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Sample records for african west coast

  1. Improvisation in West African Musics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, David

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is music of the sub-Sahara. Vocal, instrumental, and dance drumming from the Sudan Desert, the North Coast, East Horn, Central and West Africa, and contrapuntal yodeling of Pygmies is described. For African musicians, the ability to improvise, and creativity, are gifts from God. Includes selected readings and recordings. (KC)

  2. On some sea cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) from off the south and west coasts of South Africa collected by the South African Environmental and Observation Network (SAEON).

    PubMed

    Thandar, Ahmed S; Rambaran, Ryan

    2015-08-07

    Twenty four specimens of holothuroids recently received from the South African Environmental and Observation Network (SAEON), collected from off the south and west coasts of South Africa, are herein recorded and/or described. The specimens comprise eight nominal and one indeterminate species and represent both shallow-water and deep-sea forms, distributed from Plettenberg Bay to just north of Lambert's Bay in the Western Cape Province. There are no new species but two new records for the South African region and extensions of horizontal and bathymetric distributions of the other species. Additions to the South African fauna are Zygothuria lactea (Théel, 1886) and Synallactes cf. challengeri (Théel, 1886). The paper also contains the first definite record of Thyone venusta Selenka, 1868, originally described from the Red Sea. Distribution ranges of the following species have been altered Synallactes viridilimus Cherbonnier, 1952; S. mollis Cherbonnier, 1952 and Psuedostichopus langeae Thandar, 2009.

  3. A test of the hypothesis on the Guyana and the West-African Shield assembly: New Paleoproterozoic paleomagnetic results from French Guyana and Ivory-Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastien, N.; Sebastien, N.; yan, C.; Gilbert, F.; Andre, P.; Andre, P.; Max, V.; yao, D.

    2001-12-01

    In the last 3 decades the hypotheis of a Paleoproterozoic supercontinent has been debated. It is generally accepted that the supercontinent assembly was initiated with the groupment of Guyana and West-African shields. However, the existing paleomagnetic database is neither quantitatively nor qualitatively sufficient to precise when this assembly began. In order to better understand the paleogeographic evolution of the Guyana and West African shields, a total of 59 sites of granitoids and metavolcanic rocks were sampled (33 from French Guyana and 26 from Ivory-Coast). Rock magnetic, petrographic and paleomagnetic measurements were carried out on this collection Both automorphous magnetite and hematite are identified as the main magnetic remanent carriers and characteristic magnetic components were isolated. These paleomagnetic directions are distinct from both the present Earth field and the local Early Jurassic ones. Positive reversal tests are also observed for the two age-groups from French Guyana. Based on above arguments, the magnetic remanence can be consiered as the primary Paleoproterozoic magnetization. Four mean poles are therefore calculated, named A, B for French Guyana and C1, C2 for Ivory-Coast: A: lambdaA = -62oN, phiA = 61oE, k=18, A95 =10o, N =15; B: lambdaB = -5oN, phiB = 50oE, k= 26, A95 = 18o, N = 5 ; C1: lambdaC1 = -82oN, phiC1 = 292oN, k = 28, A95 = 13o, N = 6 ; C2: lambdaC2 = -25oN, phiC2 = 83oE, k= 11, A95 = 16o, N = 9. 40Ar/39Ar data suggest a magnetization age ranging from 2.04 to 1.97 Ga and 2.10 to 2.00 Ga for the poles from for the French Guyana and Ivory-Coast, respectively. Two Paleoproterozoic APWPs are proposed for these two shields. The comparison of these two paths confirms that the two cratons were intergrated to a same block at about 2.00 Ga and, however, separated before 2.02 Ga. This hypothesis is supported by field geological and tectonic observations. Nevertheless, more paleomagnetic and geochronological constaints are needed

  4. Aerosol patterns and aerosol-cloud-interactions off the West African Coast based on the A-train formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Julia; Bendix, Jörg; Cermak, Jan

    2013-04-01

    In this study, spatial and temporal aerosol patterns off the Western African coast are characterized and related to cloud properties, based on satellite data Atmospheric aerosols play a key role in atmospheric processes and influence our environmental system in a complex way. Their identification, characterization, transport patterns as well as their interactions with clouds pose major challenges. Especially the last aspect reveals major uncertainties in terms of the Earth's radiation budget as reported in the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC, 2007). Western and Southern Africa are dominated by two well-known source types of atmospheric aerosols. First, the Saharan Desert is the world's largest aeolian dust emitting source region. Second, biomass burning aerosol is commonly transported off-shore further south (Kaufman et al., 2005). Both aerosol types influence Earth's climate in different manners and can be detected by the MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer) sensor onboard the EOS platforms as they propagate to the Central and Southern Atlantic. The motivation of this study was to reveal the seasonal pattern of the Saharan dust transport based on an observation period of 11 years and trying to explain the meteorological mechanisms. North African dust plumes are transported along a latitude of 19°N in July and 6°N in January. The seasonally fluctuating intensities adapt to the annual cycle of wind and precipitation regimes. A strong relationship is found between the spatial shift of the Azores High and the Saharan dust load over the middle Atlantic Ocean. Monthly Aerosol Optical Thickness products of Terra MODIS and NCEP-DOE (National Centers for Environmental Predictions) Reanalysis II data are used for this purpose. The relationship between aerosol and cloud droplet parameters is blurred by high sensitivities to aerosol size and composition (Feingold, 2003; McFiggans et al., 2006) as well as meteorological context (Ackerman et al., 2004

  5. 77 FR 58930 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Announcing OMB Approval of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ... West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Announcing OMB Approval of Information Collection... fisheries operating in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off West Coast states. This new part 660 included a... regulatory areas in the commercial ocean salmon fishery off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and...

  6. Role of inertial instability in the West African monsoon jump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Kerry H.

    2015-04-01

    The West African monsoon jump is a sudden shift in the latitude of the West African precipitation maximum from the Guinean coast near 4°N into Sahel near 12°N in late June or early July. An examination of reanalyses and observations indicates that the Sahel rainy season develops smoothly and the monsoon jump occurs because of an abrupt decrease in Guinean coast rainfall. We show that this abrupt end of the coastal rainy season occurs when inertial instability develops over the region, 1 month later than it develops in the vicinity of the marine Atlantic Intertropical Convergence Zone. The reason for this delay is the presence of the African easterly jet, which places strong negative meridional zonal wind gradients over the coast to preserve the inertially stable environment. When the African easterly jet moves farther north due to the seasonal solar forcing, these gradients weaken and then reverse to satisfy the threshold condition for inertial instability; the rapid end of the Guinean coast rainy season follows. The northward movement and intensity of the African easterly jet are controlled by the seasonal development of strong meridional land surface temperature gradients and are independent of the formation of the Atlantic cold tongue. This explanation for the West African monsoon jump relates the phenomenon to the shape and location of the African continent, including the low-latitude position of the Guinean coast and the large expanse of the continent to the north.

  7. 78 FR 70509 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... Administration 50 CFR Part 660 [Docket No. 130108020-3409-01] RIN 0648-XC964 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 12 Through 34... comments. Mail: William W. Stelle, Jr., Regional Administrator, West Coast Region, NMFS, 7600 Sand...

  8. A West African Link

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Angela; Davies, Penny

    2003-01-01

    The authors visited Ghana in West Africa to strengthen a link established the previous year as part of Channel 4's "On the Line" project. The initial link established in 1999/2000 was between an all-age special school in Enfield and a similar school in Accra. Over the course of that year further partnerships were created between five UK…

  9. 78 FR 24360 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XC631 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 1..., by telephone hotline number 206-526-6667 and 800-662-9825, and by U.S. Coast Guard Notice to...

  10. 78 FR 50347 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XC738 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 6 Through 11 AGENCY..., by telephone hotline number 206-526-6667 and 800-662-9825, and by U.S. Coast Guard Notice to...

  11. 75 FR 75638 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XY31 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 12...-6667 and 800-662- 9825, and by U.S. Coast Guard Notice to Mariners broadcasts on Channel 16 VHF-FM...

  12. 75 FR 54791 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XY08 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 9..., and by U.S. Coast Guard Notice to Mariners broadcasts on Channel 16 VHF-FM and 2182...

  13. 77 FR 25915 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2012 Management Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... Administration 50 CFR Part 660 [Docket No. 120424023-1023-01] RIN 0648-XA921 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2012 Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...'' fishery management plan entitled the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan (Salmon...

  14. 78 FR 30780 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XC686 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Action 3 AGENCY: National... number 206-526-6667 and 800-662-9825, and by U.S. Coast Guard Notice to Mariners broadcasts on Channel...

  15. 76 FR 25246 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2011 Management Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XA184 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2011 Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... managed under a ``framework'' fishery management plan entitled the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery...

  16. 77 FR 65329 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XC282 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 22... effective, by telephone hotline number 206-526-6667 and 800-662-9825, and by U.S. Coast Guard Notice...

  17. 78 FR 25865 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2013 Management Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XC438 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2013 Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... ``framework'' fishery management plan entitled the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan (Salmon...

  18. 75 FR 24482 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2010 Management Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-AY60 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2010 Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... managed under a ``framework'' fishery management plan entitled the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery...

  19. 75 FR 75639 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XY83 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 14..., by telephone hotline number 206-526-6667 and 800-662- 9825, and by U.S. Coast Guard Notice...

  20. West Coast Tsunami: Cascadia's Fault?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Y.; Bernard, E. N.; Titov, V.

    2013-12-01

    The tragedies of 2004 Sumatra and 2011 Japan tsunamis exposed the limits of our knowledge in preparing for devastating tsunamis. The 1,100-km coastline of the Pacific coast of North America has tectonic and geological settings similar to Sumatra and Japan. The geological records unambiguously show that the Cascadia fault had caused devastating tsunamis in the past and this geological process will cause tsunamis in the future. Hypotheses of the rupture process of Cascadia fault include a long rupture (M9.1) along the entire fault line, short ruptures (M8.8 - M9.1) nucleating only a segment of the coastline, or a series of lesser events of M8+. Recent studies also indicate an increasing probability of small rupture occurring at the south end of the Cascadia fault. Some of these hypotheses were implemented in the development of tsunami evacuation maps in Washington and Oregon. However, the developed maps do not reflect the tsunami impact caused by the most recent updates regarding the Cascadia fault rupture process. The most recent study by Wang et al. (2013) suggests a rupture pattern of high- slip patches separated by low-slip areas constrained by estimates of coseismic subsidence based on microfossil analyses. Since this study infers that a Tokohu-type of earthquake could strike in the Cascadia subduction zone, how would such an tsunami affect the tsunami hazard assessment and planning along the Pacific Coast of North America? The rapid development of computing technology allowed us to look into the tsunami impact caused by above hypotheses using high-resolution models with large coverage of Pacific Northwest. With the slab model of MaCrory et al. (2012) (as part of the USGS slab 1.0 model) for the Cascadia earthquake, we tested the above hypotheses to assess the tsunami hazards along the entire U.S. West Coast. The modeled results indicate these hypothetical scenarios may cause runup heights very similar to those observed along Japan's coastline during the 2011

  1. An Introduction to West African Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taiwo, Oladele

    Intended to provide help for those interested in studying West African literature, this book is divided into three parts. Part One provides background information: the various African oral traditions are discussed, related to the way of life of the people, and examined for the extent to which they form the basis of present West African literary…

  2. Eighteenth annual West Coast theoretical chemistry conference

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    Abstracts are presented from the eighteenth annual west coast theoretical chemistry conference. Topics include molecular simulations; quasiclassical simulations of reactions; photodissociation reactions; molecular dynamics;interface studies; electronic structure; and semiclassical methods of reactive systems.

  3. 76 FR 32876 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2011 Management Measures; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XA184 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2011 Management Measures; Correction AGENCY: National...

  4. 77 FR 61728 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XC223 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 15... the action was effective, by telephone hotline number 206-526-6667 and 800-662-9825, and by U.S....

  5. Syntactic Variation in West African English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamiro, Edmund O.

    1995-01-01

    Describes syntactic variation in West African English with examples from West African English literature and identifies and describes subjectless sentences, deletion of the -ly morpheme in manner adjuncts, omission of function words, reduplication, tag questions, substitution of prepositions in idiomatic usage, and focus constructions. (53…

  6. 76 FR 79122 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Biennial Specifications and... management measures in the commercial and recreational Pacific Coast groundfish fisheries. These actions, which are authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP), are intended...

  7. 75 FR 8820 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Biennial Specifications and... management measures in the commercial, recreational and tribal Pacific Coast groundfish fisheries. These actions, which are authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP), are...

  8. 78 FR 35153 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XC705 Fisheries Off West Coast...: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce.... Kara Meckley, Acting Deputy Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine...

  9. 78 FR 579 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-03

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2013-2014 Biennial...; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2013-2014 Biennial Specifications and... specifications and management measures for groundfish taken in the U.S. exclusive economic zone off the coasts...

  10. Doppler sounder observations of trade winds and sea breezes along the African west coast near 34 ° S, 19 ° E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jury, Mark; Spencer-Smith, Garth

    1988-09-01

    Summer weather conditions along the west coast of Africa near 34 ° S, 18 ° E are investigated using doppler acoustic sounder profiles. Case studies were selected from a two-year record to form composite analyses over the diurnal cycle. The SE trade wind exhibited a low level jet at the level of the temperature inversion due to a sharp reversal in the thermal wind vector aloft. Mean wind speeds reached 14 m s-1 just before midnight as the surface and upper inversions strengthened. Seabreezes were categorised by the supporting gradient wind and found to have mean depths of 400 m, speeds of over 6 m s-1 at the 200 m level, and advance/retreat times of 09 hr and 16 20 hr. During seabreezes and weak on-shore gradient flow conditions, the thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) was monitored with sounder transects in the first 12 km of the coastal zone. The growth height was observed to be 1:20 in the first 5 km and 1:50 farther inland. The sounder climatology, together with surface network and aerial survey results, illustrate the four-dimensional characteristics of trade winds and seabreezes near Cape Town.

  11. Y Chromosome Lineages in Men of West African Descent

    PubMed Central

    Keita, Shomarka O. Y.; Kittles, Rick A.

    2012-01-01

    The early African experience in the Americas is marked by the transatlantic slave trade from ∼1619 to 1850 and the rise of the plantation system. The origins of enslaved Africans were largely dependent on European preferences as well as the availability of potential laborers within Africa. Rice production was a key industry of many colonial South Carolina low country plantations. Accordingly, rice plantations owners within South Carolina often requested enslaved Africans from the so-called “Grain Coast” of western Africa (Senegal to Sierra Leone). Studies on the African origins of the enslaved within other regions of the Americas have been limited. To address the issue of origins of people of African descent within the Americas and understand more about the genetic heterogeneity present within Africa and the African Diaspora, we typed Y chromosome specific markers in 1,319 men consisting of 508 west and central Africans (from 12 populations), 188 Caribbeans (from 2 islands), 532 African Americans (AAs from Washington, DC and Columbia, SC), and 91 European Americans. Principal component and admixture analyses provide support for significant Grain Coast ancestry among African American men in South Carolina. AA men from DC and the Caribbean showed a closer affinity to populations from the Bight of Biafra. Furthermore, 30–40% of the paternal lineages in African descent populations in the Americas are of European ancestry. Diverse west African ancestries and sex-biased gene flow from EAs has contributed greatly to the genetic heterogeneity of African populations throughout the Americas and has significant implications for gene mapping efforts in these populations. PMID:22295064

  12. WEST COAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Myer; Terry Surles; Kelly Birkinshaw

    2004-01-01

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership is one of seven partnerships which have been established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon dioxide capture, transport and sequestration (CT&S) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and the North Slope of Alaska. Led by the California Energy Commission, the West Coast Partnership is a consortium of over thirty five organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national labs and universities; private companies working on CO{sub 2} capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. In an eighteen month Phase I project, the Partnership will evaluate both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options. Work will focus on five major objectives: (1) Collect data to characterize major CO{sub 2} point sources, the transportation options, and the terrestrial and geologic sinks in the region, and compile and organize this data via a geographic information system (GIS) database; (2) Address key issues affecting deployment of CT&S technologies, including storage site permitting and monitoring, injection regulations, and health and environmental risks (3) Conduct public outreach and maintain an open dialogue with stakeholders in CT&S technologies through public meetings, joint research, and education work (4) Integrate and analyze data and information from the above tasks in order to develop supply curves and cost effective, environmentally acceptable sequestration options, both near- and long-term (5) Identify appropriate terrestrial and geologic demonstration projects consistent with the options defined above, and create action plans for their safe and effective implementation A kickoff meeting for the West Coast Partnership was held on Sept 30-Oct

  13. West African Folktales [and] Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Steven H.

    Traditionally, an important function of folktales in West Africa has been to educate, as the older generation imparts knowledge to younger members of the family, tribe, societal unit, or ethnic group both informally in everyday life and more formally within the context of the bush schools. This anthology of West African folk literature offers more…

  14. 78 FR 72 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-BC01 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl Rationalization Program; Reconsideration... proposes revisions to several portions of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Trawl...

  15. 75 FR 51684 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ...; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Inseason Adjustments to Fishery... coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California. These actions, which are authorized by the Pacific Coast... for the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (73 FR 80516). The final rule to implement the...

  16. 76 FR 65673 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-BA55 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National...: NMFS proposes regulations to implement Amendment 16 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management...

  17. 77 FR 55426 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 4...; request for comments. SUMMARY: NOAA Fisheries announces 11 inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries... INFORMATION: Background In the 2012 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (77 FR 25915, May...

  18. 77 FR 10466 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2012 Tribal Fishery for... rule for the 2012 Pacific whiting fishery under the authority of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery... rights in the area ] covered by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP) request...

  19. 75 FR 11829 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2010 Tribal Fishery for... coastal treaty Indian tribes' rights to harvest Pacific Coast groundfish. Washington coastal treaty Indian... rights in the area covered by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP) can request...

  20. 76 FR 38313 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery... rule announces inseason changes to management measures in the commercial Pacific Coast groundfish fisheries. These actions, which are authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan...

  1. 75 FR 61102 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Inseason Adjustments to...) off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California. These actions, which are authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP), are intended to allow fisheries to access...

  2. 75 FR 39178 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Biennial Specifications and... for the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (73 FR 80516), including, among other species, darkblotched.... Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California, and revised...

  3. 75 FR 23620 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ...-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Biennial... economic zone (EEZ) and state waters off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California, as authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP). These specifications include the level...

  4. 75 FR 75449 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Comment Period Extension...; Amendment 16-5; and Amendment 23 to the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (PCGFMP). The... specifications and management measures for groundfish taken in the U.S. exclusive economic zone off the coasts...

  5. 75 FR 75417 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Inseason Adjustments to Fishery Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric...; request for comments. SUMMARY: This final rule makes inseason adjustments to commercial and tribal...

  6. Roots and Branches: Contemporary Essays by West Coast Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junker, Howard, Ed.

    Celebrating the vitality and diversity of West Coast writing, this book is a collection of 35 essays by writers based in California, Oregon, Washington, and Alaska. Loosely organized around the ideas that West Coast writers often look to their roots elsewhere and that they pursue new directions as varied as their roots, the collection presents a…

  7. Marine West Coast Forests, Chapter 9

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perakis, Steven S.; Geiser, Linda H.; Lilleskov, Erik A.; Pardo, Linda H.; Robin-Abbott, Molly J.; Driscoll, Charles T.

    2011-01-01

    Human activities have greatly increased nitrogen emissions and deposition across large areas of Earth. Although nitrogen is an essential nutrient for plant growth, too much nitrogen in excess of critical loads leads to losses of biodiversity, soil and stream acidification, nutrient imbalances, and other deleterious effects. In a new report quantifying critical loads of nitrogen deposition across the United States, USGS scientist Steve Perakis and co-authors provided a chapter about responses of marine west coast forests. Much of this region is understudied with respect to nitrogen deposition, and in this chapter the authors identify known adverse effects and estimate critical loads of nitrogen deposition for western Oregon and Washington and southeast Alaska forests. Perakis also contributed to the synthesis chapter, which includes background, objectives, advantages and uncertainties of critical loads, an overview of critical loads across U.S. ecoregions, and other topics.

  8. Phytoplankton off the West Coast of Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Just off the coast of West Africa, persistent northeasterly trade winds often churn up deep ocean water. When the nutrients in these deep waters reach the ocean's surface, they often give rise to large blooms of phytoplankton. This image of the Mauritanian coast shows swirls of phytoplankton fed by the upwelling of nutrient-rich water. The scene was acquired by the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) aboard the European Space Agency's ENVISAT. MERIS will monitor changes in phytoplankton across Earth's oceans and seas, both for the purpose of managing fisheries and conducting global change research. NASA scientists will use data from this European instrument in the Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) program. The mission of SIMBIOS is to construct a consistent long-term dataset of ocean color (phytoplankton abundance) measurements made by multiple satellite instruments, including the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). For more information about MERIS and ENVISAT, visit the ENVISAT home page. Image copyright European Space Agency

  9. 1. AERIAL VIEW TO WEST OF COAST GUARD AIR STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW TO WEST OF COAST GUARD AIR STATION SAN FRANCISCO, SHOWING ALL MAJOR BUILDINGS. 8X10 black and white silver gelatin print. United States Coast Guard, February 1962. - U.S. Coast Guard Air Station San Francisco, 1020 North Access Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  10. 75 FR 4684 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Data Collection for the Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Data Collection for the Trawl Rationalization... future trawl rationalization program under the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP... participants in the Pacific Coast groundfish trawl rationalization program and announcing the databases...

  11. Poxvirus in West African nonhuman primates: serological survey results*

    PubMed Central

    Breman, J. G.; Bernadou, J.; Nakano, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    Ten species of nonhuman primates in West African habitat were analysed for variolavaccinia subgroup haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) and neutralization antibodies. The animals were taken in 27 different sampling zones in parts of the Ivory Coast, Mali, and Upper Volta. Of the 195 tested, 15 (8%) had elevated HI antibodies after nonspecific reactions were reduced with potassium periodate pretreatment. Positive neutralization antibodies were found in 21% (44 of 206). Antibodies were detected in serum from monkeys living near two areas where monkeypox cases in humans had occurred. Four samples were tested for monkeypox specific antibodies using an indirect immunofluorescent test; 3 were positive. Despite the prevalence of poxvirus antibodies in monkeys (and other animals) in West Africa, smallpox eradication has been maintained in the area since 1970; thus, animal reservoirs of poxvirus appear to pose no threat to the worldwide smallpox eradication programme. PMID:201389

  12. Heat flow from the West African shield

    SciTech Connect

    Brigaud, F.; Lucazeau, F.; Ly, S.; Sauvage, J.F.

    1985-09-01

    The heat flow over Precambrian shields is generally lower than over other continental provinces. Previous observations at 9 sites of the West African shield have shown that heat flow ranges from 20 mW m/sup -2/ in Niger to 38-42 mW m/sup -2/ in Liberia, Ghana and Nigeria. Since some of these values are lower than expected for Precambrian shields, it is important to find out whether or not they are representative of the entire shield before trying to derive its thermal structure. In this paper, we present new heat flow determinations from seven sites of the West African shield. These indicate that the surface heat flow is comparable with that of other Precambrian shields in the world.

  13. 76 FR 59634 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2012 Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-BB27 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2012 Specifications and Management Measures and Secretarial... the U.S. exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California...

  14. 76 FR 77415 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2012 Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-BB27 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2012 Specifications and Management Measures and Secretarial... (EEZ) off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California consistent with the Magnuson-Stevens...

  15. 75 FR 67032 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-AY68 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20 and 21; Trawl Rationalization... ``Initial Issuance Final Rule''). In addition, that rule restructured the entire Pacific Coast...

  16. West Indian Ocean variability and East African fish catch.

    PubMed

    Jury, M; McClanahan, T; Maina, J

    2010-08-01

    We describe marine climate variability off the east coast of Africa in the context of fish catch statistics for Tanzania and Kenya. The time series exhibits quasi-decadal cycles over the period 1964-2007. Fish catch is up when sea surface temperature (SST) and atmospheric humidity are below normal in the tropical West Indian Ocean. This pattern relates to an ocean Rossby wave in one phase of its east-west oscillation. Coastal-scale analyses indicate that northward currents and uplift on the shelf edge enhance productivity of East African shelf waters. Some of the changes are regulated by the south equatorial current that swings northward from Madagascar. The weather is drier and a salty layer develops in high catch years. While the large-scale West Indian Ocean has some impact on East African fish catch, coastal dynamics play a more significant role. Climatic changes are reviewed using 200 years of past and projected data. The observed warming trend continues to increase such that predicted SST may reach 30 degrees C by 2100 while SW monsoon winds gradually increase, according to a coupled general circulation model simulation with a gradual doubling of CO(2).

  17. INTERIOR LIBRARY HALL, LOOKING WEST. Oregon Inlet Coast Guard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR LIBRARY HALL, LOOKING WEST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  18. INTERIOR INNKEEPER FAMILY ROOM, LOOKING WEST. Oregon Inlet Coast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR INNKEEPER FAMILY ROOM, LOOKING WEST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  19. INTERIOR BUNK ROOM B, LOOKING WEST. Oregon Inlet Coast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR BUNK ROOM B, LOOKING WEST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  20. Sequestration Options for the West Coast States

    SciTech Connect

    Myer, Larry

    2006-04-30

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) is one of seven partnerships that have been established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and British Columbia. Led by the California Energy Commission, WESTCARB is a consortium of about 70 organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national laboratories and universities; private companies working on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. Both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options were evaluated in the Region during the 18-month Phase I project. A centralized Geographic Information System (GIS) database of stationary source, geologic and terrestrial sink data was developed. The GIS layer of source locations was attributed with CO{sub 2} emissions and other data and a spreadsheet was developed to estimate capture costs for the sources in the region. Phase I characterization of regional geological sinks shows that geologic storage opportunities exist in the WESTCARB region in each of the major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery. The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, the potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, and the cumulative production from gas reservoirs suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. A GIS-based method for source

  1. 76 FR 81851 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National... Conservation and Management Act (MSA) to implement Amendment 16 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management... available on the Pacific Fishery Management Council's Web site ( http://www.pcouncil.org/ ). FOR...

  2. Complicating Culturally Relevant Pedagogy: Unpacking West African Immigrants' Cultural Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Keisha McIntosh; Jackson, Iesha; Knight, Michelle G.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents findings from a case study of 18 second- and 1.5-generation West African immigrants. We draw upon notions of elusive culture and indigenous knowledges to highlight participants' complex cultural identities and respond to anti-immigration discourses through positioning West African immigrant students as assets in American…

  3. 75 FR 13081 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XRO1 Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... trawl rationalization program that would affect the limited entry trawl fishery of the Pacific...

  4. Black-white unions: West Indians and African Americans compared.

    PubMed

    Model, S; Fisher, G

    2001-05-01

    In this research we use 1990 PUMS data to compare the propensity for unions between African Americans and native whites with the propensity for unions between British West Indians and native whites. In addition, we distinguish women and men. Descriptive statistics indicate that West Indians, with the exception of men who arrived as adults, are more likely than African Americans to have white partners. After the introduction of controls for several correlates of intermarriage, however, West Indian men of any generation have lower exogamy rates than African American men, while exogamy rates are higher among West Indian women who arrived as children or who were born in the United States than among African American women. Thus we find no consistent evidence of greater exogamy for British West Indians than for African Americans.

  5. Geographic signatures of North American West Coast estuaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emmett, Robert; Llansó, Roberto; Newton, Jan; Thom, Ron; Hornberger, Michelle; Morgan, Cheryl; Levings, Colin; Copping, Andrea; Fishman, Paul

    2000-01-01

    West Coast estuaries are geologically young and composed of a variety of geomorphological types. These estuaries range from large fjords to shallow lagoons; from large to low freshwater flows. Natural hazards include E1 Niños, strong Pacific storms, and active tectonic activity. West Coast estuaries support a wide range of living resources: five salmon species, harvestable shellfish, waterfowl and marine birds, marine mammals, and a variety of algae and plants. Although populations of many of these living resources have declined (salmonids), others have increased (marine mammals). West Coast estuaries are also centers of commerce and increasingly large shipping traffic. The West Coast human population is rising faster than most other areas of the U.S. and Canada, and is distributed heavily in southern California, the San Francisco Bay area, around Puget Sound, and the Fraser River estuary. While water pollution is a problem in many of the urbanized estuaries, most estuaries do not suffer from poor water quality. Primary estuarine problems include habitat alterations, degradation, and loss; diverted freshwater flows; marine sediment contamination; and exotic species introductions. The growing West Coast economy and population are in part related to the quality of life, which is dependent on the use and enjoyment of abundant coastal natural resources.

  6. West African International Summer School for Young Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strubbe, Linda E.; Okere, Bonaventure

    2016-10-01

    The West African International Summer School for Young Astronomers (WAISSYA) is a week-long program for university science students and teachers from West Africa to develop their interest in astronomy. The first summer school was held in Abuja, Nigeria, in 2013; the second Summer School was held in Nsukka, Nigeria, in July 2015. West Africa has a large number of students interested in science, but a paucity of facilities or interest from funding bodies in developing West African astronomy. Our broad goals for the WAISSYA program are: (1) to introduce West African students to astronomy; (2) to exchange ideas about teaching and learning in West Africa and abroad; and (3) to continue building a sustained astronomy partnership between West Africa and Canada. We now briefly describe three defining aspects of WAISSYA 2015.

  7. CAUSE Resiliency (West Coast) Experiment Final Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    context for the emergency response in all locations was a major Cascadian subduction zone earthquake off the coast of Oregon of magnitude 9.0. A...was developed around a large Cascadian subduction zone earthquake of Magnitude 9.0. This provided context for the time slices chosen for the vignettes...and incidents in their jurisdiction. An earthquake in the Cascadian subduction zone is an example of one such potential eventuality that is revisited

  8. North-South Migration of West Coast Low Pressure Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, C. Barron

    1974-01-01

    Monthly maps of low pressure centers are presented here to attempt a concrete representation that may help students to understand the seasonal change from dry months to wet months along the mid-latitude west coast as a seasonal north-south migration of factors controlling rain and drought. (Author/JH)

  9. Experimental Rift Valley fever in West African Dwarf sheep.

    PubMed

    Fagbami, A H; Tomori, O; Fabiyi, A; Isoun, T T

    1975-05-01

    West African Dwarf sheep were challenged with a low mouse brain-passaged Rift Valley fever virus (Ib-AR 55172) isolated from Nigeria. Viraemia, mild febrile reaction and neutralising antibodies were demonstrated in inoculated animals.

  10. 77 FR 65639 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off the West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off the West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Pacific Whiting and Non... October 4, 2012. This action is authorized by regulations implementing the Pacific Coast Groundfish... available for harvest to other sectors of the trawl fishery. For 2012 the Washington Coast treaty...

  11. Experimental characterization of West African Newcastle disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four West African strains and one South African strain of virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were characterized through a two-phase experiment. Strains investigated were Burkina Faso/2415-580/2008, Nigeria/228-7/2006, Niger/1377/2006, and Goose/South Africa/08100426/2008. Phylogenetic analysis s...

  12. 7 CFR 319.8-12 - From the West Coast of Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false From the West Coast of Mexico. 319.8-12 Section 319.8... Conditions for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-12 From the West Coast of Mexico. Contingent upon continued freedom of the West Coast of Mexico and of Northwest Mexico from infestations...

  13. 7 CFR 319.8-12 - From the West Coast of Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false From the West Coast of Mexico. 319.8-12 Section 319.8... Conditions for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-12 From the West Coast of Mexico. Contingent upon continued freedom of the West Coast of Mexico and of Northwest Mexico from infestations...

  14. 7 CFR 319.8-12 - From the West Coast of Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false From the West Coast of Mexico. 319.8-12 Section 319.8... Conditions for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-12 From the West Coast of Mexico. Contingent upon continued freedom of the West Coast of Mexico and of Northwest Mexico from infestations...

  15. 7 CFR 319.8-12 - From the West Coast of Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false From the West Coast of Mexico. 319.8-12 Section 319.8... Conditions for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-12 From the West Coast of Mexico. Contingent upon continued freedom of the West Coast of Mexico and of Northwest Mexico from infestations...

  16. Sulfur Upwelling off the African Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Though these aquamarine clouds in the waters off the coast of northern Namibia may look like algae blooms, they are in fact clouds of sulfur produced by anaerobic bacteria on the ocean's floor. This image of the sulfur-filled water was taken on April 24, 2002, by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the Orbview-2 satellite. The anaerobic bacteria (bacteria that can live without oxygen) feed upon algae carcasses that exist in abundance on the ocean's floor off of Namibia. As the bacteria ingest the algae husks, they produce hydrogen sulfide, which slowly builds up in the sea-floor sediments. Eventually, the hydrogen sulfide reaches the point where the sediment can no longer contain it, and it bubbles forth. When this poisonous chemical reaches the surface, it combines with the oxygen in the upper layers of the ocean to create clouds of pure sulfur. The sulfur causes the Namibian coast to smell like rotten eggs, and the hydrogen sulfide will often kill fish and drive lobsters away. For more information, read: A Bloom By Any Other Name A high-resolution (250 meters per pixel) image earlier on the 24th taken from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows additional detail in the plumes. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE. MODIS image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  17. US west coast revisited: An aeromagnetic perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Zietz, I.; Johnson, P.R. ); Bond, K.R. )

    1990-04-01

    A new compilation of magnetic data for the western conterminous United States and offshore areas provides significant information about crustal units and structures in the region. Features shown on the compilation include a magnetic quiet zone along the coast and two lineaments inland. The magnetic quiet zone correlates with the accretionary prism at the western edge of the North American plate and overlies subducted ocean crust; abrupt termination of ocean-floor magnetic anomalies at, or a short distance east of, the toe of the accretionary prism is an inferred effect subduction-induced low-temperature metamorphism of the ocean crust. The Puget Lowlands-San Joaquin lineament is an alignment of high-intensity magnetic anomalies that in the south, and possibly also in the north, are cause by bodies of mafic-ultramafic rocks accreted to North America during the Mesozoic and Tertiary. The lineup of the highs and the inferred lineup of the causative bodies may reflect fundamental structures that control Mesozoic and Tertiary evolution of the continental margin. The Mojave Desert lineament, a distinctive chain of short-wavelength magnetic anomalies in southern California, coincides partly with a zone of Mesozoic intrusions and the Cenozoic San Andreas fault system, but is likely to be older than both in origin and may reflect a Mesozoic or older crustal discontinuity.

  18. The West African Monsoon in the Regional Climate Model COSMO-CLM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothe, S.; Ahrens, B.

    2010-09-01

    The West African Monsoon is in parts of Africa the exceedingly climatic process with a high influence on flora, fauna and economy. In this study we evaluated ECHAM5 and ERA-Interim driven CCLM regional climate simulations of Africa to analyze the reproduction of characteristics of the West African Monsoon in the model. As indicators for the monsoon we looked at the total precipitation and the outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) as a hint for convective clouds. Additionally the West African Monsoon Index (WAMI) should give a view at the dynamical component of the monsoon. Compared to the large-scale driving models, CCLM was not able to achieve more accurate results. There were regional strong under- and overestimations in precipitation but the mean values showed quite good results with a maximum difference of about 20%. For the ECHAM5 driven CCLM simulation, the strongest overestimation of precipitation at the African West coast, was combined with a strong overestimation of OLR, which indicated too much convection in this area. The model caught the WAMI very well. In a next step we want to quantify the influence of the driving model and the impact of surface features like the surface albedo on the monsoon.

  19. Mitogenome revealed multiple postdomestication genetic mixtures of West African sheep.

    PubMed

    Brahi, O H D; Xiang, H; Chen, X; Farougou, S; Zhao, X

    2015-10-01

    Notable diversity observed within African ovine breeds makes them of great interests, but limited studies on genetic origins and domestications remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the evolutionary status of West African native breeds, Djallonke and Sahelian sheep using mitogenome sequencing. Compared with other ovine mitogenome sequences, West African sheep were revealed a Eurasian origin, and the initially tamed sheep breeds in West Africa have been genetically mixed with each other and mixed with European breeds. Worldwide domestic sheep is deemed the Eurasian origin and migrated west to Europe and Africa and east to the Far East, in which dispersed and received selection for acclimation to autochthonic environment independently and ultimately evolved into different native breeds, respectively. Our results contribute to the comprehensive understanding of the domestic sheep origin and reveal multiple postdomestication genetic amelioration processes.

  20. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West African Costal Province, West Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    The West African Coastal Province along the west African coastline recently was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's USGS World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 3.2 billion barrels of oil, 23.63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 721 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  1. On the summer coast parallel winds off the west coast of Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijo, Nádia; Lima, Daniela C. A.; Semedo, Alvaro; Soares, Pedro M. M.; Cardoso, Rita M.; Miranda, Pedro M. A.

    2016-04-01

    During summer the west coast of the Iberian Peninsula is under the effect of persistent coast parallel northerly winds, called Nortada (northerly wind in Portuguese). The synoptic forcing behind the Nortada is caused by the semi-permanent Azores High and the thermal low pressure system in-land central Iberia. The associated pressure gradient gives rise to coastal parallel winds as the result of the geostrophically adjusted response to this synoptic pattern. In turn the persistence of the Nortada induces the development of upwelling systems from the Galicia to Algarve, off the west coast of Iberia, bringing deep cold nutrient-rich water to the shelf and to the surface. This cold water sharpens the temperature and pressure gradients at the coast, leading to a further increase of the wind speed at the coast. The summer regional climate of the coastal western Iberian area is modulated by the Nortada. The structure and climatology characterization of the summer Nortada is investigated through analyses of close to surface wind data produced by a regional 9km horizontal resolution atmospheric hindcast. This regional data was produced using the WRF model, forced by the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) ERA-Interim reanalysis, and covers the period 1989-2007. The link between the Nortada and the Iberian coastal low level jet is also studied.

  2. Paleogeographic Study of the West Florida Panhandle Coast and Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, J. L.; Donoghue, J. F.; Niedoroda, A. W.; Hatchett, L.; Clark, R. R.

    2001-12-01

    The dominant factors in the evolution of a passive margin shelf and coast are sea-level change and fluvial-marine sediment transport processes. On many U.S. coasts, beach nourishment sand has become an increasingly scarce and expensive resource. A regional sand search has recently been undertaken to identify offshore targets for beach nourishment sand along the western Florida Panhandle coast. A major task of the project has been the development of a conceptual model for finding potential nourishment sand. The modeling work has involved the collection of existing data, including published literature, sediment samples, sub-bottom seismic data, and paleogeographic analyses. Paleogeography was recognized as a potentially powerful tool for use in identifying shelf sand bodies, because they are products of sea-level change and shelf evolution. As part of the project, a more detailed study has been undertaken to acquire and assemble all available paleogeographic and paleoshoreline data for the western Florida shelf. These data include studies of the Quaternary paleogeography of the Panhandle coast, still-stand paleoshorelines, high-resolution bathymetry, global and eustatic sea-level curves, beach ridge systems, coastal river and inlet retreat paths, and barrier island evolution. The data have been compiled into a Geographic Information System (GIS) database from which maps of the shelf paleogeography can be created, representing selected periods in the Quaternary evolution of the West Florida Panhandle coast and margin.

  3. The North West African Margin Magnetic Anomaly revisited : implications for the initial evolution of the Central Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahabi, M.; Olivet, J.-L.; Aslanian, D.; Patriat, M.; Géli, L.; Matias, L.; Réhault, J.-P.; Malod, J.; Bouabdelli, M.

    2003-04-01

    Due to the lack of data from the North West African margin, the Mesozïc evolution of the Central Atlantic is still controversial. Existing plate kinematics (Le Pichon et al, 1977), Wissmann and Roger (1982), Olivet et al, 1984, Klitgord and Schouten, 1986) reconstructions do not explain the characteristics of the S1 Magnetic Anomaly, nor the the presence and geometry of salt basins on the margins off NW Marocco and off Mauritania. We present a new magnetic compilation detailing the correspondance between the different conjugated magnetic anomalies that exist on each side of the Central Atlantic : the East Coast (ECMA), Brunswick (BMA) and Blake Spur (BSMA) Magnetic Anomalies on the American side, and the S1 and West African Coast (WACMA) magnetic anomalies on the African side. In addition, using all available, academic, seismic data, we mapped the ocenawards extension of the salt province of the 200 Ma old Seine Abyssal Plain basin, off Marocco, which is considered as autochtonous.

  4. Genome-wide patterns of population structure and admixture in West Africans and African Americans.

    PubMed

    Bryc, Katarzyna; Auton, Adam; Nelson, Matthew R; Oksenberg, Jorge R; Hauser, Stephen L; Williams, Scott; Froment, Alain; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Wambebe, Charles; Tishkoff, Sarah A; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2010-01-12

    Quantifying patterns of population structure in Africans and African Americans illuminates the history of human populations and is critical for undertaking medical genomic studies on a global scale. To obtain a fine-scale genome-wide perspective of ancestry, we analyze Affymetrix GeneChip 500K genotype data from African Americans (n = 365) and individuals with ancestry from West Africa (n = 203 from 12 populations) and Europe (n = 400 from 42 countries). We find that population structure within the West African sample reflects primarily language and secondarily geographical distance, echoing the Bantu expansion. Among African Americans, analysis of genomic admixture by a principal component-based approach indicates that the median proportion of European ancestry is 18.5% (25th-75th percentiles: 11.6-27.7%), with very large variation among individuals. In the African-American sample as a whole, few autosomal regions showed exceptionally high or low mean African ancestry, but the X chromosome showed elevated levels of African ancestry, consistent with a sex-biased pattern of gene flow with an excess of European male and African female ancestry. We also find that genomic profiles of individual African Americans afford personalized ancestry reconstructions differentiating ancient vs. recent European and African ancestry. Finally, patterns of genetic similarity among inferred African segments of African-American genomes and genomes of contemporary African populations included in this study suggest African ancestry is most similar to non-Bantu Niger-Kordofanian-speaking populations, consistent with historical documents of the African Diaspora and trans-Atlantic slave trade.

  5. The relationship between the Guinea Highlands and the West African offshore rainfall maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, H. L.; Young, G. S.; Evans, J. L.; Fuentes, J. D.; Núñez Ocasio, K. M.

    2017-01-01

    Satellite rainfall estimates reveal a consistent rainfall maximum off the West African coast during the monsoon season. An analysis of 16 years of rainfall in the monsoon season is conducted to explore the drivers of such copious amounts of rainfall. Composites of daily rainfall and midlevel meridional winds centered on the days with maximum rainfall show that the day with the heaviest rainfall follows the strongest midlevel northerlies but coincides with peak low-level moisture convergence. Rain type composites show that convective rain dominates the study region. The dominant contribution to the offshore rainfall maximum is convective development driven by the enhancement of upslope winds near the Guinea Highlands. The enhancement in the upslope flow is closely related to African easterly waves propagating off the continent that generate low-level cyclonic vorticity and convergence. Numerical simulations reproduce the observed rainfall maximum and indicate that it weakens if the African topography is reduced.

  6. 33 CFR 100.1305 - Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. 100.1305 Section 100.1305 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. (a) Regulated area. By this...

  7. 40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190 Section 408.190 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190 Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  8. 40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190 Section 408.190 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190 Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  9. 40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190 Section 408.190 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190 Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  10. 40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190 Section 408.190 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190 Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  11. 40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190 Section 408.190 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190 Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  12. 33 CFR 100.1305 - Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. 100.1305 Section 100.1305 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. (a) Regulated area. By this...

  13. Tsunami Preparedness Along the U.S. West Coast (video)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. This video about tsunami preparedness along the West coast distinguishes between a local tsunami and a distant event and focuses on the specific needs of each region. It offers guidelines for correct tsunami response and community preparedness from local emergency managers, first-responders, and leading experts on tsunami hazards and warnings, who have been working on ways of making the tsunami affected regions safer for the people and communities on a long-term basis. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California Emergency Management Agency (CalEMA), Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI), Washington Emergency Management Division (EMD), Marin Office of Emergency Services, and Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E).

  14. Decadal Variability of West Coast Marine Stratus Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacobellis, S.; Schwartz, R. E.; Gershunov, A.; Cayan, D. R.; Williams, P.

    2013-12-01

    Low frequency variability of West Coast summertime marine stratus clouds are investigated using six decades of observations at several coastal airport locations. The magnitude and direction of long-term trends in summertime marine stratus occurrence along the California coast depends strongly on the cloud base height threshold used to distinguish low clouds from higher clouds. In this study, marine stratus clouds are defined as having cloud base at or below 1000 meters. Using this threshold, a decreasing trend in marine stratus cloud frequency was found for Southern California during the 1950-2012 period. No significant trends were found in Northern California. When averaged over the summer season, the cloud data reveal that coastal stratus has substantial variation on multi-year time scales with typical changes of 10-15% from year to year and 5-7% from decade to decade. Low stratus cloud cover varies over long distances with coherent anomalies that extend from southern California to Oregon. The most important correlated modes of SST with cloud cover anomalies, via a canonical correlation analysis contains both local and remote SST linkages. The first mode is correlated with the PDO and also to Pacific atmospheric circulation patterns and coastal upwelling. There is also a linkage to sea surface temperature anomalies in the low latitude Pacific, suggesting that tropical-extratropical interactions may be involved in driving West Coast cloud cover.

  15. Gaining more access is focus on West Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, B.

    1988-03-14

    A Beaufort Sea wildcat off the tantalizing Arctic National Wildlife Refuge highlights U.S. West Coast exploration/development action this year. Targeting the same structure tapped by the only wildcat drilled on ANWR's coastal Plain, the Tenneco Oil Exploration and Production offshore well may give more clues as to the potential of North America's most prospective and most controversial untapped petroleum province. Elsewhere in Alaska, firming oil prices have spurred a modest revival in wildcatting. But a steep decline in Alaskan oil production will likely begin in the early 1990s. Burgeoning production from new platforms and expanded steamflood projects will boost California output in the next few years. Longer term prospects for Offshore California, however, remain clouded by environmental opposition to development and leasing. Elsewhere in the Far West, Shell Oil Co. has returned to Washington, ARCO is stepping up action in Oregon and independents' discovery of new pay in the Railroad Valley area is spurring renewed interest in Nevada.

  16. Pattern of breast cancer among white-American, African-American, and nonimmigrant west-African women.

    PubMed Central

    Ijaduola, T. G.; Smith, E. B.

    1998-01-01

    This study reviews the current understanding of the pattern of breast cancer among whites, African Americans, and West Africans who have never immigrated to the US to find better ways of improving the prevention, early detection, and care of breast cancer world-wide. In the United States, the behavior pattern of breast cancer in African-American women differs from that of white women. Among the three populations, breast cancer appears to be least common in nonimmigrant West-African women. The peak incidence in African Americans and West Africans occurs around the premenopausal period while it occurs postmenopausal period in whites. Also, unlike white women, West-African and African-American women present late for treatment with a greater cancer burden and consequently lower survival rates. The predominant histological type is infiltrating ductal carcinoma in the three groups but the highest percentage (33%) of infiltrating poorly differentiated anaplastic carcinoma occurs in West Africans. Menstrual and obstetric history, obesity, and high body mass index status appear to be greater specific risk factors among African Americans than among West Africans. African Americans and West Africans have three "Ls" in common: late stage in seeking treatment, lower age at peak incidence with severe tumor burden, and consequently lower survival rates. There is a need for more detailed population-based research at molecular levels to elucidate the basis for some of these features. PMID:9770955

  17. 77 FR 47322 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and Management Measures; Inseason... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Final rule; inseason adjustments to biennial groundfish management measures. SUMMARY: This final rule announces inseason changes to management measures in the Pacific Coast...

  18. Bias reduction in decadal predictions of West African monsoon rainfall using regional climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paxian, A.; Sein, D.; Panitz, H.-J.; Warscher, M.; Breil, M.; Engel, T.; Tödter, J.; Krause, A.; Cabos Narvaez, W. D.; Fink, A. H.; Ahrens, B.; Kunstmann, H.; Jacob, D.; Paeth, H.

    2016-02-01

    The West African monsoon rainfall is essential for regional food production, and decadal predictions are necessary for policy makers and farmers. However, predictions with global climate models reveal precipitation biases. This study addresses the hypotheses that global prediction biases can be reduced by dynamical downscaling with a multimodel ensemble of three regional climate models (RCMs), a RCM coupled to a global ocean model and a RCM applying more realistic soil initialization and boundary conditions, i.e., aerosols, sea surface temperatures (SSTs), vegetation, and land cover. Numerous RCM predictions have been performed with REMO, COSMO-CLM (CCLM), and Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) in various versions and for different decades. Global predictions reveal typical positive and negative biases over the Guinea Coast and the Sahel, respectively, related to a southward shifted Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and a positive tropical Atlantic SST bias. These rainfall biases are reduced by some regional predictions in the Sahel but aggravated by all RCMs over the Guinea Coast, resulting from the inherited SST bias, increased westerlies and evaporation over the tropical Atlantic and shifted African easterly waves. The coupled regional predictions simulate high-resolution atmosphere-ocean interactions strongly improving the SST bias, the ITCZ shift and the Guinea Coast and Central Sahel precipitation biases. Some added values in rainfall bias are found for more realistic SST and land cover boundary conditions over the Guinea Coast and improved vegetation in the Central Sahel. Thus, the ability of RCMs and improved boundary conditions to reduce rainfall biases for climate impact research depends on the considered West African region.

  19. Computing Risk to West Coast Intertidal Rocky Habitat due to ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Compared to marshes, little information is available on the potential for rocky intertidal habitats to migrate upward in response to sea level rise (SLR). To address this gap, we utilized topobathy LiDAR digital elevation models (DEMs) downloaded from NOAA’s Digital Coast GIS data repository to estimate percent change in the area of rocky intertidal habitat in 10 cm increments with eustatic sea level rise. The analysis was conducted at the scale of the four Marine Ecoregions of the World (MEOW) ecoregions located along the continental west coast of the United States (CONUS). Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) map data were used to identify rocky shoreline. Such stretches of shoreline were extracted for each of the four ecoregions and buffered by 100 m to include the intertidal and evaluate the potential area for upland habitat migration. All available LiDAR topobathy DEMs from Digital Coast were extracted using the resulting polygons and two rasters were synthesized from the results, a 10 cm increment zone raster and a non-planimetric surface area raster for zonal summation. Current rocky intertidal non-planimetric surface areas for each ecoregion were computed between Mean Higher High Water (MHHW) and Mean Lower Low Water (MLLW) levels established from published datum sheets for tidal stations central to each MEOW ecoregion. Percent change in non-planimetric surface area for the same relative ranges were calculated in 10 cm incremental steps of eustatic S

  20. Understanding the mechanisms behind the West African Monsoon northward extension during Mid-Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaetani, Marco; Messori, Gabriele; Zhang, Qiong; Flamant, Cyrille; Evan, Amato T.; Pausata, Francesco S. R.

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the West African monsoon (WAM) dynamics in the mid-Holocene (MH) is a crucial issue in climate modelling, because numerical models typically fail to reproduce the extensive precipitation suggested by proxy evidence. This discrepancy is largely due to unrealistic imposed land surface cover and aerosols. Numerical experiments are conducted by imposing a "green Sahara", along with a reduced dust concentration in the atmosphere, coherently with the MH environment in the region, and the atmospheric dynamics response and impact on precipitation are investigated. The response of the WAM system to the imposed conditions shows a dramatic augmentation of the precipitation across West Africa up to the Mediterranean coast. This follows a substantial reorganization of the regional circulation, with some monsoonal circulation features (Saharan heat low, African easterly jet, African easterly waves) weakened in favour of deep convection development over land. The simulated response is dominated by land cover changes, and the reduction in dust concentration further enhances the changes induced by the "green Sahara". The intensity and meridional extent of the WAM is fully consistent with proxy evidence. The results for the MH WAM present important implications for understanding future climate scenarios in the region, in the perspective of projected wetter conditions in West Africa.

  1. Assessing the contributions of East African and West Pacific warming to the 2014 boreal spring East African drought

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, Christopher C.; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Hoell, Andrew; Livneh, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic warming contributed to the 2014 East African drought by increasing East African and west Pacific temperatures, and increasing the gradient between standardized western and central Pacific SST causing reduced rainfall, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture.

  2. High genetic connectivity among estuarine populations of the riverbream Acanthopagrus vagus along the southern African coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oosthuizen, Carel J.; Cowley, Paul D.; Kyle, Scotty R.; Bloomer, Paulette

    2016-12-01

    Physical and/or physiological constraints are assumed to isolate fish populations confined to or dependent on estuarine habitats. Strong isolation by distance is thus expected to affect connectivity. Such structuring has important implications for sustainable utilisation and replenishment of estuarine stocks that are heavily exploited. Here we present a preliminary investigation of the phylogenetic relationships of the riverbream (Acanthopagrus species) along the southern African coast and the geographic genetic structure of what appears to be a locally endemic species or lineage. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b sequences support the notion that the species occurring along the southern African coast is A. vagus and not A. berda as previously thought. Yet, the taxonomy of this widespread Indo-West Pacific species or species-complex requires more in-depth investigation. No genetic differentiation was detected among estuarine populations of A. vagus based on the analyses of mtDNA ND2 gene sequences and 10 polymorphic nuclear microsatellite markers. The star-like genealogy and statistical analyses are consistent with a recent population expansion event. Spatial analyses of microsatellite genotypes fail to reject the null hypothesis of panmixia, indicative of a recent population expansion or ongoing gene flow between different estuaries. The northern localities were identified as containing most of the observed variation. This study not only provides insight into the phylogenetic relationship of A. vagus relative to other Acanthopagrus species but also sheds light on the demographic history and contemporary gene flow of the species.

  3. Influence of 21st century atmospheric and sea surface temperature forcing on West African climate

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, Chris B; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Diffenbaugh, Noah

    2011-01-01

    he persistence of extended drought events throughout West Africa during the 20th century has motivated a substantial effort to understand the mechanisms driving African climate variability, as well as the possible response to elevated greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. We use an ensemble of global climate model experiments to examine the relative roles of future direct atmospheric radiative forcing and SST forcing in shaping potential future changes in boreal summer precipitation over West Africa. We find that projected increases in precipitation throughout the Western Sahel result primarily from direct atmospheric radiative forcing. The changes in atmospheric forcing generate a slight northward displacement and weakening of the African easterly jet (AEJ), a strengthening of westward monsoon flow onto West Africa and an intensification of the tropical easterly jet (TEJ). Alternatively, we find that the projected decreases in precipitation over much of the Guinea Coast region are caused by SST changes that are induced by the atmospheric radiative forcing. The changes in SSTs generate a weakening of the monsoon westerlies and the TEJ, as well as a decrease in low-level convergence and resultant rising air throughout the mid levels of the troposphere. Our experiments suggest a potential shift in the regional moisture balance of West Africa should global radiative forcing continue to increase, highlighting the importance of climate system feedbacks in shaping the response of regional-scale climate to global-scale changes in radiative forcing.

  4. Winter extreme precipitation along the North American west coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Michael D.

    Most extreme precipitation events that occur along the North American west coast are associated with winter atmospheric river (AR) events, causing flooding, landslides, extensive property damage, and loss of life. The studies contained within this dissertation use a combination of NCDC precipitation observations, NCEP-NCAR reanalysis, a 10-model ensemble of historical and future CMIP5 climate model simulations, and an NCEP-NCAR reanalysis driven regionally downscaled WRF model simulation to characterize the synoptic evolution of AR events along the North American west coast, the spatial variability of precipitation along the coast and inland, and changes in AR intensity and frequency that are expected by the end of the 21st century. Most regional flooding events are associated with precipitation periods of 24 hours or less, and two-day precipitation totals identify nearly all major events. Precipitation areas of major events are generally narrow, roughly 200 km in width, and most are associated with ARs. Composite evolutions indicate negative anomalies in sea-level pressure and upper-level height in the central Pacific, high-pressure anomalies over the southwest U.S., large positive 850-hPa temperature anomalies along the coast and offshore, and enhanced precipitable water and integrated water vapor fluxes in southwest- to northeast-oriented swaths. A small subset of extreme precipitation events over the southern portion of the domain is associated with a very different synoptic evolution: a sharp trough in northwesterly flow and post-cold-frontal convection. High precipitable water values are more frequent during the summer but are not associated with heavy precipitation because of upper-level ridging over the eastern Pacific and weak onshore flow that limits upward vertical velocities. Global climate models have sufficient resolution to simulate synoptic features associated with AR events, such as high values of vertically integrated vapor transport (IVT

  5. 75 FR 12729 - Fisheries Off West Coast States and in the Western Pacific; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XU95 Fisheries Off West Coast States and in the Western Pacific; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Application for an Exempted Fishing Permit...

  6. 78 FR 54547 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Highly Migratory Fisheries; California Drift Gillnet Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ...; Issuance of Permit; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Highly Migratory Fisheries; California Drift Gillnet Fishery; Sperm Whale Interaction Restriction; Final Rule and Notice #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No... Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-BD57 Fisheries Off West Coast...

  7. 77 FR 39571 - Frank Sherman, FSCS Corporation, TMS West Coast, Inc.,

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board \\1\\ Frank Sherman, FSCS Corporation, TMS West Coast, Inc., \\1\\ A request for... company; TMS West Coast, Inc., a noncarrier holding company; Evergreen Trails, Inc. d/b/a Horizon...

  8. Holocene Glacial Retreat at Walgreen Coast, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindow, J.; Johnson, J.; Castex, M.; Wittmann, H.; Smith, J.; Lisker, F.; Gohl, K.; Spiegel, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Walgreen Coast of West Antarctica represents one of the most rapidly changing sectors of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). With the fastest ice streams in the whole Antarctic, the WAIS is characterised by rapid thinning and grounding line retreat. Airborne and satellite-based short-term observations show a doubling of the negative net mass balance between 1996-2006 (Rignot et al., 2008). Furthermore, because the WAIS is largely grounded below sea level, continued inland thinning and grounding line retreat could result in rapid ice sheet collapse, which would raise global sea level by between 3-5 m. However, due to remoteness and challenging accessibility, onshore data is limited to a few isolated nunataks making it difficult to assess the long-term evolution of the glacial dynamics along Walgreen Coast. To address this we present new data from two key areas of the Walgreen Coast; the Kohler Range and the Pine Island Bay. Our 10Be surface exposure ages from erratic boulders in the Kohler Range are the first and reveal that this area became ice-free between 8.3 and 12.3 ka. This implies a long-term thinning rate of 3.3 cm/yr and agrees with similar data published from glaciers eastward. Our ages are also consistent with recent deglaciation models which suggest strong thinning after 15 ka and off-shore sediments shows a concurrent lateral ice-shelf front retreat. Our results suggest an ice-cover at least 300 m thicker in the Kohler Range during the early Holocene and that subsequent average thinning occurred on rates one order of magnitude slower than recent satellite measurements show. This implies that the recent trend in ice-sheet thinning results from a recent dynamic changes rather than a response to long-term thinning. To further constrain the lateral deglaciation history along the eastern Walgreen Coast, namely the Pine Island Glacier, we collected additional samples from a chain of islands, located flow-parallel and downstream of the ice-shelf front. We

  9. History of petroleum exploration in California and the West Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Kilkenny, J.E.

    1991-03-01

    California's main oil and gas basins consist of the inland Sacramento and San Joaquin and the Los Angeles, Ventura, and Santa Maria basins adjacent to the coast and extending offshore. The state's total oil production to 1991 is approximately 22.8 billion bbls. Producing formations range in age from basement Jurassic to Pleistocene, but production is mainly from thick multiple sand zones of Miocene and Pliocene age. The first oil discovery was in the eastern Ventura basin in 1875. By the turn of the century, 22 fields, including several giants in the San Joaquin Valley, had been discovered by drilling near oil seepages. The most important event of the 1920s was the discovery of several giant oil fields in the Los Angeles basin, drilled on topographic highs suggestive of underlying anticlines. State production rapidly increased to 850,000 BOPD, or 40% of all US production. The 1930s saw the advent of the reflection seismograph, responsible for the state's largest oil field (Wilmington) in the Lost Angeles basin and the state's largest gas field (Rio Vista) in the Sacramento basin. A number of important fields were found under the San Joaquin Valley floor. Geological thinking in the late 1930s and 1940s resulted in the discovery of large stratigraphic traps in the San Joaquin Valley (e.g., East Coalinga) and at Santa Maria from fractured shale, plus two new small producing basins, the Cuyama and the Salinas. Offshore exploration, consisting of seismic work, ocean-bottom sampling, and coreholing, revealed the presence of a number of anticlines in the Ventura basin, paralleling the Santa Barbara coast. The first offshore discovery was made in 1959 on state lands followed by several major fields on federal lands in the late 1960s. Elsewhere along the West Coast, exploration in Oregon and Washington has yielded only minor gas.

  10. Factors influencing the migration of West African health professionals

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Mat; Chen, Duan-Rung

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The West African health sector is characterized by a human resource base lacking in numbers and specialized skills. Among the contributory factors to this lack of human resource for health workforce include but not limited to the migration of health professionals. Methods This cross-sectional survey targeted 118 young professionals who have participated in the Young Professional Internship Program (YPIP) of the West African Health Organization (WAHO), from (2005-2013). It inquired about their socio-demographic characteristics associated with migration and reasons for going to their preferred or most likely destinations through online survey. Results Of the 118 young professionals, 100 responded to the online survey, of which (28%) have migrated and (72%) did not migrate. Migration was more common among males and those (age≤31 years old), single with high dependency level and no previous work experience. Having a medical profession and being posted to urban or semi-urban area was also associated with their emigration. Their most important reasons for going to preferred or most likely destinations were to have fair level of workload, job promotion and limited occupational risks. Conclusion This finding suggests that the migration of health professionals is situation dependent, mediated by basic socio-demographic variables and work related conditions. These issues have implications for curbing the brain drain potential of health professionals in the West African health sector. PMID:27800092

  11. Back to Africa: Second Chances for the Children of West African Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bledsoe, Caroline H.; Sow, Papa

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the phenomenon of West African parents living in Europe and North America who send their older children back home: from places of high immigrant aspiration to those of hardship and privation. Drawing on a project on West African immigration to Europe and on previous field studies in Africa, we conclude that West African…

  12. Implementing the Defense Structure of the Economic Community of West African States Creating a West African Frontier Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    disputes were also endemic amongst other West African States. In January 1977, following a mer- cenary attack on Cotonou , capital of the Republic of... finished products disrupted the then existing ethnic and cul- tural kinship patterns, as borders were arbitrarily drawn. By accident of history...and the mercenary invasion of Cotonou (B-nin) in January 1977. These had tacit support of neighbors who offered a springboard 24 for military

  13. Astronomy as Practiced in the West African City of Timbuktu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medupe, Thebe Rodney

    Islam was introduced to West Africa over a millennium ago as a result of trade with North Africa and other parts of the Middle East. Islamic scholarship thrived in the city of Timbuktu in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. During this time West African scholars studied and taught mathematics, Quranic studies, and astronomy among other subjects. Until recently, the detail of what astronomy was known and practiced was not known. As an example of the content of material taught in the madrassas in West Africa, I present an outline of the content of two manuscripts written in the seventeenth century by Timbuktu scholars Muḥammad (or Aḥmad) b. Muḥammad Baghayu‛u b. Muḥammad Kūrdu and Abū l-‛Abbās Aḥmad b. al-Ḥājj R-mām-y-n al-Tuwātī al-Ghallāwī.

  14. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 660, Subpart C - Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast Groundfish Limited Entry Permits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast...) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Pt. 660, Subpt. C, Table 3 Table 3 to Part 660, Subpart C—Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast Groundfish Limited Entry Permits Vessel length Capacity rating 400 311.80...

  15. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 660, Subpart C - Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast Groundfish Limited Entry Permits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast...) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Pt. 660, Subpt. C, Table 3 Table 3 to Part 660, Subpart C—Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast Groundfish Limited Entry Permits Vessel length Capacity rating 400 311.80...

  16. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 660, Subpart C - Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast Groundfish Limited Entry Permits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast...) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Pt. 660, Subpt. C, Table 3 Table 3 to Part 660, Subpart C—Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast Groundfish Limited Entry Permits Vessel length Capacity rating 400 311.80...

  17. "Speaking a Secret Language:" West Coast Swing as a Community of Practice of Informal and Incidental Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Jamie L.

    2005-01-01

    This study reports the findings of a qualitative study of competitive West Coast Swing dancers that incorporated both ethnographic and phenomenological techniques. A modern variation of the original Lindy Hop, West Coast Swing is typically learned in dance studios and non-profit clubs. The West Coast Swing community can be considered a community…

  18. Preliminary Geologic Characterization of West Coast States for Geologic Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Myer

    2005-09-29

    Characterization of geological sinks for sequestration of CO{sub 2} in California, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington was carried out as part of Phase I of the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) project. Results show that there are geologic storage opportunities in the region within each of the following major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. The work focused on sedimentary basins as the initial most-promising targets for geologic sequestration. Geographical Information System (GIS) layers showing sedimentary basins and oil, gas, and coal fields in those basins were developed. The GIS layers were attributed with information on the subsurface, including sediment thickness, presence and depth of porous and permeable sandstones, and, where available, reservoir properties. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery (EGR). The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, depending on assumptions about the fraction of the formations used and the fraction of the pore volume filled with separate-phase CO{sub 2}. Potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, based on a screening of reservoirs using depth, an API gravity cutoff, and cumulative oil produced. The cumulative production from gas reservoirs (screened by depth) suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. In Oregon and Washington, sedimentary basins along the coast also offer sequestration opportunities. Of particular interest is the Puget Trough Basin, which contains up to 1,130 m (3,700 ft) of unconsolidated sediments overlying up to 3,050 m (10,000 ft) of Tertiary sedimentary rocks. The Puget Trough Basin also contains deep coal formations, which are sequestration targets and may have

  19. Metal concentration in oysters from the southern African coast

    SciTech Connect

    Watling, H.R.; Watling, R.J.

