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Sample records for african white-backed vultures

  1. Foraging ranges of immature African white-backed vultures (Gyps africanus) and their use of protected areas in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Phipps, W Louis; Willis, Stephen G; Wolter, Kerri; Naidoo, Vinny

    2013-01-01

    Vultures in the Gyps genus are declining globally. Multiple threats related to human activity have caused widespread declines of vulture populations in Africa, especially outside protected areas. Addressing such threats requires the estimation of foraging ranges yet such estimates are lacking, even for widespread (but declining) species such as the African white-backed vulture (Gyps africanus). We tracked six immature African white-backed vultures in South Africa using GPS-GSM units to study their movement patterns, their use of protected areas and the time they spent in the vicinity of supplementary feeding sites. All individuals foraged widely; their combined foraging ranges extended into six countries in southern Africa (mean (± SE) minimum convex polygon area =269,103±197,187 km(2)) and three of the vultures travelled more than 900 km from the capture site. All six vultures spent the majority of their tracking periods outside protected areas. South African protected areas were very rarely visited whereas protected areas in northern Botswana and Zimbabwe were used more frequently. Two of the vultures visited supplementary feeding sites regularly, with consequent reduced ranging behaviour, suggesting that individuals could alter their foraging behaviour in response to such sites. We show that immature African white-backed vultures are capable of travelling throughout southern Africa, yet use protected areas to only a limited extent, making them susceptible to the full range of threats in the region. The standard approach of designating protected areas to conserve species is unlikely to ensure the protection of such wide-ranging species against threats in the wider landscape.

  2. Foraging Ranges of Immature African White-Backed Vultures (Gyps africanus) and Their Use of Protected Areas in Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Phipps, W. Louis; Willis, Stephen G.; Wolter, Kerri; Naidoo, Vinny

    2013-01-01

    Vultures in the Gyps genus are declining globally. Multiple threats related to human activity have caused widespread declines of vulture populations in Africa, especially outside protected areas. Addressing such threats requires the estimation of foraging ranges yet such estimates are lacking, even for widespread (but declining) species such as the African white-backed vulture (Gyps africanus). We tracked six immature African white-backed vultures in South Africa using GPS-GSM units to study their movement patterns, their use of protected areas and the time they spent in the vicinity of supplementary feeding sites. All individuals foraged widely; their combined foraging ranges extended into six countries in southern Africa (mean (± SE) minimum convex polygon area  = 269,103±197,187 km2) and three of the vultures travelled more than 900 km from the capture site. All six vultures spent the majority of their tracking periods outside protected areas. South African protected areas were very rarely visited whereas protected areas in northern Botswana and Zimbabwe were used more frequently. Two of the vultures visited supplementary feeding sites regularly, with consequent reduced ranging behaviour, suggesting that individuals could alter their foraging behaviour in response to such sites. We show that immature African white-backed vultures are capable of travelling throughout southern Africa, yet use protected areas to only a limited extent, making them susceptible to the full range of threats in the region. The standard approach of designating protected areas to conserve species is unlikely to ensure the protection of such wide-ranging species against threats in the wider landscape. PMID:23382824

  3. Foraging ranges of immature African white-backed vultures (Gyps africanus) and their use of protected areas in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Phipps, W Louis; Willis, Stephen G; Wolter, Kerri; Naidoo, Vinny

    2013-01-01

    Vultures in the Gyps genus are declining globally. Multiple threats related to human activity have caused widespread declines of vulture populations in Africa, especially outside protected areas. Addressing such threats requires the estimation of foraging ranges yet such estimates are lacking, even for widespread (but declining) species such as the African white-backed vulture (Gyps africanus). We tracked six immature African white-backed vultures in South Africa using GPS-GSM units to study their movement patterns, their use of protected areas and the time they spent in the vicinity of supplementary feeding sites. All individuals foraged widely; their combined foraging ranges extended into six countries in southern Africa (mean (± SE) minimum convex polygon area =269,103±197,187 km(2)) and three of the vultures travelled more than 900 km from the capture site. All six vultures spent the majority of their tracking periods outside protected areas. South African protected areas were very rarely visited whereas protected areas in northern Botswana and Zimbabwe were used more frequently. Two of the vultures visited supplementary feeding sites regularly, with consequent reduced ranging behaviour, suggesting that individuals could alter their foraging behaviour in response to such sites. We show that immature African white-backed vultures are capable of travelling throughout southern Africa, yet use protected areas to only a limited extent, making them susceptible to the full range of threats in the region. The standard approach of designating protected areas to conserve species is unlikely to ensure the protection of such wide-ranging species against threats in the wider landscape. PMID:23382824

  4. Establishment of selected baseline blood chemistry and hematologic parameters in captive and wild-caught African white-backed vultures (Gyps africanus).

