances in source-term parameterizations are being tested. We provide results of a first validation of NAWES relative to global altimeter data, and buoy measurements of waves, as well as its ability to forecast waves during the 2012 North Atlantic hurricane Sandy. A second line of research involving wave ensembles at the NWS is the implementation of a LETKF-based data assimilation system developed in collaboration with the Argentinian Navy Meteorological Service. The project involves an implementation of the 4D-LETKF in the NWS global wave ensemble forecast system GWES. The 4-D scheme initializes a full 81-member ensemble in a 6-hour cycle. The LETKF determines the analysis ensemble locally in the space spanned by the ensemble, as a linear combination of the background perturbations. Observations from three altimeters and one scatterometer were used. Preliminary results for a prototype system running at the NWS, including

  10. Aviation Weather for Pilots and Flight Operations Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD. National Weather Service.

    The revised Aviation Weather book discusses each aspect of weather as it relates to aircraft operations and flight safety. The book is not an aircraft operating manual and omits all reference to specific weather services. Much of the book has been devoted to marginal, hazardous, and violent weather. It teaches pilots to learn to appreciate good…

  11. Winter weather scorecard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Last fall's 3-month winter weather prediction by National Weather Service (NWS) forecasters was not terrific, but it was not too far off the mark, either. A comparison of the predicted temperatures and precipitation (Eos, December 25, 1984, p. 1241) to the observed conditions (see Figures 1 and 2) during the months of December, January, and February shows that the forecasters were generally correct where they were most confident in their predictions.According to Donald Gilman, chief of the Predictions Branch at NWS's National Climate Analysis Center, the overall temperature forecast was probably better than that for precipitation. “The temperature forecast was pretty good in the West,” said Gilman. “East of the Mississippi, however, was a mixed picture.”

  12. Scorecard on weather predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    No matter that several northern and eastern states were pelted by snow and sleet early in March, as far as longterm weather forecasters are concerned, winter ended on February 28. Now is the time to review their winter seasonal forecasts to determine how accurate were those predictions issued at the start of winter.The National Weather Service (NWS) predicted on November 27, 1981, that the winter season would bring colder-than-normal temperatures to the eastern half of the United States, while temperatures were expected to be higher than normal in the westernmost section (see Figure 1). The NWS made no prediction for the middle of the country, labeling the area ‘indeterminate,’ or having the same chance of experiencing above-normal temperatures as below-normal temperatures, explained Donald L. Gilman, chief of the NWS long-range forecasting group.

  13. Integrating weather derivatives for managing risks

    SciTech Connect

    Bilski, B.

    1999-11-01

    As deregulation and customer choice loom on the horizon, many energy utilities and other energy suppliers are scrambling to find new services that add value for consumers. Many are also seeking opportunities for increasing efficiency to ensure that costs remain competitive. Integrating weather derivatives with marketing programs and financial management can produce attractive new services and increase efficiency. Weather derivatives can be used to create innovative consumer services, such as a guaranteed annual energy bill which is unaffected by weather and energy price changes. They can also be used to protect the earnings of energy suppliers from one of their most significant financial risks, unpredictable weather. There are three basic types of weather derivatives available today. Option or insurance based derivatives (options), swaps or hedge based derivatives (swaps) and packages where other services are combined with one or both of the above.

  14. Development and Use of the Hydrologic Ensemble Forecast System by the National Weather Service to Support the New York City Water Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shedd, R.; Reed, S. M.; Porter, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    The National Weather Service (NWS) has been working for several years on the development of the Hydrologic Ensemble Forecast System (HEFS). The objective of HEFS is to provide ensemble river forecasts incorporating the best precipitation and temperature forcings at any specific time horizon. For the current implementation, this includes the Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS) and the Climate Forecast System (CFSv2). One of the core partners that has been working with the NWS since the beginning of the development phase of HEFS is the New York City Department of Environmental Protection (NYCDEP) which is responsible for the complex water supply system for New York City. The water supply system involves a network of reservoirs in both the Delaware and Hudson River basins. At the same time that the NWS was developing HEFS, NYCDEP was working on enhancing the operations of their water supply reservoirs through the development of a new Operations Support Tool (OST). OST is designed to guide reservoir system operations to ensure an adequate supply of high-quality drinking water for the city, as well as to meet secondary objectives for reaches downstream of the reservoirs assuming the primary water supply goals can be met. These secondary objectives include fisheries and ecosystem support, enhanced peak flow attenuation beyond that provided natively by the reservoirs, salt front management, and water supply for other cities. Since January 2014, the NWS Northeast and Middle Atlantic River Forecast Centers have provided daily one year forecasts from HEFS to NYCDEP. OST ingests these forecasts, couples them with near-real-time environmental and reservoir system data, and drives models of the water supply system. The input of ensemble forecasts results in an ensemble of model output, from which information on the range and likelihood of possible future system states can be extracted. This type of probabilistic information provides system managers with additional

  15. Using Independent NCDC Rain Gauges to Analyze Precipitation Values from the OneRain Corporation Algorithm and the National Weather Service Procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinaitis, S. M.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Sullivan, J. L.; Pathak, C.

    2007-12-01

    Two widely used procedures for optimally combining radar- and gauge-derived rainfall are those of the OneRain Corporation and the National Weather Service (NWS). The NWS procedure, called the Multi-sensor Precipitation Estimator (MPE), produces an hourly product on the 4×4 km Hydrologic Rainfall Analysis Project (HRAP) grid. MPE is used operationally by local NWS offices and NWS River Forecast Centers (RFCs). Florida State University (FSU) has employed the MPE scheme with NWS hourly digital precipitation arrays (DPAs) to create an hourly historical precipitation database for the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) for the period 1996-2006. The OneRain procedure is proprietary and has not been described well in the literature. However, it produces a product at 15 min intervals on a 2×2 km Cartesian grid. Florida's Water Management Districts as well as other government agencies and private firms use the OneRain product. Although their methodologies and their temporal and spatial resolutions differ, each dataset is being used to make water management and regulatory decisions. Thus, it is useful to evaluate the two procedures against independent data. This paper will evaluate the two procedures against daily co-op gauges from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) that were not used in creating either the MPE or OneRain products. The area of the South Florida Water Management District is investigated during the 2004-2005 calendar years. Both radar-derived products are summed over 24 h periods based on the daily recording time of each gauge. The OneRain precipitation values then are placed onto the same 4×4 km HRAP grid containing the MPE data. Finally, the 4×4 km MPE and OneRain values are compared with any NCDC gauges located within the HRAP grid cells. Results of daily precipitation comparisons will be presented for all gauges combined over the two year time period, over individual years, the cold and warm seasons, and over individual months

  16. Examining Atmospheric and Ecological Drivers of Wildfires, Modeling Wildfire Occurrence in the Southwest United States, and Using Atmospheric Sounding Observations to Verify National Weather Service Spot Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nauslar, Nicholas J.

    This dissertation is comprised of three different papers that all pertain to wildland fire applications. The first paper performs a verification analysis on mixing height, transport winds, and Haines Index from National Weather Service spot forecasts across the United States. The final two papers, which are closely related, examine atmospheric and ecological drivers of wildfire for the Southwest Area (SWA) (Arizona, New Mexico, west Texas, and Oklahoma panhandle) to better equip operational fire meteorologists and managers to make informed decisions on wildfire potential in this region. The verification analysis here utilizes NWS spot forecasts of mixing height, transport winds and Haines Index from 2009-2013 issued for a location within 50 km of an upper sounding location and valid for the day of the fire event. Mixing height was calculated from the 0000 UTC sounding via the Stull, Holzworth, and Richardson methods. Transport wind speeds were determined by averaging the wind speed through the boundary layer as determined by the three mixing height methods from the 0000 UTC sounding. Haines Index was calculated at low, mid, and high elevation based on the elevation of the sounding and spot forecast locations. Mixing height forecasts exhibited large mean absolute errors and biased towards over forecasting. Forecasts of transport wind speeds and Haines Index outperformed mixing height forecasts with smaller errors relative to their respective means. The rainfall and lightning associated with the North American Monsoon (NAM) can vary greatly intra- and inter-annually and has a large impact on wildfire activity across the SWA by igniting or suppressing wildfires. NAM onset thresholds and subsequent dates are determined for the SWA and each Predictive Service Area (PSA), which are sub-regions used by operational fire meteorologists to predict wildfire potential within the SWA, April through September from 1995-2013. Various wildfire activity thresholds using the number

  17. WASCAL - West African Science Service Center on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use Regional Climate Simulations and Land-Atmosphere Simulations for West Africa at DKRZ and elsewhere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, Ilse; Arnault, Joel; Bliefernicht, Jan; Klein, Cornelia; Heinzeller, Dominikus; Kunstmann, Harald

    2014-05-01

    Changing climate and hydro-meteorological boundary conditions are among the most severe challenges to Africa in the 21st century. In particular West Africa faces an urgent need to develop effective adaptation and mitigation strategies to cope with negative impacts on humans and environment due to climate change, increased hydro-meteorological variability and land use changes. To help meet these challenges, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) started an initiative with institutions in Germany and West African countries to establish together a West African Science Service Center on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use (WASCAL). This activity is accompanied by an establishment of trans-boundary observation networks, an interdisciplinary core research program and graduate research programs on climate change and related issues for strengthening the analytical capabilities of the Science Service Center. A key research activity of the WASCAL Competence Center is the provision of regional climate simulations in a fine spatio-temporal resolution for the core research sites of WASCAL for the present and the near future. The climate information is needed for subsequent local climate impact studies in agriculture, water resources and further socio-economic sectors. The simulation experiments are performed using regional climate models such as COSMO-CLM, RegCM and WRF and statistical techniques for a further refinement of the projections. The core research sites of WASCAL are located in the Sudanian Savannah belt in Northern Ghana, Southern Burkina Faso and Northern Benin. The climate in this region is semi-arid with six rainy months. Due to the strong population growth in West Africa, many areas of the Sudanian Savannah have been already converted to farmland since the majority of the people are living directly or indirectly from the income produced in agriculture. The simulation experiments of the Competence Center and the Core Research Program are

  18. INNOVATIVE URBAN WET-WEATHER FLOW MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes innovative methods to improve wet weather flow (WWF) management systems, that provide drainage services at the same time as decreasing stormwater pollutant discharges, for urban developments of the 21st century. Traditionally, wet-weather collection systems...

  19. Incarceration history relative to health, substance use, and violence in a sample of vulnerable South African women: implications for health services in criminal justice settings

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jennifer E; Carney, Tara; Kline, Tracy; Browne, Felicia A; Wechsberg, Wendee M

    2012-01-01

    International research has suggested that women in the criminal justice system carry a higher burden of many illnesses than women in the community, especially mental health disorders, substance use disorders, sexually transmitted infections, and a history of violent victimization. Knowledge of these health disparities is often used to advocate for relevant screening and treatment services for women passing through criminal justice custody within US and European settings. However, almost all criminal justice health research has taken place in high-income countries, with little or no research taking place in other countries, especially in South Africa. This baseline analysis compares the health, substance use, and violent victimization of women who have ever been incarcerated to those who have not, in a cross-sectional sample of 720 young, vulnerable, substance-using women in Cape Town, South Africa. Results of univariate tests indicated that women who had ever been incarcerated had worse health, mental health, and sexually transmitted infection indicators and were more likely to report use of substances and to have been victims of physical and sexual assault than women who had never been incarcerated. Passing through the criminal justice system appears to be a marker for a variety of current and/or future health service needs among vulnerable South African women, suggesting that screening, prevention, and treatment referral efforts at the time of intersection with the criminal justice system may reduce health burden for these women. PMID:24474876

  20. A GSM-based surface meteorology network in service of improved African hydrological data assimilation and drought forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, A.; Falusi, J.; Caylor, K. K.; Sheffield, J.; Wood, E. F.

    2012-12-01

    The last few years have witnessed an explosion in consumer electronics, particularly mobile computing and telephony. This technological development has led to profound changes in (i) the cost of mobile computing platforms, (ii) the ubiquity of data connectivity, particularly in rural locales, and (iii) the knowledge gap for non-specialists to design, manufacture, and program electronics. Our group has developed a small, inexpensive, modular electronics platform that accomodates any number or flavor of sensors, coupled to a GSM transceiver to allow machine-to-machine communications of realtime meteorological data of hydrological relevance. This effort has particular import in Sub-Saharan Africa, where there is a pressing need for improved drought monitoring and forecasting, but a sparse surface meteorology which poorly constrains the forecast model. We present here our design of the sensor package and data architecture, as well as an implementation of the data assimilation system using the Princeton African Drought Monitor and Forecast system. It is shown that due to the relatively large uncertainties in the prior condition, that surface meteorological and soil moisture observations reduce posterior ensemble spread considerably with potential to extend the forecast horizon and be useful for taking action on emerging drought.

  1. Space Weather over South Africa: progress towards a RWC for Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinnell, Lee-Anne; Kotze, Pieter; Theron, Herman

    The Hermanus Magnetic Observatory (HMO) in Hermanus, South Africa has recently been appointed as the Regional Warning Center (RWC) for Space Weather in Africa by the International Space Environment Service (ISES). As with other magnetic observatories the HMO's core function is to measure the Earth's magnetic field and to this end HMO operates three INTER- MAGNET field stations. However, in addition to this core function, the HMO also undertakes fundamental space physics research, postgraduate student training, science outreach and provides magnetic related services to various industries. The management of the ionospheric data from the South African ionosondes also falls under the responsibility of the HMO. And during 2008 the fourth South African ionosonde will be commissioned on the grounds of the observatory. Since 2001 the HMO has been a national facility of the National Research Foundation (NRF) and is rapidly building the reputation of being the national facility responsible for space physics in South Africa. For a number of years HMO has being supplying geomagnetic and ionospheric data and models to various users. However, now that HMO has become the RWC for Africa, a concerted effort is being made to package these products into a user friendly way for space weather purposes, and also to increase the number of products available. Several postgraduate projects are under way which will not only increase the number of available products, but also provide relevant expertise to the rest of Africa. A proposal has been submitted for a purpose-built space weather center in Hermanus, and a preliminary website has been set up. This paper will provide a review of what HMO can offer to Space Weather users, what is currently available and what is planned for the future especially in light of the upcoming solar maximum.

  2. Weather in the News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markle, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    A discussion of TV weather forecasting introduces this article which features several hands-on science activities involving observing, researching, and experimenting with the weather. A reproducible worksheet on the reliability of weather forecasts is included. (IAH)

  3. Forecasting the Weather.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollinger, Richard

    1984-01-01

    Presents a computer program which predicts the weather based on student input of such weather data as wind direction and barometric pressure. Also provides procedures for several hands-on, weather-related activities. (JN)

  4. Heated Rack For Weathering Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, Edward F.; Willis, Paul B.

    1989-01-01

    Outdoor photothermal aging reactor (OPTAR) simple device exposing polymer specimens to both heat and natural sunlight. Intended to provide accelerated aging data for service life of polymers used in outdoor environments. In principle, OPTAR accelerates (but does not initiate) degradation of polymers resulting from sunlight and other weathering effect (eg. rain, wind, ozone). Aging of tested material accelerated, but under almost-natural conditions.

  5. Who's Serving Whom? Partners, Process, and Products in Service-Learning Projects in South African Urban Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldfield, Sophie

    2008-01-01

    The literature on service learning in geography courses has established and substantiated the importance and usefulness of such projects for student learning. In this paper the assumption is questioned that similar sets of benefits accrue to "community" participants, those involved who are located outside the university context. The research…

  6. Operational Space Weather Activities in the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Thomas; Singer, Howard; Onsager, Terrance; Viereck, Rodney; Murtagh, William; Rutledge, Robert

    2016-07-01

    We review the current activities in the civil operational space weather forecasting enterprise of the United States. The NOAA/Space Weather Prediction Center is the nation's official source of space weather watches, warnings, and alerts, working with partners in the Air Force as well as international operational forecast services to provide predictions, data, and products on a large variety of space weather phenomena and impacts. In October 2015, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy released the National Space Weather Strategy (NSWS) and associated Space Weather Action Plan (SWAP) that define how the nation will better forecast, mitigate, and respond to an extreme space weather event. The SWAP defines actions involving multiple federal agencies and mandates coordination and collaboration with academia, the private sector, and international bodies to, among other things, develop and sustain an operational space weather observing system; develop and deploy new models of space weather impacts to critical infrastructure systems; define new mechanisms for the transition of research models to operations and to ensure that the research community is supported for, and has access to, operational model upgrade paths; and to enhance fundamental understanding of space weather through support of research models and observations. The SWAP will guide significant aspects of space weather operational and research activities for the next decade, with opportunities to revisit the strategy in the coming years through the auspices of the National Science and Technology Council.

  7. Weatherization Apprenticeship Program

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Eric J

    2012-12-18

    Weatherization improvement services will be provided to Native people by Native people. The proposed project will recruit, train and hire two full-time weatherization technicians who will improve the energy efficiency of homes of Alaska Natives/American Indians residing in the Indian areas, within the Cook Inlet Region of Alaska. The Region includes Anchorage as well as 8 small tribal villages: The Native Villages of Eklutna, Knik, Chickaloon, Seldovia, Ninilchik, Kenaitze, Salamatof, and Tyonek. This project will be a partnership between three entities, with Cook Inlet Tribal Council (CITC) as the lead agency: CITCA's Employment and Training Services Department, Cook Inlet Housing Authority and Alaska Works Partnership. Additionally, six of the eight tribal villages within the Cook Inlet Region of Alaska have agreed to work with the project in order to improve the energy efficiency of their tribally owned buildings and homes. The remaining three villages will be invited to participate in the establishment of an intertribal consortium through this project. Tribal homes and buildings within Anchorage fall under Cook Inlet Region, Inc. (CIRI) tribal authority.

  8. Predicting the Weather and Building the Boats: Full Service Schools as One Avenue to School Success for All of America's Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronick, Robert F.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the evolution of full service schools. Full service schools stress prevention, collaboration and systems change. Prevention is geared toward corrections, mental health and welfare, all topics of keen interest to people working in and studying criminal justice. By providing mental health services at the school for both…

  9. Insolation data manual: Long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days, and global KT for 248 National Weather Service stations and direct normal solar radiation data manual: Long-term, monthly mean, daily totals for 235 National Weather Service stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-07-01

    The Insolation Data Manual presents monthly averaged data which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service (NWS) stations, principally in the United States. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data, generally from 1952 to 1975, and listed for each location. Insolation values represent monthly average daily totals of global radiation on a horizontal surface and are depicted using the three units of measurement: kJ/sq m per day, Btu/sq ft per day and langleys per day. Average daily maximum, minimum and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3 C (65 F). For each station, global KT (cloudiness index) values were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. Global KT is an index of cloudiness and indicates fractional transmittance of horizontal radiation, from the top of the atmosphere to the earth's surface. The second section of this volume presents long-term monthly and annual averages of direct normal solar radiation for 235 NWS stations, including a discussion of the basic derivation process. This effort is in response to a generally recognized need for reliable direct normal data and the recent availability of 23 years of hourly averages for 235 stations. The relative inaccessibility of these data on microfiche further justifies reproducing at least the long-term averages in a useful format. In addition to a definition of terms and an overview of the ADIPA model, a discussion of model validation results is presented.

  10. NASA GSFC Space Weather Center - Innovative Space Weather Dissemination: Web-Interfaces, Mobile Applications, and More

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddox, Marlo; Zheng, Yihua; Rastaetter, Lutz; Taktakishvili, A.; Mays, M. L.; Kuznetsova, M.; Lee, Hyesook; Chulaki, Anna; Hesse, Michael; Mullinix, Richard; Berrios, David

    2012-01-01

    The NASA GSFC Space Weather Center (http://swc.gsfc.nasa.gov) is committed to providing forecasts, alerts, research, and educational support to address NASA's space weather needs - in addition to the needs of the general space weather community. We provide a host of services including spacecraft anomaly resolution, historical impact analysis, real-time monitoring and forecasting, custom space weather alerts and products, weekly summaries and reports, and most recently - video casts. There are many challenges in providing accurate descriptions of past, present, and expected space weather events - and the Space Weather Center at NASA GSFC employs several innovative solutions to provide access to a comprehensive collection of both observational data, as well as space weather model/simulation data. We'll describe the challenges we've faced with managing hundreds of data streams, running models in real-time, data storage, and data dissemination. We'll also highlight several systems and tools that are utilized by the Space Weather Center in our daily operations, all of which are available to the general community as well. These systems and services include a web-based application called the Integrated Space Weather Analysis System (iSWA http://iswa.gsfc.nasa.gov), two mobile space weather applications for both IOS and Android devices, an external API for web-service style access to data, google earth compatible data products, and a downloadable client-based visualization tool.

  11. Weather in Your Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kannegieter, Sandy; Wirkler, Linda

    Facts and activities related to weather and meteorology are presented in this unit. Separate sections cover the following topics: (1) the water cycle; (2) clouds; (3) the Beaufort Scale for rating the speed and force of wind; (4) the barometer; (5) weather prediction; (6) fall weather in Iowa (sleet, frost, and fog); (7) winter weather in Iowa…

  12. Fun with Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildirim, Rana

    2007-01-01

    This three-part weather-themed lesson for young learners connects weather, clothing, and feelings vocabulary. The target structures covered are: asking about the weather; comparing weather; using the modal auxiliary, should; and the question word, when. The lessons utilize all four skills and include such activities as going outside, singing,…

  13. Teaching Weather Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebastian, Glenn R.

    Ten exercises based on the weather map provided in the national newspaper "U.S.A. Today" are used to teach intermediate grade students about weather. An overview describes the history of "U.S.A. Today," the format of the newspaper's weather map, and the map's suitability for teaching weather concepts. Specific exercises, which are briefly…

  14. [The organization of veterinary services in African animal husbandry systems: chances for the exchange of interdisciplinary learning processes].

    PubMed

    Kirk, M

    1995-12-01

    The structure of the veterinary services to date hinders--together with massive intervention in the land tenure systems and the animal keepers' rights in arid and semi-arid areas--the future organization of productive animal-keeping systems adapted to the ecological conditions. The consensus of the findings of research in the social as well as in the natural sciences, is that state (agrarian) policies and international development cooperation have led to centralism and authoritarian administrations which formalize formerly informal, locally specific rules for securing the health of the animals and the maintenance of grazing and water resources. As a result, the animal-keeping groups have lost their rights, social conflicts arose and the environment suffered. Thus, decentralization, subsidarity and--above all--comprehensive participation on the part of the animal keepers are regarded as the guidelines for the future organization of state and/or private services for maintaining the health of the animals. Thereby, the planning at the various administrative levels is faced by great challenges in view of the progressing differentiation in the animal-keeping systems (e.g. peri-urban systems; urban absentee herd owners; marginalized, subsistence-oriented households). PMID:8651895

  15. Space Weather Impacts on Technological Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtagh, W.; Viereck, R. A.; Rutledge, R.

    2012-12-01

    The Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC), one of the nine National Weather Service (NWS), National Centers for Environmental Prediction, is the nation's official source for space weather alerts and warnings. The rapid advances in the technology sector and our fast growing dependency on space-based systems have resulted in an ever-increasing vulnerability to hazardous space weather. NWS efforts to support aviation, emergency response efforts, and electric power grids, now extend to space and solar storms. Other key sectors impacted by space weather include satellite communications, and GPS applications, which pervade modern society. And the concerns are growing as we approach the next solar maximum, expected to peak in 2013. This presentation will address the different types of space weather events and how they impact our technological infrastructure.

  16. Identifying New Sources of African American Male Pre-Service Teachers: Creating a Path from Student-Athlete to Student-Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, David A.; Butler, Bettie Ray; Lewis, Chance W.; Bonner, Fred A., II; Rutledge, Michael; Watson, Jesse J.