    1982-04-01

    The survey presented of metal concentrations in Crassostrea margaritacea growing at 25 sites along a 500 km stretch of the South African coast was undertaken to provide data for the national marine pollution monitoring program and to supplement data from sediment and water sampling surveys of the estuaries in the region. Concentrations of Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Fe, Mn, Ni, Co, and Cr in C. margaritacea were determined, and the data indicated that some contamination of Victoria Bay environment had occurred; oysters from this site had accumulated Zn, Pb, Ni, Cr, and possibly, Co. Oysters growing at the mouth of the Papenkuils River and the Swartkops River were also found to be contaminated with Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cr, to a lesser extent. C. margaritacea growing at the mouth of the Great Fish River unexpectedly had elevated Cu, Pb, and Cr concentrations. Because there are no urban or industrial developments along the river, it was likely that these elements are derived from leaching of mineralized sequences in the catchment, and a geochemical survey was recommended to ascertain the source of the metals. (JMT)

  20. Dynamic stability of coral reefs on the west Australian coast.

    PubMed

    Speed, Conrad W; Babcock, Russ C; Bancroft, Kevin P; Beckley, Lynnath E; Bellchambers, Lynda M; Depczynski, Martial; Field, Stuart N; Friedman, Kim J; Gilmour, James P; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; Kobryn, Halina T; Moore, James A Y; Nutt, Christopher D; Shedrawi, George; Thomson, Damian P; Wilson, Shaun K

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring changes in coral cover and composition through space and time can provide insights to reef health and assist the focus of management and conservation efforts. We used a meta-analytical approach to assess coral cover data across latitudes 10-35°S along the west Australian coast, including 25 years of data from the Ningaloo region. Current estimates of coral cover ranged between 3 and 44% in coral habitats. Coral communities in the northern regions were dominated by corals from the families Acroporidae and Poritidae, which became less common at higher latitudes. At Ningaloo Reef coral cover has remained relatively stable through time (∼28%), although north-eastern and southern areas have experienced significant declines in overall cover. These declines are likely related to periodic disturbances such as cyclones and thermal anomalies, which were particularly noticeable around 1998/1999 and 2010/2011. Linear mixed effects models (LME) suggest latitude explains 10% of the deviance in coral cover through time at Ningaloo. Acroporidae has decreased in abundance relative to other common families at Ningaloo in the south, which might be related to persistence of more thermally and mechanically tolerant families. We identify regions where quantitative time-series data on coral cover and composition are lacking, particularly in north-western Australia. Standardising routine monitoring methods used by management and research agencies at these, and other locations, would allow a more robust assessment of coral condition and a better basis for conservation of coral reefs.

  1. Review of the twelfth West Coast Retrovirus Meeting.

    PubMed

    Barry, Sheila M; Melar, Marta; Gallay, Philippe; Hope, Thomas J

    2005-11-17

    Every year the Cancer Research Institute from University of California at Irvine organizes the West Coast Retrovirus Meeting where participants have a chance to discuss the latest progress in understanding the pathology of retroviruses. The 12th meeting was held at the Hyatt Regency Suites in Palm Springs, California from October 6th to October 9th 2005, with the major focus on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pathogenesis. Philippe Gallay from The Scripps Research Institute and Thomas J. Hope from Northwestern University organized the meeting, which covered all the steps involved in the lifecycle of retroviruses with an emphasis on virus:host interactions. The trend in research appeared to be on the restriction of viral infection, both by the endogenous, cellular restriction factors, as well as by the potential antimicrobial compounds of known or unknown mechanisms. Additionally, new stories on the inevitable feedback from the host immune system were presented as well. HIV still represents a challenge that an army of motivated people has been working on for over 20 years. And yet, the field has not reached the plateau in knowledge nor enthusiasm, which was proven again in October 2005 in Palm Springs.

  2. Dynamic Stability of Coral Reefs on the West Australian Coast

    PubMed Central

    Speed, Conrad W.; Babcock, Russ C.; Bancroft, Kevin P.; Beckley, Lynnath E.; Bellchambers, Lynda M.; Depczynski, Martial; Field, Stuart N.; Friedman, Kim J.; Gilmour, James P.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Kobryn, Halina T.; Moore, James A. Y.; Nutt, Christopher D.; Shedrawi, George; Thomson, Damian P.; Wilson, Shaun K.

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring changes in coral cover and composition through space and time can provide insights to reef health and assist the focus of management and conservation efforts. We used a meta-analytical approach to assess coral cover data across latitudes 10–35°S along the west Australian coast, including 25 years of data from the Ningaloo region. Current estimates of coral cover ranged between 3 and 44% in coral habitats. Coral communities in the northern regions were dominated by corals from the families Acroporidae and Poritidae, which became less common at higher latitudes. At Ningaloo Reef coral cover has remained relatively stable through time (∼28%), although north-eastern and southern areas have experienced significant declines in overall cover. These declines are likely related to periodic disturbances such as cyclones and thermal anomalies, which were particularly noticeable around 1998/1999 and 2010/2011. Linear mixed effects models (LME) suggest latitude explains 10% of the deviance in coral cover through time at Ningaloo. Acroporidae has decreased in abundance relative to other common families at Ningaloo in the south, which might be related to persistence of more thermally and mechanically tolerant families. We identify regions where quantitative time-series data on coral cover and composition are lacking, particularly in north-western Australia. Standardising routine monitoring methods used by management and research agencies at these, and other locations, would allow a more robust assessment of coral condition and a better basis for conservation of coral reefs. PMID:23922829

  3. Dust-rainfall feedbacks in the West African Sahel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Wanching Jacquie; Cook, Benjamin I.; Ravi, Sujith; Fuentes, José D.; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2008-05-01

    Dust aerosols can suppress rainfall by increasing the number of cloud condensation nuclei in warm clouds and affecting the surface radiation budget and boundary layer instability. The extent to which atmospheric dust may affect precipitation yields and the hydrologic cycle in semiarid regions remains poorly understood. We investigate the relationship between dust aerosols and rainfall in the West African Sahel where the dust-rainfall feedback has been speculated to contribute to sustained droughts. We find that the amount of dust loadings is negatively correlated with rainfall values, suggesting that dust entrained in the atmosphere can significantly inhibit rainfall in this region.

  4. 75 FR 33733 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION... as part of the live bait fishery or incidental to other fisheries; the incidental harvest of...

  5. 77 FR 22679 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... Fishery Management Plan (FMP), are intended to allow fisheries to access more abundant groundfish stocks... Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and Management Measures; Inseason... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Final rule; inseason adjustments to biennial groundfish management...

  6. 77 FR 24634 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... Fishery Management Plan (FMP), is intended to allow fisheries to access more abundant groundfish stocks... Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and Management Measures; Inseason... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Final rule; inseason adjustments to biennial groundfish management...

  7. Will Elephants Soon Disappear from West African Savannahs?

    PubMed Central

    Bouché, Philippe; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Wittemyer, George; Nianogo, Aimé J.; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Lejeune, Philippe; Vermeulen, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    Precipitous declines in Africa's native fauna and flora are recognized, but few comprehensive records of these changes have been compiled. Here, we present population trends for African elephants in the 6,213,000 km2 Sudano-Sahelian range of West and Central Africa assessed through the analysis of aerial and ground surveys conducted over the past 4 decades. These surveys are focused on the best protected areas in the region, and therefore represent the best case scenario for the northern savanna elephants. A minimum of 7,745 elephants currently inhabit the entire region, representing a minimum decline of 50% from estimates four decades ago for these protected areas. Most of the historic range is now devoid of elephants and, therefore, was not surveyed. Of the 23 surveyed elephant populations, half are estimated to number less than 200 individuals. Historically, most populations numbering less than 200 individuals in the region were extirpated within a few decades. Declines differed by region, with Central African populations experiencing much higher declines (−76%) than those in West Africa (−33%). As a result, elephants in West Africa now account for 86% of the total surveyed. Range wide, two refuge zones retain elephants, one in West and the other in Central Africa. These zones are separated by a large distance (∼900 km) of high density human land use, suggesting connectivity between the regions is permanently cut. Within each zone, however, sporadic contacts between populations remain. Retaining such connectivity should be a high priority for conservation of elephants in this region. Specific corridors designed to reduce the isolation of the surveyed populations are proposed. The strong commitment of governments, effective law enforcement to control the illegal ivory trade and the involvement of local communities and private partners are all critical to securing the future of elephants inhabiting Africa's northern savannas. PMID:21731620

  8. Will elephants soon disappear from West African savannahs?

    PubMed

    Bouché, Philippe; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Wittemyer, George; Nianogo, Aimé J; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Lejeune, Philippe; Vermeulen, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    Precipitous declines in Africa's native fauna and flora are recognized, but few comprehensive records of these changes have been compiled. Here, we present population trends for African elephants in the 6,213,000 km² Sudano-Sahelian range of West and Central Africa assessed through the analysis of aerial and ground surveys conducted over the past 4 decades. These surveys are focused on the best protected areas in the region, and therefore represent the best case scenario for the northern savanna elephants. A minimum of 7,745 elephants currently inhabit the entire region, representing a minimum decline of 50% from estimates four decades ago for these protected areas. Most of the historic range is now devoid of elephants and, therefore, was not surveyed. Of the 23 surveyed elephant populations, half are estimated to number less than 200 individuals. Historically, most populations numbering less than 200 individuals in the region were extirpated within a few decades. Declines differed by region, with Central African populations experiencing much higher declines (-76%) than those in West Africa (-33%). As a result, elephants in West Africa now account for 86% of the total surveyed. Range wide, two refuge zones retain elephants, one in West and the other in Central Africa. These zones are separated by a large distance (∼900 km) of high density human land use, suggesting connectivity between the regions is permanently cut. Within each zone, however, sporadic contacts between populations remain. Retaining such connectivity should be a high priority for conservation of elephants in this region. Specific corridors designed to reduce the isolation of the surveyed populations are proposed. The strong commitment of governments, effective law enforcement to control the illegal ivory trade and the involvement of local communities and private partners are all critical to securing the future of elephants inhabiting Africa's northern savannas.

  9. The TG/HDL-C ratio does not predict insulin resistance in overweight women of African descent: a study of South African, African American and West African women.

    PubMed

    Knight, Michael G; Goedecke, Julia H; Ricks, Madia; Evans, Juliet; Levitt, Naomi S; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K; Sumner, Anne E

    2011-01-01

    Women of African descent have a high prevalence of diseases caused by insulin resistance. To positively impact cardiometabolic health in Black women, effective screening tests for insulin resistance must be identified. Recently, the TG/HDL-C ratio has been recommended as a tool to predict insulin resistance in overweight people. While the ratio predicts insulin resistance in White women, it is ineffective in African American women. As there are no data for African women, we tested the ability of the TG/HDL-C ratio to predict insulin resistance in Black women from South Africa, West Africa and the United States. For comparison, the ratio was also tested in White women from South Africa. Participants were 801 women (157 Black South African, 382 African American, 119 West African, 143 White South African, age 36 +/- 9y [mean +/- SD]). Standardized scores were created from log-transformed homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance values from each population. Participants in the upper third of their population distribution were classified as insulin-resistant. To predict insulin resistance by the TC/HDL-C ratio, area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC-ROC) curve was used and criteria were: 0.50 for no discrimination and > or = 0.70 for acceptable. Seventy-one percent of the Black women were overweight vs 51% of White women (P<.01). In overweight White women, AUC-ROC curve for prediction of insulin resistance by TG/HDL-C was 0.76 +/- 0.06, but below the 0.70 threshold in each group of overweight Black women (Black South African: 0.64 +/- 0.06, African American: 0.66 +/- 0.03, and West African: 0.63 +/- 0.07). Therefore, TG/HDL-C does not predict insulin resistance in overweight African American women and this investigation extends that finding to overweight Black South African and West African women. Resources to identify effective markers of insulin resistance are needed to improve cardiometabolic health in women of African descent.

  10. Lassa fever in West African sub-region: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ogbu, O; Ajuluchukwu, E; Uneke, C J

    2007-03-01

    Lassa fever is an acute viral zoonotic illness caused by Lassa virus, an arenavirus known to be responsible for a severe haemorrhagic fever characterised by fever, muscle aches, sore throat, nausea, vomiting and, chest and abdominal pain. The virus exhibits persistent, asymptomatic infection with profuse urinary virus excretion in the ubiquitous rodent vector, Mastomys natalensis. Lassa fever is endemic in West Africa and has been reported from Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, and Nigeria. Some studies indicate that 300,000 to 500,000 cases of Lassa fever and 5000 deaths occur yearly across West Africa. Studies reported in English, that investigated Lassa fever with reference to West Africa were identified using the Medline Entrez-PubMed search and were used for this review. The scarcity of resources available for health care delivery system and the political instability that characterise the West African countries would continue to impede efforts for the control of Lassa fever in the sub-region. There is need for adequate training of health care workers regarding diagnostics, intensive care of patients under isolation, contact tracing, adequate precautionary measures in handling infectious laboratory specimens, control of the vector as well as care and disposal of infectious waste.

  11. Future of West African Monsoon in A Warming Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj, Jerry; Kunhu Bangalath, Hamza; Stenchikov, Georgiy

    2016-04-01

    West Africa is the home of more than 300 million people whose agriculture based economy highly relies on West African Monsoon (WAM), which produces a mean annual rainfall of 150 - 2,500 mm and variability and change of which have devastating impact on the local population. The observed widespread drought in West Africa during the 1970s and 1980s was the most significant drought at regional scale during the twentieth century. In this study, a high resolution AGCM, High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM), is used to study the effects of anthropogenic greenhouse warming on WAM. HiRAM is developed at GFDL based on AM2 and employs a cubed-sphere finite volume dynamical core and uses shallow convective scheme (for moist convection and stratiform cloudiness) instead of deep convective parameterization. Future projections are done using two representative concentration pathways, RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 from 2007 to 2050 at C360 (~25 km) resolution. Both RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios predict warming over West Africa during boreal summer, especially over Western Sahara. Also, both scenarios predict southward shift in WAM rainfall pattern and drying over Southern Sahara, while RCP 8.5 predicts enhanced rainfall over Gulf of Guinea. The intensification of rainfall over tropical latitudes is caused by increased low level winds due to warm SST over Gulf of Guinea.

  12. Neogene molluscan stages of the West Coast of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marincovich, L.

    1984-01-01

    Neogene marine sediments of the West Coast of North America were deposited in a series of widely spaced basins that extended geographically from the western and northern Gulf of Alaska (60??N) to southern California (33??N). Rich molluscan faunas occur extensively throughout these deposits and form the basis for biostratigraphic schemes that are useful for correlating within and between individual basins. Early biostratigraphic work was concerned with faunas from particular horizons and with the stratigraphic range of diverse taxa, such as Pecten and Turritella, without reference to other fossil groups. Succeeding work increasingly dealt with the relationships of molluscan zones to benthic and, later, planktonic foraminiferal stages. In recent years the age limits of Neogene molluscan stages have become better documented by reference to planktonic microfossils from dated DSDP cores and onshore faunas. Neogene molluscan faunas from California, the Pacific Northwest states (Oregon and Washington), and southern Alaska have been treated separately due to differences in faunal composition and geographic isolation. As a result, a different biostratigraphic sequence has been described for each region. Pacific Northwest stages have been formally named and defined, and their names are also used informally for Alaskan faunas. California Neogene stages were proposed early in this century, are in need of redescription, and their usage is informal. Precise correlations between the three regional sequences have not yet been achieved, due to the low number of co-occurring species and the general lack of planktonic microfossils in these largely shallow-water faunas. The objectives of ongoing research include: fuller documentation of the faunas of California and Pacific Northwest stages; formal description of California stages; improved correlation between regional stage sequences; refinement of age estimates for stage boundaries; and, establishment of Neogene stages for Alaskan

  13. Influences and Retentions of West African Musical Concepts in U.S. Black Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maultsby, Portia K.

    1979-01-01

    Current research reveals that West African musical concepts provided the foundation for the various musical genres created by Black Americans. The Black musical tradition continues to evolve and mirror new values, attitudes, philosophies, and life-styles without the loss of a West African identity. (RLV)

  14. Copula Deletion and West African Languages: A Source for Covert Norms in American Black English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Thomas S.

    The loss of the copula in Black English Vernacular (BEV) is demonstrably traceable to norms of pidginization that have their roots in West African languages and in contact among those languages. An extensive examination of the verb systems of a number of West African languages reveals that in every case a variety of verbal forms serves the many…

  15. Atmospheric monitoring of organochlorine pesticides across some West African countries.

    PubMed

    Isogai, Nahomi; Hogarh, Jonathan N; Seike, Nobuyasu; Kobara, Yuso; Oyediran, Femi; Wirmvem, Mengnjo J; Ayonghe, Samuel N; Fobil, Julius; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2016-07-31

    Most African countries have ratified the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and are expected to reduce emissions of POPs such as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) to the atmosphere. Emerging evidence, however, suggests that there are contemporary sources of OCPs in African countries despite the global ban on these products. This study investigated the atmospheric contamination from OCPs in four West African countries-Togo, Benin, Nigeria, and Cameroon-to ascertain the emission levels of OCPs and the characteristic signatures of contamination. Polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed in each country for ca. 55 days in 2012 and analyzed for 25 OCPs. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and DDTs constituted the highest burden of atmospheric OCPs in the target countries, at average concentrations of 441 pg m(-3) (range 23-2718) and 403 pg m(-3) (range 91-1880), respectively. Mirex had the lowest concentration, ranged between 0.1 and 3.3 pg m(-3). The concentration of OCPs in rainy season was higher than in dry season in Cameroon, and presupposed inputs from agriculture during the rainy season. The concentrations of ∑25 OCPs in each country were in the following order: Cameroon > Nigeria > Benin > Togo. There was significant evidence, based on chemical signatures of the contamination that DDT, aldrin, chlordane, and endosulfan were recently applied at certain sites in the respective countries.

  16. Seasonal forecasts for regional onset of the West African monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vellinga, Michael; Arribas, Alberto; Graham, Richard

    2013-06-01

    The West African monsoon has over the years proven difficult to represent in global coupled models. The current operational seasonal forecasting system of the UK Met Office (GloSea4) has a good representation of monsoon rainfall over West Africa. It reproduces the various stages of the monsoon: a coastal phase in May and June, followed by onset of the Sahelian phase in July when rainfall maxima shift northward of 10N until September; and a secondary coastal rainfall maximum in October. We explore the dynamics of monsoon onset in GloSea4 and compare it to reanalyses. An important difference is the change in the Saharan heat low around the time of Sahelian onset. In Glosea4 the deepening heat low introduces moisture convergence across an east-west Sahelian band, whereas in the reanalyses such an east-west organisation of moisture does not occur and moisture is transported northwards to the Sahara. Lack of observations in the southern Sahara makes it difficult to verify this process in GloSea4 and also suggests that reanalyses may not be strongly constrained by station observations in an area key to Sahelian onset. Timing of monsoon onset has socio-economic importance for many countries in West Africa and we explore onset predictability in GloSea4. We use tercile categories to calculate probabilities for onset occurring before, near and after average in four different onset indicators. Glosea4 has modest skill at 2-3 months' lead time, with ROC scores of 0.6-0.8. Similar skill is seen in hindcasts with models from the ENSEMBLES project, even in models with large rainfall biases over the Sahel. Forecast skill derives from tropical SST in June and many models capture at least the influence of the tropical Atlantic. This suggests that long-range skill for onset could be present in other seasonal forecasting systems in spite of mean rainfall biases.

  17. 40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.180 Section 408.180 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.180 Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions...

  18. 40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.180 Section 408.180 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.180 Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions...

  19. 40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.180 Section 408.180 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.180 Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions...

  20. 40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.180 Section 408.180 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.180 Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions...

  1. 40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.180 Section 408.180 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.180 Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions...

  2. 75 FR 67391 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the West Coast Recycling...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... Recycling Group Project in West Sacramento, Yolo County, CA AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for... Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) for the development of the West Coast Recycling Group... West Coast Recycling Group (WCRG) proposes to develop approximately 15 acres at the Port of...

  3. Sheep pox: experimental studies with a west african isolate.

    PubMed

    Afshar, A; Bundza, A; Myers, D J; Dulac, G C; Thomas, F C

    1986-08-01

    Under conditions of a maximum security laboratory, four cross-bred sheep were inoculated intradermally only or intradermally and intratracheally with a West African isolate of sheep pox virus. All sheep had increased temperature and depression by the fourth or fifth day after infection. Nasal and lacrimal discharge and coughing occurred in all sheep but were more severe in sheep receiving the virus via the tracheal route. From the fifth day after infection, numerous papular erythematous skin lesions developed at the inoculation sites. These were 3-7 mm in diameter and gradually became nodular. Some of these lesions healed and others coalesced to form tumorlike masses. In one sheep, euthanized 14 days after intradermal and intratracheal inoculation, nodular lesions were found in the skin around the eyes, nostrils, oral and perianal regions, the mucosa of the rumen and throughout the lungs. Histologically, skin nodules were characterized by ischemic necrosis, vasculitis, microvesicualtion, eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions in the dermal epithelial cells and vacuolar nuclear degeneration. The pulmonary lesion was that of proliferative alveolitis with occasional cytoplasmic inclusions in the alveolar cells and macrophages. Ultrastructurally, large cuboidal virus particles were found both in the skin lesion and inoculated tissue cultures. The sheep pox virus structure was easily distinguished from contagious ecthyma virus, a parapoxvirus which causes sporadic disease in Canada. Serum neutralizing antibodies developed in all the sheep by 14 days postinfection.The clinical and pathological characteristics of experimental sheep pox produced with this West African isolate were similar to those caused by Neethling virus of lumpy skin disease in cattle.

  4. A PROBABILISTIC SURVEY OF SEDIMENT TOXICITY IN WEST COAST ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A probabalistic survey of coastal condition assessment was conducted in 1999 by participants in US EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP). The survey targeted estuaries along the outer coasts of Washington, Oregon and California, including the lower Columbi...

  5. The West African International Summer School for Young Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strubbe, Linda; Okere, Bonaventure I.; Chibueze, James; Lepo, Kelly; White, Heidi; Zhang, Jielai; Izuikedinachi Okoh, Daniel; Reid, Michael; Hunter, Lisa; EKEOMA Opara, Fidelis

    2015-08-01

    In October 2013 over 75 undergraduate science students and teachers from Nigeria and Ghana attended the week-long West African International Summer School for Young Astronomers. We expect an even broader audience for the second offering of the school (to be held July 2015), supported by a grant from the OAD (TF1). These schools are organized by a collaboration of astronomers from the University of Toronto, the University of Nigeria, and the Nigerian National Space Research and Development Agency. We design and lead activities that teach astronomy content, promote students' self-identity as scientists, and encourage students to think critically and figure out solutions themselves. Equally important, we design intertwined evaluation strategies to assess the effectiveness of our programs. We will describe the broader context for developing astronomy in West Africa, the inquiry-based and active learning techniques used in the schools, and results from the qualitative and quantitative evaluations of student performance. We will also describe longer-term plans for future schools, supporting our alumni, and building a sustainable partnership between North American and Nigerian universities.

  6. Shelfbreak circulation, fronts and physical oceanography: east and west coast perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Pietrafesa, L.J.

    1983-06-01

    A survey of fundamental physical oceanographic processes that may affect sediment distribution along shelfbreak regions is presented, emphasizing the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the USA. These shelfbreak strips couple the bounded coastal oceans to the open seas, but there is no systematic pattern to this coupling. Pacific coast shelfbreak processes tend to be less energetic than those on the Atlantic coast since the Pacific coast is missing a Western Boundary Current and because the shelf is narrow and deep. Subinertial frequency shelfbreak motions on the west coast are typically manifested across the entire shelf, while those on the east coast tend to be confined to a loosely defined band, which brackets the break. Principal Pacific coast circulation elements include forms of continental shelf waves and thermohaline driven and mechanically wind forced currents, as well as the California Current System. While high frequency edge waves and inertial current are indigenous in similar fashion to all coasts, east and west coast tides are shown to be quite disparate, given tradeoffs between dominance of diurnal and semidiurnal constituents as a function of topographic constraint and strength of density stratification. All of the shelfbreak zones are graced by thermohaline fronts. The fronts are progradational on the west and southeastern coasts and retrogradational on the northeastern shelf. These fronts are an integral ingredient of all aspects of physical processes at the shelfbreak strip. The interplay of bottom topography with the physics of the outer continental margin is significant. Bottom features such as shoals, bumps, ridges and canyons are shown to be regions of sediment erosion, deposition and draping. Moreover, these features are shown to be casually related to upwelling and downwelling phenomena and to the deflection and scattering of waves and currents.

  7. Pollutant Transport During the Spring Months to the West Coast of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, P. G.; Lamarque, J.

    2002-12-01

    During the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation (ITCT) 2K2 field campaign, April 22 to May 19 2002, a wide range of chemical species were measured over the west coast of the U.S. and adjacent Pacific Ocean. Both aircraft and ground-based measurements were made. The MOZART chemical transport model driven by forecast meteorological fields was used to provide forecasts of chemical species (ozone, CO, NOx and PAN) and inert diagnostic species during the ITCT campaign. The diagnostic species provided tracers of rapid transport to the west coast of the U.S. from emission regions located in North America (over both the U.S. and Mexico), eastern Asia (including emissions from biomass burning and anthropogenic sources), the eastern Pacific maritime boundary layer and Europe. Recirculation of pollution from North America had very little effect on free-tropospheric concentrations off the west coast of the U.S. The eastern Pacific maritime boundary layer also had little impact in the free troposphere. The west coast was most directly affected by biomass burning sources and anthropogenic emission sources over Eastern Asia with occasional evidence of rapid transport from European sources. Deep and strong tropopause folds were also forecast to influence the west coast of the U.S. during ITCT, and in at least one instance were verified by the measurements. During this talk we further explore the long-range transport of pollutants to the west coast of the U.S. during spring 2002, as well as in other years over the last decade.

  8. 76 FR 74725 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ...This action implements revisions to the Pacific coast groundfish trawl rationalization program (program), a catch share program, and includes regulations that affect all commercial sectors (limited entry trawl, limited entry fixed gear, and open access) managed under the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP). This action includes regulatory amendments to further implement......

  9. 75 FR 60867 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ...NMFS is implementing Amendments 20 and 21 to the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP), which were partially approved by the Secretary on August 9, 2010. Amendment 20 establishes a trawl rationalization program for the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery. Amendment 20's trawl rationalization program consists of: an individual fishing quota (IFQ) program for the shorebased trawl......

  10. 75 FR 67809 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ...This proposed action would establish the 2011-2012 harvest specifications and management measures for groundfish taken in the U.S. exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California consistent with the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act and the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (PCGFMP). This action revises the collection of......

  11. Genome-Wide Divergence in the West-African Malaria Vector Anopheles melas.

    PubMed

    Deitz, Kevin C; Athrey, Giridhar A; Jawara, Musa; Overgaard, Hans J; Matias, Abrahan; Slotman, Michel A

    2016-09-08

    Anopheles melas is a member of the recently diverged An. gambiae species complex, a model for speciation studies, and is a locally important malaria vector along the West-African coast where it breeds in brackish water. A recent population genetic study of An. melas revealed species-level genetic differentiation between three population clusters. An. melas West extends from The Gambia to the village of Tiko, Cameroon. The other mainland cluster, An. melas South, extends from the southern Cameroonian village of Ipono to Angola. Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea An. melas populations are genetically isolated from mainland populations. To examine how genetic differentiation between these An. melas forms is distributed across their genomes, we conducted a genome-wide analysis of genetic differentiation and selection using whole genome sequencing data of pooled individuals (Pool-seq) from a representative population of each cluster. The An. melas forms exhibit high levels of genetic differentiation throughout their genomes, including the presence of numerous fixed differences between clusters. Although the level of divergence between the clusters is on a par with that of other species within the An. gambiae complex, patterns of genome-wide divergence and diversity do not provide evidence for the presence of pre- and/or postmating isolating mechanisms in the form of speciation islands. These results are consistent with an allopatric divergence process with little or no introgression.

  12. Genome-Wide Divergence in the West-African Malaria Vector Anopheles melas

    PubMed Central

    Deitz, Kevin C.; Athrey, Giridhar A.; Jawara, Musa; Overgaard, Hans J.; Matias, Abrahan; Slotman, Michel A.

    2016-01-01

    Anopheles melas is a member of the recently diverged An. gambiae species complex, a model for speciation studies, and is a locally important malaria vector along the West-African coast where it breeds in brackish water. A recent population genetic study of An. melas revealed species-level genetic differentiation between three population clusters. An. melas West extends from The Gambia to the village of Tiko, Cameroon. The other mainland cluster, An. melas South, extends from the southern Cameroonian village of Ipono to Angola. Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea An. melas populations are genetically isolated from mainland populations. To examine how genetic differentiation between these An. melas forms is distributed across their genomes, we conducted a genome-wide analysis of genetic differentiation and selection using whole genome sequencing data of pooled individuals (Pool-seq) from a representative population of each cluster. The An. melas forms exhibit high levels of genetic differentiation throughout their genomes, including the presence of numerous fixed differences between clusters. Although the level of divergence between the clusters is on a par with that of other species within the An. gambiae complex, patterns of genome-wide divergence and diversity do not provide evidence for the presence of pre- and/or postmating isolating mechanisms in the form of speciation islands. These results are consistent with an allopatric divergence process with little or no introgression. PMID:27466271

  13. Concordant genetic structure in two species of woodpecker distributed across the primary West African biogeographic barriers.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Jérôme; Bowie, Rauri C K

    2015-07-01

    The lowland forests of western and central tropical Africa are separated by several potential biogeographic barriers to dispersal for forest adapted vertebrates. The two primary barriers are (1) the Dahomey Gap, a savanna corridor that reaches the coast of southern Ghana, Togo and Benin, and separates the West African rainforest into the Upper (Ghana west to Guinea) and Lower Guinea (Nigeria to Uganda and Angola) forest blocks, and (2) the Lower Niger River, a large delta that separates Western and Eastern Nigeria. Previous studies on terrestrial vertebrates (lizards, mammals and birds) have highlighted a genetic break in the Dahomey Gap/Lower Niger River area although the relative importance of each barrier has not been assessed due to limitations in geographic sampling. We compared the phylogeographic history of two co-distributed sister-species of woodpeckers (Campethera caroli and C. nivosa) using data from three loci representing all inheritance modes. Our analyses revealed that both the Dahomey Gap and possibly the Lower Niger River acted as strong biogeographic barriers for the two woodpecker species, with the Lower Niger River being the first barrier to have formed, leading to three distinct populations of C. nivosa. Our divergence time analyses revealed that both these biogeographic barriers formed during the Pleistocene, supporting the Pleistocene refuge hypothesis, with the Dahomey Gap likely appearing about 0.5 myr BP. No genetic structure was recovered among sampled populations in either the Upper or the Lower Guinea Forest Block for both species, despite the considerable geographic area covered.

  14. Learning about geological events in Vendée (west coast of France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretaudeau, Florence; Lavigne, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Our 70 pupils, aged from 17 to 18 had discovered an area of the west coast of France : Vendée. We studied rocks in order to tell the geological story of this area. Several characteristics were looked at : sedimentary and metamorphics rocks, minerals, fault, folding, unconformability... We took advantage of this geological journey to look at biodiversity in different ecosystems : rocky coast, dune, wood.

  15. Numerical Simulation of Coastal Trapped Disturbances Along the U.S. West Coast

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    variability along the west coast of North America influences the evolution, propagation, and decay of Coastal Trapped Disturbances (CTD). Emphasis is placed ...A secondary objective is to determine whether a reduced gravity model (applied to these events in previous work ) is a good approximation of the...Coast 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7

  16. Assessing surface sediment dynamics along the north-west coast of Marsa Dhouiba (Tunisia, southern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khiari, Nouha; Atoui, Abdelfattah; Brahim, Mouldi; Sammari, Chérif; Charef, Abdelkrim; Aleya, Lotfi

    2016-04-01

    An investigation was conducted from summer 2012 to winter 2013 at 25 stations along the Tunisian coast near Kef Abbed at Marsa Dhouiba (north-east Mediterranean Sea) to analyse grain size, sediment mineralogy and currents. Particle-size analysis shows that sand deposits at shallow depths are characterised by S-shaped curves, indicating a degree of agitation and possible transport by rip currents near the bottom. At greater depths (between 10 and 30 m), the bottom is covered by coarse sand and gravel. A current was observed transporting sediment eastward along the coast; another seaward current was also noted. Generated by wind, swell and especially waves from west to north-west, the two currents transport clay and silt-sized sediment seaward. An Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler showed Marsa Dhouiba's coastal current to follow a direction 175° East, with its main axis running north/north-west parallel to the coast and its minor axis also running north/north-west. Analysis of current components indicates that the velocities u and v are oriented north to south. Sediment evolution in shallow waters is dependent on detrital inputs from streams and winds. The coarse fraction of surface sediments in Marsa Dhouiba presents 87% of total sediments and is located at depths of 10-30 m. Sediment dynamics in the Marsa Dhouiba region are closely related to the west/north-west swell.

  17. The Africanization of Syllabuses in Education in Anglophone and Francophone Countries of West Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Michael

    1971-01-01

    Comparison of syllabuses concludes that in West Africa English-speaking countries have made greater progress in Africanizing both the content and language of instruction than French-speaking countries. (RT)

  18. [Some African gregarines (Ivory Coast, Gaboon) (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Théodoridès, J; Desportes, I; Mateu, J

    1976-01-01

    We study in the present paper two collections of Gregarines (all parasite of terrestrial arthropods) from the Ivory Coast and the Gaboon. Among the 17 species studied, three are new for science: Gregarina darchenae, Gregarina pycnoceri and Gigaductus africanus. The other species have been already found in closely related hosts.

  19. Multiresolution quantification of deciduousness in West Central African forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viennois, G.; Barbier, N.; Fabre, I.; Couteron, P.

    2013-04-01

    The characterization of leaf phenology in tropical forests is of major importance and improves our understanding of earth-atmosphere-climate interactions. The availability of satellite optical data with a high temporal resolution has permitted the identification of unexpected phenological cycles, particularly over the Amazon region. A primary issue in these studies is the relationship between the optical reflectance of pixels of 1 km or more in size and ground information of limited spatial extent. In this paper, we demonstrate that optical data with high to very-high spatial resolution can help bridge this scale gap by providing snapshots of the canopy that allow discernment of the leaf-phenological stage of trees and the proportions of leaved crowns within the canopy. We also propose applications for broad-scale forest characterization and mapping in West Central Africa over an area of 141 000 km2. Eleven years of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) data were averaged over the wet and dry seasons to provide a dataset of optimal radiometric quality at a spatial resolution of 250 m. Sample areas covered at a very-high (GeoEye) and high (SPOT-5) spatial resolution were used to identify forest types and to quantify the proportion of leaved trees in the canopy. The dry season EVI was positively correlated with the proportion of leaved trees in the canopy. This relationship allowed the conversion of EVI into canopy deciduousness at the regional level. On this basis, ecologically important forest types could be mapped, including young secondary, open Marantaceae, Gilbertiodendron dewevrei and swamp forests. We show that in west central African forests, a large share of the variability in canopy reflectance, as captured by the EVI, is due to variation in the proportion of leaved trees in the upper canopy, thereby opening new perspectives for biodiversity and carbon-cycle applications.

  20. Multiresolution quantification of deciduousness in West-Central African forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viennois, G.; Barbier, N.; Fabre, I.; Couteron, P.

    2013-11-01

    The characterization of leaf phenology in tropical forests is of major importance for forest typology as well as to improve our understanding of earth-atmosphere-climate interactions or biogeochemical cycles. The availability of satellite optical data with a high temporal resolution has permitted the identification of unexpected phenological cycles, particularly over the Amazon region. A primary issue in these studies is the relationship between the optical reflectance of pixels of 1 km or more in size and ground information of limited spatial extent. In this paper, we demonstrate that optical data with high to very-high spatial resolution can help bridge this scale gap by providing snapshots of the canopy that allow discernment of the leaf-phenological stage of trees and the proportions of leaved crowns within the canopy. We also propose applications for broad-scale forest characterization and mapping in West-Central Africa over an area of 141 000 km2. Eleven years of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) data were averaged over the wet and dry seasons to provide a data set of optimal radiometric quality at a spatial resolution of 250 m. Sample areas covered at a very-high (GeoEye) and high (SPOT-5) spatial resolution were used to identify forest types and to quantify the proportion of leaved trees in the canopy. The dry-season EVI was positively correlated with the proportion of leaved trees in the canopy. This relationship allowed the conversion of EVI into canopy deciduousness at the regional level. On this basis, ecologically important forest types could be mapped, including young secondary, open Marantaceae, Gilbertiodendron dewevrei and swamp forests. We show that in West-Central African forests, a large share of the variability in canopy reflectance, as captured by the EVI, is due to variation in the proportion of leaved trees in the upper canopy, thereby opening new perspectives for biodiversity and

  1. 78 FR 10557 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... trollers, and 438-495 charter boats. Based on Pacific Coast Fisheries Information Network (PacFIN) data, a... biological opinions that address the impacts of the Council managed salmon fisheries on listed salmonids as... fisheries were not likely to jeopardize SRKW (biological opinion dated May 5, 2009). Pursuant to...

  2. Critical Postcolonial Dance Pedagogy: The Relevance of West African Dance Education in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz Banks, Ojeya

    2010-01-01

    This dance ethnography examines work conducted by the Dambe Project--a nonprofit organization that specializes in African performing arts education and mentorship. The study focuses on the implications of the organization's dance pedagogy in light of its postcolonial context and the importance of West African dance education in the United States.…

  3. Satellite-derived interannual variability of West African rainfall during 1983-88

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ba, Mamoudou B.; Frouin, Robert; Nicholson, Sharon E.

    1995-01-01

    Two satellite algorithms for rain estimation are used to study the interannual variability of West African rainfall during contrasting years of the period 1983-88. The first algorithm uses a frequency of occurrence index quantifying the number of times Meteosat thermal infrared radiance below 2.107 W/sq m/sr/micrometer (-40 C) occurs during the rainy season. The second algorithm uses the average Meteosat thermal infrared radiance over the period of interest. Appropriate calibrations are performed using these satellite parameters and ground-based rainfall observations. Separate calibration and equations are considered for each of three suggested subrainfall zones in West Africa: two Sahelian zones located just north of 9 deg N (one east and one west of 5 deg W) and the region extending south from 9 deg N to the coast. Over 80% of the variance in the ground-based rainfall data is explained by both algorithms in regions located north of 9 deg N, but poor correlations between observed and estimated rainfall exist south of 9 deg N. The interannual variability of rainfall in the Sahel is well described by that of cold clouds and average radiances. The satellite estimates also reveal substantial longitudinal variability in the anomaly fields, indicating that some Sahelo-Soudanian areas may receive above average rainfall during a year cataloged as dry. The latitudinal displacement and the extent of the cloud band associated with the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), as derived from cold cloud indices, indicate a northward displacement of the ITCZ in some, but not all, wet years in the Sahel. No systematic anomalous southward displacement of the ITCZ is evident in dry years. Drought in the Sahel appears to be more closely linked to the lattitudinal extent and the intensity of the convection within the ITCZ.

  4. 76 FR 40836 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XA554 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... live bait fishery or incidental to other fisheries; the incidental harvest of Pacific sardine...

  5. 75 FR 59156 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XY79 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... bait fishery or incidental to other fisheries; the incidental harvest of Pacific sardine is limited...

  6. 76 FR 58720 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XA709 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... bait fishery or incidental to other fisheries; the incidental harvest of Pacific sardine is limited...

  7. 75 FR 42610 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XX54 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... live bait fishery or incidental to other fisheries; the incidental harvest of Pacific sardine...

  8. 78 FR 51097 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XC783 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... live bait fishery or incidental to other fisheries; the incidental harvest of Pacific sardine...

  9. 77 FR 50952 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XC166 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... live bait fishery or incidental to other fisheries; the incidental harvest of Pacific sardine...

  10. A PROBABILISTIC SURVEY OF FISH TISSUE CONTAMINATION FROM THE CONTINENTAL SHELF OF THE US WEST COAST

    EPA Science Inventory

    A probabilistic survey of environmental condition of the continental shelf of the US West Coast was conducted in 2003 by the US EPA National Coastal Assessment (NCA), with collaboration by the NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service. Metals and organic contaminants were analyzed ...

  11. New Cultural Economies of Marginality: Revisiting the West Coast, South Island, New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conradson, David; Pawson, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Marginal regions have been the subject of political concern and remedial action in western states for several decades now. The West Coast of the South Island of New Zealand is an interesting case study in this regard, for recent economic growth has confounded earlier expectations of post-restructuring decline, while also contradicting several of…

  12. 78 FR 16828 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Status Review of the West Coast Distinct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Status Review... and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of initiation of status review. SUMMARY: We, the U.S... segment (DPS) in the United States. The status review will include analysis of whether the West Coast...

  13. Monarch butterflies cross the Appalachians from the west to recolonize the east coast of North America.

    PubMed

    Miller, Nathan G; Wassenaar, Leonard I; Hobson, Keith A; Norris, D Ryan

    2011-02-23

    Each spring, millions of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate from overwintering sites in Mexico to recolonize eastern North America. However, few monarchs are found along the east coast of the USA until mid-summer. Brower (Brower, L. P. 1996 J. Exp. Biol. 199, 93-103.) proposed that east coast recolonization is accomplished by individuals migrating from the west over the Appalachians, but to date no evidence exists to support this hypothesis. We used hydrogen (δD) and carbon (δ(13)C) stable isotope measurements to estimate natal origins of 90 monarchs sampled from 17 sites along the eastern United States coast. We found the majority of monarchs (88%) originated in the mid-west and Great Lakes regions, providing, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence that second generation monarchs born in June complete a (trans-) longitudinal migration across the Appalachian mountains. The remaining individuals (12%) originated from parents that migrated directly from the Gulf coast during early spring. Our results provide evidence of a west to east longitudinal migration and provide additional rationale for conserving east coast populations by identifying breeding sources.

  14. 76 FR 55865 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Notice of Availability for Secretarial Amendment 1 to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-BB27 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Notice of Availability for Secretarial Amendment 1 to the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery...; request for comments. SUMMARY: NMFS has prepared Secretarial Amendment 1 to the Pacific Coast...

  15. Reproductive toxicity of seafood contaminants: Prospective comparisons of Swedish east and west coast fishermen's families

    PubMed Central

    Axmon, Anna; Rylander, Lars; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Cohorts comprising fishermen's families on the east coast of Sweden have been found to have a high consumption of contaminated fish as well as high body burdens of persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs). Their west coast correspondents are socio-economically similar, but with considerably lower POP exposure since the fish caught on the west coast is far less contaminated. The rationale for this was that the cohorts residing on the east coast of Sweden have been found to have a high consumption of contaminated fish as well as high body burdens of POPs, whereas their west coast correspondents are socio-economically similar, but with considerably lower POP exposure since the fish caught on the west coast is far less contaminated. Among the reproductive outcomes investigated are included both male and female parameters, as well as couple fertility and effects on the fetus. A range of exposure measures, including both questionnaire assessments of fish consumption and biomarkers, have been used. The most consistent findings of the studies are those related to the fetus, where a decreased birth weight was found across all measures of exposure, which is in agreement with studies from other populations. Some markers for male reproduction function, i.e. sperm motility, sperm chromatin integrity, and Y:X chromosome ratio, were associated with POP exposure, whereas others, such as sperm concentration and semen volume, were not. With respect to couple fertility and female reproductive parameters, no support was given for associations with POP exposure. Although some associations may have been affected by beneficial effects of essential nutrients in seafood, the overall findings are meaningful in the context of reproductive toxicity and support the usefulness of the epidemiological design. PMID:18507855

  16. 75 FR 33196 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Suspension of the Primary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Suspension of the Primary Pacific Whiting Season for the Shore... announces the suspension of the Pacific whiting (whiting) fishery primary season for the shore-based sector... reinstated until 0001 hours June 15, 2010, at which time the primary season for the shore-based sector...

  17. 75 FR 26702 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... Management Plan; Amendments 20 and 21; Trawl Rationalization Program AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... amendments to a fishery management plan; request for comments. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) has submitted Amendments 20 and 21 to the Pacific Coast...

  18. 78 FR 18879 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ...This action revises several portions of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Trawl Rationalization Program (program) regulations in response to a court order requiring the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to reconsider the initial allocation of Pacific whiting (whiting) to the shorebased individual fishing quota (IFQ) fishery and the at-sea mothership fishery. Additionally, NMFS......

  19. 78 FR 56641 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... Measures; Rockfish Conservation Area Boundaries for Vessels Using Bottom Trawl Gear AGENCY: National Marine... rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: This proposed action would implement revisions to the boundaries... Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP) by liberalizing RCA boundaries in order to...

  20. [RESAOLAB: West African network of laboratories to enhance the quality of clinical biology].

    PubMed

    Delorme, L; Machuron, J L; Sow, I; Diagne, R; Sakandé, J; Nikiéma, A; Bougoudogo, F; Keita, A; Longuet, C

    2015-02-01

    The Fondation Mérieux, in partnership with the Ministries of Health of Burkina Faso, Mali and Senegal, implemented for four years a project to reinforce the laboratory sector in the three participating countries: the RESAOLAB project (West African Network of Biomedical Analysis Laboratories).The objective of RESAOLAB project, in partnership with the WHO Office for West Africa and the West African Health Organization, was to strengthen the systems of biomedical laboratories to improve diagnostic services, access, monitoring and management of infectious diseases. Following the successful results achieved under the RESAOLAB project and due to the demand of the neighbour countries ministries, the RESAOLAB project is now extended to four other countries of the West African region: Benin, Guinea-Conakry, Niger and Togo. The RESAOLAB project has become the RESAOLAB programme, its purpose is to strengthen the quality of the medical biology services thanks to a regional and transversal approach.

  1. Mothers and Sons: Androgynous Relationships in African-West Indian and African-American Novels of Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeSeur, Geta

    1992-01-01

    Four African-American and West Indian novels of childhood illustrate relationships and bonding between mothers and sons: (1) "Go Tell It on the Mountain" (James Baldwin); (2) "Not without Laughter" (Langston Hughes); (3) "Amongst Thistles and Thorns" (Austin Clarke); and (4) "In the Castle of My Skin"…

  2. The turbulence underside of the West African Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lothon, M.; Lohou, F.; Saïd, F.; Campistron, B.; Canut, G.; Couvreux, F.; Durand, P.; Kalapureddy, M. C.; Lee, Y.; Madougou, S.; Serça, D.

    2009-09-01

    We present an experimental analysis of the sahelian Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) processes in the context of the AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis) program and its extensive observational deployment in 2006. From May to October, two opposite flows are interacting in the first 5 thousands m over surface in Sahel: the moist southerly monsoon flow and the overlying northeasterly Saharan Air Layer (SAL) in which the African Easterly Jet (AEJ) is developing, generated by the contrast of surface moisture and temperature between Sahara and the Gulf of Guinea. Until the monsoon onset in mid-July, the low troposphere is slowly moistening through advection from the Guinea Gulf by the monsoon flow, especially during the night. During the day, the dry convection occurring within the PBL vertically redistributes part of the water vapour. After the onset, deep convection occurs much more frequently and the role played by the PBL completely changes. The relative position of the interface between monsoon and SAL and the PBL top inversion is crucial for the nature of the interaction and its impact on scalars, especially water vapour. We consider the role of the PBL processes in this context, and focus on four main aspects: (1) the diurnal cycle of the low troposphere, (2) the interaction between the PBL and the AEJ, (3) the entrainment at the PBL top (4) the impact of the PBL processes at surface. We base our analysis on long term profilers, radiosondes, and surface flux data, short term aircraft turbulence measurements made during the Special Observing Periods and Large Eddy Simulation. The network of wind profilers enables us to study the large scale circulation and highlight the consistence and extent of the nocturnal jet, and the importance of the diurnal cycle of the low troposphere for the West African Monsoon. During daytime, both the wind within the monsoon flow and the AEJ windspeed in the overlying SAL decrease, due to turbulent mixing within the PBL and

  3. [Intestinal parasitoses in the Mahajanga region, west coast of Madagascar].

    PubMed

    Buchy, P

    2003-03-01

    A study on human intestinal parasites was carried out from November 1996 until January 1997, in Mahajanga's hospital, on the western coast of Madagascar. We collected the faeces from 401 patients and the sera from 112 of them. Faecal examination using direct examination and MIF method revealed that 67.6% of the stools contained at least one parasite. The frequency of the protozoa was high (47.7%). The prevalence of the nematodosis reached 23.4%. Hymenolepis nana, Taenia saginata or solium and Schistosoma mansoni were less frequent (respectively 2.5%, 0.75% and 3.7%). More than 50% of the sera contained antibodies anti-Ascaris lumbricoides and anti-Strongyloides stercoralis. Serology by IFI using Schistosoma antigen was positive in 15.2% of the cases. The serological and microscopical exams showed that Entamoeba histolytica was present in this region and that amoebiasis should be considered as one of the etiologies of diarrhoea. The study pointed out also the frequency of the transmitted fecal infections. Preventive measures as water distribution, sanitary installations, hygiene education should be implemented.

  4. Atmospheric nutrient deposition to the west coast of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyaga, Justine M.; Cramer, Michael D.; Neff, Jason C.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric deposition is an important source of nutrients to many ecosystems, but is of particular importance to plant nutrition in areas where nutrients are scarce. Nutrient containing aerosols enter the atmosphere through industrial and agricultural activities, wildfires, and the production of terrigenous and marine aerosols. In this study, we collected bulk rain precipitation along the Atlantic coast of South Africa in a coastal “strandveld” vegetation region. This region is relatively remote from significant anthropogenic influences and is downwind of a highly productive and stormy portion of the Atlantic. Samples were collected over 12 months at sites along a 17 km downwind transect from the shoreline and analyzed for N, P, Na, Ca, Mg and K. Annual total N and total P fluxes of 4.8 kg ha-1 yr-1 and 0.16 kg ha-1 yr-1 are low compared to global averages. In contrast, fluxes of Na were 88.7 kg ha-1 yr-1, 16.2 kg ha-1 yr-1 for Ca, 12.1 kg ha-1 yr-1 for Mg and 5.2 kg ha-1 yr-1 for K; rates that are higher than most other measurements elsewhere in the world. Dissolved organic N represented ca. 71% of the N flux while 43% of the P flux was in the form of soluble reactive P (SRP). These results combined with the high fluxes of Na and Mg strongly suggest that marine aerosols are important contributors to nutrient deposition at this site.

  5. Remote sensing of wetland conditions in West Coast salt marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustin, Susan L.; Lay, Mui C.; Li, Lin

    2004-11-01

    The objective of the PEEIR (Pacific Estuarine Ecosystem Indicator Research Consortium) program is to develop new indicators for assessing wetland health or condition. As part of PEEIR program we are investigating the use of imaging spectrometry to map and characterize marsh vegetation of several estuarine systems in California. We obtained airborne Advanced Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data, an instrument which measures a detailed reflectance spectrum (400-2500nm) for each pixel, over paired tidal marshes, having either a history of exposure to pollution or no known exposure. AVIRIS image data was analyzed based on comparison to field measurements and reflectance changes measured in hydroponic experiments. We report leaf and canopy reflectance measurements of several common plant species of Pacific coast salt marshes exposed to different concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, V) and crude oil contaminants. Species exhibited differential sensitivities to specific contaminants, however in general, Salicornia virginica, the most salt tolerant species and the dominant species in these wetlands (70-90% cover) was most sensitive to metal and petroleum contaminants. Field measurements of canopy reflectance, biomass and vegetation structure were acquired across GPS-located transects at each field site. The AVIRIS data were calibrated to surface reflectance using the FLAASH radiative transfer code and geometrically registered to coordinates using the 1m USGS digital orthophoto quads. AVIRIS results show spatial patterns of plant stress indicators (e.g., reduced chlorophyll and water contents) are consistent with known patterns of contamination in these tidal wetlands.

  6. Integrated coastal zone management plan and coastal zone information system for Mangalore Coast, west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwarakish, G. S.; Shetty, Dinakar; Rao, Rajarama; Pai, Jagadeesh; Natesan, Usha

    2006-12-01

    In the present study, Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan (ICZMP) has been developed for Mangalore Coast in Karnataka, along the West Coast of India, by analyzing the remotely sensed data and conventional data. The various data products used in the present study includes, IRS-1C LISS-III+PAN and IRS-P6 LISS IV remotely sensed data, Naval Hydrographic Chart and Survey of India (SOI) toposheets. Different thematic maps prepared in the present study includes, land use/ land cover map, bathymetry map, shoreline configuration map, transportation and drainage network maps, GPS survey map, CRZ map, contour map, DEM, inundation map and coastal erosion vulnerability map. The results of the present study are encouraging. Some of the specific conclusions of the study are; eight coastal vulnerability sites have been identified, significant increase in the built-up area and decrease in the agricultural land, no large scale erosion or deposition in the vicinity of coastal structures such as seawalls, breakwaters and entrance channel of New Mangalore Port Trust and the beaches along the Mangalore Coast are maintaining dynamic equilibrium. To get the online information about all these, Coastal Zone Information System (CZIS) has been developed through V. B. 6. 0. using results of various data analyses.

  7. Cenozoic history of the west coast margin, Jamaica

    SciTech Connect

    Hendry, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    Cycles of emergence and submergence caused by tectonic movements and glacio-eustatic sea-level changes have left a strong signature on the geologic record of Jamaica's west coat margin. The fault-bounded Hanover Block controlled sites of Early Eocene to late Middle Miocene bank, slope and deep water carbonate sedimentation. Uplift in the Late Middle Miocene resulted in subaerial exposure of the limestones, with the formation of distinctive karst topograpy. Downfaulting of an extensive coastal block occurred in the Plio-Pleistocene, with glacio-eustatic sea-level changes becoming superimposed on tectonic events. Lower than present sea-levels are recorded by submerged terraces, a downed river valley, cliff and sea-level notch. The latter may correspond with late-Pleistocene interstadial sea-level positions of c.-18m. below present. Higher-than-present sea levels created a series of terraces, some underlain by Pleistocene reef, though levels have been affected by tectonic movements. The downfaulted block is veneered by thick terrestrial clays and gravels of Pleistocene age, succeeded by Holocene peat, and at the beach margin, carbonate sands. Radiometric dating of buried peat indicates that upward growth of the wetland surface was accompanied by landward migration of the beach across the wetland during the last 4000 years of the Holocene transgression.

  8. Litter in submarine canyons off the west coast of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordecai, Gideon; Tyler, Paul A.; Masson, Douglas G.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.

    2011-12-01

    Marine litter is of global concern and is present in all the world's oceans, including deep benthic habitats where the extent of the problem is still largely unknown. Litter abundance and composition were investigated using video footage and still images from 16 Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives in Lisbon, Setúbal, Cascais and Nazaré Canyons located west of Portugal. Litter was most abundant at sites closest to the coastline and population centres, suggesting the majority of the litter was land sourced. Plastic was the dominant type of debris, followed by fishing gear. Standardised mean abundance was 1100 litter items km -2, but was as high as 6600 litter items km -2 in canyons close to Lisbon. Although all anthropogenic material may be harmful to biota, debris was also used as a habitat by some macro-invertebrates. Litter composition and abundance observed in the canyons of the Portuguese margin were comparable to those seen in other deep sea areas around the world. Accumulation of litter in the deep sea is a consequence of human activities both on land and at sea. This needs to be taken into account in future policy decisions regarding marine pollution.

  9. The West African monsoon: Contribution of the AMMA multidisciplinary programme to the study of a regional climate system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebel, T.; Janicot, S.; Redelsperger, J. L.; Parker, D. J.; Thorncroft, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    The AMMA international project aims at improving our knowledge and understanding of the West African monsoon and its variability with an emphasis on daily-to-interannual timescales. AMMA is motivated by an interest in fundamental scientific issues and by the societal need for improved prediction of the WAM and its impacts on water resources, health and food security for West African nations. The West African monsoon (WAM) has a distinctive annual cycle in rainfall that remains a challenge to understand and predict. The location of peak rainfall, which resides in the Northern Hemisphere throughout the year, moves from the ocean to the land in boreal spring. Around the end of June there is a rapid shift in the location of peak rainfall between the coast and around 10°N where it remains until about the end of August. In September the peak rainfall returns equatorward at a relatively steady pace and is located over the ocean again by November. The fact that the peak rainfall migrates irregularly compared to the peak solar heating is due to the interactions that occur between the land, the atmosphere and the ocean. To gain a better understanding of this complex climate system, a large international research programme was launched in 2002, the biggest of its kind into environment and climate ever attempted in Africa. AMMA has involved a comprehensive field experiment bringing together ocean, land and atmospheric measurements, on timescales ranging from hourly and daily variability up to the changes in seasonal activity over a number of years. This presentation will focus on the description of the field programme and its accomplishments, and address some key questions that have been recently identified to form the core of AMMA-Phase 2.

  10. Plummeting crude prices hurt West Coast work, but several projects start up

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, B.

    1987-06-08

    The U.S. West Coast this year will see the nation's first commercial offshore arctic production and the start-up of oil flow from the controversial Santa Maria basin off California. An even bigger controversy involves the best remaining U.S. petroleum prospect-the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). The collapse in oil prices in 1986 has crippled drilling on the West Coast. The region always has had to contend with lower prices for lesser quality crudes and some of the highest operating costs in the U.S. But as oil prices continue to show stability, action will rebound in the two states that furnish more than one third of U.S. oil production.

  11. Selected results from LLNL-Hughes RAR for West Coast Scotland Experiment 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, S K; Johnston, B; Twogood, R; Wieting, M; Yorkey, T; Robey, H; Whelan, D; Nagele, R

    1993-01-05

    The joint US -- UK 1991 West Coast Scotland Experiment (WCSEX) was held in two locations. From July 5 to 12, 1991, in Upper Loch Linnhe, and from July 18 to July 26, 1991, in the Sound of Sleat. The LLNL-Hughes team fielded a fully polarimetric X-band hill-side real aperture radar to collect internal wave wake data. We present here a sample data set of the best radar runs.

  12. Improving End-To-End Tsunami Warning for Risk Reduction on Canada’s West Coast

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    several disciplines including studied tsunami deposit layers, radiocarbon dating on terestrial plant specimens and tree-ring analysis of Sitka spruce...West Coast (CSSP-2013-TI-1033) i   Record of Amendments Version Number Section Amended Entered By Amendment Date Version 1 Document created...of the Oregon–Washington margin. Tectonics, 9 (1990), pp. 569–583. Atwater, B.F., Stuiver, M.,Yamaguchi, D.K. (1990). Radiocarbon test of earthquake

  13. Analysis of Hanford-based Options for Sustainable DOE Facilities on the West Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, William M.

    2012-06-30

    Large-scale conventional energy projects result in lower costs of energy (COE). This is true for most renewable energy projects as well. The Office of Science is interested in its facilities meeting the renewable energy mandates set by Congress and the Administration. Those facilities on the west coast include a cluster in the Bay Area of California and at Hanford in central Washington State. Land constraints at the California facilities do not permit large scale projects. The Hanford Reservation has land and solar insolation available for a large scale solar project as well as access to a regional transmission system that can provide power to facilities in California. The premise of this study is that a large-scale solar project at Hanford may be able to provide renewable energy sufficient to meet the needs of select Office of Science facilities on the west coast at a COE that is competitive with costs in California despite the lower solar insolation values at Hanford. The study concludes that although the cost of solar projects continues to decline, estimated costs for a large-scale project at Hanford are still not competitive with avoided power costs for Office of Science facilities on the west coast. Further, although it is possible to transmit power from a solar project at Hanford to California facilities, the costs of doing so add additional costs. Consequently, development of a large- scale solar project at Hanford to meet the renewable goals of Office of Science facilities on the west coast is currently uneconomic. This may change as solar costs decrease and California-based facilities face increasing costs for conventional and renewable energy produced in the state. PNNL should monitor those cost trends.

  14. Atmospheric rivers as drought busters on the U.S. west coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dettinger, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) have, in recent years, been recognized as the cause of the large majority of major floods in rivers all along the U.S. West Coast and as the source of 30%–50% of all precipitation in the same region. The present study surveys the frequency with which ARs have played a critical role as a common cause of the end of droughts on the West Coast. This question was based on the observation that, in most cases, droughts end abruptly as a result of the arrival of an especially wet month or, more exactly, a few very large storms. This observation is documented using both Palmer Drought Severity Index and 6-month Standardized Precipitation Index measures of drought occurrence for climate divisions across the conterminous United States from 1895 to 2010. When the individual storm sequences that contributed most to the wet months that broke historical West Coast droughts from 1950 to 2010 were evaluated, 33%–74% of droughts were broken by the arrival of landfalling AR storms. In the Pacific Northwest, 60%–74% of all persistent drought endings have been brought about by the arrival of AR storms. In California, about 33%–40% of all persistent drought endings have been brought about by landfalling AR storms, with more localized low pressure systems responsible for many of the remaining drought breaks.

  15. Seasonal and interannual variations of upper ocean heat balance off the west coast of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Ming; Biastoch, Arne; BöNing, Claus; Caputi, Nick; Meyers, Gary

    2008-12-01

    The Leeuwin Current, a warm, poleward flowing eastern boundary current, dominates the surface circulation off the west coast of Australia and has profound influence on regional marine ecosystem and fisheries recruitment. In this study, the seasonal and interannual variations of upper ocean heat balance in the Leeuwin Current region are analyzed by using an eddy-resolving numerical model simulation, as a first step to quantify the climate impacts on regional ocean thermodynamics and marine ecosystem. The volume transport and heat advection of the Leeuwin Current are stronger during the austral winter on the seasonal cycle and are stronger during a La Nina event on the interannual scale. On both seasonal and interannual timescales, the mixed layer heat budget off the west coast of Australia is predominantly balanced between the variations of the Leeuwin Current heat advection and heat flux across the air-sea interface. On the interannual timescale, the variation of the Leeuwin Current heat advection tends to lead that of the air-sea (latent) heat flux by two months, which is likely a reflection of advection timescales of the Leeuwin Current and its eddy field. The interannual variation of the average February-April sea surface temperature off the west coast of Australia, which is crucial for the larval settlement of western rock lobster, is mostly influenced by the Leeuwin Current heat advection as well as the ocean memory from the previous austral winter, with the air-sea heat exchange playing a buffering role.

  16. Climatology and dynamics of nocturnal low-level stratus over the southern West African monsoon region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, A. H.; Schuster, R.; Knippertz, P.; van der Linden, R.

    2013-12-01

    The southern parts of West Africa, from the coast to about 10°N, are frequently covered by an extensive deck of shallow, low (200 - 400 m above ground) stratus or stratocumulus clouds during the summer monsoon season. These clouds usually form at night in association with a nocturnal low-level jet (NLLJ) and can persist into the early afternoon hours until they are dissipated or replaced by fair-weather cumuli. Recent work suggests that the stratus deck and its effect on the surface radiation balance are unsatisfactorily represented in standard satellite retrievals and simulations by state-of-the-art climate models. We will present the first ever climatology of the diurnal cycle of the low cloud deck based on surface observations and satellite products. In addition, we use high-resolution regional simulations with the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model and observations from the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) 2006 campaign to investigate (a) the spatiotemporal distribution, (b) the influence on the radiation balance, and (c) the detailed formation and maintenance mechanisms of the stratiform clouds as simulated by the model. The model configuration used for this study has been determined following an extensive sensitivity study, which has shown that at least some configurations of WRF satisfactorily reproduce the diurnal cycle of the low cloud evolution. The main conclusions are: (a) The observed stratus deck forms after sunset along the coast, spreads inland in the course of the night, reaches maximum poleward extent at about 10°N around 09-10 local time and dissipates in the early afternoon. (b) The average surface net radiation balance in stratus-dominated regions is 35 W m-2 lower than in those with less clouds. (c) The cloud formation is related to a subtle balance between 'stratogenic' upward (downward) fluxes of latent (sensible) heat caused by shear-driven turbulence below the NLLJ, cold advection from the ocean, forced lifting at

  17. Backtrack modeling to locate the origin of tar balls depositing along the west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Suneel, V; Ciappa, A; Vethamony, P

    2016-11-01

    Tar ball (TB) deposition along the West Coast of India (WCI) is a common phenomenon during the southwest monsoon season, particularly along the coast of Goa and Gujarat, and it is a major concern to the stake holders. Our earlier studies showed that the source oil for the TBs deposited on the Goa coast in August 2010 is the tanker wash, and the source for subsequent TBs deposited on the Gujarat coast during July 2012 and June 2013 and Goa coast in May 2013 is from Bombay High (BH) oil fields. In the present study, the TBs that were deposited during May 2013 and May 2014 on the Goa coast were backtracked through a trajectory model, primarily to simulate their pathways and identify the reason for the occurrence of TBs only in May, and eventually to identify the origin and the source. The backtracking results re-confirmed that the TBs deposited in 2010 were originated from the tanker routes and that of both 2013 and 2014 TBs from the BH oil fields. The climatology of wind and surface circulation showed that the TBs deposited on the Goa coast during May/June only are from the oil fields and those during August from the tanker route. The results of backtracking simulations showed that the residence time of the oil residues/TBs is approximately 22days for August 2010 TBs, ≈30days for May 2013 TBs and 65days for May 2014 TBs. The residence time (in water) of TBs that deposit (on the coast) in the month of May could be as much as 7months, and could be around one month if deposit in August, primarily because of winds and hydrodynamic conditions of the Arabian Sea.