    PubMed

    Naidoo, V; Diekmann, M; Wolters, K; Swan, G E

    2008-07-01

    Despite the devastating collapse of three vulture populations on the Asian subcontinent as a result of their exposure to diclofenac, there is little available information on the normal physiology of many vulture species, including the African White-backed Vulture (Gyps africanus). Such information is needed to fully understand mechanisms for toxicity and to identify and prevent future health problems. The aim of this study was to establish baseline parameters for hematologic and selected serum chemistry parameters for this model species for further studies into the toxicity of diclofenac. Captive nonreleasable and wild African White-backed Vultures were used to determine reference values. For hematology, erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and total and differential leukocyte counts were measured. Chemical analytes measured included sodium, potassium, calcium, albumin, and globulin concentrations, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, and alanine aminotransferase activities. Uric acid and urea concentrations and the urea:uric acid ratio also were evaluated. Values are presented as means, standard deviations, and reference intervals. The serum chemistry parameters selected may provide a starting point for the evaluation of changes in renal and hepatic function; these organ systems are most severely affected by diclofenac. Results were also compared with values reported for G. africanus nestlings, and from these results it is evident that the clinical pathologic parameters are age related. This indicates that the use of nestling values for the evaluation of clinical pathologic findings in adults may be unreliable and could lead to incorrect assumptions. PMID:18689650

  5. Factors influencing foraging search efficiency: why do scarce lappet-faced vultures outperform ubiquitous white-backed vultures?

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Orr; Getz, Wayne M; Nathan, Ran

    2013-05-01

    The search phase is a critical component of foraging behavior, affecting interspecific competition and community dynamics. Nevertheless, factors determining interspecific variation in search efficiency are still poorly understood. We studied differences in search efficiency between the lappet-faced vulture (Torgos tracheliotus; LFV) and the white-backed vulture (Gyps africanus; WBV) foraging on spatiotemporally unpredictable carcasses in Etosha National Park, Namibia. We used experimental food supply and high-resolution GPS tracking of free-ranging vultures to quantify search efficiency and elucidate the factors underlying the observed interspecific differences using a biased correlated random walk simulation model bootstrapped with the GPS tracking data. We found that LFV's search efficiency was higher than WBV's in both first-to-find, first-to-land, and per-individual-finding rate measures. Modifying species-specific traits in the simulation model allows us to assess the relative role of each factor in LFV's higher efficiency. Interspecific differences in morphology (through the effect on perceptual range and motion ability) and searchers' spatial dispersion (due to different roost arrangements) are in correspondence with the empirically observed advantage of LFV over WBV searchers, whereas differences in other aspects of the movement patterns appear to play a minor role. Our results provide mechanistic explanations for interspecific variation in search efficiency for species using similar resources and foraging modes. PMID:23594555

  6. Factors influencing foraging search efficiency: why do scarce lappet-faced vultures outperform ubiquitous white-backed vultures?

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Orr; Getz, Wayne M; Nathan, Ran

    2013-05-01

    The search phase is a critical component of foraging behavior, affecting interspecific competition and community dynamics. Nevertheless, factors determining interspecific variation in search efficiency are still poorly understood. We studied differences in search efficiency between the lappet-faced vulture (Torgos tracheliotus; LFV) and the white-backed vulture (Gyps africanus; WBV) foraging on spatiotemporally unpredictable carcasses in Etosha National Park, Namibia. We used experimental food supply and high-resolution GPS tracking of free-ranging vultures to quantify search efficiency and elucidate the factors underlying the observed interspecific differences using a biased correlated random walk simulation model bootstrapped with the GPS tracking data. We found that LFV's search efficiency was higher than WBV's in both first-to-find, first-to-land, and per-individual-finding rate measures. Modifying species-specific traits in the simulation model allows us to assess the relative role of each factor in LFV's higher efficiency. Interspecific differences in morphology (through the effect on perceptual range and motion ability) and searchers' spatial dispersion (due to different roost arrangements) are in correspondence with the empirically observed advantage of LFV over WBV searchers, whereas differences in other aspects of the movement patterns appear to play a minor role. Our results provide mechanistic explanations for interspecific variation in search efficiency for species using similar resources and foraging modes.