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative research study examined the experiences of one African American former college athlete and two athletic department academic advisors at a BCS Division University in the Southern Region of the United States, Given the catastrophic shortage of African American male K-12 teachers, the participants of this study were interviewed to…

  17. Enhanced Weather Radar (EWxR) System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kronfeld, Kevin M. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    An airborne weather radar system, the Enhanced Weather Radar (EWxR), with enhanced on-board weather radar data processing was developed and tested. The system features additional weather data that is uplinked from ground-based sources, specialized data processing, and limited automatic radar control to search for hazardous weather. National Weather Service (NWS) ground-based Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) information is used by the EWxR system to augment the on-board weather radar information. The system will simultaneously display NEXRAD and on-board weather radar information in a split-view format. The on-board weather radar includes an automated or hands-free storm-finding feature that optimizes the radar returns by automatically adjusting the tilt and range settings for the current altitude above the terrain and searches for storm cells near the atmospheric 0-degree isotherm. A rule-based decision aid was developed to automatically characterize cells as hazardous, possibly-hazardous, or non-hazardous based upon attributes of that cell. Cell attributes are determined based on data from the on-board radar and from ground-based radars. A flight path impact prediction algorithm was developed to help pilots to avoid hazardous weather along their flight plan and their mission. During development the system was tested on the NASA B757 aircraft and final tests were conducted on the Rockwell Collins Sabreliner.

  18. Alaska Native Weatherization Training and Jobs Program First Steps Toward Tribal Weatherization – Human Capacity Development

    SciTech Connect

    Wiita, Joanne

    2013-07-30

    The Alaska Native Weatherization Training and Jobs Project expanded weatherization services for tribal members’ homes in southeast Alaska while providing weatherization training and on the job training (OJT) for tribal citizens that lead to jobs and most probably careers in weatherization-related occupations. The program resulted in; (a) 80 Alaska Native citizens provided with skills training in five weatherization training units that were delivered in cooperation with University of Alaska Southeast, in accordance with the U.S. Department of Energy Core Competencies for Weatherization Training that prepared participants for employment in three weatherizationrelated occupations: Installer, Crew Chief, and Auditor; (b) 25 paid OJT training opportunities for trainees who successfully completed the training course; and (c) employed trained personnel that have begun to rehab on over 1,000 housing units for weatherization.

  19. 14 CFR 121.101 - Weather reporting facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Weather reporting facilities. 121.101... § 121.101 Weather reporting facilities. (a) Each certificate holder conducting domestic or flag operations must show that enough weather reporting services are available along each route to ensure...

  20. 14 CFR 121.101 - Weather reporting facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Weather reporting facilities. 121.101... § 121.101 Weather reporting facilities. (a) Each certificate holder conducting domestic or flag operations must show that enough weather reporting services are available along each route to ensure...

  1. 14 CFR 121.101 - Weather reporting facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Weather reporting facilities. 121.101... § 121.101 Weather reporting facilities. (a) Each certificate holder conducting domestic or flag operations must show that enough weather reporting services are available along each route to ensure...

  2. 14 CFR 121.101 - Weather reporting facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Weather reporting facilities. 121.101... § 121.101 Weather reporting facilities. (a) Each certificate holder conducting domestic or flag operations must show that enough weather reporting services are available along each route to ensure...

  3. 14 CFR 121.101 - Weather reporting facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weather reporting facilities. 121.101... § 121.101 Weather reporting facilities. (a) Each certificate holder conducting domestic or flag operations must show that enough weather reporting services are available along each route to ensure...

  4. Health Facility Characteristics and Their Relationship to Coverage of PMTCT of HIV Services across Four African Countries: The PEARL Study

    PubMed Central

    Ekouevi, Didier K.; Stringer, Elizabeth; Coetzee, David; Tih, Pius; Creek, Tracy; Stinson, Kathryn; Westfall, Andrew O.; Welty, Thomas; Chintu, Namwinga; Chi, Benjamin H.; Wilfert, Cathy; Shaffer, Nathan; Stringer, Jeff; Dabis, Francois

    2012-01-01

    Background Health facility characteristics associated with effective prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) coverage in sub-Saharan are poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted surveys in health facilities with active PMTCT services in Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire, South Africa, and Zambia. Data was compiled via direct observation and exit interviews. We constructed composite scores to describe provision of PMTCT services across seven topical areas: antenatal quality, PMTCT quality, supplies available, patient satisfaction, patient understanding of medication, and infrastructure quality. Pearson correlations and Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) to account for clustering of facilities within countries were used to evaluate the relationship between the composite scores, total time of visit and select individual variables with PMTCT coverage among women delivering. Between July 2008 and May 2009, we collected data from 32 facilities; 78% were managed by the government health system. An opt-out approach for HIV testing was used in 100% of facilities in Zambia, 63% in Cameroon, and none in Côte d'Ivoire or South Africa. Using Pearson correlations, PMTCT coverage (median of 55%, (IQR: 33–68) was correlated with PMTCT quality score (rho = 0.51; p = 0.003); infrastructure quality score (rho = 0.43; p = 0.017); time spent at clinic (rho = 0.47; p = 0.013); patient understanding of medications score (rho = 0.51; p = 0.006); and patient satisfaction quality score (rho = 0.38; p = 0.031). PMTCT coverage was marginally correlated with the antenatal quality score (rho = 0.304; p = 0.091). Using GEE adjustment for clustering, the, antenatal quality score became more strongly associated with PMTCT coverage (p<0.001) and the PMTCT quality score and patient understanding of medications remained marginally significant. Conclusions/Results We observed a positive relationship between an

  5. Comparison of Weather Shows in Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najman, M.

    2009-09-01

    Comparison of Weather Shows in Eastern Europe Television weather shows in Eastern Europe have in most cases in the high graphical standard. There is though a wast difference in duration and information content in the weather shows. There are few signs and regularities by which we can see the character of the weather show. The main differences are mainly caused by the income structure of the TV station. Either it is a fully privately funded TV relying on the TV commercials income. Or it is a public service TV station funded mainly by the national budget or fixed fee structure/tax. There are wast differences in duration and even a graphical presentation of the weather. Next important aspect is a supplier of the weather information and /or the processor. Shortly we can say, that when the TV show is produced by the national met office, the TV show consists of more scientific terms, synoptic maps, satellite imagery, etc. If the supplier is the private meteorological company, the weather show is more user-friendly, laical with less scientific terms. We are experiencing a massive shift in public weather knowledge and demand for information. In the past, weather shows consisted only of maps with weather icons. In todaýs world, even the laic weather shows consist partly of numerical weather model outputs - they are of course designed to be understandable and graphically attractive. Outputs of the numerical weather models used to be only a part of daily life of a professional meteorologist, today they are common part of life of regular people. Video samples are a part of this presentation.

  6. Asymptomatic rheumatic heart disease in South African schoolchildren: Implications for addressing chronic health conditions through a school health service.

    PubMed

    Shung-King, Maylene; Zühlke, Liesel; Engel, Mark E; Mayosi, Bongani M

    2016-08-01

    When new evidence comes to light, it compels us to contemplate the implications of such evidence for health policy and practice. This article examines recent research evidence on the prevalence of asymptomatic rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in South Africa and considers the implications for the Integrated School Health Programme (ISHP). RHD is still a major burden of disease in developing countries, and elimination of this preventable condition ranks high among World Heart Federation goals. If left untreated, it becomes a chronic health condition that individuals have to cope with into their adult lives. The ISHP regards the health needs of children with chronic health conditions, which include conditions such as RHD, as a key service component. However, the chronic health component of the ISHP is still poorly developed and can benefit from good evidence to guide implementation. A recent study to ascertain the prevalence of RHD in asymptomatic schoolchildren through mass screening affords an opportunity to reflect on whether, and how, asymptomatic chronic health conditions in schoolchildren could be addressed, and what the implications would be if this were done through a school-based programme such as the ISHP. PMID:27499395

  7. Supporting Weather Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Since its founding in 1992, Global Science & Technology, Inc. (GST), of Greenbelt, Maryland, has been developing technologies and providing services in support of NASA scientific research. GST specialties include scientific analysis, science data and information systems, data visualization, communications, networking and Web technologies, computer science, and software system engineering. As a longtime contractor to Goddard Space Flight Center s Earth Science Directorate, GST scientific, engineering, and information technology staff have extensive qualifications with the synthesis of satellite, in situ, and Earth science data for weather- and climate-related projects. GST s experience in this arena is end-to-end, from building satellite ground receiving systems and science data systems, to product generation and research and analysis.

  8. Assessing the Economic Impacts of Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazo, J. K.

    2008-05-01

    Understanding the socio-economic impacts of weather provides a basis for prioritizing actions to mitigate and respond to weather events and understanding the value of improvements in weather forecasts. In this talk we discuss two studies of the economic impacts of weather: (1) an empirical study of the sensitivity of state-sector level economic activity to weather variability and (2) an assessment of the quality of data on storm damages in the US as primarily collected through the National Weather Service's Storm Data Program. In the first study, 24 years of state level sector economic data and historical weather observations are used to form a panel combining weather information with economic data. A translog function is estimated of sectoral sensitivity and vulnerability to weather variability. Eleven sectors are ranked based on their degree of sensitivity to weather, states more sensitive to weather impacts are identified, and the aggregate dollar amount of variation in U.S. economic activity attributable to weather variability is calculated. Estimates indicate that US economic output varies by about 3.4% due to weather variability. While considerably smaller than prior estimates, our estimate represents about 469 billion a year in 2007 dollars. In our work to update and revise damage data in the Extreme Weather Sourcebook (www.sip.ucar.edu/sourcebook), we have confronted issues concerning the depth, accuracy and consistency of storm damage data collection. This type of data has been used in many studies exploring changes in weather impacts over time but there has been little recognition of the quality of the data. In the second study reported here, we examine issues with weather induced damage data quality to prompt a dialogue about reliability of scattered and inconsistent data from multiple sources. We hope this will lead to efforts to reduce the error in reported damages and to better reporting and organization of storm damage data in the future. We advocate

  9. Pilot weather advisor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, W. A.; Seth, S.; Crabill, N. L.; Shipley, S. T.; Graffman, I.; Oneill, J.

    1992-01-01

    The results of the work performed by ViGYAN, Inc., to demonstrate the Pilot Weather Advisor cockpit weather data system using a broadcast satellite communication system are presented. The Pilot Weather Advisor demonstrated that the technical problems involved with transmitting significant amount of weather data to an aircraft in-flight or on-the-ground via satellite are solvable with today's technology. The Pilot Weather Advisor appears to be a viable solution for providing accurate and timely weather information for general aviation aircraft.

  10. Weather Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    WxLink is an aviation weather system based on advanced airborne sensors, precise positioning available from the satellite-based Global Positioning System, cockpit graphics and a low-cost datalink. It is a two-way system that uplinks weather information to the aircraft and downlinks automatic pilot reports of weather conditions aloft. Manufactured by ARNAV Systems, Inc., the original technology came from Langley Research Center's cockpit weather information system, CWIN (Cockpit Weather INformation). The system creates radar maps of storms, lightning and reports of surface observations, offering improved safety, better weather monitoring and substantial fuel savings.

  11. Training for health services and systems research in Sub-Saharan Africa - a case study at four East and Southern African Universities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The need to develop capacity for health services and systems research (HSSR) in low and middle income countries has been highlighted in a number of international forums. However, little is known about the level of HSSR training in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We conducted an assessment at four major East and Southern African universities to describe: a) the numbers of HSSR PhD trainees at these institutions, b) existing HSSR curricula and mode of delivery, and c) motivating and challenging factors for PhD training, from the trainees’ experience. Methods PhD training program managers completed a pre-designed form about trainees enrolled since 2006. A desk review of existing health curricula was also conducted to identify HSSR modules being offered; and PhD trainees completed a self-administered questionnaire on motivating and challenging factors they may have experienced during their PhD training. Results Of the 640 PhD trainees enrolled in the health sciences since 2006, only 24 (3.8%) were in an HSSR field. None of the universities had a PhD training program focusing on HSSR. The 24 HSSR PhD trainees had trained in partnership with a university outside Africa. Top motivating factors for PhD training were: commitment of supervisors (67%), availability of scholarships (63%), and training attached to a research grant (25%). Top challenging factors were: procurement delays (44%), family commitments (38%), and poor Internet connection (35%). Conclusion The number of HSSR PhD trainees is at the moment too small to enable a rapid accumulation of the required critical mass of locally trained HSSR professionals to drive the much needed health systems strengthening and innovations in this region. Curricula for advanced HSSR training are absent, exposing a serious training gap for HSSR in this region. PMID:24365482

  12. Weather Forecaster Understanding of Climate Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bol, A.; Kiehl, J. T.; Abshire, W. E.

    2013-12-01

    Weather forecasters, particularly those in broadcasting, are the primary conduit to the public for information on climate and climate change. However, many weather forecasters remain skeptical of model-based climate projections. To address this issue, The COMET Program developed an hour-long online lesson of how climate models work, targeting an audience of weather forecasters. The module draws on forecasters' pre-existing knowledge of weather, climate, and numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. In order to measure learning outcomes, quizzes were given before and after the lesson. Preliminary results show large learning gains. For all people that took both pre and post-tests (n=238), scores improved from 48% to 80%. Similar pre/post improvement occurred for National Weather Service employees (51% to 87%, n=22 ) and college faculty (50% to 90%, n=7). We believe these results indicate a fundamental misunderstanding among many weather forecasters of (1) the difference between weather and climate models, (2) how researchers use climate models, and (3) how they interpret model results. The quiz results indicate that efforts to educate the public about climate change need to include weather forecasters, a vital link between the research community and the general public.

  13. Winter Weather: Indoor Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: About CDC.gov . Natural Disasters and Severe Weather Earthquakes Being Prepared Emergency Supplies Home Hazards Indoor ... Heat Prevention Guide (Part 3 of 3) Hot Weather Tips Heat Stress in Older Adults FAQs Extreme ...

  14. Winter Weather Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

  15. ESA situational awareness of space weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luntama, Juha-Pekka; Glover, Alexi; Keil, Ralf; Kraft, Stefan; Lupi, Adriano

    2016-07-01

    ESA SSA Period 2 started at the beginning of 2013 and will last until the end of 2016. For the Space Weather Segment, transition to Period 2 introduced an increasing amount of development of new space weather service capability in addition to networking existing European assets. This transition was started already towards the end of SSA Period 1 with the initiation of the SSA Space Weather Segment architecture definition studies and activities enhancing existing space weather assets. The objective of Period 2 has been to initiate SWE space segment developments in the form of hosted payload missions and further expand the federated service network. A strong focus has been placed on demonstration and testing of European capabilities in the range of SWE service domains with a view to establishing core products which can form the basis of SWE service provision during SSA Period 3. This focus has been particularly addressed in the SSA Expert Service Centre (ESC) Definition and Development activity that was started in September 2015. This presentation will cover the current status of the SSA SWE Segment and the achievements during SSA Programme Periods 1 and 2. Particular attention is given to the federated approach that allow building the end user services on the best European expertise. The presentation will also outline the plans for the Space Weather capability development in the framework of the ESA SSA Programme in 2017-2020.

  16. Convective Weather Avoidance with Uncertain Weather Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karahan, Sinan; Windhorst, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Convective weather events have a disruptive impact on air traffic both in terminal area and in en-route airspaces. In order to make sure that the national air transportation system is safe and efficient, it is essential to respond to convective weather events effectively. Traffic flow control initiatives in response to convective weather include ground delay, airborne delay, miles-in-trail restrictions as well as tactical and strategic rerouting. The rerouting initiatives can potentially increase traffic density and complexity in regions neighboring the convective weather activity. There is a need to perform rerouting in an intelligent and efficient way such that the disruptive effects of rerouting are minimized. An important area of research is to study the interaction of in-flight rerouting with traffic congestion or complexity and developing methods that quantitatively measure this interaction. Furthermore, it is necessary to find rerouting solutions that account for uncertainties in weather forecasts. These are important steps toward managing complexity during rerouting operations, and the paper is motivated by these research questions. An automated system is developed for rerouting air traffic in order to avoid convective weather regions during the 20- minute - 2-hour time horizon. Such a system is envisioned to work in concert with separation assurance (0 - 20-minute time horizon), and longer term air traffic management (2-hours and beyond) to provide a more comprehensive solution to complexity and safety management. In this study, weather is dynamic and uncertain; it is represented as regions of airspace that pilots are likely to avoid. Algorithms are implemented in an air traffic simulation environment to support the research study. The algorithms used are deterministic but periodically revise reroutes to account for weather forecast updates. In contrast to previous studies, in this study convective weather is represented as regions of airspace that pilots

  17. Space weather activities in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, D.

    Space Weather Plan Australia has a draft space weather plan to drive and focus appropriate research into services that meet future industry and social needs. The Plan has three main platforms, space weather monitoring and service delivery, support for priority research, and outreach to the community. The details of monitoring, service, research and outreach activities are summarised. A ground-based network of 14 monitoring stations from Antarctica to Papua New Guinea is operated by IPS, a government agency. These sites monitor ionospheric and geomagnetic characteristics, while two of them also monitor the sun at radio and optical wavelengths. Services provided through the Australian Space Forecast Centre (ASFC) include real-time information on the solar, space, ionospheric and geomagnetic environments. Data are gathered automatically from monitoring sites and integrated with data exchanged internationally to create snapshots of current space weather conditions and forecasts of conditions up to several days ahead. IPS also hosts the WDC for Solar-Terrestrial Science and specialises in ground-based solar, ionospheric, and geomagnetic data sets, although recent in-situ magnetospheric measurements are also included. Space weather activities A research consortium operates the Tasman International Geospace Environment Radar (TIGER), an HF southward pointing auroral radar operating from Hobart (Tasmania). A second cooperative radar (Unwin radar) is being constructed in the South Island of New Zealand. This will intersect with TIGER over the auroral zone and enhance the ability of the radar to image the surge of currents that herald space environment changes entering the Polar Regions. Launched in November 2002, the micro satellite FEDSAT, operated by the Cooperative Research Centre for Satellite Systems, has led to successful space science programs and data streams. FEDSAT is making measurements of the magnetic field over Australia and higher latitudes. It also carries a

  18. American Weather Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Patrick

    Weather has shaped United States' culture, national character and folklore; at times it has changed the course of history. The seven accounts compiled in this publication highlight some of the nation's weather experiences from the hurricanes that threatened Christopher Columbus to the peculiar run of bad weather that has plagued American…

  19. Weather Fundamentals: Meteorology. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) looks at how meteorologists gather and interpret current weather data collected from sources…

  20. Severe Weather Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Karol

    Severe weather is an element of nature that cannot be controlled. Therefore, it is important that the general public be aware of severe weather and know how to react quickly and appropriately in a weather emergency. This study, done in the community surrounding the Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, was conducted to compile and analyze…

  1. Acknowledging the weather-health link.

    PubMed Central

    Bart, J L; Bourque, D A

    1995-01-01

    The impact of weather on health is generally overlooked by physicians. Possible reasons for this include lack of training and insufficient awareness of the significant body of research on human biometeorology. The authors argue that, in the absence of clearly demonstrable causal connections, statistical associations between weather phenomena and health problems should be enough to influence clinical practice. Physicians in Germany make use of daily bulletins from the national weather service to advise patients on the management of common health problems that seem to be exacerbated by certain weather conditions. The authors urge Canadian doctors to follow the lead of their European colleagues by increasing their awareness of the relation between weather and health. PMID:7553497

  2. Weather forecasting support for AASE-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, Gregory S.

    1992-01-01

    The AFEAS Contract and NASA Grant were awarded to Penn State in order to obtain real-time weather forecasting support for the NASA AASE-II Project, which was conducted between October 1991 and March 1992. Because of the special weather sensitivities of the NASA ER-2 aircraft, AASE-II planners felt that public weather forecasts issued by the National Weather Service would not be adequate for mission planning purposes. A likely consequence of resorting to that medium would have been that scientists would have had to be at work by 4 AM day after day in the hope that the aircraft could fly, only to be frustrated by a great number of 'scrubbed' missions. Thus, the Pennsylvania State University was contracted to provide real-time weather support to the AASE-II mission.

  3. Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program - Weatherization Assistance Program

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program reduces energy costs for low-income households by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes, while ensuring their health and safety.

  4. Beyond the Weather Chart: Weathering New Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Amy Bruno

    1996-01-01

    Describes an early childhood educator's approach to teaching children about rain, rainbows, clouds, precipitation, the sun, air, and wind. Recommends ways to organize study topics and describes experiments that can help children better understand the different elements of weather. (MOK)

  5. Preliminary Results of a U.S. Deep South Modeling Experiment Using NASA SPoRT Initialization Datasets for Operational National Weather Service Local Model Runs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Lance; Medlin, Jeffrey M.; Case, Jon

    2012-01-01

    A joint collaborative modeling effort among the NWS offices in Mobile, AL, and Houston, TX, and NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center began during the 2011-2012 cold season, and continued into the 2012 warm season. The focus was on two frequent U.S. Deep South forecast challenges: the initiation of deep convection during the warm season; and heavy precipitation during the cold season. We wanted to examine the impact of certain NASA produced products on the Weather Research and Forecasting Environmental Modeling System in improving the model representation of mesoscale boundaries such as the local sea-, bay- and land-breezes (which often leads to warm season convective initiation); and improving the model representation of slow moving, or quasi-stationary frontal boundaries (which focus cold season storm cell training and heavy precipitation). The NASA products were: the 4-km Land Information System, a 1-km sea surface temperature analysis, and a 4-km greenness vegetation fraction analysis. Similar domains were established over the southeast Texas and Alabama coastlines, each with an outer grid with a 9 km spacing and an inner nest with a 3 km grid spacing. The model was run at each NWS office once per day out to 24 hours from 0600 UTC, using the NCEP Global Forecast System for initial and boundary conditions. Control runs without the NASA products were made at the NASA SPoRT Center. The NCAR Model Evaluation Tools verification package was used to evaluate both the positive and negative impacts of the NASA products on the model forecasts. Select case studies will be presented to highlight the influence of the products.

  6. The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000). Dry-Season Campaign: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swap, R. J.; Annegarn, H. J.; Suttles, J. T.; Haywood, J.; Hely, C.; Hobbs, P. V.; Holben, B. N.; Ji, J.; King, M. D.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) is an international science project investigating the southern African earth-atmosphere-human system. The experiment was conducted over a two-year period March 1999 - March 2001. The dry season field campaign (August-Steptember 2000) was the most intensive activity and involving over 200 scientists from 18 different nations. The main objectives of this campaign were to characterize and quantify the biogenic, pyrogenic and anthropogenic aerosol and trace gas emissions and their transport and transformations in the atmosphere and to validate the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite Terra within a scientific context. Five aircraft, namely two South African Weather Service aircraft, University of Washington CV-580, the UK Meteorological Office C-130 and the NASA ER-2, with different altitude capabilities, participated in the campaign. Additional airborne sampling of southern African air masses that had moved downwind of the subcontinent was conducted by the CSIRO over Australia. Multiple observations were taken in various sectors for a variety of synoptic conditions. Flight missions were designed to maximize synchronous over-flights of the NASA TERRA satellite platform, above regional ground validation and science targets. Numerous smaller-scale ground validation activities took place throughout the region during the campaign period.