  18. Recruitment dynamics of two ecosystem engineers could drive shellfish populations in U.S. west coast estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two species of burrowing shrimp, Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis are important members of intertidal mudflat communities in US West coast estuaries. Both species act as ecosystem engineers and influence the presence of other structured habitats and suspension ...

  19. African and classical swine fever situation in Ivory-Coast and neighboring countries, 2008-2013.

    PubMed

    Kouakou, K V; Michaud, V; Biego, H G; Gnabro, H P G; Kouakou, A V; Mossoun, A M; Awuni, J A; Minoungou, G L; Aplogan, G L; Awoumé, F K; Albina, E; Lancelot, R; Couacy-Hymann, E

    2017-02-01

    This study was conducted from 2008 to 2013 to determine the animal health status of Ivory Coast and neighboring countries (Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo and Benin) for African swine fever (ASF) and classical swine fever (CSF), and to assess the risk factors for ASF introduction in Ivory Coast. Ivory Coast had probably been free from ASF from 1998 to 2014 when it was re-introduced in this country. However, the ASF virus was found in all neighboring countries. In contrast, no evidence of CSF infection was found so far in Ivory Coast and neighboring countries. To assess the risk of ASF reintroduction in Ivory Coast, we surveyed 59 modern pig farms, and 169 pig owners in 19 villages and in two towns. For the village livestock, the major risk factor was the high frequency of pig exchanges with Burkinabe villages. In the commercial sector, many inadequate management practices were observed with respect to ASF. Their identification should enable farmers and other stakeholders to implement a training and prevention program to reduce the introduction risk of ASF in their farms.

  20. Population Structure of Clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa from West and Central African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Cholley, Pascal; Ka, Roughyatou; Guyeux, Christophe; Thouverez, Michelle; Guessennd, Nathalie; Ghebremedhin, Beniam; Frank, Thierry; Bertrand, Xavier; Hocquet, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) has a non-clonal, epidemic population with a few widely distributed and frequently encountered sequence types (STs) called ‘high-risk clusters’. Clinical P. aeruginosa (clinPA) has been studied in all inhabited continents excepted in Africa, where a very few isolates have been analyzed. Here, we characterized a collection of clinPA isolates from four countries of West and Central Africa. Methodology 184 non-redundant isolates of clinPA from hospitals of Senegal, Ivory Coast, Nigeria, and Central African Republic were genotyped by MLST. We assessed their resistance level to antibiotics by agar diffusion and identified the extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) by sequencing. The population structure of the species was determined by a nucleotide-based analysis of the entire PA MLST database and further localized on the phylogenetic tree (i) the sequence types (STs) of the present collection, (ii) the STs by continents, (iii) ESBL- and MBL-producing STs from the MLST database. Principal Findings We found 80 distinct STs, of which 24 had no relationship with any known STs. ‘High-risk’ international clonal complexes (CC155, CC244, CC235) were frequently found in West and Central Africa. The five VIM-2-producing isolates belonged to CC233 and CC244. GES-1 and GES-9 enzymes were produced by one CC235 and one ST1469 isolate, respectively. We showed the spread of ‘high-risk’ international clonal complexes, often described as multidrug-resistant on other continents, with a fully susceptible phenotype. The MBL- and ESBL-producing STs were scattered throughout the phylogenetic tree and our data suggest a poor association between a continent and a specific phylogroup. Conclusions ESBL- and MBL-encoding genes are borne by both successful international clonal complexes and distinct local STs in clinPA of West and Central Africa. Furthermore, our data suggest that the spread of a ST could be

  1. Military Intervention in Intrastate Conflicts in West Africa: Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group as a Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group as a Case Study Approved by: , Thesis Committee Chair Bruce W. Menning...also goes to my committee chairman, Dr. Bruce W. Menning, who gave me the needed encouragement from the very start and continued to the end. Despite...Mutual Assistance on Defence MODEL Movement for Democracy in Liberia MPCI Patriotic Movement of Côte d’ Iviore NATO North Atlantic Treaty

  2. Theorizing, Restructuring and Rethinking Nonformal Education in East and West African Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemons, Andrea; Vogt, Christina

    2004-01-01

    This article presents West and East African nonformal education projects as a platform from which to view the interrelationship of participation and transformation in the educational experiences of community, NGO, and state participants. In the context of neo-liberal pressures, carried by an international free-market movement in the 1980s, a wave…

  3. A cryptic mitochondrial DNA link between North European and West African dogs.

    PubMed

    Adeola, Adeniyi C; Ommeh, Sheila C; Song, Jiao-Jiao; Olaogun, S Charles; Sanke, Oscar J; Yin, Ting-Ting; Wang, Guo-Dong; Wu, Shi-Fang; Zhou, Zhong-Yin; Lichoti, Jacqueline K; Agwanda, Bernard R; Dawuda, Philip M; Murphy, Robert W; Peng, Min-Sheng; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2016-11-24

    Domestic dogs have an ancient origin and a long history in Africa. Nevertheless, the timing and sources of their introduction into Africa remain enigmatic. Herein, we analyse variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences from 345 Nigerian and 37 Kenyan village dogs plus 1530 published sequences of dogs from other parts of Africa, Europe and West Asia. All Kenyan dogs can be assigned to one of three haplogroups (matrilines; clades): A, B, and C, while Nigerian dogs can be assigned to one of four haplogroups A, B, C, and D. None of the African dogs exhibits a matrilineal contribution from the African wolf (Canis lupus lupaster). The genetic signal of a recent demographic expansion is detected in Nigerian dogs from West Africa. The analyses of mitochondrial genomes reveal a maternal genetic link between modern West African and North European dogs indicated by sub-haplogroup D1 (but not the entire haplogroup D) coalescing around 12,000 years ago. Incorporating molecular anthropological evidence, we propose that sub-haplogroup D1 in West African dogs could be traced back to the late-glacial dispersals, potentially associated with human hunter-gatherer migration from southwestern Europe.

  4. Experimental clinical and pathologic characterization of West African Newcastle disease viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newcastle disease is a very significant disease of commercial and backyard poultry in Africa, and has been reported in numerous African countries. Recent analysis of strains from West Africa has revealed the emergence of at least one novel genetic lineage that differs from the previously-characteriz...

  5. Shaping Futures and Feminisms: Qur'anic Schools in West African Francophone Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwin, Shirin

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the representation of female education in Qur'anic schools in a selection of West African francophone novels. I argue that in being the earliest form of education for most Muslim women and also a neglected topic of scholarly interest, the Qur'anic school shapes their feminisms in more significant ways than has been…

  6. Comparative Analyses of Physics Candidates Scores in West African and National Examinations Councils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utibe, Uduak James; Agah, John Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The study is a comparative analysis of physics candidates' scores in West African and National Examinations Councils. It also investigates influence of gender. Results of 480 candidates were randomly selected form three randomly selected Senior Science Colleges using the WASSCE and NECOSSCE computer printout sent to the schools, transformed using…

  7. Chlorinated pesticide residues in sediments from the Arabian Sea along the central west coast of India

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, A.; Gupta, R.S.

    1987-12-01

    The problem of environmental contamination by persistent chlorinated pesticides still evokes major concern due to the presence of their residues in the environment and in human tissues. In developing countries like India organochlorine insecticides, especially DDT are extensively being used in agriculture and vector control programs. Few data are available on their levels of concentration from the seas around India. Persistent pesticides residues can be expected to accumulate in marine sediments. However, very little data on this are available along the Indian coast. An attempt has been made in the present communication to identify and quantify some of the chlorinated pesticides residues in the marine sediments collected from different region along the central west coast of India. This is a part of our ongoing project to monitor and map pollutants within the exclusive economic zone of India.

  8. First report of "Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii" in west coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Montes, Sokani; Ríos-Muñoz, César A; Espinosa-Martínez, Deborah V; Guzmán-Cornejo, Carmen; Berzunza-Cruz, Miriam; Becker, Ingeborg

    2016-10-01

    We report the first case of "Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii" detected in Amblyomma mixtum ticks on humans on the west coast of Mexico. This is the most western record of "Ca. R. amblyommii" in the Western Hemisphere, representing the first record for the western coast of the Americas. Even if the record is far from the previously known locations for the species it does not represent a new record regarding temperature, precipitation and topographic parameters. Since "Ca. R. amblyommii" antibodies have been detected in patients suspected of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and the tick A. mixtum has been associated with humans, it is important to consider "Ca. R. amblyommii" as a potential risk for the human population that has not been considered at risk before.

  9. Effect of soda ash industry effluent on agarophytes, alginophytes and carrageenophyte of west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Jadeja, R N; Tewari, A

    2009-02-15

    This paper presents the results of a study on the impact of the effluent released by the soda ash industry on important red and brown macro algal species Gelidiella acerosa, Gracilaria corticata, Soleria robusta, Sargassum tenerrimum, Padina tetrastromatica in the tidal zone around Veraval, on the west coast of India, in the lowest low water tide of December 2003. The study examined the effect of effluent discharge on availability of biomass and percentage of phyco-colloids extraction such as agar, alginic acid and carrageen of these commercial seaweeds.

  10. Ciguatera fish poisoning on the West Africa Coast: An emerging risk in the Canary Islands (Spain).

    PubMed

    Boada, Luis D; Zumbado, Manuel; Luzardo, Octavio P; Almeida-González, Maira; Plakas, Steven M; Granade, Hudson R; Abraham, Ann; Jester, Edward L E; Dickey, Robert W

    2010-12-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is endemic in certain tropical and subtropical regions of the world. CFP had not been described on the West Africa Coast until a 2004 outbreak in the Canary Islands. In 2008-2009, two additional outbreaks of ciguatera occurred. Individuals afflicted had consumed lesser amberjack (Seriola rivoliana) captured from nearby waters. Caribbean ciguatoxin-1 (C-CTX-1) was confirmed in fish samples by LC-MS/MS. Ciguatoxic fish in this region may pose a new health risk for the seafood consumer.

  11. ShakeAlert—An earthquake early warning system for the United States west coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkett, Erin R.; Given, Douglas D.; Jones, Lucile M.

    2014-08-29

    Earthquake early warning systems use earthquake science and the technology of monitoring systems to alert devices and people when shaking waves generated by an earthquake are expected to arrive at their location. The seconds to minutes of advance warning can allow people and systems to take actions to protect life and property from destructive shaking. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with several partners, has been working to develop an early warning system for the United States. ShakeAlert, a system currently under development, is designed to cover the West Coast States of California, Oregon, and Washington.

  12. Exploring geophysical processes influencing U.S. West Coast precipitation and water supply

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ralph, F.M.; Prather, K.; Cayan, D.

    2011-01-01

    CalWater Science Workshop; La Jolla, California, 8-10 June 2011 CalWater is a multiyear, multiagency research project with two primary research themes: the effects of changing climate on atmospheric rivers (ARs) and associated extreme events, and the potential role of aerosols in modulating cloud properties and precipitation, especially regarding orographic precipitation and water supply. Advances made in CalWater have implications for both water supply and flood control in California and other West Coast areas, both in the near term and in a changing climate.

  13. Exploring geophysical processes influencing U.S. West Coast precipitation and water supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralph, F. Martin; Prather, Kim; Cayan, Dan

    2011-10-01

    CalWater Science Workshop; La Jolla, California, 8-10 June 2011 CalWater is a multiyear, multiagency research project with two primary research themes: the effects of changing climate on atmospheric rivers (ARs) and associated extreme events, and the potential role of aerosols in modulating cloud properties and precipitation, especially regarding orographic precipitation and water supply. Advances made in CalWater have implications for both water supply and flood control in California and other West Coast areas, both in the near term and in a changing climate.

  14. Alaska dominates exploration and development activity on U. S. West Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, B.

    1991-04-08

    Alaska's accelerating exploration and development activity is setting the pace for the U.S. West Coast. Continued wildcatting in the Chukchi Sea and Beaufort Sea--albeit hamstrung by permitting problems--significant new development projects on the North Slope, and the most ambitious lease sale schedule in years highlight Alaskan action in 1991. California highlights include expansion of massive steamflood projects in San Joaquin Valley giant heavy oil fields and start-up of the long-delayed Point Arguello project. There is little of note in the Pacific Northwest outside extension of the Mist gas complex in Oregon.

  15. Climatology of Long-Range Transport of Asian Dust on the U.S. West Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creamean, J.; Spackman, J.

    2013-12-01

    Dust aerosols affect climate by directly absorbing radiation and indirectly by forming cloud particles. Once incorporated into clouds, dust has been shown to enhance precipitation formation from in situ measurements, such as those during the CalWater field campaign (2009-2011) along the Sierra Nevada Mountains in California. Large discrepancies exists between global aerosol models that simulate the dust in the atmosphere and its impact on climate. Further, about 25% of the global dust burden originates from Asia, thus a better understanding of where and how Asian dust is transported in the atmosphere is needed, particularly with projected increases in dust emissions in mind. Asian dust is typically transported to the U.S. in the spring, but not many long-term studies of this phenomenon exist. Our results show Asian dust transport varies significantly from year-to-year and at various locations along the U.S. west coast. Observations from the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) LIDAR network in Japan and the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network along the U.S. West Coast were analyzed in the context of HYSPLIT trajectory analyses to investigate trans-Pacific Asian dust transport from 2002-2011. Similar to previous studies, the ratio of iron to calcium from IMPROVE soil was used to estimate Asian dust concentrations at multiple sites in California, Oregon, and Washington. Asian dust estimated from IMPROVE exhibited maximum concentrations in the spring (Apr-May) on the U.S. west coast, while non-Asian dust peaked late summer (Aug-Sep). Because Asian dust is typically transported in the mid-troposphere (2-4 km), the highest concentrations of Asian dust were typically observed at higher elevation sites, such as in the Cascades and the Sierra Nevada Mountains. California experienced larger influences from Asian dust compared to Oregon or Washington, likely due to large-scale synoptic patterns and higher elevation IMPROVE

  16. Changes in erosional and depositional processes with time and management of Goa Coast, central west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Ganapati; D'Souza, Joseph

    2010-05-01

    Coastal and estuarine environments, world over are facing immense impact due to both natural and anthropogenic processes. The natural processes include climatic changes, rise in sea level, cyclone, flood, tsunamis, coastal erosion, salinity ingress and siltation. Likewise, anthropogenic pressures include population expansion, ocean traffic, dredging, resource exploitation, pollution, unplanned urbanization and intensive industrialization. Due to these impacts the fragile coastal ecosystem and its entities, like sub ecosystems, resources, morphological units are undergoing unprecedented degradation, rendering these coastal regions vulnerable, impinging risk to human population, livestock, properties, as also, devastation of resourceful lands. This accelerates economic fatalities and irreversible obliteration to the ecosystems. Evidences on the global concern towards this issue have been well established. The countries world over, including India, pledged consensus towards the protection of the fragile coastal ecosystems through UNCED, Agenda-21. India, on 19th February 1991, has designated specified corridors along the landward side of the coastline as "Coastal Regulatory Zones" (CRZ), through appropriate policy and law. In context with the CRZ notification, scientific database at local and site-specific areas, developed. Synergy of ecosystems, landscape and resources with demographic, tourism data, vis-à-vis, economic corridors/sectors aided the paradigms and criterion for local and site specific prescriptions for Goa Coast. The Goa coast is a part of central west coast of India and is characterized by pocket beaches flanked by rocky cliffs, estuaries, bays, and at some places mangroves. Beaches in southern Goa are long and linear in nature with sand dunes. The Mandovi and Zuari estuarine system in Goa is the largest in this part of the coast. Mud flats, swampy marshes and wetlands are found mainly along estuaries and creeks. The beaches of Goa are stable beaches

  17. Factors influencing the long-term dynamics of larval sea lice density at east and west coast locations in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Harte, Anna J; Bowman, Alan S; Salama, Nabeil K G; Pert, Campbell C

    2017-03-21

    Sea lice (Copepoda: Caligidae) are marine copepods that parasitize finfish, and in cases of high infestation can result in severe epithelial damage and mortality. In Scotland, 2 species of sea louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus elongatus, pose a significant economic burden to the marine Atlantic salmon aquaculture industry and potentially impact wild salmonids. The purpose of this study was to determine how the density of pelagic sea lice is affected by external variables, in order to improve our understanding of sea lice dynamics. Long-term data from 2 sampling sites on the east and west coasts of Scotland were modelled independently in conjunction with environmental and anthropogenic variables. Statistical analysis identified that at the east coast site, the most influential factor affecting lice density was salinity. On the west coast, salinity, rainfall and farmed salmon production year were most influential. Molecular and morphological techniques also showed that the individuals recorded on the east coast were C. elongatus, a generalist copepod parasite, whereas only the salmonid-specific L. salmonis were found on the west. These results reiterate the role of environmental factors in influencing sea lice dynamics, and that salmonids are the primary hosts of sea lice on the west coast, but there could be non-salmonid host species as well as salmonid species influencing east coast sea lice densities.

  18. On the importance of Sri Lanka for sea-level variability along the west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, I.; Vialard, J.; Izumo, T.; Lengaigne, M.; Han, W.; McCreary, J. P., Jr.; Pillathu Moolayil, M.

    2015-12-01

    Earlier studies have illustrated the strong influence of remote forcing from the equator and the Bay of Bengal on the sea-level variability off the west coast of India, especially at the seasonal timescale. More recently, Suresh et al. [2013] demonstrated with a simple, linear, continuously-stratified (LCS) model that the equatorial zonal winds contribute to more than 60% of intraseasonal sea-level variability along the Indian west coast. In the present study, we quantify the contributions from various processes to the sea-level variability along the west coast of India at different timescales with the help of a LCS model through both idealized and realistic sensitivity experiments. We demonstrate that remote forcing dominates the sea-level variability along the west coast of India at intraseasonal to interannual timescales. Sri Lanka and the southern tip of India play an important role on Indian west coast sea-level variability at all timescales for two reasons: First, the geometry of the coast favors a strong alongshore wind-stress forcing of coastal Kelvin waves across timescales there. Second, Sri Lanka interacts with low-order meridional mode equatorial Rossby waves forced by equatorial winds or southern Bay of Bengal wind- stress curl. This interaction of coastal waveguide with equatorial waveguide creates a new pathway for the equatorial signals to arrive at the west coast of India, alternative to the "classical" coastal waveguide around the rim of the Bay of Bengal. Reference: Suresh, I., J. Vialard, M. Lengaigne, W. Han, J. McCreary, F. Durand, and P. M. Muraleedharan (2013), Origins of wind-driven intraseasonal sea level variations in the North Indian Ocean coastal waveguide, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 5740-5744, doi:10.1002/2013GL058312.

  19. West-African trypanosomiasis in a returned traveller from Ghana: an unusual cause of progressive neurological decline.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Ivo; Patel, Trupti; Shah, Jagrit; Venkatesan, Pradhib

    2014-08-14

    West-African trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense is a rare imported infection presenting with somnolence, lymphadenopathy and wide-ranging neurological symptoms. A 67-year-old Caucasian man presented with a 10-month history of cognitive deterioration, ataxic gait, somnolence and urinary incontinence. His symptoms had progressed more rapidly over the course of a month prior to admission. Serological testing confirmed a diagnosis of West-African trypanosomiasis. The patient was successfully treated with eflornithine and made a good recovery. West-African trypanosomiasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained cognitive decline in those with a relevant travel history. If left untreated, the condition is universally fatal.

  20. A report on radioactivity measurements of fish samples from the west coast of Canada.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Cooke, Michael W; Mercier, Jean-Francois; Ahier, Brian; Trudel, Marc; Workman, Greg; Wyeth, Malcolm; Brown, Robin

    2015-02-01

    Even though many studies have shown that radioactive caesium levels in fish caught outside of Japan were below experimental detection limits of a few Bq kg(-1), significant public concern has been expressed about the safety of consuming seafood from the Pacific Ocean following the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear accident. To address the public concerns, samples of commonly consumed salmon and groundfish harvested from the Canadian west coast in 2013 were analysed for radioactive caesium. None of the fish samples analysed in this study contained any detectable levels of (134)Cs and (137)Cs under given experimental setting with the average detection limit of ∼2 Bq kg(-1). Using a conservative worst-case scenario where all fish samples would contain (137)Cs exactly at the detection limit level and (134)Cs at half of the detection limit level (to account for much shorter half-life of (134)Cs), the resulting radiation dose for people from consumption of this fish would be a very small fraction of the annual dose from exposure to natural background radiation in Canada. Therefore, fish, such as salmon and groundfish, from the Canadian west coast are of no radiological health concern.

  1. A report on radioactivity measurements of fish samples from the West Coast of Canada

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Cooke, Michael W.; Mercier, Jean-Francois; Ahier, Brian; Trudel, Marc; Workman, Greg; Wyeth, Malcolm; Brown, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Even though many studies have shown that radioactive caesium levels in fish caught outside of Japan were below experimental detection limits of a few Bq kg−1, significant public concern has been expressed about the safety of consuming seafood from the Pacific Ocean following the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear accident. To address the public concerns, samples of commonly consumed salmon and groundfish harvested from the Canadian west coast in 2013 were analysed for radioactive caesium. None of the fish samples analysed in this study contained any detectable levels of 134Cs and 137Cs under given experimental setting with the average detection limit of ∼2 Bq kg−1. Using a conservative worst-case scenario where all fish samples would contain 137Cs exactly at the detection limit level and 134Cs at half of the detection limit level (to account for much shorter half-life of 134Cs), the resulting radiation dose for people from consumption of this fish would be a very small fraction of the annual dose from exposure to natural background radiation in Canada. Therefore, fish, such as salmon and groundfish, from the Canadian west coast are of no radiological health concern. PMID:24795385

  2. Interannual to multidecadal climate forcings on groundwater resources of the U.S. West Coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Velasco, Elzie M; Gurdak, Jason J.; Dickinson, Jesse; Ferre, T.P.A; Corona, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Study regionThe U.S. West Coast, including the Pacific Northwest and California Coastal Basins aquifer systems.Study focusGroundwater response to interannual to multidecadal climate variability has important implications for security within the water–energy–food nexus. Here we use Singular Spectrum Analysis to quantify the teleconnections between AMO, PDO, ENSO, and PNA and precipitation and groundwater level fluctuations. The computer program DAMP was used to provide insight on the influence of soil texture, depth to water, and mean and period of a surface infiltration flux on the damping of climate signals in the vadose zone.New hydrological insights for the regionWe find that PDO, ENSO, and PNA have significant influence on precipitation and groundwater fluctuations across a north-south gradient of the West Coast, but the lower frequency climate modes (PDO) have a greater influence on hydrologic patterns than higher frequency climate modes (ENSO and PNA). Low frequency signals tend to be preserved better in groundwater fluctuations than high frequency signals, which is a function of the degree of damping of surface variable fluxes related to soil texture, depth to water, mean and period of the infiltration flux. The teleconnection patterns that exist in surface hydrologic processes are not necessarily the same as those preserved in subsurface processes, which are affected by damping of some climate variability signals within infiltrating water.

  3. Sub-Kilometer Scale Basal Roughness of the Siple Coast Ice Streams, West Antarctic Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, D. A.; Blankenship, D. D.; Peters, M. E.

    2006-12-01

    The anastomosing series of dynamic, basally lubricated ice streams found on the Siple Coast of West Antarctica play an important role in regulating the mass balance of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). Geological controls on lubrication, elucidated by gravity, magnetics and seismic data, have proven important in understanding the evolution of these features. An additional indicator of basal properties, the basal roughness of ice sheets, may be an indicator of crustal geology and glacial modification, as well as a controlling parameter on ice dynamics and subglacial hydrology. For the Siple Coast ice streams, Fourier analysis of > 5 kilometer morphology (Siegert et al. 2004) revealed a correlation between ice streams and low bed roughness. Coherent high resolution data allows analysis of along track roughness at tens of meters resolution (Peters et al. 2005), however these data are limited in coverage. We extend roughness estimates into to the hundreds-of-meters length scale, using both frequency domain and autocorrelation methods, using incoherent 60 MHz radio echo sounding data collected between 1991 and 1996 on a five kilometer grid. The data cover the Bentley Subglacial Trench, Bindschadler Ice Stream, Siple Dome and the onset region of Kamb Ice Stream. SAR-processed coherent sounding data collected in 2001 are used to confirm these methods. We test for confinement of ice stream rapid basal motion to distinct morphological provinces; assess the hypothesis that marine sediments blanket much of interior of the basal WAIS; and look for correlation between ice flow and textural anisotropy.

  4. A New U.S. West Coast Network of Atmospheric River Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, A. B.; Wilczak, J. M.; Ayers, T. E.; King, C. W.; Jordan, J. R.; Shaw, W. J.; Flaherty, J. E.; Morris, V. R.

    2015-12-01

    The West Coast of North America is the gateway to winter storms forming over the Pacific Ocean that deliver most of the precipitation and water supply to the region. Satellites are capable of detecting the concentrated water vapor in these storms (a.k.a. atmospheric rivers) over the oceans, but because of the complex emissivity of land surfaces, fail to do so over land. In addition, these storms often are accompanied by a baroclinically induced low-level jet that drives the moisture up the windward slopes of coastal and inland mountain ranges and produces orographically enhanced precipitation. To date, satellites cannot resolve this important feature. NOAA's Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT; hmt.noaa.gov) has developed the concept of an atmospheric river observatory (ARO); a collection of ground-based instruments capable of detecting and monitoring the water vapor transport in the low-level jet region. With funding provided by the California Department of Water Resources and U.S. Department of Energy, HMT has installed a picket fence of AROs along the U.S. West Coast. In addition, HMT has developed an award-winning water vapor flux tool that takes advantage of the data collected by the AROs to provide situational awareness and decision support for end users. This tool recently has been updated to include operational weather prediction output. The ARO network and water vapor flux tool will be described in this presentation.

  5. A coastal hazards data base for the U.S. West Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Gornitz, V.M. |; Beaty, T.W.; Daniels, R.C.

    1997-12-01

    This document describes the contents of a digital data base that may be used to identify coastlines along the US West Coast that are at risk to sea-level rise. This data base integrates point, line, and polygon data for the US West Coast into 0.25{degree} latitude by 0.25{degree} longitude grid cells and into 1:2,000,000 digitized line segments that can be used by raster or vector geographic information systems (GIS) as well as by non-GIS data bases. Each coastal grid cell and line segment contains data variables from the following seven data sets: elevation, geology, geomorphology, sea-level trends, shoreline displacement (erosion/accretion), tidal ranges, and wave heights. One variable from each data set was classified according to its susceptibility to sea-level rise and/or erosion to form 7 relative risk variables. These risk variables range in value from 1 to 5 and may be used to calculate a Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI). Algorithms used to calculate several CVIs are listed within this text.

  6. Morphometric and molecular analysis of mackerel (Rastrelliger spp) from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Darlina, M N; Masazurah, A R; Jayasankar, P; Jamsari, A F J; Siti, A M N

    2011-09-16

    Mackerel (Scombridae; Rastrelliger) are small commercially important pelagic fish found in tropical regions. They serve as a cheap source of animal protein and are commonly used as live bait. By using a truss morphometrics protocol and RAPD analysis, we examined morphological and genetic variation among 77 individual mackerel that were caught using long lines and gillnets at 11 locations along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Nineteen morphometric traits were evaluated and genetic information was estimated using five 10-base RAPD random primers. Total DNA was extracted from muscle tissue. Morphometric discriminant function analysis revealed that two morphologically distinct groups of Rastrelliger kanagurta and a single group of R. brachysoma can be found along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. We also found that the head-related characters and those from the anterior part of the body of Rastrelliger spp significantly contribute to stock assessment of this population. RAPD analysis showed a trend similar to that of the morphometric analysis, suggesting a genetic component to the observed phenotypic differentiation. These data will be useful for developing conservation strategies for these species.

  7. The ecology of the seagrass meadows of the west coast of Florida: A community profile

    SciTech Connect

    Zieman, J.C.; Zieman, R.T. . Dept. of Environmental Sciences)

    1989-09-01

    This report summarizes information on the ecology of seagrass meadows on the west coast of Florida, from south of Tampa Bay to Pensacola. This area contains more than 3500 ha of seagrass beds, dominated by three species, Thalasia testudinum (turtle grass), Syringodium filiforme (manatee grass), and Halodule wrightii (shoal grass). Beds occur both on the shallow, zero-energy Continental Shelf and in inshore bays and estuaries. Species ecology, distribution, biomass, and productivity of these dominant seagrass species are discussed. Seagrass beds support a very diverse and abundant algal flora and fauna, and these organisms, and seagrass detritus form the base of a productive food chain. Seagrass beds are important nursery areas providing both cover and food, for a number of commercial and sports fishery species. Along the west Florida coast, estuarine grass beds are noticeably more stressed and impacted by human activities than the more pristine nearshore beds. Urban development and dredging and filling are the major threates to seagrass beds in this region. 500 refs., 28 figs., 14 tabs.

  8. Classification of atmospheric river events on the U.S. west coast using a trajectory model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryoo, J. M.; Waliser, D. E.; Waugh, D. W.; Wong, S.; Fetzer, E. J.; Fung, I. Y.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate transport pathways of water vapor associated with landfalling atmospheric river (AR) events that result in precipitation along the west coast of the U.S. for winter of 1997-2010. The water vapor transport pathways are determined by computing back-trajectories with a trajectory model using the MERRA reanalysis dataset. The majority of AR events (about 86%) over the west coast of the U.S. are associated with three trajectory types. We designate the first type as Ascending near landfall and of Tropical Origin (AT), the second type as Ascending near landfall and of Extratropical Origin (AE), and the third type as Descending or parallel near landfall and of Extratropical Origin (DE). The magnitude and spatial distribution of precipitation of a given AR event are found to be strongly determined by the mixture of its type of trajectories. AR events composed of both AT and AE trajectories have more frequent and intense precipitation over a broad region of the western U.S. (particularly in the northern California) than AR events dominated by a single trajectory type (AT) or other combinations (e.g. AT and DE). In addition, different patterns of trajectory types among AR events are closely linked to the location and the shape of potential vorticity intrusions near the tropopause, which emphasizes that lower tropospheric air is interacting with upper tropospheric air during the developing rainfall system.

  9. Coherence of river and ocean conditions along the US West Coast during storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kniskern, Tara A.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Farnsworth, Katherine L.; Wheatcroft, Robert A.; Goñi, Miguel A.

    2011-05-01

    The majority of water and sediment discharge from the small, mountainous watersheds of the US West Coast occurs during and immediately following winter storms. The physical conditions (waves, currents, and winds) within and acting upon the proximal coastal ocean during these winter storms strongly influence dispersal patterns. We examined this river-ocean temporal coherence for four coastal river-shelf systems of the US West Coast (Umpqua, Eel, Salinas, and Santa Clara) to evaluate whether specific ocean conditions occur during floods that may influence coastal dispersal of sediment. Eleven years of corresponding river discharge, wind, and wave data were obtained for each river-shelf system from USGS and NOAA historical records, and each record was evaluated for seasonal and event-based patterns. Because near-bed shear stresses due to waves influence sediment resuspension and transport, we used spectral wave data to compute and evaluate wave-generated bottom-orbital velocities. The highest values of wave energy and discharge for all four systems were consistently observed between October 15 and March 15, and there were strong latitudinal patterns observed in these data with lower discharge and wave energies in the southernmost systems. During floods we observed patterns of river-ocean coherence that differed from the overall seasonal patterns. For example, downwelling winds generally prevailed during floods in the northern two systems (Umpqua and Eel), whereas winds in the southern systems (Salinas and Santa Clara) were generally downwelling before peak discharge and upwelling after peak discharge. Winds not associated with floods were generally upwelling on all four river-shelf systems. Although there are seasonal variations in river-ocean coherence, waves generally led floods in the three northern systems, while they lagged floods in the Santa Clara. Combined, these observations suggest that there are consistent river-ocean coherence patterns along the US West

  10. Coherence of river and ocean conditions along the US West Coast during storms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kniskern, T.A.; Warrick, J.A.; Farnsworth, K.L.; Wheatcroft, R.A.; Goni, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of water and sediment discharge from the small, mountainous watersheds of the US West Coast occurs during and immediately following winter storms. The physical conditions (waves, currents, and winds) within and acting upon the proximal coastal ocean during these winter storms strongly influence dispersal patterns. We examined this river-ocean temporal coherence for four coastal river-shelf systems of the US West Coast (Umpqua, Eel, Salinas, and Santa Clara) to evaluate whether specific ocean conditions occur during floods that may influence coastal dispersal of sediment. Eleven years of corresponding river discharge, wind, and wave data were obtained for each river-shelf system from USGS and NOAA historical records, and each record was evaluated for seasonal and event-based patterns. Because near-bed shear stresses due to waves influence sediment resuspension and transport, we used spectral wave data to compute and evaluate wave-generated bottom-orbital velocities. The highest values of wave energy and discharge for all four systems were consistently observed between October 15 and March 15, and there were strong latitudinal patterns observed in these data with lower discharge and wave energies in the southernmost systems. During floods we observed patterns of river-ocean coherence that differed from the overall seasonal patterns. For example, downwelling winds generally prevailed during floods in the northern two systems (Umpqua and Eel), whereas winds in the southern systems (Salinas and Santa Clara) were generally downwelling before peak discharge and upwelling after peak discharge. Winds not associated with floods were generally upwelling on all four river-shelf systems. Although there are seasonal variations in river-ocean coherence, waves generally led floods in the three northern systems, while they lagged floods in the Santa Clara. Combined, these observations suggest that there are consistent river-ocean coherence patterns along the US West

  11. Recent climatological trend of the Saharan heat low and its impact on the West African climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavaysse, Christophe; Flamant, Cyrille; Evan, Amato; Janicot, Serge; Gaetani, Marco

    2016-12-01

    The Saharan heat low (SHL) plays a pivotal role in the West African monsoon system in spring and summer. The recent trend in SHL activity has been analysed using two sets of numerical weather prediction (NWP) model reanalyses and Atmospheric Models Intercomparison Project simulations from 15 climate models performed in the framework of the 5th Coupled Models Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) exercise. A local increase of temperature in the Sahara during the 90s is found in the two sets of NWP models temperature. This increase is stronger within the SHL region than over the surrounding areas. Using different temporal filters (under 25 days, 25-100 days and above 300 days), we show that this is accompanied by a slight but widespread increase of temperature, and a change in the filtered signal under 25 days during the transition period of the 90s. We also show that SHL pulsations occurring at different time scales impact the West Africa climate on a variety of spatial scales, from the regional scale (for the high band pass) to the synoptic scale (for the low band pass signal). Despite a large variability in the temporal trends for 15 climate models from the CMIP5 project, the warming trend in the 90s is observed in the models ensemble mean. Nevertheless, large discrepancies are found between the NWP models reanalyses and the climate model simulations regarding the spatial and temporal evolutions of the SHL as well as its impact on West African climate at the different time scales. These comparisons also reveal that climate models represent the West African monsoon interactions with SHL pulsations quite differently. We provide recommendations to use some of them depending on the time scales of the processes at play (synoptic, seasonal, interannual) and based on key SHL metrics (location, mean intensity, global trend, interaction with the West African monsoon dynamics).

  12. Strategic Implications of Emerging Threats to West African Countries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-14

    remain neutral. The Non Align movement launched in 1955 during the Bandung Conference in Indonesia, by India, Indonesia, China and Egypt polarized the...consequence was political; the birth of a wave of national conferences aiming to solve main grievances and resolve the issue of democratic transition. They...wave of national conferences in the 90‟s democratic exercise of power seemed on the verge of becoming the norm for West Africa. A position

  13. Source location impact on relative tsunami strength along the U.S. West Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, L.; Bromirski, P. D.; Miller, A. J.; Arcas, D.; Flick, R. E.; Hendershott, M. C.

    2015-07-01

    Tsunami propagation simulations are used to identify which tsunami source locations would produce the highest amplitude waves on approach to key population centers along the U.S. West Coast. The reasons for preferential influence of certain remote excitation sites are explored by examining model time sequences of tsunami wave patterns emanating from the source. Distant bathymetric features in the West and Central Pacific can redirect tsunami energy into narrow paths with anomalously large wave height that have disproportionate impact on small areas of coastline. The source region generating the waves can be as little as 100 km along a subduction zone, resulting in distinct source-target pairs with sharply amplified wave energy at the target. Tsunami spectral ratios examined for transects near the source, after crossing the West Pacific, and on approach to the coast illustrate how prominent bathymetric features alter wave spectral distributions, and relate to both the timing and magnitude of waves approaching shore. To contextualize the potential impact of tsunamis from high-amplitude source-target pairs, the source characteristics of major historical earthquakes and tsunamis in 1960, 1964, and 2011 are used to generate comparable events originating at the highest-amplitude source locations for each coastal target. This creates a type of "worst-case scenario," a replicate of each region's historically largest earthquake positioned at the fault segment that would produce the most incoming tsunami energy at each target port. An amplification factor provides a measure of how the incoming wave height from the worst-case source compares to the historical event.

  14. Above ground biomass estimation from lidar and hyperspectral airbone data in West African moist forests.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaglio Laurin, Gaia; Chen, Qi; Lindsell, Jeremy; Coomes, David; Cazzolla-Gatti, Roberto; Grieco, Elisa; Valentini, Riccardo

    2013-04-01

    The development of sound methods for the estimation of forest parameters such as Above Ground Biomass (AGB) and the need of data for different world regions and ecosystems, are widely recognized issues due to their relevance for both carbon cycle modeling and conservation and policy initiatives, such as the UN REDD+ program (Gibbs et al., 2007). The moist forests of the Upper Guinean Belt are poorly studied ecosystems (Vaglio Laurin et al. 2013) but their role is important due to the drier condition expected along the West African coasts according to future climate change scenarios (Gonzales, 2001). Remote sensing has proven to be an effective tool for AGB retrieval when coupled with field data. Lidar, with its ability to penetrate the canopy provides 3D information and best results. Nevertheless very limited research has been conducted in Africa tropical forests with lidar and none to our knowledge in West Africa. Hyperspectral sensors also offer promising data, being able to evidence very fine radiometric differences in vegetation reflectance. Their usefulness in estimating forest parameters is still under evaluation with contrasting findings (Andersen et al. 2008, Latifi et al. 2012), and additional studies are especially relevant in view of forthcoming satellite hyperspectral missions. In the framework of the EU ERC Africa GHG grant #247349, an airborne campaign collecting lidar and hyperspectral data has been conducted in March 2012 over forests reserves in Sierra Leone and Ghana, characterized by different logging histories and rainfall patterns, and including Gola Rainforest National Park, Ankasa National Park, Bia and Boin Forest Reserves. An Optech Gemini sensor collected the lidar dataset, while an AISA Eagle sensor collected hyperspectral data over 244 VIS-NIR bands. The lidar dataset, with a point density >10 ppm was processed using the TIFFS software (Toolbox for LiDAR Data Filtering and Forest Studies)(Chen 2007). The hyperspectral dataset, geo

  15. Deep crustal structure of the North-West African margin from combined wide-angle and reflection seismic data (MIRROR seismic survey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biari, Y.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Sahabi, M.; Aslanian, D.; Schnurle, P.; Berglar, K.; Moulin, M.; Mehdi, K.; Graindorge, D.; Evain, M.; Benabdellouahed, M.; Reichert, C.

    2015-08-01

    The structure of the Moroccan and Nova Scotia conjugate rifted margins is of key importance for understanding the Mesozoic break-up and evolution of the northern central Atlantic Ocean basin. Seven combined multichannel reflection (MCS) and wide-angle seismic (OBS) data profiles were acquired along the Atlantic Moroccan margin between the latitudes of 31.5° and 33° N during the MIRROR seismic survey in 2011, in order to image the transition from continental to oceanic crust, to study the variation in crustal structure, and to characterize the crust under the West African Coast Magnetic Anomaly (WACMA). The data were modeled using a forward modeling approach. The final models image crustal thinning from 36 km thickness below the continent to approximately 8 km in the oceanic domain. A 100 km wide zone characterized by rough basement topography and high seismic velocities up to 7.4 km/s in the lower crust is observed westward of the West African Coast Magnetic Anomaly. No basin underlain by continental crust has been imaged in this region, as has been identified north of our study area. Comparison to the conjugate Nova Scotian margin shows a similar continental crustal thickness and layer geometry, and the existence of exhumed and serpentinized upper mantle material on the Canadian side only. The oceanic crustal thickness is lower on the Canadian margin.

  16. Evidence of henipavirus infection in West African fruit bats.

    PubMed

    Hayman, David T S; Suu-Ire, Richard; Breed, Andrew C; McEachern, Jennifer A; Wang, Linfa; Wood, James L N; Cunningham, Andrew A

    2008-07-23

    Henipaviruses are emerging RNA viruses of fruit bat origin that can cause fatal encephalitis in man. Ghanaian fruit bats (megachiroptera) were tested for antibodies to henipaviruses. Using a Luminex multiplexed microsphere assay, antibodies were detected in sera of Eidolon helvum to both Nipah (39%, 95% confidence interval: 27-51%) and Hendra (22%, 95% CI: 11-33%) viruses. Virus neutralization tests further confirmed seropositivity for 30% (7/23) of Luminex positive serum samples. Our results indicate that henipavirus is present within West Africa.

  17. Coastal sea level variability in the US West Coast Ocean Forecast System (WCOFS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurapov, Alexander L.; Erofeeva, Svetlana Y.; Myers, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Sea level variability along the US West Coast is analyzed using multi-year time series records from tide gauges and a high-resolution regional ocean model, the base of the West Coast Ocean Forecast System (WCOFS). One of the metrics utilized is the frequency of occurrences when model prediction is within 0.15 m from the observed sea level, F. A target level of F = 90% is set by an operational agency. A combination of the tidal sea level from a shallow water inverse model, inverted barometer (IB) term computed using surface air pressure from a mesoscale atmospheric model, and low-pass filtered sea level from WCOFS representing the effect of coastal ocean dynamics (DYN) provides the most straightforward approach to reaching levels F>80%. The IB and DYN components each add between 5 and 15% to F. Given the importance of the DYN term bringing F closer to the operational requirement and its role as an indicator of the coastal ocean processes on scales from days to interannual, additional verification of the WCOFS subtidal sea level is provided in terms of the model-data correlation, standard deviation of the band-pass filtered (2-60 days) time series, the annual cycle amplitude, and alongshore sea level coherence in the range of 5-120-day periods. Model-data correlation in sea level increases from south to north along the US coast. The rms amplitude of model sea level variability in the 2-60-day band and its annual amplitude are weaker than observed north of 42 N, in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) coast region. The alongshore coherence amplitude and phase patterns are similar in the model and observations. Availability of the multi-year model solution allows computation and analysis of spatial maps of the coherence amplitude. For a reference location in the Southern California Bight, relatively short-period sea level motions (near 10 days) are incoherent with those north of the Santa Barbara Channel (in part, due to coastal trapped wave scattering and/or dissipation). At a

  18. Comparison of different pretreatment strategies for ethanol production of West African biomass.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe; Londoño, Jorge Enrique González; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Kádár, Zsófia

    2015-03-01

    Pretreating lignocellulosic biomass for cellulosic ethanol production in a West African setting requires smaller scale and less capital expenditure compared to current state of the art. In the present study, three low-tech methods applicable for West African conditions, namely Boiling Pretreatment (BP), Soaking in Aqueous Ammonia (SAA) and White Rot Fungi pretreatment (WRF), were compared to the high-tech solution of hydrothermal pretreatment (HTT). The pretreatment methods were tested on 11 West African biomasses, i.e. cassava stalks, plantain peelings, plantain trunks, plantain leaves, cocoa husks, cocoa pods, maize cobs, maize stalks, rice straw, groundnut straw and oil palm empty fruit bunches. It was found that four biomass' (plantain peelings, plantain trunks, maize cobs and maize stalks) were most promising for production of cellulosic ethanol with profitable enzymatic conversion of glucan (>30 g glucan per 100 g total solids (TS)). HTT did show better results in both enzymatic convertibility and fermentation, but evaluated on the overall ethanol yield the low-tech pretreatment methods are viable alternatives with similar levels to the HTT (13.4-15.2 g ethanol per 100 g TS raw material).

  19. Orbital forcing on West African monsoon system revealed by KZai 02 pollen record spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalibard, Mathieu; Popescu, Speranta-Maria; Pittet, Bernard; Fernandez, Vincent; Marsset, Tania; Droz, Laurence; Suc, Jean-Pierre

    2013-04-01

    The present-day intertropical climate is forced by yearly fluctuations of insolation reorganizing pressure cells. They control, via the wind system, the variations of the precipitation front known as the InterTropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Its latitudinal oscillation drives a strong seasonality of rainfalls over Africa. However, connections between African climate during Pleistocene and orbital forcing are blurred by high-latitudes and local direct influence of insolation and need further investigations. The study of KZai 02 core pollen content provides a high-resolution record of changes in West African plant ecosystems during the last 160 kyrs. Spectral analyses were performed on pollen signals to identify periodicity in vegetation dynamics related to environmental fluctuations. The large range of frequencies detected testifies for the sensibility of African biotopes to past climate fluctuations. Milankovitch parameters, especially precession, are identified within variations of the ecological groups of KZai 02 pollen record and interpreted in terms of West African monsoon system variability. Asynchrony in the different plant ecosystem fluctuations suggests the out of step influence of several climatic parameters (precipitation, CO2, temperature) involving local insolation and high-latitude influence. Spectral analysis also reveals sub-Milankovitch periods related to (1) Heinrich and Dansgaard/Oeschger glacial pulsation events and (2) East Asian monsoon oscillations controlled by ice sheet pulses testifying for the strong relationship between low- and high-latitude climate changes.

  20. Examining Intraseasonal Variability in the West African Monsoon Using the Superparameterized Community Climate System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrary, Rachel; Randall, David; Stan, Cristiana

    2013-04-01

    In West Africa, the ability to predict intraseasonal variations in rainfall would have important social and economic impacts for local populations. In particular, such predictions might be useful for estimating the timing of the monsoon onset and break periods in monsoon rains. Current theory suggests that on 25-90 day timescales, the West African monsoon (WAM) is influenced by intraseasonal variations in the Indo-Pacific region, namely the Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) and the Asian summer monsoon. Unfortunately, most general circulation models (GCMs) show weak skill in simulating the seasonal variations in the WAM as well as intraseasonal variability in the Indo-Pacific. These model limitations make it difficult to study the dynamical links in variability across the tropics. Unlike traditional GCMs, models that have implemented the superparameterization (where traditional convective parameterizations are replaced by embedding a two dimensional cloud resolving model in each grid box) have been shown to be able to represent the WAM, the MJO and the Asian Summer Monsoon with reasonable fidelity. These model advances may allow us to study the teleconnections between the Indo-Pacific and West Africa in more detail. This study examines the intraseasonal variability of the WAM in the Superparameterized Community Climate System model (SP-CCSM). Results from the SP-CCSM are consistent with observations where intraseasonal variability accounts for 15-20% of the total variability in rainfall over West Africa during the monsoon season. We also show that on 25-90 day timescales, increases in precipitation over West Africa correspond with a northward shift of the African easterly jet and an increase in African easterly wave activity. Lag-composite analysis indicates that intraseasonal variations in WAM precipitation correspond with the North-South propagation of the MJO during boreal summer as well as the active and breaking phases of the Asian summer monsoon. Preliminary

  1. Human Adaptation of Ebola Virus during the West African Outbreak.

    PubMed

    Urbanowicz, Richard A; McClure, C Patrick; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Sall, Amadou A; Kobinger, Gary; Müller, Marcel A; Holmes, Edward C; Rey, Félix A; Simon-Loriere, Etienne; Ball, Jonathan K

    2016-11-03

    The 2013-2016 outbreak of Ebola virus (EBOV) in West Africa was the largest recorded. It began following the cross-species transmission of EBOV from an animal reservoir, most likely bats, into humans, with phylogenetic analysis revealing the co-circulation of several viral lineages. We hypothesized that this prolonged human circulation led to genomic changes that increased viral transmissibility in humans. We generated a synthetic glycoprotein (GP) construct based on the earliest reported isolate and introduced amino acid substitutions that defined viral lineages. Mutant GPs were used to generate a panel of pseudoviruses, which were used to infect different human and bat cell lines. These data revealed that specific amino acid substitutions in the EBOV GP have increased tropism for human cells, while reducing tropism for bat cells. Such increased infectivity may have enhanced the ability of EBOV to transmit among humans and contributed to the wide geographic distribution of some viral lineages.

  2. Investigating the zoonotic origin of the West African Ebola epidemic.

    PubMed

    Marí Saéz, Almudena; Weiss, Sabrina; Nowak, Kathrin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Zimmermann, Fee; Düx, Ariane; Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kaba, Moussa; Regnaut, Sebastien; Merkel, Kevin; Sachse, Andreas; Thiesen, Ulla; Villányi, Lili; Boesch, Christophe; Dabrowski, Piotr W; Radonić, Aleksandar; Nitsche, Andreas; Leendertz, Siv Aina J; Petterson, Stefan; Becker, Stephan; Krähling, Verena; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Weber, Natalie; Schaade, Lars; Fahr, Jakob; Borchert, Matthias; Gogarten, Jan F; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Leendertz, Fabian H

    2015-01-01

    The severe Ebola virus disease epidemic occurring in West Africa stems from a single zoonotic transmission event to a 2-year-old boy in Meliandou, Guinea. We investigated the zoonotic origins of the epidemic using wildlife surveys, interviews, and molecular analyses of bat and environmental samples. We found no evidence for a concurrent outbreak in larger wildlife. Exposure to fruit bats is common in the region, but the index case may have been infected by playing in a hollow tree housing a colony of insectivorous free-tailed bats (Mops condylurus). Bats in this family have previously been discussed as potential sources for Ebola virus outbreaks, and experimental data have shown that this species can survive experimental infection. These analyses expand the range of possible Ebola virus sources to include insectivorous bats and reiterate the importance of broader sampling efforts for understanding Ebola virus ecology.

  3. Investigating the zoonotic origin of the West African Ebola epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Marí Saéz, Almudena; Weiss, Sabrina; Nowak, Kathrin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Zimmermann, Fee; Düx, Ariane; Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kaba, Moussa; Regnaut, Sebastien; Merkel, Kevin; Sachse, Andreas; Thiesen, Ulla; Villányi, Lili; Boesch, Christophe; Dabrowski, Piotr W; Radonić, Aleksandar; Nitsche, Andreas; Leendertz, Siv Aina J; Petterson, Stefan; Becker, Stephan; Krähling, Verena; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Weber, Natalie; Schaade, Lars; Fahr, Jakob; Borchert, Matthias; Gogarten, Jan F; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Leendertz, Fabian H

    2015-01-01

    The severe Ebola virus disease epidemic occurring in West Africa stems from a single zoonotic transmission event to a 2-year-old boy in Meliandou, Guinea. We investigated the zoonotic origins of the epidemic using wildlife surveys, interviews, and molecular analyses of bat and environmental samples. We found no evidence for a concurrent outbreak in larger wildlife. Exposure to fruit bats is common in the region, but the index case may have been infected by playing in a hollow tree housing a colony of insectivorous free-tailed bats (Mops condylurus). Bats in this family have previously been discussed as potential sources for Ebola virus outbreaks, and experimental data have shown that this species can survive experimental infection. These analyses expand the range of possible Ebola virus sources to include insectivorous bats and reiterate the importance of broader sampling efforts for understanding Ebola virus ecology. PMID:25550396

  4. Revisiting the role of global SST anomalies and their effects on West African monsoon variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomposi, Catherine; Kushnir, Yochanan; Giannini, Alessandra

    2016-04-01

    The West African Monsoon is a significant component of the global monsoon system, delivering the majority of annual precipitation for the Sahel and varying on timescales from seasons to decades and beyond. Much of the internal variability of this system is driven by sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and their resulting atmospheric teleconnections linking oceanic changes to land-based precipitation. Previous idealized studies have identified the role of particular ocean basins in driving monsoon variations on a number of key timescales, including the Atlantic basin as the main driver behind decadal-scale changes and the Pacific basin for interannual variability. However, understanding of how the monsoon responds to global SSTs remains incomplete because the system can be affected by moisture availability locally as well as tropical atmospheric stability, both of which are influenced by ocean temperatures. Furthermore, the complexity of how the global ocean basins change in relation to one another (what we refer to as superposition of anomalies) can result in Sahel precipitation anomalies that are contrary to what one might posit when considering the state of a single basin alone (e.g. the 2015 El Niño event and a relatively wet Sahel). The aim of this work is to revisit the role of global SSTs in driving Sahel rainfall variability over the recent past using a blending of observations and new model output. We seek to disentangle the state of various basins in combination with each other in driving normal or anomalously dry or wet years, resolving the ways that remote and local ocean forcings affect the movement of convection from the Guinea coast inland and northward into the Sahel, and include the study of circulation and stability components of the atmosphere. Preliminary diagnostic work suggests that varying SST conditions across ocean basins could imprint distinctly different precipitation responses in the Sahel. For example, precipitation anomalies are

  5. Population dynamics and reproductive patterns of boltenia echinata (Ascidicea) on the Swedish west coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svane, I.; Lundälv, T.

    Two populations of Boltenia echinata on the Swedish west coast were studied over a 10-year period by stereo-photographic recording of subtidal, vertical rock wallsat a depth of 20 m. Supplemental sampling was carried out over a one-year period. On the sheltered population decreased in numbers with an explosive increase in Ciona intestinalis. Another, exposed population displayed a similar response at the increase of annual ascidians ( Ascidiella scabra, A. aspersa and Corella parallelogramma). Variations in recruitment were influenced by interference competition, while adults were affected to a lesser extent. Recruitment and mortality at the exposed locality were twice as high as at the sheltered locality whereas the mean annual mortality pattern was similar. Adult mortality was related to physical factors (mainly temperature), imposing stresses of different magnitudes on the two populations. Settling and recruitment was observed throghout the year. No relation was found between the presence of incubating embryos or larvae in the atrial cavity and settling.

  6. Inventory of non-federally funded marine pollution research, development, and monitoring activities: West Coast region

    SciTech Connect

    Canton, G.M.; Opresko, D.M.; Weaver, R.S.

    1987-12-01

    Knowledge of current marine pollution research and monitoring programs is an important factor in planning and guiding future national efforts to control such pollution. To supplement these reports on Federal activities, NMPPO published a series of reports in 1980 on non-federally funded marine pollution research and monitoring activities in various regions. The following document presents an update of one of these reports. It presents an inventory of the non-federally funded research and monitoring projects for the West Coast region of the United States. It is one in a series of four updates that will collectively provide an updated inventory of non-federally funded projects for all the coastal regions of the United States.

  7. Earthquake studies on Canada’s west coast; Pacific Geoscience Centre

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, G. C.; Riddihough, R.P.

    1979-01-01

    On a global scale, Canada's west coast lies within the zone of a seismicity that stretches around the Pacific Ocean. In plate tectonic terms, it is dominated by the same right-lateral shearing between the Pacific and American plates that is responsible for the seismicity of California. However, in southern British Columbia the interaction is further complicated. Between the San Andreas fault in California and the Queen Charlotte fault off British Columbia, the Pacific and American plates are separated by the small independent Juan de Fuca plate system. This is spreading away from the Pacific plate and converging with the margin of the Pacific Northwest. The resulting Cascade volcanic chain and its extension into southern British Columbia are the topograhic expression of its subduction. 

  8. Non-syndromal oro-facial clefts in the Canterbury/ West Coast region, 1960-2000.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Peter; Esson, Ian

    2005-09-01

    The paper-based clinical assessment notes from Christchurch Hospital Cleft Clinic were transferred to electronic form in 2002. This enabled analysis of the types of non-syndromal orofacial clefts presenting within the Canterbury and West Coast region over a 41 year period. The incidence of oro-facial clefting was similar to that described in previous New Zealand studies, but higher than that found in United Kingdom studies. Orthodontists providing care in the cleft clinics in New Zealand have begun to investigate the use of a standardised electronic national database of patients presenting with oro-facial clefts. It is expected that this could provide the basis for a more detailed, robust and standardised database for future analysis.

  9. Plesionika sanctaecatalinae Wicksten, 1983 (Crustacea Decapoda Caridea Pandalidae) from off the west coast of Pacific Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, Michel E

    2016-05-17

    A large series of specimens of Plesionika sanctaecatalinae was obtained during sampling operations off the west coast of the Baja California Peninsula in 2012 and 2014 (TALUD cruises). This material was examined and compared to the original description, the holotype and two paratypes. Although the fresh material fit well with the type material examined, some discrepancies were noted in the illustrations of the original description, particularly regarding scaphocerite and the telson, and new illustrations are provided. The series of sample available from the TALUD cruises allow to increase considerably the number of localities known for this species in the California Current area. A series of unpublished records corresponding to material examined in the original description but not listed in details, allows for further increase of the number of reported localities where P. sanctaecatalinae has been collected. Its vertical distribution in the water column, however, remains unclear due to the fact that no discrete samples are available for this species.

  10. Site specific probabilistic seismic hazard analysis at Dubai Creek on the west coast of UAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shama, Ayman A.

    2011-03-01

    A probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) was conducted to establish the hazard spectra for a site located at Dubai Creek on the west coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The PSHA considered all the seismogenic sources that affect the site, including plate boundaries such as the Makran subduction zone, the Zagros fold-thrust region and the transition fault system between them; and local crustal faults in UAE. PSHA indicated that local faults dominate the hazard. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) for the 475-year return period spectrum is 0.17 g and 0.33 g for the 2,475-year return period spectrum. The hazard spectra are then employed to establish rock ground motions using the spectral matching technique.

  11. NOAA/West coast and Alaska Tsunami warning center Atlantic Ocean response criteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitmore, P.; Refidaff, C.; Caropolo, M.; Huerfano-Moreno, V.; Knight, W.; Sammler, W.; Sandrik, A.

    2009-01-01

    West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) response criteria for earthquakesoccurring in the Atlantic and Caribbean basins are presented. Initial warning center decisions are based on an earthquake's location, magnitude, depth, distance from coastal locations, and precomputed threat estimates based on tsunami models computed from similar events. The new criteria will help limit the geographical extent of warnings and advisories to threatened regions, and complement the new operational tsunami product suite. Criteria are set for tsunamis generated by earthquakes, which are by far the main cause of tsunami generation (either directly through sea floor displacement or indirectly by triggering of sub-sea landslides).The new criteria require development of a threat data base which sets warning or advisory zones based on location, magnitude, and pre-computed tsunami models. The models determine coastal tsunami amplitudes based on likely tsunami source parameters for a given event. Based on the computed amplitude, warning and advisory zones are pre-set.

  12. New residence times of the Holocene reworked shells on the west coast of Bohai Bay, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Zhiwen; Wang, Fu; Li, Jianfen; Marshall, William A.; Chen, Yongsheng; Jiang, Xingyu; Tian, Lizhu; Wang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Shelly cheniers and shell-rich beds found intercalated in near-shore marine muds and sandy sediments can be used to indicate the location of ancient shorelines, and help to estimate the height of sea level. However, dating the deposition of material within cheniers and shell-rich beds is not straightforward because much of this material is transported and re-worked, creating an unknown temporal off-set, i.e., the residence time, between the death of a shell and its subsequent entombment. To quantify the residence time during the Holocene on a section of the northern Chinese coastline a total 47 shelly subsamples were taken from 17 discrete layers identified on the west coast of Bohai Bay. This material was AMS 14C dated and the calibrated ages were systematically compared. The subsamples were categorized by type as articulated and disarticulated bivalves, gastropod shells, and undifferentiated shell-hash. It was found that within most individual layers the calibrated ages of the subsamples got younger relative to the amount of apparent post-mortem re-working the material had been subject to. For examples, the 14C ages of the bivalve samples trended younger in this order: shell-hash → split shells → articulated shells. We propose that the younger subsample age determined within an individual layer will be the closest to the actual depositional age of the material dated. Using this approach at four Holocene sites we find residence times which range from 100 to 1260 cal yrs, with two average values of 600 cal yrs for the original 14C dates older than 1 ka cal BP and 100 cal yrs for the original 14C dates younger than 1 ka cal BP, respectively. Using this semi-empirical estimation of the shell residence times we have refined the existing chronology of the Holocene chenier ridges on the west coast of Bohai Bay.

  13. Climatic and Anthropogenic Controls on Correlated Discharge from US West Coast Rivers (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnsworth, K. L.; Kniskern, T. A.

    2013-12-01

    Most river basins along the US West Coast are generally small, less than 15,000 km2, and tend to flood quickly following rain events. The storm systems that deliver rain to the coastal mountain ranges are considerably larger than the river basins such that multiple basins receive precipitation within hours of each other. Subsequently, these proximal rivers often disperse freshwater and sediment to the coastal ocean at relatively the same time. Many conceptual and numerical models of coastal processes may underestimate the delivery, dispersal and burial of sediment on the continental shelves as they often assume point source delivery of water and sediment from a single river. The reality seems to speak to the fact that a collection of smaller river basins may be synchronously delivering sediment all along a stretch of coastline. Hydrologic records from 62 coastal watersheds stretching along the US west coast from the Canadian to the Mexican border were acquired from the USGS river gauging network, this included over 100 gauging stations with records varying in length. This data mining effort allowed for a detailed analysis of the timing of flood peaks to the actual coastlines, rather than just correlation between gauging stations. Distinct coastal groupings were found that have rivers that deliver freshwater and sediment to the continental shelves at the same time, indicating plume mixing and different oceanic hydrodynamic regimes than would be indicated by traditional coastal sediment transport models. Also seen were larger scale climatic controls on the watershed relationships and alteration of the flood signals due to anthropogenic changes within the watershed. Extensive flood control networks, differences in population centers and floodplain modification within these basins all contributed to unexpected deviations from the correlation patterns.

  14. NOAA/West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center Pacific Ocean response criteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitmore, P.; Benz, H.; Bolton, M.; Crawford, G.; Dengler, L.; Fryer, G.; Goltz, J.; Hansen, R.; Kryzanowski, K.; Malone, S.; Oppenheimer, D.; Petty, E.; Rogers, G.; Wilson, Jim

    2008-01-01

    New West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) response criteria for earthquakes occurring in the Pacific basin are presented. Initial warning decisions are based on earthquake location, magnitude, depth, and - dependent on magnitude - either distance from source or precomputed threat estimates generated from tsunami models. The new criteria will help limit the geographical extent of warnings and advisories to threatened regions, and complement the new operational tsunami product suite. Changes to the previous criteria include: adding hypocentral depth dependence, reducing geographical warning extent for the lower magnitude ranges, setting special criteria for areas not well-connected to the open ocean, basing warning extent on pre-computed threat levels versus tsunami travel time for very large events, including the new advisory product, using the advisory product for far-offshore events in the lower magnitude ranges, and specifying distances from the coast for on-shore events which may be tsunamigenic. This report sets a baseline for response criteria used by the WCATWC considering its processing and observational data capabilities as well as its organizational requirements. Criteria are set for tsunamis generated by earthquakes, which are by far the main cause of tsunami generation (either directly through sea floor displacement or indirectly by triggering of slumps). As further research and development provides better tsunami source definition, observational data streams, and improved analysis tools, the criteria will continue to adjust. Future lines of research and development capable of providing operational tsunami warning centers with better tools are discussed.

  15. Port Eliza cave: North American West Coast interstadial environment and implications for human migrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, B. C.; Wilson, M. C.; Nagorsen, D. W.; Nelson, D. E.; Driver, J. C.; Wigen, R. J.