  7. Verification of Space Weather Forecasts using Terrestrial Weather Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henley, E.; Murray, S.; Pope, E.; Stephenson, D.; Sharpe, M.; Bingham, S.; Jackson, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Met Office Space Weather Operations Centre (MOSWOC) provides a range of 24/7 operational space weather forecasts, alerts, and warnings, which provide valuable information on space weather that can degrade electricity grids, radio communications, and satellite electronics. Forecasts issued include arrival times of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and probabilistic forecasts for flares, geomagnetic storm indices, and energetic particle fluxes and fluences. These forecasts are produced twice daily using a combination of output from models such as Enlil, near-real-time observations, and forecaster experience. Verification of forecasts is crucial for users, researchers, and forecasters to understand the strengths and limitations of forecasters, and to assess forecaster added value. To this end, the Met Office (in collaboration with Exeter University) has been adapting verification techniques from terrestrial weather, and has been working closely with the International Space Environment Service (ISES) to standardise verification procedures. We will present the results of part of this work, analysing forecast and observed CME arrival times, assessing skill using 2x2 contingency tables. These MOSWOC forecasts can be objectively compared to those produced by the NASA Community Coordinated Modelling Center - a useful benchmark. This approach cannot be taken for the other forecasts, as they are probabilistic and categorical (e.g., geomagnetic storm forecasts give probabilities of exceeding levels from minor to extreme). We will present appropriate verification techniques being developed to address these forecasts, such as rank probability skill score, and comparing forecasts against climatology and persistence benchmarks. As part of this, we will outline the use of discrete time Markov chains to assess and improve the performance of our geomagnetic storm forecasts. We will also discuss work to adapt a terrestrial verification visualisation system to space weather, to help

  8. Barriers to Hospice Use among African Americans: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Karla T.; Bickel-Swenson, Denise; Stephens, Nathan

    2008-01-01

    The present review was undertaken to explore recent evidence in the professional literature pertaining to use of hospice services by African Americans. The article addresses the research methods that have been used to study African American hospice use, obstacles to African American participation in hospice that have been identified, and…

  9. Perceptions of Domestic Violence: A Dialogue with African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bent-Goodley, Tricia B.

    2004-01-01

    Although empirical research has accumulated over the past 20 years regarding African Americans and domestic violence, many questions remain about African American perceptions of domestic violence. This article explores African American women's perceptions about domestic violence through three focus groups held at a New York social services agency.…

  10. Space Weathering of Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Space weathering discussions have generally centered around soils but exposed rocks will also incur the effects of weathering. On the Moon, rocks make up only a very small percentage of the exposed surface and areas where rocks are exposed, like central peaks, are often among the least space weathered regions we find in remote sensing data. However, our studies of weathered Ap 17 rocks 76015 and 76237 show that significant amounts of weathering products can build up on rock surfaces. Because rocks have much longer surface lifetimes than an individual soil grain, and thus record a longer history of exposure, we can study these products to gain a deeper perspective on the weathering process and better assess the relative impo!1ance of various weathering components on the Moon. In contrast to the lunar case, on small asteroids, like Itokowa, rocks make up a large fraction of the exposed surface. Results from the Hayabusa spacecraft at Itokowa suggest that while the low gravity does not allow for the development of a mature regolith, weathering patinas can and do develop on rock surfaces, in fact, the rocky surfaces were seen to be darker and appear spectrally more weathered than regions with finer materials. To explore how weathering of asteroidal rocks may differ from lunar, a set of ordinary chondrite meteorites (H, L, and LL) which have been subjected to artificial space weathering by nanopulse laser were examined by TEM. NpFe(sup 0) bearing glasses were ubiquitous in both the naturally-weathered lunar and the artificially-weathered meteorite samples.

  11. Next-Generation Severe Weather Forecasting and Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothfusz, Lans P.; Karstens, Christopher; Hilderband, Douglas

    2014-09-01

    Despite advances in the hazardous weather predictive skills of forecasters from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS) [Simmons and Sutter, 2011], the underlying methodologies used to generate severe weather watches (i.e., announcements that the potential for severe weather exists) and warnings (i.e., announcements that severe weather conditions are occurring or imminent) have changed little since they were first issued in 1965. The resulting text-based, deterministic (i.e., a single, most accurate value) messages lack the detail and flexibility to match the technology, science, diversity, lifestyles, and vulnerability of society today.

  12. Real-Time Weather Data Access Guide: Updated February 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Long, N.

    2006-03-01

    The format of the weather data received from the National Weather Service is extremely inconvenient for building engineers to read, especially for trending historical data; therefore, a weather parsing program was created by NREL building engineers to simplify the data. The weather-parsing program collects current weather conditions for over 4,000 sites around the world and allows access to the data via a web page designed by NREL building researchers. The database provides data for some locations from late 1998 through today. Users can request data to be sent to them via e-mail by using the interactive web page.

  13. Understanding traditional African healing

    PubMed Central

    MOKGOBI, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of traditional healers as well as the role of traditional healers in their communities are discussed. In conclusion, the services of traditional healers go far beyond the uses of herbs for physical illnesses. Traditional healers serve many roles which include but not limited to custodians of the traditional African religion and customs, educators about culture, counselors, social workers and psychologists. PMID:26594664

  14. African Aesthetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abiodun, Rowland

    2001-01-01

    No single traditional discipline can adequately supply answers to the many unresolved questions in African art history. Because of the aesthetic, cultural, historical, and, not infrequently, political biases, already built into the conception and development of Western art history, the discipline of art history as defined and practiced in the West…

  15. Low-Income African-American Caregivers' Experiences of Being Referred to Mental Health Services by the School Counselor: Implications for Best Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Referring students for mental health care is a core job function for school counselors, and one that is often stressful for all parties involved. In this phenomenological study, six low-income African-American caregivers were interviewed about their experiences of having a son or grandson referred for mental health care by the school counselor.…

  16. Promoting the Academic Achievement of African-American Males: The Achievers Model for Systemic Change of K-12 Educational Programs and Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNair, Wanda J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this applied doctoral project (ADP) was to conceptualize a framework for a charter school program design to promote the academic achievement of a select group of African-American males. Gorton, Alston, and Snowden (2007) emphasized that school improvement involves change for the better. The National Education Goals Panel, a…

  17. NASA Connect: 'Plane Weather'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Excerpt from the NASA Connect show 'Plane Weather' This clip explains what high and low pressure weather systems are, and how these affect weather patterns. Weather affects our daily lives. The elements of weather: rain, wind, fog, ice and snow affect the operation and flight of an airplane. In this program, NASA and FAA researchers will introduce students to math, science, and weather; demonstrate how these elements influence flight; and show how NASA and FAA research is used to limit the effects of these elements on flight. Students will examine: the tools, techniques, and technologies used by engineers and scientists to detect these and other climatological factors affecting aircraft in flight. The lesson and classroom experiment will involve students in the scientific process and emphasizing problem solving, measurement, and reasoning skills.

  18. RBSP Space Weather data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, M.; Fox, N. J.; Mauk, B. H.; Barnes, R. J.; Potter, M.; Romeo, G.; Smith, D.

    2012-12-01

    On August 23, 2012, NASA will launch two identical probes into the radiation belts to provide unprecedented insight into the physical processes and dynamics of near-Earth space. The RBSP mission in addition to the scientific data return, provides a 1Kbps real-time space weather broadcast data in support of real time space weather modeling, forecast and prediction efforts. Networks of ground stations have been identified to downlink the space weather data. The RBSP instrument suites have selected space weather data to be broadcast from their collected space data on board the spacecraft, a subset from measurements based on information normally available to the instrument. The data subset includes particle fluxes at a variety of energies, and magnetic and electric field data. This selected space weather data is broadcast at all times through the primary spacecraft science downlink antennas when an observatory is not in a primary mission-related ground contact. The collected data will resolve important scientific issues and help researchers develop and improve various models for the radiation belts that can be used by forecasters to predict space weather phenomena and alert astronauts and spacecraft operators to potential hazards. The near real-time data from RBSP will be available to monitor and analyze current environmental conditions, forecast natural environmental changes and support anomaly resolution. The space weather data will be available on the RBSP Science Gateway at http://athena.jhuapl.edu/ and will provide access to the space weather data received from the RBSP real-time space weather broadcast. The near real-time data will be calibrated and displayed on the web as soon as possible. The CCMC will ingest the RBSP space weather data into real-time models. The raw space weather data will be permanently archived at APL. This presentation will provide a first look at RBSP space weather data products.

  19. Weather and climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Recommendations for using space observations of weather and climate to aid in solving earth based problems are given. Special attention was given to: (1) extending useful forecasting capability of space systems, (2) reducing social, economic, and human losses caused by weather, (3) development of space system capability to manage and control air pollutant concentrations, and (4) establish mechanisms for the national examination of deliberate and inadvertent means for modifying weather and climate.

  20. Cockpit weather information needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scanlon, Charles H.

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective is to develop an advanced pilot weather interface for the flight deck and to measure its utilization and effectiveness in pilot reroute decision processes, weather situation awareness, and weather monitoring. Identical graphical weather displays for the dispatcher, air traffic control (ATC), and pilot crew should also enhance the dialogue capabilities for reroute decisions. By utilizing a broadcast data link for surface observations, forecasts, radar summaries, lightning strikes, and weather alerts, onboard weather computing facilities construct graphical displays, historical weather displays, color textual displays, and other tools to assist the pilot crew. Since the weather data is continually being received and stored by the airborne system, the pilot crew has instantaneous access to the latest information. This information is color coded to distinguish degrees of category for surface observations, ceiling and visibilities, and ground radar summaries. Automatic weather monitoring and pilot crew alerting is accomplished by the airborne computing facilities. When a new weather information is received, the displays are instantaneously changed to reflect the new information. Also, when a new surface or special observation for the intended destination is received, the pilot crew is informed so that information can be studied at the pilot's discretion. The pilot crew is also immediately alerted when a severe weather notice, AIRMET or SIGMET, is received. The cockpit weather display shares a multicolor eight inch cathode ray tube and overlaid touch panel with a pilot crew data link interface. Touch sensitive buttons and areas are used for pilot selection of graphical and data link displays. Time critical ATC messages are presented in a small window that overlays other displays so that immediate pilot alerting and action can be taken. Predeparture and reroute clearances are displayed on the graphical weather system so pilot review of weather along

  1. Weather assessment and forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Data management program activities centered around the analyses of selected far-term Office of Applications (OA) objectives, with the intent of determining if significant data-related problems would be encountered and if so what alternative solutions would be possible. Three far-term (1985 and beyond) OA objectives selected for analyses as having potential significant data problems were large-scale weather forecasting, local weather and severe storms forecasting, and global marine weather forecasting. An overview of general weather forecasting activities and their implications upon the ground based data system is provided. Selected topics were specifically oriented to the use of satellites.

  2. Pilot Weather Advisor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindamood, Glenn; Martzaklis, Konstantinos Gus; Hoffler, Keith; Hill, Damon; Mehrotra, Sudhir C.; White, E. Richard; Fisher, Bruce D.; Crabill, Norman L.; Tucholski, Allen D.

    2006-01-01

    The Pilot Weather Advisor (PWA) system is an automated satellite radio-broadcasting system that provides nearly real-time weather data to pilots of aircraft in flight anywhere in the continental United States. The system was designed to enhance safety in two distinct ways: First, the automated receipt of information would relieve the pilot of the time-consuming and distracting task of obtaining weather information via voice communication with ground stations. Second, the presentation of the information would be centered around a map format, thereby making the spatial and temporal relationships in the surrounding weather situation much easier to understand

  3. Weather it's Climate Change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostrom, A.; Lashof, D.

    2004-12-01

    For almost two decades both national polls and in-depth studies of global warming perceptions have shown that people commonly conflate weather and global climate change. Not only are current weather events such as anecdotal heat waves, droughts or cold spells treated as evidence for or against global warming, but weather changes such as warmer weather and increased storm intensity and frequency are the consequences most likely to come to mind. Distinguishing weather from climate remains a challenge for many. This weather 'framing' of global warming may inhibit behavioral and policy change in several ways. Weather is understood as natural, on an immense scale that makes controlling it difficult to conceive. Further, these attributes contribute to perceptions that global warming, like weather, is uncontrollable. This talk presents an analysis of data from public opinion polls, focus groups, and cognitive studies regarding people's mental models of and 'frames' for global warming and climate change, and the role weather plays in these. This research suggests that priming people with a model of global warming as being caused by a "thickening blanket of carbon dioxide" that "traps heat" in the atmosphere solves some of these communications problems and makes it more likely that people will support policies to address global warming.

  4. Satellite Delivery of Aviation Weather Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Haendel, Richard

    2001-01-01

    With aviation traffic continuing to increase worldwide, reducing the aviation accident rate and aviation schedule delays is of critical importance. In the United States, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has established the Aviation Safety Program and the Aviation System Capacity Program to develop and test new technologies to increase aviation safety and system capacity. Weather is a significant contributor to aviation accidents and schedule delays. The timely dissemination of weather information to decision makers in the aviation system, particularly to pilots, is essential in reducing system delays and weather related aviation accidents. The NASA Glenn Research Center is investigating improved methods of weather information dissemination through satellite broadcasting directly to aircraft. This paper describes an on-going cooperative research program with NASA, Rockwell Collins, WorldSpace, Jeppesen and American Airlines to evaluate the use of satellite digital audio radio service (SDARS) for low cost broadcast of aviation weather information, called Satellite Weather Information Service (SWIS). The description and results of the completed SWIS Phase 1 are presented, and the description of the on-going SWIS Phase 2 is given.

  5. Characterization of the Weatherization Assistance Program network. Weatherization Assistance Program

    SciTech Connect

    Mihlmester, P.E.; Koehler, W.C. Jr.; Beyer, M.A.; Brown, M.A.; Beschen, D.A. Jr.

    1992-02-01

    The Characterization of the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) Network was designed to describe the national network of State and local agencies that provide WAP services to qualifying low-income households. The objective of this study was to profile the current WAP network. To achieve the objective, two national surveys were conducted: one survey collected data from 49 State WAP agencies (including the coterminous 48 States and the District of Columbia), and the second survey collected data from 920 (or 81 percent) of the local WAP agencies.

  6. China's Recruitment of African University Students: Policy Efficacy and Unintended Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haugen, Heidi Østbø

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how Sino-African relations are affected by the growing number of Africans who pursue higher education in China. China actively recruits African university students in order to increase soft power and generate income from the export of education services. Semi-structured interviews with African university students suggest that…

  7. Weather and emotional state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spasova, Z.

    2010-09-01

    Introduction Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychic and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio-tonus, working ability and concentration, hence their significance in various domains of economic life, such as health care, education, transportation, tourism, etc. Data and methods The research has been made in Sofia City within a period of 8 months, using 5 psychological methods (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state (developed by Wessman and Ricks), Test for evaluation of moods and Test "Self-confidence - Activity - Mood" (developed by the specialists from the Military Academy in Saint Petersburg). The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions because of the purpose to include in the analysis a maximal number of meteorological elements. 16 weather types are defined in dependence of the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were considered as well. Results and discussions The results obtained by t-test show that the different categories of weather lead to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effect on human emotions but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as "unfavourable" has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension "neuroticism", has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more "protected" to the weather influence on their emotions

  8. Implementation of weather stations at Ghanaian high schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieron, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Trans-African Hydro-Meteorological Observatory (www.tahmo.org) is an initiative that aims to develop a dense weather observation network in Sub-Sahara Africa. The ambition is to have 20.000 low-cost innovative weather stations in place in 2015. An increased amount of weather data is locally required to provide stakeholders that are dependent on the weather, such as farmers and fishermen, with accurate forecasts. As a first proof of concept, showing that sensors can be built at costs lower than commercially available, a disdrometer was developed. In parallel with the design of the measurement instruments, a high school curriculum is developed that covers environmental sciences. In order to find out which requirements the TAHMO weather station and accompanying educational materials should meet for optimal use at Junior High Schools research was done at Ghanaian schools. Useful insights regarding the future African context of the weather station and requirements for an implementation strategy were obtained during workshops with teachers and students, visits to WMO observatories and case studies regarding use of educational materials. The poster presents the conclusions of this research, which is part of the bigger TAHMO framework.

  9. Teacher's Weather Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konvicka, Tom

    This book is a teaching resource for the study of weather-related phenomena. A "weather unit" is often incorporated into school study because of its importance to our daily lives and because of its potential to cut across disciplinary content. This book consists of two parts. Part I covers the major topics of atmospheric science such as the modern…

  10. KSC Weather and Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maier, Launa; Huddleston, Lisa; Smith, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    This briefing outlines the history of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Weather organization, past research sponsored or performed, current organization, responsibilities, and activities, the evolution of weather support, future technologies, and an update on the status of the buoys located offshore of Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and KSC.

  11. Weather Fundamentals: Clouds. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) discusses how clouds form, the different types of clouds, and the important role they play in…

  12. Mild and Wild Weather.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents background information and six activities that focus on clouds, precipitation, and stormy weather. Each activity includes an objective, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), and instructional strategies. Also provided are two ready-to-copy pages (a coloring page on lightning and a list of weather riddles to solve). (JN)

  13. People and Weather.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Provides: (1) background information on ways weather influences human lives; (2) activities related to this topic; and (3) a ready-to-copy page with weather trivia. Each activity includes an objective, list of materials needed, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), and instructional strategies. (JN)

  14. World weather program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A brief description of the Global Weather Experiment is presented. The world weather watch program plan is described and includes a global observing system, a global data processing system, a global telecommunication system, and a voluntary cooperation program. A summary of Federal Agency plans and programs to meet the challenges of international meteorology for the two year period, FY 1980-1981, is presented.

  15. Exercising in Cold Weather

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Exercising in Cold Weather Exercise has benefits all year, even during winter. ... activities when it’s cold outside: l Check the weather forecast. If it’s very windy or cold, exercise ...

  16. Weather and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contemporary Learning Center, Houston, TX.

    This document is a minicourse on the interaction of weather, environment, and culture. It is designed for the high school student to read and self-administer. Performance objectives, enabling activities, and postassessment questions are given for each of eight modules. The modules are: (1) Basic Facts About Your Weather Known As Rain, (2) The…

  17. Home Weatherization Visit

    ScienceCinema

    Chu, Steven

    2013-05-29

    Secretary Steven Chu visits a home that is in the process of being weatherized in Columbus, OH, along with Ohio Governor Ted Strickland and Columbus Mayor Michael Coleman. They discuss the benefits of weatherization and how funding from the recovery act is having a direct impact in communities across America.

  18. Weathering Database Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Collecting weather data is a traditional part of a meteorology unit at the middle level. However, making connections between the data and weather conditions can be a challenge. One way to make these connections clearer is to enter the data into a database. This allows students to quickly compare different fields of data and recognize which…

  19. On Observing the Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Rain, sun, snow, sleet, wind... the weather affects everyone in some way every day, and observing weather is a terrific activity to attune children to the natural world. It is also a great way for children to practice skills in gathering and recording information and to learn how to use simple tools in a standardized fashion. What better way to…

  20. Fabulous Weather Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Candice; Mogil, H. Michael

    2007-01-01

    Each year, first graders at Kensington Parkwood Elementary School in Kensington, Maryland, look forward to Fabulous Weather Day. Students learn how meteorologists collect data about the weather, how they study wind, temperature, precipitation, basic types/characteristics of clouds, and how they forecast. The project helps the students grow in…

  1. The Home Weather Station.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinke, Steven D.

    1991-01-01

    Described is how an amateur weather observer measures and records temperature and precipitation at a well-equipped, backyard weather station. Directions for building an instrument shelter and a description of the instruments needed for measuring temperature and precipitation are included. (KR)

  2. Weatherizing a Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with weatherizing a structure. Its objective is for the student to be able to analyze factors related to specific structures that indicate need for weatherizing activities and to determine steps to correct defects in structures that…

  3. Weather Fundamentals: Wind. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) describes the roles of the sun, temperature, and air pressure in creating the incredible power…

  4. Aviation Weather Program (AWP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foote, Brant

    1993-01-01

    The Aviation Weather Program (AWP) combines additional weather observations, improved forecast technology, and more efficient distribution of information to pilots, controllers, and automated systems to improve the weather information provided to the air traffic control system, pilots, and other users of aviation weather information. Specific objectives include the needs to: improve airport and en-route capacity by accurate, high resolution, timely forecasts of changing weather conditions affecting airport and en-route operations; improve analyses and forecasts of upper-level winds for efficient flight planning and traffic management; and increase flight safety through improved aviation weather hazard forecasting (e.g. icing, turbulence, severe storms, microbursts, or strong winds). The AWP would benefit from participation in a cooperative multiscale experiment by obtaining data for: evaluation of aviation weather forecast products, analysis of four dimensional data assimilation schemes, and experimental techniques for retrieving aerosol and other visibility parameters. A multiscale experiment would also be helpful to AWP by making it possible to evaluate the added benefit of enhanced data sets collected during the experiment on those forecast and analysis products. The goals of the Coperative Multiscale Experiment (CME) are an essential step in attaining the long-term AWP objective of providing two-to-four hour location-specific forecasts of significant weather. Although the possibility of a funding role for the AWP in the CME is presently unclear, modest involvement of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)/AWP personnel could be expected.

  5. Designing a Weather Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  6. Weathering and weathering rates of natural stone

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, E.M. )

    1987-01-01

    Physical and chemical weathering were studied as separate processes in the past. Recent research, however, shows that most processes are physicochemical in nature. The rates at which calcite and silica weather by dissolution are dependent on the regional and local climatic environment. The weathering of silicate rocks leaves discolored margins and rinds, a function of the ricks permeability and of the climatic parameters. Salt action, the greatest disruptive factor, is complex and not yet fully understood in all its phases, but some of th causes of disruption are crystallization pressure, hydration pressure, and hygroscopic attraction of excess moisture. The decay of marble is complex, an interaction between dissolution, crack-corrosion, and the expansion-contraction cycles triggered by the release of residual stresses. Thin spalls of granites commonly found near the street level of buildings are generally caused by a combination of stress relief and salt action. To study and determine weathering rates of a variety of commercial stones, the National Bureau of Standards erected a Stone Exposure Test Wall in 1948. Of the many types of stone represented, only a few fossiliferous limestones permit a valid measurement of surface reduction in a polluted urban environment.

  7. Space Weather Needs of an Evolving Customer Base (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutledge, B.; Viereck, R. A.; Onsager, T. G.

    2013-12-01

    Great progress has been made in raising the global awareness of space weather and the associated impacts on Earth and our technological systems. However, significant gaps still exist in providing comprehensive and easily understood space weather information, products, and services to the diverse and growing customer base. As technologies, such as Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), have become more ingrained in applications and fields of work that previously did not rely on systems sensitive to space weather, the customer base has grown substantially. Furthermore, the causes and effects of space weather can be difficult to interpret without a detailed understanding of the scientific underpinnings. In response to this change, space weather service providers must address this evolution by both improving services and by representing space weather information and impacts in ways that are meaningful to each facet of this diverse customer base. The NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) must work with users, spanning precision agriculture, emergency management, power grid operators and beyond, to both identify unmet space weather service requirements and to ensure information and decision support services are provided in meaningful and more easily understood forms.

  8. NASA Connect: 'Plane Weather'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Excerpt from the NASA Connect show 'Plane Weather' This clip explains how our weather occurs, and why Solar radiation is responsible. Weather affects our daily lives. The elements of weather: rain, wind, fog, ice and snow affect the operation and flight of an airplane. In this program, NASA and FAA researchers will introduce students to math, science, and weather; demonstrate how these elements influence flight; and show how NASA and FAA research is used to limit the effects of these elements on flight. Students will examine: the tools, techniques, and technologies used by engineers and scientists to detect these and other climatological factors affecting aircraft in flight. The lesson and classroom experiment will involve students in the scientific process and emphasizing problem solving, measurement, and reasoning skills.

  9. NASA Connect: 'Plane Weather'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Excerpt from the NASA Connect show 'Plane Weather' This clip explains what high and low pressure weather systems are, and how they form. Weather affects our daily lives. The elements of weather: rain, wind, fog, ice and snow affect the operation and flight of an airplane. In this program, NASA and FAA researchers will introduce students to math, science, and weather; demonstrate how these elements influence flight; and show how NASA and FAA research is used to limit the effects of these elements on flight. Students will examine: the tools, techniques, and technologies used by engineers and scientists to detect these and other climatological factors affecting aircraft in flight. The lesson and classroom experiment will involve students in the scientific process and emphasizing problem solving, measurement, and reasoning skills.