    2003-06-01

    The timing of Late Pleistocene glacial advance, retreat, relative sea level and environmental viability between 25 and 12.5 ka ( 14C yrs BP) remain a key issue in the feasibility of a coastal migration route for the first North Americans. This is discussed on the basis of stratigraphic, radiometric and faunal data for Port Eliza cave, a raised sea cave, on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Ice cover is indicated by the occurrence of 2 m of laminated clay, representing deposition in a subglacial lake. From immediately below this clay a diverse vertebrate fauna of marmot, vole, marten, cervid and various species of birds and fish was recovered, yielding ages of 18-16 ka. These dates and others from the region show that ice cover on the outer coast was brief, from ca 15.5-14 ka. The fish species indicate that relative sea level was close to the cave and that salmon runs were likely present. The terrestrial vertebrate fauna is consistent with a cool, open parkland environment with maximum summer temperatures cooler than present; these conditions lasted until at least 16 ka. With a diverse fauna and favorable climate, humans could have survived here on a mixed marine-terrestrial diet, confirming the viability of the coastal migration hypothesis for this portion of the route.

  16. Macro-Scale Patterns in Upwelling/Downwelling Activity at North American West Coast

    PubMed Central

    Saldívar-Lucio, Romeo; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Nakamura, Miguel; Villalobos, Héctor; Lluch-Cota, Daniel; Del Monte-Luna, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The seasonal and interannual variability of vertical transport (upwelling/downwelling) has been relatively well studied, mainly for the California Current System, including low-frequency changes and latitudinal heterogeneity. The aim of this work was to identify potentially predictable patterns in upwelling/downwelling activity along the North American west coast and discuss their plausible mechanisms. To this purpose we applied the min/max Autocorrelation Factor technique and time series analysis. We found that spatial co-variation of seawater vertical movements present three dominant low-frequency signals in the range of 33, 19 and 11 years, resembling periodicities of: atmospheric circulation, nodal moon tides and solar activity. Those periodicities might be related to the variability of vertical transport through their influence on dominant wind patterns, the position/intensity of pressure centers and the strength of atmospheric circulation cells (wind stress). The low-frequency signals identified in upwelling/downwelling are coherent with temporal patterns previously reported at the study region: sea surface temperature along the Pacific coast of North America, catch fluctuations of anchovy Engraulis mordax and sardine Sardinops sagax, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, changes in abundance and distribution of salmon populations, and variations in the position and intensity of the Aleutian low. Since the vertical transport is an oceanographic process with strong biological relevance, the recognition of their spatio-temporal patterns might allow for some reasonable forecasting capacity, potentially useful for marine resources management of the region. PMID:27893826

  17. Macro-Scale Patterns in Upwelling/Downwelling Activity at North American West Coast.

    PubMed

    Saldívar-Lucio, Romeo; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Nakamura, Miguel; Villalobos, Héctor; Lluch-Cota, Daniel; Del Monte-Luna, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The seasonal and interannual variability of vertical transport (upwelling/downwelling) has been relatively well studied, mainly for the California Current System, including low-frequency changes and latitudinal heterogeneity. The aim of this work was to identify potentially predictable patterns in upwelling/downwelling activity along the North American west coast and discuss their plausible mechanisms. To this purpose we applied the min/max Autocorrelation Factor technique and time series analysis. We found that spatial co-variation of seawater vertical movements present three dominant low-frequency signals in the range of 33, 19 and 11 years, resembling periodicities of: atmospheric circulation, nodal moon tides and solar activity. Those periodicities might be related to the variability of vertical transport through their influence on dominant wind patterns, the position/intensity of pressure centers and the strength of atmospheric circulation cells (wind stress). The low-frequency signals identified in upwelling/downwelling are coherent with temporal patterns previously reported at the study region: sea surface temperature along the Pacific coast of North America, catch fluctuations of anchovy Engraulis mordax and sardine Sardinops sagax, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, changes in abundance and distribution of salmon populations, and variations in the position and intensity of the Aleutian low. Since the vertical transport is an oceanographic process with strong biological relevance, the recognition of their spatio-temporal patterns might allow for some reasonable forecasting capacity, potentially useful for marine resources management of the region.

  18. Macrofauna associated with temporary Sabellaria alveolata reefs on the west coast of Cotentin (France).

    PubMed

    Schlund, Erika; Basuyaux, Olivier; Lecornu, Billie; Pezy, Jean-Philippe; Baffreau, Alexandrine; Dauvin, Jean-Claude

    2016-01-01

    The polychaete Sabellaria alveolata (Linnaeus, 1767) is an important ecosystem engineer building reef structures which add to the topographic complexity in colonized areas. In Europe, the most extensive reef formation is located in the Bay of Mont-Saint-Michel (France). Since 2006, Sabellaria bio-constructions have developed on hard substrates along the west coast of the Cotentin Peninsula between Champeaux and Saint-Germain-sur-Ay on the northern part of the Bay of Mont-Saint-Michel. In this sector, two distinct types of bio-construction can be distinguished: platforms and reefs. The aim of this study is to analyse the patterns of the associated macrofauna on these platforms and reefs, as well as outside, and test for a correlation between the presence of Sabellaria bio-constructions and the richness of the benthic macrofauna. Univariate analyses are used to compare the macrofauna on four sites (Champeaux, Lingreville, Blainville-sur-Mer and Saint-Germain-sur-Ay). The results show a higher taxonomic richness on the platform-type than on the reef-type structures, and also a higher taxonomic richness outside the bio-construction areas. This suggests that, on the examined sites, the presence of S. alveolata bio-constructions does not contribute to higher levels of benthic macrofaunal richness on hard substrates. Temporary bio-constructions along this coast exhibit reefs of interest at some sites as well as in very small zones which merit special attention.

  19. Modulation of atmospheric rivers near Alaska and the U.S. West Coast by northeast Pacific height anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundhenk, Bryan D.; Barnes, Elizabeth A.; Maloney, Eric D.; Nardi, Kyle M.

    2016-11-01

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) can cause wide-ranging impacts upon landfall at high northern latitudes, but comparatively little is known about the dynamics supporting these ARs in contrast to their midlatitude counterparts. Here ARs near the U.S. West Coast and the Gulf of Alaska during 1979-2015 are compared. ARs are found to occur in both regions with similar frequency, but with different seasonality. Composited atmospheric conditions from the NASA Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications data set reveal that a broad height anomaly over the northeast Pacific is influential to AR activity in both regions. When a positive height anomaly exists over the northeast Pacific, AR activity is often deflected poleward toward Alaska, while the U.S. West Coast experiences a decrease in AR activity. The opposing relationship also applies; that is, AR activity is decreased near Alaska and increased along the U.S. West Coast in the presence of a negative height anomaly. Quantitatively, nearly 79% of Gulf of Alaska ARs are associated with a positive northeast Pacific height anomaly and 86% of U.S. West Coast ARs are associated with a negative anomaly. Results suggest that this relationship applies across a range of time scales, to include subseasonal and interannual, not just with respect to individual transient waves. Both ARs and height anomalies are found to be associated with Rossby wave breaking, thereby dynamically linking AR activity with broader North Pacific dynamics.

  20. Eight years of regional scale, benthic assessments of the U.S. West Coast: Lessons learned and future directions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA National Coastal Assessment (NCA) conducted regional scale assessments of benthic condition for the US West Coast from Washington to California, several regions of Alaska, Hawaii, and the Trust Territories of Guam and American Samoa. Over an 8-year period, studies focuse...

  1. 50 CFR 600.525 - Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast. 600.525 Section 600.525 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  2. 50 CFR 600.525 - Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast. 600.525 Section 600.525 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  3. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 660, Subpart C - Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast Groundfish Limited Entry Permits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast Groundfish Limited Entry Permits 3 Table 3 to Part 660, Subpart C Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  4. Leading and Trailing Anvil Clouds of West African Squall Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrone, Jasmine; Houze, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    The anvil clouds of tropical squall-line systems over West Africa have been examined using cloud radar data and divided into those that appear ahead of the leading convective line and those on the trailing side of the system. The leading anvils are generally higher in altitude than the trailing anvil, likely because the hydrometeors in the leading anvil are directly connected to the convective updraft, while the trailing anvil generally extends out of the lower-topped stratiform precipitation region. When the anvils are subdivided into thick, medium, and thin portions, the thick leading anvil is seen to have systematically higher reflectivity than the thick trailing anvil, suggesting that the leading anvil contains numerous larger ice particles owing to its direct connection to the convective region. As the leading anvil ages and thins, it retains its top. The leading anvil appears to add hydrometeors at the highest altitudes, while the trailing anvil is able to moisten a deep layer of the atmosphere.

  5. Beach hazard and susceptibility to inundation and erosion. Case studies in the west coast of Portugal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trindade, Jorge; Ramos-Pereira, Ana

    2010-05-01

    Hydrodynamic forces over the beach sediments are the main driving factors affecting the frequency and magnitude of morphological changes in beach systems. In most of the time, this driving factors act in a foreseeable way and don't represent any danger to the coastal systems nor to its populations. However, hydrodynamic forces are also capable of induce high morphodynamic behavior on the beach profiles and very often in a short period of time which endangers people and property and leads to system retreat. The most common consequences of the occurrence of this type of phenomena over the coastal landforms are costal inundation and erosion. Still, many coastal systems, and specially beach systems, have recovery mechanisms and resilience levels have a very important role in the beach morphodynamic state and exposure to potential damaging events assessments. The wave dominated Portuguese West coast is an high energetic environment during winter, with 2.5m mean offshore significant wave height. Waves with 5 year recurrence period can reach 9.2m and storms are frequent. Beach systems are frequently associated with rocky coasts. In these cases, the subsystems present are beach-dune, beach-cliff and beach-estuary subsystems exposed to NW Atlantic wave climate. This research aim is to access beach hazard and susceptibility to inundation and erosion. Three beach systems were selected and monitored applying sequential profiling methodology over a three year period (2004-2007). Sta. Rita, Azul and Foz do Lizandro beaches are representative systems of the coastal stretch between Peniche and Cascais, which is a cliff dominate coast. Results from the monitoring campaigns are presented, including volume budgets, beach face slope changes, berm occurrence and heights and planimetric coastline dynamics. A hazard and susceptibility assessment schema and zonation are proposed, including the parameterization of local flood (i.e. mean sea, maximum spring tide, and storm surge and run

  6. Chemical and Biological Impacts of Ocean Acidification Along the West Coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feely, R. A.; Alin, S. R.; Carter, B.; Bednarsek, N.

    2015-12-01

    The continental shelf region off the Washington-Oregon-California coast is seasonally exposed to water with a low aragonite saturation state by coastal upwelling of CO2-rich waters. To date, the spatial and temporal distribution of anthropogenic CO2 (Canth) contribution to the CO2-rich waters is largely unknown. Here we use an adaptation of the linear regression approach described in Feely et al. (2008) to utilize the GO-SHIP Repeat Hydrography data set from the northeast Pacific to establish an annually updated relationship between Canth and potential density. This relationship was then used with the NOAA Ocean Acidification Program West Coast cruise data sets from 2007, 2011, 2012 and 2013 to determine the spatial variations of Canth in the upwelled water. Our results show large spatial differences in Canth in surface waters along the coast with the lowest values (40-45 μmol kg-1) in strong upwelling regions of off northern California and southern Oregon and higher values (50-70 μmol kg-1) to the north and south of this region. Canth contributes an average of about 70 % of the increased amount of dissolved inorganic carbon in the upwelled waters at the surface relative to what would be expected from physical circulation and exchange with a preindustrial atmosphere alone. In contrast, Canth contributes an average of about 31%, and 16% of the increased amount of dissolved inorganic carbon at 50 m depth, and at 100 m depth respectively. The remaining contributions are either due to respiration processes in the water that was upwelled and transported to coastal regions or respiration processes that occurs locally during the course of the upwelling season. The uptake of Canth has caused the aragonite saturation horizon to shoal by approximately 30-50 m since preindustrial period so that the undersaturated waters are well within the regions of the continental shelf that affect the biological communities.

  7. Exhumation history along the eastern Amundsen Sea coast, West Antarctica, revealed by low-temperature thermochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindow, Julia; Kamp, Peter J. J.; Mukasa, Samuel B.; Kleber, Michel; Lisker, Frank; Gohl, Karsten; Kuhn, Gerhard; Spiegel, Cornelia

    2016-10-01

    West Antarctica experienced a complex tectonic history, which is still poorly documented, in part due to extensive ice cover. Here we reconstruct the Cretaceous to present thermotectonic history of Pine Island Bay area and its adjacent coasts, based on a combination of apatite and zircon fission track and apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He thermochronology. In addition, we report petrographic information for the catchments of Pine Island, Thurston Island, and Thwaites glaciers. Our data suggest that the underlying bedrock of the Pine Island and Thwaites Glacier catchments are very different and vary from granitoids to (Cenozoic?) volcanogenic sequences and low-grade metamorphics. Our thermochronology data show that the upper crustal rocks of Pine Island Bay experienced very rapid cooling during the late Cretaceous. We attribute this rapid cooling of basement rocks and associated reduction in mean elevation to tectonic denudation driven by gravitational collapse of the Cretaceous orogen along the proto-Pacific Gondwana margin. Rapid Cretaceous crustal cooling was followed by very slow cooling during the Cenozoic, with no erosional response—within the limits of thermochronological methods—to the onset of glaciation and subsequent climatic changes. Cenozoic rifting within the West Antarctic Rift appears to have had little effect on erosion processes around Pine Island Bay; instead, our data suggest Cenozoic crustal tilting toward Pine Island Trough, a major geomorphic feature previously suggested to be a branch of the rift system.

  8. Regional Climate Modeling of West African Summer Monsoon Climate: Impact of Historical Boundary Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebe, I.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we analyze and intercompare the performance of an ensemble of three Regional Climate Models (RCMs) driven by three set of Global Climate Models (GCMs), in reproducing seasonal mean climatologies with their annual cycle and the key features of West African summer monsoon over 20 years period (1985-2004) during the present day. The results show that errors in lateral boundary conditions from the GCM members, have an unexpected way on the skill of the RCMs in reproducing regional climate features such as the West African Monsoon features and the annual cycle of precipitation and temperature in terms of outperforming the GCM simulation. It also shows the occurrence of the West African Monsoon jump, the intensification and northward shift of the Saharan Heat Low (SHL) as expressed in some RCMs than the GCMs. Most RCMs also capture the mean annual cycle of precipitation and temperature, including, single and double-peaked during the summer months, in terms of events and amplitude. In a series of RCMs and GCMs experiments between the Sahara region and equatorial Africa, the presence of strong positive meridional temperature gradients at the surface and a strong meridional gradients in the potential temperatures near the surface are obvious, indicating the region of strong vertical shear development enough to establish easterly flow such as the African easterly jet. In addition, the isentropic potential vorticity (IPV) gradient decreases northward in the lower troposphere across northern Africa, with the maximum reversal on the 315-K surface. The region with negative IPV gradient favors the potential instability which has been associated with the growth of easterly waves.

  9. Progress on physical circulation and ecosystem modeling in the COAST and WEST programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J. S.

    2002-12-01

    High resolution physical circulation and ecosystem models have been applied to study the mesoscale shelf flow field and ecosystem response off Oregon and northern California in the regions of the COAST and WEST field experiments. Localized, regional domains that extend approximately 400-600 km alongshore and 200-300 km offshore are utilized to allow high horizontal grid resolutions of 1-2 km. The Princeton Ocean Model (POM) is used for Oregon while the ROMS model is used for northern California. The Oregon ecosystem model is a five component nitrogen-based NNPZD model. In the most basic, workhorse configuration, periodicity conditions are used at the alongshore boundaries, allowing the specification of well-posed problems. For these shelf flows, where the mesoscale behavior is dominated by the interaction of wind-driven currents with variable shelf topography, that approximation leads to model results that generally show good agreement with observations. Open boundary conditions have also been developed to allow the application of spatially-variable forcing obtained from a high resolution mesoscale atmospheric model. In addition, off Oregon a data assimilation system utilizing HF-radar surface current measurements and a sequential optimal interpolation scheme is being utilized to improve estimates of the circulation. These models have been applied to the spring and summer 2001 time periods of the COAST and WEST field experiments. The modeled mesoscale shelf flow field off Oregon is strongly influenced by interactions with Heceta Bank while the flow off northern California is affected in a major way by Point Reyes. The structure of model sea surface temperature fields reflects the shelf flow interaction with these topographic features and is in good qualitative agreement with comparable satellite-measured fields. New information on the three-dimensional time-dependent nature of the velocity, temperature, and turbulent kinetic energy fields, tested with model

  10. The habitat of petroleum in the Brazilian marginal and west African basins: A biological marker investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Mello, M.R.; Soldan, A.L. ); Maxwell, J.R. ); Figueira, J. )

    1990-05-01

    A geochemical and biological marker investigation of a variety of oils from offshore Brazil and west Africa, ranging in age from Lower Cretaceous to Tertiary, has been done, with the following aims: (1) assessing the depositional environment of source rocks, (2) correlating the reservoired oils, (3) comparing the Brazilian oils with their west African counterparts. The approach was based in stable isotope data; bulk, elemental, and hydrous pyrolysis results; and molecular studies involving quantitative geological marker investigations of alkanes using GC-MS and GC-MS-MS. The results reveal similarities between groups of oils from each side of the Atlantic and suggest an origin from source rocks deposited in five types of depositional environment: lacustrine fresh water, lacustrine saline water, marine evaporitic/carbonate, restricted marine anoxic, and marine deltaic. In west Africa, the Upper Cretaceous marine anoxic succession (Cenomanian-Santonian) appears to be a major oil producer, but in Brazil it is generally immature. The Brazilian offshore oils have arisen mainly from the pre-salt sequence, whereas the African oils show a balance between origins from the pre-salt and marine sequences. The integration of the geochemical and geological data indicate that new frontiers of hydrocarbon exploration in the west African basins must consider the Tertiary reservoirs in the offshore area of Niger Delta, the reservoirs of the rift sequences in the shallow-water areas of south Gabon, Congo, and Cuanza basins, and the reservoirs from the drift sequences (post-salt) in the deep-water areas of Gabon, Congo Cabinda, and Cuanza basins.

  11. Analysis and Prediction of West African Moist Events during the Boreal Spring of 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mera, Roberto Javier

    Weather and climate in Sahelian West Africa are dominated by two major wind systems, the southwesterly West African Monsoon (WAM) and the northeasterly (Harmattan) trade winds. In addition to the agricultural benefit of the WAM, the public health sector is affected given the relationship between the onset of moisture and end of meningitis outbreaks. Knowledge and prediction of moisture distribution during the boreal spring is vital to the mitigation of meningitis by providing guidance for vaccine dissemination. The goal of the present study is to (a) develop a climatology and conceptual model of the moisture regime during the boreal spring, (b) investigate the role of extra-tropical and Convectively-coupled Equatorial Waves (CCEWs) on the modulation of westward moving synoptic waves and (c) determine the efficacy of a regional model as a tool for predicting moisture variability. Medical reports during 2009, along with continuous meteorological observations at Kano, Nigeria, showed that the advent of high humidity correlated with cessation of the disease. Further analysis of the 2009 boreal spring elucidated the presence of short-term moist events that modulated surface moisture on temporal scales relevant to the health sector. The May moist event (MME) provided insight into interplays among climate anomalies, extra-tropical systems, equatorially trapped waves and westward-propagating synoptic disturbances. The synoptic disturbance initiated 7 May and traveled westward to the coast by 12 May. There was a marked, semi-stationary moist anomaly in the precipitable water field (kg m-2) east of 10°E through late April and early May, that moved westward at the time of the MME. Further inspection revealed a mid-latitude system may have played a role in increasing the latitudinal amplitude of the MME. CCEWs were also found to have an impact on the MME. A coherent Kelvin wave propagated through the region, providing increased monsoonal flow and heightened convection. A

  12. On the stationarity of Floods in west African rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NKA, B. N.; Oudin, L.; Karambiri, H.; Ribstein, P.; Paturel, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    West Africa undergoes a big change since the years 1970-1990, characterized by very low precipitation amounts, leading to low stream flows in river basins, except in the Sahelian region where the impact of human activities where pointed out to justify the substantial increase of floods in some catchments. More recently, studies showed an increase in the frequency of intense rainfall events, and according to observations made over the region, increase of flood events is also noticeable during the rainy season. Therefore, the assumption of stationarity on flood events is questionable and the reliability of flood evolution and climatic patterns is justified. In this work, we analyzed the trends of floods events for several catchments in the Sahelian and Sudanian regions of Burkina Faso. We used thirteen tributaries of large river basins (Niger, Nakambe, Mouhoun, Comoé) for which daily rainfall and flow data were collected from national hydrological and meteorological services of the country. We used Mann-Kendall and Pettitt tests to detect trends and break points in the annual time series of 8 rainfall indices and the annual maximum discharge records. We compare the trends of precipitation indices and flood size records to analyze the possible causality link between floods size and rainfall pattern. We also analyze the stationary of the frequency of flood exceeding the ten year return period level. The samples were extracted by a Peak over threshold method and the quantification of change in flood frequency was assessed by using a test developed by Lang M. (1995). The results exhibit two principal behaviors. Generally speaking, no trend is detected on catchments annual maximum discharge, but positive break points are pointed out in a group of three right bank tributaries of the Niger river that are located in the sahelian region between 300mm to 650mm. These same catchments show as well an increase of the yearly number of flood greater than the ten year flood since

  13. Association studies in QTL regions linked to bovine trypanotolerance in a West African crossbred population.

    PubMed

    Dayo, G K; Gautier, M; Berthier, D; Poivey, J P; Sidibe, I; Bengaly, Z; Eggen, A; Boichard, D; Thevenon, S

    2012-04-01

    African animal trypanosomosis is a parasitic blood disease transmitted by tsetse flies and is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa. West African taurine breeds have the ability, known as trypanotolerance, to limit parasitaemia and anaemia and remain productive in enzootic areas. Several quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying traits related to trypanotolerance have been identified in an experimentally infected F(2) population resulting from a cross between taurine and zebu cattle. Although this information is highly valuable, the QTL remain to be confirmed in populations subjected to natural conditions of infection, and the corresponding regions need to be refined. In our study, 360 West African cattle were phenotyped for the packed cell volume control under natural conditions of infection in south-western Burkina Faso. Phenotypes were assessed by analysing data from previous cattle monitored over 2 years in an area enzootic for trypanosomosis. We further genotyped for 64 microsatellite markers mapping within four previously reported QTL on BTA02, BTA04, BTA07 and BTA13. These data enabled us to estimate the heritability of the phenotype using the kinship matrix between individuals computed from genotyping data. Thus, depending on the estimators considered and the method used, the heritability of anaemia control ranged from 0.09 to 0.22. Finally, an analysis of association identified an allele of the MNB42 marker on BTA04 as being strongly associated with anaemia control, and a candidate gene, INHBA, as being close to that marker.

  14. Glucose intolerance in the West African Diaspora: a skeletal muscle fibre type distribution hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, J; Christensen, D L

    2011-08-01

    In the United States, Black Americans are largely descendants of West African slaves; they have a higher relative proportion of obesity and experience a higher prevalence of diabetes than White Americans. However, obesity rates alone cannot explain the higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction. We hypothesize that the higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes in African Americans (as compared to White Americans) is facilitated by an inherited higher percentage of skeletal muscle fibre type II and a lower percentage of skeletal muscle fibre type I. Skeletal muscle fibre type II is less oxidative and more glycolytic than skeletal muscle fibre type I. Lower oxidative capacity is associated with lower fat oxidation and a higher disposal of lipids, which are stored as muscular adipose tissue in higher amounts in Black compared to White Americans. In physically active individuals, the influence of muscle fibre composition will not be as detrimental as in physically inactive individuals. This discrepancy is caused by the plasticity in the skeletal muscle fibre characteristics towards a higher activity of oxidative enzymes as a consequence of physical activity. We suggest that a higher percentage of skeletal muscle fibre type II combined with physical inactivity has an impact on insulin sensitivity and high prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Blacks of West African ancestry.

  15. The Genetic Contribution of West-African Ancestry to Protection against Central Obesity in African-American Men but Not Women: Results from the ARIC and MESA Studies

    PubMed Central

    Klimentidis, Yann C.; Arora, Amit; Zhou, Jin; Kittles, Rick; Allison, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Over 80% of African-American (AA) women are overweight or obese. A large racial disparity between AA and European-Americans (EA) in obesity rates exists among women, but curiously not among men. Although socio-economic and/or cultural factors may partly account for this race-by-sex interaction, the potential involvement of genetic factors has not yet been investigated. Among 2814 self-identified AA in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, we estimated each individual's degree of West-African genetic ancestry using 3437 ancestry informative markers. We then tested whether sex modifies the association between West-African genetic ancestry and body mass index (BMI), waist-circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), adjusting for income and education levels, and examined associations of ancestry with the phenotypes separately in males and females. We replicated our findings in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (n = 1611 AA). In both studies, we find that West-African ancestry is negatively associated with obesity, especially central obesity, among AA men, but not among AA women (pinteraction = 4.14 × 10−5 in pooled analysis of WHR). In conclusion, our results suggest that the combination of male gender and West-African genetic ancestry is associated with protection against central adiposity, and suggest that the large racial disparity that exists among women, but not men, may be at least partly attributed to genetic factors. PMID:27313598

  16. The West African medical staff and the administration of Imperial tropical medicine, 1902-14.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    Established in 1902, the West African Medical Staff (WAMS) brought together the six medical departments of British West Africa. Its formation also followed the foundation of schools of tropical medicine in London and Liverpool. While the 'white' dominions were at the centre of Joseph Chamberlain's ambitions of erecting a system of imperial preference, the tropical colonies were increasingly tethered to the future security and prosperity of Greater Britain. Therefore, politicians and businessmen considered the WAMS and the new tropical medicine important first steps for making Britain's West African possessions healthier and more profitable regions of the empire. However, rather than realising these goals, significant structural barriers, and the self-interest and conservatism this helped breed among medical officers, made the application of even the most basic public health measures extremely challenging. Like many policies emanating from Whitehall during this period, what made the WAMS and the new tropical medicine thoroughly imperial was nothing accomplished in practice, but the hopes and aspirations placed in them.

  17. A whole genome Bayesian scan for adaptive genetic divergence in West African cattle

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The recent settlement of cattle in West Africa after several waves of migration from remote centres of domestication has imposed dramatic changes in their environmental conditions, in particular through exposure to new pathogens. West African cattle populations thus represent an appealing model to unravel the genome response to adaptation to tropical conditions. The purpose of this study was to identify footprints of adaptive selection at the whole genome level in a newly collected data set comprising 36,320 SNPs genotyped in 9 West African cattle populations. Results After a detailed analysis of population structure, we performed a scan for SNP differentiation via a previously proposed Bayesian procedure including extensions to improve the detection of loci under selection. Based on these results we identified 53 genomic regions and 42 strong candidate genes. Their physiological functions were mainly related to immune response (MHC region which was found under strong balancing selection, CD79A, CXCR4, DLK1, RFX3, SEMA4A, TICAM1 and TRIM21), nervous system (NEUROD6, OLFM2, MAGI1, SEMA4A and HTR4) and skin and hair properties (EDNRB, TRSP1 and KRTAP8-1). Conclusion The main possible underlying selective pressures may be related to climatic conditions but also to the host response to pathogens such as Trypanosoma(sp). Overall, these results might open the way towards the identification of important variants involved in adaptation to tropical conditions and in particular to resistance to tropical infectious diseases. PMID:19930592

  18. Five centuries of U.S. West Coast drought: Occurrence, spatial distribution, and associated atmospheric circulation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, Erika K.

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. West Coast drought commencing in 2012 developed in association with a large, persistent high-pressure ridge linked to internal atmospheric variability. This study places the occurrence, spatial patterns, and associated circulation features of West Coast drought into a paleoclimate context through a synoptic dendroclimatology approach linking atmospheric circulation to surface hydroclimate patterns. Spatial reconstructions of upper atmosphere pressure patterns and cool-season drought show that West Coast-wide drought, although relatively rare compared to north-south dipole drought, has occurred periodically since 1500 Common Era and is consistently associated with a strong ridge centered along the Pacific Northwest coast. Atmospheric blocking is also linked to north-dry dipole droughts, while south-dry and wider Western droughts indicate La Niña-type patterns. The transition latitude between the northern and southern sides of the western precipitation dipole, important for California hydroclimate patterns, has had frequent year-to-year fluctuations but remained centered on 40°N over the past five centuries.

  19. Characterization of Serum Phospholipase A2 Activity in Three Diverse Species of West African Crocodiles

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Mark; Juneau, Kate; Gemillion, Jared; Falconi, Rodolfo; Doucet, Aaron; Shirley, Matthew H.

    2011-01-01

    Secretory phospholipase A2, an enzyme that exhibits substantial immunological activity, was measured in the serum of three species of diverse West African crocodiles. Incubation of different volumes of crocodile serum with bacteria labeled with a fluorescent fatty acid in the sn-2 position of membrane lipids resulted in a volume-dependent liberation of fluorescent probe. Serum from the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) exhibited slightly higher activity than that of the slender-snouted crocodile (Mecistops cataphractus) and the African dwarf crocodile (Osteolaemus tetraspis). Product formation was inhibited by BPB, a specific PLA2 inhibitor, confirming that the activity was a direct result of the presence of serum PLA2. Kinetic analysis showed that C. niloticus serum produced product more rapidly than M. cataphractus or O. tetraspis. Serum from all three species exhibited temperature-dependent PLA2 activities but with slightly different thermal profiles. All three crocodilian species showed high levels of activity against eight different species of bacteria. PMID:22110960

  20. Seasonality of the plankton community at an east and west coast monitoring site in Scottish waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bresnan, Eileen; Cook, Kathryn B.; Hughes, Sarah L.; Hay, Steve J.; Smith, Kerry; Walsham, Pamela; Webster, Lynda

    2015-11-01

    This study presents the first comparative description of the physics, nutrients and plankton communities at two Scottish monitoring sites between 2003 and 2012; Stonehaven on the east coast of Scotland and Loch Ewe on the west coast. This description provides baseline information about the diversity of the plankton community in Scottish waters to support assessment of the plankton community for the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Spring time temperatures at Loch Ewe were approximately 2 °C higher and the median secchi depth was almost 1 m greater than at Stonehaven during this period. Freshwater inflow from the river Ewe may promote water column stability at Loch Ewe. These factors may account for the earlier spring bloom observed at the Loch Ewe monitoring site. The seasonality of chlorophyll 'a' at Loch Ewe was typical of stratified waters in temperate regions with a strong spring/autumn peak attributed to increased numbers of diatoms whilst dinoflagellates dominated during the summer. At Stonehaven highest concentrations of chlorophyll were recorded between May and June and the autumn diatom bloom was considerably less than in Loch Ewe. A higher biomass of zooplankton grazers was found at Loch Ewe than at Stonehaven. Pseudocalanus was the dominant copepod at both sites, particularly during the spring period. Zooplankton carnivores were also more abundant at Loch Ewe than at Stonehaven and were dominated by cnidarians. Considerable interannual variability was observed in cnidarian abundance and diversity at both sites. Variation in the abundance of Ceratium, Calanus finmarchicus and Calanus helgolandicus at both sites followed similar trends in other time series suggesting that the plankton communities at Stonehaven and Loch Ewe are responding to large scale environmental influences.

  1. The morphology and migration of transverse bars off the west-central Florida coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gelfenbaum, G.; Brooks, G.R.

    2003-01-01

    A series of migrating shore-normal sandbars with wavelengths of 75-120 m and heights up to 2 m have been identified off the northern tip of Anna Maria Island, a barrier island on the west-central Florida coast. Similar features have been described elsewhere since the 1930s and termed 'transverse bars'. The transverse bars identified off Anna Maria Island are found for about 3 km along the coast and extend 4 km offshore, well outside the normal surf-zone width. No cusps or any other associated beach expression is evident despite the fact that the bars come to within about 75 m of the beach. Sediments on the crests of the bars are a well-sorted fine quartz sand, whereas sediments in the troughs are a poorly sorted coarse carbonate shell hash. Historical aerial photographs and repeated high-resolution bathymetric surveys provide a means of quantifying the migration of the transverse bars. Analyses of orthorectified aerial photographs from the early 1940s through the mid 1990s clearly show movement or migration taking place in the bar field. In the 40-yr period from 1951 to 1991, the southern edge of the bar field moved 200-350 m to the south, with an average long-term migration rate of 8 m/yr. Repeated bathymetric surveys over an 8-month period give an average short-term migration rate of 21 m/yr to the south. Wave and current measurements suggest that southerly winds associated with the passage of cold fronts drive near-bed currents to the south that are strong enough to initiate sediment transport and cause the southerly migration of the transverse bars.

  2. Relative and Geocentric Sea Level Rise Along the U.S. West Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgette, R. J.; Watson, C. S.

    2015-12-01

    The rate of sea level change relative to the land along the West Coast of the U.S. varies over a range of +5 to -2 mm/yr, as observed across the set of long-running tide gauges. We analyze tide gauge data in a network approach that accounts for temporal and spatial correlations in the time series of water levels observed at the stations. This analysis yields a set of rate estimates and realistic uncertainties that are minimally affected by varying durations of observations. The analysis has the greatest impact for tide gauges with short records, as the adjusted rate uncertainties for 2 to 3 decade duration tide gauges approach those estimated from unadjusted century-scale time series. We explore the sources of the wide range of observed relative sea level rates through comparison with: 1) estimated vertical deformation rates derived from repeated leveling and GPS, 2) relative sea level change predicted from models of glacial isostatic adjustment, and 3) geocentric sea level rates estimated from satellite altimetry and century-scale reconstructions. Tectonic deformation is the dominant signal in the relative sea level rates along the Cascadia portion of the coast, and is consistent with along-strike variation in locking behavior on the plate interface. Rates of vertical motion are lower along the transform portion of the plate boundary and include anthropogenic effects, but there are significant tectonic signals, particularly in the western Transverse Ranges of California where the crust is shortening across reverse faults. Preliminary analysis of different strategies of estimating the magnitude of geocentric sea level rise suggest significant discrepancies between approaches. We will examine the implications of these discrepancies for understanding the process of regional geocentric sea level rise in the northeastern Pacific Ocean, and associated projected impacts.

  3. On the mathematical analysis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever: deathly infection disease in West African countries.

    PubMed

    Atangana, Abdon; Goufo, Emile Franc Doungmo

    2014-01-01

    For a given West African country, we constructed a model describing the spread of the deathly disease called Ebola hemorrhagic fever. The model was first constructed using the classical derivative and then converted to the generalized version using the beta-derivative. We studied in detail the endemic equilibrium points and provided the Eigen values associated using the Jacobian method. We furthered our investigation by solving the model numerically using an iteration method. The simulations were done in terms of time and beta. The study showed that, for small portion of infected individuals, the whole country could die out in a very short period of time in case there is not good prevention.

  4. Seasonal Evolution and Variability Associated with the West African Monsoon System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gu, Guojun; Adler, Robert F.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the seasonal variations in surface rainfall and associated large-scale processes in the tropical eastern Atlantic and West African region. The 5-yr (1998-2002) high-quality TRMM rainfall, sea surface temperature (SST), water vapor and cloud liquid water observations are applied along with the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis wind components and a 3-yr (2000-2002) Quickscat satellite-observed surface wind product. Major mean rainfall over West Africa tends to be concentrated in two regions and is observed in two different seasons, manifesting an abrupt shift of the mean rainfall zone during June-July. (i) Near the Gulf of Guinea (about 5 degN), intense convection and rainfall are seen during April-June and roughly follow the seasonality of SST in the tropical eastern Atlantic. (ii) Along the latitudes of about 10 deg. N over the interior West African continent, a second intense rain belt begins to develop from July and remains there during the later summer season. This belt co-exists with a northwardmoved African Easterly Jet (AEJ) and its accompanying horizonal and vertical shear zones, the appearance and intensification of an upper tropospheric Tropical Easterly Jet (TEJ), and a strong low-level westerly flow. Westward-propagating wave signals [ i e . , African easterly waves (AEWs)] dominate the synoptic-scale variability during July-September, in contrast to the evident eastward-propagating wave signals during May- June. The abrupt shift of mean rainfall zone thus turns out to be a combination of two different physical processes: (i) Evident seasonal cycles in the tropical eastern Atlantic ocean which modulate convection and rainfall in the Gulf of Guinea by means of SST thermal forcing and SST-related meridional gradient; (ii) The interaction among the AEJ, TEJ, low-level westerly flow, moist convection and AEWs during July-September which modulates rainfall variability in the interior West Africa, primarily within the ITCZ rain band. Evident

  5. The puzzle of high heads beneath the West Cumbrian coast, UK: a possible solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, John H.; Barker, John A.

    2016-03-01

    A region of high heads within the Borrowdale Volcanic Group (BVG; a fractured crystalline rock) beneath the coastal plain of West Cumbria, England (UK), is identified as a possible relic left over by the Late Devensian ice sheet. It was found during investigations in the 1990s. Contemporary modelling work failed to produce a satisfactory explanation of the high heads compatible with the `cold recharge' isotopic signature of the groundwater. This study has reassessed the original hydraulic testing results. By plotting density-adjusted heads versus their depth below the water table in the immediate vicinity of the borehole in which they were measured, a depth profile resembling a `wave' was revealed with a peak value located at 1,100 m depth. The possibility that this wave represents relic heads from the last major ice sheet has been assessed using one-dimensional mathematical analysis based on a poroelastic approach. It is found that a wet-based ice sheet above the West Cumbrian coast was probably thick enough and sufficiently long-lasting to leave such relic heads providing that the hydraulic diffusivity of the BVG is in the order of 10-6 m s-1. Initial assessment 20 years ago of the long-interval slug tests suggested that such low values are not likely. More recent interpretation argues for such low values of hydraulic diffusivity. It is concluded that ice sheet recharge is the most likely cause of the raised heads, that the BVG contains significant patches of very low conductivity rock, and that long-interval single-hole tests should be avoided in fractured crystalline rock.

  6. Epidemiology and Management of the 2013-16 West African Ebola Outbreak.

    PubMed

    Boisen, M L; Hartnett, J N; Goba, A; Vandi, M A; Grant, D S; Schieffelin, J S; Garry, R F; Branco, L M

    2016-09-29

    The 2013-16 West African Ebola outbreak is the largest, most geographically dispersed, and deadliest on record, with 28,616 suspected cases and 11,310 deaths recorded to date in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. We provide a review of the epidemiology and management of the 2013-16 Ebola outbreak in West Africa aimed at stimulating reflection on lessons learned that may improve the response to the next international health crisis caused by a pathogen that emerges in a region of the world with a severely limited health care infrastructure. Surveillance efforts employing rapid and effective point-of-care diagnostics designed for environments that lack advanced laboratory infrastructure will greatly aid in early detection and containment efforts during future outbreaks. Introduction of effective therapeutics and vaccines against Ebola into the public health system and the biodefense armamentarium is of the highest priority if future outbreaks are to be adequately managed and contained in a timely manner.

  7. Identification of naturally occurring hybrids between two overexploited sciaenid species along the South African coast.

    PubMed

    Mirimin, L; Kerwath, S E; Macey, B M; Bester-van der Merwe, A E; Lamberth, S J; Bloomer, P; Roodt-Wilding, R

    2014-07-01

    Hybridisation between fish species can play a significant role in evolutionary processes and can influence management and conservation planning, however, this phenomenon has been widely understudied, especially in marine organisms. The distribution limits of two sciaenid species (silver kob, Argyrosomus inodorus, and dusky kob, A. japonicus) partly overlap along the South African coast, where both species have undergone severe depletion due to overfishing. Following the identification of a number of possible cases of species misidentification or hybridisation (21 out of 422 individuals), nuclear and mitochondrial DNA data (12microsatellite loci and 562bp of the COI gene) were analysed to investigate the genetic composition of these individuals. Results indicated a field-based species misidentification rate of approximately 2.8% and a rate of natural hybridisation of 0.7%. Interestingly, all hybrid fish resulted from first-generation (F1) hybridisation events, which occurred exclusively between silver kob females and dusky kob males. Whether hybridisation is the result of natural events (such as secondary contact following a shift in distribution range), or anthropogenic activities (size-selective pressure due to overfishing), these findings have important implications for critical recovery and future management of these species in the wild.

  8. The unique resistance and resilience of the Nigerian West African Dwarf goat to gastrointestinal nematode infections

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background West African Dwarf (WAD) goats serve an important role in the rural village economy of West Africa, especially among small-holder livestock owners. They have been shown to be trypanotolerant and to resist infections with Haemonchus contortus more effectively than any other known breed of goat. Methods In this paper we review what is known about the origins of this goat breed, explain its economic importance in rural West Africa and review the current status of our knowledge about its ability to resist parasitic infections. Conclusions We suggest that its unique capacity to show both trypanotolerance and resistance to gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections is immunologically based and genetically endowed, and that knowledge of the underlying genes could be exploited to improve the capacity of more productive wool and milk producing, but GI nematode susceptible, breeds of goats to resist infection, without recourse to anthelmintics. Either conventional breeding allowing introgression of resistance alleles into susceptible breeds, or transgenesis could be exploited for this purpose. Appropriate legal protection of the resistance alleles of WAD goats might provide a much needed source of revenue for the countries in West Africa where the WAD goats exist and where currently living standards among rural populations are among the lowest in the world. PMID:21291550

  9. Rain- vapour isotopic interaction over the south-west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palliyil Ravisankar, Lekshmy; Madhavan, Midhun; Rengaswamy, Ramesh

    2015-04-01

    Boundary layer water vapor isotopic composition (δv) is an important factor that controls the isotopic composition of evaporation flux and modulating the δ18O of tree ring cellulose through plant physiological cycle. But due to the difficult sampling procedure for water vapor, δv has rarely been quantified. Since many simple isotopic models require δvas an input, mostly we assume that the water vapor is in isotopic equilibrium with δof monthly rain (δr). Here we present simultaneous observations of water vapour (~ 300 samples) and rainfall (~200 samples) isotopic ratios from two stations in the south-west coast of India (both the stations are located in the west of Western Ghats), sampled during April- October, 2012. Daily rain water and water vapour (cryogenic trapping method) were collected according to the IAEA protocol and the isotopic analyses (D and 18O) were done using a Thermo Fisher Delta V+ Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer. We observe that, water vapour and rain are close to the equilibrium values during pre monsoon (April-May, ɛ = δr - δv= 8.9 ± 1.4 ), summer monsoon (June-September, ɛ = 9.0 ± 1.8 ) and North- East (NE) monsoon (October, ɛ = 7.9 ± 2.9 ) seasons. However, some individual rain events show more deviations from the equilibrium values. NE monsoon rainfall and water vapour are isotopically more depleted in 18O compared to the pre monsoon and summer monsoon seasons, in which the depletion is more in rain (~4 ) compared to water vapour (~2 ). This is because of the 18O enrichment of ground level vapour due to local evapo- transpiration (stations are at the leeward side of the Ghats), while rainfall is directly formed from the NE monsoon clouds which is more depleted in 18O. These results will be useful for the interpretation of δ18O of tree rings from south west.

  10. Giant fossil mass wasting off the coast of West India: The Nataraja submarine slide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvès, Gérôme; Huuse, Mads; Clift, Peter D.; Brusset, Stéphane

    2015-12-01

    We use two-dimensional pre-stack depth migrated seismic reflection profiles and seafloor bathymetry to describe the continental margin structure and a massive mass-transport deposit off the west coast of India. This giant slide runs from the Gujurat-Saurashtra margin to the Laxmi Basin. It is over 330 km long, a maximum of 190 km wide and its run-out basal gradient is 1.2°. We name this giant mass wasting deposit the Nataraja Submarine Slide. This slide covers 49 ± 16 ×103 km2 and represents a volume of 19 ×103 ± 4 ×103 km3, making it the second by volume of any passive margin landslide/mass-transport deposit. Seismic facies analysis allows the internal structure of the mass-transport deposit to be described as far as the toe. This slide has been able to circumvent massive seamounts, thus highlighting the capacity of the flow and its potential energy during emplacement in a funnel between the slope of the Western Indian passive margin and the Laxmi Ridge. Stratigraphically, the emplacement of the Nataraja Slide predates the main pulse of sedimentation during the late Miocene-Recent associated with the Indus Fan but follows rapid sedimentation across S and SE Asia during the Early-Middle Miocene. The margin architecture at the head of this slide is associated with a gravity-controlled fold and thrust belt that may have caused slope steepening and triggering of the slide.

  11. Food intake of young cod and flounder in a shallow bay on the Swedish west coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pihl, L.

    The importance of shallow soft bottom areas as nursery grounds for I-ground cod, Gadus morhua, and I- to IV-group flounder, Platichthys flesus, was investigated in a 20 000 m 2 bay, 0 to 1 m deep, on the Swedish west coast. To estimate the amount of visiting fish and their food intake the bay was enclosed with a net once a month from July to November 1979 and from April to November 1980. At each occasion about 60 cods and 8 to 50 flounders were caught. The total biomass of the cod and flounder was 1 to 14 kg and 2 to 13 kg wet weight, respectively. The cod preyed on mobile epifauna such as Carcinus maenas, Crangon crangon and Pomatoschistus spp., whereas the flounder was eating infauna mainly Mya arenaria, Cardium spp. and Nereis spp. The food intake within the area was calculated to approximate 35 and 10 kg wet weight from April to November for cod and flounder, respectively.

  12. Concentrations of Heavy Metals in Commercially Important Oysters from Goa, Central-West Coast of India.

    PubMed

    Shenai-Tirodkar, Prachi S; Gauns, Mangesh U; Ansari, Zakir A

    2016-12-01

    The major beds of oyster along the central-west coast of India are exposed to different anthropogenic activities and are severely exploited for human consumption. In this viewpoint, tissues of oyster Crassostrea madrasensis, C. gryphoides and Saccostrea cucullata were analyzed for Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb concentrations (dry weight) from Chicalim Bay, Nerul Creek and Chapora Bay in pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. A higher concentration of Cu (134.4-2167.9 mg kg(-1)) and Cd (7.1-88.5 mg kg(-1)) was found, which is greater than the recommended limits in all the three species (and sites). Moreover, significant (p < 0.05) variations were observed for all the metals concentrations among the species, seasons and sites. The high concentrations of Cd and Cu in tissues of edible oyster pose a threat to human health. Therefore, continuous monitoring, people awareness and a stringent government policy should be implemented to mitigate the metal pollution along the studied sites.

  13. Bioaccumulation characteristics of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in coastal organisms from the west coast of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seongjin; Khim, Jong Seong; Wang, Tieyu; Naile, Jonathan E; Park, Jinsoon; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Song, Sung Joon; Ryu, Jongseong; Codling, Garry; Jones, Paul D; Lu, Yonglong; Giesy, John P

    2015-06-01

    Year-round monitoring for perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) along the west coast of South Korea targeting long-term changes in water and coastal organisms has been conducted since 2008. In this study, we present the most recent 5-years of accumulated data and scrutinize the relationship between concentrations in water and biota highlighting bioaccumulation characteristics. Twelve individual PFAAs in samples of water (n=43) and biota (n=59) were quantified by use of HPLC-MS/MS after solid phase extraction. In recent years, concentrations of PFAAs in water have been generally decreasing, but profiles of relative concentrations of individual PFAAs vary among location and year. Bioaccumulation of PFAAs in various organisms including fishes, bivalves, crabs, gastropods, shrimps, starfish, and polychaetes varied among species. However, overall bioaccumulation of PFAAs was dependent on corresponding concentrations of PFAAs in water within an area. In organ-specific distributions of PFAAs, greater concentrations of PFAAs were found in intestine of fish (green eel goby). This result suggests that PFAAs are mainly accumulated via dietary exposure, while greater concentrations were found in gill and intestine of bivalve (oyster) which suggests both waterborne and dietary exposures to these organisms. Concentrations of PFAAs in biota did not decrease over time (2008-2010), indicating that continuing bioaccumulation followed by slow degradation or excretion of PFAAs accumulated in biota. Overall, spatio-temporal distributions of PFAAs in water and bioaccumulation characteristics seemed to be associated with recent restrictions of PFOS-based products and uses of PFBS-based substitutes.

  14. Food and habitat resource partitioning between three estuarine fish species on the Swedish west coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorman, Staffan

    1983-12-01

    In 1978 the food and habitat resource partitioning of three small and common fish species, viz. Pomatoschistus microps (Krøyer), Gasterosteus aculeatus (L.) and Pungitius pungitius (L.) were studied in river Broälven estuary on the Swedish west coast (58°22'N, 11°29'E). The area was divided into three habitats, based on environmental features. In July, September, and October stomach contents and size distribution of each species present were analysed. In July there was high food and habitat overlap between the species. Interference interactions probably occurred between some size classes of P. microps and the other two species. P. pungitius was exposed to both intra- and interspecific interactions. In September the food and habitat overlaps between G. aculeatus and P. pungitius were high, while both had low food and habitat overlaps in relation to P. microps. Interactions between G. aculeatus and P. pungitius were probably influenced by more severe abiotic conditions in one habitat, which caused lower abundances there, and higher abundances in the other two habitats. In October no interactions were observed. These results indicate that competition for food at least temporarily determines the species distribution in a temperate estuary, and that estuarine fish populations are sometimes food limited.

  15. Brevetoxicosis in seabirds naturally exposed to Karenia brevis blooms along the central west coast of Florida.

    PubMed

    Fauquier, Deborah A; Flewelling, Leanne J; Maucher, Jennifer M; Keller, Martha; Kinsel, Michael J; Johnson, Christine K; Henry, Michael; Gannon, Janet G; Ramsdell, John S; Landsberg, Jan H

    2013-04-01

    Harmful algal bloom events caused by the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis occurred along the central west Florida, USA, coast from February 2005 through December 2005 and from August 2006 through December 2006. During these events, from 4 February 2005 through 28 November 2006, live, debilitated seabirds admitted for rehabilitation showed clinical signs that included disorientation, inability to stand, ataxia, and seizures. Testing of blood, biologic fluids, and tissues for brevetoxin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay found toxin present in 69% (n=95) of rehabilitating seabirds. Twelve of the 19 species of birds had evidence of brevetoxin exposure. Commonly affected species included Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus), Brown Pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis), Great Blue Herons (Ardea herodias), and Common Loons (Gavia immer). Serial blood and fecal samples taken from several live seabirds during rehabilitation showed that brevetoxin was cleared within 5-10 days after being admitted to the rehabilitation facility, depending on the species tested. Among seabirds that died or were euthanized, the highest brevetoxin concentrations were found in bile, stomach contents, and liver. Most dead birds had no significant pathologic findings at necropsy, thereby supporting brevetoxin-related mortality.

  16. Airborne mercury pollution from a large oil spill accident on the west coast of Korea.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Yim, Un-Hyuk; Jung, Myung-Chae; Kang, Chang-Hee

    2009-05-15

    Atmospheric mercury pollution was recognized after a large oil spill on the west coast of Korea on 7 December 2007. In this study, the concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM: Hg(0)) in air were measured both shortly after the oil spill ( approximately 100h) and 1month after the accident near the accident site. When the Hg concentration levels were compared between two seashore sites and two parallel sites offshore, the values tend to decrease further offshore. The unusual rise in Hg concentration levels observed on the seashore area shortly after the accident (mean of 16.4+/-9.85ngm(-3)) dropped dramatically after 1month with active cleanup activities (2.99+/-1.40ngm(-3)). Because of the connection between crude oil and Hg (one of the major impurities), the unusual rise in the atmospheric Hg after the oil spill can be explained by the active evasion of Hg from the spilled crude oil. Although Hg levels determined a few days after the accident did not exceed the reference exposure limits (REL) proposed by several agencies, the early build-up of elemental mercury level due to the oil spill might have exerted certain impacts on the surrounding environments.

  17. Velocities of Thwaites Glacier and smaller glaciers along the Marie Byrd Land coast, West Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosanova, C.E.; Lucchitta, B.K.; Ferrigno, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    Average velocities for time intervals ranging from <1 to 15 years were measured by tracking ice-surface patterns on sequential Landsat and European Remote-sensing Satellite synthetic aperture radar images. Velocities of Thwaites Glacier range from 2.2 km a-1 above the grounding line to 3.4 km a-1 at the limit of measurements on Thwaites Glacier ice tongue. The glacier increases in velocity by about 1 km a-1 where it crosses the grounding line. Over the period 1984-93, Thwaites Glacier ice tongue accelerated by about 0.6 km a-1. Velocities of the floating part of several minor glaciers and some ice shelves are also determined: Land Glacier, 1.7-1.9 km a-1; DeVicq Glacier, 0.7-1.1 km a-1; Dotson Ice Shelf, 0.2-0.5 km a-1; Getz Ice Shelf, 0.2-0.8 km a-1; and Sulzberger Ice Shelf, 0.01-0.02 km a-1. The high velocities along the Marie Byrd Land coast are consistent with the high precipitation rates over West Antarctica and, for some of the glaciers, the lack of buttressing ice shelves.

  18. Hydrocarbons in seawater and sediment from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, A.R.; Tahir, N.M.; Wei, L.K. )

    1994-10-01

    The Straits of Malacca, along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, is one of the busiest waterways in the world with about 2000 vessels passing through it per month, of which about 25 percent are oil tankers of varying sizes. In the course of their passage, the practices of tanker ballasting and pumping of bilges by non-tanker vessels result in considerable pollution in these waters. Collisions and groundings also cause oil spills in Malaysian waters. Oil contaminants not only pollute the high seas but also affects the near-coastal waters. Marine oil pollution, in particular that of near-coastal waters, may also be attributed to land-based activities such as the utilisation of petroleum related products, the direct discharge of untreated municipal and industrial wastes containing refined and partly weathered oils to sewers and rivers, and the discharge of effluents from refineries and other similar sources. There is, at present, little information available on the total hydrocarbon concentrations (THCs) in water and sediments in these waters. The present study was undertaken to determine the levels of hydrocarbons in water and sediments along the near-coastal areas of the Straits of Malacca. 21 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  19. Seasonal biomass and energy content in seagrass communities on the west coast of Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Dawes, C.J.; Hall, M.O.; Riechert, R.K.

    1985-01-01

    Seasonal collections were made over a 16 month period in seven seagrass communities on the west coast of Florida. The seagrass component accounted for at least 45% of the total biomass and Thalassia testudinum was the dominant species. The 15 month mean of total biomass at six sites that were dominated year around by T. testudinum from Tampa Bay to Cedar Key, Florida was 385 g dry weight m/sup 2/ or 1.42 tons dry weight/acre. The drift and attached seaweed components showed seasonal fluctuations in terms of species and biomass. Of the six open water sites, only one site, characterized by depressed salinity, showed significant differences in seasonal biomass for T. testudinum using a nested ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keul's test for variance. Available kilocalories ranged from a 16 month low of 344 to a high of 1837 kcal/m/sup 2/ with the highest biomass and caloric values occurring in the late spring and summer.

  20. Diversity of endophytic fungi in the roots of mangrove species on the west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Ananda, K; Sridhar, K R

    2002-10-01

    Because mangrove plant species are a valuable source of useful metabolites, their endophytes have gained more importance. Randomly sampled surface-sterilized whole root segments of four mangrove plant species, Acanthus ilicifolius, Avicennia officinalis, Rhizophora mucronata, and Sonneratia caseolaris from the mangroves of Udyavara (Karnataka) on the west coast of India, were characterized for fungal communities by direct plating, damp chamber, and bubbling chamber incubation methods. The richness of endophytic fungal species from whole root segments after direct plating and damp chamber incubation was greatest for R. mucronata than for other plants (18 vs. 8-13). Incubation of whole root segments in bubbling chambers yielded conidia of two freshwater hyphomycetes: Mycocentrospora acerina (in Avicennia officinalis) and Triscelophorus acuminatus (in R. mucronata and in S. caseolaris). Surface-sterilized whole root and root bark segments of R. mucronata sampled from the mid-tide level on direct plating yielded more fungi than that of the root segments sampled from low-tide and high-tide levels. The greatest number of isolates, species richness, and diversity of fungi were shown by the whole root segments of R. mucronata from the mid-tide level. Rarefaction indices also revealed the highest expected number of species out of 150 random isolations from the mid-tide level samples of whole root and root bark segments of R. mucronata. The present study showed that fungi in mangrove roots are composed of a consortium of soil, marine, and freshwater fungi.

  1. Spreading patterns of the invasive Caulerpa cylindracea Sonder along the west Istrian Coast (northern Adriatic Sea, Croatia).

    PubMed

    Iveša, Ljiljana; Djakovac, Tamara; Devescovi, Massimo

    2015-06-01

    The northern Adriatic Sea represents the northernmost and thus the coldest biogeographic sector of the Mediterranean Sea. In 2004, the invasive green alga Caulerpa cylindracea was recorded for the first time in the northern Adriatic at a site of the west Istrian Coast. Until 2010, additional C. cylindracea mats have only formed up to 7 km northward from the first colonisation site. Subsequently, the alga was also recorded at sites widespread along the entire coast. Both the first 2004 colonisation event and the 2011-2014 colonisation of distant sites occurred during periods of winter seawater temperatures higher than 9 °C. In general, algal spreading was markedly slow. Approximately 10 years after the first record, C. cylindracea has affected less than 1% of the entire west Istrian coastline. The colonisation predominantly occurred in ports and urbanised bays (seaside resorts) suggesting that anthropogenic activities might enhance algal diffusion.

  2. Distribution and abundance of anthropogenic marine debris along the shelf and slope of the US West Coast.

    PubMed

    Keller, Aimee A; Fruh, Erica L; Johnson, Melanie M; Simon, Victor; McGourty, Catherine

    2010-05-01

    As marine debris levels continue to grow worldwide, defining sources, composition, and distribution of debris, as well as potential effects, becomes increasingly important. We investigated composition and abundance of man-made, benthic marine debris at 1347 randomly selected stations along the US West Coast during Groundfish Bottom Trawl Surveys in 2007 and 2008. Anthropogenic debris was observed in 469 tows at depths of 55-1280 m. Plastic and metallic debris occurred in the greatest number of hauls followed by fabric and glass. Mean density was 67.1 items km(-2) throughout the study area but was significantly higher south of 36 degrees 00'N latitude. Mean density significantly increased with depth, ranging from 30 items km(-2) in shallow (55-183 m) water to 128 items km(-2) in the deepest depth stratum (550-1280 m). Debris densities observed along the US West Coast were comparable to those seen elsewhere and provide a valuable backdrop for future comparisons.

  3. Inclusion of Tithonia diversifolia in multinutrient blocks for WestAfrican dwarf goats fed Brachiaria straw.

    PubMed

    Tendonkeng, Fernand; Fogang Zogang, Bienvenu; Sawa, Camara; Boukila, Benoît; Pamo, Etienne Tedonkeng

    2014-08-01

    Recent investigations suggest that the development of multinutrient feed blocks with inclusion of tree and shrub leaves could improve the nutritive value and digestibility of straw. In order to test these possibilities, three types of multinutrient blocks (MNB) namely: MNB0 (wheat bran = 100%; Tithonia diversifolia leaf = 0%), MNB50 (wheat bran = 50%; T. diversifolia leaf = 50%) and MNB100 (wheat bran = 0%; T. diversifolia leaf = 100%) were fed for 15 days in a 3 × 3 Latin square arrangement to West African dwarf goats consuming Brachiaria ruziziensis straw. The blocks presented a good cohesion and a good hardness. The inclusion of T. diversifolia improved levels of crude protein, mineral, feed unit for milk production (UFL) and feed unit for meat production (UFV), but decreased palatability. The effects on the digestibility of B. ruziziensis straw were evaluated in nine West African dwarf goats fed individually with MNB0 + straw, MNB50 + straw and MNB100 + straw. The dry matter, organic matter and crude fibre digestibility of B. ruziziensis straw increased slightly with increasing level of inclusion of T. diversifolia. The apparent digestibility of nitrogen was comparable for all diets independent of the level of inclusion of T. diversifolia. This study showed that the inclusion of T. diversifolia leaves in the MNBs can be recommended to improve the feeding of goats during periods of drought.

  4. A new perspective on West African hydroclimate during the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Andrew O.; Schmidt, Matthew W.; Jobe, Zane R.; Slowey, Niall C.

    2016-09-01

    Widespread drought characterized the Heinrich 1 and Younger Dryas cold periods of the last deglaciation throughout much of Africa, causing large increases in dust emissions from the Sahara and Sahel. At the same time, increases in wind strength may have also contributed to dust flux, making it difficult to interpret dust records alone as reflecting changes in rainfall over the region. The Niger River has the third largest drainage basin in Africa and drains most of the Sahara and Sahel and thus preserves and propagates climatic signals. Here, we present new reconstructions of Niger Delta sea surface salinity and Niger River discharge for the last 20,000 years in order to more accurately reconstruct the onset of the Western African Monsoon system. Based on calculated δ18OSEAWATER (δ18OSW) and measured Ba/Ca ratios in planktonic foraminifera, these new records reflect changes in sub-Saharan precipitation across the Niger River Basin in West Africa and reveal that the West African Monsoon system began to intensify several thousand years after the equatorial Monsoon system in Central Africa. We also present new records of primary productivity in the Niger Delta that are related to wind-driven upwelling and show that productivity is decoupled from changes in Niger River discharge. Our results suggest that wind strength, rather than changes in monsoon moisture, was the primary driver of dust emissions from the Sahara and Sahel across the last deglaciation.

  5. Geographical assessment of body measurements and qualitative traits in West African cattle.

    PubMed

    Traoré, Amadou; Koudandé, Delphin Oloronto; Fernández, Iván; Soudré, Albert; Granda, Víctor; Álvarez, Isabel; Diarra, Siaka; Diarra, Fousseyni; Kaboré, Adama; Sanou, Moumouni; Tamboura, Hamidou Hamadou; Goyache, Félix

    2015-12-01

    A total of 1015 adult cows belonging to nine West African cattle breeds were assessed for 16 body measurements and 18 qualitative traits to ascertain the existence of geographical patterns of variation. Sampling was carried out in 29 different provinces of Mali, Burkina Faso and Benin. For body measurements, taurine breeds took lower average values than the zebu breeds. Sanga cattle took intermediate values. Qualitative traits did not allow to differentiate among cattle groups (taurine, zebu or sanga) or breeds. Principal component analysis identified two factors explaining 56.4 and 9.2 % of the variance for body measurements, respectively. Two correspondence analysis dimensions computed on qualitative traits explained a small proportion of the variability (20.8 and 13.5 %, respectively). Contour plots were constructed using the eigenvalues computed for each individual and either factor or dimension identified; confidence regions calculated confirmed that body measurements clearly differentiated zebu and taurine cattle breeds while qualitative traits did not. Factor 1 was projected on a geographical map, using provinces as nodes, to assess breed-free variation for body measurements. A pattern of continuous variation from the Sahel area southwards was identified. Probably, breeding decisions promoting the crosses between zebu-like and taurine cattle are underlying this geographical pattern of variation. The implementation of selection strategies aiming at the increase of the productivity of native West African taurine cattle breeds while avoiding looses in trypanotolerant ability would be highly advisable.

  6. Influence of Arctic sea-ice and greenhouse gas concentration change on the West African Monsoon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monerie, Paul-Arthur; Oudar, Thomas; Sanchez-Gomez, Emilia; Terray, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    The Sahelian precipitation are projected to increase in the CNRM-CM5 coupled climate model due to a strengthening of the land-Sea temperature gradient, the increase in the North Atlantic temperature and the deepening of the Heat Low. Arctic Sea-Ice loss impacts the low-level atmospheric circulation through a decrease in the northward heat transport. Some authors have linked the sea-ice loss to a poleward shift of the InterTropical Convergence Zone. Within the CMIP5 models the effect of these mechanisms are not distinguishable and it is difficult to understand the effect of the Arctic sea-ice loss on the West African Monsoon so far. We performed several sensitivity experiments with the CNRM-CM5 coupled climate models by modifying the arctic sea-ice extent and/or the greenhouse gas concentration. We then investigated separately the impact of Arctic sea-ice loss and greenhouse gas concentration increases on the West African Monsoon. The increase in greenhouse gas explains the northward shift and the strengthening of the monsoon. Its effect is stronger with a sea-ice free Arctic that leads to an increase in North Atlantic temperature and in Sahelian precipitation at the end of the rainy season (September-October). We argue that the decrease in sea-ice extent, in the context of the global warming, may moistens the Sahel during the rainy season by changing the pressure, winds and moisture fluxes at low-level.

  7. Autoantibodies in malaria, tuberculosis and hepatitis B in a west African population.

    PubMed Central

    Adebajo, A O; Charles, P; Maini, R N; Hazleman, B L

    1993-01-01

    Following reports of associations between autoantibodies and living in the tropics, we have studied the seroprevalence and nature of anti-nuclear antibodies, anti-cardiolipin antibodies, antibodies to extractable nuclear antigens and anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies in 351 West Africans with malaria, tuberculosis or hepatitis B, or in good health. Amongst healthy West Africans we found a seroprevalence of 7% for anti-nuclear antibodies with several staining patterns, and of 30.3% for anti-cardiolipin antibodies. Among patients with tuberculosis and malaria there was twice that frequency of anti-nuclear antibodies (predominantly speckled in pattern), and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (predominantly IgM) were demonstrated in a few cases. A possible association between IgG anti-cardiolipin antibodies and tuberculosis was observed (P < 0.05), but antibodies to double-stranded DNA were not elevated and no antibodies to extractable nuclear antigens were found in any of the patients or healthy individuals studied. Our findings suggest the need for caution in the interpretation of autoantibody tests in subjects from or living in the tropics, as well as in patients with tropical infections. PMID:8467567

  8. 78 FR 2254 - Fisheries Off West Coast States and in the Western Pacific; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ... EFPs and other applicable laws. DATES: Comments must be received no later than 5 p.m., local time on... INFORMATION: This action is authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP) and the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act provisions at 50 CFR 600.745, which states...