  10. The Weather and Climate Toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, S.; Del Greco, S.; Hankins, B.

    2010-12-01

    The Weather and Climate Toolkit (WCT) is free, platform independent software distributed from NOAA’s National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). The WCT allows the visualization and data export of weather and climate data, including Radar, Satellite and Model data. By leveraging the NetCDF for Java library and Common Data Model, the WCT is extremely scalable and capable of supporting many new datasets in the future. Gridded NetCDF files (regular and irregularly spaced, using Climate-Forecast (CF) conventions) are supported, along with many other formats including GRIB. The WCT provides tools for custom data overlays, Web Map Service (WMS) background maps, animations and basic filtering. The export of images and movies is provided in multiple formats. The WCT Data Export Wizard allows for data export in both vector polygon/point (Shapefile, Well-Known Text) and raster (GeoTIFF, ESRI Grid, VTK, Gridded NetCDF) formats. These data export features promote the interoperability of weather and climate information with various scientific communities and common software packages such as ArcGIS, Google Earth, MatLAB, GrADS and R. The WCT also supports an embedded, integrated Google Earth instance. The Google Earth Browser Plugin allows seamless visualization of data on a native 3-D Google Earth instance linked to the standard 2-D map. Level-II NEXRAD data for Hurricane Katrina GPCP (Global Precipitation Product), visualized in 2-D and internal Google Earth view.

  11. 15 CFR 950.8 - Satellite Data Services Division (SDSD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...., weather forecasting) have been satisfied. The division also provides photographs collected during NASA's... to: Satellite Data Services Division, World Weather Building, Room 606, Washington, DC 20233,...

  12. 15 CFR 950.8 - Satellite Data Services Division (SDSD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...., weather forecasting) have been satisfied. The division also provides photographs collected during NASA's... to: Satellite Data Services Division, World Weather Building, Room 606, Washington, DC 20233,...

  13. 15 CFR 950.8 - Satellite Data Services Division (SDSD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...., weather forecasting) have been satisfied. The division also provides photographs collected during NASA's... to: Satellite Data Services Division, World Weather Building, Room 606, Washington, DC 20233,...

  14. 15 CFR 950.8 - Satellite Data Services Division (SDSD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...., weather forecasting) have been satisfied. The division also provides photographs collected during NASA's... to: Satellite Data Services Division, World Weather Building, Room 606, Washington, DC 20233,...

  15. 15 CFR 950.8 - Satellite Data Services Division (SDSD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...., weather forecasting) have been satisfied. The division also provides photographs collected during NASA's... to: Satellite Data Services Division, World Weather Building, Room 606, Washington, DC 20233,...

  16. Should Climatologists and Spatial Planners Interact? Weather regulation as an ecosystem service to be considered in the land-use planning field.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, Mathieu; De Noblet-Ducoudré, Nathalie; Strada, Susanna; Stéfanon, Marc; Torre, André

    2016-04-01

    scope of solutions to be considered in the spatial planning field. Regional meteorology/climatology has demonstrated over the past decades that changes in land-uses and/or land cover may have substantial impacts on a) mean regional/local climate (Lobell & Bonfils, 2008), b) the magnitude and duration of extreme events (e.g. Marshall et al., 2004, Davin et al., 2014), c) air quality and therefore human's and ecosystems' health (e.g. Corchnoy et al. 1992, Hewitt et al., 2009). Such studies support the hypothesis that a careful regional climate modelling may help to refine the global climate projections and assess the local benefits or drawbacks of various land use/land cover policies. There is however a lack of studies at such spatial scales (from local to regional) to carefully quantify the impacts realistic land scenarios may have on atmospheric conditions (e.g. temperature, humidity, air quality, winds, incoming radiation). We have started to think about ways to evaluate those at the French national scale. That implies the choice of ad-hoc models, scenarios, data for evaluation, … that we will discuss. Our proposal is that in fine the regulation of the atmospheric boundary layer (where we live) may be considered as a service that land uses/cover/management may impact and that we need to study as much as other ecosystem services are. ____________ References: Bulkeley, H. (2006) A changing climate for spatial planning? In: Planning Theory and Practice, 7(2): 203-214. Corchnoy, S.B.; Arey, J.; Atkinson, R. (1992) Hydrocarbon emission from twelve urban shade trees of the Los Angeles, California, air basin. In: Atmospheric Environment, 26B(3): 339-348. Davoudi, S.; Crawford, Jenny; Mehmood, A. (2009) Planning for Climate Change: Strategies for Mitigation and Adaptation for Spatial Planners. London: Earthscan, 344 p. Davin, E. L.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Ciais, P.; Olioso, A.; Wang, T. (2014) Preferential cooling of hot extremes from cropland albedo management, Proceedings of

  17. Should Climatologists and Spatial Planners Interact? Weather regulation as an ecosystem service to be considered in the land-use planning field.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, Mathieu; De Noblet-Ducoudré, Nathalie; Strada, Susanna; Stéfanon, Marc; Torre, André

    2016-04-01

    scope of solutions to be considered in the spatial planning field. Regional meteorology/climatology has demonstrated over the past decades that changes in land-uses and/or land cover may have substantial impacts on a) mean regional/local climate (Lobell & Bonfils, 2008), b) the magnitude and duration of extreme events (e.g. Marshall et al., 2004, Davin et al., 2014), c) air quality and therefore human's and ecosystems' health (e.g. Corchnoy et al. 1992, Hewitt et al., 2009). Such studies support the hypothesis that a careful regional climate modelling may help to refine the global climate projections and assess the local benefits or drawbacks of various land use/land cover policies. There is however a lack of studies at such spatial scales (from local to regional) to carefully quantify the impacts realistic land scenarios may have on atmospheric conditions (e.g. temperature, humidity, air quality, winds, incoming radiation). We have started to think about ways to evaluate those at the French national scale. That implies the choice of ad-hoc models, scenarios, data for evaluation, … that we will discuss. Our proposal is that in fine the regulation of the atmospheric boundary layer (where we live) may be considered as a service that land uses/cover/management may impact and that we need to study as much as other ecosystem services are. ____________ References: Bulkeley, H. (2006) A changing climate for spatial planning? In: Planning Theory and Practice, 7(2): 203-214. Corchnoy, S.B.; Arey, J.; Atkinson, R. (1992) Hydrocarbon emission from twelve urban shade trees of the Los Angeles, California, air basin. In: Atmospheric Environment, 26B(3): 339-348. Davoudi, S.; Crawford, Jenny; Mehmood, A. (2009) Planning for Climate Change: Strategies for Mitigation and Adaptation for Spatial Planners. London: Earthscan, 344 p. Davin, E. L.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Ciais, P.; Olioso, A.; Wang, T. (2014) Preferential cooling of hot extremes from cropland albedo management, Proceedings of

  18. NASA Space Weather Research Center: Addressing the Unique Space Weather Needs of NASA Robotic Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Maddox, M. M.; Mays, M. L.; Taktakishvili, A.; Chulaki, A.; Thompson, B. J.; Collado-Vega, Y. M.; Muglach, K.; Evans, R. M.; Wiegand, C.; MacNeice, P. J.; Rastaetter, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Space Weather Research Center (SWRC) has been providing space weather monitoring and forecasting services to NASA's robotic missions since its establishment in 2010. Embedded within the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) (see Maddox et al. in Session IN026) and located at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, SWRC has easy access to state-of-the-art modeling capabilities and proximity to space science and research expertise. By bridging space weather users and the research community, SWRC has been a catalyst for the efficient transition from research to operations and operations to research. In this presentation, we highlight a few unique aspects of SWRC's space weather services, such as addressing space weather throughout the solar system, pushing the frontier of space weather forecasting via the ensemble approach, providing direct personnel and tool support for spacecraft anomaly resolution, prompting development of multi-purpose tools and knowledge bases (see Wiegand et al. in the same session SM004), and educating and engaging the next generation of space weather scientists.

  19. World weather program: Plan for fiscal year 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The World Weather Program which is composed of the World Weather Watch, the Global Atmospheric Research Program, and the Systems Design and Technological Development Program is presented. The U.S. effort for improving the national weather services through advances in science, technology and expanded international cooperation during FY 72 are described. The activities of the global Atmospheric Research Program for last year are highlighted and fiscal summary of U.S. programs is included.

  20. Obesity and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  1. The Space Weather Reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kihn, E. A.; Ridley, A. J.; Zhizhin, M.

    2002-12-01

    The objective of this project is to generate a complete 11 year space weather representation using physically consistent data-driven space weather models. The project will create a consistent, integrated historical record of the near Earth space environment by coupling observational data from space environmental monitoring systems archived at NGDC with data-driven, physically based numerical models. The resulting product will be an enhanced look at the space environment on consistent grids, time resolution, coordinate systems and containing key fields allowing an interested user to quickly and easily incorporate the impact of the near-Earth space climate in environmentally sensitive models. Currently there are no easily accessible long term climate archives available for the space-weather environment. Just as with terrestrial weather it is crucial to understand both daily weather forecasts as well as long term climate changes, so this project will demonstrate the ability to generate a meaningful and physically derived space weather climatology. The results of this project strongly support the DOD's Environmental Scenario Generator (ESG) project. The ESG project provides tools for intellegent data mining, classification and event detection which could be applied to a historical space-weather database. The two projects together provide a suite of tools for the user interested in modeling the effect of the near-earth space environment. We will present results and methodologies developed during the first two years of effort in the project.

  2. Food Safety for Warmer Weather

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fight Off Food Poisoning Food Safety for Warmer Weather In warm-weather months, who doesn’t love to get outside ... to keep foods safe to eat during warmer weather. If you’re eating or preparing foods outside, ...

  3. Weather--An Integrated Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Vivian

    1976-01-01

    Outlined is a two week unit on weather offered as independent study for sixth- and seventh-year students in Vancouver, Canada, schools. Included is a section on weather lore and a chart of weather symbols. (SL)

  4. Hypothermia: A Cold Weather Hazard

    MedlinePlus

    ... Weather Hazard Heath and Aging Hypothermia: A Cold Weather Hazard What Are The Signs Of Hypothermia? Taking ... cold air. But, not everyone knows that cold weather can also lower the temperature inside your body. ...

  5. Environmental Education Tips: Weather Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainard, Audrey H.

    1989-01-01

    Provides weather activities including questions, on weather, heating the earth's surface, air, tools of the meteorologist, clouds, humidity, wind, and evaporation. Shows an example of a weather chart activity. (RT)

  6. Sun, weather, and climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.; Goldberg, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    The general field of sun-weather/climate relationships, that is, apparent weather and climate responses to solar activity is introduced and theoretical and experimental suggestions for further research to identify and investigate the unknown causal mechanisms are provided. Topics of discussion include: (1) solar-related correlation factors and energy sources; (2) long-term climatic trends; (3) short-term meteorological correlations; (4) miscellaneous obscuring influences; (5) physical processes and mechanisms; (6) recapitulation of sun-weather relationships; and (7) guidelines for experiments.

  7. A Community Planning Guide to Weatherization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Services Administration, Washington, DC.

    This publication of the Community Services Administration is a guide for Community Action Agencies (CAA's) programs for home energy conservation. CAA's involved with renovation of dwellings in poor and depressed areas are given in this guide and step-by-step instructions for administering their weatherization programs. Contents include: (1) a…

  8. Activities of NICT space weather project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, Ken T.; Nagatsuma, Tsutomu; Watari, Shinichi; Shinagawa, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Mamoru

    NICT (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology) has been in charge of space weather forecast service in Japan for more than 20 years. The main target region of the space weather is the geo-space in the vicinity of the Earth where human activities are dominant. In the geo-space, serious damages of satellites, international space stations and astronauts take place caused by energetic particles or electromagnetic disturbances: the origin of the causes is dynamically changing of solar activities. Positioning systems via GPS satellites are also im-portant recently. Since the most significant effect of positioning error comes from disturbances of the ionosphere, it is crucial to estimate time-dependent modulation of the electron density profiles in the ionosphere. NICT is one of the 13 members of the ISES (International Space Environment Service), which is an international assembly of space weather forecast centers under the UNESCO. With help of geo-space environment data exchanging among the member nations, NICT operates daily space weather forecast service every day to provide informa-tion on forecasts of solar flare, geomagnetic disturbances, solar proton event, and radio-wave propagation conditions in the ionosphere. The space weather forecast at NICT is conducted based on the three methodologies: observations, simulations and informatics (OSI model). For real-time or quasi real-time reporting of space weather, we conduct our original observations: Hiraiso solar observatory to monitor the solar activity (solar flare, coronal mass ejection, and so on), domestic ionosonde network, magnetometer HF radar observations in far-east Siberia, and south-east Asia low-latitude ionosonde network (SEALION). Real-time observation data to monitor solar and solar-wind activities are obtained through antennae at NICT from ACE and STEREO satellites. We have a middle-class super-computer (NEC SX-8R) to maintain real-time computer simulations for solar and solar

  9. WEATHER OBSERVATIONS - SUMMARY OF THE DAY - FIRST ORDER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Climatic Data Center makes available daily weather data for approximately 300 currently active National Weather Service stations, with a lag time (after end of data month) of about 8-10 weeks. Coverage includes the contiguous United States, Caribbean Islands, Pacific...

  10. Weathering in a Cup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadum, Carol J.

    1991-01-01

    Two easy student activities that demonstrate physical weathering by expansion are described. The first demonstrates ice wedging and the second root wedging. A list of the needed materials, procedure, and observations are included. (KR)

  11. Weathering of Martian Evaporites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentworth, S. J.; Velbel, M. A.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Longazo, T. G.; McKay, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    Evaporites in martian meteorites contain weathering or alteration features that may provide clues about the martian near-surface environment over time. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  12. Waste glass weathering

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.

    1993-12-31

    The weathering of glass is reviewed by examining processes that affect the reaction of commercial, historical, natural, and nuclear waste glass under conditions of contact with humid air and slowly dripping water, which may lead to immersion in nearly static solution. Radionuclide release data from weathered glass under conditions that may exist in an unsaturated environment are presented and compared to release under standard leaching conditions. While the comparison between the release under weathering and leaching conditions is not exact, due to variability of reaction in humid air, evidence is presented of radionuclide release under a variety of conditions. These results suggest that both the amount and form of radionuclide release can be affected by the weathering of glass.

  13. Americans and Their Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, William B.

    2000-07-01

    This revealing book synthesizes research from many fields to offer the first complete history of the roles played by weather and climate in American life from colonial times to the present. Author William B. Meyer characterizes weather events as neutral phenomena that are inherently neither hazards nor resources, but can become either depending on the activities with which they interact. Meyer documents the ways in which different kinds of weather throughout history have represented hazards and resources not only for such exposed outdoor pursuits as agriculture, warfare, transportation, construction, and recreation, but for other realms of life ranging from manufacturing to migration to human health. He points out that while the weather and climate by themselves have never determined the course of human events, their significance as been continuously altered for better and for worse by the evolution of American life.

  14. Weather Information Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Science Communications International (SCI), formerly General Science Corporation, has developed several commercial products based upon experience acquired as a NASA Contractor. Among them are METPRO, a meteorological data acquisition and processing system, which has been widely used, RISKPRO, an environmental assessment system, and MAPPRO, a geographic information system. METPRO software is used to collect weather data from satellites, ground-based observation systems and radio weather broadcasts to generate weather maps, enabling potential disaster areas to receive advance warning. GSC's initial work for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center resulted in METPAK, a weather satellite data analysis system. METPAK led to the commercial METPRO system. The company also provides data to other government agencies, U.S. embassies and foreign countries.

  15. Salt weathering on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, M. C.

    1974-01-01

    Mariner 9 photographs of Mars indicate that significant erosion has occurred on that planet. Although several possible erosion mechanisms have been proposed, most terrestrial weathering mechanisms cannot function in the present Martian environment. Salt weathering, believed to be active in the Antarctic dry valleys, is especially suited to Mars, given the presence of salts and small amounts of water. Volcanic salts are probably available, and the association of salts and water is likely from both thermodynamic and geologic considerations.

  16. Perinatal HIV testing among African American, Caucasian, Hmong and Latina women: exploring the role of health-care services, information sources and perceptions of HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Lee King, Patricia A; Pate, David J

    2014-02-01

    Perinatal HIV transmission disproportionately affects African American, Latina and potentially Hmong women in the United States. Understanding racially and ethnically diverse women's perceptions of and experiences with perinatal health care, HIV testing and HIV/AIDS may inform effective health communications to reduce the risk of perinatal HIV transmission among disproportionate risk groups. We used a qualitative descriptive research design with content analysis of five focus groups of African American, Caucasian, Hmong and Latina women of reproductive age with low socioeconomic status distinguished by their race/ethnicity or HIV status. A purposive stratified sample of 37 women shared their health-care experiences, health information sources and perceptions of HIV testing and HIV/AIDS. Women's responses highlighted the importance of developing and leveraging trusted provider and community-based relationships and assessing a woman's beliefs and values in her sociocultural context, to ensure clear, consistent and relevant communications. Perinatal health communications that are culturally sensitive and based on an assessment of women's knowledge and understanding of perinatal health and HIV/AIDS may be an effective tool for health educators addressing racial and ethnic disparities in perinatal HIV transmission. PMID:24150728

  17. The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000): Overview of the Dry Season Field Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swap, R. J.; Annegarn, H. J.; Suttles, J. T.; Haywood, J.; Helmlinger, M. C.; Hely, C.; Hobbs, P. V.; Holben, B. N.; Ji, J.; King, M. D.

    2002-01-01

    The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) is an international project investigating the earth atmosphere -human system in southern Africa. The programme was conducted over a two year period from March 1999 to March 2001. The dry season field campaign (August-September 2000) was the most intensive activity involved over 200 scientist from eighteen countries. The main objectives were to characterize and quantify biogenic, pyrogenic and anthropogenic aerosol and trace gas emissions and their transport and transformations in the atmosphere and to validate NASA's Earth Observing System's Satellite Terra within a scientific context. Five aircraft-- two South African Weather Service Aeorcommanders, the University of Washington's CV-880, the U.K. Meteorological Office's C-130, and NASA's ER-2 --with different altitude capabilities, participated in the campaign. Additional airborne sampling of southern African air masses, that had moved downwind of the subcontinent, was conducted by the CSIRO over Australia. Multiple Observations were made in various geographical sections under different synoptic conditions. Airborne missions were designed to optimize the value of synchronous over-flights of the Terra Satellite platform, above regional ground validation and science targets. Numerous smaller scale ground validation activities took place throughout the subcontinent during the campaign period.

  18. Africans in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Ayanna; Spangler, Earl

    This book introduces African-American history and culture to children. The first Africans in America came from many different regions and cultures, but became united in this country by being black, African, and slaves. Once in America, Africans began a long struggle for freedom which still continues. Slavery, the Civil War, emancipation, and the…

  19. African Outreach Workshop 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Nancy J.

    This report discusses the 1974 African Outreach Workshop planned and coordinated by the African Studies Program at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Its major aim was to assist teachers in developing curriculum units on African using materials available in their local community. A second aim was for the African Studies Program to…

  20. Aviation & Space Weather Policy Research: Integrating Space Weather Observations & Forecasts into Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, G.; Jones, B.

    2006-12-01

    The American Meteorological Society and SolarMetrics Limited are conducting a policy research project leading to recommendations that will increase the safety, reliability, and efficiency of the nation's airline operations through more effective use of space weather forecasts and information. This study, which is funded by a 3-year National Science Foundation grant, also has the support of the Federal Aviation Administration and the Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) who is planning the Next Generation Air Transportation System. A major component involves interviewing and bringing together key people in the aviation industry who deal with space weather information. This research also examines public and industrial strategies and plans to respond to space weather information. The focus is to examine policy issues in implementing effective application of space weather services to the management of the nation's aviation system. The results from this project will provide government and industry leaders with additional tools and information to make effective decisions with respect to investments in space weather research and services. While space weather can impact the entire aviation industry, and this project will address national and international issues, the primary focus will be on developing a U.S. perspective for the airlines.

  1. International Collaboration in Space Weather Situational Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boteler, David; Trichtchenko, Larisa; Danskin, Donald

    Space weather is a global phenomena so interntional collaboration is necessary to maintain awareness of potentially dangerous conditions. The Regional Warning Centres (RWCs) of the International Space Environment Service were set up during the International Geophysical Year to alert the scientific community to conditions requiring special measurements. The information sharing continues to this day with URSIGRAM messages exchanged between RWCs to help them produce space weather forecasts. Venturing into space, especially with manned missions, created a need to know about the space environment and particularly radiation dangers to man in space. Responding to this need led to the creation of a network of stations around the world to provide continuous monitoring of solar activity. Solar wind monitoring is now provided by the ACE satellite, operated by one country, but involving international collaborators to bring the information down in real time. Disturbances in the Earth's magnetic field are monitored by many magnetic observatories that are collaborating through INTERMAGNET to provide reliable data. Space weather produces effects on the ionosphere that can interfere with a variety of systems: the International GNSS Service provides information about effects on positioning systems, and the International Space Environment Service is providing information about iono-spheric absorption, particularly for trans-polar airline operations. The increasing availability of internet access, even at remote locations, is making it easier to obtain the raw information. The challenge now is how to integrate that information to provide effective international situational awareness of space weather.

  2. DOPPLER WEATHER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Berlin, Gary J.

    2002-08-05

    The SRS Doppler Weather System consists of a Doppler Server, A Master Server (also known as the Weather Server), several Doppler Slave Servers, and client-side software program called the Doppler Radar Client. This system is used to display near rel-time images taken from the SRS Weather Center's Doppler Radar computer. The Doppler Server is software that resides on the SRS Doppler Computer. It gathers raw data, 24-bit color weather images via screen scraping ever five minutes as requested by the Master Server. The Doppler Server then reduces the 24-bit color images to 8-bit color using a fixed color table for analysis and compression. This preserves the fidelity of the image color and arranges the colors in specific order for display. At the time of color reduction, the white color used for the city names on the background images are remapped to a different index (color) of white that the white on the weather scale. The Weather Server places a time stamp on the image, then compresses the image and passes it to all Doppler Slave servers. Each of the Doppler Slave servers mainitain a circular buffer of the eight most current images representing the last 40 minutes of weather data. As a new image is added, the oldest drops off. The Doppler Radar Client is an optional install program for any site-wide workstation. When a Client session is started, the Client requests Doppler Slave server assignment from the Master Server. Upon its initial request to the Slave Server, the Client obtains all eight current images and maintains its own circular buffer, updating its images every five minutes as the Doppler Slave is updated. Three background reference images are stored as part of the Client. The Client brings up the appropriate background image, decompresses the doppler data, and displays the doppler data on the background image.

  3. DOPPLER WEATHER SYSTEM

    2002-08-05

    The SRS Doppler Weather System consists of a Doppler Server, A Master Server (also known as the Weather Server), several Doppler Slave Servers, and client-side software program called the Doppler Radar Client. This system is used to display near rel-time images taken from the SRS Weather Center's Doppler Radar computer. The Doppler Server is software that resides on the SRS Doppler Computer. It gathers raw data, 24-bit color weather images via screen scraping ever fivemore » minutes as requested by the Master Server. The Doppler Server then reduces the 24-bit color images to 8-bit color using a fixed color table for analysis and compression. This preserves the fidelity of the image color and arranges the colors in specific order for display. At the time of color reduction, the white color used for the city names on the background images are remapped to a different index (color) of white that the white on the weather scale. The Weather Server places a time stamp on the image, then compresses the image and passes it to all Doppler Slave servers. Each of the Doppler Slave servers mainitain a circular buffer of the eight most current images representing the last 40 minutes of weather data. As a new image is added, the oldest drops off. The Doppler Radar Client is an optional install program for any site-wide workstation. When a Client session is started, the Client requests Doppler Slave server assignment from the Master Server. Upon its initial request to the Slave Server, the Client obtains all eight current images and maintains its own circular buffer, updating its images every five minutes as the Doppler Slave is updated. Three background reference images are stored as part of the Client. The Client brings up the appropriate background image, decompresses the doppler data, and displays the doppler data on the background image.« less

  4. NOAA's Weather-Ready Nation: Progress and Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharfenberg, K.

    2014-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Weather-Ready Nation program is about building community resilience in the face of increasing vulnerability to extreme weather and water events. Through community partnerships and infusion of new science and technology, better preparedness is reducing the devastating impacts of these extreme events. For the past three years, the National Weather Service has been leading the Weather-Ready Nation strategy through a number of initiatives, focused around a series of pilot projects for transforming internal National Weather Service Operations. The "Emergency Response Specialist" technical role and associated training has been developed to better apply new hazardous weather research and technology to critical community decisions. High-resolution storm surge inundation mapping was introduced to the public in 2014 during Hurricane Arthur with successful results. The dual-polarization upgrade to the Nation's weather radar network has also been completed, with successful application of improved tornado, flash flood, and winter storm warning services. This presentation will focus on the application of these science initiatives under the NOAA Weather-Ready Nation program, and will further discuss NWS plans for operational application of future advances in research and technology.

  5. Weatherization Innovation Pilot Program (WIPP): Technical Assistance Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Hollander, A.

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Weatherization and Intergovernmental Programs Office (WIPO) launched the Weatherization Innovation Pilot Program (WIPP) to accelerate innovations in whole-house weatherization and advance DOE's goal of increasing the energy efficiency and health and safety of low-income residences without the utilization of additional taxpayer funding. Sixteen WIPP grantees were awarded a total of $30 million in Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) funds in September 2010. These projects focused on: including nontraditional partners in weatherization service delivery; leveraging significant non-federal funding; and improving the effectiveness of low-income weatherization through the use of new materials, technologies, behavior-change models, and processes.

  6. Introduction to the Space Weather Monitoring System at KASI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, J.; Choi, S.; Kim, Y.; Cho, K.; Bong, S.; Lee, J.; Kwak, Y.; Hwang, J.; Park, Y.; Hwang, E.

    2014-05-01

    We have developed the Space Weather Monitoring System (SWMS) at the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI). Since 2007, the system has continuously evolved into a better system. The SWMS consists of several subsystems: applications which acquire and process observational data, servers which run the applications, data storage, and display facilities which show the space weather information. The applications collect solar and space weather data from domestic and oversea sites. The collected data are converted to other format and/or visualized in real time as graphs and illustrations. We manage 3 data acquisition and processing servers, a file service server, a web server, and 3 sets of storage systems. We have developed 30 applications for a variety of data, and the volume of data is about 5.5 GB per day. We provide our customers with space weather contents displayed at the Space Weather Monitoring Lab (SWML) using web services.

  7. Probability for Weather and Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last 60 years, the availability of large-scale electronic computers has stimulated rapid and significant advances both in meteorology and in our understanding of the Earth System as a whole. The speed of these advances was due, in large part, to the sudden ability to explore nonlinear systems of equations. The computer allows the meteorologist to carry a physical argument to its conclusion; the time scales of weather phenomena then allow the refinement of physical theory, numerical approximation or both in light of new observations. Prior to this extension, as Charney noted, the practicing meteorologist could ignore the results of theory with good conscience. Today, neither the practicing meteorologist nor the practicing climatologist can do so, but to what extent, and in what contexts, should they place the insights of theory above quantitative simulation? And in what circumstances can one confidently estimate the probability of events in the world from model-based simulations? Despite solid advances of theory and insight made possible by the computer, the fidelity of our models of climate differs in kind from the fidelity of models of weather. While all prediction is extrapolation in time, weather resembles interpolation in state space, while climate change is fundamentally an extrapolation. The trichotomy of simulation, observation and theory which has proven essential in meteorology will remain incomplete in climate science. Operationally, the roles of probability, indeed the kinds of probability one has access too, are different in operational weather forecasting and climate services. Significant barriers to forming probability forecasts (which can be used rationally as probabilities) are identified. Monte Carlo ensembles can explore sensitivity, diversity, and (sometimes) the likely impact of measurement uncertainty and structural model error. The aims of different ensemble strategies, and fundamental differences in ensemble design to support of

  8. New weather index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scientists at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the University of Delaware have refined the wind-chill factor, a common measurement of weather discomfort, into a new misery register called the weather stress index. In addition to the mix of temperature and wind speed data used to calculate wind chill, the recipe for the index adds two new ingredients—humidity and a dash of benchmark statistics—to estimate human reaction to weather conditions. NOAA says that the weather stress index estimates human reaction to weather conditions and that the reaction depends on variations from the ‘normal’ conditions in the locality involved.Discomfort criteria for New Orleans, La., and Bismarck, N.D., for example, differ drastically. According to NOAA, when it's the middle of winter and it's -10°C with a relative humidity of 80% and 24 km/h winds, persons in New Orleans would be highly stressed while those in Bismarck wouldn't bat an eye.

  9. [Weather, climate and health].

    PubMed

    Banić, M; Plesko, N; Plesko, S

    1999-01-01

    The notion of complex influence of atmospheric conditions on modem human population, especially the relationship between weather, climate and human healths, has actuated the World Meteorological Organisation to commemorate the coming into force, on March 23, 1950, of the Convention of WMO and this year to celebrate this day by focusing on theme of current interest--"Weather, climate and health". In the light of this, the authors of this paper reveal the results of recent studies dealing with influence of sudden and short-term changes in weather and climate on human health, and future expected climate changes due to "greenhouse" effect, increase in global temperature and tropospheric ozone depletion, as well. Special attention is given to climate shifts due to ENSO (El Niño/Southern Oscillation) phenomenon because of its great impact on human society and epidemics of certain infectious diseases. The results of biometeorological studies dealing with complex influence of daily weather changes on incidence of certain diseases in Croatia have also been presented. In addition, the authors have stated their own view and opinion in regard to future biometeorlogical studies in Croatia in order to achieve better understanding of influence of climate and weather changes on human health, and help prevention of mortality and morbidity related to chronic noninfectious diseases. PMID:19658377

  10. Weather from the Stratosphere?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Mark P.; Thompson, David W. J.; Shuckburgh, Emily F.; Norton, Warwick A.; Gillett, Nathan P.

    2006-01-01

    Is the stratosphere, the atmospheric layer between about 10 and 50 km, important for predicting changes in weather and climate? The traditional view is that the stratosphere is a passive recipient of energy and waves from weather systems in the underlying troposphere, but recent evidence suggests otherwise. At a workshop in Whistler, British Columbia (1), scientists met to discuss how the stratosphere responds to forcing from below, initiating feedback processes that in turn alter weather patterns in the troposphere. The lowest layer of the atmosphere, the troposphere, is highly dynamic and rich in water vapor, clouds, and weather. The stratosphere above it is less dense and less turbulent (see the figure). Variability in the stratosphere is dominated by hemispheric-scale changes in airflow on time scales of a week to several months. Occasionally, however, stratospheric air flow changes dramatically within just a day or two, with large-scale jumps in temperature of 20 K or more. The troposphere influences the stratosphere mainly through atmospheric waves that propagate upward. Recent evidence shows that the stratosphere organizes this chaotic wave forcing from below to create long-lived changes in the stratospheric circulation. These stratospheric changes can feed back to affect weather and climate in the troposphere.

  11. The operational user of weather data in the information age

    SciTech Connect

    D`Aleo, J.

    1995-12-31

    We are in the midst of an information explosion in meteorology. The operational user working with computer systems and satellite delivery of weather data today receives as much data in one 8-hour shift as an advanced user in the 1950`s would have received in 40 years (an entire career!). And the changes are accelerating. Spurred on by the National Weather Service`s modernization program, an additional 20 to 50 fold increase in data volumes from today`s levels can be expected by the year 2000. This paper describes the sources of the data, value-added products available, the weather workstation, and how to benefit from the information provided.

  12. Winter Weather Tips: Understanding Alerts and Staying Safe this Season | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Jenna Seiss and Kylie Tomlin, Guest Writers, and Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer Maryland residents face the possibility of dangerous winter weather each year—from icy conditions to frigid temperatures. You may be familiar with the different types of winter weather alerts issued by the National Weather Service (NWS), but do you know what each alert means?  

  13. Using PBL to Prepare Educators and Emergency Managers to Plan for Severe Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalker, Sarah L.; Cullen, Theresa A.; Kloesel, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Within the past 10 years severe weather has been responsible for an annual average of 278 fatalities in the United States (National Weather Service, 2013). During severe weather special populations are populations of high concentrations of people that cannot respond quickly. Schools show both of these characteristics. The average lead time for…

  14. Weather and Environmental Hazards at Mass Gatherings

    PubMed Central

    Soomaroo, Lee; Murray, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Reviews of mass gathering events have traditionally concentrated on crowd variables that affect the level and type of medical care needed. Weather and environmental hazards at mass gathering events have not been fully researched. This review examines these events and aims to provide future suggestions for event organisers, medical resource planners, and emergency services, including local hospital emergency departments. Methods A review was conducted using computerised data bases: MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library, HMIC and EMBASE, with Google used to widen the search beyond peer-reviewed publications, to identify grey literature. All peer-review literature articles found containing information pertaining to lessons identified from mass gathering disasters due to weather or environmental hazards leading to participant death, injury or illness were analysed and reviewed. Disasters occurring due to crowd variables were not included. These articles were read, analysed, abstracted and summarised. Results 20 articles from literature search were found detailing mass gathering disasters relating directly to weather or environmental hazards from 1988 – 2011, with only 17 cases found within peer-review literature. Two events grey literature from 2011 are due to undergo further inquiry while one article reviews an event originally occurring in 1922. Analysis of cases were categorised in to heat and cold-related events, lightning and storms and disease outbreak. Conclusions Mass gathering events have an enormous potential to place a severe strain on the local health care system, Prior health resource and environmental planning for heat & cold-related illness, lightning & storms, and disease outbreak can advance emergency preparedness and response to potential disasters. Citation: Soomaroo L, Murray V. Weather and Environmental Hazards at Mass Gatherings. PLoS Currents Disasters. 2012 Jul 31 Keywords: Mass Gatherings, Disasters, Sporting Events, Festivals, Concerts

  15. Space Weather Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    This workshop will focus on what space weather is about and its impact on society. An overall picture will be "painted" describing the Sun's influence through the solar wind on the near-Earth space environment, including the aurora, killer electrons at geosynchronous orbit, million ampere electric currents through the ionosphere and along magnetic field lines, and the generation of giga-Watts of natural radio waves. Reference material in the form of Internet sites will be provided so that teachers can discuss space weather in the classroom and enable students to learn more about this topic.

  16. A survey of customers of space weather information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrijver, C. J.; Rabanal, J. P.

    2013-09-01

    We present an analysis of the users of space weather information based on 2783 responses to an online survey among subscribers of NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center e-mail services. The survey requested information focused on the three NOAA space weather scales: geomagnetic storms, solar radiation storms, and radio blackouts. Space weather information is most commonly obtained for reasons of human safety and continuity or reliability of operations. The information is primarily used for situational awareness, as aid to understand anomalies, to avoid impacts on current and near-future operations by implementing mitigating strategies, and to prepare for potential near-future impacts that might occur in conjunction with contingencies that include electric power outages or GPS perturbations. Interest in, anticipated impacts from, and responses to the three main categories of space weather are quite uniform across societal sectors. Approximately 40% of the respondents expect serious to very serious impacts from space weather events if no action were taken to mitigate or in the absence of adequate space weather information. The impacts of space weather are deemed to be substantially reduced because of the availability of, and their response to, space weather forecasts and alerts. Current and near-future space weather conditions are generally highly valued, considered useful, and generally, though not fully, adequate to avoid or mitigate societal impacts. We conclude that even among those receiving space weather information, there is considerable uncertainty about the possible impacts of space weather and thus about how to act on the space weather information that is provided.

  17. Space Weather Studies at Istanbul Technical University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaymaz, Zerefsan

    2016-07-01

    This presentation will introduce the Upper Atmosphere and Space Weather Laboratory of Istanbul Technical University (ITU). It has been established to support the educational needs of the Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics in 2011 to conduct scientific research in Space Weather, Space Environment, Space Environment-Spacecraft Interactions, Space instrumentation and Upper Atmospheric studies. Currently the laboratory has some essential infrastructure and the most instrumentation for ionospheric observations and ground induced currents from the magnetosphere. The laboratory has two subunits: SWIFT dealing with Space Weather Instrumentation and Forecasting unit and SWDPA dealing with Space Weather Data Processing and Analysis. The research area covers wide range of upper atmospheric and space science studies from ionosphere, ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling, magnetic storms and magnetospheric substorms, distant magnetotail, magnetopause and bow shock studies, as well as solar and solar wind disturbances and their interaction with the Earth's space environment. We also study the spacecraft environment interaction and novel plasma instrument design. Several scientific projects have been carried out in the laboratory. Operational objectives of our laboratory will be carried out with the collaboration of NASA's Space Weather Laboratory and the facilities are in the process of integration to their prediction services. Educational and research objectives, as well as the examples from the research carried out in our laboratory will be demonstrated in this presentation.

  18. Accessing Space Weather Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, D.; Weiss, M.; Immer, E. A.; Patrone, D.; Potter, M.; Barnes, R. J.; Colclough, C.; Holder, R.

    2009-12-01

    To meet the needs of our technology based society, space weather forecasting needs to be advanced and this will entail collaboration amongst research, military and commercial communities to find new ways to understand, characterize, and forecast. In this presentation VITMO, the Virtual Ionosphere-Thermosphere-Mesosphere Observatory will be used as a prototype for a generalized system as a means to bring together a set of tools to access data, models and online collaboration tools to enable rapid progress. VITMO, available at http://vitmo.jhuapl.edu/, currently provides a data access portal for researchers and scientists to enable finding data products as well as access to tools and models. To further the needs of space weather forecasters, the existing VITMO data holdings need to be expanded to provide additional datasets as well as integrating relevant models and model output. VITMO can easily be adapted for the Space Weather domain in its entirety. In this presentation, we will demonstrate how VITMO and the VITMO architecture can be utilized as a prototype in support of integration of Space Weather forecasting tools, models and data.

  19. Weather Specialist (AFSC 25120).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Univ., Gunter AFS, Ala. Extension Course Inst.

    This correspondence course is designed for self-study to help military personnel to attain the rating of weather specialist. The course is organized in three volumes. The first volume, containing seven chapters, covers background knowledge, meteorology, and climatology. In the second volume, which also contains seven chapters, surface…

  20. Silam Irrusia (Weather Conditions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Emily Ivanoff

    This illustrated reader in Inupiaq Athabascan is intended for use in a bilingual education setting and is geared toward readers, especially schoolchildren, who have a good grasp of the language. It consists of a story about traditional Inupiaq beliefs concerning the weather, stars, etc. (AMH)

  1. Microbial Weathering of Olivine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, D. S.; Longazo, T. G.; Wentworth, S. J.; Southam, G.

    2002-01-01

    Controlled microbial weathering of olivine experiments displays a unique style of nanoetching caused by biofilm attachment to mineral surfaces. We are investigating whether the morphology of biotic nanoetching can be used as a biosignature. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  2. Weathering the Double Whammy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Jane V.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how governing boards can help their institutions weather the "double-whammy" of doing more with less: identify the institution's short-term and long-term challenges; refocus the institution's mission, planning, and programming; assess and integrate the institution's tuition, aid, and outreach strategies; redouble the institution's…

  3. Weather and Flight Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiley, Scott

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews some of the weather hazards involved with flight testing. Some of the hazards reviewed are: turbulence, icing, thunderstorms and winds and windshear. Maps, pictures, satellite pictures of the meteorological phenomena and graphs are included. Also included are pictures of damaged aircraft.

  4. Dress for the Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glen, Nicole J.; Smetana, Lara K.

    2010-01-01

    "If someone were traveling to our area for the first time during this time of year, what would you tell them to bring to wear? Why?" This question was used to engage students in a guided-inquiry unit about how climate differs from weather. In this lesson, students explored local and national data sets to give "travelers" advice when preparing for…

  5. Rainy Weather Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Karen

    1996-01-01

    Presents ideas on the use of rainy weather for activities in the earth, life, and physical sciences. Topics include formation and collision of raindrops, amount and distribution of rain, shedding of water by plants, mapping puddles and potholes, rainbow formation, stalking storms online, lightning, and comparing particles in the air before and…

  6. Weather, Climate, and You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Information from the American Institute of Medical Climatologists on human responses to weather and climatic conditions, including clouds, winds, humidity, barometric pressure, heat, cold, and other variables that may exert a pervasive impact on health, behavior, disposition, and the level of efficiency with which individuals function is reviewed.…

  7. Satellite Weather Watch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, R. Joe

    1982-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive (about $1,500) direct-readout ground station for use in secondary school science/mathematics programs. Includes suggested activities including, among others, developing map overlays, operating station equipment, interpreting satellite data, developing weather forecasts, and using microcomputers for data storage, orbit…

  8. Weather in Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The ATS-111 weather satellite, launched on November 18, 1967, in a synchronous earth orbit 22,000 miles above the equator, is described in this folder. The description is divided into these topics: the satellite, the camera, the display, the picture information, and the beneficial use of the satellite. Photographs from the satellite are included.…

  9. Weather impacts on space operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madura, J.; Boyd, B.; Bauman, W.; Wyse, N.; Adams, M.

    The efforts of the 45th Weather Squadron of the USAF to provide weather support to Patrick Air Force Base, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Eastern Range, and the Kennedy Space Center are discussed. Its weather support to space vehicles, particularly the Space Shuttle, includes resource protection, ground processing, launch, and Ferry Flight, as well as consultations to the Spaceflight Meteorology Group for landing forecasts. Attention is given to prelaunch processing weather, launch support weather, Shuttle launch commit criteria, and range safety weather restrictions. Upper level wind requirements are examined. The frequency of hourly surface observations with thunderstorms at the Shuttle landing facility, and lightning downtime at the Titan launch complexes are illustrated.

  10. Weatherization Works: An interim report of the National Weatherization Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G.; Kinney, L.F.

    1993-11-01

    The National Weatherization Evaluation is the first comprehensive evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program since 1984. The evaluation was designed to accomplish the following goals: Estimate energy savings and cost effectiveness; Assess nonenergy impacts; Describe the weatherization network; Characterize the eligible population and resources; and Identify factors influencing outcomes and opportunities for the future. As a national program, weatherization incorporates considerable diversity due to regional differences. Therefore, evaluation results are presented both in aggregate and for three climate regions: cold, moderate and hot.

  11. 2011 Space Weather Workshop to Be Held in April

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltzer, Thomas

    2011-04-01

    The annual Space Weather Workshop will be held in Boulder, Colo., 26-29 April 2011. The workshop will bring customers, forecasters, commercial service providers, researchers, and government agencies together in a lively dialogue about space weather. The workshop will include 4 days of plenary sessions on a variety of topics, with poster sessions focusing on the Sun, interplanetary space, the magnetosphere, and the ionosphere. The conference will address the remarkably diverse impacts of space weather on today's technology. Highlights on this year's agenda will include presentations on space weather impacts on the Global Positioning System (GPS), the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory's (STEREO) mission milestone of a 360° view of the Sun, the latest from NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), and space weather impacts on emergency response by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Additionally, the vulnerabilities of satellites and the power grid to space weather will be addressed. Additional highlights will include the Commercial Space Weather Interest Group's (CSWIG) roundtable session and a presentation from the Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorology (OFCM). The CSWIG roundtable session on the growth of the space weather enterprise will feature distinguished panelists. As always, lively interaction between the audience and the panel is anticipated. The OFCM will present the National Space Weather Program's new strategic plan.

  12. Is Space Weather impact different over Africa, and if so why?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yizengaw, E.; Doherty, P. H.; Fuller-Rowell, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    With the increasing reliance on technology, the impact of space weather will certainly increase unless suitable protective measures are taken. It is well recognized that many space weather impacts arise from structures and dynamics of the equatorial ionosphere which is one of the most complex region that hosts numerous instabilities and irregularities or plasma bubbles. These irregularities cause information loss in satellite communications, as well as degradation in positioning and navigation signals that are used in aviation and maritime industries. An important question with considerable practical importance is whether ionospheric space weather impacts are the same over the American, African, and Asian longitude sectors, or are they different, and if so why? Satellite observations show ionospheric irregularities in the African continent is more prolific event and occurs more frequently in Africa compared to other longitudinal sectors. However, satellite observations are limited to a certain local time; and thus the needs of operational ground-based instruments, in the region like Africa, are essential to understand the physics behind the longitudinal variability of space weather impacts and improve our global forecasting capabilities which are a major objective of the space science community. Using the recently deployed ground-based multi-instruments (augmented with data from space-based instruments), we will present the temporal and seasonal variability of the space weather impacts over the African continent and provide potential evidences about the possible causes that makes the space weather impact in Africa is unique compared to other longitudinal sectors.

  13. Black African Traditional Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslavsky, Claudia

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the traditional number systems and the origin of the number names used by several African peoples living south of the Sahara. Also included are limitations in African mathematical development, and possible topics for research. (RP)

  14. Winter Weather Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Planning Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Winter Weather Frequently Asked Questions Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... I do if I get stranded in cold weather? Tie a brightly colored cloth to the antenna ...

  15. Geography and Weather: Mountain Meterology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogil, H. Michael; Collins, H. Thomas

    1990-01-01

    Provided are 26 ideas to help children explore the effects of mountains on the weather. Weather conditions in Nepal and Colorado are considered separately. Nine additional sources of information are listed. (CW)

  16. 47 CFR 87.213 - Scope of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES... runways, types of fuel available, wind conditions, weather information, dispatching, or other necessary... conditions of runways, wind conditions, or weather information during the hours of operation of the...

  17. 47 CFR 87.213 - Scope of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES... runways, types of fuel available, wind conditions, weather information, dispatching, or other necessary... conditions of runways, wind conditions, or weather information during the hours of operation of the...

  18. 47 CFR 87.213 - Scope of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES... runways, types of fuel available, wind conditions, weather information, dispatching, or other necessary... conditions of runways, wind conditions, or weather information during the hours of operation of the...

  19. 47 CFR 87.213 - Scope of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES... runways, types of fuel available, wind conditions, weather information, dispatching, or other necessary... conditions of runways, wind conditions, or weather information during the hours of operation of the...

  20. 47 CFR 87.213 - Scope of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES... runways, types of fuel available, wind conditions, weather information, dispatching, or other necessary... conditions of runways, wind conditions, or weather information during the hours of operation of the...

  1. A Model for the Roll-Out of Comprehensive Adult Male Circumcision Services in African Low-Income Settings of High HIV Incidence: The ANRS 12126 Bophelo Pele Project

    PubMed Central

    Lissouba, Pascale; Taljaard, Dirk; Rech, Dino; Doyle, Sean; Shabangu, Daniel; Nhlapo, Cynthia; Otchere-Darko, Josephine; Mashigo, Thabo; Matson, Caitlin; Lewis, David; Billy, Scott; Auvert, Bertran

    2010-01-01

    Background World Health Organization (WHO)/Joint United Nations Programme on AIDS (UNAIDS) has recommended adult male circumcision (AMC) for the prevention of heterosexually acquired HIV infection in men from communities where HIV is hyperendemic and AMC prevalence is low. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of the roll-out of medicalized AMC according to UNAIDS/WHO operational guidelines in a targeted African setting. Methods and Findings The ANRS 12126 “Bophelo Pele” project was implemented in 2008 in the township of Orange Farm (South Africa). It became functional in 5 mo once local and ethical authorizations were obtained. Project activities involved community mobilization and outreach, as well as communication approaches aimed at both men and women incorporating broader HIV prevention strategies and promoting sexual health. Free medicalized AMC was offered to male residents aged 15 y and over at the project's main center, which had been designed for low-income settings. Through the establishment of an innovative surgical organization, up to 150 AMCs under local anesthesia, with sterilized circumcision disposable kits and electrocautery, could be performed per day by three task-sharing teams of one medical circumciser and five nurses. Community support for the project was high. As of November 2009, 14,011 men had been circumcised, averaging 740 per month in the past 12 mo, and 27.5% of project participants agreed to be tested for HIV. The rate of adverse events, none of which resulted in permanent damage or death, was 1.8%. Most of the men surveyed (92%) rated the services provided positively. An estimated 39.1% of adult uncircumcised male residents have undergone surgery and uptake is steadily increasing. Conclusion This study demonstrates that a quality AMC roll-out adapted to African low-income settings is feasible and can be implemented quickly and safely according to international guidelines. The project can be a model for

  2. A Profile of Bereavement Supports in African American Church Congregations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Penelope J.; Hazell, LaVone V.; Honeyghan, Edna M.