  9. Establishment of the green mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus 1758) (Mollusca: Mytilidae) on the West Coast of Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, A.J.; Marelli, D.C.; Frischer, M.E.; Danforth, J.M.; Williams, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    In 1999, the green mussel, Perna viridis, was first observed in Tampa Bay, Florida. This was the first reported occurrence of this Indo-Pacific marine bivalve in North America. The mussels found in Tampa Bay were confirmed to be P. viridis based on both morphological and genetic characteristics. Since the initial discovery, surveys in Tampa Bay and on the west coast of Florida have documented the growth, recruitment, and range expansion of P. viridis. From November 1999 to July 2000, the mean shell length of a Tampa Bay population increased from 49.0 mm to 94.1 mm, an increase of 97%. Populations of P. viridis are successfully reproducing in Tampa Bay. Recruitment was observed on sampling plates in May and continued through July 2000. The full extent of mussel colonization is not clear, but mussels were found outside Tampa Bay in St. Petersburg, Florida, south to Venice. Based on these studies it is evident that P. viridis has successfully invaded Tampa Bay and the west coast of Florida. The long-term impact of P. viridis on native communities off the west coast of Florida cannot be predicted at this time.

  10. Preliminary assessment of habitat protection needs for West Indian manatees on the east coast of Florida and Georgia. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    The report assesses information on the status of endangered West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) on the east coast of Florida and Georgia in the southeastern United States and recommends actions to improve protection of the species and its habitat in that area. Manatees on the east coast of Florida and Georgia appear to constitute a discrete population numbering perhaps 700 to 900 animals. Based on carcass-salvage data, recent annual mortality rates of between 8% and 10% are indicated. Perhaps 3% to 4% of the population was killed as a result of collisions with boats during 1987, and this threat appears to be increasing. Collisions with boats and destruction of essential habitat are the principal threats to the population. Recommendations include: quadruple the size of the boat-speed regulatory system on the east coast of Florida; limit development in essential manatee habitats; acquire additional manatee habitat as additions to Federal and State refuges and preserves.

  11. Simulation of the West African Monsoon using the MIT Regional Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Eun-Soon; Gianotti, Rebecca L.; Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.

    2013-04-01

    We test the performance of the MIT Regional Climate Model (MRCM) in simulating the West African Monsoon. MRCM introduces several improvements over Regional Climate Model version 3 (RegCM3) including coupling of Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS) land surface scheme, a new albedo assignment method, a new convective cloud and rainfall auto-conversion scheme, and a modified boundary layer height and cloud scheme. Using MRCM, we carried out a series of experiments implementing two different land surface schemes (IBIS and BATS) and three convection schemes (Grell with the Fritsch-Chappell closure, standard Emanuel, and modified Emanuel that includes the new convective cloud scheme). Our analysis primarily focused on comparing the precipitation characteristics, surface energy balance and large scale circulations against various observations. We document a significant sensitivity of the West African monsoon simulation to the choices of the land surface and convection schemes. In spite of several deficiencies, the simulation with the combination of IBIS and modified Emanuel schemes shows the best performance reflected in a marked improvement of precipitation in terms of spatial distribution and monsoon features. In particular, the coupling of IBIS leads to representations of the surface energy balance and partitioning that are consistent with observations. Therefore, the major components of the surface energy budget (including radiation fluxes) in the IBIS simulations are in better agreement with observation than those from our BATS simulation, or from previous similar studies (e.g Steiner et al., 2009), both qualitatively and quantitatively. The IBIS simulations also reasonably reproduce the dynamical structure of vertically stratified behavior of the atmospheric circulation with three major components: westerly monsoon flow, African Easterly Jet (AEJ), and Tropical Easterly Jet (TEJ). In addition, since the modified Emanuel scheme tends to reduce the precipitation

  12. Traditional West African pharmacopeia, plants and derived compounds for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Sawadogo, Wamtinga Richard; Schumacher, Marc; Teiten, Marie-Hélène; Dicato, Mario; Diederich, Marc

    2012-11-15

    Traditional pharmacopeia is strongly involved in the continuous search for the well being of African populations. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 80% of the population of developing countries relies on traditional medicine for their primary care needs. Medicinal plants are the major resource of this folk medicine where several species are used for the treatment of diseases with an inflammatory and/or infectious component as it is the case of old wounds, skin diseases and malfunctions affecting internal organs such as liver, lung, prostate and kidney. Many of these pathologies described by practitioners of traditional medicine have similarities with certain cancers, but the lack of training of many of these healers does not allow them to establish a link with cancer. However, ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological surveys conducted by several researchers allowed to identify plants of interest for cancer treatment. Most scientific investigations on these plants demonstrated an anti-inflammatory or antioxidant effect, and sometimes, antiproliferative and cytotoxic activities against cancer cells were reported as well. The emergence of resistance to cancer chemotherapy has forced researchers to turn to natural products of plant and marine origin. In the West African sub-region, research on natural anti-cancer molecules is still in its infancy stage because of very limited financial resources and the scarcity of adequate technical facilities. However, several plants were investigated for their anticancer properties through north-south or south-south partnerships. In this review, we will review the role of West African traditional pharmacopeia in cancer treatment as well as medicinal plants with anti-cancer properties.

  13. 76 FR 5144 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for U.S. Navy F-35C West Coast...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... Environment) or designee. Resource areas to be addressed in the U.S. Navy F-35C West Coast Homebasing EIS will include, but not be limited to: Air quality, noise environment, land use, socioeconomics,...

  14. 77 FR 16048 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection 2012 West Coast Trade Symposium: “Harmonizing Trade for a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ... Symposium: ``Harmonizing Trade for a Stronger Economy'' AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... Economy.'' This document announces that the West Coast trade symposium will be held in Long...

  15. Siple Coast ice streams reorganization following the reactivation of Kamb Ice Stream tributaries, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christoffersen, P.; Bougamont, M. H.; Price, S. F.; Fricker, H. A.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Carter, S. P.

    2015-12-01

    Ice streams in Antarctica account for most of the ice volume discharged to the ocean, and their flow variability greatly influences the mass balance of the ice sheet. Today, the Siple Coast region is the only one in West Antarctica to experience a positive mass balance of 36 Gt/yr, as a consequence of the stagnation of Kamb Ice Stream 170 years ago as well as the ongoing slowdown of Whillans Ice Stream. However, this positive trend could be temporary, as reconstructions of past flow show that the Siple Coast ice streams have experienced significant flow variability over the past millennia, with episodes of stagnation typically followed by reactivation on a centennial timescale. The impact that this internally induced variability may have on the future mass balance remains unknown. Here, we use the three-dimensional ice sheet model CISM to study the flow variability of the Ross ice streams over a 250 year period, during which the basal properties controlling ice flow evolve according to the distribution of meltwater in a dynamic, regional hydrological system, coupled to a subglacial till layer. To obtain realistic initial flow conditions, we assimilate the 1997 velocity data available for this region. During the forward simulation, all ice streams undergo dynamic changes, traced to persistently weak bed conditions beneath the tributaries of the currently dormant Kamb Ice Stream. This source of regional instability propagates into the catchments of Whillans as well as Bindschadler ice streams within decades, and re-organizes the flow of all the Ross ice streams within two centuries. Ice piracy from Kamb Ice Stream prolongs the fast flow on Whillans Ice Stream, maintaining its trunk active during the first modeled century. At the same time, ice piracy into the catchment of Bindschadler ice stream reactivates the relict Siple Ice Stream, which significantly reduces the mass balance for this region. The trunk of Kamb Ice Stream reactivates last (during the second half

  16. Hybridising Medicine: Illness, Healing and the Dynamics of Reciprocal Exchange on the Upper Guinea Coast (West Africa)

    PubMed Central

    Havik, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    The present article seeks to fill a number of lacunae with regard to the study of the circulation and assimilation of different bodies of medical knowledge in an important cultural contact zone, that is the Upper Guinea Coast. Building upon ongoing research on trade and cultural brokerage in the area, it focuses upon shifting attitudes and practices with regard to health and healing as a result of cultural interaction and hybridisation against the background of growing intra-African and Afro-Atlantic interaction from the fifteenth to the late seventeenth century. Largely based upon travel accounts, missionary reports and documents produced by the Portuguese Inquisition, it shows how forms of medical knowledge shifted and circulated between littoral areas and their hinterland, as well as between the coast, the Atlantic and beyond. It shows that the changing patterns of trade, migration and settlement associated with Mandé influence and Afro-Atlantic exchange had a decisive impact on changing notions of illness and therapeutic trajectories. Over the centuries, cross-cultural, reciprocal borrowing contributed to the development of healing kits employed by Africans and non-African outsiders alike, which were used and brokered by local communities in different locations in the region. PMID:26971596

  17. Hybridising Medicine: Illness, Healing and the Dynamics of Reciprocal Exchange on the Upper Guinea Coast (West Africa).

    PubMed

    Havik, Philip J

    2016-04-01

    The present article seeks to fill a number of lacunae with regard to the study of the circulation and assimilation of different bodies of medical knowledge in an important cultural contact zone, that is the Upper Guinea Coast. Building upon ongoing research on trade and cultural brokerage in the area, it focuses upon shifting attitudes and practices with regard to health and healing as a result of cultural interaction and hybridisation against the background of growing intra-African and Afro-Atlantic interaction from the fifteenth to the late seventeenth century. Largely based upon travel accounts, missionary reports and documents produced by the Portuguese Inquisition, it shows how forms of medical knowledge shifted and circulated between littoral areas and their hinterland, as well as between the coast, the Atlantic and beyond. It shows that the changing patterns of trade, migration and settlement associated with Mandé influence and Afro-Atlantic exchange had a decisive impact on changing notions of illness and therapeutic trajectories. Over the centuries, cross-cultural, reciprocal borrowing contributed to the development of healing kits employed by Africans and non-African outsiders alike, which were used and brokered by local communities in different locations in the region.

  18. Compiling Multibeam Sonar data for the U.S. Pacific West Coast Extended Continental Shelf Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, E.; Gardner, J. V.; Henderson, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    The United States Extended Continental Shelf (ECS) Project is a multi-agency collaboration whose goals are to determine and define a potential extension of the U.S. continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles (nmi). Under international law as reflected in the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), every coastal state is entitled to a continental shelf out to 200 nmi (the Exclusive Economic Zone) from its coastal baseline or out to a maritime boundary with another coastal country. The extended continental shelf (ECS) is the area that lies beyond this 200 nm limit where a country could gain sovereign rights to the resources of the seafloor and sub-seafloor. In 2007, the U.S. ECS Task Force designated NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) as the Data Management lead for the U.S. ECS Project and the data stewards and archival location for all data related to this project. The process to determine the outer limits of the ECS requires the collection and analysis of data that describe the depth, shape, and geophysical characteristics of the seafloor and sub-seafloor, as well as the thickness of the underlying sediments. The specific types of data that need to be collected include bathymetric data, seismic profiles, magnetic and gravity data, and other geophysical data. NGDC maintains several global geophysical databases, including bathymetric, seismic and geological data, all critical for supporting ECS analysis. Multibeam bathymetry is a primary dataset used for ECS analysis. Since 2003, the U.S. has collected more than 1.65 million square kilometers of multibeam bathymetric data from 18 cruises. One area where new data has been collected and where the U.S. may have an extended continental shelf is off the U.S. Pacific West Coast. New and old multibeam bathymetry archived at and delivered by NGDC were individually gridded by survey for an area within 48-30 degrees north latitude and -140 and -115 west longitude at a resolution of 210

  19. Comparative Response of the West African Dwarf Goats to Experimental Infections with Red Sokoto and West African Dwarf Goat Isolates of Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Ngongeh, Lucas Atehmengo; Onyeabor, Amaechi

    2015-01-01

    Response of the West African Dwarf (WAD) goats to two different isolates of Haemonchus contortus, the Red Sokoto (RS) goat isolate (RSHc) and the WAD goat isolate (WADHc) (isolated from WAD goats), was studied by experimental infections of 4-6-month-old male WAD goat kids. Group 1 and Group 2 goats were each infected with 4500 infective larvae (L3) of RSHc and WADHc, respectively. Group 3 animals served as uninfected control. Prepatent period (PPP), faecal egg counts (FEC), worm burden (WB), body weight (BW), packed cell volume (PCV), and body condition score (BCS) were determined. WAD goats infected with RSHc isolate and the ones infected with WADHc isolate had mean PPP of 19.63 ± 0.26 and 19.50 ± 0.19, respectively. Goats infected with WADHc isolate had significantly higher FEC (P = 0.004) and WB (P = 0.001). BW were significantly higher (P = 0.004) both in the controls and in Group 2 goats infected with WADHc isolate than in Group 1 goats infected with the RSHc isolate. BCS of animals in both infected groups dropped significantly (P = 0.001). There was a significant drop in PCV (P = 0.004) of both infected groups in comparison. Both isolates of H. contortus were pathogenic to the host.

  20. VOC Composition of Air Masses Transported from Asia to the U.S. West Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gouw, J.; Warneke, C.; Kuster, B.; Parrish, D.; Holloway, J.; Huebler, G.; Fehsenfeld, F.

    2002-12-01

    Airborne measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were performed using a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) operated onboard a NOAA WP-3 aircraft during the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation (ITCT) experiment in 2002. Enhancements of acetone (CH3COCH3), methanol (CH3OH), acetonitrile (CH3CN) and in some cases benzene were observed in air masses that were impacted by outflow from Asia. The enhancement ratios with respect to carbon monoxide are compared to emission factors for fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning, which gives some insight into the sources responsible for the pollution. The observed mixing ratios for acetone, methanol and in particular acetonitrile were generally reduced in the marine boundary layer, suggesting the presence of an ocean uptake sink. The ocean uptake of acetonitrile was found to be particularly efficient in a zone with upwelling water off of the U.S. west coast. Reduced mixing ratios of acetone and methanol were observed in a stratospheric intrusion. This observation gives some information about the lifetime of these VOCs in the stratosphere. Enhanced concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons were observed in air masses that were impacted by urban sources in California. The ratio between the concentrations of benzene, toluene and higher aromatics indicated the degree of photochemical oxidation. PTR-MS only gives information about the mass of the ions produced by proton-transfer reactions between H3O+ and VOCs in the instrument. The identification of VOCs was confirmed by coupling a gas-chromatographic (GC) column to the instrument and post-flight GC-PTR-MS analyses of canister samples collected during the flights.

  1. Predicted Deep-Sea Coral Habitat Suitability for the U.S. West Coast

    PubMed Central

    Guinotte, John M.; Davies, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Regional scale habitat suitability models provide finer scale resolution and more focused predictions of where organisms may occur. Previous modelling approaches have focused primarily on local and/or global scales, while regional scale models have been relatively few. In this study, regional scale predictive habitat models are presented for deep-sea corals for the U.S. West Coast (California, Oregon and Washington). Model results are intended to aid in future research or mapping efforts and to assess potential coral habitat suitability both within and outside existing bottom trawl closures (i.e. Essential Fish Habitat (EFH)) and identify suitable habitat within U.S. National Marine Sanctuaries (NMS). Deep-sea coral habitat suitability was modelled at 500 m×500 m spatial resolution using a range of physical, chemical and environmental variables known or thought to influence the distribution of deep-sea corals. Using a spatial partitioning cross-validation approach, maximum entropy models identified slope, temperature, salinity and depth as important predictors for most deep-sea coral taxa. Large areas of highly suitable deep-sea coral habitat were predicted both within and outside of existing bottom trawl closures and NMS boundaries. Predicted habitat suitability over regional scales are not currently able to identify coral areas with pin point accuracy and probably overpredict actual coral distribution due to model limitations and unincorporated variables (i.e. data on distribution of hard substrate) that are known to limit their distribution. Predicted habitat results should be used in conjunction with multibeam bathymetry, geological mapping and other tools to guide future research efforts to areas with the highest probability of harboring deep-sea corals. Field validation of predicted habitat is needed to quantify model accuracy, particularly in areas that have not been sampled. PMID:24759613

  2. The contribution of occult precipitation to nutrient deposition on the west coast of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nyaga, Justine M; Neff, Jason C; Cramer, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    The Strandveld mediterranean-ecosystem of the west coast of South Africa supports floristically diverse vegetation growing on mostly nutrient-poor aeolian sands and extending from the Atlantic Ocean tens of kilometers inland. The cold Benguela current upwelling interacts with warm onshore southerly winds in summer causing coastal fogs in this region. We hypothesized that fog and other forms of occult precipitation contribute moisture and nutrients to the vegetation. We measured occult precipitation over one year along a transect running inland in the direction of the prevailing wind and compared the nutrient concentrations with those in rainwater. Occult deposition rates of P, N, K, Mg, Ca, Na, Al and Fe all decreased with distance from the ocean. Furthermore, ratios of cations to Na were similar to those of seawater, suggesting a marine origin for these. In contrast, N and P ratios in occult precipitation were higher than in seawater. We speculate that this is due to marine foam contributing to occult precipitation. Nutrient loss in leaf litter from dominant shrub species was measured to indicate nutrient demand. We estimated that occult precipitation could meet the demand of the dominant shrubby species for annual N, P, K and Ca. Of these species, those with small leaves intercepted more moisture and nutrients than those with larger leaves and could take up foliar deposits of glycine, NO3(-), NH4(+) and Li (as tracer for K) through leaf surfaces. We conclude that occult deposition together with rainfall deposition are potentially important nutrient and moisture sources for the Strandveld vegetation that contribute to this vegetation being floristically distinct from neighbouring nutrient-poor Fynbos vegetation.

  3. The Contribution of Occult Precipitation to Nutrient Deposition on the West Coast of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Strandveld mediterranean-ecosystem of the west coast of South Africa supports floristically diverse vegetation growing on mostly nutrient-poor aeolian sands and extending from the Atlantic Ocean tens of kilometers inland. The cold Benguela current upwelling interacts with warm onshore southerly winds in summer causing coastal fogs in this region. We hypothesized that fog and other forms of occult precipitation contribute moisture and nutrients to the vegetation. We measured occult precipitation over one year along a transect running inland in the direction of the prevailing wind and compared the nutrient concentrations with those in rainwater. Occult deposition rates of P, N, K, Mg, Ca, Na, Al and Fe all decreased with distance from the ocean. Furthermore, ratios of cations to Na were similar to those of seawater, suggesting a marine origin for these. In contrast, N and P ratios in occult precipitation were higher than in seawater. We speculate that this is due to marine foam contributing to occult precipitation. Nutrient loss in leaf litter from dominant shrub species was measured to indicate nutrient demand. We estimated that occult precipitation could meet the demand of the dominant shrubby species for annual N, P, K and Ca. Of these species, those with small leaves intercepted more moisture and nutrients than those with larger leaves and could take up foliar deposits of glycine, NO3-, NH4+ and Li (as tracer for K) through leaf surfaces. We conclude that occult deposition together with rainfall deposition are potentially important nutrient and moisture sources for the Strandveld vegetation that contribute to this vegetation being floristically distinct from neighbouring nutrient-poor Fynbos vegetation. PMID:26017747

  4. Physicochemical and Phytochemical Analyses of Copra and Oil of Cocos nucifera L. (West Coast Tall Variety)

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Probir Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Paramita; Mitra, Souvik; Poddar-Sarkar, Mousumi

    2014-01-01

    Coconut copra from West coast tall variety, cultivated in Kerala, India, was subjected to aqueous and solvent extractions (using n-hexane). Additionally, oil was extracted from the copra in Soxhlet assembly using petroleum ether (b.p. 60–80°C). Physicochemical and phytochemical analyses were conducted for the extracts and the oil, with commercial coconut oil as the experimental control. The physicochemical analyses showed that the aqueous extract of copra was milky-white in color with a sweet odor, while the solvent extract was pale yellow and odorless. The commercial oil had 0.08 ± 0.02% oleic acid and a TOTOX value of 7.73 ± 0.78, lower than the Soxhlet extracted oil. Among all the extracts and oils, best phytochemical properties, antioxidant activity (DPPH activity, IC50 value 0.04 ± 0.01 mg/mL), total phenol (0.96 ± 0.04 mg gallic acid eq./g dry copra), reducing power (40.49 ± 1.84 mg BHT eq./g dry copra), and anti-inflammatory activity (NO activity, IC50  value 0.77 ± 0.06 mg/mL) were obtained in the commercial coconut oil, followed by the Soxhlet extracted oil, aqueous extract, and solvent extract. Fatty acid composition analyses showed mainly medium chain fatty acids in the copra oil with lauric acid as the predominant fatty acid (51.88% and 44.84% in Soxhlet extracted and commercial oils, resp.). PMID:26904626

  5. Physicochemical and Phytochemical Analyses of Copra and Oil of Cocos nucifera L. (West Coast Tall Variety).

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Probir Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Paramita; Mitra, Souvik; Poddar-Sarkar, Mousumi

    2014-01-01

    Coconut copra from West coast tall variety, cultivated in Kerala, India, was subjected to aqueous and solvent extractions (using n-hexane). Additionally, oil was extracted from the copra in Soxhlet assembly using petroleum ether (b.p. 60-80°C). Physicochemical and phytochemical analyses were conducted for the extracts and the oil, with commercial coconut oil as the experimental control. The physicochemical analyses showed that the aqueous extract of copra was milky-white in color with a sweet odor, while the solvent extract was pale yellow and odorless. The commercial oil had 0.08 ± 0.02% oleic acid and a TOTOX value of 7.73 ± 0.78, lower than the Soxhlet extracted oil. Among all the extracts and oils, best phytochemical properties, antioxidant activity (DPPH activity, IC50 value 0.04 ± 0.01 mg/mL), total phenol (0.96 ± 0.04 mg gallic acid eq./g dry copra), reducing power (40.49 ± 1.84 mg BHT eq./g dry copra), and anti-inflammatory activity (NO activity, IC50  value 0.77 ± 0.06 mg/mL) were obtained in the commercial coconut oil, followed by the Soxhlet extracted oil, aqueous extract, and solvent extract. Fatty acid composition analyses showed mainly medium chain fatty acids in the copra oil with lauric acid as the predominant fatty acid (51.88% and 44.84% in Soxhlet extracted and commercial oils, resp.).

  6. Mechanism of high rainfall over the Indian west coast region during the monsoon season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheskumar, R. S.; Narkhedkar, S. G.; Morwal, S. B.; Padmakumari, B.; Kothawale, D. R.; Joshi, R. R.; Deshpande, C. G.; Bhalwankar, R. V.; Kulkarni, J. R.

    2014-09-01

    The mechanism responsible for high rainfall over the Indian west coast region has been investigated by studying dynamical, thermodynamical and microphysical processes over the region for the monsoon season of 2009. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts wind and NCEP flux data have been used to study the large scale dynamical parameters. The moist adiabatic and multi-level inversion stratifications are found to exist during the high and low rainfall spells, respectively. In the moist adiabatic stratification regime, shallow and deep convective clouds are found coexisting. The Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement EXperiment aircraft data showed cloud updraft spectrum ranging from 1 to 10 m s-1 having modal speed 1-2.5 m s-1. The low updrafts rates provide sufficient time required for warm rain processes to produce rainfall from shallow clouds. The low cloud liquid water is observed above the freezing level indicating efficient warm rain process. The updrafts at the high spectrum end go above freezing level to generate ice particles produced due to mixed-phase rainfall process from deep convective clouds. With aging, deep convection gets transformed into stratiform type, which has been inferred through the vertical distribution of the large scale omega and heating fields. The stratiform heating, high latent heat flux, strong wind shear in the lower and middle tropospheric levels and low level convergence support the sustenance of convection for longer time to produce high rainfall spell. The advection of warm dry air in the middle tropospheric regions inhibits the convection and produce low rainfall spell. The mechanisms producing these spells have been summarized with the block diagram.

  7. Predicted deep-sea coral habitat suitability for the U.S. West coast.

    PubMed

    Guinotte, John M; Davies, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Regional scale habitat suitability models provide finer scale resolution and more focused predictions of where organisms may occur. Previous modelling approaches have focused primarily on local and/or global scales, while regional scale models have been relatively few. In this study, regional scale predictive habitat models are presented for deep-sea corals for the U.S. West Coast (California, Oregon and Washington). Model results are intended to aid in future research or mapping efforts and to assess potential coral habitat suitability both within and outside existing bottom trawl closures (i.e. Essential Fish Habitat (EFH)) and identify suitable habitat within U.S. National Marine Sanctuaries (NMS). Deep-sea coral habitat suitability was modelled at 500 m×500 m spatial resolution using a range of physical, chemical and environmental variables known or thought to influence the distribution of deep-sea corals. Using a spatial partitioning cross-validation approach, maximum entropy models identified slope, temperature, salinity and depth as important predictors for most deep-sea coral taxa. Large areas of highly suitable deep-sea coral habitat were predicted both within and outside of existing bottom trawl closures and NMS boundaries. Predicted habitat suitability over regional scales are not currently able to identify coral areas with pin point accuracy and probably overpredict actual coral distribution due to model limitations and unincorporated variables (i.e. data on distribution of hard substrate) that are known to limit their distribution. Predicted habitat results should be used in conjunction with multibeam bathymetry, geological mapping and other tools to guide future research efforts to areas with the highest probability of harboring deep-sea corals. Field validation of predicted habitat is needed to quantify model accuracy, particularly in areas that have not been sampled.

  8. Climate change alters plant biogeography in Mediterranean prairies along the West Coast, USA.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer-Meister, Laurel; Bridgham, Scott D; Reynolds, Lorien L; Goklany, Maya E; Wilson, Hannah E; Little, Chelsea J; Ferguson, Aryana; Johnson, Bart R

    2016-02-01

    Projected changes in climate are expected to have widespread effects on plant community composition and diversity in coming decades. However, multisite, multifactor climate manipulation studies that have examined whether observed responses are regionally consistent and whether multiple climate perturbations are interdependent are rare. Using such an experiment, we quantified how warming and increased precipitation intensity affect the relative dominance of plant functional groups and diversity across a broad climate gradient of Mediterranean prairies. We implemented a fully factorial climate manipulation of warming (+2.5-3.0 °C) and increased wet-season precipitation (+20%) at three sites across a 520-km latitudinal gradient in the Pacific Northwest, USA. After seeding with a nearly identical mix of native species at all sites, we measured plant community composition (i.e., cover, richness, and diversity), temperature, and soil moisture for 3 years. Warming and the resultant drying of soils altered plant community composition, decreased native diversity, and increased total cover, with warmed northern communities becoming more similar to communities further south. In particular, after two full years of warming, annual cover increased and forb cover decreased at all sites mirroring the natural biogeographic pattern. This suggests that the extant climate gradient of increasing heat and drought severity is responsible for a large part of the observed biogeographic pattern of increasing annual invasion in US West Coast prairies as one moves further south. Additional precipitation during the rainy season did little to relieve drought stress and had minimal effects on plant community composition. Our results suggest that the projected increase in drought severity (i.e., hotter, drier summers) in Pacific Northwest prairies may lead to increased invasion by annuals and a loss of forbs, similar to what has been observed in central and southern California, resulting in

  9. GLORIA mosaic of West Coast US Exclusive Economic Zone, northern sector

    SciTech Connect

    Hampton, M.A.; Cacchione, D.A.; Drake, D.E.; Karl, N.H.; Kenyon, N.H.; Masson, D.G.

    1986-05-01

    The GLORIA (Geological Long-Range Inclined Asdic) side-scanning sonar system was used to compile an image-enhanced acoustic mosaic, similar to an aerial photograph, of the sea floor of the West Coast US Exclusive Economic Zone. The mosaic clearly shows the spreading centers, fracture zones, submarine fans and channels, and transform to convergent continental margins north of latitude 39/sup 0/N. The linear basement ridges originally generated at the Gorda and Juan de Fuca spreading centers are abruptly truncated by the Mendocino and Blanco fracture zones, and their subtle to distinct divergence, bending, and offset attests to past changes in spreading rate and propagation of spreading centers. The major Delgada, Astoria, and Nitinat fans are traversed by lengthy channel-levee complexes extending from major canyons on the adjacent continental slope; areally extensive sediment-wave fields occur adjacent to the right side (facing down-channel) of these complexes. Other drainage features appear on the mosaic, and the range of channel sinuosity and continuity indicates fluvial-like processes at work on the sea floor. Submarine canyons on the continental slope are irregularly distributed; their range of maturity and relation to substrate type and geologic structure are manifest as variations in length, width, and relief, by changes in trend, and by the degree of sidewall gullying. Compressional and diapiric ridges characterize the continental slope in areas of plate convergence, whereas along the transform margin south of the Mendocino fracture zone, the slope is relatively smooth and featureless, except where incised by large canyon systems.

  10. Conceptions of Parenting in Different Cultural Communities: The Case of West African Nso and Northern German Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Heidi; Voelker, Susanne; Yovsi, Relindis Dzeaye

    2005-01-01

    The present study compares conceptions about parenting in two cultural communities that may be expected to hold different views on parent-child relationships. Sociodemographically diverse samples of 46 Northern German and 39 West African Nso women evaluated parenting behavior observed in 10 Nso and 10 German videotaped mother-infant interaction…

  11. My American Dream: The Interplay Between Structure and Agency in West African Immigrants' Educational Experiences in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Michelle G.; Roegman, Rachel; Edstrom, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This article presents findings of a qualitative, interpretive case study of the experiences of 1.5- and 2nd-generation West African immigrants who self-identify as pursuing the American Dream, defined by them as academic attainment and career success. Employing structuration theory, the authors examine the interplay between structures and agency…

  12. Evidence of common signatures of selection in the genomes of West African cattle and the Yoruba human population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1954, Allison found that the sickle-cell anemia mutation in the beta hemoglobin gene was highly prevalent in West African people because it is protective against malaria, so carriers would thrive and leave offspring in spite of the genetic disease. This is one of the earliest evidences of an envi...

  13. Higher Education as an Emerging Strategy for Actualising the Vision 2020 of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biao, Idowu

    2011-01-01

    The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) has just rolled out a document spelling out five major social, economic and environmental goals it wishes to achieve by 2020. These goals are lofty indeed but they can be achieved only with reliance on not only an enlightened citizenry but on 40% of the population that should have received…

  14. Higher Education as an Emerging Strategy for Actualising the Vision 2020 of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biao, Idowu

    2009-01-01

    The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) has just rolled out a document spelling out five major social, economic and environmental goals it wishes to achieve by 2020. These goals are lofty indeed but they can be achieved only with reliance on not only an enlightened citizenry but on 40% of the population that should have received…

  15. The Impact of Desert Dust Aerosol Radiative Forcing on Global and West African Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, A.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Dezfuli, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Desert dust aerosols exert a radiative forcing on the atmosphere, influencing atmospheric temperature structure and modifying radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and surface. As dust aerosols perturb radiative fluxes, the atmosphere responds by altering both energy and moisture dynamics, with potentially significant impacts on regional and global precipitation. Global Climate Model (GCM) experiments designed to characterize these processes have yielded a wide range of results, owing to both the complex nature of the system and diverse differences across models. Most model results show a general decrease in global precipitation, but regional results vary. Here, we compare simulations from GFDL's CM2Mc GCM with multiple other model experiments from the literature in order to investigate mechanisms of radiative impact and reasons for GCM differences on a global and regional scale. We focus on West Africa, a region of high interannual rainfall variability that is a source of dust and that neighbors major Sahara Desert dust sources. As such, changes in West African climate due to radiative forcing of desert dust aerosol have serious implications for desertification feedbacks. Our CM2Mc results show net cooling of the planet at TOA and surface, net warming of the atmosphere, and significant increases in precipitation over West Africa during the summer rainy season. These results differ from some previous GCM studies, prompting comparative analysis of desert dust parameters across models. This presentation will offer quantitative analysis of differences in dust aerosol parameters, aerosol optical properties, and overall particle burden across GCMs, and will characterize the contribution of model differences to the uncertainty of forcing and climate response affecting West Africa.

  16. Impact of Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies on the Atlantic Tropical Storm Activity and West African Rainfall.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Kingtse; Bell, Gerald D.; Thiaw, Wassila M.

    2001-11-01

    The association between rainfall over the Sahel and Sudan region and tropical storm activity in the Atlantic is examined using the NCEP NCAR reanalysis and sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) from 1949 to 1998. Evidence indicates that both are influenced by global SSTAs. The SSTA modes generating favorable atmospheric conditions for tropical storms to develop are also in favor of a wet rainfall season in the Sahel and Sudan region. The easterly waves over West Africa become tropical storms only if the atmospheric conditions over the Atlantic are favorable. These conditions are responses to SSTAs.In addition to ENSO, a multidecadal trend mode also plays a role. The positive phase of the trend mode features positive loadings in the North Pacific and the North Atlantic, and negative loadings over the three southern oceans. The positive (negative) phases of both modes are associated with increased (reduced) Atlantic tropical storm activity, and with wet (dry) West African monsoon seasons. The SSTAs over the tropical South Atlantic (S-ATL) are related to the rainfall dipole over West Africa, but the influence on tropical storms is not large. Warm (cold) SSTAs over the tropical North Atlantic enhance (suppress) the occurrence of tropical storms, but have little influence on rainfall over West Africa.The most prominent circulation features associated with the positive phases of SSTA modes are enhanced upper-level 200-hPa easterly winds and reduced vertical wind shear in the main development region of the tropical Atlantic, which are well-known features of active Atlantic tropical storm seasons. The associated low-level flow shows enhanced anomalous westerly winds across the Atlantic to Africa. That allows more moisture transport into Africa and, therefore, more rainfall.


  17. A modeling system for predicting the impact of severe storms on the U.S. West Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, P. L.; Ormondt, M. V.; O'Reilly, B.; Hoover, D.; Hapke, C. J.; Eshleman, J.; Ruggiero, P.; Elias, E.; Erikson, L. H.; Collins, B. D.; Guza, R. T.; Adams, P. N.; Thomas, J.

    2009-12-01

    Storm hazards on the U.S. West Coast are generally thought of as being less severe than the more dramatic hurricane impacts that affect the Gulf of Mexico and East Coasts. However, the magnitude, duration and economic and societal impacts of West Coast storms can still be substantial. Storms during the 1982-83 El Niño winter resulted in 36 casualties and over $1.2 billion in damage to the State of California, and current research suggests that increasing storm intensity, frequency, and wave heights will increase coastal-hazards risks on the West Coast for the foreseeable future. To begin to address the increased risk, the U.S. Geological Survey is leading the development of a modeling system for forecasting the impact of winter storms along the U.S. West Coast. A prototype has been developed for Southern California and is being tested with a hypothetical extreme winter storm scenario designed by atmospheric scientists. The modeling system has been designed to be run operationally or with prescribed scenarios, and utilizes atmospheric forcing information with a suite of state-of-the-art physical process models to provide detailed prediction of ocean currents, deep-water and near-shore wave heights, coastal wave runup, and the resulting total water levels on beaches and cliffed coastlines. Research-grade predictions of coastal flooding, inundation, erosion, and cliff failure are also provided. The modeling system utilizes an integrated, nested structure whereby regional wave and water level models are driven by boundary conditions derived from a global wave model, regional seas and swell data from an extensive wave buoy network, a global tide model from satellite altimetry, and atmospheric pressure and wind forecasts. Wave parameters and water levels from the regional models drive local, high resolution cross-shore profile models and 2D-morphological models. Data from these models, in turn, provide boundary conditions for a Bayesian cliff failure model. This paper

  18. Desertification and a shift of forest species in the West African Sahel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gonzalez, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    Original field data show that forest species richness and tree density in the West African Sahel declined in the last half of the 20th century. Average forest species richness of areas of 4 km2 in Northwest Senegal fell from 64 ?? 2 species ca 1945 to 43 ?? 2 species in 1993, a decrease significant at p < 0.001. Densities of trees of height ???3 m declined from 10 ?? 0.3 trees ha-1 in 1954 to 7.8 ?? 0.3 trees ha-1 in 1989, also significant at p < 0.001. Standing wood biomass fell 2.1 t ha-1 in the period 1956-1993, releasing CO2 at a rate of 60 kgC person-1 yr-1. These changes have shifted vegetation zones toward areas of higher rainfall at an average rate of 500 to 600 m yr-1. Arid Sahel species have expanded in the north, tracking a concomitant retraction of mesic Sudan and Guinean species to the south. Multivariate analyses identify latitude and longitude, proxies for rainfall and temperature, as the most significant factors explaining tree and shrub distribution. The changes also decreased human carrying capacity to below actual population densities. The rural population of 45 people km-2 exceeded the 1993 carrying capacity, for firewood from shrubs, of 13 people km-2 (range 1 to 21 people km-2). As an adaptation strategy, ecological and socioeconomic factors favor the natural regeneration of local species over the massive plantation of exotic species. Natural regeneration is a traditional practice in which farmers select small field trees that they wish to raise to maturity, protect them, and prune them to promote rapid growth of the apical meristem. The results of this research provide evidence for desertification in the West African Sahel. These documented impacts of desertification foreshadow possible future effects of climate change.

  19. « Younger-Dryas / African Humid Period »: a notable climatic transition over West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skonieczny, C.; Bory, A. J.; Bout-Roumazeilles, V.; Malaizé, B.; Grousset, F. E.; Abouchami, W.; Galer, S. J.; Francois, R. H.

    2013-05-01

    Every year, several hundreds teragrams of dust are emitted from the Sahara and Sahel regions. These mineral particles sensitively track variations in atmospheric circulation and continental aridity. Sediments of the Northeastern Atlantic Tropical Ocean (NEATO) are fed by this intense dust supply and comprise unique long-term archives of past dust emissions. Past modifications of dust characteristics in these sedimentary archives can provide precious information on changes in environmental conditions in source areas (aridity, weathering), as well as on changes in the characteristics of their atmospheric transport (pathways and strength). Over Africa, gradual increases in local insolation due to changes in the Earth's orbit are accompanied by a migration of the precipitation monsoon-system (associated with the InterTropical Convergence Zone, ITCZ) toward the North. This displacement leads to decrease in West African mineral dust emission. Consequently, Saharan and Sahelian dust deposited in the NEATO sedimentary archives represent an exceptional opportunity to document the environmental and climatic changes that have taken place in West Africa throughout the Quaternary and beyond (Rea, 1994). Here we document changes in the terrigenous supplies to the NETAO throughout the last deglaciation using the marine sediment core MD03-2705 located off Mauritania (18°05N; 21°09W; 3085m water depth) and retrieved from a bathymetric dome, 300 meters above the surrounding seafloor. Considering this particular environmental setting, the terrigenous fraction in this record is assumed to be predominantly of aeolian origin. Multi-proxy analyses of the carbonate-free fraction of the sediment were carried-out, including dust fluxes, grain-size, clay mineralogy and geochemical measurements (major and trace elements as well as Sr & Nd isotopes). We will discuss the most significant changes recorded over the studied period: levels dated from the Younger Dryas and the subsequent African

  20. Probing the edge of the West African Craton: A first seismic glimpse from Niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Leo, Jeanette F.; Wookey, James; Kendall, J.-Michael; Selby, Neil D.

    2015-03-01

    Constraints on crustal and mantle structure of the Eastern part of the West African Craton have to date been scarce. Here we present results of P receiver function and SK(K)S wave splitting analyses of data recorded at International Monitoring System array TORD in SW Niger. Despite lacking in lateral coverage, our measurements sharply constrain crustal thickness (˜41 km), VP/VS ratio (1.69 ± 0.03), mantle transition zone (MTZ) thickness (˜247 km), and a midlithospheric discontinuity at ˜67 km depth. Splitting delay times are low with an average of 0.63 ± 0.01 s. Fast directions follow the regional surface geological trend with an average of 57 ± 1°. We suggest that splitting is due to fossil anisotropic fabrics in the crust and lithosphere, incurred during the Paleoproterozoic Eburnean Orogeny, with possible contributions from the later Pan-African Orogeny and present-day mantle flow. The MTZ appears to be unperturbed, despite the proximity of the sampled region to the deep cratonic root.

  1. Seasonal variations of aerosol over Dona Paula, a coastal site on the west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, T.; Desa, Elgar

    We report here the observations of the aerosol studies carried-out for three years (2000-2002) at Dona-Paula, Goa (15.456°N, 73.801°E), a coastal site on the west coast of India. Aerosol optical depths were measured using a five channel sunphotometer with wavelengths at 440, 500, 675, 870 and 936 nm. The site enjoys a tropical climate and is under the influence of the strong southwest or summer monsoon and weak northeast or winter monsoon. Being a coastal station land-sea breeze play an important role in the variations of the aerosol loading over the site and their transport to the Arabian Sea. The mean aerosol optical thicknesses (AOT) at 500 and 870 nm are 0.46 (±0.15) and 0.23 (±0.097), respectively, while the Angstrom exponent is 1.31 (±0.347). The aerosol properties over the site showed a distinct seasonal variations, with high values of AOT observed during summer, with mean values of 0.48 (±0.15) and 0.26 (±0.09) at 500 and 870 nm, respectively, while during the winter relatively low values were observed, with mean value of 0.41 (±0.14) and 0.19 (±0.09) at 500 and 870 nm, respectively. The values of Angstrom exponents observed at the site suggest that the aerosol comprise mostly of the small size particles, with relatively larger particles being observed during summer than winter. An anti-correlation is observed between the inter-annual variations in the aerosol loading and the rainfall over Goa. Aerosol properties show diurnal variations, with comparatively lower values of AOT being observed in the evening. These diurnal variations are within a limit of 10% of the average values observed for the day. Seasonal patterns in the diurnal variations of aerosol optical depths have been observed. Considering the effect of the meteorological parameters over the aerosol, it is observed that the AOT is positively correlated with water vapor column, however the wind is found to aid in the reduction of aerosol load over Goa. It can be inferred from the weak

  2. 78 FR 18249 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... the Pacific coast. (The EEZ off the Pacific Coast encompasses ocean waters seaward of the outer..., NMFS is publishing this final rule, which includes the content of the proposed rule without change... information on current climate and oceanographic conditions such as El Ni o and the Pacific...

  3. Inference and Forecast of the Current West African Ebola Outbreak in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia

    PubMed Central

    Shaman, Jeffrey; Yang, Wan; Kandula, Sasikiran

    2014-01-01

    The current West African Ebola outbreak poses an unprecedented public health challenge for the world at large. The response of the global community to the epidemic, including deployment of nurses, doctors, epidemiologists, beds, supplies and security, is shaped by our understanding of the spatial-temporal extent and progression of the disease. Ongoing evaluation of the epidemiological characteristics and future course of the Ebola outbreak is needed to stay abreast of any changes to its transmission dynamics, as well as the success or failure of intervention efforts. Here we use observations, dynamic modeling and Bayesian inference to generate simulations and weekly forecasts of the outbreaks in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. Estimates of key epidemiological characteristics over time indicate continued epidemic growth in West Africa, though there is some evidence of slowing growth in Liberia. 6-week forecasts over successive weeks corroborate these findings; forecasts projecting no future change in intervention efficacy have been more accurate for Guinea and Sierra Leone, but have overestimated incidence and mortality for Liberia. PMID:25642378

  4. Tracking cashew economically important diseases in the West African region using metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Filipa; Romeiras, Maria M.; Figueiredo, Andreia; Sebastiana, Mónica; Baldé, Aladje; Catarino, Luís; Batista, Dora

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades, agricultural land-uses in West Africa were marked by dramatic shifts in the coverage of individual crops. Nowadays, cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) is one of the most export-oriented horticulture crops, notably in Guinea-Bissau. Relying heavily on agriculture to increase their income, developing countries have been following a strong trend of moving on from traditional farming systems toward commercial production. Emerging infectious diseases, driven either by adaptation to local conditions or inadvertent importation of plant pathogens, are able to cause tremendous cashew production losses, with economic and social impact of which, in developing countries is often underestimated. Presently, plant genomics with metagenomics as an emergent tool, presents an enormous potential to better characterize diseases by providing extensive knowledge on plant pathogens at a large scale. In this perspective, we address metagenomics as a promising genomic tool to identify cashew fungal associated diseases as well as to discriminate the causal pathogens, aiming at obtaining tools to help design effective strategies for disease control and thus promote the sustainable production of cashew in West African Region. PMID:26175748

  5. Role of soil moisture-atmosphere interactions in model simulation of the West African Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Alexis; Lintner, Benjamin; Giannini, Alessandra

    2015-04-01

    Land-atmosphere interactions play a major role in climate characteristics over land. One of the key features of those interactions is the feedback of soil moisture on precipitation: driven by atmosphere variability, soil moisture variations in turn modulate land-atmosphere fluxes, altering surface climate and boundary layer conditions and potentially feeding back on precipitation, both through local and large-scale processes. Prior studies have highlighted West Africa as one of the regions where such interactions play an important role in precipitation variability. Here we investigate the role of soil moisture-atmosphere interactions on the West African Monsoon in the GFDL-ESM2M model, comparing simulations from the GLACE-CMIP5 experiment with prescribed (climatological seasonal cycle) and interactive soil moisture. Results indicate that total monsoon precipitation is enhanced in the prescribed case, suggesting that overall soil moisture-atmosphere interactions act to reduce precipitation. However, contrasting effects appear between the "core" of the monsoon (in a time- latitude sense) where precipitation is reduced with interactive soil moisture, and the "margins" (in a time-latitude view) where precipitation increases. We investigate the processes responsible for these differences, from changes in the surface energy budget and Bowen Ratio to changes in large-scale circulation and monsoon dynamics. Simulations from other GLACE-CMIP5 participating models are also analyzed to assess the inter-model robustness of the results.

  6. Contrasting conditions of surface water balance in wet years and dry years as a possible land surface-atmosphere feedback mechanism in the West African Sahel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lare, A. R.; Nicholson, S. E.

    1994-01-01

    The climate of West Africa, in particular the Sahel, is characterized by multiyear persistence of anomalously wet or dry conditions. Its Southern Hemisphere counterpart, the Kalahari, lacks the persistence that is evident in the Sahel even though both regions are subject to similar large-scale forcing. It has been suggested that land surface-atmosphere feedback contributes to this persistence and to the severity of drought. In this study, surface energy and water balance are quantified for nine stations along a latitudinal transect that extends from the Sahara to the Guinea coast. In the wetter regions of West Africa, the difference between wet and dry years is primarily reflected in the magnitude of runoff. For the Sahel and drier locations, evapotranspiration and soil moisture are more sensitive to rainfall anomalies. The increase in evapotranspiration, and hence latent heating, over the Sahel in wet years alters the thermal structure and gradients of the overlying atmosphere and thus the strength of the African easterly jet (AEJ) at 700 mb. The difference between dry and wet Augusts corresponds to a decrease in magnitude of the AEJ at 15 deg N on the order of 2.6 m/s, which is consistent with previous studies of observed winds. Spatial patterns were also developed for surface water balance parameters for both West Africa and southern Africa. Over southern Africa, the patterns are not as spatially homogeneous as those over West Africa and are lower in magnitude, thus supporting the suggestion that the persistence of rainfall anomalies in the Sahel might be due, at least in part, to land-atmosphere feedback, and that the absence of such persistence in the Kalahari is a consequence of less significant changes in surface water and energy balance.

  7. Incidence of pregnancy following antiretroviral therapy initiation and associated factors in eight West African countries

    PubMed Central

    Burgos-Soto, Juan; Balestre, Eric; Minga, Albert; Ajayi, Samuel; Sawadogo, Adrien; Zannou, Marcel D.; Leroy, Valériane; Ekouevi, Didier K.; Dabis, François; Becquet, Renaud

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This study aimed at estimating the incidence of pregnancy after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in eight West African countries over a 10-year period. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted within the international database of the IeDEA West Africa Collaboration. All HIV-infected women aged <50 years and starting ART for their own health between 1998 and 2011 were eligible. Pregnancy after ART initiation was the main outcome and was based on clinical reporting. Poisson regression analysis accounting for country heterogeneity was computed to estimate first pregnancy incidence post-ART and to identify its associated factors. Pregnancy incidence rate ratios were adjusted on country, baseline CD4 count and clinical stage, haemoglobin, age, first ART regimen and calendar year. Results Overall 29,425 HIV-infected women aged 33 years in median [Inter Quartile Range: 28–38] contributed for 84,870 women-years of follow-up to this analysis. The crude incidence of first pregnancy (2,304 events) was 2.9 per 100 women-years [95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.7–3.0], the highest rate being reported among women aged 25–29 years: 4.7 per 100 women-years; 95% CI: 4.3–5.1. The overall Kaplan-Meier probability of pregnancy occurrence by the fourth year on ART was 10.9% (95% CI: 10.4–11.4) and as high as 28.4% (95% CI: 26.3–30.6) among women aged 20–29 years at ART initiation. Conclusion The rate of pregnancy occurrence after ART initiation among HIV-infected women living in the West Africa region was high. Family planning services tailored to procreation needs should be provided to all HIV-infected women initiating ART and health consequences carefully monitored in this part of the world. PMID:25216079

  8. Feedback of observed interannual vegetation change: a regional climate model analysis for the West African monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Cornelia; Bliefernicht, Jan; Heinzeller, Dominikus; Gessner, Ursula; Klein, Igor; Kunstmann, Harald

    2016-06-01

    West Africa is a hot spot region for land-atmosphere coupling where atmospheric conditions and convective rainfall can strongly depend on surface characteristics. To investigate the effect of natural interannual vegetation changes on the West African monsoon precipitation, we implement satellite-derived dynamical datasets for vegetation fraction (VF), albedo and leaf area index into the Weather Research and Forecasting model. Two sets of 4-member ensembles with dynamic and static land surface description are used to extract vegetation-related changes in the interannual difference between August-September 2009 and 2010. The observed vegetation patterns retain a significant long-term memory of preceding rainfall patterns of at least 2 months. The interannual vegetation changes exhibit the strongest effect on latent heat fluxes and associated surface temperatures. We find a decrease (increase) of rainy hours over regions with higher (lower) VF during the day and the opposite during the night. The probability that maximum precipitation is shifted to nighttime (daytime) over higher (lower) VF is 12 % higher than by chance. We attribute this behaviour to horizontal circulations driven by differential heating. Over more vegetated regions, the divergence of moist air together with lower sensible heat fluxes hinders the initiation of deep convection during the day. During the night, mature convective systems cause an increase in the number of rainy hours over these regions. We identify this feedback in both water- and energy-limited regions of West Africa. The inclusion of observed dynamical surface information improved the spatial distribution of modelled rainfall in the Sahel with respect to observations, illustrating the potential of satellite data as a boundary constraint for atmospheric models.

  9. Morphological variation in the hydromedusa genus Polyorchis on the west coast of North America

    SciTech Connect

    Rees, John T.; Larson, R. J.

    1980-11-01

    Morphological variation in the hydromedusan genus Polyorchis on the west coast of North American is analyzed in relation to gonad number, tentacle number, and radial canal diverticula number relative to the height of the bell. In specimens of Polyorchis examined, it is concluded that P. penicillatus (Eschscholtz, 1829) is highly variable morphologically over its known geographic range from Alaska to Baja California. P. montereyensis Skogsberg, 1948 is considered a synonym of P. penicillatus, while P. haplus Skogsberg. 1948, is retained as a valid species.

  10. Assessment of the petroleum, coal, and geothermal resources of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattick, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    Approximately 85 percent of the land area of the ECOWAS (Economic Community of West African States) region is covered by basement rocks (igneous and highly metamorphosed rocks) or relatively thin layers of Paleozoic, Upper Precambrian, and 'Continental Intercalaire? sedimentary rocks. These areas have little or no petroleum potential. Areas of the ECOWAS region that have potential for petroleum production or potential for increased petroleum production include the narrow belt of sedimentary rocks that stretches along the continental margin from Mauritania to Nigeria and the Niger Delta and the Benue depression. The Senegal Basin, located on the continental margin of Mauritania, Senegal, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, and Guinea, has been intensely explored by the oil industry and most of the larger structures onshore and on the shelf probably have been tested by drilling with little or no resulting commercial production. Unless basic ideas pertaining to the petroleum geology of the Senegal Basin are revised, future discoveries are expected to be limited to small fields overlooked by industry at a time when petroleum prices were low. On the continental shelf of Sierra Leone and the continental shelf of northeast and central Liberia, the sedimentary rocks are relatively thin, and industry has shown little interest in the area. On the continental rise of these countries, however, the sedimentary section, deposited in a complex fault-block system, increases in thickness. A renewal of industry interest in this deep-water area will probably follow further development of deep-water production technology. A recent oil discovery on the continental slope off the Ivory Coast is expected to spur further exploration offshore of southeastern Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, and Benin. This relatively unexplored area in the Gulf of Guinea has good possibilities .for the discovery of giant oil fields. Nigeria's oil development from the Niger Delta may have peaked, as 13 of 14 giant oil

  11. West African monsoon decadal variability and surface-related forcings: second West African Monsoon Modeling and Evaluation Project Experiment (WAMME II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yongkang; De Sales, Fernando; Lau, William K.-M.; Boone, Aaron; Kim, Kyu-Myong; Mechoso, Carlos R.; Wang, Guiling; Kucharski, Fred; Schiro, Kathleen; Hosaka, Masahiro; Li, Suosuo; Druyan, Leonard M.; Sanda, Ibrah Seidou; Thiaw, Wassila; Zeng, Ning; Comer, Ruth E.; Lim, Young-Kwon; Mahanama, Sarith; Song, Guoqiong; Gu, Yu; Hagos, Samson M.; Chin, Mian; Schubert, Siegfried; Dirmeyer, Paul; Ruby Leung, L.; Kalnay, Eugenia; Kitoh, Akio; Lu, Cheng-Hsuan; Mahowald, Natalie M.; Zhang, Zhengqiu

    2016-12-01

    The second West African Monsoon Modeling and Evaluation Project Experiment (WAMME II) is designed to improve understanding of the possible roles and feedbacks of sea surface temperature (SST), land use land cover change (LULCC), and aerosols forcings in the Sahel climate system at seasonal to decadal scales. The project's strategy is to apply prescribed observationally based anomaly forcing, i.e., "idealized but realistic" forcing, in simulations by climate models. The goal is to assess these forcings' effects in producing/amplifying seasonal and decadal climate variability in the Sahel between the 1950s and the 1980s, which is selected to characterize the great drought period of the last century. This is the first multi-model experiment specifically designed to simultaneously evaluate such relative contributions. The WAMME II models have consistently demonstrated that SST forcing is a major contributor to the twentieth century Sahel drought. Under the influence of the maximum possible SST forcing, the ensemble mean of WAMME II models can produce up to 60 % of the precipitation difference during the period. The present paper also addresses the role of SSTs in triggering and maintaining the Sahel drought. In this regard, the consensus of WAMME II models is that both Indian and Pacific Ocean SSTs greatly contributed to the drought, with the former producing an anomalous displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone before the WAM onset, and the latter mainly contributes to the summer WAM drought. The WAMME II models also show that the impact of LULCC forcing on the Sahel climate system is weaker than that of SST forcing, but still of first order magnitude. According to the results, under LULCC forcing the ensemble mean of WAMME II models can produces about 40 % of the precipitation difference between the 1980s and the 1950s. The role of land surface processes in responding to and amplifying the drought is also identified. The results suggest that catastrophic

  12. Migration patterns of the emerging plant pathogen Phytophthora ramorum on the West Coast of the United States of America.

    PubMed

    Prospero, S; Grünwald, N J; Winton, L M; Hansen, E M

    2009-06-01

    Phytophthora ramorum (oomycetes) is the causal agent of sudden oak death and ramorum blight on trees, shrubs, and woody ornamentals in the forests of coastal California and southwestern Oregon and in nurseries of California, Oregon, and Washington. In this study, we investigated the genetic structure of P. ramorum on the West Coast of the United States, focusing particularly on population differentiation potentially indicative of gene flow. In total, 576 isolates recovered from 2001 to 2005 were genotyped at 10 microsatellite loci. Our analyses of genetic diversity and inferences of reproductive mode confirm previous results for the Oregon and California populations, with the strong majority of the genotypes belonging to the NA1 clonal lineage and showing no evidence for sexual reproduction. The high incidence of genotypes shared among populations and the lack of genetic structure among populations show that important large-scale, interpopulation genetic exchanges have occurred. This emphasizes the importance of human activity in shaping the current structure of the P. ramorum population on the West Coast of the United States.

  13. Equilibrium Beach Profiles on the East and West U.S. Coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludka, B. C.; Guza, R. T.; McNinch, J. E.; O'Reilly, W.

    2012-12-01

    Beach elevation change observations from the United States west and east coasts are used to identify statistically the dominant cross-shore patterns in sand level fluctuations, and these changes are related to equilibrium beach profile concepts. Three to seven years of observations at four beaches in Southern California include monthly surveys of the subaerial (near MSL) beach, and quarterly surveys from the backbeach to about 8m depth. At Duck, North Carolina, observations include 31 years of monthly surveys from the dunes to about 8m depth. On the Southern California beaches, the dominant seasonal pattern is subaerial erosion in winter and accretion in summer. Seasonal fluctuations of 3m in shoreline vertical sand levels, and 50m in subaerial beach width, are not uncommon. The sand eroded from the shoreline in winter is stored in an offshore sand bar and returns to the beach face in summer. Wave conditions in Southern California also vary seasonally, with energetic waves arriving from the north in winter, and lower energy, longer period southerly swell arriving in summer. A spectral refraction model, initialized with a regional network of directional wave buoys, is used to estimate hourly wave conditions, in 10m water depth. Using an equilibrium hypothesis, that the shoreline (defined as the cross-shore location of the MSL contour) change rate depends on the wave energy and the wave energy disequilibrium, Yates (2009) modeled the time-varying shoreline location at several Southern California beaches with significant skill. The four free model parameters were calibrated to fit observations. Following Yates (2009), we extend the equilibrium shoreline model to include the horizontal displacement of other elevation contours. At the Southern California sites, the modeled contour translation depends on the incident wave energy, the present contour configuration, and observation-based estimates of the contour behavior (based on EOF spatial amplitudes). At Duck, seasonal

  14. The Ebola threat: China's response to the West African epidemic and national development of prevention and control policies and infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hao-Jun; Gao, Hong-Wei; Ding, Hui; Zhang, Bi-Ke; Hou, Shi-Ke

    2015-02-01

    There is growing concern in West Africa about the spread of the Ebola hemorrhagic fever virus. With the increasing global public health risk, a coordinated international response is necessary. The Chinese government is prepared to work in collaboration with West African countries to assist in the containment and control of the epidemic through the contribution of medical expertise and mobile laboratory testing teams. Nationally, China is implementing prevention programs in major cities and provinces, the distribution of Ebola test kits, and the deployment of a new national Ebola research laboratory.

  15. Cancer and HIV infection in referral hospitals from four West African countries.

    PubMed

    Jaquet, Antoine; Odutola, Michael; Ekouevi, Didier K; Tanon, Aristophane; Oga, Emmanuel; Akakpo, Jocelyn; Charurat, Manhattan; Zannou, Marcel D; Eholie, Serge P; Sasco, Annie J; Bissagnene, Emmanuel; Adebamowo, Clement; Dabis, Francois

    2015-12-01

    The consequences of the HIV epidemic on cancer epidemiology are sparsely documented in Africa. We aimed to estimate the association between HIV infection and selected types of cancers among patients hospitalized for cancer in four West African countries. A case-referent study was conducted in referral hospitals of Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Nigeria and Togo. Each participating clinical ward included all adult patients seeking care with a confirmed diagnosis of cancer. All patients were systematically screened for HIV infection. HIV prevalence of AIDS-defining and some non-AIDS defining cancers (Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia, liver, lung, skin, pharynx, larynx, oral cavity and anogenital cancers) were compared to a referent group of cancers reported in the literature as not associated with HIV. Odds ratios adjusted on age, gender and lifetime number of sexual partners (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. Among the 1644 cancer patients enrolled, 184 (11.2%) were identified as HIV-infected. The HIV prevalence in the referent group (n=792) was 4.4% [CI 3.0-5.8]. HIV infection was associated with Kaposi sarcoma (aOR 34.6 [CI: 17.3-69.0]), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (aOR 3.6 [CI 1.9-6.8]), cervical cancer (aOR 4.3 [CI 2.2-8.3]), anogenital cancer (aOR 17.7 [CI 6.9-45.2]) and squamous cell skin carcinoma (aOR 5.2 [CI 2.0-14.4]). A strong association is now reported between HIV infection and Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers including cervical cancer and anogenital cancer. As these cancers are amenable to prevention strategies, screening of HPV-related cancers among HIV-infected persons is of paramount importance in this African context.

  16. The Mid-Holocene West African Monsoon strength modulated by Saharan dust and vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pausata, F. S. R.; Messori, G.; Zhang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    The West African Monsoon (WAM) is crucial for the socio-economic stability of millions of people living in the Sahel. Severe droughts have ravaged the region in the last three decades of the 20th century, highlighting the need for a better understanding of the WAM dynamics. One of the most dramatic changes in the WAM occurred between 15,000-5,000 years BP, when increased summer precipitation led to the so-called "Green Sahara" and to a reduction in dust emissions from the region. Previous studies have shown that variations in vegetation and soil type can have major impacts on precipitation. However, model simulations are still unable to fully reproduce the intensification and geographical expansion of the African monsoon during that period, even when vegetation over the Sahara is simulated. Here, we use a fully coupled simulation for 6000 years BP in which prescribed Saharan vegetation and dust concentrations are changed in turn. A close agreement with proxy records is obtained only when both Saharan vegetation and dust decrease are taken into account (Fig. 1). The dust reduction extends the monsoon's northern limit further than the vegetation-change case only (Fig. 2), by strengthening vegetation-albedo feedbacks and driving a deeper Saharan Heat Low. The dust reduction under vegetated Sahara conditions leads to a northward shift of the WAM extension that is about twice as large as the shift due to the changes in orbital forcing alone. We therefore conclude that accounting for changes in Saharan dust loadings is essential for improving model simulations of the MH WAM. The role of dust is also relevant when looking into the future, since Saharan dust emission may decrease owing to both direct and indirect anthropogenic impacts on land cover.

  17. Upwelling of Acidified Water: Not Just an Issue for Shellfish Hatcheries on the West Coast of the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poach, M.; Munroe, D.; Abrahamsen, I.

    2014-12-01

    Periodic upwelling events are known to occur off the coast of New Jersey during the summer. As with upwelling off the US West Coast, these events can transport acidified water to the surface and shoreward. To determine if upwelling events have the potential to impact shellfish hatcheries in New Jersey, a monitoring study was conducted at the Aquaculture Innovation Center (AIC) of Rutgers University. The AIC is an important hatchery supporting the New Jersey oyster aquaculture industry through the production of disease resistant seed oysters. Starting in June of 2014, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH were continuously monitored at the AIC's intake pipe. Periodic grab samples were also collected at the intake and at locations within the facility. Grab samples were preserved and analyzed for pH and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). DIC and pH were used to calculate the aragonite saturation state of the sampled water. During an upwelling event in early July a drop in pH was measured at the intake. Grab samples showed that water of lower pH and aragonite saturation was entering the facility. These results show that hatcheries along the NJ coast need to be aware that upwelling events may bring conditions detrimental for shellfish production.

  18. Coastal hazards projections on the U.S. West Coast using a dynamic water level modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, P.; Erikson, L. H.; Foxgrover, A. C.; O'Neill, A.

    2014-12-01

    Many studies of future coastal flooding vulnerability consider sea level rise and tides only, typically applying a bath-tub type approach that omits key physical-forcing factors that elevate flood levels during storm events such as waves, surge and fluvial discharge. Here we present a new modeling approach that considers all the relevant factors that contribute to elevated water levels for open coast and embayment settings along the U.S. West Coast during projected 21stcentury storms. The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) is a numerical modeling system developed to predict coastal flooding due to both SLR and plausible 21st century storms for active-margin settings like the U.S. West Coast. CoSMoS applies a predominantly deterministic framework that encompasses large geographic scales (100s to 1000s of kilometers) yet models flood extents to a local resolution (2 m) so that storm related changes in water levels at the shore can be resolved. In the latest iteration of CoSMoS applied to San Francisco Bay, efforts were made to incorporate water level fluctuations in response to trapped coastal waves, low pressure systems, ocean swell energy penetrating through the Golden Gate, locally wind-generated waves, and backflow induced by river discharge. The end product is a web-based tool (www.prbo.org/ocof) where users can assess variations in flood extent, maximum flood depth, maximum current velocities and wave heights in response to a number of potential SLR and storm combinations, providing direct support for adaptation and management decisions. Future efforts in Southern California will feature a dynamic coastal DEM that evolves over decadal time scales to provide updated boundary conditions for future storm simulations.

  19. The first endemic West African vertebrate family – a new anuran family highlighting the uniqueness of the Upper Guinean biodiversity hotspot

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Higher-level systematics in amphibians is relatively stable. However, recent phylogenetic studies of African torrent-frogs have uncovered high divergence in these phenotypically and ecologically similar frogs, in particular between West African torrent-frogs versus Central (Petropedetes) and East African (Arthroleptides and Ericabatrachus) lineages. Because of the considerable molecular divergence, and external morphology of the single West African torrent-frog species a new genus was erected (Odontobatrachus). In this study we aim to clarify the systematic position of West African torrent-frogs (Odontobatrachus). We determine the relationships of torrent-frogs using a multi-locus, nuclear and mitochondrial, dataset and include genera of all African and Asian ranoid families. Using micro-tomographic scanning we examine osteology and external morphological features of West African torrent-frogs to compare them with other ranoids. Results Our analyses reveal Petropedetidae (Arthroleptides, Ericabatrachus, Petropedetes) as the sister taxon of the Pyxicephalidae. The phylogenetic position of Odontobatrachus is clearly outside Petropedetidae, and not closely related to any other ranoid family. According to our time-tree estimation Odontobatrachus has been separated from other frog lineages since the Cretaceous (90.1 Ma; confidence interval: 84.2-97.1 Ma). Along with this molecular evidence, osteological and external diagnostic characters recognize West African torrent-frogs as distinct from other ranoids and provide strong support for the necessity of the recognition of a new family of frogs. This is the only endemic vertebrate family occurring in the Upper Guinea biodiversity hotspot. Conclusion Based on molecular and morphological distinctiveness, the West African torrent-frog Odontobatrachus natator is allocated to a newly described anuran family. The discovery of an endemic vertebrate family in West Africa highlights the Upper Guinean forests as an

  20. Impact of climate change on vegetation dynamics in a West African river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Y.; Koike, T.

    2012-12-01

    Future changes in terrestrial biomass distribution under climate change will have a tremendous impact on water availability and land productivity in arid and semi-arid regions. Assessment of future change of biomass distribution in the regional or the river basin scale is strongly needed. An eco-hydrological model that fully couples a dynamic vegetation model (DVM) with a distributed biosphere hydrological model is applied to multi-model assessment of climate change impact on vegetation dynamics in a West African river basin. In addition, a distributed and auto optimization system of parameters in DVM is developed to make it possible to model a diversity of phonologies of plants by using different parameters in the different model grids. The simple carbon cycle modeling in a distributed hydrological model shows reliable accuracy in simulating the seasonal cycle of vegetation on the river basin scale. Model outputs indicate that generally, an extension of dry season duration and surface air temperature rising caused by climate change may cause a dieback of vegetation in West Africa. However, we get different seasonal and spatial changes of leaf area index and different mechanisms of the degradation when we used different general circulation models' outputs as meteorological forcing of the eco-hydrological model. Therefore, multi-model analysis like this study is important to deliver meaningful information to the society because we can discuss the uncertainties of our prediction by this methodology. This study makes it possible to discuss the impact of future change of terrestrial biomass on climate and water resources in the regional or the river basin scale although we need further sophistications of the system. Performance of the eco-hydrological model (WEB-DHM+DVM) in Volta River Basin, with basin-averaged leaf area index from model (blue solid line) and AVHRR satellite-derived product (red rectangles).

  1. Effects of high ambient temperatures on the metabolism of West African dwarf goats. II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montsma, G.; Luiting, P.; Verstegen, M. W. A.; van der Hel, W.; Hofs, P.; Zijlker, J. W.

    1985-03-01

    32 West African dwarf goats were exposed in respiration chambers to temperature treatments of 20, 25, 30, 35, 35, 35, 30, 25, 20°C. Each treatment lasted three days. 16 goats were kept in individual pens (“I”); the others in two group pens of eight animals each (“G”). During each treatment, heat production and activity were recorded continuously over 48 hours. In addition, feed and water intake, rectal temperature, skin temperature and respiratory rate were measured during each treatment. Compared to 20°C, at 35°C rectal temperature increased from 39.0°C to 39.9°C, respiratory rate from 30 to 260 times. min-1 and skin temperature from 37.1°C to 39.5°C. Hay intake decreased by 40%; concentrates (30 g. kg-0.75. d-1) were always completely consumed. Heat production was higher for the “G” animals at 20°C and higher for the “I” animals at 35°C. These differences in heat production between the two groups were reflected in differences in rectal and skin temperature and in respiratory rate but only very slightly in differences in hay intake. Tissue insulation was 0.014 K. m2. W-1 at 30°C and 35°C and 0.022 K. m2. W-1 at 20°C. It is concluded that the reactions of these dwarf goats to high ambient temperatures are not different in principle from those of other domestic ruminants and that they do not exhibit a specific suitability or unsuitability for ambient temperatures as prevailing in West Africa.

  2. Determinants of suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in four anglophone West African countries.

    PubMed

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Suboptimal complementary feeding practices have a detrimental impact on a child's growth, health and development in the first two years of life. They lead to child malnutrition, which contributes to the high prevalence of stunting (38%) and underweight (28%) reported for children <5 years of age in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study analysed complementary feeding practices in four anglophone West African countries (Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria and Sierra Leone) using the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys. The study covered 12 623 children aged 6-23 months from four anglophone West African countries (Ghana: 822 children: Liberia: 1458 children, Nigeria: 8786 children and Sierra Leone: 1557 children). Four complementary feeding indicators were examined against a set of individual-, household- and community-level factors, using multiple regression analysis. Multivariate analyses found that lack of post-natal contacts with health workers, maternal illiteracy and geographical region were common determinants of delayed introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods across all four countries. Predictors for minimum dietary diversity, minimum meal frequency and minimum acceptable diet included children aged 6-11 months, administrative/geographical region, poorer household income and limited access to media. The authors recommend that the four anglophone West African countries studied should prioritise efforts to improve complementary feeding practices in order to reduce child morbidity and mortality. Interventional studies on complementary feeding should target those from poor and illiterate households.

  3. The colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. A: current distribution, basic biology and potential threat to marine communities of the northeast and west coasts of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bullard, S.G.; Lambert, G.; Carman, M.R.; Byrnes, J.; Whitlatch, R.B.; Ruiz, G.; Miller, R.J.; Harris, L.; Valentine, P.C.; Collie, J.S.; Pederson, J.; McNaught, D.C.; Cohen, A.N.; Asch, R.G.; Dijkstra, J.; Heinonen, K.

    2007-01-01

    Didemnum sp. A is a colonial ascidian with rapidly expanding populations on the east and west coasts of North America. The origin of Didemum sp. A is unknown. Populations were first observed on the northeast coast of the U.S. in the late 1980s and on the west coast during the 1990s. It is currently undergoing a massive population explosion and is now a dominant member of many subtidal communities on both coasts. To determine Didemnum sp. A's current distribution, we conducted surveys from Maine to Virginia on the east coast and from British Columbia to southern California on the west coast of the U.S. between 1998 and 2005. In nearshore locations Didemnum sp. A currently ranges from Eastport, Maine to Shinnecock Bay, New York on the east coast. On the west coast it has been recorded from Humboldt Bay to Port San Luis in California, several sites in Puget Sound, Washington, including a heavily fouled mussel culture facility, and several sites in southwestern British Columbia on and adjacent to oyster and mussel farms. The species also occurs at deeper subtidal sites (up to 81 m) off New England, including Georges, Stellwagen and Tillies Banks. On Georges Bank numerous sites within a 230 km2 area are 50–90% covered by Didemnum sp. A; large colonies cement the pebble gravel into nearly solid mats that may smother infaunal organisms. These observations suggest that Didemnum sp. A has the potential to alter marine communities and affect economically important activities such as fishing and aquaculture.

  4. Review of "the Twelfth West Coast Retrovirus Meeting" and "the Twenty-third Annual Symposium on Nonhuman Primate Models for AIDS".

    PubMed

    Cairns, J Scott

    2006-01-11

    Two recent meetings held on the west coast of the USA highlighted current work being done in the field of retrovirology and AIDS. The meetings, "The Twelfth West Coast Retrovirus Meeting" (Palm Springs CA; October 6-8, 2005), and the "Twenty-third Annual Symposium on Nonhuman Primate Models for AIDS" (Portland OR; September 21-24) covered a broad range of topics. The highlights covered here are not meant to be inclusive but reflect presentations of interest in the identification and development of new HIV therapies and the role played by animal models in their development.

  5. Changing causes of death in the West African town of Banjul, 1942-97.

    PubMed Central

    van der Sande, M. A.; Inskip, H. M.; Jaiteh, K. O.; Maine, N. P.; Walraven, G. E.; Hall, A. J.; McAdam, K. P.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine trends in the causes of death in a West African town. Mortality caused by infectious diseases is reported to be declining while degenerative and man-made mortality factors are increasingly significant. Most mortality analyses for sub-Saharan Africa have involved extrapolation and have not been derived from community-based data. METHODS: Historical data on causes of death coded by physicians were analysed for the urban population of Banjul for the period 1942-97. As the calculation of rates is not possible in the absence of a reliable population denominator, age-standardized proportional mortality ratios (PMRs) for men and women by major groups of causes of death were calculated, using the 1942-49 data for reference purposes. FINDINGS: Most deaths were attributable to communicable diseases. There was a shift in proportional mortality over the study period: the contribution of communicable diseases declined and that of noncommunicable diseases and injuries increased. These trends were more marked among men than women. CONCLUSION: The data illustrate that while noncommunicable diseases and injuries are emerging as important contributors to mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, communicable diseases remain significant causes of mortality and should not be neglected. PMID:11242820

  6. Deep-sea environment and biodiversity of the West African Equatorial margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibuet, Myriam; Vangriesheim, Annick

    2009-12-01

    The long-term BIOZAIRE multidisciplinary deep-sea environmental program on the West Equatorial African margin organized in partnership between Ifremer and TOTAL aimed at characterizing the benthic community structure in relation with physical and chemical processes in a region of oil and gas interest. The morphology of the deep Congo submarine channel and the sedimentological structures of the deep-sea fan were established during the geological ZAIANGO project and helped to select study sites ranging from 350 to 4800 m water depth inside or near the channel and away from its influence. Ifremer conducted eight deep-sea cruises on board research vessels between 2000 and 2005. Standardized methods of sampling together with new technologies such as the ROV Victor 6000 and its associated instrumentation were used to investigate this poorly known continental margin. In addition to the study of sedimentary environments more or less influenced by turbidity events, the discovery of one of the largest cold seeps near the Congo channel and deep coral reefs extends our knowledge of the different habitats of this margin. This paper presents the background, objectives and major results of the BIOZAIRE Program. It highlights the work achieved in the 16 papers in this special issue. This synthesis paper describes the knowledge acquired at a regional and local scale of the Equatorial East Atlantic margin, and tackles new interdisciplinary questions to be answered in the various domains of physics, chemistry, taxonomy and ecology to better understand the deep-sea environment in the Gulf of Guinea.

  7. Sensible and latent heat forced divergent circulations in the West African Monsoon System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagos, S.; Zhang, C.

    2008-12-01

    Field properties of divergent circulation are utilized to identify the roles of various diabatic processes in forcing moisture transport in the dynamics of the West African Monsoon and its seasonal cycle. In this analysis, the divergence field is treated as a set of point sources and is partitioned into two sub-sets corresponding to latent heat release and surface sensible heat flux at each respective point. The divergent circulation associated with each set is then calculated from the Poisson's equation using Gauss-Seidel iteration. Moisture transport by each set of divergent circulation is subsequently estimated. The results show different roles of the divergent circulations forced by surface sensible and latent heating in the monsoon dynamics. Surface sensible heating drives a shallow meridional circulation, which transports moisture deep into the continent at the polar side of the monsoon rain band and thereby promotes the seasonal northward migration of monsoon precipitation during the monsoon onset season. In contrast, the circulation directly associated with latent heating is deep and the corresponding moisture convergence is within the region of precipitation. Latent heating also induces dry air advection from the north. Neither effect promotes the seasonal northward migration of precipitation. The relative contributions of the processes associated with latent and sensible heating to the net moisture convergence, and hence the seasonal evolution of monsoon precipitation, depend on the background moisture.

  8. Physical impacts of regional climate change in the West African Sahel and the question of desertification

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson, S.E.; Ba, M.

    1997-11-01

    The question of desertification is examined in the West African Sahel region by considering various physical indicators assumed to accompany this process. The study considers only the past 14 years, since the availability of comprehensive satellite data sets. The physical indicators examined include vegetation cover, surface albedo, soil moisture, wind-borne dust, river flow, lakes, and the ratio of available moisture to vegetation growth. Vegetation cover and albedo are assessed from satellite data. Soil moisture is assessed using a surface hydrologic model. Dust is estimated from visibility measurements. The most important results are that: (1) there is no progressive change in the vegetation cover, (2) an increase of albedo as the region dries up cannot be documented, and (3) there has been a tremendous increase in wind-borne dust over the Sahel. The vegetation cover responds almost directly to rainfall and the movement of the desert boundary corresponds roughly to rainfall fluctuations. The most important meteorological effect of the drought and/or desertification in the Sahel may be the enhanced dust generation, with the region becoming a major global source of atmospheric mineral dust. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Effectiveness Evaluation of Levamisole, Albendazole, Ivermectin, and Vernonia amygdalina in West African Dwarf Goats

    PubMed Central

    Adediran, Oyeduntan A.; Uwalaka, Emmanuel C.

    2015-01-01

    Anthelmintic drug resistance has led to the search for alternatives in controlling helminth infections. Fifty West African Dwarf goats without history of anthelmintic treatment were divided equally into five groups. Group A was treated with ivermectin injection subcutaneously, group B with levamisole subcutaneously, group C with albendazole orally, and group D with aqueous extract of Vernonia amygdalina and group E was untreated control. Faecal samples were collected before treatment from each animal and larval culture was carried out. Faecal egg count reduction (FECR) test was carried out for each group and the data analysed using FECR version 4 to calculate percent reduction in faecal egg count. Predominant helminth infections from larval culture were Haemonchus contortus (70%), Trichostrongylus spp. (61%), and Oesophagostomum spp. (56%). Mixed infection was present in all the animals. From the FECR test Vernonia amygdalina extract was more effective against helminths (100%), compared to ivermectin 96%, levamisole 96%, and albendazole 99%. The lower 95% confidence limit was 89 for ivermectin and levamisole and 91 for albendazole. There is low resistance to ivermectin and levamisole and susceptibility to albendazole while V. amygdalina has great potentials that could be explored for the treatment of helminth diseases in goats. PMID:26579232

  10. Experiences with new generation vaccines against equine viral arteritis, West Nile disease and African horse sickness.

    PubMed

    MacLachlan, N James; Balasuriya, Udeni B; Davis, Nancy L; Collier, Martha; Johnston, Robert E; Ferraro, Gregory L; Guthrie, Alan J

    2007-07-26

    Viral diseases constitute an ever growing threat to the horse industry worldwide because of the rapid movement of large numbers of horses for competition and breeding. A number of different types of vaccines are available for protective immunization of horses against viral diseases. Traditional inactivated and live-attenuated (modified live virus, MLV) virus vaccines remain popular and efficacious but recombinant vaccines are increasingly being developed and used, in part because of the perceived deficiencies of some existing products. New generation vaccines include MLVs with deletions and/or mutations of critical genes, subunit vaccines that incorporate immunogenic proteins (or portions thereof) or expression vectors that produce these proteins as immunogens, and DNA vaccines. New generation vaccines have been developed for several viral diseases of horses. We recently have developed an alphavirus replicon-vectored equine arteritis virus (EAV) vaccine, and evaluated a commercial canary pox virus-vectored vaccine for West Nile disease. The success of these new-generation vaccines has catalyzed efforts to develop improved vaccines for the prevention of African horse sickness, a disease of emerging global significance.

  11. 77 FR 36192 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... Pelagic Species (CPS) Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for Pacific mackerel off the Pacific coast. The ACL...-aside for incidental landings in other CPS fisheries. This final rule is intended to conserve and manage... the estimated biomass for Pacific mackerel to the Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Council)...

  12. 77 FR 19991 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... according to the Coastal Pelagic Species (CPS) Fishery Management Plan (FMP). The proposed 2012 maximum HG... Management Council's (Council) Coastal Pelagic Species (CPS) Management Team (Team), the Council's CPS... sardine in the U.S. EEZ off the Pacific coast. The CPS FMP and its implementing regulations require...

  13. 78 FR 26277 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... http://www.pcouncil.org/ . Background The Pacific Coast Groundfish FMP and its implementing regulations at title 50 in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), part 660, subparts C through G, regulate... retention regulations at 50 CFR 660.231(b)(3)(iv) to read as follows: ``75 lb (34 kg) dressed weight...

  14. Vegetation phenology gradients along the west and east coasts of Greenland from 2001 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Karami, Mojtaba; Hansen, Birger Ulf; Westergaard-Nielsen, Andreas; Abermann, Jakob; Lund, Magnus; Schmidt, Niels Martin; Elberling, Bo

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to characterize the spatiotemporal variations of vegetation phenology along latitudinal and altitudinal gradients in Greenland, and to examine local and regional climatic drivers. Time-series from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were analyzed to obtain various phenological metrics for the period 2001-2015. MODIS-derived land surface temperatures were corrected for the sampling biases caused by cloud cover. Results indicate significant differences between West and East Greenland, in terms of both observed phenology during the study period, as well as the climatic response. The date of the start of season (SOS) was significantly earlier (24 days), length of season longer (25 days), and time-integrated NDVI higher in West Greenland. The sea ice concentration during May was found to have a significant effect on the date of the SOS only in West Greenland, with the strongest linkage detected in mid-western parts of Greenland.

  15. Haemonchotolerance in West African Dwarf goats: contribution to sustainable, anthelmintics-free helminth control in traditionally managed Nigerian dwarf goats.

    PubMed

    Chiejina, Samuel N; Behnke, Jerzy M; Fakae, Barineme B

    2015-01-01

    West African Dwarf (WAD) goats are extremely important in the rural village economy of West Africa, but still little is known about their biology, ecology and capacity to cope with gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections. Here, we summarise the history of this breed and explain its economic importance in rural West Africa. We review recent work showing that Nigerian WAD goats are highly trypanotolerant and resist infections with Haemonchus contortus more effectively than other breeds of domestic goat (haemonchotolerance). We believe that haemonchotolerance is largely responsible for the generally low level GIN infections and absence of clinical haemonchosis in WADs under field conditions, and has contributed to the relatively successful and sustainable, anthelmintics-free, small-scale system of goat husbandry in Nigeria's humid zone, and is immunologically based and genetically controlled. If haemonchotolerance can be shown to be genetically controlled, it should be possible to exploit the underlying genes to improve GIN resistance among productive fibre and milk producing breeds of goats, most of which are highly susceptible to nematode infections. Genetic resistance to GIN and trypanosome infections would obviate the need for expensive chemotherapy, mostly unaffordable to small-holder farmers in Africa, and a significant cost of goat husbandry in more developed countries. Either introgression of resistance alleles into susceptible breeds by conventional breeding, or transgenesis could be used to develop novel parasite-resistant, but highly productive breeds, or to improve the resistance of existing breeds, benefitting the local West African rural economy as well as global caprine livestock agriculture.

  16. Patterns of species diversity in estuarine benthic communities along teh US west coast

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuaries in the Pacific North West (PNW) were recently classified by whether the estuary is river- or ocean-dominated, the extent of intertidal to subtidal environments, and spatial salinity patterns. We examine whether these characteristics predict patterns of soft-sediment, m...

  17. Biological observations on the bristly catshark Bythaelurus hispidus from deep waters off the south-west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Akhilesh, K V; White, W T; Bineesh, K K; Ganga, U; Pillai, N G K

    2013-05-01

    Biological data are presented for the poorly known bristly catshark Bythaelurus hispidus based on specimens collected from the by-catch of the commercial deep-sea shrimp trawl fishery operating in the Arabian Sea at depths of 200-500 m off the south-west coast of India. One hundred and sixty-two individuals, which ranged from 120 to 366 mm total length (L(T)), were collected for this study. Size-at-maturity (L₅₀) for females and males was estimated at 252 and 235 mm L(T), respectively. The reproductive mode of B. hispidus was aplacental viviparity, which is the rarest reproductive mode within the Scyliorhinidae and is considered to be the most advanced of the three reproductive modes occurring within this family. Dietary analysis of stomach contents revealed B. hispidus feeds on a variety of prey, primarily fishes.

  18. Baseline of organotin pollution in fishes, clams, shrimps, squids and crabs collected from the west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Sangeeta; Bhosale, Darshana; Bhosle, Narayan

    2011-10-01

    Organotins, especially tributyltins (TBT) are highly toxic to many marine organisms. These compounds are introduced in marine waters by ship trafficking, ship scrapping activities, as antifouling compounds and sewage disposal. Marine fishes, crustaceans and molluscans are easily prone to organotins contamination. In view of this, a baseline monitoring study was conducted in order to establish the levels of organotins in edible marine fishes, bivalves, shrimps, squids and crabs collected from Mumbai, Goa and Karwar on the west coast of India. At these locations average organotin concentration found in fishes, clams, shrimps, squids and crabs was 108, 852, 179, 70 and 89 ng Sn g(-1)dw, respectively. In all the samples butyltins dominated over phenyltins. The levels of organotins suggest that all the organisms were contaminated with organotins and their consumption may pose health problems to humans.

  19. Microdistribution within a population of Acrocnida brachiata (Montagu), (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) in Little Killary, west coast of Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makra, A.; Keegan, B. F.

    1998-03-01

    Acrocnida brachiata (Montagu), like many other infaunal ophiuroids, has a penchant for gregariousness. In Little Killary, a small embayment on the west coast of Ireland, it colonises an extensive tract of sandy inshore ground (ca 7 m depth), at densities of 150-200 individuals/m2. In the course of a two-year study, variation in regular suction-sampling returns prompted a detailed study of the species distribution pattern. Towards this end, 256 contiguous and stratified core samples were taken along a line of transect, in May 1995. These showed randomness with respect to the population at large, but exposed an aggregated distribution for juveniles and adults separately, at different levels within the sediment. Juveniles formed wide, ‘loose’ patches in the surficial deposit, while adults formed smaller, denseer patches deeper within the sediment. It remains to be seen what this approach may expose, when applied in different seasons, or during different phases of the species life cycle.

  20. Dominant role of winds near Sri Lanka in driving seasonal sea level variations along the west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, I.; Vialard, J.; Izumo, T.; Lengaigne, M.; Han, W.; McCreary, J.; Muraleedharan, P. M.

    2016-07-01

    The strong seasonal cycle of sea level along the west coast of India (WCI) has important consequences for ecosystem and fisheries, and the Lakshadweep high/low in the southeast Arabian Sea is important for fisheries and the Indian summer monsoon. Previous studies suggested that WCI sea level variability is primarily driven by remote wind forcing from the Bay of Bengal and equatorial Indian Ocean through coastal Kelvin wave propagation. Using a linear ocean model, we demonstrate that wind forcing in a relatively small region around the southern tip of India and east of Sri Lanka contribute to ~60% of this variability. Wind variations from the rest of the Bay and the equator only account respectively for ~20% and ~10%. Sea level signals forced by the "southern tip" winds extend westward into the eastern Arabian Sea through Rossby wave propagation, with more than 50% contribution in the Lakshadweep high/low region.

  1. Interannual variability in phytoplankton pigment distribution during the spring transition along the west coast of North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, A. C.; Strub, P. T.

    1989-01-01

    A 5-year time series of coastal zone color scanner imagery (1980-1983, 1986) is used to examine changes in the large-scale pattern of chlorophyll pigment concentration coincident with the spring transition in winds and currents along the west coast of North America. The data show strong interannual variability in the timing and spatial patterns of pigment concentration at the time of the transition event. Interannual variability in the response of pigment concentration to the spring transition appears to be a function of spatial and temporal variability in vertical nutrient flux induced by wind mixing and/or the upwelling initiated at the time of the transition. Interannual differences in the mixing regime are illustrated with a one-dimensional mixing model.

  2. Variation of Ca, Sr, Ba and Mg in the otolith of mudskipper in west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sarimin, A S; Ghaffar, M A; Mohamed, C A R

    2009-02-01

    A study on elemental composition in the otolith of giant mudskipper, Periophthalmodon schlosseri, was done from June to October 2003. Specimens were obtained from the mangrove areas of Kuala Selangor, Sepang and Melaka in the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 70 sagitta otoliths were analyzed to detect variation of Sr, Ba and Mg, replacing the natural chemical composition of the otolith, which is the calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The average ratio of Sr:Ca was 0.11 x 10(-4), Ba:Ca was 5.7 x 10(-3) and Mg:Ca was 0.2 x 10(-3). Strong correlation (R > 0.8) between fish body size and otolith weight ofmudskipper (p < 0.01) also found during this study.

  3. Ground-water quality of coastal aquifer systems in the West Coast Basin, Los Angeles County, California, 1999-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Land, Michael; Reichard, Eric G.; Crawford, Steven M.; Everett, Rhett; Newhouse, Mark W.; Williams, Colin F.

    2004-01-01

    The extensive use of ground water throughout the Central and West Coast Basins of Los Angeles County during the first half of the 20th century resulted in declining water levels, widespread seawater intrusion, and deterioration of water quality along most reaches of the coast. In order to control seawater intrusion in the West Coast Basin, freshwater is injected into a series of wells at two seawater barrier projects. In order to better understand the processes of seawater intrusion and the efficiency of current barrier operation, data were collected from multiple-well monitoring sites installed by the U.S. Geological Survey, from local observation wells, and from production wells. The occurrence and areal extent of native, saline, and recently injected ground water near the coast were defined through the collection and analysis of inorganic and isotopic water-quality data and geophysical logs. Most water in the West Coast Basin with a dissolved-solids concentration less than 500 milligrams per liter generally has a sodium-bicarbonate to sodium/calcium-bicarbonate character. Water with a dissolved-solids concentration greater than 1,000 milligrams per liter also contains variable amounts of calcium and sodium, but chloride is predominant. Most of these high-dissolved-solids wells are perforated in the Upper aquifer systems; several have dissolved-chloride values near that of seawater. Elevated chloride concentrations were measured at many wells in both the Upper and Lower aquifer systems inland from the barrier projects. Although water levels have increased in many wells over the last 30 years, some of the wells do not show a corresponding decrease in dissolved chloride. A detailed assessment of saline ground water was provided by examining the ratios of chloride to bromide, iodide, and boron. Seawater-freshwater mixing lines were constructed using all three ratios. These ion ratios also identify water affected by mixing with injected imported water and oil

  4. Metamorphic waters from the pacific tectonic belt of the west coast of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, I.

    1970-01-01

    Waters unusually rich in ammonia, boron, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and hydrocarbons are found in more than 100 localities along the Pacific coast of the United States. The waters are believed to be products of low-grade metamorphism of marine sediments. The marine sedimentary rocks would have to be tectonically emplaced below crystalline rocks in many places. Mercury are deposits are probably also products of the low-grade metamorphism.

  5. A historical overview of Moroccan magmatic events along northwest edge of the West African Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikenne, Moha; Souhassou, Mustapha; Arai, Shoji; Soulaimani, Abderrahmane

    2017-03-01

    Located along the northwestern edge of the West African Craton, Morocco exhibits a wide variety of magmatic events from Archean to Quaternary. The oldest magmatic rocks belong to the Archean Reguibat Shield outcrops in the Moroccan Sahara. Paleoproterozoic magmatism, known as the Anti-Atlas granitoids, is related to the Eburnean orogeny and initial cratonization of the WAC. Mesoproterozoic magmatism is represented by a small number of mafic dykes known henceforth as the Taghdout mafic volcanism. Massive Neoproterozoic magmatic activity, related to the Pan-African cycle, consists of rift-related Tonian magmatism associated with the Rodinia breakup, an Early Cryogenian convergent margin event (760-700 Ma), syn-collisional Bou-Azzer magmatism (680-640 Ma), followed by widespread Ediacaran magmatism (620-555 Ma). Each magmatic episode corresponded to a different geodynamic environment and produced different types of magma. Phanerozoic magmatism began with Early Cambrian basaltic (rift?) volcanism, which persisted during the Middle Cambrian, and into the Early Ordovician. This was succeeded by massive Late Devonian and Carboniferous, pre-Variscan tholeiitic and calc-alkaline (Central Morocco) volcanic flows in basins of the Moroccan Meseta. North of the Atlas Paleozoic Transform Zone, the Late Carboniferous Variscan event was accompanied by the emplacement of 330-300 Ma calc-alkaline granitoids in upper crustal shear zones. Post-Variscan alkaline magmatism was associated with the opening of the Permian basins. Mesozoic magmatism began with the huge volumes of magma emplaced around 200 Ma in the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) which was associated with the fragmentation of Pangea and the subsequent rifting of Central Atlantic. CAMP volcanism occurs in all structural domains of Morocco, from the Anti-Atlas to the External Rif domain with a peak activity around 199 Ma. A second Mesozoic magmatic event is represented by mafic lava flows and gabbroic intrusions in

  6. Spatial and temporal occurrence of blue whales off the U.S. West Coast, with implications for management.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Ladd M; Mate, Bruce R; Winsor, Martha H; Palacios, Daniel M; Bograd, Steven J; Costa, Daniel P; Bailey, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Mortality and injuries caused by ship strikes in U.S. waters are a cause of concern for the endangered population of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) occupying the eastern North Pacific. We sought to determine which areas along the U.S. West Coast are most important to blue whales and whether those areas change inter-annually. Argos-monitored satellite tags were attached to 171 blue whales off California during summer/early fall from 1993 to 2008. We analyzed portions of the tracks that occurred within U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters and defined the 'home range' (HR) and 'core areas' (CAU) as the 90% and 50% fixed kernel density distributions, respectively, for each whale. We used the number of overlapping individual HRs and CAUs to identify areas of highest use. Individual HR and CAU sizes varied dramatically, but without significant inter-annual variation despite covering years with El Niño and La Niña conditions. Observed within-year differences in HR size may represent different foraging strategies for individuals. The main areas of HR and CAU overlap among whales were near highly productive, strong upwelling centers that were crossed by commercial shipping lanes. Tagged whales generally departed U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters from mid-October to mid-November, with high variability among individuals. One 504-d track allowed HR and CAU comparisons for the same individual across two years, showing similar seasonal timing, and strong site fidelity. Our analysis showed how satellite-tagged blue whales seasonally used waters off the U.S. West Coast, including high-risk areas. We suggest possible modifications to existing shipping lanes to reduce the likelihood of collisions with vessels.

  7. The impact of the 2009-10 El Niño Modoki on U.S. West Coast beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Allan, Jonathan; Hansen, Jeff E.; Kaminsky, George M.; Ruggiero, Peter; Doria, André

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution beach morphology data collected along much of the U.S. West Coast are synthesized to evaluate the coastal impacts of the 2009-10 El Nio. Coastal change observations were collected as part of five beach monitoring programs that span between 5 and 13 years in duration. In California, regional wave and water level data show that the environmental forcing during the 2009-10 winter was similar to the last significant El Nio of 1997-98, producing the largest seasonal shoreline retreat and/or most landward shoreline position since monitoring began. In contrast, the 2009-10 El Nio did not produce anomalously high mean winter-wave energy in the Pacific Northwest (Oregon and Washington), although the highest 5% of the winter wave-energy measurements were comparable to 1997-98 and two significant non-El Nio winters. The increase in extreme waves in the 2009-10 winter was coupled with elevated water levels and a more southerly wave approach than the long-term mean, resulting in greater shoreline retreat than during 1997-98, including anomalously high shoreline retreat immediately north of jetties, tidal inlets, and rocky headlands. The morphodynamic response observed throughout the U.S. West Coast during the 2009-10 El Nio is principally linked to the El Nio Modoki phenomena, where the warm sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly is focused in the central equatorial Pacific (as opposed to the eastern Pacific during a classic El Nio), featuring a more temporally persistent SST anomaly that results in longer periods of elevated wave energy but lower coastal water levels. ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Brominated flame retardants and halogenated phenolic compounds in North American west coast bald eaglet (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) plasma.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Melissa A; Cesh, Lillian S; Elliott, John E; Williams, Tony D; Garcelon, David K; Letcher, Robert J

    2006-10-15

    We report on the identity, characterization, and spatial trends of several brominated flame retardants and hydroxylated (OH-) and methoxylated (MeO-) organohalogen contaminants in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nestling plasma collected from sites along the west coast of North America. Samples were from four southwestern British Columbia (BC) locations, a reference site in northern BC (Fort St. James; FSJ), and from Santa Catalina Island, CA (SCI), an area of high DDT and PCB contamination. Mean concentrations of sigma polybrominated diphenyl ether (sigma PBDE (8 congeners monitored); 1.78-8.49 ng/g), sigma OH-polychlorinated biphenyl (sigma OH-PCB (30 congeners monitored); 0.44-0.87 ng/g), and sigma OH-PBDE (14 congeners monitored; 0.31-0.92 ng/g) were similar in eaglets from southwestern BC yet lower than for SCl and significantly higher than for FSJ. Dominant PBDE congeners were BDE47, BDE99, and BDE100, but SCl eaglets also contained low levels of higher brominated congeners. 4-OH-CB187 and 4'-OH-CB202 accounted for 65-100% of sigma OH-PCB in all BC eaglets, with 4'-OH-CB202 as well as 3'-OH-CB138 and 4-OH-CB146 dominating in SCl eaglets. Ostensibly of biogenic origin, 6'-OH-BDE49 and 6-OH-BDE47 were found in BC nestlings. Only 4'-OH-BDE49 (2.10 ng/g) was found in SCl eaglets. MeO-PBDEs and total hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were not found in any birds, but the polybrominated biphenyl BB101 was detected in southwestern BC samples. This study demonstrates that west coast North American bald eagles contain previously unreported organohalogens, which have the potential to impact the health and survival of these raptors.

  9. Spatial and Temporal Occurrence of Blue Whales off the U.S. West Coast, with Implications for Management

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, Ladd M.; Mate, Bruce R.; Winsor, Martha H.; Palacios, Daniel M.; Bograd, Steven J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Bailey, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Mortality and injuries caused by ship strikes in U.S. waters are a cause of concern for the endangered population of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) occupying the eastern North Pacific. We sought to determine which areas along the U.S. West Coast are most important to blue whales and whether those areas change inter-annually. Argos-monitored satellite tags were attached to 171 blue whales off California during summer/early fall from 1993 to 2008. We analyzed portions of the tracks that occurred within U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters and defined the ‘home range’ (HR) and ‘core areas’ (CAU) as the 90% and 50% fixed kernel density distributions, respectively, for each whale. We used the number of overlapping individual HRs and CAUs to identify areas of highest use. Individual HR and CAU sizes varied dramatically, but without significant inter-annual variation despite covering years with El Niño and La Niña conditions. Observed within-year differences in HR size may represent different foraging strategies for individuals. The main areas of HR and CAU overlap among whales were near highly productive, strong upwelling centers that were crossed by commercial shipping lanes. Tagged whales generally departed U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters from mid-October to mid-November, with high variability among individuals. One 504-d track allowed HR and CAU comparisons for the same individual across two years, showing similar seasonal timing, and strong site fidelity. Our analysis showed how satellite-tagged blue whales seasonally used waters off the U.S. West Coast, including high-risk areas. We suggest possible modifications to existing shipping lanes to reduce the likelihood of collisions with vessels. PMID:25054829

  10. The impact of the 2009-10 El Niño Modoki on U.S. West Coast beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Allan, Jonathan; Hansen, Jeff E.; Kaminsky, George M.; Ruggiero, Peter; Doria, André

    2011-07-01

    High-resolution beach morphology data collected along much of the U.S. West Coast are synthesized to evaluate the coastal impacts of the 2009-10 El Niño. Coastal change observations were collected as part of five beach monitoring programs that span between 5 and 13 years in duration. In California, regional wave and water level data show that the environmental forcing during the 2009-10 winter was similar to the last significant El Niño of 1997-98, producing the largest seasonal shoreline retreat and/or most landward shoreline position since monitoring began. In contrast, the 2009-10 El Niño did not produce anomalously high mean winter-wave energy in the Pacific Northwest (Oregon and Washington), although the highest 5% of the winter wave-energy measurements were comparable to 1997-98 and two significant non-El Niño winters. The increase in extreme waves in the 2009-10 winter was coupled with elevated water levels and a more southerly wave approach than the long-term mean, resulting in greater shoreline retreat than during 1997-98, including anomalously high shoreline retreat immediately north of jetties, tidal inlets, and rocky headlands. The morphodynamic response observed throughout the U.S. West Coast during the 2009-10 El Niño is principally linked to the El Niño Modoki phenomena, where the warm sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly is focused in the central equatorial Pacific (as opposed to the eastern Pacific during a classic El Niño), featuring a more temporally persistent SST anomaly that results in longer periods of elevated wave energy but lower coastal water levels.

  11. The impact of the 2009-10 El Niño Modoki on U.S. West Coast beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Allan, Jonathan; Hansen, Jeff E.; Kaminsky, George M.; Ruggiero, Peter; Doria, André

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution beach morphology data collected along much of the U.S. West Coast are synthesized to evaluate the coastal impacts of the 2009–10 El Niño. Coastal change observations were collected as part of five beach monitoring programs that span between 5 and 13 years in duration. In California, regional wave and water level data show that the environmental forcing during the 2009–10 winter was similar to the last significant El Niño of 1997–98, producing the largest seasonal shoreline retreat and/or most landward shoreline position since monitoring began. In contrast, the 2009–10 El Niño did not produce anomalously high mean winter-wave energy in the Pacific Northwest (Oregon and Washington), although the highest 5% of the winter wave-energy measurements were comparable to 1997–98 and two significant non-El Niño winters. The increase in extreme waves in the 2009–10 winter was coupled with elevated water levels and a more southerly wave approach than the long-term mean, resulting in greater shoreline retreat than during 1997–98, including anomalously high shoreline retreat immediately north of jetties, tidal inlets, and rocky headlands. The morphodynamic response observed throughout the U.S. West Coast during the 2009–10 El Niño is principally linked to the El Niño Modoki phenomena, where the warm sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly is focused in the central equatorial Pacific (as opposed to the eastern Pacific during a classic El Niño), featuring a more temporally persistent SST anomaly that results in longer periods of elevated wave energy but lower coastal water levels.

  12. Mitigation of Disasters Due to Severe Climate Events: from Policy to Practice,the West African Coastal Region Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ediang, Okuku

    2016-07-01

    The distributive pattern of disaster due to severe climate events over the coast of West Africa especially Nigeria was examined using yearly mean disaster due to severe climatic events for the period of 30 years (1981-2010) from the marine stations in the coastal region of Nigeria. Graphical and isohyetal analyses were used to look into the patter of severe weather events over the area considered and to see if the severe weather events is increasing or not in the coast of West Africa especially the Nigerian coast and how to mitigate ,were policy relating to severe weather events are discussed. The paper conclude that due to the nature of coast of West Africa and Nigeria in particular, it enjoys longer severe weather events season than dry during the wet season, it is common to observe periods of enhanced or suppressed convective activity to persist over the wide areas for somedays. This paper also contributes to the wealth of knowledge already existing on Indigenous people play major roles in preserving the ecosystem especially during severe weather events . This has resulted in the recent calls for the integration of indigenous knowledge systems into global knowledge system strategies. Until now, integrating local knowledge systems into severe weather events and climate change concerns is not a completely new idea. A comprehensive review of literature using electronic and non-electronic databases formed the methodology. The paper conclude also by drawing the attention that by targeting Promoting indigenous people's participation in severe weather events and climate change issues is an important initiative towards adaptation and sustainable development in Africa and around the world. It is increasingly realized that the global knowledge system has dominated research, policies and programmes that address current severe weather events and climate change's challenges,mitigation and adaptation strategies.

  13. Environmental Relationship of Benthic Fauna in the Near Shore Waters off Gulf of Kutch, North West Coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanagoudra, S. N.; Bhat, U. G.

    2014-12-01

    The present study was undertaken for a period of two years from December 2010 to May 2012.Studying the benthos of Gulf of Kutch near shore waters is also useful in understanding changes in biological diversity of Gujarat coast. The use of benthos in aquatic ecological research is especially effective in assessing long term changes and detecting input from diffuse sources. The benthos reflects the effects organic enrichment by responding through detectable changes in population dynamics on a time scale of months to years. This is in contrast to plankton which shows a more immediate change to point sources with no long term consequences to the populations (Gray et al 1992). Benthoses were collected from 6 stations on regular basis and were identified. Altogether 60 species belonging to 39 families were identified and placed taxonomically during the course of investigation with sediment samples. Benthic environmental relationship species were observed and recorded. Our studies of monthly comparisons have become an interesting and popular approach in ecology and environmental relationships in the past a number of studies have been conducted on the ecology of macro benthic populations of Gulf of Kutch near shore. My research helps in Gulf of Kutch of the west coast of India has become an important economic asset of the country serving commercial navigation and the fishing sector with environmental relation of benthos in the Gulf of Kutch Gujarat. India.

  14. Distribution of Benthesicymus tanneri Faxon, 1893 (Dendrobranchiata, Benthesicymidae) off the west coast of Mexico and notes on its morphology

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickx, Michel E.; Papiol, Vanesa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A large series of specimens of Benthesicymus tanneri Faxon, 1893 (Dendrobranchiata; Benthesicymidae) was collected during an extensive survey of deep-water invertebrate fauna off western Mexico. In total, 61 males and 122 females (M:F ratio = 1:2) from 44 sampling stations were examined, considerably increasing the number of known specimens and sampling localities for this species which is widely distributed along the Pacific coast of Mexico. The collection is the largest available for this species to date and presents first records from off the west coast of the Baja California Peninsula and a slight increase of the northernmost record within the Gulf of California. On the whole, females grew larger than males. The petasma of males of different sizes and the female thelycum of Benthesicymus tanneri are illustrated. The petasma of Benthesicymus tanneri presents a ventrolateral crescent-shape process otherwide found only in Benthesicymus tirmiziae Crosnier, 1978 and in Benthesicymus bartletti S.I. Smith, 1882. A key to the four species of Benthesicymus presently known from the eastern Pacific is presented. PMID:25632254

  15. PROCEEDINGS OF THE WEST COAST REGIONAL CONFERENCE ON RESEARCH RELATED TO BLIND AND SEVERELY VISUALLY IMPAIRED CHILDREN (SAN FRANCISCO, MARCH 8-10, 1965).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CLARK, LESLIE L.; AND OTHERS

    THESE PROCEEDINGS WERE PREPARED FROM THE WEST COAST REGIONAL CONFERENCE ON RESEARCH RELATED TO BLIND AND SEVERELY VISUALLY IMPAIRED CHILDREN HELD MARCH 8-10, 1965. SURVEY RESULTS WERE PRESENTED WHICH INDICATED THE NUMBER OF BLIND, SEVERELY VISUALLY IMPAIRED, AND MULTIPLY HANDICAPPED CHILDREN IN CALIFORNIA AND THE INCIDENCE OF BLINDNESS IN CHILDREN…

  16. Persistent marine debris in the North Sea, Northwest Atlantic Ocean, Wider Caribbean Area, and the West Coast of Baja California. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Heneman, B.

    1988-07-01

    Information on persistent marine debris (including plastics, glass, metal, and tar) in four study areas (North Sea, northwest Atlantic Ocean, Wider Caribbean Area, and the west coast of Baja California) was obtained through literature searches, a mailed survey, correspondence, interviews, and personal observations. All of the study areas except Baja California were found to have severe marine debris problems.

  17. Foraging ecology of an endemic shorebird, the African Black Oystercatcher ( Haematopus moquini) on the south-east coast of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Sophie; Bonnevie, Bo; McQuaid, Christopher; Jaquemet, Sébastien

    2009-09-01

    We investigated small-medium (1-300 km) scale variation in the foraging ecology of the African Black Oystercatcher during its breeding season, using traditional diet analysis coupled with carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis. Fieldwork was conducted between January and March 2006 and 2007, on rocky shores on the south-east coast of South Africa at East London, Kenton and Port Elizabeth. Middens of shelled prey left by adults feeding their chicks were collected from five territories and the abundances of the collected prey on the foraging areas were estimated using quadrats. Blood samples from 45 birds (16 females, 10 males and 19 chicks) and tissues from the predominant prey species on the territory of each breeding pair were collected for isotope analysis. The Manly-Chesson selectivity index revealed that adults feed their chicks preferentially with the limpet Scutellastra cochlear and the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, if available. A slight enrichment in the 15N stable-carbon isotope signature was observed towards the west in both prey and oystercatchers. Differences in isotope signatures between males and females from the same breeding pair indicate sex-related differences in the diet. Both had signatures indicating a mixed diet, but with males exhibiting a signature closer to that of limpets and females closer to that of mussels. In the single case where mussels were rare on the feeding territory, the two members of a pair showed carbon signatures which were identical and very similar to that of limpets. These results indicate dietary partitioning between genders in breeding pairs.

  18. Characteristics and phylogeny of Bacillus cereus strains isolated from Maari, a traditional West African food condiment.

    PubMed

    Thorsen, Line; Kando, Christine Kere; Sawadogo, Hagrétou; Larsen, Nadja; Diawara, Bréhima; Ouédraogo, Georges Anicet; Hendriksen, Niels Bohse; Jespersen, Lene

    2015-03-02

    Maari is a spontaneously fermented food condiment made from baobab tree seeds in West African countries. This type of product is considered to be safe, being consumed by millions of people on a daily basis. However, due to the spontaneous nature of the fermentation the human pathogen Bacillus cereus occasionally occurs in Maari. This study characterizes succession patterns and pathogenic potential of B. cereus isolated from the raw materials (ash, water from a drilled well (DW) and potash), seed mash throughout fermentation (0-96h), after steam cooking and sun drying (final product) from two production sites of Maari. Aerobic mesophilic bacterial (AMB) counts in raw materials were of 10(5)cfu/ml in DW, and ranged between 6.5×10(3) and 1.2×10(4)cfu/g in potash, 10(9)-10(10)cfu/g in seed mash during fermentation and 10(7) - 10(9) after sun drying. Fifty three out of total 290 AMB isolates were identified as B. cereus sensu lato by use of ITS-PCR and grouped into 3 groups using PCR fingerprinting based on Escherichia coli phage-M13 primer (M13-PCR). As determined by panC gene sequencing, the isolates of B. cereus belonged to PanC types III and IV with potential for high cytotoxicity. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated sequences of glpF, gmk, ilvD, pta, pur, pycA and tpi revealed that the M13-PCR group 1 isolates were related to B. cereus biovar anthracis CI, while the M13-PCR group 2 isolates were identical to cereulide (emetic toxin) producing B. cereus strains. The M13-PCR group 1 isolates harboured poly-γ-D-glutamic acid capsule biosynthesis genes capA, capB and capC showing 99-100% identity with the environmental B. cereus isolate 03BB108. Presence of cesB of the cereulide synthetase gene cluster was confirmed by PCR in M13-PCR group 2 isolates. The B. cereus harbouring the cap genes were found in potash, DW, cooking water and at 8h fermentation. The "emetic" type B. cereus were present in DW, the seed mash at 48-72h of fermentation and in the final product

  19. Replacement effects of Panicum maximum with Ficus polita on performance of West African dwarf goats.

    PubMed

    Abegunde, T O; Akinsoyinu, A O

    2011-04-01

    The replacement value of Ficus polita for Panicum maximum was evaluated on 32 female post-weaned West African dwarfs goats. Ficus polita was fed with P. maximum at different proportions of 0:90 (F. polita:P. maximum), 30:60, 60:30 and 90:0 constituting diets 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. Each diet was supplemented with 10% cassava peels. Dry matter intake per kg metabolic weight of goats was not significantly (p> 0.05) influenced by the dietary treatments. However, crude protein intake per kg metabolic weight was higher (p < 0.05) in animals fed 60% and 90%F. polita than those fed sole P. maximum diet. Daily weight gain of goats fed diet 3 (60%F. polita) was higher (p < 0.05) (27.3 g) than those fed diets 4 (18.9 g), 2 (20.8 g) and the control (6.6 g). Dry matter (DM), organic matter, crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fibre digestibilities were higher (p < 0.05) in goats fed 60%F. polita than those fed other diets, except for DM digestibility which was statistically similar to diets 2 and 4 but higher than those fed diet 1 without F. polita. Organic matter and CP digestibility were highest (72.0 and 65.7% respectively) in animals fed 60%F. polita. Nitrogen retention of goats fed 60%F. polita (diet 3) was higher (p < 0.05) than that obtained with other diets. The results suggest that feeding combination of F. polita and P. maximum at ratio 60:30 respectively has associative effects that can enhance growth rate, feed intake, nutrients digestibility and nitrogen utilization for goat production during dry season in the tropics.

  20. A 1700-year history of West African multidecadal sea surface temperature and rainfall variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhnert, Henning; Stefan, Mulitza; Gesine, Mollenhauer

    2010-05-01

    Tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SST) exert a major influence on the latitudinal position and intensity of the West African Monsoon and the tropical rainbelt. The impact of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) in particular has previously been demonstrated, but little information is available beyond the instrumental time period. We have reconstructed summer-fall SST and relative changes in the discharge of the Senegal River from a sediment core off southern Mauritania. Time series of SST and seawater-d18O (a measure of salinity and hence discharge) were estimated from planktonic foraminiferal Mg/Ca and d18O. The records are sufficiently resolved to infer multidecadal variability over the past 1700 years and centennial variability over the past 3300 years. River discharge increases slightly over the entire time series. This can be brought into agreement with the general Sahel drying trend indicated by previous studies, when we assume a southward migration of the rainbelt that leads to locally enhanced rainfall over the southernmost Senegal River catchment area in Guinea. SST cooled by 1-1.5 °C between AD 1250 and 1500, more pronounced and somewhat earlier compared with the North Atlantic mean. Spectral analysis reveals several multidecadal periods (38, ~45 and ~62 years) where SST and Senegal River discharge are tightly coupled and are driven by the AMO. The exception is a 30-year periodicity in discharge that has no counterpart in SST, and is potentially linked to meridional tropical SST gradient anomalies. AMO signatures are present throughout the past 1700 years, but vary in amplitude. The most recent and persistent phase of enhanced AMO variability commences around AD 1250 contemporaneous with the transition from the Medieval Climate Anomaly to the Little Ice Age.

  1. Studies on the development of omasum in West African dwarf goats (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Nwaogu, Chima Innocent; Ezeasor, Nwagbo Daniel

    2008-10-01

    This work studied the sequential morphological changes of omasum in foetuses, neonates and adult West African Dwarf (WAD) goats by gross and light microscopic methods. The mean omasal volume was 1.37 +/- 0.36, 4.2 +/- 0.4, 8.7 +/- 6.9 and 60.1 +/- 8.6 ml for gestation day 87 and 146 foetuses, neonates and adults respectively. Grossly the mucosa exhibited longitudinally oriented primary, secondary, tertiary and quartnery laminae with smooth surface in foetuses and numerous papillae in the adults. Microscopically it was lined by stratified squamous epithelium which was divided into larger lighter luminal and smaller darker basal zones in gestation day 60 foetuses. The core of the laminae contained extension of the inner muscular tunic. The basal zone developed lateral evaginations (corial papillae) into the lighter zone of the laminae in gestation day 106 foetuses. By term these corial papillae approached the luminal surface. The papillae emerged above the luminal surface in 4 week old neonates. The papillae were fully developed in adult goats. The mean papillary height and width were -205.1 +/- 34.0, 67.0 +/- 9.6; 235.0 +/- 86.5, 185.0 +/- 42.3 and 570.3 +/- 60.0, 290.1 +/- 66.3 microm for foetuses, neonates and adult goats. The inner circular layer was thicker than the outer longitudinal layer of the muscular tunic. The central muscular layer of the laminae originated from the inner circular layer with attachment to the outer muscular layer in adults. This attachment could be adaptation for better anchorage and muscular contraction of the laminae in WAD goats.

  2. Effects of the environment on fish juvenile growth in West African stressful estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diouf, K.; Guilhaumon, F.; Aliaume, C.; Ndiaye, P.; Chi, T. Do; Panfili, J.

    2009-06-01

    The knowledge of juvenile fish growth in extreme environmental conditions is a key to the understanding of adaptive responses and to the relevant management of natural populations. The juvenile growth of an extreme euryhaline tilapia species, Sarotherodon melanotheron (Cichlidae), was examined across a salinity gradient (20-118) in several West African estuarine ecosystems. Juveniles were collected during the reproduction period of two consecutive years (2003 and 2004) in six locations in the Saloum (Senegal) and Gambia estuaries. Age and growth were estimated using daily otolith microincrements. For each individual, otolith growth rates showed three different stages (slow, fast, decreasing): around 4 ± 0.5 μm d -1 during the first five days, 9 ± 0.5 μm d -1 during the next 15 days and 4 ± 0.50 μm d -1 at 60 days. Growth modelling and model comparisons were objectively made within an information theory framework using the multi-model inference from five growth models (linear, power, Gompertz, von Bertalanffy, and logistic). The combination of both the model adjustment inspection and the information theory model selection procedure allowed identification of the final set of models, including the less parameterised ones. The estimated growth rates were variable across spatial scales but not across temporal scales (except for one location), following exactly the salinity gradient with growth decrease towards the hypersaline conditions. The salinity gradient was closely related to all measured variables (condition factor, mean age, multi-model absolute growth rate) demonstrating the strong effect of hypersaline environmental conditions—induced by climate changes—on fish populations at an early stage.

  3. Biodiversity Mapping in a Tropical West African Forest with Airborne Hyperspectral Data

    PubMed Central

    Vaglio Laurin, Gaia; Chan, Jonathan Cheung-Wai; Chen, Qi; Lindsell, Jeremy A.; Coomes, David A.; Guerriero, Leila; Frate, Fabio Del; Miglietta, Franco; Valentini, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    Tropical forests are major repositories of biodiversity, but are fast disappearing as land is converted to agriculture. Decision-makers need to know which of the remaining forests to prioritize for conservation, but the only spatial information on forest biodiversity has, until recently, come from a sparse network of ground-based plots. Here we explore whether airborne hyperspectral imagery can be used to predict the alpha diversity of upper canopy trees in a West African forest. The abundance of tree species were collected from 64 plots (each 1250 m2 in size) within a Sierra Leonean national park, and Shannon-Wiener biodiversity indices were calculated. An airborne spectrometer measured reflectances of 186 bands in the visible and near-infrared spectral range at 1 m2 resolution. The standard deviations of these reflectance values and their first-order derivatives were calculated for each plot from the c. 1250 pixels of hyperspectral information within them. Shannon-Wiener indices were then predicted from these plot-based reflectance statistics using a machine-learning algorithm (Random Forest). The regression model fitted the data well (pseudo-R2 = 84.9%), and we show that standard deviations of green-band reflectances and infra-red region derivatives had the strongest explanatory powers. Our work shows that airborne hyperspectral sensing can be very effective at mapping canopy tree diversity, because its high spatial resolution allows within-plot heterogeneity in reflectance to be characterized, making it an effective tool for monitoring forest biodiversity over large geographic scales. PMID:24937407

  4. Fire Patterns and Drivers of Fires in the West African Tropical Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwomoh, F. K.; Wimberly, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    The West African tropical forest (referred to as the Upper Guinean forest, UGF), is a global biodiversity hotspot providing vital ecosystem services for the region's socio-economic and environmental wellbeing. It is also one of the most fragmented and human-modified tropical forest ecosystems, with the only remaining large patches of original forests contained in protected areas. However, these remnant forests are susceptible to continued fire-mediated degradation and forest loss due to intense climatic, demographic and land use pressures. We analyzed human and climatic drivers of fire activity in the sub-region to better understand the spatial and temporal patterns of these risks. We utilized MODIS active fire and burned area products to identify fire activity within the sub-region. We measured climatic variability using TRMM rainfall data and derived indicators of human land use from a variety of geospatial datasets. We used a boosted regression trees model to determine the influences of predictor variables on fire activity. Our analyses indicated that the spatial and temporal variability of precipitation is a key driving factor of fire activity in the UGF. Anthropogenic effects on fire activity in the area were evident through the influences of agriculture and low-density populations. These human footprints in the landscape make forests more susceptible to fires through forest fragmentation, degradation, and fire spread from agricultural areas. Forested protected areas within the forest savanna mosaic experienced frequent fires, whereas the more humid forest areas located in the south and south-western portions of the study area had fewer fires as these rainforests tend to offer some buffering against fire encroachment. These results improve characterization of UGF fire regime and expand our understanding of the spatio-temporal dynamics of tropical forest fires in response to human and climatic pressures.

  5. Vigour in West African Dwarf kids within the first 24 h post-partum.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Rahman, I I; Bernard, A

    2017-03-01

    One hundred and fifty West African Dwarf (WAD) kids were tested at the National Goats Breeding Station to determine the effects of some neonatal factors on their vigour levels within the first 24 h post-partum. The kids were also tested to establish the relationship between maternal weight, rectal temperature, times of first standing and sucking, sucking period and vigour. The distance covered (in meters) by a kid towards its mother during a 5-min test period was considered as vigour trait. Vigour levels increased significantly (p < 0.05) with increasing age within the first 24 h post-partum. Kids born to second parity mothers had higher (p < 0.05) vigour than those born to first parity mothers. Similarly, high birth weight kids had higher (p < 0.05) vigour levels than low birth weight kids. Weak positive and negative correlations (p < 0.05), respectively, were found between vigour and rectal temperature, and vigour and the time of first successfully standing. However, there was moderate positive correlation (p < 0.01) between vigour and sucking period. The time it took for the newborn kid to stand up for the first time also correlated weakly and negatively (p < 0.01) with the duration of sucking by the newborn within the first 5 min of accessing the teat. Vigour within the first 24 h post-partum in WAD kids increased with increasing age, parity and birth weight and might be responsible for the earlier and longer sucking time and periods, respectively, in high birth weight kids and those dropped by multiparous does.

  6. Biodiversity mapping in a tropical West African forest with airborne hyperspectral data.

    PubMed

    Vaglio Laurin, Gaia; Cheung-Wai Chan, Jonathan; Chen, Qi; Lindsell, Jeremy A; Coomes, David A; Guerriero, Leila; Del Frate, Fabio; Miglietta, Franco; Valentini, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    Tropical forests are major repositories of biodiversity, but are fast disappearing as land is converted to agriculture. Decision-makers need to know which of the remaining forests to prioritize for conservation, but the only spatial information on forest biodiversity has, until recently, come from a sparse network of ground-based plots. Here we explore whether airborne hyperspectral imagery can be used to predict the alpha diversity of upper canopy trees in a West African forest. The abundance of tree species were collected from 64 plots (each 1250 m(2) in size) within a Sierra Leonean national park, and Shannon-Wiener biodiversity indices were calculated. An airborne spectrometer measured reflectances of 186 bands in the visible and near-infrared spectral range at 1 m(2) resolution. The standard deviations of these reflectance values and their first-order derivatives were calculated for each plot from the c. 1250 pixels of hyperspectral information within them. Shannon-Wiener indices were then predicted from these plot-based reflectance statistics using a machine-learning algorithm (Random Forest). The regression model fitted the data well (pseudo-R(2) = 84.9%), and we show that standard deviations of green-band reflectances and infra-red region derivatives had the strongest explanatory powers. Our work shows that airborne hyperspectral sensing can be very effective at mapping canopy tree diversity, because its high spatial resolution allows within-plot heterogeneity in reflectance to be characterized, making it an effective tool for monitoring forest biodiversity over large geographic scales.

  7. Parasite Polymorphism and Severe Malaria in Dakar (Senegal): A West African Urban Area

    PubMed Central

    Bob, Ndeye Sakha; Diop, Bernard Marcel; Renaud, Francois; Marrama, Laurence; Durand, Patrick; Tall, Adama; Ka, Boubacar; Ekala, Marie Therese; Bouchier, Christiane; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Jambou, Ronan

    2010-01-01

    Background Transmission of malaria in West African urban areas is low and healthcare facilities are well organized. However, malaria mortality remains high. We conducted a survey in Dakar with the general objective to establish who died from severe malaria (SM) in urban areas (particularly looking at the age-groups) and to compare parasite isolates associated with mild or severe malaria. Methodology/Principal Findings The current study included mild- (MM) and severe malaria (SM) cases, treated in dispensaries (n = 2977) and hospitals (n = 104), We analysed Pfdhfr/Pfcrt-exon2 and nine microsatellite loci in 102 matched cases of SM and MM. Half of the malaria cases recorded at the dispensaries and 87% of SM cases referred to hospitals, occurred in adults, although adults only accounted for 26% of all dispensary consultations. This suggests that, in urban settings, whatever the reason for this adult over-representation, health-workers are forced to take care of increasing numbers of malaria cases among adults. Inappropriate self treatment and mutations in genes associated with drug resistance were found associated with SM in adults. SM was also associated with a specific pool of isolates highly polymorphic and different from those associated with MM. Conclusion In this urban setting, adults currently represent one of the major groups of patients attending dispensaries for malaria treatment. For these patients, despite the low level of transmission, SM was associated with a specific and highly polymorphic pool of parasites which may have been selected by inappropriate treatment. PMID:20352101

  8. Biochemical Effects of Xylazine, Propofol, and Ketamine in West African Dwarf Goats.

    PubMed

    Celestine Okwudili, Ukwueze; Athanasius Chinedu, Eze; Jonas Anayo, Ona

    2014-01-01

    Anaesthesia was induced in West African Dwarf (WAD) goats using different combinations of propofol (P), xylazine (X), and ketamine (K), and the biochemical effect of the drugs determined. Twenty male (WAD) goats were randomly assigned to five treatment groups viz. Control (C) (2.5 mL IV normal saline); group K + X (5 mg/kg IV ketamine + 0.05 mg/kg IV xylazine), group P + X (5 mg/kg IV propofol + 0.05 mg/kg IV xylazine), group P + K (propofol 5 mg/kg IV + ketamine 5 mg/kg IV), and group P + K + X (propofol 2.5 mg/kg IV + ketamine 2.5 mg/kg IV + xylazine 0.05 mg/kg IV), respectively. There was increase (P < 0.05) in blood glucose in K + X, P + X and P + K + X. The serum cortisol level increased (P < 0.05) in all groups except in P + X. ALT value increased (P < 0.05) in K + X, P + K, and P + K + X. BUN increased (P < 0.05) in K + X but decreased (P < 0.05) in P + K + X. There was no significant variation (P > 0.05) in serum creatinine. These biochemical changes were transient. P + K + X would be the best drug combinations considering the biochemical parameter measured. However, data on blood glucose, ALT, BUN, and cortisol levels in an anaesthsized goat should be interpreted with caution in order to avoid erroneous interpretation in these animals.

  9. Phylogeography of the Afromontane Prunus africana reveals a former migration corridor between East and West African highlands.

    PubMed

    Kadu, C A C; Schueler, S; Konrad, H; Muluvi, G M M; Eyog-Matig, O; Muchugi, A; Williams, V L; Ramamonjisoa, L; Kapinga, C; Foahom, B; Katsvanga, C; Hafashimana, D; Obama, C; Geburek, T

    2011-01-01

    Scattered populations of the same tree species in montane forests through Africa have led to speculations on the origins of distributions. Here, we inferred the colonization history of the Afromontane tree Prunus africana using seven chloroplast DNA loci to study 582 individuals from 32 populations sampled in a range-wide survey from across Africa, revealing 22 haplotypes. The predominant haplotype, HT1a, occurred in 13 populations of eastern and southern Africa, while a second common haplotype, HT1m, occurred in populations of western Uganda and western Africa. The high differentiation observed between populations in East Africa was unexpected, with stands in western Uganda belonging with the western African lineage. High genetic differentiation among populations revealed using ordered alleles (N(ST) = 0.840) compared with unordered alleles (G(ST) = 0.735), indicated a clear phylogeographic pattern. Bayesian coalescence modelling suggested that 'east' and 'west' African types likely split early during southward migration of the species, while further more recent splitting events occurred among populations in the East of the continent. The high genetic similarity found between western Uganda and west African populations indicates that a former Afromontane migration corridor may have existed through Equatorial Africa.

  10. WASCAL - West African Science Service Center on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use Regional Climate Simulations and Land-Atmosphere Simulations for West Africa at DKRZ and elsewhere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, Ilse; Arnault, Joel; Bliefernicht, Jan; Klein, Cornelia; Heinzeller, Dominikus; Kunstmann, Harald

    2014-05-01

    Changing climate and hydro-meteorological boundary conditions are among the most severe challenges to Africa in the 21st century. In particular West Africa faces an urgent need to develop effective adaptation and mitigation strategies to cope with negative impacts on humans and environment due to climate change, increased hydro-meteorological variability and land use changes. To help meet these challenges, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) started an initiative with institutions in Germany and West African countries to establish together a West African Science Service Center on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use (WASCAL). This activity is accompanied by an establishment of trans-boundary observation networks, an interdisciplinary core research program and graduate research programs on climate change and related issues for strengthening the analytical capabilities of the Science Service Center. A key research activity of the WASCAL Competence Center is the provision of regional climate simulations in a fine spatio-temporal resolution for the core research sites of WASCAL for the present and the near future. The climate information is needed for subsequent local climate impact studies in agriculture, water resources and further socio-economic sectors. The simulation experiments are performed using regional climate models such as COSMO-CLM, RegCM and WRF and statistical techniques for a further refinement of the projections. The core research sites of WASCAL are located in the Sudanian Savannah belt in Northern Ghana, Southern Burkina Faso and Northern Benin. The climate in this region is semi-arid with six rainy months. Due to the strong population growth in West Africa, many areas of the Sudanian Savannah have been already converted to farmland since the majority of the people are living directly or indirectly from the income produced in agriculture. The simulation experiments of the Competence Center and the Core Research Program are

  11. Game Times and Higher Winning Percentages of West Coast Teams of the National Football League Correspond With Reduced Prevalence of Regular Season Injury.