    Bereavement educators, counselors, clergy, and other specialists have observed that African Americans tend to under-utilize end-of-life palliative care services and general bereavement resources. The literature suggests that involving clergy in outreach to the African American community may be a viable strategy for developing bereavement supports.…

  3. The African Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2012-01-01

    From student and faculty exchanges to joint research projects, U.S. universities maintain a broad spectrum of collaborative relationships with African universities. It's unclear how many U.S. colleges and universities have partnerships with African universities. The African Studies Association, an organization of scholars, doesn't keep that kind…

  4. Weather Specialist/Aerographer's Mate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chanute AFB Technical Training Center, IL.

    This course trains Air Force personnel to perform duties prescribed for weather specialists and aerographer's mates. Training includes meteorology, surface and ship observation, weather radar, operation of standard weather instruments and communications equipment, and decoding and plotting of surface and upper air codes upon standard maps and…

  5. Weather Fundamentals: Climate & Seasons. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The videos in this educational series for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes), describes weather patterns and cycles around the globe. The various types of climates around…

  6. Weather Folklore: Fact or Fiction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Gail; Carter, Glenda

    1995-01-01

    Integrating children's weather-related family folklore with scientific investigation can be an effective way to involve elementary and middle level students in lessons spanning the disciplines of science, geography, history, anthropology, and language arts. Describes weather folklore studies and examples of weather investigations performed with…

  7. Severe Weather Planning for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Barbara McNaught; Strong, Christopher; Bunting, Bill

    2008-01-01

    Flash floods, severe thunderstorms, and tornadoes occur with rapid onset and often no warning. Decisions must be made quickly and actions taken immediately. This paper provides tips for schools on: (1) Preparing for Severe Weather Emergencies; (2) Activating a Severe Weather Plan; (3) Severe Weather Plan Checklist; and (4) Periodic Drills and…

  8. Improved weather information and aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallahan, K.; Zdanys, V.

    1973-01-01

    The major impacts of weather forecasts on aviation are reviewed. Topics discussed include: (1) present and projected structure of American aviation, (2) weather problems considered particularly important for aviation, (3) projected needs for improved weather information by aviators, (4) safety and economics, and (5) future studies utilizing satellite meteorology.

  9. Whether weather affects music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aplin, Karen L.; Williams, Paul D.

    2012-09-01

    The creative output of composers, writers, and artists is often influenced by their surroundings. To give a literary example, it has been claimed recently that some of the characters in Oliver Twist and A Christmas Carol were based on real-life people who lived near Charles Dickens in London [Richardson, 2012]. Of course, an important part of what we see and hear is not only the people with whom we interact but also our geophysical surroundings. Of all the geophysical phenomena to influence us, the weather is arguably the most significant because we are exposed to it directly and daily. The weather was a great source of inspiration for artists Claude Monet, John Constable, and William Turner, who are known for their scientifically accurate paintings of the skies [e.g., Baker and Thornes, 2006].

  10. Space Weather Workshop 2010 to Be Held in April

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltzer, Thomas

    2010-03-01

    The annual Space Weather Workshop will be held in Boulder, Colo., 27-30 April 2010. The workshop will bring customers, forecasters, commercial service providers, researchers, and government agencies together in a lively dialogue about space weather. The workshop will include 4 days of plenary sessions on a variety of topics, with poster sessions focusing on the Sun, interplanetary space, the magnetosphere, and the ionosphere. The conference will address the remarkably diverse impacts of space weather on today's technology. Highlights on this year's agenda include ionospheric storms and their impacts on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), an update on NASA's recently launched Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), and new space weather-related activities in the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Also this year, the Commercial Space Weather Interest Group will feature a presentation by former NOAA administrator, Vice Admiral Conrad Lautenbacher, U.S. Navy (Ret.).

  11. Referral of African American Children for Evaluation of Emotional or Behavioral Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riccio, Cynthia A.; Ochoa, Salvador Hector; Garza, Sylvia G.; Nero, Collette L.

    2003-01-01

    Research indicates that high numbers of African American children receive special education services. To address the overrepresentation of African Americans in special education, this study examined the source of referral and the behaviors that precipitate the referral of African Americans for evaluation due to behavioral or emotional concerns.…

  12. Kazakhstan Space Weather Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryakunova, Olga

    2012-07-01

    Kazakhstan experimental complex is a center of experimental study of space weather. This complex is situated near Almaty, Kazakhstan and includes experimental setup for registration of cosmic ray intensity (neutron monitor) at altitude of 3340 m above sea level, geomagnetic observatory and setup for registration of solar flux density with frequency of 1 and 3 GHz with 1 second time resolution. Results of space environment monitoring in real time are accessible via Internet. This experimental information is used for space weather investigations and different cosmic ray effects. Almaty mountain cosmic ray station is one of the most suitable and sensitive stations for investigation and forecasting of the dangerous situations for satellites; for this reason Almaty cosmic ray station is included in the world-wide neutron monitor network for the real-time monitoring of the space weather conditions and European Database NMDB (www.nmdb.eu). All data are represented on the web-site of the Institute of Ionosphere (www.ionos.kz) in real time. Since July, 2006 the space environment prediction laboratory represents the forecast of geomagnetic activity every day on the same site (www.ionos.kz/?q=en/node/21).

  13. Space Weathering of Lunar Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, S. K.; Keller, L. P.; Christoffersen, R.; Rahman, Z.

    2012-01-01

    All materials exposed at the lunar surface undergo space weathering processes. On the Moon, boulders make up only a small percentage of the exposed surface, and areas where such rocks are exposed, like central peaks, are often among the least space weathered regions identified from remote sensing data. Yet space weathered surfaces (patina) are relatively common on returned rock samples, some of which directly sample the surface of larger boulders. Because, as witness plates to lunar space weathering, rocks and boulders experience longer exposure times compared to lunar soil grains, they allow us to develop a deeper perspective on the relative importance of various weathering processes as a function of time.

  14. 15 CFR 946.4 - Menu of services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REGULATIONS OF THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE MODERNIZATION OF THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE § 946.4 Menu of services. The following are the basic weather...) Marine Forecasts, Statements, and Warnings (g) Hydrologic Forecasts and Warnings (h) Fire...

  15. 15 CFR 946.4 - Menu of services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REGULATIONS OF THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE MODERNIZATION OF THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE § 946.4 Menu of services. The following are the basic weather...) Marine Forecasts, Statements, and Warnings (g) Hydrologic Forecasts and Warnings (h) Fire...

  16. 15 CFR 946.4 - Menu of services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REGULATIONS OF THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE MODERNIZATION OF THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE § 946.4 Menu of services. The following are the basic weather...) Marine Forecasts, Statements, and Warnings (g) Hydrologic Forecasts and Warnings (h) Fire...

  17. 15 CFR 946.4 - Menu of services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REGULATIONS OF THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE MODERNIZATION OF THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE § 946.4 Menu of services. The following are the basic weather...) Marine Forecasts, Statements, and Warnings (g) Hydrologic Forecasts and Warnings (h) Fire...

  18. 15 CFR 946.4 - Menu of services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REGULATIONS OF THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE MODERNIZATION OF THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE § 946.4 Menu of services. The following are the basic weather...) Marine Forecasts, Statements, and Warnings (g) Hydrologic Forecasts and Warnings (h) Fire...

  19. Weatherization Assistance Program Technical Assistance Center

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Adams

    2009-01-07

    The following is a synopsis of the major achievements attributed to the operation of the Weatherization Assistance Program Technical Assistance Center (WAPTAC) by the National Association for State Community Services Programs (NASCSP). During the past five years, the WAPTAC has developed into the premier source for information related to operating the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) at the state and local levels. The services provide through WAPTAC include both virtual technical support as well as hands-on training and instruction in classroom and in the field. The WAPTAC achieved several important milestones during its operation including the establishment of a national Weatherization Day now celebrated in most states, the implementation of a comprehensive Public Information Campaign (PIC) to raise the awareness of the Program among policy makers and the public, the training of more than 150 new state managers and staff as they assume their duties in state offices around the country, and the creation and support of a major virtual information source on the Internet being accessed by thousands of staff each month. The Weatherization Assistance Program Technical Assistance Center serves the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program as a valuable training and technical assistance resource for the network of 54 direct state grantees (50 states, District of Columbia and three Native American tribes) and the network of 900 local subgrantees (comprised of community action agencies, units of local government, and other non-profit organizations). The services provided through WAPTAC focus on standardizing and improving the daily management of the WAP. Staff continually identify policies changes and best practices to help the network improve its effectiveness and enhance the benefits of the Program for the customers who receive service and the federal and private investors. The operations of WAPTAC are separated into six

  20. Survey and Analysis of Weather Data for Building Energy Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Bhandari, Mahabir S; Shrestha, Som S; New, Joshua Ryan

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, calibrated energy modeling of residential and commercial buildings has gained importance in a retrofit-dominated market. Accurate weather data plays an important role in this calibration process and projected energy savings. It would be ideal to measure weather data at the building location to capture relevant microclimate variation but this is generally considered cost-prohibitive. There are data sources publicly available with high temporal sampling rates but at relatively poor geospatial sampling locations. To overcome this limitation, there are a growing number of service providers that claim to provide real time and historical weather data for 20-35 km2 grid across the globe. Unfortunately, there is limited documentation from 3rd-party sources attesting to the accuracy of this data. This paper compares provided weather characteristics with data collected from a weather station inaccessible to the service providers. Monthly average dry bulb temperature; relative humidity; direct, diffuse and horizontal solar radiation; and wind speed are statistically compared. Moreover, we ascertain the relative contributions of each weather variable and its impact on building loads. Annual simulations are calculated for three different building types, including a closely monitored and automated energy efficient research building. The comparison shows that the difference for an individual variable can be as high as 90%. In addition, annual building energy consumption can vary by 7% while monthly building loads can vary by 40% as a function of the provided location s weather data.

  1. Weather dissemination and public usage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, M. S.

    1973-01-01

    The existing public usage of weather information was examined. A survey was conducted to substantiate the general public's needs for dissemination of current (0-12 hours) weather information, needs which, in a previous study, were found to be extensive and urgent. The goal of the study was to discover how the general public obtains weather information, what information they seek and why they seek it, to what use this information is put, and to further ascertain the public's attitudes and beliefs regarding weather reporting and the diffusion of weather information. Major findings from the study include: 1. The public has a real need for weather information in the 0-6 hour bracket. 2. The visual medium is preferred but due to the lack of frequent (0-6 hours) forecasts, the audio media only, i.e., telephone recordings and radio weathercasts, were more frequently used. 3. Weather information usage is sporadic.

  2. Characterising Cold Weather for the UK mainland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fradley, Kate; Dacre, Helen; Ambaum, Maarten

    2016-04-01

    Excess Winter Mortality is a peak in the population's mortality rate during winter months and is correlated with low outdoor temperatures. Excess Winter Mortality has adverse impacts, including increased demand on health services. The management of resources for such increased demands maybe improved through incorporation of weather forecasting information to advanced warnings. For the UK, prolonged cold periods are associated with easterly advection, and high pressure systems. Characterisation of the synoptic conditions associated with cold periods is important to understand forecast performance. Principal Component Analysis has been used with mean sea level pressure from 35 years of ERA interim reanalysis to capture synoptic variability on a continuous scale. Cold events in the North and South of the UK mainland have been identified as having different synoptic variability using this method. Furthermore extending the Principal Component Analysis to investigate the skill of forecasts has identified systematic under prediction of some cold weather synoptic conditions. Ensemble forecasts are used to quantify the uncertainty associated with these cold weather synoptic conditions. This information maybe be used to improve the value of existing weather warnings.

  3. NOAA/National Weather Service Support in Response to the Threat of Debris Flows from the 2009 Station Fire in Los Angeles County: Lessons Learned in Hazard Communications and Public Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, M.; Laber, J. L.; Boldt, E.

    2010-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS) have developed a prototype debris flow early warning system for Southern California. The system uses USGS-defined rainfall rate thresholds for debris flows and burn area hazard maps to protect interests in and near burn areas of damaging and potentially deadly debris flows. Although common throughout Southern California, as witnessed by the December 25, 2003 storm in which sixteen people were swept to their deaths by debris flows generated from a recent burn area near Devore, debris flows are commonly misunderstood by the public. They are often perceived as rare events, are difficult to warn for with sufficient lead time, and present unique challenges when communicating proper calls to action to best save lives and property. Many improvements to the system have been realized since the project’s inception in 2005, including using more refined rainfall rate thresholds, use of burn area hazard maps, and the establishment of a tiered system to categorize the potential severity of flash floods and debris flows. These efforts have collectively resulted in a reduction of warning false alarms. However, the massive 400,000 hectare 2009 Station burn area in the Angeles National Forest of Los Angeles County has created numerous challenges to the early warning system. The geology of the area burned is highly susceptible to debris flows, due in part to the burn severity, soil types and steep slopes. Most importantly, the burn area is adjacent to and uphill of the highly populated lower foothills of the San Fernando Valley. NOAA/NWS and the USGS have thus worked closely with local response and preparedness agencies to analyze and communicate the threat and assist in developing a unified command response plan in preparation for flash flood and debris flows from this burn area. The early warning system was put to the ultimate test on

  4. HELIO as a Space Weather tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, Robert; Hapgood, Mike; Messerotti, Mauro; Aboudarham, Jean; Jacquey, Christian; Fox, Peter

    The Heliophysics Integrated Observatory, HELIO, is primarily designed to support research into the connection between solar phenomena, interplanetary disturbances and their effects on the planets. However, many of the techniques that are being developed and standards that we are proposing have direct relevance to the more immediate requirements of the space weather community. HELIO is being developed around a service-oriented architecture and the services that can be used either independently or as part of a work flow. The HELIO event and feature catalogues, context service and metadata evaluation service may all be of use to the community as capa-bilities in their own right; they could also be combined in workflows that are specific to the needs of research into space-weather. We have been examining ways of enhancing the quality of the output produced by the services by adding annotation that is compliant with standards proposed by the IVOA, IPDA and IAU; if adopted across the space weather community these additions could improve the interoperability of our data products with related communities. Of necessity HELIO has to address data providers in a number of different and well estab-lished communities, each with its own way of describing and handling the data; in addition, the capabilities of the providers and means of access to the data also vary considerably. We have therefore had to develop techniques to handle this, including archives where interesting observations may be available but not easily accessible. HELIO is a research infrastructure funded under Capacities programme of the EC's 7th Frame-work Programme (FP7); the project started in June 2009 and has a duration of 36 months. The HELIO Consortium includes thirteen groups from the UK, France, Ireland, Italy, Switzerland, Spain and the US.

  5. A weatherization manual for LIHEAP policy makers and program administrators

    SciTech Connect

    Witherspoon, M.J.; Marabate, R.; Weinhaus, M.; Eisenberg, J.F.

    1993-09-01

    This manual is designed to provide Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP) directors with information about weatherization and innovative ways they can utilize LIHEAP funds for weatherization activities. It contains a description of innovative weatherization programs which demonstrate creative uses of LIHEAP funds in weatherization activities. In many of the innovative examples, state and local administrators are coordinating their LIHEAP funds with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Low-Income Weatherization Assistance Program`s funding and with a variety of other federal, state and utility company resources. The innovative programs demonstrate how LIHEAP funds can be used in client education, targeting high energy users, staff training, assessment and audits for weatherization services. The reader will find in the appendices lists of contact persons and further descriptions of the programs highlighted. Although designed with LIHEAP directors in mind, the practices and programs highlighted in this manual are of practical use to any state, local or utility weatherization program administrator. The glossary at the end of the descriptive chapters will assist readers with the terminology used throughout the manual. This manual and the many resource entities cited in its appendices provide ready access to a wealth of state-of-the-art information which could lead to a more cost-effective expenditure of LIBEAP weatherization dollars.

  6. Some growth points in African child development research.

    PubMed

    Serpell, Robert; Marfo, Kofi

    2014-01-01

    We reflect on ways in which research presented in earlier chapters responds to challenges of generating an African child development field and identify additional issues calling for the field's attention. The chapters collectively display a variety of African contexts and reflexive evidence of the authors' African cultural roots. Connecting research with African audiences demands cooperative communication between educational practitioners and parents with low literacy, and cross-sector communication among professionals. Intracultural exploration of factors influencing the pattern of human development has begun to document the potential of indigenous African cultures as a fund of resources for enhancing child development. Priority topics for future African developmental research include multilingualism, musical performance, socially distributed caregiving, and the relation between adolescence and economic activity. Integration of multiple disciplines in the application of research-based principles to service delivery in the fields of community-based (re)habilitation and early childhood care and education calls for researcher collaboration with practitioners. PMID:25512048

  7. African Regional Symposium on Telematics for Development. Report and Recommendations = Colloque regional africain la telematique au service du developpement. Rapport et recommandations (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, April 3-7, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Telecommunication Union, Geneva (Switzerland).

    The African Regional Symposium on Telematics for Development was organized in view of the special educational and communication needs of Africa in a time of accelerating change and development of information technologies. The symposium brought together more than 150 African specialists, and over 40 participants from other regions and development…

  8. General-aviation's view of progress in the aviation weather system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundgren, Douglas J.

    1988-01-01

    For all its activity statistics, general-aviation is the most vulnerable to hazardous weather. Of concern to the general aviation industry are: (1) the slow pace of getting units of the Automated Weather Observation System (AWOS) to the field; (2) the efforts of the National Weather Service to withdraw from both the observation and dissemination roles of the aviation weather system; (3) the need for more observation points to improve the accuracy of terminal and area forecasts; (4) the need for improvements in all area forecasts, terminal forecasts, and winds aloft forecasts; (5) slow progress in cockpit weather displays; (6) the erosion of transcribed weather broadcasts (TWEB) and other deficiencies in weather information dissemination; (7) the need to push to make the Direct User Access Terminal (DUAT) a reality; and (7) the need to improve severe weather (thunderstorm) warning systems.

  9. NASA Aviation Safety Program Weather Accident Prevention/Weather Information Communications (WINCOMM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinberg, Arthur; Tauss, James

    2002-10-01

    Weather is a contributing factor in approximately 25-30 percent of general aviation accidents. The lack of timely, accurate and usable weather information to the general aviation pilot in the cockpit to enhance pilot situational awareness and improve pilot judgment remains a major impediment to improving aviation safety. NASA Glenn Research Center commissioned this 120 day weather datalink market survey to assess the technologies, infrastructure, products, and services of commercial avionics systems being marketed to the general aviation community to address these longstanding safety concerns. A market survey of companies providing or proposing to provide graphical weather information to the general aviation cockpit was conducted. Fifteen commercial companies were surveyed. These systems are characterized and evaluated in this report by availability, end-user pricing/cost, system constraints/limits and technical specifications. An analysis of market survey results and an evaluation of product offerings were made. In addition, recommendations to NASA for additional research and technology development investment have been made as a result of this survey to accelerate deployment of cockpit weather information systems for enhancing aviation safety.

  10. NASA Aviation Safety Program Weather Accident Prevention/weather Information Communications (WINCOMM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Arthur; Tauss, James; Chomos, Gerald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Weather is a contributing factor in approximately 25-30 percent of general aviation accidents. The lack of timely, accurate and usable weather information to the general aviation pilot in the cockpit to enhance pilot situational awareness and improve pilot judgment remains a major impediment to improving aviation safety. NASA Glenn Research Center commissioned this 120 day weather datalink market survey to assess the technologies, infrastructure, products, and services of commercial avionics systems being marketed to the general aviation community to address these longstanding safety concerns. A market survey of companies providing or proposing to provide graphical weather information to the general aviation cockpit was conducted. Fifteen commercial companies were surveyed. These systems are characterized and evaluated in this report by availability, end-user pricing/cost, system constraints/limits and technical specifications. An analysis of market survey results and an evaluation of product offerings were made. In addition, recommendations to NASA for additional research and technology development investment have been made as a result of this survey to accelerate deployment of cockpit weather information systems for enhancing aviation safety.

  11. Sun-weather relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The possible processes in the lower atmosphere of the earth initiated or controlled by changes in the output of the sun are investigated. These changes can include solar variation in radiation (as in the constant, or in specific wavelength regions), in particles (as in physical properties of the solar wind, or in solar cosmic rays, or solar-modulated galactic cosmic rays), and in the extended magnetic field of the sun (as in circumstances of the passage of interplanetary sector boundaries). Changes of short term (in the weather) as well as long term (in regional or global climate) are considered.

  12. Terminal Doppler weather radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelson, M.; Shrader, W. W.; Wieler, J. G.

    1990-02-01

    The terminal Doppler weather radar (TDWR) system, now under development, will provide automatic detection of microbursts and low-level wind shear. This paper discusses the TDWR performance parameters and describes its structural elements, including the antenna subsystem, the transmitter, the receiver/exciter, the digital signal processor, and the radar product generator/remote monitoring subsystem. Attention is also given to the processes of the base data formation, point target removal, signal-to-noise thresholding, and velocity de-aliasing and to the TDWR algorithms and displays. A schematic diagram of the TDWR system is presented.

  13. Utilities weather the storm

    SciTech Connect

    Lihach, N.

    1984-11-01

    Utilities must restore power to storm-damaged transmission and distribution systems, even if it means going out in ice storms or during lightning and hurricane conditions. Weather forecasting helps utilities plan for possible damage as well as alerting them to long-term trends. Storm planning includes having trained repair personnel available and adjusting the system so that less power imports are needed. Storm damage response requires teamwork and cooperation between utilities. Utilities can strengthen equipment in storm-prone or vulnerable areas, but good data are necessary to document the incidence of lighning strikes, hurricanes, etc. 2 references, 8 figures.

  14. Weather Balloon Ascent Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, Mark

    2016-05-01

    The physics of a weather balloon is analyzed. The surprising aspect of the motion of these balloons is that they ascend to great altitudes (typically 35 km) at a more or less constant rate. Such behavior is not surprising near the ground—say for a helium-filled party balloon rising from street level to the top of the Empire State building—but it is unexpected for a balloon that rises to altitudes where the air is rarefied. We show from elementary physical laws why the ascent rate is approximately constant.

  15. Polarimetric Doppler Weather Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bringi, V. N.; Chandrasekar, V.

    2001-10-01

    This work provides a detailed introduction to the principles of Doppler and polarimetric radar, focusing in particular on their use in the analysis of weather systems. The authors first discuss underlying topics such as electromagnetic scattering, polarization, and wave propagation. They then detail the engineering aspects of pulsed Doppler polarimetric radar, before examining key applications in meteorology and remote sensing. The book is aimed at graduate students of electrical engineering and atmospheric science as well as practitioners involved in the applications of polarimetric radar.

  16. Weather Forecasting Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Weather forecasters are usually very precise in reporting such conditions as temperature, wind velocity and humidity. They also provide exact information on barometric pressure at a given moment, and whether the barometer is "rising" or "falling"- but not how rapidly or how slowly it is rising or falling. Until now, there has not been available an instrument which measures precisely the current rate of change of barometric pressure. A meteorological instrument called a barograph traces the historical ups and downs of barometric pressure and plots a rising or falling curve, but, updated every three hours, it is only momentarily accurate at each updating.

  17. Weatherization Works--Summary of Findings from the Retrospective Evaluation of the U.S. DOE's Weatherization Assistance Program

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, Bruce Edward; Carroll, David; Pigg, Scott; Blasnik, Michael; Dalhoff, Greg; Berger, Jacqueline; Rose, Erin M; Hawkins, Beth A.; Eisenberg, Joel Fred; Ucar, Ferit; Bensch, Ingo; Cowan, Claire

    2015-10-01

    This report presents a summary of the studies and analyses that compose the retrospective evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy s low-income Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP). WAP provides grants to Grantees (i.e., states) that then provide grants to Subgrantees (i.e., local weatherization agencies) to weatherize low-income homes. This evaluation focused on the WAP Program Year 2008. The retrospective evaluation produced twenty separate reports, including this summary. Four separate reports address the energy savings, energy cost savings, and cost effectiveness of WAP across four housing types: single family, mobile home, small multifamily, and large multifamily. Other reports address the environmental emissions, macroeconomic, and health and household-related benefits attributable to WAP, and characterize the program, its recipients, and those eligible for the program. Major field studies are also summarized, including a major indoor air quality study and a follow-up ventilation study, an in-depth in-field assessment of weatherization work and quality, and a study that assesses reasons for variations in energy savings across homes. Results of surveys of weatherization staff, occupants, occupants satisfaction with weatherization services provided, and weatherization trainees are summarized. Lastly, this report summarizes a set of fifteen case studies of high-performing and unique local weatherization agencies.

  18. Cold Weather Pet Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Room Professional Development Jobs Veterinary Salary Calculator Personal Development Training & Service Opportunities Excellence in Veterinary Medicine Awards Veterinary Education Economics & Practice Economics & Finance Practice Management Client Materials Insurance ...

  19. Weather forecasting with open source software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rautenhaus, Marc; Dörnbrack, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    To forecast the weather situation during aircraft-based atmospheric field campaigns, we employ a tool chain of existing and self-developed open source software tools and open standards. Of particular value are the Python programming language with its extension libraries NumPy, SciPy, PyQt4, Matplotlib and the basemap toolkit, the NetCDF standard with the Climate and Forecast (CF) Metadata conventions, and the Open Geospatial Consortium Web Map Service standard. These open source libraries and open standards helped to implement the "Mission Support System", a Web Map Service based tool to support weather forecasting and flight planning during field campaigns. The tool has been implemented in Python and has also been released as open source (Rautenhaus et al., Geosci. Model Dev., 5, 55-71, 2012). In this presentation we discuss the usage of free and open source software for weather forecasting in the context of research flight planning, and highlight how the field campaign work benefits from using open source tools and open standards.

  20. Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III; Wheeler, Mark M.; Short, David A.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a 15-year climatological study of severe weather events and related severe weather atmospheric parameters. Data sources included local forecast rules, archived sounding data, Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS) data, surface and upper air maps, and two severe weather event databases covering east-central Florida. The local forecast rules were used to set threat assessment thresholds for stability parameters that were derived from the sounding data. The severe weather events databases were used to identify days with reported severe weather and the CGLSS data was used to differentiate between lightning and non-lightning days. These data sets provided the foundation for analyzing the stability parameters and synoptic patterns that were used to develop an objective tool to aid in forecasting severe weather events. The period of record for the analysis was May - September, 1989 - 2003. The results indicate that there are certain synoptic patterns more prevalent on days with severe weather and some of the stability parameters are better predictors of severe weather days based on locally tuned threat values. The results also revealed the stability parameters that did not display any skill related to severe weather days. An interactive web-based Severe Weather Decision Aid was developed to assist the duty forecaster by providing a level of objective guidance based on the analysis of the stability parameters, CGLSS data, and synoptic-scale dynamics. The tool will be tested and evaluated during the 2005 warm season.

  1. African American's Perceptions of Psychotherapy and Psychotherapists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Vetta L. Sanders; Akbar, Maysa D.; Bazile, Anita

    The attitudes and beliefs about utilization of mental health services of 201 African Americans, 18 years and older, are explored. One hundred and thirty-four females and 66 males participated in mixed sex focus groups conducted in an urban, Midwestern city. Discussion probes addressed participant perceptions of psychotherapists and psychotherapy,…

  2. Vodcasting Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins Petersen, Carolyn; Erickson, P. J.; Needles, M.

    2009-01-01

    The topic of space weather is the subject of a series of vodcasts (video podcasts) produced by MIT Haystack Observatory (Westford, MA) and Loch Ness Productions (Groton, MA). This paper discusses the production and distribution of the series via Webcast, Youtube, and other avenues. It also presents preliminary evaluation of the effectiveness and outreach of the project through feedback from both formal and information education venues. The vodcast series is linked to the NASA Living With a Star Targeted Research and Technology project award "Multi-Instrument Investigation of Inner-Magnetospheric/Ionosphere Disturbances.” It is being carried out by Principal Investigator Dr. John Foster, under the auspices of NASA Grant # NNX06AB86G. The research involves using ionospheric total electron content (TEC) observations to study the location, extent, and duration of perturbations within stormtime ionospheric electric fields at mid- to low latitudes. It combines ground-based global positioning system (GPS) TEC data, incoherent scatter radar measurements of the mid-latitude ionospheric state, and DMSP satellite observations to characterize conditions which lead to severe low-latitude ionospheric perturbations. Each vodcast episode covers a certain aspect of space weather and the research program.

  3. Weathering of rock 'Ginger'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    One of the more unusual rocks at the site is Ginger, located southeast of the lander. Parts of it have the reddest color of any material in view, whereas its rounded lobes are gray and relatively unweathered. These color differences are brought out in the inset, enhanced at the upper right. In the false color image at the lower right, the shape of the visible-wavelength spectrum (related to the abundance of weathered ferric iron minerals) is indicated by the hue of the rocks. Blue indicates relatively unweathered rocks. Typical soils and drift, which are heavily weathered, are shown in green and flesh tones. The very red color in the creases in the rock surface correspond to a crust of ferric minerals. The origin of the rock is uncertain; the ferric crust may have grown underneath the rock, or it may cement pebbles together into a conglomerate. Ginger will be a target of future super-resolution studies to better constrain its origin.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  4. Road Weather and Connected Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisano, P.; Boyce, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    On average, there are over 5.8 M vehicle crashes each year of which 23% are weather-related. Weather-related crashes are defined as those crashes that occur in adverse weather or on slick pavement. The vast majority of weather-related crashes happen on wet pavement (74%) and during rainfall (46%). Connected vehicle technologies hold the promise to transform road-weather management by providing improved road weather data in real time with greater temporal and geographic accuracy. This will dramatically expand the amount of data that can be used to assess, forecast, and address the impacts that weather has on roads, vehicles, and travelers. The use of vehicle-based measurements of the road and surrounding atmosphere with other, more traditional weather data sources, and create road and atmospheric hazard products for a variety of users. The broad availability of road weather data from mobile sources will vastly improve the ability to detect and forecast weather and road conditions, and will provide the capability to manage road-weather response on specific roadway links. The RWMP is currently demonstrating how weather, road conditions, and related vehicle data can be used for decision making through an innovative Integrated Mobile Observations project. FHWA is partnering with 3 DOTs (MN, MI, & NV) to pilot these applications. One is a mobile alerts application called the Motorists Advisories and Warnings (MAW) and a maintenance decision support application. These applications blend traditional weather information (e.g., radar, surface stations) with mobile vehicle data (e.g., temperature, brake status, wiper status) to determine current weather conditions. These weather conditions, and other road-travel-relevant information, are provided to users via web and phone applications. The MAW provides nowcasts and short-term forecasts out to 24 hours while the EMDSS application can provide forecasts up to 72 hours in advance. The three DOTs have placed readers and external

  5. International Polar Research and Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzerotti, Louis J.

    2009-02-01

    The fiftieth anniversary of the International Geophysical Year (IGY), currently celebrated in the 2007-2009 International Polar Year (IPY), highlights space weather's heritage from polar research. The polar regions were still very much "terra incognito" 50 years ago. At the same time, communications technologies had significantly advanced since the time of the second IPY, in 1932-1933. Yet even before the second IPY, several directors of international meteorological services stated in a 1928 resolution that "increased knowledge [of the polar regions] will be of practical application to problems connected with terrestrial magnetism, marine and aerial navigation, wireless telegraphy and weather forecasting" (see http://scaa.usask.ca/gallery/northern/currie/en_polaryear.shtml).

  6. Program evaluation: Weatherization Residential Assistance Partnership (WRAP) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    The Connecticut low income weatherization program was developed in response to a 1987 rate docket order from the Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control (DPUC) to Connecticut Light Power Co., an operating subsidiary of Northeast Utilities (NU). (Throughout this report, NU is referred to as the operator of the program.) This program, known as the Weatherization Residential Assistance Partnership, or WRAP, was configured utilizing input from a collaborative group of interested parties to the docket. It was agreed that this program would be put forth by the electric utility, but would not ignore oil and gas savings (thus, it was to be fuel- blind''). The allocated cost of conservation services for each fuel source, however, should be cost effective. It was to be offered to those utility customers at or below 200 percent of the federal poverty levels, and provide a wide array of energy saving measures directed toward heating, water heating and lighting. It was felt by the collaborative group that this program would raise the level of expenditures per participant for weatherization services provided by the state, and by linking to and revising the auditing process for weatherization, would lower the audit unit cost. The program plans ranged from the offering of low-cost heating, water heating and infiltration measures, increased insulation levels, carpentry and plumbing services, to furnace or burner replacement. The program was configured to allow for very comprehensive weatherization and heating system servicing.

  7. Weather Forecasting Systems and Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mecikalski, John (Inventor); MacKenzie, Wayne M., Jr. (Inventor); Walker, John Robert (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A weather forecasting system has weather forecasting logic that receives raw image data from a satellite. The raw image data has values indicative of light and radiance data from the Earth as measured by the satellite, and the weather forecasting logic processes such data to identify cumulus clouds within the satellite images. For each identified cumulus cloud, the weather forecasting logic applies interest field tests to determine a score indicating the likelihood of the cumulus cloud forming precipitation and/or lightning in the future within a certain time period. Based on such scores, the weather forecasting logic predicts in which geographic regions the identified cumulus clouds will produce precipitation and/or lighting within during the time period. Such predictions may then be used to provide a weather map thereby providing users with a graphical illustration of the areas predicted to be affected by precipitation within the time period.

  8. Weather forecasting expert system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Weather forecasting is critical to both the Space Transportation System (STS) ground operations and the launch/landing activities at NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The current launch frequency places significant demands on the USAF weather forecasters at the Cape Canaveral Forecasting Facility (CCFF), who currently provide the weather forecasting for all STS operations. As launch frequency increases, KSC's weather forecasting problems will be great magnified. The single most important problem is the shortage of highly skilled forecasting personnel. The development of forecasting expertise is difficult and requires several years of experience. Frequent personnel changes within the forecasting staff jeopardize the accumulation and retention of experience-based weather forecasting expertise. The primary purpose of this project was to assess the feasibility of using Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques to ameliorate this shortage of experts by capturing aria incorporating the forecasting knowledge of current expert forecasters into a Weather Forecasting Expert System (WFES) which would then be made available to less experienced duty forecasters.

  9. Environmental health and African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, B

    1991-01-01

    As environmental health has taken on immensely increased significance in the prevention of disease, dysfunction, and premature death, its boundaries have been anything but stable. This instability, along with a multitude of demographic, social, and economic currents, have brought into stark relief the increasing demand for scientists who have the skills and knowledge to perform environmental risk assessment and implement effective risk management policies and services. Despite this demand far too few African Americans want, or are prepared, to pursue careers in sciences. This paper describes efforts to address this problem and suggests why such initiatives may not yield the desired results. PMID:1951793

  10. Solar weather/climate predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, K. H.; Goldberg, R. A.; Mitchell, J. M.; Olson, R.; Schaefer, J.; Silverman, S.; Wilcox, J.; Williams, G.

    1979-01-01

    Solar variability influences upon terrestrial weather and climate are addressed. Both the positive and negative findings are included and specific predictions, areas of further study, and recommendations listed.

  11. Space Weathering: An Ultraviolet Indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendrix, A. R.; Vilas, F.

    2003-01-01

    We present evidence suggesting that the spectral slope of airless bodies in the UV-visible wavelength range can be used as an indicator of exposure to space weathering. While space weathering generally produces a reddening of spectra in the visible-NIR spectral regions, it tends to result in a bluing of the UV-visible portion of the spectrum, and may in some cases produce a spectral reversal. The bluing effect may be detectable with smaller amounts of weathering than are necessary to detect the longer-wavelength weathering effects.

  12. Space Weathering: An Ultraviolet Indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendrix, A. R.; Vilas, F.

    2004-01-01

    We present evidence suggesting that the spectral slope of airless bodies in the UV-visible wavelength range can be used as an indicator of exposure to space weathering. While space weathering generally produces a reddening of spectra in the visible-NIR spectral regions, it tends to result in a bluing of the UV-visible portion of the spectrum, and may in some cases produce a spectral reversal. The bluing effect may be detectable with smaller amounts of weathering than are necessary to detect the longer-wavelength weathering effects.

  13. AWE: Aviation Weather Data Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spirkovska, Lilly; Lodha, Suresh K.

    2001-01-01

    The two official sources for aviation weather reports both require the pilot to mentally visualize the provided information. In contrast, our system, Aviation Weather Environment (AWE) presents aviation specific weather available to pilots in an easy to visualize form. We start with a computer-generated textual briefing for a specific area. We map this briefing onto a grid specific to the pilot's route that includes only information relevant to his flight route that includes only information relevant to his flight as defined by route, altitude, true airspeed, and proposed departure time. By modifying various parameters, the pilot can use AWE as a planning tool as well as a weather briefing tool.

  14. Small Sensors for Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory is actively pursuing enhancing the nation's space weather sensing capability. One aspect of this plan is the concept of flying Space Weather sensor suites on host spacecraft as secondary payloads. The emergence and advancement of the CubeSat spacecraft architecture has produced a viable platform for scientifically and operationally relevant Space Weather sensing. This talk will provide an overview of NRL's low size weight and power sensor technologies targeting Space Weather measurements. A summary of on-orbit results of past and current missions will be presented, as well as an overview of future flights that are manifested and potential constellation missions.

  15. African and non-African admixture components in African Americans and an African Caribbean population.

    PubMed

    Murray, Tanda; Beaty, Terri H; Mathias, Rasika A; Rafaels, Nicholas; Grant, Audrey Virginia; Faruque, Mezbah U; Watson, Harold R; Ruczinski, Ingo; Dunston, Georgia M; Barnes, Kathleen C

    2010-09-01

    Admixture is a potential source of confounding in genetic association studies, so it becomes important to detect and estimate admixture in a sample of unrelated individuals. Populations of African descent in the US and the Caribbean share similar historical backgrounds but the distributions of African admixture may differ. We selected 416 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to estimate and compare admixture proportions using STRUCTURE in 906 unrelated African Americans (AAs) and 294 Barbadians (ACs) from a study of asthma. This analysis showed AAs on average were 72.5% African, 19.6% European and 8% Asian, while ACs were 77.4% African, 15.9% European, and 6.7% Asian which were significantly different. A principal components analysis based on these AIMs yielded one primary eigenvector that explained 54.04% of the variation and captured a gradient from West African to European admixture. This principal component was highly correlated with African vs. European ancestry as estimated by STRUCTURE (r(2)=0.992, r(2)=0.912, respectively). To investigate other African contributions to African American and Barbadian admixture, we performed PCA on approximately 14,000 (14k) genome-wide SNPs in AAs, ACs, Yorubans, Luhya and Maasai African groups, and estimated genetic distances (F(ST)). We found AAs and ACs were closest genetically (F(ST)=0.008), and both were closer to the Yorubans than the other East African populations. In our sample of individuals of African descent, approximately 400 well-defined AIMs were just as good for detecting substructure as approximately 14,000 random SNPs drawn from a genome-wide panel of markers. PMID:20717976

  16. Scorecard on winter weather forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    A comparison of the observed temperatures and precipitation for this past winter (maps on left) with predicted temperatures and precipitation (maps on right) shows that the National Weather Service (NWS) temperature prediction was below par, but that the NWS precipitation forecast was ‘quite good,’ according to Don L. Gilman, chief of the NWS long-range forecast branch. The predictions, issued November 29, 1982 (Eos, December 14, 1982, p. 1211), covered December, January, and February.NWS long-range forecasters had thought that frigid Arctic air would swoop far south to bring below-normal temperatures to the western United States. Instead, an east Pacific trough, which may have been the strongest since 1900, brought a strong influx of air from the west, according to Gilman. The intense, low-pressure anomaly in the east Pacific, with the strong westerly winds, teamed with heavy rains south and southwest of Hawaii and warm equatorial Pacific waters to bring warm, wet air to the western United States. The results (see maps): Throughout most of the country, observed temperatures were above normal (A) or normal (N), while observed precipitation was heavy (H) o r normal (no code). Below-normal temperatures (B) occurred only in a portion of the southcentral U.S. and the Florida Keys. Light precipitation (L) fell over two patches in the northern plains, in the Appalachian region, and along the Maine coast.

  17. The African superswell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyblade, Andrew A.; Robinson, Scott W.

    1994-01-01

    Maps of residual bathymetry in the ocean basins around the African continent reveal a broad bathymetric swell in the southeastern Atlantic Ocean with an amplitude of about 500 m. We propose that this region of anomalously shallow bathymetry, together with the contiguous eastern and southern African plateaus, form a superswell which we refer to as the African superswell. The origin of the African superswell is uncertain. However, rifting and volcanism in eastern Africa, as well as heat flow measurements in southern Africa and the southeastern Atlantic Ocean, suggest that the superswell may be attributed, at least in part, to heating of the lithosphere.

  18. Quantifying PV module microclimates and translation into accelerated weathering protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Nancy H.; Scott, Kurt P.

    2014-10-01

    Long term reliability is not well addressed by current standards for PV modules or components, and developing accelerated weathering stress protocols to test the resistance of key components to wear-out is an active area of research. A first step is to understand and quantify the range of actual stresses modules will encounter in the various mounting configurations and in-service environments. In this paper, we use real-world data to benchmark PV module service environments in hot/dry, hot/wet, and temperate environments, with subsequent analysis to translate the microclimate data into a portfolio of practical weathering instrument settings.

  19. Program evaluation: Weatherization Residential Assistance Partnership (WRAP) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, Bonnie B.; Lundien, Barbara; Kaufman, Jeffrey; Kreczko, Adam; Ferrey, Steven; Morgan, Stephen

    1991-12-01

    The Weatherization Residential Assistance Partnership,'' or WRAP program, is a fuel-blind conservation program designed to assist Northeast Utilities' low-income customers to use energy safely and efficiently. Innovative with respect to its collaborative approach and its focus on utilizing and strengthening the existing low-income weatherization service delivery network, the WRAP program offers an interesting model to other utilities which traditionally have relied on for-profit energy service contractors and highly centralized program implementation structures. This report presents appendices with surveys, participant list, and computers program to examine and predict potential energy savings.

  20. Program evaluation: Weatherization Residential Assistance Partnership (WRAP) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, Bonnie B.; Lundien, Barbara; Kaufman, Jeffrey; Kreczko, Adam

    1991-12-01

    The Weatherization Residential Assistance Partnership,'' or WRAP program, is a fuel-blind conservation program designed to assist Northeast Utilities' low-income customers to use energy safely and efficiently. Innovative with respect to its collaborative approach and its focus on utilizing and strengthening the existing low-income weatherization service delivery network, the WRAP program offers an interesting model to other utilities which traditionally have relied on for-profit energy service contractors and highly centralized program implementation structures. This report presents appendices with energy savings, consumption and socio-economic data for low income population in both urban and rural areas.

  1. 47 CFR 87.525 - Scope of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Automatic Weather Stations (AWOS/ASOS) § 87.525 Scope of service. Automatic weather observation stations (AWOS) and automatic surface observation stations (ASOS) must provide up-to-date weather information including the time of the latest weather sequence, altimeter setting, wind speed and direction, dew...

  2. 47 CFR 87.525 - Scope of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Automatic Weather Stations (AWOS/ASOS) § 87.525 Scope of service. Automatic weather observation stations (AWOS) and automatic surface observation stations (ASOS) must provide up-to-date weather information including the time of the latest weather sequence, altimeter setting, wind speed and direction, dew...

  3. 47 CFR 87.525 - Scope of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Automatic Weather Stations (AWOS/ASOS) § 87.525 Scope of service. Automatic weather observation stations (AWOS) and automatic surface observation stations (ASOS) must provide up-to-date weather information including the time of the latest weather sequence, altimeter setting, wind speed and direction, dew...

  4. 47 CFR 87.525 - Scope of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Automatic Weather Stations (AWOS/ASOS) § 87.525 Scope of service. Automatic weather observation stations (AWOS) and automatic surface observation stations (ASOS) must provide up-to-date weather information including the time of the latest weather sequence, altimeter setting, wind speed and direction, dew...

  5. 47 CFR 87.525 - Scope of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Automatic Weather Stations (AWOS/ASOS) § 87.525 Scope of service. Automatic weather observation stations (AWOS) and automatic surface observation stations (ASOS) must provide up-to-date weather information including the time of the latest weather sequence, altimeter setting, wind speed and direction, dew...

  6. The Legacy of the U. S. Public Health Services Study of Untreated Syphilis in African American Men at Tuskegee on the Affordable Care Act and Health Care Reform Fifteen Years After President Clinton’s Apology

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Vickie M.

    2013-01-01

    This special issue addresses the legacy of the United States Public Health Service Syphilis Study on health reform, particularly the Affordable Care Act (ACA). The 12 manuscripts cover the history and current practices of ethical abuses affecting American Indians, Latinos, Asian Americans and African Americans in the United States and in one case, internationally. Commentaries and essays include the voice of a daughter of one of the study participants in which we learn of the stigma and maltreatment some of the families experienced and how the study has impacted generations within the families. Consideration is given in one essay to utilizing narrative storytelling with the families to help promote healing. This article provides the reader a roadmap to the themes that emerged from the collection of articles. These themes include population versus individual consent issues, need for better government oversight in research and health care, the need for overhauling our bioethics training to develop a population level, culturally driven approach to research bioethics. The articles challenge and inform us that some of our assumptions about how the consent process best works to protect racial/ethnic minorities may be merely assumptions and not proven facts. Articles challenge the belief that low participation rates seen in biomedical studies have resulted from the legacy of the USPHS Syphilis Study rather than a confluence of factors rooted in racism, bias and negative treatment. Articles in this special issue challenge the “cultural paranoia” of mistrust and provide insights into how the distrust may serve to lengthen rather than shorten the lives of racial/ethnic minorities who have been used as guinea pigs on more than one occasion. We hope that the guidance offered on the importance of developing a new framework to bioethics can be integrated into the foundation of health care reform. PMID:23630410

  7. The Legacy of the U. S. Public Health Services Study of Untreated Syphilis in African American Men at Tuskegee on the Affordable Care Act and Health Care Reform Fifteen Years After President Clinton's Apology.

    PubMed

    Mays, Vickie M

    2012-11-01

    This special issue addresses the legacy of the United States Public Health Service Syphilis Study on health reform, particularly the Affordable Care Act (ACA). The 12 manuscripts cover the history and current practices of ethical abuses affecting American Indians, Latinos, Asian Americans and African Americans in the United States and in one case, internationally. Commentaries and essays include the voice of a daughter of one of the study participants in which we learn of the stigma and maltreatment some of the families experienced and how the study has impacted generations within the families. Consideration is given in one essay to utilizing narrative storytelling with the families to help promote healing. This article provides the reader a roadmap to the themes that emerged from the collection of articles. These themes include population versus individual consent issues, need for better government oversight in research and health care, the need for overhauling our bioethics training to develop a population level, culturally driven approach to research bioethics. The articles challenge and inform us that some of our assumptions about how the consent process best works to protect racial/ethnic minorities may be merely assumptions and not proven facts. Articles challenge the belief that low participation rates seen in biomedical studies have resulted from the legacy of the USPHS Syphilis Study rather than a confluence of factors rooted in racism, bias and negative treatment. Articles in this special issue challenge the "cultural paranoia" of mistrust and provide insights into how the distrust may serve to lengthen rather than shorten the lives of racial/ethnic minorities who have been used as guinea pigs on more than one occasion. We hope that the guidance offered on the importance of developing a new framework to bioethics can be integrated into the foundation of health care reform. PMID:23630410

  8. Satellite Broadcast of Graphical Weather Data Flight Tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallasch, Paul G.