    PubMed

    Brager, Allison J; Mistovich, Ronald J

    2017-02-01

    Brager, AJ and Mistovich, RJ. Game times and higher winning percentages of west coast teams of the National Football League correspond with reduced prevalence of regular season injury. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 462-467, 2017-West coast teams of the National Football League are more statistically likely to win home night games against east coast opponents. The alignment of game times with daily rhythms of alertness is thought to contribute to this advantage. This study aims to determine whether rates of turnovers and injuries during the regular season, putative measures of mental and physical fatigue, impact winning percentages. Regular season schedules and rates of turnovers for each of the 32 teams were obtained from Pro-Football-Reference. We developed our own metric of injury risk for each position obtained from depth charts and regular season schedules. This metric compared cumulative weeks on injury reserve with cumulative time zone travel. West coast teams traveled 4 times as often as east coast teams. However, teams traveling eastward won twice as many games. There was no relationship between the extent and direction of travel and number of turnovers. Losing teams had more turnovers. The offensive and defensive lines in Central Time (CT) were placed on injury reserve 4 times as often as offensive and defensive lines in Pacific Time (PT). Injury prevalence in CT vs. PT was most prominent midseason. Plotting midseason game time relative to biological time revealed that PT teams play games closer to endogenous peaks in alertness, whereas CT teams play games closer to endogenous troughs in alertness. Overall, closer alignment of game time with the endogenous "alerting" signal may protect west coast teams from fatigue-related injuries and suggests for modified strength and conditioning programs.

  12. Translating West African Strategy with Airpower Means: A Qualitative Comparison of Tactical Airlift Shaping Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 10-06-2016 2. REPORT TYPE Master’s Thesis 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) AUG 2015 – JUNE 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE...West Africa?” Answering this question requires an understanding of American policy for West Africa, presenting existing shaping operations doctrine...West Africa?” Answering this question requires an understanding of American policy for West Africa, presenting existing shaping operations doctrine

  13. Assessment of contamination, distribution and chemical speciation of trace metals in water column in the Dakar coast and the Saint Louis estuary from Senegal, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Diop, Cheikh; Dewaelé, Dorothée; Diop, Mamadou; Touré, Aminata; Cabral, Mathilde; Cazier, Fabrice; Fall, Mamadou; Diouf, Amadou; Ouddane, Baghdad

    2014-09-15

    The water column from Dakar coast and Saint Louis estuary in Senegal, West Africa, was sampled in order to measure the contamination level by trace metals. The speciation of metals in water allowed performing a distribution between dissolved and particulate trace metals. For the dissolved metals, the metallic concentration and repartition between the organic fraction and the inorganic fraction were performed. The results show that the pollution of the estuary was more serious than in Dakar coast for Co, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn; while, Cd and Cu were higher in Dakar coast. A strong affinity between metals and suspended particles has been revealed. Dissolved metals that have a tendency to form organic metal complexes are in decreasing order: Cd, Zn, Pb, Co=Cr=Mn, Cu and Ni. The results showed that the mobility of trace metals in estuary is controlled by dissolved organic carbon, while in coast it depends on chlorides.

  14. Forecasting cyclic coastal erosion on a multi-annual to multi-decadal scale: Southeast African coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. M.; Guastella, L. A.; Botes, Z. A.; Bundy, S. C.; Mather, A. A.

    2014-10-01

    Coastal erosion on the southeast African coastline shows an apparent 18 year cycle which last peaked in 2006. It is in phase with the longshore sediment transport cycle. Both these cycles appear to be in phase with the Lunar Nodal Cycle (LNC). However, the dominant tidal erosion driver on this coast appears to be the 4.4 year Lunar Perigean Subharmonic (LPS). We suggest that the apparent 18 year coastal erosion and longshore sediment budget cycle is a response to the 18 year Mean Annual Precipitation Cycle. This cycle is 180° out of phase with the apparent coastal erosion- and longshore sediment transport- cycles. The summer rainfall areas, of southeastern Africa show an 18 year MAP cyclicity, which drives river runoff and hence controls sediment input to the coast and nearshore environment. The MAP cycle dominates the coastal sediment budget during the LNC trough and suppresses the LPS coastal erosion cycle during this time. This explains why LPS coastal erosion occurs close to the LNC peak. Thus although the LPS cycle dominates the coastline, it is masked during the wet portion of the 18 year MAP cycle. It seems very likely that the LNC drives the MAP cycle in some way but this process is not known. Nevertheless, these relationships can be used to predict, in a general way, both cyclic coastal erosion and the longshore sediment volume fluctuation. This can be translated into a vital coastal planning tool which has the potential to forecast cyclic coastal erosion and hence significantly reduce the sea-defense expenditure bill. Based on this, severe cyclic coastal erosion is anticipated in 2023 and 2024.

  15. Haemonchotolerance in West African Dwarf goats: contribution to sustainable, anthelmintics-free helminth control in traditionally managed Nigerian dwarf goats

    PubMed Central

    Chiejina, Samuel N.; Behnke, Jerzy M.; Fakae, Barineme B.

    2015-01-01

    West African Dwarf (WAD) goats are extremely important in the rural village economy of West Africa, but still little is known about their biology, ecology and capacity to cope with gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections. Here, we summarise the history of this breed and explain its economic importance in rural West Africa. We review recent work showing that Nigerian WAD goats are highly trypanotolerant and resist infections with Haemonchus contortus more effectively than other breeds of domestic goat (haemonchotolerance). We believe that haemonchotolerance is largely responsible for the generally low level GIN infections and absence of clinical haemonchosis in WADs under field conditions, and has contributed to the relatively successful and sustainable, anthelmintics-free, small-scale system of goat husbandry in Nigeria’s humid zone, and is immunologically based and genetically controlled. If haemonchotolerance can be shown to be genetically controlled, it should be possible to exploit the underlying genes to improve GIN resistance among productive fibre and milk producing breeds of goats, most of which are highly susceptible to nematode infections. Genetic resistance to GIN and trypanosome infections would obviate the need for expensive chemotherapy, mostly unaffordable to small-holder farmers in Africa, and a significant cost of goat husbandry in more developed countries. Either introgression of resistance alleles into susceptible breeds by conventional breeding, or transgenesis could be used to develop novel parasite-resistant, but highly productive breeds, or to improve the resistance of existing breeds, benefitting the local West African rural economy as well as global caprine livestock agriculture. PMID:25744655

  16. Stratospheric variability of wave activity and parameters in equatorial coastal and tropical sites during the West African monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafando, P.; Chane-Ming, F.; Petitdidier, M.

    2016-12-01

    Recent numerical studies in stratospheric dynamics and its variability as well as climate, have highlighted the need of more observational analyses to improve simulation of the West African monsoon (WAM). In this paper, activity and spectral characteristics of short-scale vertical waves (wavelengths <4 km) are analysed in equatorial coastal and tropical lower stratosphere during the WAM. A first detailed description of such waves over West Africa is derived from high-resolution vertical profiles of temperature and horizontal wind obtained during Intensive Observation Period of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (AMMA) Campaign 2006. Monthly variation of wave energy density is revealed to trace the progression of the inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) over West Africa. Mesoscale inertia gravity-waves structures with vertical and horizontal wavelengths of 1.5-2.5 and 400-1100 km respectively and intrinsic frequencies of 1.1-2.2 f or periods <2 days are observed in the tropical LS with intense activity during July and August when the WAM is installed over the tropical West Africa. Over equatorial region, gravity waves with intrinsic frequencies of 1.4-4 f or periods <5.2 days, vertical wavelength of 2.1 km and long horizontal wavelengths of 1300 km are intense during the WAM coastal phase. From July to October, gravity waves with intrinsic frequencies of 1.2-3.8 f or periods <6 days, vertical wavelength of 2.1 km and horizontal wavelengths of 1650 km are less intense during the WAM Sahelian phase of the WAM, March-June. Unlike potential energy density, kinetic energy density is observed to be a good proxy for the activity of short-scale vertical waves during the WAM because quasi-inertial waves are dominant. Long-term wave activity variation from January 2001 to December 2009, highlights strong year-to-year variation superimposed on convective activity and quasi-biennial oscillation-like variations especially above tropical stations.

  17. Identification, tissue distribution and functional characterization of the ghrelin receptor in West African lungfish, Protopterus annectens.

    PubMed

    Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Konno, Norifumi; Kangawa, Kenji; Uchiyama, Minoru; Miyazato, Mikiya

    2014-12-01

    We identified two ghrelin receptor isoforms, the ghrelin receptor type-1a (GHS-R1a) and its alternative splice form (GHS-R1b) for West African lungfish, Protopterus annectens. Lungfish GHS-R1a and 1b comprised 361 and 281 amino acids, respectively. Lungfish GHS-R1a showed the highest identity to coelacanth GHS-R1a (80.4%). The highest expression of GHS-R1a mRNAs was seen in the brain, liver, ovary, heart, intestine, and gills. GHS-R1b mRNAs were also detected in the same tissues with GHS-R1a, but their expression level was 1/20 that of GHS-R1a. In human embryonic kidney 293 cells transiently expressing lungfish GHS-R1a, rat and bullfrog ghrelin, and two GHS-R1a agonists, GHRP-6 and hexarelin, increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations. The intensity of the Ca(2+) increases induced by GHS-R1a agonists was twice when compared to that induced by ghrelin, although the median effective doses (ED50) were similar, suggesting a long-lasting effect of GHS-R1a agonists with similar affinity. We also examined changes in the GHS-R gene expression during an eight-week estivation. Body weight was slightly lowered, but plasma sodium and glucose concentrations decreased; plasma urea concentration increased significantly 4weeks after the start of estivation. Overall, expression of GHS-R1a mRNA decreased, but changes in GHS-R1b mRNA expression were inconsistent with those of GHS-R1a during estivation, suggesting an involvement of GHS-R in energy homeostasis, as seen in mammals. Our results suggest that the ghrelin-GHS-R1a system is present in this lungfish although ghrelin has not yet been found. The structure of GHS-R1a is closer to that of tetrapods than Actinopterygian fish, indicating a process of evolution that follows the Crossopterygii such as coelacanth.

  18. Seasonal forecast quality of the West African monsoon rainfall regimes by multiple forecast systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Luis Ricardo Lage; García-Serrano, Javier; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco

    2014-07-01

    A targeted methodology to study the West African monsoon (WAM) rainfall variability is considered where monthly rainfall is averaged over 10°W-10°E to take into account the latitudinal migration and temporal distribution of the WAM summer rainfall. Two observational rainfall data sets and a large number of quasi-operational forecast systems, among them two systems from the European Seasonal to Interannual Prediction initiative and six systems from the North American Multi-model Ensemble project, are used in this research. The two leading modes of the WAM rainfall variability, namely, the Guinean and Sahelian regimes, are estimated by applying principal component analysis (PCA) on the longitudinally averaged precipitation. The PCA is performed upon the observations and each forecast system and lead time separately. A statistical model based on simple linear regression using sea surface temperature indices as predictors is considered both as a benchmark and an additional forecast system. The combination of the dynamical forecast systems and the statistical model is performed using different methods of combination. It is shown that most forecast systems capture the main features associated with the Guinean regime, that is, rainfall located mainly south of 10°N and the northward migration of rainfall over the season. On the other hand, only a fraction of the forecast systems capture the characteristics of the rainfall signal north of 10°N associated with the Sahelian regime. A simple statistical model proves to be of great value and outperforms most state-of-the-art dynamical forecast systems when predicting the principal components associated with the Guinean and Sahelian regimes. Combining all forecast systems do not lead to improved forecasts when compared to the best single forecast system, the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts System 4 (S4). In fact, S4 is far better than any forecast system when predicting the variability of the WAM rainfall

  19. Small reservoirs in the West African savanna: Usage, monitoring and impact (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van De Giesen, N.; Liebe, J. R.; Annor, F.; Andreini, M.

    2013-12-01

    The West African savanna is dotted with thousands of small reservoirs. These reservoirs were primarily built for irrigation purposes, supplying supplementary irrigation in the rainy season and full irrigation in the dry season. Some reservoirs were specifically constructed for watering cattle. Most reservoirs, however, now fulfill a multitude of functions in addition to irrigation and cattle watering, such as fishing, bathing, household water, supply of construction materials, and recreation. In the framework of the Small Reservoirs Project (www.smallreservoirs.org), extensive research has been undertaken over the past ten years that addresses the functioning of these reservoirs and the development of new monitoring methods. This presentation will give a general overview of our findings with respect to history, usage, and hydrological impact of small reservoirs in West Africa. In general, no comprehensive databases are available to local and national governments that contain all reservoirs and their attributes. Remote sensing, therefore, offers an interesting alternative to produce inventories of small reservoirs in a cost effective way. The most straightforward application is the mapping of small reservoirs with the aid of optical satellite images. Open water tends to stand out clearly from its surroundings in such images, allowing for relatively accurate determination of the location and surface area of the reservoirs. An important early discovery was that within a given geomorphological region, there is a very good correlation between surface area and storage volume. Once this correlation is established through a small sub-sample of the reservoirs, all volumes can be calculated on the basis of surfaces as determined through remote sensing. In turn, this opens up the opportunity to monitor water storage over the year by means of satellite images. Optical images are usually not available during large parts of the year due to cloud cover. This holds especially true

  20. Chemical contaminants in gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) stranded along the west coast of North America.

    PubMed

    Varanasi, U; Stein, J E; Tilbury, K L; Meador, J P; Sloan, C A; Clark, R C; Chan, S L

    1994-05-02

    The concentrations of selected chlorinated hydrocarbons (e.g. PCBs, DDTs, DDEs, chlordanes) and essential (e.g. zinc, selenium, copper) and toxic (e.g. mercury, lead, arsenic) elements were measured in tissues and stomach contents from 22 gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) stranded between 1988 and 1991 at sites from the relatively pristine areas of Kodiak Island, AK, to more urbanized areas in Puget Sound, WA, and San Francisco Bay, CA. The majority of animals were stranded at sites on the Washington outer coast and in Puget Sound. The gray whale has the unique feeding strategy among Mysticeti of filtering sediments to feed on benthic (bottom dwelling) invertebrates. Thus, the wide geographical distribution of the stranded whales allowed (1) an initial assessment of whether concentrations of chemical contaminants in these whales exhibited region specific differences and (2) whether toxic chemicals that accumulate in sediments may have contributed to the mortality and stranding of gray whales near the more polluted urban areas. Analyses for chlorinated hydrocarbons in blubber from 22 animals showed no apparent significant differences among stranding sites. The concentrations of sigma PCBs and sigma DDEs in blubber, for example, ranged from 120 to 10,000 and 9 to 2100 p.p.b. (ng/g) wet weight, respectively. Additionally, analyses of chlorinated hydrocarbons and selected elements in liver (n = 10) also showed no apparent significant differences between whales stranded in Puget Sound and whales stranded at more pristine sites (Alaska, Washington outer coast and Strait of Juan de Fuca and Strait of Georgia). For example, the concentrations of sigma PCBs and sigma DDEs in liver ranged from 79 to 1600 and 7 to 280 p.p.b., respectively, and the concentrations of the toxic elements, mercury and lead ranged from 9 to 120 and 20 to 270 p.p.b., respectively. Analyses of stomach contents revealed low concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons, but high concentrations (wet

  1. The impact of the 2009-10 El Niño on West Coast beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, P.; Kaminsky, G. M.; Hansen, J. E.; Allan, J. C.; Ruggiero, P.; Hoover, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    Long-term monitoring programs at a series of beaches in California, Oregon and Washington were used to evaluate beach evolution associated with the El Niño winter of 2009-10, and to relate the observed coastal change to past winters, including the last major El Niño in 1997-98. At the California study sites, analysis of Lidar (1997-98) and semi-annual or greater high-resolution beach and nearshore surveys (2004-10) shows that coastal change during the winter of 2009-10 broadly rivals that in 1997-98, and that the 2009-10 winter storms collectively forced the most beach erosion since high-resolution monitoring began in 2004. Along the Oregon and Washington coasts, many beaches exhibited classic El Niño shoreline responses, with significant shoreline retreat occurring immediately north of jetties and tidal inlets as well as the southern ends of pocket beaches and littoral cells. In Washington in particular, these areas eroded rapidly during the winter of 2009-10, comparable to the response seen in the El Niño winter of 1997-98. Wave buoy data from buoys in California and Washington that captured both the 1997-98 and 2009-10 El Niño show that the two events were comparable in wave energy as measured by the mean wave year (1 July- 30 June) energy flux (Fig. 1). The increased wave energy in 2009-10 had significant impacts on coastal infrastructure throughout the region; for example, in San Francisco the Great Highway was severely undercut by wave action, resulting in a $5 million emergency remediation project. In Washington, approximately 195 m of road was eroded along the entrance to Willapa Bay and southern Grayland Plains. While the impacts of the 2009-10 winter were substantial, impacts on the coast were moderated by an unusually mild wave climate in 2008-9 (Fig. 1), which left beaches more accreted prior to the severe wave season of 2009-10. As climate change accelerates sea level rise and potentially increases the magnitude and frequency of storms in mid

  2. Stratigraphic evidence for earthquakes and tsunamis on the west coast of South Andaman Island, India during the past 1000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Javed N.; Banerjee, Chiranjib; Khan, Afzal; Johnson, Frango C.; Shishikura, Masanobu.; Satake, Kenji.; Singhvi, Ashok K.

    2015-10-01

    Stratigraphic records from west coast of South Andaman Island revealed evidence of three historical earthquakes and associated transoceanic tsunamis during past 1000 yrs, in addition to the Mw 9.3 tsunamigenic earthquake of 26 December, 2004. Our finding suggests that along with Sumatran arc segment the Andaman-Arakan segment is also capable of generating mega-subduction zone earthquakes and transoceanic tsunamis. To study the near sub-surface stratigraphic succession we excavated shallow trenches and obtained geoslices from two sites around Collinpur (sites 1 and 2). The exposed succession comprised 11 lithounits (Unit a - youngest and k - oldest) of alternating sequence of coarser units overlain by peaty soils and some of these are indicative of deposition during paleo-tsunami events. Event I that predated AD 800, and is marked by a 35-40 cm thick deposit of fine gravel to coarse sands along with broken shell fragments (Unit k). Event II dated around AD 660-800, is represented by 20-25 cm thick coarse sand and broken shell fragments (Unit i). Based on stratigraphic evidences of land-level changes, this event is attributed to a near source rupture along Andaman-Arakan segment, accompanied by a transoceanic tsunami. Event III, occurred around AD 1120-1300, is marked by a 50 cm thick sand deposit (Unit g). The 2004 tsunami resulted in deposition of 15 cm thick medium to coarse sand at the same location. We infer that the 2004 tsunami and Event III resulted in different styles of sedimentation at the same site. Four events at Collinpur along with the record of a subsidence event of AD 1679 from the east coast of Andaman, close-to, Port Blair (Malik et al., 2011), suggest that mega-subduction zone earthquakes and associated tsunamis recur at an interval of 300-500 years at variable locations along the Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone.

  3. Sedimentology of latero-frontal moraines and fans on the west coast of South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, David J. A.; Shulmeister, James; Hyatt, Olivia

    2010-12-01

    Exposures through the LGM latero-frontal moraine loops at sites along the west coast of South Island, New Zealand reveal a depositional environment that was dominated by the progradation of steep fronted, debris flow-fed fans, manifest in crudely stratified to massive diamictons, arranged in sub-horizontal to steeply dipping clinoforms and containing discontinuous bodies of variably sorted, stratified sediment (LFA 1). The fans were constructed by debris-covered glaciers advancing over outwash plains, as recorded by well stratified and horizontally bedded gravels, sands and diamicts (LFA 0). The ice-contact slopes of the fans are offlapped by retreat phase deposits in the form of glacilacustrine depo-centres (LFA 2), which record the existence of moraine-dammed lakes. Interdigitation of lake rhythmites and subaerial to subaqueous sediment gravity flow deposits documents intense debris-flow activity on unstable moraine/fan surfaces. Glacier readvances in all catchments are documented by glacitectonic disturbance and localized hydrofracturing of LFA 2, followed by the emplacement of schist-dominated debris flow-fed fans (LFA 3) inside and over the top of the earlier latero-frontal moraine/fan loops. Contorted and disturbed bedding in LFA 3 reflects its partial deposition in supraglacial positions. Clast lithologies in LFAs 1 and 3 reveal that two distinct transport pathways operated during moraine construction, with an early period of latero-frontal fan construction involving mixed lithologies and a later period of ice-contact/supraglacial fan construction dominated by schist lithologies from the mountains. These two periods of deposition were separated by a period of moraine abandonment and paraglacial reworking of ice-contact slopes to produce LFA 2. The occurrence of LFA 3 at all sites indicates that the glacier readvance phase responsible for its deposition was not localized or glacier-specific, and involved the transfer of large volumes of schist, possibly due

  4. Seal dynamics on the Swedish west coast: Scenarios of competition as Baltic grey seal intrude on harbour seal territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, Carl Johan

    2012-07-01

    The Kattegat-Skagerrak region on the Swedish west coast is home to an abundant harbour seal population (Phoca vitulina) and a small scattered grey seal population (Halichoerus grypus). In addition, grey seal from the growing population in the Baltic Sea frequently migrate into the Kattegat-Skagerrak. Harbour seals on the west coast of Sweden show relatively high population growth (approximately 9%) compared to the Baltic grey seal in ice-free habitats (approximately 6%), which, in theory, makes harbour seal the stronger competitor of the two in this region. However, incidents of disease in harbour seals that lower population growth are becoming more frequent. These epidemics are primarily caused by the Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV), and may reduce population size with up to 70%. This study models the average development under potential scenarios of competing harbour- and Baltic grey seal populations using Leslie matrices and the Lotka-Volterra model of inter-specific competition. The model is parameterised with previously published data, and resource overlap is incorporated through density dependent pup survival. Using numerical methods short- and long-term abundances are simulated under weak, moderate and strong competition and for different frequencies of PDV epidemics. Results show that the harbour seals are resilient to competition while exerting a negative effect on grey seal abundance under moderate to strong competition. Hence Baltic grey seal benefit from weaker levels of competition. Under moderate and strong competition grey seal abundance is a direct function of the PDV frequency as this reduces the competitive strength of harbour seals. Theoretically this means that higher frequencies of PDV or other pathogens epidemics could facilitate an expansion of Baltic grey seal into Kattegat-Skagerrak. Independent of interaction strength and frequency of epidemics the projected changes to abundances are slow (50-100 years), and even in exceedingly stable

  5. What is the variability in US west coast winter precipitation during strong El Niño events?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Arun; Chen, Mingyue

    2016-12-01

    Motivated by the fact that the spatial pattern of the observed precipitation anomalies during 2015/16 winter (a year of strong El Niño) over the west coast of the US and that of the El Niño composite precipitation pattern had considerable differences, the variability in the winter precipitation during strong El Niño events is assessed. The analysis is based on a set of hindcasts (1982-2011) and real-time forecasts (2012-2015) from NCEP Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2), and the following aspects for seasonal mean precipitation variability were examined: (1) the mean signal during strong El Niño based on the composite analysis, and further, the variability from the composite on an event-to-event basis; (2) probability of occurrence for precipitation anomalies to be opposite to the signal (inferred as the composite mean); (3) the probability to have precipitation anomaly in different categories varying from wet to dry; and (4) variations in the characteristics of precipitation from OND, NDJ, to DJF (early to late boreal winter). The results show that the model forecasted seasonal mean precipitation composite for strong El Niño was similar to the linear regression signal with the Niño 3.4 index in observations, with negative anomalies over the Pacific Northwest and positive anomalies over California. However, although in response to an El Niño event, the California precipitation PDF was shifted towards positive values relative to the climatological PDF, the overlap between climatological PDF and the PDF for El Niño events was considerable. This is because of the large variability in seasonal mean outcomes of precipitation from one forecast to another, and therefore, chances to have precipitation anomalies with their sign opposite to the composite El Niño signal remain appreciable. In this paradigm, although the seasonal mean precipitation during 2015/16 winter over the west coast of the US differed from the mean signal for a strong El Niño event, the

  6. Identifying the source of tar balls deposited along the beaches of Goa in 2013 and comparing with historical data collected along the West Coast of India.

    PubMed

    Suneel, V; Vethamony, P; Naik, B G; Krishna, M S; Jadhav, Lakshmikant

    2015-09-15

    Deposition of oil residues, also known as tar balls, is a seasonal phenomenon, and it occurs only in the southwest monsoon season along the west coast of India. This has become a serious environmental issue, as Goa is a global tourist destination. The present work aims at identifying the source oil of the tar balls that consistently depositing along the Goa coast using multi-marker fingerprint technique. In this context, the tar ball samples collected in May 2013 from 9 beaches of Goa coast and crude oils from different oil fields and grounded ship were subject to multi-marker analyses such as n-alkanes, pentacyclic terpanes, regular steranes, compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) and principle component analysis (PCA). The n-alkane weathering index shows that samples have been weathered to various degrees, and the status of weathering is moderate. Since the international tanker route passes closer to the west coast of India (WCI), it is generally presumed that tanker wash is the source of the tar balls. We found that 2010/2011 tar balls are as tanker wash, but the present study demonstrates that the Bombay High (BH) oil fields can also contribute to oil contamination (tar balls) along ≈ 650 km stretch of the WCI, running from Gujarat in the north to Goa in the south. The simulated trajectories show that all the particles released in April traveled in the southeast direction, and by May, they reached the Goa coast with the influence of circulation of Indian monsoon system.

  7. Distribution and character of upper mesozoic subduction complexes along the west coast of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, D.L.; Blake, M.C.; Bailey, E.H.; McLaughlin, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    Structurally complex sequences of sedimentary, volcanic, and intrusive igneous rocks characterize a nearly continuous narrow band along the Pacific coast of North America from Baja California, Mexico to southern Alaska. They occur in two modes: (1) as complexly folded but coherent sequences of graywacke and argillite that locally exhibit blueschist-grade metamorphism, and (2) as melanges containing large blocks of graywacke, chert, volcanic and plutonic rocks, high-grade schist, and limestone in a highly sheared pelitic, cherty, or sandstone matrix. Fossils from the coherent graywacke sequences range in age from late Jurassic to Eocene; fossils from limestone blocks in the melanges range in age from mid-Paleozoic to middle Cretaceous. Fossils from the matrix surrounding the blocks, however, are of Jurassic, Cretaceous, and rarely, Tertiary age, indicating that fossils from the blocks cannot be used to date the time of formation of the melanges. Both the deformation of the graywacke, with accompanying blueschist metamorphism, as well as the formation of the melanges, are believed to be the result of late Mesozoic and early Tertiary subduction. The origin of the melanges, particularly the emplacement of exotic tectonic blocks, is not understood. ?? 1978.

  8. Blended sea level anomaly fields with enhanced coastal coverage along the U.S. West Coast

    PubMed Central

    Risien, C.M.; Strub, P.T.

    2016-01-01

    We form a new ‘blended’ data set of sea level anomaly (SLA) fields by combining gridded daily fields derived from altimeter data with coastal tide gauge data. Within approximately 55–70 km of the coast, the altimeter data are discarded and replaced by a linear interpolation between the tide gauge and remaining offshore altimeter data. To create a common reference height for altimeter and tide gauge data, a 20-year mean is subtracted from each time series (from each tide gauge and altimeter grid point) before combining the data sets to form a blended mean sea level anomaly (SLA) data set. Daily mean fields are produced for the 22-year period 1 January 1993–31 December 2014. The primary validation compares geostrophic velocities calculated from the height fields and velocities measured at four moorings covering the north-south range of the new data set. The blended data set improves the alongshore (meridional) component of the currents, indicating an improvement in the cross-shelf gradient of the mean SLA data set. PMID:26927667

  9. Biomarker pigment signatures in Cochin back water system - A tropical estuary south west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aneeshkumar, N.; Sujatha, C. H.

    2012-03-01

    Sedimentary biomarker pigments around Cochin estuary situated in the southwest coast of India were determined by HPLC. Fucoxanthin, an indicator of diatom was observed to be the most abundant carotenoid pigment in the estuary. Dinoflagellate derived carotenoid pigment peridinin was confined in the southern part of estuary and zeaxanthin pigment indicative of cyanobacteria were more found in sites influenced by anthropogenic activities. One compound having close similarity to fucoxanthin was also detected. Alloxanthin (cryptophyceae), chl b (green algae), canthaxanthin, neoxanthin, lutein and peridinin isomer were also detected by spectra and corresponding algal class were identified. The highest concentration of chl a (11.01 μg g-1) found near to the anthropogenic affected area while the lowest chl a (0.65 μg g-1) was recorded in industrial area. Degradation products of chl a, such as pheophorbide and pheophytin were observed and principal mode of mechanism of degradation were derived. Higher pheopigments content than chl a, reflects a density trapping of dead cells and early degradation of phytopigments from grazing activities.

  10. Recent deformation along the offshore Malibu Coast, Dume, and related faults west of Point Dume, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, M.A.; Langenheim, V.E.; Sorlien, C.C.; Dartnell, P.; Sliter, R.W.; Cochrane, G.R.; Wong, F.L.

    2005-01-01

    Offshore faults west of Point Dume, southern California, are part of an important regional fault system that extends for about 206 km, from near the city of Los Angeles westward along the south flank of the Santa Monica Mountains and through the northern Channel Islands. This boundary fault system separates the western Transverse Ranges, on the north, from the California Continental Borderland, on the south. Previous research showed that the fault system includes many active fault strands; consequently, the entire system is considered a serious potential earthquake hazard to nearby Los Angeles. We present an integrated analysis of multichannel seismic- and high-resolution seismic-reflection data and multibeam-bathymetric information to focus on the central part of the fault system that lies west of Point Dume. We show that some of the main offshore faults have cumulative displacements of 3-5 km, and many faults are currently active because they deform the seafloor or very shallow sediment layers. The main offshore fault is the Dume fault, a large north-dipping reverse fault. In the eastern part of the study area, this fault offsets the seafloor, showing Holocene displacement. Onshore, the Malibu Coast fault dips steeply north, is active, and shows left-oblique slip. The probable offshore extension of this fault is a large fault that dips steeply in its upper part but flattens at depth. High-resolution seismic data show that this fault deforms shallow sediment making up the Hueneme fan complex, indicating Holocene activity. A structure near Sycamore knoll strikes transversely to the main faults and could be important to the analysis of the regional earthquake hazard because the structure might form a boundary between earthquake-rupture segments.

  11. A model study of the tropical Atlantic variability, with a focus on upwelling events along the African coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quattrocchi, G.; Pierini, S.

    2009-04-01

    A process-oriented model study of the tropical Atlantic Ocean is presented. It is based on a hierarchy of reduced-gravity primitive equation layer models, including one, two or three active layers; the domain of integration spans the latitudes from 35°S to 35°N and the wind forcing is provided by the ECMWF Re-Analysis data, which are decomposed in EOF. The full oceanic response is first compared with that obtained with a limited number of EOF in order to identify the main patterns of the wind-driven circulation. Particular attention is devoted to the analysis of beta-refracted baroclinic Rossby waves, that shape the oceanic variability in the eastern tropical region. The wind forcing is then confined to zonal bands with different meridional widths centered at the equator, so that the thermocline variability along the African coasts outside such bands is merely due to coastal Kelvin waves originating from eastward-traveling equatorial Kelvin waves through a well known teleconnection mechanism. Comparison of the obtained results with the full oceanic response allows us to distinguish between remotely-forced and locally forced upwelling events. A preliminary validation with altimeter data is finally presented.

  12. Importance of mitochondrial haplotypes and maternal lineage in sprint performance among individuals of West African ancestry.

    PubMed

    Deason, M; Scott, R; Irwin, L; Macaulay, V; Fuku, N; Tanaka, M; Irving, R; Charlton, V; Morrison, E; Austin, K; Pitsiladis, Y P

    2012-04-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is inherited solely along the matriline, giving insight into both ancestry and prehistory. Individuals of sub-Saharan ancestry are overrepresented in sprint athletics, suggesting a genetic advantage. The purpose of this study was to compare the mtDNA haplogroup data of elite groups of Jamaican and African-American sprinters against respective controls to assess any differences in maternal lineage. The first hypervariable region of mtDNA was haplogrouped in elite Jamaican athletes (N=107) and Jamaican controls (N=293), and elite African-American athletes (N=119) and African-American controls (N=1148). Exact tests of total population differentiation were performed on total haplogroup frequencies. The frequency of non-sub-Saharan haplogroups in Jamaican athletes and Jamaican controls was similar (1.87% and 1.71%, respectively) and lower than that of African-American athletes and African-American controls (21.01% and 8.19%, respectively). There was no significant difference in total haplogroup frequencies between Jamaican athletes and Jamaican controls (P=0.551 ± 0.005); however, there was a highly significant difference between African-American athletes and African-American controls (P<0.001). The finding of statistically similar mtDNA haplogroup distributions in Jamaican athletes and Jamaican controls suggests that elite Jamaican sprinters are derived from the same source population and there is neither population stratification nor isolation for sprint performance. The significant difference between African-American sprinters and African-American controls suggests that the maternal admixture may play a role in sprint performance.

  13. Impact of GCM boundary forcing on regional climate modeling of West African summer monsoon precipitation and circulation features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebe, Ibourahima; Sylla, Mouhamadou Bamba; Omotosho, Jerome Adebayo; Nikiema, Pinghouinde Michel; Gibba, Peter; Giorgi, Filippo

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the latest version of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics Regional Climate Model (RegCM4) driven by three CMIP5 Global Climate Models (GCMs) is used at 25 km grid spacing over West Africa to investigate the impact of lateral boundary forcings on the simulation of monsoon precipitation and its relationship with regional circulation features. We find that the RegCM4 experiments along with their multimodel ensemble generally reproduce the location of the main precipitation characteristics over the region and improve upon the corresponding driving GCMs. However, the provision of different forcing boundary conditions leads to substantially different precipitation magnitudes and spatial patterns. For instance, while RegCM4 nested within GFDL-ESM-2M and HadGEM2-ES exhibits some underestimations of precipitation and an excessively narrow Intertropical Convergence Zone, the MPI-ESM-MR driven run produces precipitation spatial distribution and magnitudes more similar to observations. Such a superior performance originates from a much better simulation of the interactions between baroclinicity, temperature gradient and African Easterly Jet along with an improved connection between the Isentropic Potential Vorticity, its gradient and the African Easterly Waves dynamics. We conclude that a good performing GCM in terms of monsoon dynamical features (in this case MPI-ESM-MR) is needed to drive RCMs in order to achieve a better representation of the West Africa summer monsoon precipitation.

  14. Chloroplast DNA phylogeography suggests a West African centre of origin for the baobab, Adansonia digitata L. (Bombacoideae, Malvaceae).

    PubMed

    Leong Pock Tsy, Jean-Michel; Lumaret, Roselyne; Mayne, Diana; Vall, Abdallahi Ould Mohamed; Abutaba, Yahia I M; Sagna, Maurice; Rakotondralambo Raoseta, Soaharin'ny Ony; Danthu, Pascal

    2009-04-01

    The African baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) is an emblematic, culturally important, and physically huge tropical tree species whose natural geographical distribution comprises most of tropical Africa, but also small patches of southern Arabia, and several Atlantic and Indian Ocean islands surrounding the African continent, notably including Madagascar. We analysed the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism of five chloroplast DNA fragments obtained from 344 individuals of A. digitata collected from 74 populations covering the entire extant distribution range of the species. Our goal was to reconstruct the phylogeographical history of the species and, if possible, to identify its centre of origin, which has been a subject of controversy for many decades. We identified five haplotypes whose distribution is clearly geographically structured. Using several species of Adansonia and of closely related genera as outgroups, the haplotypes showed a clear phylogeographical pattern of three groups. Two are phylogenetically related to the outgroup taxa, and are distributed in West Africa. The third group is substantially more differentiated genetically from outgroup species, and it corresponds to southern and eastern Africa, Arabia and the Indian Ocean islands, including Madagascar. According to our results, the tetraploid A. digitata, or its diploid progenitor, probably originated in West Africa and migrated subsequently throughout the tropical parts of that continent, and beyond, by natural and human-mediated terrestrial and overseas dispersal.

  15. Comparative study of potential transfer of natural and anthropogenic cadmium to plankton communities in the North-West African upwelling.

    PubMed

    Auger, P A; Machu, E; Gorgues, T; Grima, N; Waeles, M

    2015-02-01

    A Lagrangian approach based on a physical-biogeochemical modeling was used to compare the potential transfer of cadmium (Cd) from natural and anthropogenic sources to plankton communities (Cd-uptake) in the North-West African upwelling. In this region, coastal upwelling was estimated to be the main natural source of Cd while the most significant anthropogenic source for marine ecosystem is provided by phosphate industry. In our model experiment, Cd-uptake (natural or anthropogenic) in the North-West African upwelling is the result of an interplay between the Cd dispersion (by advection processes) and the simulated biological productivity. In the Moroccan waters, advection processes limit the residence time of water masses resulting in a low natural Cd-uptake by plankton communities while anthropogenic Cd-uptake is high. As expected, the situation is reversed in the Senegalo-Mauritanian upwelling where natural Cd-uptake is higher than anthropogenic Cd-uptake. Based upon an estimate of Cd sources, our modeling study shows, unexpectedly, that the anthropogenic signal of potential Cd-bioaccumulation in the Moroccan upwelling is of the same order of magnitude as the natural signal mainly present in the Senegalo-Mauritanian upwelling region. A comparison with observed Cd levels in mollusk and fishes, which shows overall agreement with our simulations, is confirming our estimates.

  16. Persistent landfalling atmospheric rivers over the west coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Ashley E.; Magnusdottir, Gudrun

    2016-11-01

    Landfalling atmospheric rivers (ARs) are linked to heavy precipitation and extreme flooding, and are well known along the western coast of North America. The hydrological impacts of ARs upon landfall are correlated with their duration and magnitude. In order to improve the forecast of these hydrologically significant landfalling events, a better understanding of how they differ from other landfalling events must be established through an investigation of the mechanisms leading to their development prior to landfall. A subset of persistent landfalling AR events between 30°N and 50°N is identified in 3-hourly Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications reanalysis and validated against existing data sets. These events are identified as features in the low troposphere with high moisture transport and extended geometry that persist over a limited region of the coastline for longer than 63 h (85th percentile of AR duration). A composite analysis shows that persistent events have distinct thermodynamical and dynamical characteristics compared to all AR events. They are characterized by greater moisture content, suggestive of Pineapple Express-type events, a perturbed upper level jet and anticyclonic overturning of potential vorticity contours associated with anticyclonic Rossby wave breaking. Moreover, the location of the Rossby wave breaking is shifted inland compared to all AR events. Analogue analysis of the 500 hPa geopotential height anomalies is used to find nonpersistent events with similar dynamical characteristics to persistent events. Despite their similarity to persistent events, nonpersistent analogues show very little shift toward longer duration. A comparison of the development of persistent and nonpersistent analogues shows that persistent events have much greater moisture content.

  17. Phylogeography of Ostreopsis along West Pacific Coast, with Special Reference to a Novel Clade from Japan

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Shinya; Nishimura, Tomohiro; Uehara, Keita; Sakanari, Hiroshi; Tawong, Wittaya; Hariganeya, Naohito; Smith, Kirsty; Rhodes, Lesley; Yasumoto, Takeshi; Taira, Yosuke; Suda, Shoichiro; Yamaguchi, Haruo; Adachi, Masao

    2011-01-01

    Background A dinoflagellate genus Ostreopsis is known as a potential producer of Palytoxin derivatives. Palytoxin is the most potent non-proteinaceous compound reported so far. There has been a growing number of reports on palytoxin-like poisonings in southern areas of Japan; however, the distribution of Ostreopsis has not been investigated so far. Morphological plasticity of Ostreopsis makes reliable microscopic identification difficult so the employment of molecular tools was desirable. Methods/Principal Finding In total 223 clones were examined from samples mainly collected from southern areas of Japan. The D8–D10 region of the nuclear large subunit rDNA (D8–D10) was selected as a genetic marker and phylogenetic analyses were conducted. Although most of the clones were unable to be identified, there potentially 8 putative species established during this study. Among them, Ostreopsis sp. 1–5 did not belong to any known clade, and each of them formed its own clade. The dominant species was Ostreopsis sp. 1, which accounted for more than half of the clones and which was highly toxic and only distributed along the Japanese coast. Comparisons between the D8–D10 and the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear rDNA, which has widely been used for phylogenetic/phylogeographic studies in Ostreopsis, revealed that the D8–D10 was less variable than the ITS, making consistent and reliable phylogenetic reconstruction possible. Conclusions/Significance This study unveiled a surprisingly diverse and widespread distribution of Japanese Ostreopsis. Further study will be required to better understand the phylogeography of the genus. Our results posed the urgent need for the development of the early detection/warning systems for Ostreopsis, particularly for the widely distributed and strongly toxic Ostreopsis sp. 1. The D8–D10 marker will be suitable for these purposes. PMID:22164222

  18. Sewage treatment plant associated genetic differentiation in the blue mussel from the Baltic Sea and Swedish west coast.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Josefine; Lönn, Mikael; Lind, Emma E; Świeżak, Justyna; Smolarz, Katarzyna; Grahn, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Human-derived environmental pollutants and nutrients that reach the aquatic environment through sewage effluents, agricultural and industrial processes are constantly contributing to environmental changes that serve as drivers for adaptive responses and evolutionary changes in many taxa. In this study, we examined how two types of point sources of aquatic environmental pollution, harbors and sewage treatment plants, affect gene diversity and genetic differentiation in the blue mussel in the Baltic Sea area and off the Swedish west coast (Skagerrak). Reference sites (REF) were geographically paired with sites from sewage treatments plant (STP) and harbors (HAR) with a nested sampling scheme, and genetic differentiation was evaluated using a high-resolution marker amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). This study showed that genetic composition in the Baltic Sea blue mussel was associated with exposure to sewage treatment plant effluents. In addition, mussel populations from harbors were genetically divergent, in contrast to the sewage treatment plant populations, suggesting that there is an effect of pollution from harbors but that the direction is divergent and site specific, while the pollution effect from sewage treatment plants on the genetic composition of blue mussel populations acts in the same direction in the investigated sites.

  19. Chemical composition of red, brown and green macroalgae from Buarcos bay in Central West Coast of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Dina; Freitas, Ana C; Pereira, Leonel; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A P; Vasconcelos, Marta W; Roriz, Mariana; Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luís M; Gomes, Ana M P; Duarte, Armando C

    2015-09-15

    Six representative edible seaweeds from the Central West Portuguese Coast, including the less studied Osmundea pinnatifida, were harvested from Buarcos bay, Portugal and their chemical characterization determined. Protein content, total sugar and fat contents ranged between 14.4% and 23.8%, 32.4% and 49.3% and 0.6-3.6%. Highest total phenolic content was observed in Codium tomentosum followed by Sargassum muticum and O. pinnatifida. Fatty acid (FA) composition covered the branched chain C13ai to C22:5 n3 with variable content in n6 and n3 FA; low n6:n3 ratios were observed in O. pinnatifida, Grateloupia turuturu and C. tomentosum. Some seaweed species may be seen as good sources of Ca, K, Mg and Fe, corroborating their good nutritional value. According to FTIR-ATR spectra, G. turuturu was associated with carrageenan seaweed producers whereas Gracilaria gracilis and O. pinnatifida were mostly agar producers. In the brown algae, S. muticum and Saccorhiza polyschides, alginates and fucoidans were the main polysaccharides found.

  20. Biogeochemical cycling in the ocean. Part 1: Introduction to the effects of upwelling along the west coast of North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, John T.

    1986-01-01

    Coastal upwelling is examined as it relates to the cycling of chemical species in coastal waters along the west coast of North America. The temporal and spatial features of upwelling phenomena in the Eastern boundary regions of the North Pacific Ocean are presented and discussed in terms of upwelling episodes. Climate conditions affecting upwelling include: thermal effects, wind-induced shear stress which moves surface layers, and the curl of the wind stress vector which is thought to affect the extent and nature of upwelling and the formation of offshore convergent downwelling fronts. These effects and the interaction of sunlight and upwelled nutrients which result in a biological bloom in surface waters is modeled analytically. The roles of biological and chemical species, including the effects of predation, are discussed in that context, and relevant remote sensing and in situ observations are presented. Climatological, oceanographic, biological, physical, chemical events, and processes that pertain to biogeochemical cycling are presented and described by a set of partial differential equations. Simple preliminary results are obtained and are compared with data. Thus a fairly general framework has been laid where the many facets of biogeochemical cycling in coastal upwelled waters can be examined in their relationship to one another, and to the whole, to whatever level of detail or approximation is warranted or desired.

  1. Sewage treatment plant associated genetic differentiation in the blue mussel from the Baltic Sea and Swedish west coast

    PubMed Central

    Lönn, Mikael; Lind, Emma E.; Świeżak, Justyna; Smolarz, Katarzyna; Grahn, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Human-derived environmental pollutants and nutrients that reach the aquatic environment through sewage effluents, agricultural and industrial processes are constantly contributing to environmental changes that serve as drivers for adaptive responses and evolutionary changes in many taxa. In this study, we examined how two types of point sources of aquatic environmental pollution, harbors and sewage treatment plants, affect gene diversity and genetic differentiation in the blue mussel in the Baltic Sea area and off the Swedish west coast (Skagerrak). Reference sites (REF) were geographically paired with sites from sewage treatments plant (STP) and harbors (HAR) with a nested sampling scheme, and genetic differentiation was evaluated using a high-resolution marker amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). This study showed that genetic composition in the Baltic Sea blue mussel was associated with exposure to sewage treatment plant effluents. In addition, mussel populations from harbors were genetically divergent, in contrast to the sewage treatment plant populations, suggesting that there is an effect of pollution from harbors but that the direction is divergent and site specific, while the pollution effect from sewage treatment plants on the genetic composition of blue mussel populations acts in the same direction in the investigated sites. PMID:27812424

  2. Health of Chinese illegal immigrants who arrived by boat on the West Coast of Canada in 1999.

    PubMed

    Allan, G Michael; Szafran, Olga

    2005-10-01

    This was a retrospective review and descriptive analysis of the findings from the medical screening examinations conducted on the illegal migrants from Fujian Province of China (n = 589) who arrived on four boats on the West Coast of Canada between June 14 and September 9, 1999. The Canadian Navy conducted a screening medical exam of the illegal migrants, with Health Canada and Citizenship and Immigration Canada providing suggestions on the format of the exam. The illegal Chinese migrants were predominantly young, male adults. The most prevalent medical conditions detected were dermatological (55.2%), dental problems (25%), trauma (9.2%), urogenital (7.6%), and head/neck (6.6%). Recently induced trauma was more prevalent among females (20.5%) than males (6.5%). One case of community-acquired pneumonia was identified and later diagnosed as active pulmonary tuberculosis. Physicians dealing with illegal migrants should look for unusual physical findings and have a higher clinical suspicion regarding infectious diseases (tuberculosis, scabies) and abuse. Future encounters with illegal migrants should include standardized immigration screening exams, with adequate history taking and follow-up.

  3. Habitat characteristics promoting high density and condition of juvenile flatfish at nursery grounds on the west coast of Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Raedemaecker, F.; Brophy, D.; O'Connor, I.; Comerford, S.

    2012-10-01

    Coastal zones are essential nursery habitats for most juvenile flatfish species. Understanding the habitat requirements promoting high abundance and growth of juvenile flatfish is important for evaluating nursery habitat quality. The present study aimed to assess nursery ground quality for the most common flatfish species: dab (Limanda limanda) and plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), in Galway Bay, on the west coast of Ireland. Monthly surveys were carried out in the period after peak settlement over two years. Variability in flatfish density and Fulton's K condition was explained in relation to biotic and abiotic habitat characteristics, differing within and between distinct nursery grounds. Dab were concentrated in deeper waters, were negatively associated with shrimp densities and salinity and their abundance showed a decrease from June to September combined with interannual variation. Plaice densities were highly associated with shallower depths and high polychaete and shrimp densities and were negatively related with increased macroalgal cover and organic content. Most of the variability in Fulton's condition was explained by the same set of variables for both species; year and densities of crab and malacostracans. This analysis revealed important ecological mechanisms allowing the co-existence of two flatfish species in nursery grounds. However, high quality nursery grounds for dab and plaice differed and anthropogenic and climatic impacts on flatfish nurseries are likely to have a different impact on plaice and dab populations. Knowledge gained about the quality of nursery habitat for commercially important fish species provides a basis for mapping essential flatfish habitats to inform management plans for coastal areas.

  4. Four new species of Pyropia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) from the west coast of North America: the Pyropia lanceolata species complex updated

    PubMed Central

    Lindstrom, Sandra C.; Hughey, Jeffery R.; Rosas, Luis E. Aguilar

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Recent molecular studies indicate that the Pyropia lanceolata species complex on the west coast of North America is more speciose than previously thought. Based on extensive rbcL gene sequencing of representative specimens we recognize seven species in the complex, three of which are newly described: Pyropia montereyensis sp. nov., Pyropia columbiensis sp. nov., and Pyropia protolanceolata sp. nov. The new species are all lanceolate, at least when young, and occur in the upper mid to high intertidal zone primarily in winter and early spring. Pyropia montereyensis and Pyropia columbiensis are sister taxa that are distributed south and north of Cape Mendocino, respectively, and both occur slightly lower on the shore than Pyropia lanceolata or Pyropia pseudolanceolata. Pyropia protolanceolata is known thus far only from Morro Rock and the Monterey Peninsula, California; it occurs basally to the other species in the complex in the molecular phylogeny. A fourth newly described species, Pyropia bajacaliforniensis sp. nov., is more closely related to Pyropia nereocystis than to species in this complex proper. It is a thin species with undulate margins known only from Moss Landing, Monterey Bay, California, and northern Baja California; it also occurs in the high intertidal in spring. Porphyra mumfordii, a high intertidal winter species that has frequently been confused with species in the Pyropia lanceolata complex, has now been confirmed to occur from Calvert Island, British Columbia, to Pescadero State Park, California. PMID:26312033

  5. Four new species of Pyropia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) from the west coast of North America: the Pyropialanceolata species complex updated.

    PubMed

    Lindstrom, Sandra C; Hughey, Jeffery R; Rosas, Luis E Aguilar

    2015-01-01

    Recent molecular studies indicate that the Pyropialanceolata species complex on the west coast of North America is more speciose than previously thought. Based on extensive rbcL gene sequencing of representative specimens we recognize seven species in the complex, three of which are newly described: Pyropiamontereyensis sp. nov., Pyropiacolumbiensis sp. nov., and Pyropiaprotolanceolata sp. nov. The new species are all lanceolate, at least when young, and occur in the upper mid to high intertidal zone primarily in winter and early spring. Pyropiamontereyensis and Pyropiacolumbiensis are sister taxa that are distributed south and north of Cape Mendocino, respectively, and both occur slightly lower on the shore than Pyropialanceolata or Pyropiapseudolanceolata. Pyropiaprotolanceolata is known thus far only from Morro Rock and the Monterey Peninsula, California; it occurs basally to the other species in the complex in the molecular phylogeny. A fourth newly described species, Pyropiabajacaliforniensis sp. nov., is more closely related to Pyropianereocystis than to species in this complex proper. It is a thin species with undulate margins known only from Moss Landing, Monterey Bay, California, and northern Baja California; it also occurs in the high intertidal in spring. Porphyramumfordii, a high intertidal winter species that has frequently been confused with species in the Pyropialanceolata complex, has now been confirmed to occur from Calvert Island, British Columbia, to Pescadero State Park, California.

  6. A possible transoceanic tsunami directed toward the U.S. west coast from the Semidi segment, Alaska convergent margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Huene, Roland; Miller, John J.; Dartnell, Peter

    2016-03-01

    The Semidi segment of the Alaska convergent margin appears capable of generating a giant tsunami like the one produced along the nearby Unimak segment in 1946. Reprocessed legacy seismic reflection data and a compilation of multibeam bathymetric surveys reveal structures that could generate such a tsunami. A 200 km long ridge or escarpment with crests >1 km high is the surface expression of an active out-of-sequence fault zone, recently referred to as a splay fault. Such faults are potentially tsunamigenic. This type of fault zone separates the relatively rigid rock of the margin framework from the anelastic accreted sediment prism. Seafloor relief of the ridge exceeds that of similar age accretionary prism ridges indicating preferential slip along the splay fault zone. The greater slip may derive from Quaternary subduction of the Patton Murray hot spot ridge that extends 200 km toward the east across the north Pacific. Estimates of tsunami repeat times from paleotsunami studies indicate that the Semidi segment could be near the end of its current inter-seismic cycle. GPS records from Chirikof Island at the shelf edge indicate 90% locking of plate interface faults. An earthquake in the shallow Semidi subduction zone could generate a tsunami that will inundate the US west coast more than the 1946 and 1964 earthquakes because the Semidi continental slope azimuth directs a tsunami southeastward.

  7. Forensic investigation of aliphatic hydrocarbons in the sediments from selected mangrove ecosystems in the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Vaezzadeh, Vahab; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Shau-Hwai, Aileen Tan; Ibrahim, Zelina Zaiton; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Abootalebi-Jahromi, Fatemeh; Masood, Najat; Magam, Sami Mohsen; Alkhadher, Sadeq Abdullah Abdo

    2015-11-15

    Peninsular Malaysia has gone through fast development during recent decades resulting in the release of large amounts of petroleum and its products into the environment. Aliphatic hydrocarbons are one of the major components of petroleum. Surface sediment samples were collected from five rivers along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia and analyzed for aliphatic hydrocarbons. The total concentrations of C10 to C36 n-alkanes ranged from 27,945 to 254,463ng·g(-1)dry weight (dw). Evaluation of various n-alkane indices such as carbon preference index (CPI; 0.35 to 3.10) and average chain length (ACL; 26.74 to 29.23) of C25 to C33 n-alkanes indicated a predominance of petrogenic source n-alkanes in the lower parts of the Rivers, while biogenic origin n-alkanes from vascular plants are more predominant in the upper parts, especially in less polluted areas. Petrogenic sources of n-alkanes are predominantly heavy and degraded oil versus fresh oil inputs.

  8. Tsunami vulnerability assessment mapping for the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia using a geographical information system (GIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najihah, R.; Effendi, D. M.; Hairunnisa, M. A.; Masiri, K.

    2014-02-01

    The catastrophic Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December 2004 raised a number of questions for scientist and politicians on how to deal with the tsunami risk and assessment in coastal regions. This paper discusses the challenges in tsunami vulnerability assessment and presents the result of tsunami disaster mapping and vulnerability assessment study for West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The spatial analysis was carried out using Geographical Information System (GIS) technology to demarcate spatially the tsunami affected village's boundary and suitable disaster management program can be quickly and easily developed. In combination with other thematic maps such as road maps, rail maps, school maps, and topographic map sheets it was possible to plan the accessibility and shelter to the affected people. The tsunami vulnerability map was used to identify the vulnerability of villages/village population to tsunami. In the tsunami vulnerability map, the intensity of the tsunami was classified as hazard zones based on the inundation level in meter (contour). The approach produced a tsunami vulnerability assessment map consists of considering scenarios of plausible extreme, tsunami-generating events, computing the tsunami inundation levels caused by different events and scenarios and estimating the possible range of casualties for computing inundation levels. The study provides an interactive means to identify the tsunami affected areas after the disaster and mapping the tsunami vulnerable village before for planning purpose were the essential exercises for managing future disasters.

  9. Variability in nitrogen uptake and fixation in the oligotrophic waters off the south west coast of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twomey, L. J.; Waite, A. M.; Pez, V.; Pattiaratchi, C. B.

    2007-04-01

    The results presented in this study provide the first broad-scale regional characterisation of the phytoplankton-nitrogen dynamics across the continental shelf between the Abrolhos Islands and Cape Leeuwin, Western Australia. We demonstrate key features of N-uptake, including nitrate and ammonium uptake and N fixation, across the dominant current systems of the west coast of Australia during a 2-week period in spring-summer. The surface waters of the region were N impoverished with low phytoplankton biomass. Nitrate and ammonium uptake rates were among the lowest on record, and f-ratios were high compared to other oligotrophic systems ( f-ratio ˜0.5 throughout), indicating an equal preference for nitrate and ammonium uptake. Areas of high phytoplankton biomass were most likely fuelled by nitrate transported into the euphotic zone during temporally short bursts of upwelling on ˜weekly, rather than monthly time scales. When upwelling had relaxed, phytoplankton productivity was largely maintained by microbial regeneration in the euphotic zone. A large proportion (20-60%) of the phytoplankton biomass was comprised of picoplankton and nanoplankton cyanobacteria. However, rates of N 2 fixation were 2 orders of magnitude lower than dissolved inorganic N uptake, indicating that N 2-fixation did not significantly contribute to phytoplankton productivity during the study.

  10. Spatial and temporal variations of wave energy in the nearshore waters of the central west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amrutha, M. M.; Sanil Kumar, V.

    2016-12-01

    Assessment of wave power potential at different water depths and time is required for identifying a wave power plant location. This study examines the variation in wave power off the central west coast of India at water depths of 30, 9 and 5 m based on waverider buoy measured wave data. The study shows a significant reduction ( ˜ 10 to 27 %) in wave power at 9 m water depth compared to 30 m and the wave power available at 5 m water depth is 20 to 23 % less than that at 9 m. At 9 m depth, the seasonal mean value of the wave power varied from 1.6 kW m-1 in the post-monsoon period (ONDJ) to 15.2 kW m-1 in the Indian summer monsoon (JJAS) period. During the Indian summer monsoon period, the variation of wave power in a day is up to 32 kW m-1. At 9 m water depth, the mean annual wave power is 6 kW m-1 and interannual variations up to 19.3 % are observed during 2009-2014. High wave energy ( > 20 kW m-1) at the study area is essentially from the directional sector 245-270° and also 75 % of the total annual wave energy is from this narrow directional sector, which is advantageous while aligning the wave energy converter.

  11. Monitoring of impact of anthropogenic inputs on water quality of mangrove ecosystem of Uran, Navi Mumbai, west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Prabhakar R

    2013-10-15

    Surface water samples were collected from substations along Sheva creek and Dharamtar creek mangrove ecosystems of Uran (Raigad), Navi Mumbai, west coast of India. Water samples were collected fortnightly from April 2009 to March 2011 during spring low and high tides and were analyzed for pH, Temperature, Turbidity, Total solids (TS), Total dissolved solids (TDS), Total suspended solids (TSS), Dissolved oxygen (DO), Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), Carbon dioxide (CO2), Chemical oxygen demand (COD), Salinity, Orthophosphate (O-PO4), Nitrite-nitrogen (NO2-N), Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), and Silicates. Variables like pH, turbidity, TDS, salinity, DO, and BOD show seasonal variations. Higher content of O-PO4, NO3-N, and silicates is recorded due to discharge of domestic wastes and sewage, effluents from industries, oil tanking depots and also from maritime activities of Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust (JNPT), hectic activities of Container Freight Stations (CFS), and other port wastes. This study reveals that water quality from mangrove ecosystems of Uran is deteriorating due to industrial pollution and that mangrove from Uran is facing the threat due to anthropogenic stress.

  12. Atmospheric pollutants and their influence on acidification of rain water at an industrial location on the West Coast OF India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khemani, L. T.; Momin, G. A.; Rao, P. S. P.; Pillai, A. G.; Safai, P. D.; Mohan, K.; Rao, M. G.

    The chemical analysis of rain water samples at 11 locations along with measurements of atmospheric aerosols and their size distributions were made to study the influence of pollutants on acidification of rain water during the monsoon season of 1990 at Chembur-Trombay area, a highly industrialized belt in Bombay region located on the west coast of India. The concentrations of acid precursor gases, namely, SO 2 and NO, emanating from industries were low and their influence on acidification was limited to a few kilometer radius of their sources. Whereas, the deposition of ionic components (Na +, K +, Ca 2+, Mg 2+ and CI -) whose sources are natural (sea and soil) were uniformly distributed throughout the region as compared to those released from man-made sources. The high concentration of alkaline components, especially Ca 2+ from natural sources and NH 3 released from a fertilizer plant, were responsible for neutralising H + ion concentration generated from the acidic components (SO 42- and N0 3-). The variation from acidic (1970s) to alkaline (1990s) nature of rainwater in the area maybe due to the change in the use of fuel from coal to natural gas, which contains less sulphur and also, the pollution control measures taken by the industries.

  13. Food web of the intertidal rocky shore of the west Portuguese coast - Determined by stable isotope analysis.

    PubMed

    Vinagre, Catarina; Mendonça, Vanessa; Narciso, Luís; Madeira, Carolina

    2015-09-01

    The characterization of food web structure, energy pathways and trophic linkages is essential for the understanding of ecosystem functioning. Isotopic analysis was performed on food web components of the rocky intertidal ecosystem in four sites along the Portuguese west coast. The aim was to 1) determine the general food web structure, 2) estimate the trophic level of the dominant organisms and 3) track the incorporation of organic carbon of different origins in the diet of the top consumers. In this food web, fish are top consumers, followed by shrimp. Anemones and gastropods are intermediate consumers, while bivalves and zooplankton are primary consumers. Macroalgae Bifurcaria bifurcata, Ulva lactuca, Fucus vesiculosus, Codium sp. and phytoplankton are the dominant producers. Two energy pathways were identified, pelagic and benthic. Reliance on the benthic energy pathway was high for many of the consumers but not as high as previously observed in subtidal coastal food webs. The maximum TL was 3.3, which is indicative of a relatively short food web. It is argued that the diet of top consumers relies directly on low levels of the food web to a considerable extent, instead of on intermediate levels, which shortens the trophic length of the food web.

  14. Long-time trends in ship traffic noise for four sites off the North American West Coast.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Rex K; Howe, Bruce M; Mercer, James A

    2011-02-01

    Measurements (1994-2007) from four cabled-to-shore hydrophone systems located off the North American west coast permit extensive comparisons between "contemporary" low frequency ship traffic noise (25-50 Hz) collected in the past decade to measurements made over 1963-1965 with the same in-water equipment at the same sites. An increase of roughly 10 dB over the band 25-40 Hz at one site has already been reported [Andrew et al., Acoust. Res. Lett. Online 3(2), 65-70 (2002)]. Newly corrected data from the remaining three systems generally corroborate this increase. Simple linear trend lines of the contemporary traffic noise (duration 6 to 12+ years) show that recent levels are slightly increasing, holding steady, or decreasing. These results confirm the prediction by Ross that the rate of increase in traffic noise would be far less at the end of the 20th century compared to that observed in the 1950s and 1960s.

  15. A possible transoceanic tsunami directed toward the U.S. west coast from the Semidi segment, Alaska convergent margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von Huene, Roland; Miller, John J.; Dartnell, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The Semidi segment of the Alaska convergent margin appears capable of generating a giant tsunami like the one produced along the nearby Unimak segment in 1946. Reprocessed legacy seismic reflection data and a compilation of multibeam bathymetric surveys reveal structures that could generate such a tsunami. A 200 km long ridge or escarpment with crests >1 km high is the surface expression of an active out-of-sequence fault zone, recently referred to as a splay fault. Such faults are potentially tsunamigenic. This type of fault zone separates the relatively rigid rock of the margin framework from the anelastic accreted sediment prism. Seafloor relief of the ridge exceeds that of similar age accretionary prism ridges indicating preferential slip along the splay fault zone. The greater slip may derive from Quaternary subduction of the Patton Murray hot spot ridge that extends 200 km toward the east across the north Pacific. Estimates of tsunami repeat times from paleotsunami studies indicate that the Semidi segment could be near the end of its current inter-seismic cycle. GPS records from Chirikof Island at the shelf edge indicate 90% locking of plate interface faults. An earthquake in the shallow Semidi subduction zone could generate a tsunami that will inundate the US west coast more than the 1946 and 1964 earthquakes because the Semidi continental slope azimuth directs a tsunami southeastward.

  16. Potential Sedimentary Evidence of Two Closely Spaced Tsunamis on the West Coast of Aceh, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monecke, Katrin; Meilianda, Ella; Rushdy, Ibnu; Moena, Abudzar; Yolanda, Irvan P.