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field's aviation Weather Information Communications (WINCOMM) and NASA Langley Research Center's Aviation Weather Information (AWIN) programs collaborated in a flight test and evaluation of a worldwide weather data-link capability using satellites. This successful flight testing moves NASA closer to its goal of developing advanced communications and information technologies to enable high-quality and timely dissemination of aviation weather information to all relevant users on the aviation information network. Recognized as a major contributing factor in aviation accidents and incidents, weather contributes directly or indirectly to nearly 80 percent of fatal general aviation (small private aircraft) accidents. In 1997, the Aeronautics Safety Investment Strategy Team s weather team produced a prioritized list of investment areas under weather accident prevention. Weather data dissemination is the most critical and highest ranked priority on the list. NASA's Aviation Safety Program founded the Aviation Weather Information initiative to focus efforts on significantly reducing the number of weather-related aviation fatalities. Access to accurate and timely weather data could contribute to a major reduction of weather-related incidents and accidents. However, a cost-effective solution has eluded most general aviation pilots because of the high cost of onboard weather radar equipment. Rockwell Collins, through a contract with NASA and in cooperation with WorldSpace Corporation, successfully completed ground and flight testing of a receiver and antenna in Johannesburg, South Africa. This NASA/Rockwell Collins project is an evaluation of worldwide weather data-link capability using transmissions from the Satellite Digital Audio Radio Services (S DARS) AfriStar satellite. Owned and operated by WorldSpace, AfriStar is a geostationary satellite that broadcasts commercial digital audio services to stationary and mobile platforms. S DARS

  9. Intelligent Weather Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spirkovska, Liljana (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Method and system for automatically displaying, visually and/or audibly and/or by an audible alarm signal, relevant weather data for an identified aircraft pilot, when each of a selected subset of measured or estimated aviation situation parameters, corresponding to a given aviation situation, has a value lying in a selected range. Each range for a particular pilot may be a default range, may be entered by the pilot and/or may be automatically determined from experience and may be subsequently edited by the pilot to change a range and to add or delete parameters describing a situation for which a display should be provided. The pilot can also verbally activate an audible display or visual display of selected information by verbal entry of a first command or a second command, respectively, that specifies the information required.

  10. Micro Weather Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoenk, Michael E.

    1999-01-01

    Improved in situ meteorological measurements in the troposphere and stratosphere are needed for studies of weather and climate, both as a primary data source and as validation for remote sensing instruments. Following the initial development and successful flight validation of the surface acoustic wave (SAW) hygrometer, the micro weather station program was directed toward the development of an integrated instrument, capable of accurate, in situ profiling of the troposphere, and small enough to fly on a radiosonde balloon for direct comparison with standard radiosondes. On April 23, 1998, working with Frank Schmidlin and Bob Olson of Wallops Island Flight Facility, we flew our instrument in a dual payload experiment, for validation and direct comparison with a Vaisala radiosonde. During that flight, the SAW dewpoint hygrometer measured frostpoint down to -76T at 44,000 feet. Using a laptop computer in radio contact with the balloon, we monitored data in real time, issued the cutdown command, and recovered the payload less than an hour after landing in White Sands Missile Range, 50 miles from the launch site in Hatch, New Mexico. Future flights will extend the intercomparison, and attempt to obtain in situ meteorological profiles from the surface through the tropopause. The SAW hygrometer was successfully deployed on the NASA DC8 as part of NASA's Third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3) during August and September, 1998. This field campaign was devoted to the study of hurricane tracking and intensification using NASA-funded aircraft. In situ humidity data from the SAW hygrometer are currently being analyzed and compared with data from other instruments on the DC8 and ER2 aircraft. Additional information is contained in the original.

  11. Terminal weather information management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Alfred T.

    1990-01-01

    Since the mid-1960's, microburst/windshear events have caused at least 30 aircraft accidents and incidents and have killed more than 600 people in the United States alone. This study evaluated alternative means of alerting an airline crew to the presence of microburst/windshear events in the terminal area. Of particular interest was the relative effectiveness of conventional and data link ground-to-air transmissions of ground-based radar and low-level windshear sensing information on microburst/windshear avoidance. The Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator located at Ames Research Center was employed in a line oriented simulation of a scheduled round-trip airline flight from Salt Lake City to Denver Stapleton Airport. Actual weather en route and in the terminal area was simulated using recorded data. The microburst/windshear incident of July 11, 1988 was re-created for the Denver area operations. Six experienced airline crews currently flying scheduled routes were employed as test subjects for each of three groups: (1) A baseline group which received alerts via conventional air traffic control (ATC) tower transmissions; (2) An experimental group which received alerts/events displayed visually and aurally in the cockpit six miles (approx. 2 min.) from the microburst event; and (3) An additional experimental group received displayed alerts/events 23 linear miles (approx. 7 min.) from the microburst event. Analyses of crew communications and decision times showed a marked improvement in both situation awareness and decision-making with visually displayed ground-based radar information. Substantial reductions in the variability of decision times among crews in the visual display groups were also found. These findings suggest that crew performance will be enhanced and individual differences among crews due to differences in training and prior experience are significantly reduced by providing real-time, graphic display of terminal weather hazards.

  12. Basalt Weathering Rates Across Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarresitchler, A.; Brantley, S.

    2006-12-01

    Weathering of silicate minerals is a known sink for atmospheric CO2. An estimated 30%-35% of the consumption of CO2 from continental silicate weathering can be attributed to basalt weathering (Dessert et al., 2003). To assess basalt weathering rates we examine weathering advance rates of basalt (w, mm/yr) reported at four scales: denudation rates from basalt watersheds (tens of kilometers), rates of soil formation from soil profiles developed on basaltic parent material of known age (meters), rates of weathering rind formation on basalt clasts (centimeters), and laboratory dissolution rates (millimeters). Basalt weathering advance rates calculated for watersheds range between 0.36 and 9.8x10-3 mm/yr. The weathering advance rate for a basalt soil profile in Hawaii is 8.0x10-3 mm/yr while advance rates for clasts range from 5.6x10-6 to 2.4x10-4 mm/yr. Batch and mixed flow laboratory experiments performed at circum- neutral pH yield advance rates of 2.5x10^{-5} to 3.4x10-7 mm/yr when normalized to BET surface area. These results show increasing advance rates with both increasing scale (from laboratory to watersheds) and increasing temperature. If we assume that basalt weathers at an intrinsic rate that applies to all scales then we conclude that variations in weathering advance rates arise from variations in surface area measurement at different scales (D); therefore, basalt weathering is a fractal system. We measure a fractal dimension (dr) of basalt weathering of 2.2. For Euclidean geometries, measured surface area does not vary with the scale at which it is measured and dr equals 2. For natural surfaces, surface area is related to the scale at which it is measured. As scale increases, the minimum size of the surface irregularities that are measurable also increases. The ratio between BET and geometric normalized laboratory dissolution rates has been defined as a roughness parameter, λ, which ranges from ~10-100. We extend the definition of this roughness parameter

  13. Operational Space Weather Forecasting: Requirements and Future Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henley, E.; Gibbs, M.; Jackson, D.; Marsh, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    The Met Office has over 150 years' experience in providing operational forecasting to meet the UK's terrestrial weather needs, and is developing a similar capability in space weather. Since April 2014 the Met Office Space Weather Operations Centre (MOSWOC) has issued 24/7 operational forecasts, alerts and warnings on space weather which can have impacts on electricity grids, radio communications and satellite electronics. In this talk we will summarise the current requirements and future needs for operational space weather forecasting. We will review what the terrestrial weather community considers as operational forecasts, and use MOSWOC as an example of the underpinning research, IT and collaborations required to accomplish this. We will also discuss the policy, science evidence base and user support requirements needed to obtain sufficient long-term funding for operational activities, illustrating this with the UK's national risk register, Royal Academy of Engineering report, and the forthcoming IPSP economic study, as well as work done with users to ensure services match their needs. These are similar activities to those being undertaken in SWORM and the COSPAR/ILWS Space Weather Shield to Society Roadmap. Future needs will also be considered, considering the need for operational observations, particularly focussing on the role an L5 mission could play; a chain of coupled operational models covering the Sun, Earth, and intervening space; and how these observations and models can be integrated via data assimilation.

  14. Understanding and Assessment of Intragroup Dynamics in Family Foster Care: African American Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Dennis

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the requirements of culturally competent practice with African-American social service clients. Notes that ethnic identity, differential levels of cultural assimilation, social class, and cultural values affect the provision of clinical services in family foster care. Examines possible points of stress between African-American case…

  15. The Role of African-American Musicians in the Integration of the United States Navy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drane, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    The service of blacks in the U.S. military can be traced back to the Revolutionary War. However, up to the end of World War I, African Americans in military branches were relegated to cooking and cleaning duties. As the United States prepared to enter World War II, pressure to admit African Americans into full service in the military increased due…

  16. Recommendations for the Use of Online Social Support for African American Men

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Daphne C.; Jefferson, S. Olivia

    2014-01-01

    African American men face greater psychosocial stressors than African American women and men of other racial and ethnic groups, which place them at higher risk for psychological distress. Yet, research suggests that African Americans are less likely to utilize professional mental health services because of their mistrust of the health care system and their need for more specialized and innovative services. Supplemental resources aimed at positive coping and social support for African American men may reduce the likelihood that they experience psychological distress, which could lead to more severe mental disorders. This article proposes the use of online social support for African American men who are in early, nonsevere stages of psychological distress. We examine the unique experiences of African American men, discuss distress among this underserved group, and finally, offer recommendations for achieving an online community for African American men. PMID:22924797

  17. Broadcast media and the dissemination of weather information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrnes, J.

    1973-01-01

    Although television is the public's most preferred source of weather information, it fails to provide weather reports to those groups who seek the information early in the day and during the day. The result is that many people most often use radio as a source of information, yet preferring the medium of television. The public actively seeks weather information from both radio and TV stations, usually seeking information on current conditions and short range forecasts. forecasts. Nearly all broadcast stations surveyed were eager to air severe weather bulletins quickly and often. Interest in Nowcasting was high among radio and TV broadcasters, with a significant portion indicating a willingness to pay something for the service. However, interest among TV stations in increasing the number of daily reports was small.

  18. Weather Fundamentals: Hurricanes & Tornadoes. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) features information on the deadliest and most destructive storms on Earth. Through satellite…

  19. Regional-seasonal weather forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Abarbanel, H.; Foley, H.; MacDonald, G.; Rothaus, O.; Rudermann, M.; Vesecky, J.

    1980-08-01

    In the interest of allocating heating fuels optimally, the state-of-the-art for seasonal weather forecasting is reviewed. A model using an enormous data base of past weather data is contemplated to improve seasonal forecasts, but present skills do not make that practicable. 90 references. (PSB)

  20. Weather Fundamentals: Rain & Snow. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) gives concise explanations of the various types of precipitation and describes how the water…

  1. Weather to Make a Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyle, Julie E.; Mjelde, James W.; Litzenberg, Kerry K.

    2006-01-01

    DECIDE is a teacher-friendly, integrated approach designed to stimulate learning by allowing students to make decisions about situations they face in their lives while using scientific weather principles. This learning unit integrates weather science, decision theory, mathematics, statistics, geography, and reading in a context of decision…

  2. The pioneers of weather forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballard, Susan

    2016-01-01

    In The Weather Experiment author Peter Moore takes us on a compelling journey through the early history of weather forecasting, bringing to life the personalities, lives and achievements of the men who put in place the building blocks required for forecasts to be possible.

  3. Aviation Weather Information Requirements Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keel, Byron M.; Stancil, Charles E.; Eckert, Clifford A.; Brown, Susan M.; Gimmestad, Gary G.; Richards, Mark A.; Schaffner, Philip R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) has as its goal an improvement in aviation safety by a factor of 5 over the next 10 years and a factor of 10 over the next 20 years. Since weather has a big impact on aviation safety and is associated with 30% of all aviation accidents, Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) is a major element under this program. The Aviation Weather Information (AWIN) Distribution and Presentation project is one of three projects under this element. This report contains the findings of a study conducted by the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) under the Enhanced Weather Products effort, which is a task under AWIN. The study examines current aviation weather products and there application. The study goes on to identify deficiencies in the current system and to define requirements for aviation weather products that would lead to an increase in safety. The study also provides an overview the current set of sensors applied to the collection of aviation weather information. New, modified, or fused sensor systems are identified which could be applied in improving the current set of weather products and in addressing the deficiencies defined in the report. In addition, the study addresses and recommends possible sensors for inclusion in an electronic pilot reporting (EPIREP) system.

  4. Space Weather Monitoring and Forecasting Activity in NICT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatsuma, Tsutomu; Watari, Shinichi; T. Murata, Ken

    Disturbances of Space environment around the Earth (geospace) is controlled by the activity of the Sun and the solar wind. Disturbances in geospace sometimes cause serious problems to satellites, astronauts, and telecommunications. To minimize the effect of the problems, space weather forecasting is necessary. In Japan, NICT (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology) is in charge of space weather forecasting services as a regional warning center of International Space Environment Service. With help of geospace environment data exchanging among the international cooperation, NICT operates daily space weather forecast service every day to provide information on nowcasts and forecasts of solar flare, geomagnetic disturbances, solar proton event, and radio-wave propagation conditions in the ionosphere. For prompt reporting of space weather information, we also conduct our original observation networks from the Sun to the upper atmosphere: Hiraiso solar observatory, domestic ionosonde networks, magnetometer & HF radar observations in far-east Siberia and Alaska, and south-east Asia low-latitude ionospheric network (SEALION). ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer) and STEREO (Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory) real-time beacon data are received using our antenna facilities to monitor the solar and solar wind conditions in near real-time. Our current activities and future perspective of space weather monitoring and forecasting will be introduced in this report.

  5. Upgrade Summer Severe Weather Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this task was to upgrade to the existing severe weather database by adding observations from the 2010 warm season, update the verification dataset with results from the 2010 warm season, use statistical logistic regression analysis on the database and develop a new forecast tool. The AMU analyzed 7 stability parameters that showed the possibility of providing guidance in forecasting severe weather, calculated verification statistics for the Total Threat Score (TTS), and calculated warm season verification statistics for the 2010 season. The AMU also performed statistical logistic regression analysis on the 22-year severe weather database. The results indicated that the logistic regression equation did not show an increase in skill over the previously developed TTS. The equation showed less accuracy than TTS at predicting severe weather, little ability to distinguish between severe and non-severe weather days, and worse standard categorical accuracy measures and skill scores over TTS.

  6. Smooth Sailing for Weather Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Through a cooperative venture with NASA's Stennis Space Center, WorldWinds, Inc., developed a unique weather and wave vector map using space-based radar satellite information and traditional weather observations. Called WorldWinds, the product provides accurate, near real-time, high-resolution weather forecasts. It was developed for commercial and scientific users. In addition to weather forecasting, the product's applications include maritime and terrestrial transportation, aviation operations, precision farming, offshore oil and gas operations, and coastal hazard response support. Target commercial markets include the operational maritime and aviation communities, oil and gas providers, and recreational yachting interests. Science applications include global long-term prediction and climate change, land-cover and land-use change, and natural hazard issues. Commercial airlines have expressed interest in the product, as it can provide forecasts over remote areas. WorldWinds, Inc., is currently providing its product to commercial weather outlets.

  7. International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Nat; Davila, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI) is an international scientific program to understand the external drivers of space weather. The science and applications of space weather has been brought to prominence because of the rapid development of space based technology that is useful for all human beings. The ISWI program has its roots in the successful International Heliophysical Year (IHY) program that ran during 2007 - 2009. The primary objective of the ISWI program is to advance the space weather science by a combination of instrument deployment, analysis and interpretation of space weather data from the deployed instruments in conjunction with space data, and communicate the results to the public and students. Like the IHY, the ISWI will be a grass roots organization with key participation from national coordinators in cooperation with an international steering committee. This talk outlines the ISWI program including its organization and proposed activities.

  8. Characterization of the Weatherization Assistance Program network

    SciTech Connect

    Mihlmester, P.E.; Koehler, W.C. Jr.; Beyer, M.A. . Applied Management Sciences Div.); Brown, M.A. ); Beschen, D.A. Jr. . Office of Weatherization Assistance Programs)

    1992-02-01

    The Characterization of the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) Network was designed to describe the national network of State and local agencies that provide WAP services to qualifying low-income households. The objective of this study was to profile the current WAP network. To achieve the objective, two national surveys were conducted: one survey collected data from 49 State WAP agencies (including the coterminous 48 States and the District of Columbia), and the second survey collected data from 920 (or 81 percent) of the local WAP agencies.

  9. 16 Extraordinary African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    This collection for children tells the stories of 16 African Americans who helped make America what it is today. African Americans can take pride in the heritage of these contributors to society. Biographies are given for the following: (1) Sojourner Truth, preacher and abolitionist; (2) Frederick Douglass, abolitionist; (3) Harriet Tubman, leader…

  10. African Literature as Celebration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achebe, Chinua

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Igbo tradition of "Mbari," a communal creative enterprise that celebrates the world and the life lived in it through art. Contrasts the cooperative, social dimension of pre-colonial African culture with the exclusion and denial of European colonialism, and sees new African literature again celebrating human presence and dignity. (AF)

  11. Educating African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American…

  12. Africans Away from Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, John Henrik

    Africans who were brought across the Atlantic as slaves never fully adjusted to slavery or accepted its inevitability. Resistance began on board the slave ships, where many jumped overboard or committed suicide. African slaves in South America led the first revolts against tyranny in the New World. The first slave revolt in the Caribbean occurred…

  13. Keeping African Masks Real

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddington, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Art is a good place to learn about our multicultural planet, and African masks are prized throughout the world as powerfully expressive artistic images. Unfortunately, multicultural education, especially for young children, can perpetuate stereotypes. Masks taken out of context lose their meaning and the term "African masks" suggests that there is…

  14. Weatherization assistance program. Annual report for 1980

    SciTech Connect

    1980-11-01

    This addresses three major areas of concern relating to weatherization activities: (1) extent of progress being made toward achievement of national energy-conservation goals; (2) adequacy and costs of materials; and (3) need for and desirability of modifying weatherization activities and of extending such activities to a broader range of income groups, including changes to the legislation necessary to accomplish these modifications. The report concentrates on the efforts of the Department of Energy's (DOE) program for Weatherization Assistance for Low-Income Persons. Among the most-significant innovations introduced to the program in 1980 are: performance funding (granting funds on the basis of proven production capability), payment for labor and contractors, inexpensive interim measures, and more flexibility in determining eligibility for multi-family buildings. In addition, the program improved communications with the Department of Labor (DOL) and the Community Services Administration (CSA) as well as with representatives of the local program operators. Headquarters staffing was strengthened in 1980, and a management agreement was signed.

  15. NASA's Internal Space Weather Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Cyr, O. C.; Guhathakurta, M.; Bell, H.; Niemeyer, L.; Allen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements from many of NASA's scientific spacecraft are used routinely by space weather forecasters, both in the U.S. and internationally. ACE, SOHO (an ESA/NASA collaboration), STEREO, and SDO provide images and in situ measurements that are assimilated into models and cited in alerts and warnings. A number of years ago, the Space Weather laboratory was established at NASA-Goddard, along with the Community Coordinated Modeling Center. Within that organization, a space weather service center has begun issuing alerts for NASA's operational users. NASA's operational user community includes flight operations for human and robotic explorers; atmospheric drag concerns for low-Earth orbit; interplanetary navigation and communication; and the fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles, high altitude aircraft, and launch vehicles. Over the past three years we have identified internal stakeholders within NASA and formed a Working Group to better coordinate their expertise and their needs. In this presentation we will describe this activity and some of the challenges in forming a diverse working group.

  16. Intimate Partner Violence among West African Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    AKINSULURE-SMITH, ADEYINKA M.; CHU, TRACY; KEATLEY, EVA; RASMUSSEN, ANDREW

    2013-01-01

    Although the number of African immigrants arriving to the United States has increased significantly, there has been little investigation regarding their experiences of intimate partner violence or coping strategies. This study used focus groups and individual interviews to explore intimate partner violence among 32 heterosexual West African immigrants. Results suggest that although cultural expectations influence their coping strategies, West African–born men and women face different realities, with women reporting multiple instances of abuse and a sense of frustration with the existing options for assistance. Although participants discussed multilevel support structures within the immediate West African community to address intimate partner violence, all of these options maintained a gender hierarchy, leaving women dissatisfied. Challenges and barriers to partner violence resolution and coping strategies are identified. Results are examined in terms of their implications for addressing the needs of this underserved population. Implications for future research and services are discussed and highlighted. PMID:23730146

  17. Diabetes in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, M

    2005-01-01

    African Americans have a high risk for type 2 diabetes. Genetic traits, the prevalence of obesity, and insulin resistance all contribute to the risk of diabetes in the African American community. African Americans have a high rate of diabetic complications, because of poor glycaemic control and racial disparities in health care in the USA. African Americans with diabetes may have an atypical presentation that simulates type 1 diabetes, but then their subsequent clinical course is typical of type 2 diabetes. Culturally sensitive strategies, structured disease management protocols, and the assistance of nurses, diabetic educators, and other health care professionals are effective in improving the outcome of diabetes in the African American community. PMID:16344294

  18. Weatherization Works: Final Report of the National Weatherization Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.

    2001-02-01

    In 1990, the US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored a comprehensive evaluation of its Weatherization Assistance Program, the nation's largest residential energy conservation program. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) managed the five-part study. This document summarizes the findings of the evaluation. Its conclusions are based mainly on data from the 1989 program year. The evaluation concludes that the Program meets the objectives of its enabling legislation and fulfills its mission statement. Specifically, it saves energy, lowers fuel bills, and improves the health and safety of dwellings occupied by low-income people. In addition, the Program achieves its mission in a cost-effective manner based on each of three perspectives employed by the evaluators. Finally, the evaluation estimates that the investments made in 1989 will, over a 20-year lifetime, save the equivalent of 12 million barrels of oil, roughly the amount of oil added to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve in each of the past several years. The Program's mission is to reduce the heating and cooling costs for low-income families--particularly the elderly, persons with disabilities, and children by improving the energy efficiency of their homes and ensuring their health and safety. Substantial progress has been made, but the job is far from over. The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) reports that the average low-income family spends 12 percent of its income on residential energy, compared to only 3% for the average-income family. Homes where low-income families live also have a greater need for energy efficiency improvements, but less money to pay for them.

  19. African bees to control African elephants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollrath, Fritz; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2002-11-01

    Numbers of elephants have declined in Africa and Asia over the past 30 years while numbers of humans have increased, both substantially. Friction between these two keystone species is reaching levels which are worryingly high from an ecological as well as a political viewpoint. Ways and means must be found to keep the two apart, at least in areas sensitive to each species' survival. The aggressive African bee might be one such method. Here we demonstrate that African bees deter elephants from damaging the vegetation and trees which house their hives. We argue that bees can be employed profitably to protect not only selected trees, but also selected areas, from elephant damage.

  20. Space Weather Data Dissemination Tools from the Community Coordinated Modeling Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donti, N.; Berrios, D.; Boblitt, J.; LaSota, J.; Maddox, M. M.; Mullinix, R.; Hesse, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has developed new space weather data dissemination products. These include a Java-based conversion software for space weather simulation data, an interactive and customizable timeline tool for time series data, and Android phone and tablet versions of the NASA Space Weather App for mobile devices. We highlight the new features of all the updated services, discuss the back-end capabilities required to realize these services, and talk about future services in development.