    2016-04-01

    Recent research in the coastal regions of Aceh, Indonesia, an area that was largely affected by the 2004 Sumatra Andaman earthquake and ensuing Indian Ocean tsunami, suggests the possibility that two closely spaced tsunamis occurred at the turn of the 14th to 15th century (Meltzner et al., 2010; Sieh et al., 2015). Here, we present evidence of two buried sand layers in the coastal marshes of West Aceh, possibly representing these penultimate predecessors of the 2004 tsunami. We discovered the sand layers in an until recently inaccessible area of a previously studied beach ridge plain about 15 km North of Meulaboh, West Aceh. Here, the 2004 tsunami left a continuous, typically a few cm thick sand sheet in the coastal hinterland in low-lying swales that accumulate organic-rich deposits and separate the sandy beach ridges. In keeping with the long-term progradation of the coastline, older deposits have to be sought after further inland. Using a hand auger, the buried sand layers were discovered in 3 cores in a flooded and highly vegetated swale in about 1 km distance to the shoreline. The pair of sand layers occurs in 70-100 cm depth and overlies 40-60 cm of dark-brown peat that rests on the basal sand of the beach ridge plain. The lower sand layer is only 1-6 cm thick, whereas the upper layer is consistently thicker, measuring 11-17 cm, with 8-14 cm of peat in between sand sheets. Both layers consist of massive, grey, medium sand and include plant fragments. They show very sharp upper and lower boundaries clearly distinguishing them from the surrounding peat and indicating an abrupt depositional event. A previously developed age model for sediments of this beach ridge plain suggest that this pair of layers could indeed correlate to a nearby buried sand sheet interpreted as tsunamigenic and deposited soon after 1290-1400AD (Monecke et al., 2008). The superb preservation at this new site allows the clear distinction of two depositional events, which, based on a first

  17. GLORIA mosaic of west coast U. S. Exclusive Economic Zone, southern sector

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, J.V.; Edwards, B.D.; Field, M.E.; McCulloch, D.S.; Kenyon, N.H.; Masson, D.G.

    1986-05-01

    The long-range side-scan sonar system GLORIA was used to produce digitally enhanced mosaics of the sea floor of the entire US Exclusive Economic Zone. The data resolution, about 50 x 50 m, provides a mesoscale reconnaissance that reveals the continuity and extent of bottom features, some of which were previously unrecognized. The transform continental margin from the Mendocino Escarpment to the US-Mexican border is cut by numerous submarine canyons and gullies of varied size and complexity. The number, size, and extent of gullies appear directly related to the underlying bed-rock geology. Surprisingly, relatively few slumps and slump scarps are apparent. Submarine fans characterize the basins adjacent to the margin in this sector. The fans vary in size and complexity: relatively small, immature fans of the borderland basins, such as Redondo and Hueneme; fans intermediate in size and age, such as Arguello and Farallon; and large, relatively mature fans, such as Monterey and Delgada. Most fans have well-defined depositional lobes at the distal reach of a single channel. Distributary channels are not apparent on all fans, and on some (e.g., Monterey Fan), the single channel can be seen in seismic reflection profiles to have originated on or close to the basement, directly below its present position. The older depositional lobes that have been identified on the fan systems are adjacent to the present main channel, which implies that channel avulsion is not always a process that accompanies fan growth. Seamounts are prominent features in the region, ranging in number from hundreds in the Baja Seamount province to tens in the region west of San Francisco. The gradient of increasing numbers of exposed seamounts and volcanic ridges from north to south is a direct result of decreasing sediment supply from the continent to the south.

  18. High Prevalence of Screen Detected Prostate Cancer in West Africans: Implications for Racial Disparity of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hsing, Ann W.; Yeboah, Edward; Biritwum, Richard; Tettey, Yao; De Marzo, Angelo M.; Adjei, Andrew; Netto, George J.; Yu, Kai; Li, Yan; Chokkalingam, Anand P.; Chu, Lisa W.; Chia, David; Partin, Alan; Thompson, Ian M.; Quraishi, Sabah M.; Niwa, Shelley; Tarone, Robert; Hoover, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To our knowledge the reasons for the high rates of prostate cancer in black American men are unknown. Genetic and lifestyle factors have been implicated. Better understanding of prostate cancer rates in West African men would help clarify why black American men have such high rates since the groups share genetic ancestry and yet have different lifestyles and screening practices. To estimate the prostate cancer burden in West African men we performed a population based screening study with biopsy confirmation in Ghana. Materials and Methods We randomly selected 1,037 healthy men 50 to 74 years old from Accra, Ghana for prostate cancer screening with prostate specific antigen testing and digital rectal examination. Men with a positive screen result (positive digital rectal examination or prostate specific antigen greater than 2.5 ng/ml) underwent transrectal ultrasound guided biopsies. Results Of the 1,037 men 154 (14.9%) had a positive digital rectal examination and 272 (26.2%) had prostate specific antigen greater than 2.5 ng/ml, including 166 with prostate specific antigen greater than 4.0 ng/ml. A total of 352 men (33.9%) had a positive screen by prostate specific antigen or digital rectal examination and 307 (87%) underwent biopsy. Of these men 73 were confirmed to have prostate cancer, yielding a 7.0% screen detected prostate cancer prevalence (65 patients), including 5.8% with prostate specific antigen greater than 4.0 ng/ml. Conclusions In this relatively unscreened population in Africa the screen detected prostate cancer prevalence is high, suggesting a possible role of genetics in prostate cancer etiology and the disparity in prostate cancer risk between black and white American men. Further studies are needed to confirm the high prostate cancer burden in African men and the role of genetics in prostate cancer etiology. PMID:24747091

  19. Geohydrology, Geochemistry, and Ground-Water Simulation-Optimization of the Central and West Coast Basins, Los Angeles County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reichard, Eric G.; Land, Michael; Crawford, Steven M.; Johnson, Tyler D.; Everett, Rhett; Kulshan, Trayle V.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Halford, Keith L.; Johnson, Theodore A.; Paybins, Katherine S.; Nishikawa, Tracy

    2003-01-01

    Historical ground-water development of the Central and West Coast Basins in Los Angeles County, California through the first half of the 20th century caused large water-level declines and induced seawater intrusion. Because of this, the basins were adjudicated and numerous ground-water management activities were implemented, including increased water spreading, construction of injection barriers, increased delivery of imported water, and increased use of reclaimed water. In order to improve the scientific basis for these water management activities, an extensive data collection program was undertaken, geohydrological and geochemical analyses were conducted, and ground-water flow simulation and optimization models were developed. In this project, extensive hydraulic, geologic, and chemical data were collected from new multiple-well monitoring sites. On the basis of these data and data compiled and collected from existing wells, the regional geohydrologic framework was characterized. For the purposes of modeling, the three-dimensional aquifer system was divided into four aquifer systems?the Recent, Lakewood, Upper San Pedro, and Lower San Pedro aquifer systems. Most pumpage in the two basins is from the Upper San Pedro aquifer system. Assessment of the three-dimensional geochemical data provides insight into the sources of recharge and the movement and age of ground water in the study area. Major-ion data indicate the chemical character of water containing less than 500 mg/L dissolved solids generally grades from calcium-bicarbonate/sulfate to sodium bicarbonate. Sodium-chloride water, high in dissolved solids, is present in wells near the coast. Stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen provide information on sources of recharge to the basin, including imported water and water originating in the San Fernando Valley, San Gabriel Valley, and the coastal plain and surrounding hills. Tritium and carbon-14 data provide information on relative ground-water ages. Water with

  20. Genetic diversity, introgression and relationships among West/Central African cattle breeds

    PubMed Central

    Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline Mengwi; Jann, Oliver Carl; Weimann, Christina; Erhardt, Georg

    2004-01-01

    Genetic diversity, introgression and relationships were studied in 521 individuals from 9 African Bos indicus and 3 Bos taurus cattle breeds in Cameroon and Nigeria using genotype information on 28 markers (16 microsatellite, 7 milk protein and 5 blood protein markers). The genotypes of 13 of the 16 microsatellite markers studied on three European (German Angus, German Simmental and German Yellow) and two Indian (Nelore and Ongole) breeds were used to assess the relationships between them and the African breeds. Diversity levels at microsatellite loci were higher in the zebu than in the taurine breeds and were generally similar for protein loci in the breeds in each group. Microsatellite allelic distribution displayed groups of alleles specific to the Indian zebu, African taurine and European taurine. The level of the Indian zebu genetic admixture proportions in the African zebus was higher than the African taurine and European taurine admixture proportions, and ranged from 58.1% to 74.0%. The African taurine breed, Muturu was free of Indian zebu genes while its counter Namchi was highly introgressed (30.2%). Phylogenic reconstruction and principal component analysis indicate close relationships among the zebu breeds in Cameroon and Nigeria and a large genetic divergence between the main cattle groups – African taurine, European taurine and Indian zebu, and a central position for the African zebus. The study presents the first comprehensive information on the hybrid composition of the individual cattle breeds of Cameroon and Nigeria and the genetic relationships existing among them and other breeds outside of Africa. Strong evidence supporting separate domestication events for the Bos species is also provided. PMID:15496287

  1. Green house emissions, inventories and evaluation of marine environment visa vis offshore oil field development activities Bombay high (west coast) upstream petroleum sector, India

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, J.S.; Ahmed, S.; Negi, C.V.S.; Nainwal, D.R.

    1996-12-31

    Wide use of petroleum products contributes significant amount of emission to the global environment and hence maintaining emission inventories are of great importance while assessing the global green house emissions. The present paper describes a brief account of green house emission and inventories for CO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x}, HC particulate and SO{sub 2} emissions generated due to upstream petroleum sector activities viz. discharges of gaseous emission, combustion of Natural Gas anti HSD from production and drilling facilities of Bombay offshore area located in Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) west coast of India. Besides, authors have also given an account on west coast marine base line status including impact of oil field activities on marine ecosystem.

  2. Sclerochronology of Holocene oyster shells (Crassostrea gigas) from the West Coast of Bohai Sea, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, C.; Koeniger, P.; Wang, H.; Frechen, M.

    2009-04-01

    Sclerochronology, the study of periodic increments in skeletal organisms, can decipher the life history and environmental records preserved in fossil shells. Although there have been a number of studies that apply isotopic analyses to shells in open ocean and fresh water, investigations for brackish environments are rare. One of the common inhabitants in estuaries is the Crassostrea oyster. Kirby et al. (1998) demonstrated a close correspondence between the ligamental increments of convex and concave bands and yearly ^18O cycles; Andrus and Crowe (2000) found a close correspondence between translucent growth bands on the cross-section of the hinge and yearly ^18O cycles. They conclude that the morphological features on hinge and growth bands on the cross-section are formed annually and can be used to determine accurately age and growth rate in this species. However, Surge et al. (2001) could not find that these morphologic features have seasonal significance in the C. virginica shells. Therefore, these concave ridges are not reliable independent proxies of seasonality. These studies were carried out with C. virginica shells; none was studied with nature C. gigas, which was widely distributed along the Pacific coastal area. C. gigas has been introduced from its native home to all over the world, ranging from North America to Australia and Europe; it has become an important commercial harvest in many of these places. Buried Holocene oyster shells of C. gigas were sampled from a huge buried oyster reef on the West of Bohai Sea, China. One of these shells was selected for high resolution micro-sampling and stable isotope analyses testing the assumption that C. gigas ligamental increments are annual in nature. We analyzed 236 consecutive samples from the shell to show that morphologic features both on hinge and cross-section are annual by comparing them to the ^18O profiles. We tested the assumption that the morphologic features of C.gigas are delineated by convex tops

  3. Possible magmatic underplating beneath the west coast of India and adjoining Dharwar craton: Imprint from Archean crustal evolution to breakup of India and Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, Utpal; Das, Ritima; Rai, S. S.

    2017-03-01

    The shear wave velocity of the crust along a ∼660 km profile from the west to the east coast of South India is mapped through the joint inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group velocity. The profile, consisting of 38 broadband seismic stations, covers the Archean Dharwar craton, Proterozoic Cuddapah basin, and rifted margin and escarpment. The Moho is mapped at a depth of ∼40 km beneath the mid-Archean Western Dharwar Craton (WDC), Cuddapah Basin (CB), and the west and east coasts formed through the rifting process. This is in contrast with a thin (∼35 km) crust beneath the late-Archean Eastern Dharwar Craton (EDC). Along the profile, the average thickness of the upper, middle and lower crust is ∼4 km, 12 ± 4 km and 24 ± 4 km respectively. Above the Moho, we observe a high-velocity layer (HVL, Vs > 4 km/s) of variable thickness increasing from 3 ± 1 km beneath the EDC to 11 ± 3 km beneath the WDC and the CB, and 18 ± 2 km beneath the west coast of India. The seismic wave velocity in this layer is greater than typical oceanic lower crust. We interpret the high-velocity layer as a signature of magmatic underplating due to past tectonic processes. Its significant thinning beneath the EDC may be attributed to crustal delamination or relamination at 2.5 Ga. These results demonstrate the dual signature of the Archean Dharwar crust. The change in the geochemical character of the crust possibly occurred at the end of Archean when Komatiite volcanism ceased. The unusually thick HVL beneath the west coast of India and the adjoining region may represent underplated material formed due to India-Madagascar rifting, which is supported by the presence of seaward dipping reflectors and a 85-90 Ma mafic dyke in the adjoining island.

  4. 75 FR 78229 - Record of Decision for the U.S. Marine Corps West Coast Basing of the F-35B Aircraft

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ... legacy F/A-18A/B/C/D Hornet and 56 AV-8B Harrier aircraft in the Third Marine Air Wing (3D MAW) and 4th... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Record of Decision for the U.S. Marine Corps West Coast Basing of the F-35B...

  5. Missionary Education in West Africa: A Study of Pedagogical Ambition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ustorf, Werner

    2011-01-01

    The history of the North German Mission Society (established 1836 in Hamburg) and its activity on the West African coast (from 1847 onwards among the Ewe, in what is now Ghana and Togo where it was and still is known as the "Bremen Mission") mirrors neatly the various phases of the idea of "mission": its composite motivation…

  6. Observations of organic trace gases during ITCT: Characterization of sources, background, and long-range transport to the US West coast and eastern Pacific atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atlas, E.; Donnelly, S.; Stroud, V.; Schauffler, S.; Johnson, K.; Schwaller, N.; Hubler, G.; Parrish, D.; Holloway, J.; Trainer, M.

    2002-12-01

    The NOAA ITCT (Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation) mission examined the processes that impact the chemical composition of the atmosphere in the eastern North Pacific Ocean and along the West Coast of the United States. The mission took place during April - May, 2002, when long-range transport to the US West Coast from downwind sources in Asia and beyond is most favorable. As part of the atmospheric chemistry payload on the NOAA P3 aircraft, whole air samples were collected for analysis of a variety of organic trace gases, including methane, NMHC, halocarbons, organic nitrates, and selected sulfur species. Mission flight tracks were designed to examine regions characteristic of the background atmosphere, and regions impacted by specific point sources, larger urban sources, and long-range transport. In this presentation we summarize the organic trace gas measurements and relationships from the whole air samples, characterize signatures of emissions from the west coast urban areas, and identify signatures of long-range trans-Pacific transport.

  7. Combined use of PAH levels and EROD activities in the determination of PAH pollution in flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus) caught from the West Black Sea coast of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bozcaarmutlu, Azra; Sapmaz, Canan; Kaleli, Gizem; Turna, Sema; Yenisoy-Karakaş, Serpil

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution by measuring PAH levels and 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activities in flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus) samples caught from the West Black Sea coast of Turkey. The fish samples were caught in August 2008-2011. The levels of 13 PAHs were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the liver of fish. Most of the measured PAHs had three rings (low molecular weight). The frequencies of detection of PAHs were higher in fish samples caught from Zonguldak Harbour and Gülüç Stream Mouth than those from Sakarya River Mouth, Amasra and Kefken. EROD activities and cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) protein level were also measured in the fish liver microsomes. Highly elevated EROD activities and CYP1A levels were measured in the mullet samples caught from Zonguldak Harbour and Gülüç Stream than those from Amasra and Kefken. The detection of PAHs in the liver of fish samples shows recent exposure to PAHs. The chemical analyses of PAHs and EROD activity results together reflected the extent of PAH pollution in the livers of fish caught from the West Black Sea coast of Turkey. The results indicate that Zonguldak Harbour is the most polluted site in the West Black Sea coast of Turkey.

  8. Interannual- to multicentiennial-scale variability in the West African Monsoon during the Eemian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, N. P.; Overpeck, J. T.; Shanahan, T. M.; Peck, J. A.; King, J. W.; Scholz, C. A.; Heil, C. W.

    2011-12-01

    The Eemian was the last interglacial period prior to the Holocene, lasting from 130 to 118 ka. Whereas annual insolation during the Eemian was comparable to the Holocene, the substantial differences in seasonal forcing and the reduced extent of continental ice sheets make the interval an important benchmark for understanding how altered climatic forcing drives changes in both global and regional climate. Climate variability during the period is, however, poorly understood, especially on annual to decadal timescales. Here we present the initial results of 4,000-yr-long annually-resolved varve record from the Lake Bosumtwi from the early Eemian (ca. 130 to 126 ka). Lake Bosumtwi (6.5°N, 1.4°W) is a 1.07 Ma impact crater lake in southern Ghana. The lake is hydrologically closed, and is relatively small, and consequently, is particularly sensitive to changes in effective moisture and the West African Monsoon (WAM). In 2004, an ICDP lake drilling expedition recovered the complete 291-m sediment sequence that spans the 1 Myr history of the lake. More than half of the 1 Myr sediment sequence appears to be annually laminated, including the late Holocene. This allows us the rare opportunity to compare long, annually-resolved records between interglacials. We analyzed the varve sequence for major element composition at 25-μm resolution using a high-resolution scanning X-ray fluorescence analyzer (or μXRF). The abundance of terrestrial elements (i.e., Al, Si, K, Ti) in the sediments, as inferred by XRF, has been shown to be a proxy for lake level at Lake Bosumtwi. During the Holocene, lake level in Lake Bosumtwi generally tracked summer insolation; for most of the early Holocene lake level was near the crater rim and the lake overflowed. Summer insolation was substantially higher during the early Eemian (up to 30 W m-2), however there is no evidence of comparably high lake level at Lake Bosumtwi during any part of last interglacial. In contrast, abundant evidence from the

  9. Interannual vs decadal SST forced responses of the West African monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Fonseca, Belen

    2010-05-01

    One of the strongest interdecadal signals on the planet has been observed in the Sahelian rainfall during the second half of the XXth century, from wet conditions in the 50's and 60's to drier conditions after the 70's. Parallel to this, several decadal signals have experienced a change from the 70's, and also the influence of the global warming has increased from this decade. From a global perspective the West African rainfall variability is highly modulated by SST forced signals. Many works have pointed out to the Atlantic and Pacific equatorial modes influence on interannual timescales; and to the AMO and the Pacific and Indian Ocean at multidecadal timescales. In the AMMA-EU context the modulation of the interannual modes by the decadal variability together with the influence of the GW has been studied by analysing the interannual modes of variability before and after the 70's. The results indicate the presence of different interannual telecconections between these two periods and, hence, of different anomalous rainfall responses. The importance of the background state modulated by multidecadal variability in the interannual modes is stated in this work. Also, an interesting discussion appears if we wonder whether or not the background state is affected, in turn, by anthropogenic climate change. Recent observational and GCM studies have shown, following the results of Polo et al. (2008), how the Atlantic and Pacific Niños present a dynamical link during the last decades of the XX century (Rodriguez-Fonseca et al., 2009). In this way, the positive (negative) phase of the summer Pacific Niño signal has been found to be connected with a negative (positive) phase of the Equatorial Atlantic mode (EM or Atlantic Niño, Polo et al., 2008); a pattern which leads the summer Atlantic variability. The determinant impact of this connection on the WA monsoon has been addressed by defining a global summer tropical mode accounting for more than the 60% of the rainfall

  10. Satellite sea surface temperatures along the West Coast of the United States during the 2014-2016 northeast Pacific marine heat wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentemann, Chelle L.; Fewings, Melanie R.; García-Reyes, Marisol

    2017-01-01

    From January 2014 to August 2016, sea surface temperatures (SSTs) along the Washington, Oregon, and California coasts were significantly warmer than usual, reaching a maximum SST anomaly of 6.2°C off Southern California. This marine heat wave occurred alongside the Gulf of Alaska marine heat wave and resulted in major disturbances in the California Current ecosystem and massive economic impacts. Here we use satellite and blended reanalysis products to report the magnitude, extent, duration, and evolution of SSTs and wind stress anomalies along the West Coast of the continental United States during this event. Nearshore SST anomalies along the entire coast were persistent during the marine heat wave, and only abated seasonally, during spring upwelling-favorable wind stress. The coastal marine heat wave weakened in July 2016 and disappeared by September 2016.

  11. African ancestry is associated with risk of asthma and high total serum IgE in a population from the Caribbean Coast of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Candelaria; Caraballo, Luis; Mercado, Dilia; Jimenez, Silvia; Rojas, Winston; Rafaels, Nicholas; Hand, Tracey; Campbell, Monica; Tsai, Yuhjung J; Gao, Li; Duque, Constanza; Lopez, Sergio; Bedoya, Gabriel; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Barnes, Kathleen C

    2009-06-01

    African descended populations exhibit an increased prevalence of asthma and allergies compared to Europeans. One approach to distinguish between environmental and genetic explanations for this difference is to study relationships of asthma risk to individual admixture. We aimed to determine the admixture proportions of a case-control sample from the Caribbean Coast of Colombia currently participating in genetic studies for asthma, and to test for population stratification and association between African ancestry and asthma and total serum IgE levels (tIgE). We genotyped 368 asthmatics and 365 non-asthmatics for 52 autosomal ancestry informative markers, six mtDNA haplogroups and nine haplogroups and five microsatellites in Y chromosome. Autosomal admixture proportions, population stratification, and associations between ancestry and the phenotypes were estimated by ADMIXMAP. The average admixture proportions among asthmatics were 42.8% European, 39.9% African and 17.2% Native American and among non-asthmatics they were 44.2% (P = 0.068), 37.6% (P = 0.007) and 18.1% (P = 0.050), respectively. In the total sample, the paternal contributions were 71% European, 25% African and 4.0% Native American and the maternal lineages were 56.8% Native American, and 20.2% African; 22.9% of the individuals carried other non-Native American mtDNA haplogroups. African ancestry was significantly associated with asthma (OR: 2.97; 95% CI: 1.08-8.08), high tIgE (OR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.17-3.12) and socioeconomic status (OR = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.47-0.87). Significant population stratification was observed in this sample. Our findings indicate that genetic factors can explain the association between asthma and African ancestry and suggest that this sample is a useful resource for performing admixture mapping for asthma.

  12. Geochemistry of Archean Mafic Amphibolites from the Amsaga Area, West African Craton, Mauritania: Occurrence of Archean oceanic plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Atrassi, Fatima; Debaille, Vinciane; Mattielli, Nadine; Berger, Julien

    2015-04-01

    While Archean terrains are mainly composed of a TTG (Tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite) suite, more mafic lithologies such as amphibolites are also a typical component of those ancient terrains. Although mafic rocks represent only ~10% of the Archean cratons, they may provide key evidence of the role and nature of basaltic magmatism in the formation of the Archean crust as well as the evolution of the Archean mantle. This study focuses on the Archean crust from the West African craton in Mauritania (Amsaga area). The Amsaga Archean crust mainly consists of TTG and thrust-imbricated slices of mafic volcanic rocks, which have been affected by polymetamorphic events from the amphibolite to granulite facies. We report the results of a combined petrologic, Sm-Nd isotopic, major element and rare earth element (REE) study of the Archean amphibolites in the West African craton. This study was conducted in order to characterize these rocks, to constrain the time of their formation and to evaluate their tectonic setting and their possible mantle source. Our petrological observations show that these amphibolites have fine to medium granoblastic and nematoblastic textures. They are dominated by amphibolite-facies mineral assemblages (mainly amphibole and plagioclase), but garnet and clinopyroxene occur in a few samples. These amphibolites have tholeiitic basalt composition. On a primitive mantle-normalized diagram, they display fairly flat patterns without negative anomalies for either Eu or Nb-Ta. We have shown using Sm-Nd whole rock isotopic data that these amphibolites formed at 3.3 ±0.075 Ga. They have positive ɛNdi values (+5.2 ± 1.6). These samples show isotopically juvenile features, which rule out the possibility of significant contamination of the protolith magmas by ancient continental crust. Based on these geochemical data we propose that the tholeiitic basalts were formed in an oceanic plateau tectonic setting from a mantle plume source and that they have a

  13. Environmental magnetism and excursion record of the Pleistocene-Holocene transition in marine cores, West Coast South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, F. E.; Wilson, G. S.; Party, Shipboard

    2009-04-01

    Homologous ARM susceptibility (κARM) and magnetic susceptibility (κ) records from u-channel samples of five short cores (TAN0712 cores 14, 15, 17, 23, 27) record the Pleistocene - Holocene transition off the West Coast of the South Island, New Zealand. Cores were collected in water depths ranging from 880-2817 m. Cores 14, 15 and 17 are situated along the north levee of Moeraki Canyon. Cores 15 and 17 are kasten cores that record a relatively homogeneous concentration of single domain (SD) grains. Core 14 is a piston core slightly closer to the edge of Moeraki Canyon. From end of core (EOC) at 3.2 m to 0.75 m, the dominance of κ indicates coarse, multi-domain (MD) magnetic grains; however, low κ units (10-20 cms thick) occur at a mean interval of 0.71 m (n=3). Cores 23 and 27 are situated on the north-west margin of Milford Basin. Variations in magnetic mineral concentration in core 23 occur approximately every 26 cm. Fast Fourier Transform analysis confirms the 26 cm cycle, although it has relatively low spectral power. Core 27 also has a short interval of variable concentration. This variation in 'magnetisability' is inferred to result from fluctuating carbonate concentrations during the glacial period leading up to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). All three longer piston cores (27, 23, 14) contain a coarse MD interval ranging from 0.35-1 m in thickness, which we infer to represent influx of outwash at the termination of the LGM. Overlying this interval, all five cores display a consistent SD signal inferred to represent hemipelagic sedimentation during the Holocene. Possible geomagnetic excursions are recorded in four of the cores. An inclination transition to 34.2∘ combined with a 180∘ declination transition and NRM intensity low at 0.35-0.39 m in core 17 suggests a true geomagnetic excursion. Core 15 also has inclination shallowing and an intensity low at 0.45 m. An older excursion in core 27 at 2.54-2.69 m and in core 14 at ~2.8 m may correlate. The

  14. The relationship between African easterly waves and daily rainfall over West Africa: observations and regional climate simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crétat, Julien; Vizy, Edward K.; Cook, Kerry H.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between summer African easterly waves (AEWs) and daily rainfall is assessed in West Africa for 1998-2008 using various reanalyses, satellite-derived rainfall products, and a regional climate model (RCM) run at 90- and 30-km resolutions. 3-5 and 6-9 day AEWs are extracted by filtering daily 700 hPa meridional wind time series at 1°W and 11.5°N, and 1°W and 17.5°N, respectively. Both observed and simulated rainfall anomalies are of larger magnitude over West Africa during 3-5-d than 6-9-d AEWs. The RCM simulates larger rainfall rates in phase with the 3-5-d wave trough instead of ahead, unlike the observations, and overestimates the intensity and spatial coverage of rainfall associated with 6-9-d AEWs. The observed and simulated co-variability between 3-5-d (6-9-d) AEW activity and daily rainfall is strong (weak) and mostly located south (north) of 15°N. However, the RCM overestimates the spatial coverage of the AEW-rainfall relationship in the longitudinal (latitudinal) direction in the case of 3-5-d (6-9-d) AEWs. Observed and simulated daily intense rainfall events, extracted using a percentile threshold approach, are mostly located south of 15°N during summer. The observed relationship between their frequency of occurrence and active 3-5-d AEWs is maximal west of 8°E, while extends up to southern Chad in both RCM simulations. Their magnitude is also largely overestimated by the RCM, indicating an exaggerated coupling between the wave activity and the convection. Finally, observed and simulated 3-5-d AEWs establish the most favorable synoptic conditions for the development of intense rainfall events over West Africa.

  15. Quantification of Coastal Macro Algae Iodine Emissions and its Spatial Variability at the West Coast of Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöhler, Denis; Horbanski, Martin; Schmitt, Stefan; Platt, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    Reactive iodine species are emitted by macro algae in the intertidal zone of coastal sites during low tide. Due to the oxidation to iodine oxide (IO) and thus reduction of ozone, they may have a significant influence on the local atmosphere. Further high iodine oxide levels may act as precursors for particle formation and therefore have a potential impact on climate. A correlation between iodine oxide and particle formation could be observed in previous field studies. However, previous measurements of iodine and iodine oxide have been performed only at very few sites, mainly at the atmospheric research station Mace Head located at the west coast of Ireland. An observation of the dominant sources, the spatial distribution and the impact on larger scales was not possible so far. To investigate these questions we performed intensive measurements at eight different sites along the west coast of Ireland in 2011 and 2012. Therefore, we applied a mobile Long Path (LP)-DOAS for path averaged IO measurements and a mobile Cavity Enhanced (CE)- DOAS instrument for in-situ IO measurements at different locations. Additionally, a static Long Path-DOAS system for IO, OIO and I2 measurements located at Mace Head was applied. This allows comparing directly different locations with the reference station Mace Head without the influence of locally varying meteorology and comparing results also to former observations. We could confirm previous results that the macro algae species Laminaria digitata is the strongest iodine emitting algae. However, we observed significant differences to former investigations and conclusions. First, iodine oxide concentrations were much higher (typically factor of 10 and more) on every measuring site compared to Mace Head. IO reaching levels up to 40ppt observed with the LP-DOAS and 70ppt @ 1.2m height with the CE-DOAS. Second, we found out that Laminaria digitata is not a dominant iodine source to the atmosphere, while Ascophyllum nodosum due to its high

  16. Late Pleistocene glacial stratigraphy of the Kumara-Moana region, West Coast of South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrows, Timothy T.; Almond, Peter; Rose, Robert; Keith Fifield, L.; Mills, Stephanie C.; Tims, Stephen G.

    2013-08-01

    On the South Island of New Zealand, large piedmont glaciers descended from an ice cap on the Southern Alps onto the coastal plain of the West Coast during the late Pleistocene. The series of moraine belts and outwash plains left by the Taramakau glacier are used as a type section for interpreting the glacial geology and timing of major climatic events of New Zealand and also as a benchmark for comparison with the wider Southern Hemisphere. In this paper we review the chronology of advances by the Taramakau glacier during the last or Otira Glaciation using a combination of exposure dating using the cosmogenic nuclides 10Be and 36Cl, and tephrochronology. We document three distinct glacial maxima, represented by the Loopline, Larrikins and Moana Formations, separated by brief interstadials. We find that the Loopline Formation, originally attributed to Oxygen Isotope Chronozone 4, is much younger than previously thought, with an advance culminating around 24,900 ± 800 yr. The widespread late Pleistocene Kawakawa/Oruanui tephra stratigraphically lies immediately above it. This Formation has the same age previously attributed to the older part of the Larrikins Formation. Dating of the Larrikins Formation demonstrates there is no longer a basis for subdividing it into older and younger phases with an advance lasting about 1000 years between 20,800 ± 500 to 20,000 ± 400 yr. The Moana Formation represents the deposits of the last major advance of ice at 17,300 ± 500 yr and is younger than expected based on limited previous dating. The timing of major piedmont glaciation is restricted to between ˜25,000 and 17,000 yr and this interval corresponds to a time of regionally cold sea surface temperatures, expansion of grasslands at the expense of forest on South Island, and hemisphere wide glaciation.

  17. Interaction Of Mesoscale Convective Systems With The Land - Sea Breezes Along The Guinea Coast Of West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulibaly, A.; Omotosho, B. J.; Sylla, M. B.; Fink, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    1-3 hourly METARS/SYNOP observation data of wind (speed and direction), air temperature over land, covering the period 1983-2012, were used in order to characterize land-sea breezes (LSB) over five coastline stations (Abidjan, Accra, Lomé, Cotonou and Ikeja-Lagos) in the Guinean Coast, West Africa. In additional to this, 8 years (2003-2010) sea surface temperature (SST) data from adjacent Atlantic Ocean and monthly METARS/SYNOP observation data of precipitation (1983-2012) were also used. Based on wind speed and direction, the wind roses of all months over all stations have been plotted. These wind roses reveal that, globally, the northerly winds occurred rarely for the months of February, March, and April at Cotonou (Benin Republic).This is seen for other stations (Lomé and Accra). The night/morning time northerly winds appear at all stations, except Accra where there is no northerly wind or is very weak. According to the stations basis, the period of that night/morning northerly winds varies, except in summer period (July - September), where the normal s/w monsoon winds can weaken override at all stations. Set criteria based on the diurnal reversal of wind direction, and the thermal gradient necessary to drive the wind circulation, was used to identify land-sea breeze days. On station-wide basis, sea-breezes occur, at least all period of year, but less frequent in the summer months, where the minimum value of monthly mean temperature gradient is observed for selected stations.

  18. Heavy metal concentrations in some macrobenthic fauna of the Sundarbans mangrove forest, south west coast of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Kawser; Mehedi, Yousuf; Haque, Rezaul; Mondol, Pulakesh

    2011-06-01

    Heavy metal concentrations in some macrobenthic fauna have been reported for the first time from the Sundarbans mangrove forest, south west coast of Bangladesh, in the northern part of Bay of Bengal. The concentration of Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in macrobenthos ranged from 235 ± 10.11 to 1,051 ± 38.42, 3.66 ± 0.89 to 7.55 ± 1.29, 76.8 ± 8.55 to 98.5 ± 6.49, 0.46 ± 0.11 to 0.859 ± 0.2 and 4.66 ± 1.17 to 6.77 ± 2.1 μg/g, respectively. Significant variations (p ≤ 0.05) in heavy metal concentrations have been observed among the mud crab, mudskipper and gastropod. However, heavy metal burdens did not vary significantly among the hermit and horseshoe crabs. In mud crab, horseshoe crab and gastropod, heavy metal concentrations were recorded in the sequence: Fe > Zn > Pb > Cu > Cd. Hermit crab and mudskipper contained heavy metals in the order of Fe > Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd. Fe and Zn concentrations were found significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher in macrobenthos. The lead (Pb) concentration found in the edible portion of macrobenthos exceeded the international permissible limits certified by the WHO. Bioconcentration factors >1.00 obtained for Fe (17.05 in mudskipper) and Cd (1.87 in gastropod) indicated that these metals were highly bioaccumulated and biomagnified in benthic fauna of Sundarbans. The findings of this study refer to the potential impact of heavy metals in the mangrove ecosystem of Bangladesh.

  19. The ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita phalloides was introduced and is expanding its range on the west coast of North America.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Anne; Adams, Rachel I; Cross, Hugh B; Bruns, Thomas D

    2009-03-01

    The deadly poisonous Amanita phalloides is common along the west coast of North America. Death cap mushrooms are especially abundant in habitats around the San Francisco Bay, California, but the species grows as far south as Los Angeles County and north to Vancouver Island, Canada. At different times, various authors have considered the species as either native or introduced, and the question of whether A. phalloides is an invasive species remains unanswered. We developed four novel loci and used these in combination with the EF1α and IGS loci to explore the phylogeography of the species. The data provide strong evidence for a European origin of North American populations. Genetic diversity is generally greater in European vs. North American populations, suggestive of a genetic bottleneck; polymorphic sites of at least two loci are only polymorphic within Europe although the number of individuals sampled from Europe was half the number sampled from North America. Endemic alleles are not a feature of North American populations, although alleles unique to different parts of Europe were common and were discovered in Scandinavian, mainland French, and Corsican individuals. Many of these endemic European haplotypes were found together at single sites in California. Early collections of A. phalloides dated prior to 1963 and annotated using sequences of the ITS locus proved to be different species of Amanita. The first Californian collections that we confirmed as A. phalloides were made from the Del Monte Hotel (now the Naval Postgraduate School) in Monterey, and on the campus of the University of California, Berkeley, in 1938 and in 1945. These historical data are used in combination with data on A. phalloides' current distribution to estimate a rate of spread for A. phalloides in California. Many species of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi have been introduced across and among continents, but with this evidence, the death cap becomes the only known invasive EM fungus in

  20. Shifts in condition and distribution of eastern North Pacific flatfish along the U.S. west coast (2003-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Aimee A.; Bradburn, Mark J.; Simon, Victor H.

    2013-07-01

    Flatfish condition indices and distribution were examined along the U.S. west coast (55-1280 m) in relation to environmental variability and biomass using data from ten frequently occurring species collected in annual groundfish surveys from 2003 to 2010. The study was conducted during a period characterized by a cooling trend in the northern California Current system and by declining biomass for flatfish in general. Annual condition indices for six species (arrowtooth flounder, Dover sole, English sole, Pacific sanddab, petrale sole, and rex sole) were significantly related either to large-scale climatic indices (Pacific Decadal Oscillation, Multivariate El Niño-Southern Oscillation Index, North Pacific Gyre Oscillation) and/or annual biomass levels. Condition was most closely related to environmental effects rather than either biomass alone or both variables, with condition typically higher during cool climatic conditions. A similar analysis revealed that changes in distribution (measured as variation in annual catch-weighted mean latitude, longitude, depth and temperature) tended to be best described by models incorporating environmental effects and biomass rather than either variable alone. Linear trends in the center of distribution along a southeast-northwest axis were significant for seven species (arrowtooth flounder, deepsea sole, Dover sole, flathead sole, Pacific sanddab, petrale sole, and slender sole) with a tendency for flatfish to be displaced towards the southeast as environmental conditions shifted from warm to cooler conditions and biomass declined. A spatial distribution analysis indicated that for the majority of species (80%) the greatest magnitude of displacement (km) occurred when the centers of biomass were compared between environmental phases (average annual displacement 34 km) rather than changing biomass levels (average displacement 24 km). Taken together both approaches revealed that environmental changes and variation in biomass play

  1. A comparative study of US EPA 1996 and 1999 emission inventories in the west Gulf of Mexico coast region, USA.

    PubMed

    Lin, Che-Jen; Ho, Thomas C; Chu, Hsing-wei; Yang, Heng; Mojica, Martha J; Krishnarajanagar, Nagesh; Chiou, Paul; Hopper, Jack R

    2005-06-01

    Emission inventory is one of the required inputs to air quality models. To assist in the urban and regional modeling efforts, United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has compiled a National Emission Inventory (NEI) for criterion pollutants, and the precursors of ozone and particulate matter (PM). In December 2002, EPA released the 1999 NEI estimates (NEI99), which represent the most recent national emission data. However, the data sets are not in model-ready format for air quality simulations. This present work converts the NEI99 Final Version 2 data sets into Inventory Data Analyzer (IDA) format and processes the data using the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) modeling system to generate a gridded emission inventory in a domain covering the west Gulf Coast Region, USA. The spatial and diurnal emission characteristics of the gridded emission inventories are then assessed and compared with those of the National Emission Trend 1996 (NET96). The NEI99 database contains more complete emission records in both area and point sources. It is also found that NEI99 data exhibit greater emissions with respect to point and mobile sources but smaller emissions with respect to area sources when compared to the corresponding gridded NET96 data in the same study domain. The most distinct differences between the NEI99 and NET96 databases are CO emission of mobile sources, SO2 emissions of point sources, and VOC/PM/NH3/NOx emissions of area and non-road sources. The gridded NEI99 data show low VOC/NOx ratios (<2-5) in the urban areas of the study domain.

  2. Bacterial production, glucosidase activity and particle-associated carbohydrates in Dona Paula bay, west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskar, P. V.; Bhosle, N. B.

    2008-11-01

    Size-fractionated bacterial production, abundance and α- and β- glucosidase enzyme activities were studied with respect to changes in hydrography, total suspended matter (TSM), chlorophyll a, particulate organic carbon and nitrogen ratio (POC:PON), 1.5 M NaCl-soluble and 10 mM EDTA-soluble carbohydrates (Sal-PCHO and CPCHO) and transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) in the surface waters from July 1999-2000 at a shallow coastal station in Dona Paula Bay, west coast of India. The bulk of the total bacterial production and glucosidase activity were associated with particles (75% and >80%, respectively). Total bacterial production was linearly correlated to chlorophyll a ( r = 0.513; p < 0.05) whereas enzyme activity was significantly correlated to TSM (α-glucosidase: r = 0.721 ( p < 0.001); β-glucosidase: r = 0.596 ( p < 0.01)). Both α-glucosidase ( r = 0.514; p < 0.05) and β-glucosidase enzymes ( r = 0.598; p < 0.01) appeared to be involved in the degradation of CPCHO and Sal-PCHO, respectively. Changes in α-glucosidase/β-glucosidase ratios highlighted the varying composition of particulate organic matter. The bacterial uptake of 14C-labeled bacterial extracellular carbohydrate measured over 11 days showed a strong linear correlation between 14C-uptake and bacterial production using tritiated thymidine. The turnover rate of 14C-labeled carbohydrate-C was 0.52 d -1, higher than the estimated annual mean potential carbohydrate carbon turnover rate of 0.33 ± 0.2 d -1. Our study suggests that carbohydrates derived from sediments may serve as an important alternative carbon source sustaining the bacterial carbon demand in the surface waters of Dona Paula Bay.

  3. Estimating Limit Reference Points for Western Pacific Leatherback Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) in the U.S. West Coast EEZ

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, K. Alexandra; Moore, Jeffrey E.; Benson, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    Biological limit reference points (LRPs) for fisheries catch represent upper bounds that avoid undesirable population states. LRPs can support consistent management evaluation among species and regions, and can advance ecosystem-based fisheries management. For transboundary species, LRPs prorated by local abundance can inform local management decisions when international coordination is lacking. We estimated LRPs for western Pacific leatherbacks in the U.S. West Coast Exclusive Economic Zone (WCEEZ) using three approaches with different types of information on local abundance. For the current application, the best-informed LRP used a local abundance estimate derived from nest counts, vital rate information, satellite tag data, and fishery observer data, and was calculated with a Potential Biological Removal estimator. Management strategy evaluation was used to set tuning parameters of the LRP estimators to satisfy risk tolerances for falling below population thresholds, and to evaluate sensitivity of population outcomes to bias in key inputs. We estimated local LRPs consistent with three hypothetical management objectives: allowing the population to rebuild to its maximum net productivity level (4.7 turtles per five years), limiting delay of population rebuilding (0.8 turtles per five years), or only preventing further decline (7.7 turtles per five years). These LRPs pertain to all human-caused removals and represent the WCEEZ contribution to meeting population management objectives within a broader international cooperative framework. We present multi-year estimates, because at low LRP values, annual assessments are prone to substantial error that can lead to volatile and costly management without providing further conservation benefit. The novel approach and the performance criteria used here are not a direct expression of the “jeopardy” standard of the U.S. Endangered Species Act, but they provide useful assessment information and could help guide

  4. A statistical description on the wind-coherent responses of sea surface heights off the US West Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung Yong

    2014-01-01

    Local and remote wind-coherent responses of sea surface heights (SSHs) off the US West Coast (USWC) are described with statistical and analytical models. The wind transfer functions are statistically derived from surface wind stress at National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) buoys, located within 50 km from the shoreline, and detided SSHs (SSH anomalies; SSHAs) at shoreline tide gauges for 15 years (1995 to 2009) using linear regression in the frequency domain. A two-dimensional analytical model constrained by the coastal boundary provides a dynamical framework to interpret the data-derived statistical model. Although both transfer functions agree well at low frequency [ σ ≤ 0.4 cycles per day (cpd)], they appear to be inconsistent at high frequency ( σ ≥ 0.8 cpd; e.g., diurnal and its harmonic frequencies) because of incoherent signals between wind stress and SSHAs as well as their low signal-to-noise ratios. A multivariate regression analysis using wind stress at multiple wind buoys is implemented with a modified expectation maximization. The cross-validated skill increases and becomes saturated as the number of regression basis functions increases, demonstrating the influence of local and remote winds. The skill computed from all available winds off the USWC has a maximum as 0.1 in southern California, 0.2 to 0.3 in central California, and 0.3 to 0.5 in northern California, Oregon, and Washington. The residual SSHAs, incoherent components with all available coastal wind stress off the USWC, still contain poleward propagating signals, considered as components forced by remote winds outside of the domain.

  5. The impact of IMF conditionality on government health expenditure: A cross-national analysis of 16 West African nations.

    PubMed

    Stubbs, Thomas; Kentikelenis, Alexander; Stuckler, David; McKee, Martin; King, Lawrence

    2017-02-01

    How do International Monetary Fund (IMF) policy reforms-so-called 'conditionalities'-affect government health expenditures? We collected archival documents on IMF programmes from 1995 to 2014 to identify the pathways and impact of conditionality on government health spending in 16 West African countries. Based on a qualitative analysis of the data, we find that IMF policy reforms reduce fiscal space for investment in health, limit staff expansion of doctors and nurses, and lead to budget execution challenges in health systems. Further, we use cross-national fixed effects models to evaluate the relationship between IMF-mandated policy reforms and government health spending, adjusting for confounding economic and demographic factors and for selection bias. Each additional binding IMF policy reform reduces government health expenditure per capita by 0.248 percent (95% CI -0.435 to -0.060). Overall, our findings suggest that IMF conditionality impedes progress toward the attainment of universal health coverage.

  6. Uncertainties from above and below: West African monsoon patterns generated by a WRF multi-physics ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Cornelia; Heinzeller, Dominikus; Bliefernicht, Jan; Kunstmann, Harald

    2015-04-01

    The credibility of regional climate simulations over West Africa stands and falls with the ability to reproduce the West African Monsoon (WAM) whose precipitation plays a pivotal role for people's livelihood. In this study, the ability of a 27-member mixed-physics ensemble of the Weather Research and Forecasting model to represent the WAM is investigated in a process-based manner in order to extract transferable information on parameterization influences. The uncertainties introduced by three cumulus (CU), microphysics (MP) and planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameterizations are analyzed to explore interdependencies of processes leading to a certain WAM regime during the wet year 1999. We identify the modification of the moist Hadley-type meridional circulation that connects the monsoon winds to the Tropical Easterly Jet as the main source for inter-member differences. It is predominantly altered by the PBL schemes because of their impact on the cloud fraction, that ranges from 8 to 20 % at 600 hPa during August. More low- and mid-level clouds result in less incoming radiation, weaker precipitation and a southward displaced African Easterly Jet and monsoon rainband. This identifies the representation of clouds as a critical "uncertainty from above" in simulating the WAM. The partitioning of sensible and latent heat fluxes is found to be another major source for the ensemble spread inducing "uncertainties from below" for the modeled monsoon regime. Finally, we show that regionally adapted simulations at convection-allowing scales with ingested dynamical land surface parameters improve the representation of convection, net radiation and surface flux partitioning.

  7. Mesoscale convective systems and nocturnal rainfall over the West African Sahel: role of the Inter-tropical front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizy, Edward K.; Cook, Kerry H.

    2017-03-01

    A convection-permitting regional model simulation for August 2006 and observations are evaluated to better understand the diurnal cycle of precipitation over the Sahel. In particular, reasons for a nocturnal rainfall maximum over parts of the Sahel during the height of the West African monsoon are investigated. A relationship between mesoscale convective system (MCS) activity and inter-tropical front (ITF)/dryline dynamics is revealed. Over 90% of the Sahel nocturnal rainfall derives from propagating MCSs that have been associated with topography in earlier studies. In contrast, in this case study, 70-90% of the nocturnal rainfall over the southern Sahel (11°N-14°N) west of 15°E is associated with MCSs that originate less than 1000 km upstream (to the north and east) in the afternoon, in a region largely devoid of significant orography. This MCS development occurs in association with the Sahel ITF, combined with atmospheric pre-conditioning. Daytime surface heating generates turbulent mixing that promotes planetary boundary layer (PBL) growth accompanied by a low-level reversal in the meridional flow. This enhances wind convergence in the low-level moist layer within 2°-3° of latitude of the equatorward side of the ITF. MCSs tend to form when this vertical mixing extends to the level of free convection and is accompanied by a mid-tropospheric African easterly wave disturbance to the east. This synoptic disturbance enhances the vertical wind shear and atmospheric instability over the genesis location. These results are found to be robust across the region.

  8. Analysis of a grid ionospheric vertical delay and its bounding errors over West African sub-Saharan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, O. E.; Otero Villamide, X.; Paparini, C.; Radicella, S. M.; Nava, B.

    2017-02-01

    Investigating the effects of the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) ionosphere and space weather on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) is very crucial, and a key to successful implementation of a GNSS augmentation system (SBAS) over the equatorial and low-latitude regions. A possible ionospheric vertical delay (GIVD, Grid Ionospheric Vertical Delay) broadcast at a Ionospheric Grid Point (IGP) and its confidence bounds errors (GIVE, Grid Ionospheric Vertical Error) are analyzed and compared with the ionospheric vertical delay estimated at a nearby user location over the West African Sub-Saharan region. Since African sub-Saharan ionosphere falls within the EIA region, which is always characterized by a disturbance in form of irregularities after sunset, and the disturbance is even more during the geomagnetically quiet conditions unlike middle latitudes, the need to have a reliable ionospheric threat model to cater for the nighttime ionospheric plasma irregularities for the future SBAS user is essential. The study was done during the most quiet and disturbed geomagnetic conditions on October 2013. A specific low latitude EGNOS-like algorithm, based on single thin layer model, was engaged to simulate SBAS message in the study. Our preliminary results indicate that, the estimated GIVE detects and protects a potential SBAS user against sampled ionospheric plasma irregularities over the region with a steep increment in GIVE to non-monitored after local sunset to post midnight. This corresponds to the onset of the usual ionospheric plasma irregularities in the region. The results further confirm that the effects of the geomagnetic storms on the ionosphere are not consistent in affecting GNSS applications over the region. Finally, this paper suggests further work to be investigated in order to improve the threat integrity model activity, and thereby enhance the availability of the future SBAS over African sub-Saharan region.

  9. The West African ebola virus disease epidemic 2014-2015: A commissioned review.

    PubMed

    Omilabu, S A; Salu, O B; Oke, B O; James, A B

    2016-01-01

    The first epidemic of Ebola haemorrhagic disease in West Africa is the largest and longest Ebola epidemic till date, where the outbreak notably involved three countries with distant spread to other countries. It has caused significant mortality, with reported case fatality rates of up to 70%. Data and relevant information were extracted from the review of majorly relevant publications/papers about the Ebola epidemic in West Africa and other previous outbreaks of Ebola virus (EBOV). As of 2016, with the epidemic under control, the World Health Organization has warned that flare-ups of the disease are likely to continue for some time as recently occurred in Sierra Leone and the on-going in Guinea. As this may not be the last outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa, there is a need to focus on diagnostic and research capacity required to curtail EVD with adequate measures for emergency preparedness and policies for innovative treatment strategies.

  10. A regional training programme for radiotherapists and allied professionals for the west African health community.

    PubMed

    Durosinmi-Etti, F A; Mouelle-Sone, A

    1993-03-01

    With 47% of the population under 15 years of age and the control of infectious and other communicable diseases, cancer will likely constitute a major health problem in West Africa in future. Radiotherapy facilities and trained manpower to run them are very limited within the subregion. This paper quantifies the severity of the situation and discusses a practical approach aimed at coping with the situation through the organisation of a training programme for radiotherapists, medical physicists and radiation technologists as part of the strategies for cancer control in West Africa. A curriculum is proposed for the training of radiotherapists.

  11. Contrasting sedimentation patterns in two semi-enclosed mesotidal bays along the west and south coasts of Korea controlled by their orientation to the regional monsoon climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Seok Hwi; Chun, Seung Soo; Chang, Tae Soo; Jang, Dae Geon

    2016-11-01

    Sedimentation patterns of tidal flats along the Korean west coast have long been known to be largely controlled by the monsoon climate. On the other hand, much less is known about the effect of the monsoon on sedimentation in coastal embayments with mouths of different geographic orientations. Good examples are Hampyeong and Yeoja bays along the west and south coasts, respectively. Both have narrow entrances, but their mouths open toward the northwest and the south, respectively. With mean tidal ranges of 3.46 and 3.2 m, respectively, the two bays experience similar tidal regimes and are hence excellent candidates to compare the effect of different exposure to the same regional monsoon climate on their respective sediment distribution patterns. The winter monsoon, in particular, is characterized by strong northwesterly winds that directly impact the west coast, but blow offshore along the south coast. For the purpose of this study, surficial sediment samples were collected from intertidal and subtidal flats of the two bays, both in summer and winter. Grain-size analyses were carried out by sieving (sand fraction) and Sedigraph (mud fraction). In the case of Yeoja Bay, the sediments consist mostly of mud (mean grain sizes of 5.4 to 8.8 phi). Seasonal changes are very subtle, the sediments being slightly coarser in summer when silt-dominated sediments are supplied by two streams to the northern parts of the bay in response to heavy rainfall. With the exception of the deeper tidal channels, Yeoja Bay is characterized by a thick mud blanket the year round, which is modulated by processes associated with the summer monsoon that predominantly blows from the east. Textural parameters suggest severely restricted sediment mixing on the subtidal and intertidal flats, the overall low energy situation preventing sands from reaching the tidal flats. The sediments of Hampyeong Bay, by contrast, are characterized by a distinct shoreward fining trend. Mean grain sizes average

  12. The Impact of the Atlantic Cold Tongue on West African Monsoon Onset in Regional Model Simulations for 1998-2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Druyan, Leonard M.; Fulakeza, Matthew B.

    2014-01-01

    The Atlantic cold tongue (ACT) develops during spring and early summer near the Equator in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Guinea. The hypothesis that the ACT accelerates the timing of West African monsoon (WAM) onset is tested by comparing two regional climate model (RM3) simulation ensembles. Observed sea surface temperatures (SST) that include the ACT are used to force a control ensemble. An idealized, warm SST perturbation is designed to represent lower boundary forcing without the ACT for the experiment ensemble. Summer simulations forced by observed SST and reanalysis boundary conditions for each of five consecutive years are compared to five parallel runs forced by SST with the warm perturbation. The article summarizes the sequence of events leading to the onset of the WAM in the Sahel region. The representation of WAM onset in RM3 simulations is examined and compared to Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and reanalysis data. The study evaluates the sensitivity of WAM onset indicators to the presence of the ACT by analysing the differences between the two simulation ensembles. Results show that the timing of major rainfall events and therefore theWAM onset in the Sahel are not sensitive to the presence of the ACT. However, the warm SST perturbation does increase downstream rainfall rates over West Africa as a consequence of enhanced specific humidity and enhanced northward moisture flux in the lower troposphere.

  13. Evidence for the emergence of new rice types of interspecific hybrid origin in West African farmers' fields.

    PubMed

    Nuijten, Edwin; van Treuren, Robbert; Struik, Paul C; Mokuwa, Alfred; Okry, Florent; Teeken, Béla; Richards, Paul

    2009-10-06

    In West Africa two rice species (Oryza glaberrima Steud. and Oryza sativa L.) co-exist. Although originally it was thought that interspecific hybridization is impossible without biotechnological methods, progenies of hybridization appear to occur in farmer fields. AFLP analysis was used to assess genetic diversity in West Africa (including the countries The Gambia, Senegal, Guinea Bissau, Guinea Conakry, Sierra Leone, Ghana and Togo) using 315 rice samples morphologically classified prior to analysis. We show evidence for farmer interspecific hybrids of African and Asian rice, resulting in a group of novel genotypes, and identify possible mechanisms for in-field hybridization. Spontaneous back-crossing events play a crucial role, resulting in different groups of genetic diversity in different regions developed by natural and cultural selection, often under adverse conditions. These new groups of genotypes may have potential relevance for exploitation by plant breeders. Future advances in crop development could be achieved through co-operation between scientists and marginalized farmer groups in order to address challenges of rapid adaptation in a world of increasing socio-political and climatic uncertainty.

  14. Bacillus anthracis Diversity and Geographic Potential across Nigeria, Cameroon and Chad: Further Support of a Novel West African Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Blackburn, Jason K.; Odugbo, Moses Ode; Van Ert, Matthew; O’Shea, Bob; Mullins, Jocelyn; Perrenten, Vincent; Maho, Angaya; Hugh-Jones, Martin; Hadfield, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Zoonoses, diseases affecting both humans and animals, can exert tremendous pressures on human and veterinary health systems, particularly in resource limited countries. Anthrax is one such zoonosis of concern and is a disease requiring greater public health attention in Nigeria. Here we describe the genetic diversity of Bacillus anthracis in Nigeria and compare it to Chad, Cameroon and a broader global dataset based on the multiple locus variable number tandem repeat (MLVA-25) genetic typing system. Nigerian B. anthracis isolates had identical MLVA genotypes and could only be resolved by measuring highly mutable single nucleotide repeats (SNRs). The Nigerian MLVA genotype was identical or highly genetically similar to those in the neighboring countries, confirming the strains belong to this unique West African lineage. Interestingly, sequence data from a Nigerian isolate shares the anthrose deficient genotypes previously described for strains in this region, which may be associated with vaccine evasion. Strains in this study were isolated over six decades, indicating a high level of temporal strain stability regionally. Ecological niche models were used to predict the geographic distribution of the pathogen for all three countries. We describe a west-east habitat corridor through northern Nigeria extending into Chad and Cameroon. Ecological niche models and genetic results show B. anthracis to be ecologically established in Nigeria. These findings expand our understanding of the global B. anthracis population structure and can guide regional anthrax surveillance and control planning. PMID:26291625

  15. Bacillus anthracis Diversity and Geographic Potential across Nigeria, Cameroon and Chad: Further Support of a Novel West African Lineage.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Jason K; Odugbo, Moses Ode; Van Ert, Matthew; O'Shea, Bob; Mullins, Jocelyn; Perreten, Vincent; Perrenten, Vincent; Maho, Angaya; Hugh-Jones, Martin; Hadfield, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Zoonoses, diseases affecting both humans and animals, can exert tremendous pressures on human and veterinary health systems, particularly in resource limited countries. Anthrax is one such zoonosis of concern and is a disease requiring greater public health attention in Nigeria. Here we describe the genetic diversity of Bacillus anthracis in Nigeria and compare it to Chad, Cameroon and a broader global dataset based on the multiple locus variable number tandem repeat (MLVA-25) genetic typing system. Nigerian B. anthracis isolates had identical MLVA genotypes and could only be resolved by measuring highly mutable single nucleotide repeats (SNRs). The Nigerian MLVA genotype was identical or highly genetically similar to those in the neighboring countries, confirming the strains belong to this unique West African lineage. Interestingly, sequence data from a Nigerian isolate shares the anthrose deficient genotypes previously described for strains in this region, which may be associated with vaccine evasion. Strains in this study were isolated over six decades, indicating a high level of temporal strain stability regionally. Ecological niche models were used to predict the geographic distribution of the pathogen for all three countries. We describe a west-east habitat corridor through northern Nigeria extending into Chad and Cameroon. Ecological niche models and genetic results show B. anthracis to be ecologically established in Nigeria. These findings expand our understanding of the global B. anthracis population structure and can guide regional anthrax surveillance and control planning.

  16. Measuring pesticide ecological and health risks in West African agriculture to establish an enabling environment for sustainable intensification.

    PubMed

    Jepson, P C; Guzy, M; Blaustein, K; Sow, M; Sarr, M; Mineau, P; Kegley, S

    2014-04-05

    We outline an approach to pesticide risk assessment that is based upon surveys of pesticide use throughout West Africa. We have developed and used new risk assessment models to provide, to our knowledge, the first detailed, geographically extensive, scientifically based analysis of pesticide risks for this region. Human health risks from dermal exposure to adults and children are severe enough in many crops to require long periods of up to three weeks when entry to fields should be restricted. This is impractical in terms of crop management, and regulatory action is needed to remove these pesticides from the marketplace. We also found widespread risks to terrestrial and aquatic wildlife throughout the region, and if these results were extrapolated to all similar irrigated perimeters in the Senegal and Niger River Basins, they suggest that pesticides could pose a significant threat to regional biodiversity. Our analyses are presented at the regional, national and village levels to promote regulatory advances but also local risk communication and management. Without progress in pesticide risk management, supported by participatory farmer education, West African agriculture provides a weak context for the sustainable intensification of agricultural production or for the adoption of new crop technologies.

  17. Measuring pesticide ecological and health risks in West African agriculture to establish an enabling environment for sustainable intensification

    PubMed Central

    Jepson, P. C.; Guzy, M.; Blaustein, K.; Sow, M.; Sarr, M.; Mineau, P.; Kegley, S.

    2014-01-01

    We outline an approach to pesticide risk assessment that is based upon surveys of pesticide use throughout West Africa. We have developed and used new risk assessment models to provide, to our knowledge, the first detailed, geographically extensive, scientifically based analysis of pesticide risks for this region. Human health risks from dermal exposure to adults and children are severe enough in many crops to require long periods of up to three weeks when entry to fields should be restricted. This is impractical in terms of crop management, and regulatory action is needed to remove these pesticides from the marketplace. We also found widespread risks to terrestrial and aquatic wildlife throughout the region, and if these results were extrapolated to all similar irrigated perimeters in the Senegal and Niger River Basins, they suggest that pesticides could pose a significant threat to regional biodiversity. Our analyses are presented at the regional, national and village levels to promote regulatory advances but also local risk communication and management. Without progress in pesticide risk management, supported by participatory farmer education, West African agriculture provides a weak context for the sustainable intensification of agricultural production or for the adoption of new crop technologies. PMID:24535399

  18. Late Pleistocene coastal loess deposits of the central west coast of North America: Terrestrial facies indicators for marine low-stand intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Curt D.; Grathoff, Georg H.; Reckendorf, Frank; Percy, David; Price, David M.

    2014-03-01

    Coastal loess deposits measured in sea cliffs, bay cliffs, road cuts and boreholes (62 sites) are compiled for the states of Washington, Oregon, and California in the central west coast of North America (1700 km in length). The loess-enriched deposits are recognized by (1) substantial abundances of silt (30-90% by weight) and (2) depositional settings in uplifted marine terraces or dune fields that are situated well above alluvial floodplains at the coast. Total loess thickness above the MIS5a marine terrace, or 80 ± 20 ka basal TL age, ranges from 0.1 to 8.0 m in 46 dated sites. Loess deposits reach maximum thickness (5-8 m) in the vicinities of glacial outwash plains in the highest latitudes. Loess thickness in the middle and lower latitudes increases with proximity to 1) large river mouths (>3 × 106 mt yr-1 modern suspended sediment discharge) and 2) broad shelf widths (>10 km distance from 0 to -100 m depth). Coastal loess deposits dated by TL or radiocarbon (37 samples) range from ˜250 to 11 ka in age, but generally fall into the MIS4-2 marine low-stand intervals (32 dates between 77-15 ka). The coastal loess facies represent marine low-stand intervals in coastal Quaternary sequences from the central west coast of North America.

  19. Reviving the African wolf Canis lupus lupaster in North and West Africa: a mitochondrial lineage ranging more than 6,000 km wide.

    PubMed

    Gaubert, Philippe; Bloch, Cécile; Benyacoub, Slim; Abdelhamid, Adnan; Pagani, Paolo; Djagoun, Chabi Adéyèmi Marc Sylvestre; Couloux, Arnaud; Dufour, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    The recent discovery of a lineage of gray wolf in North-East Africa suggests the presence of a cryptic canid on the continent, the African wolf Canis lupus lupaster. We analyzed the mtDNA diversity (cytochrome b and control region) of a series of African Canis including wolf-like animals from North and West Africa. Our objectives were to assess the actual range of C. l. lupaster, to further estimate the genetic characteristics and demographic history of its lineage, and to question its taxonomic delineation from the golden jackal C. aureus, with which it has been considered synonymous. We confirmed the existence of four distinct lineages within the gray wolf, including C. lupus/familiaris (Holarctic wolves and dogs), C. l. pallipes, C. l. chanco and C. l. lupaster. Taxonomic assignment procedures identified wolf-like individuals from Algeria, Mali and Senegal, as belonging to C. l. lupaster, expanding its known distribution c. 6,000 km to the west. We estimated that the African wolf lineage (i) had the highest level of genetic diversity within C. lupus, (ii) coalesced during the Late Pleistocene, contemporaneously with Holarctic wolves and dogs, and (iii) had an effective population size of c. 80,000 females. Our results suggest that the African wolf is a relatively ancient gray wolf lineage with a fairly large, past effective population size, as also suggested by the Pleistocene fossil record. Unique field observations in Senegal allowed us to provide a morphological and behavioral diagnosis of the African wolf that clearly distinguished it from the sympatric golden jackal. However, the detection of C. l. lupaster mtDNA haplotypes in C. aureus from Senegal brings the delineation between the African wolf and the golden jackal into question. In terms of conservation, it appears urgent to further characterize the status of the African wolf with regard to the African golden jackal.

  20. Evaluation of consumer acceptance of west coast versus east coast-produced broccoli through sensory analysis of quality rating factors and nutritionally important metabolites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production trials and germplasm evaluation of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) developed for eastern U.S. production conditions have identified lines and cultivars that are better adapted to more stressful, variable East Coast environments. As a part of this work sponsored by the USDA SCIR...