  7. Persistent organochlorine pesticide residues in tissues and eggs of white-backed vulture, Gyps bengalensis from different locations in India.

    PubMed

    Muralidharan, S; Dhananjayan, V; Risebrough, Robert; Prakash, V; Jayakumar, R; Bloom, Peter H

    2008-12-01

    Organochlorine pesticide residues were determined in tissues of five Indian white-backed vultures and two of their eggs collected from different locations in India. All the samples had varying levels of residues. p,p'-DDE ranged between 0.002 microg/g in muscle of vulture from Mudumali and 7.30 microg/g in liver of vulture from Delhi. Relatively higher levels of p,p'-DDT and its metabolites were documented in the bird from Delhi than other places. Dieldrin was 0.003 and 0.015 microg/g while p,p'-DDE was 2.46 and 3.26 microg/g in egg one and two respectively. Dieldrin appeared to be lower than the threshold level of 0.5 microg/g. p,p'-DDE exceeded the levels reported to have created toxic effects in eggs of other wild birds. Although varying levels of DDT, HCH, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide and endosulfan residues were detected in the vulture tissues, they do not appear to be responsible for the present status of population in India.

  8. Persistent organochlorine pesticide residues in tissues and eggs of white-backed vulture, Gyps bengalensis from different locations in India.

    PubMed

    Muralidharan, S; Dhananjayan, V; Risebrough, Robert; Prakash, V; Jayakumar, R; Bloom, Peter H

    2008-12-01

    Organochlorine pesticide residues were determined in tissues of five Indian white-backed vultures and two of their eggs collected from different locations in India. All the samples had varying levels of residues. p,p'-DDE ranged between 0.002 microg/g in muscle of vulture from Mudumali and 7.30 microg/g in liver of vulture from Delhi. Relatively higher levels of p,p'-DDT and its metabolites were documented in the bird from Delhi than other places. Dieldrin was 0.003 and 0.015 microg/g while p,p'-DDE was 2.46 and 3.26 microg/g in egg one and two respectively. Dieldrin appeared to be lower than the threshold level of 0.5 microg/g. p,p'-DDE exceeded the levels reported to have created toxic effects in eggs of other wild birds. Although varying levels of DDT, HCH, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide and endosulfan residues were detected in the vulture tissues, they do not appear to be responsible for the present status of population in India. PMID:18806909

  9. Levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Polychlorinated Biphenyls, and Organochlorine Pesticides in Various Tissues of White-Backed Vulture in India

    PubMed Central

    Dhananjayan, V.; Muralidharan, S.

    2013-01-01

    This study provides information on the current status of contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the tissues of endangered White-backed Vulture Gyps bengalensis in India. Chemical analyses revealed detectable amounts of PAHs, PCBs, and OCPs. Concentration ranges of ∑PAHs, ∑PCBs, and ∑OCPs in tissues were 60–2037 ng/g, 30–5790 ng/g, and 3.2–5836 ng/g wet weight, respectively. 1,1-Dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p′-DDE) concentrations ranged from below detectable level to 599 ng/g wet weight, representing more than 90% of the total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). Among the various OCPs analyzed, p,p′-DDE was detected most frequently. All the contaminants recorded show higher accumulation in liver than other tissues. Levels of contaminants measured in the tissues of vulture are comparable with the levels documented in a number of avian species and are lower than those reported to have caused deleterious effects. Although no threat is expected from the current level of contamination, the presence of varying levels of contaminants and their additive or synergistic toxicity is a cause of concern to vultures. Values reported in this study can serve as guideline for future research. PMID:24288666

  10. Levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides in various tissues of white-backed vulture in India.

    PubMed

    Dhananjayan, V; Muralidharan, S

    2013-01-01

    This study provides information on the current status of contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the tissues of endangered White-backed Vulture Gyps bengalensis in India. Chemical analyses revealed detectable amounts of PAHs, PCBs, and OCPs. Concentration ranges of ∑ PAHs, ∑ PCBs, and ∑ OCPs in tissues were 60-2037 ng/g, 30-5790 ng/g, and 3.2-5836 ng/g wet weight, respectively. 1,1-Dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE) concentrations ranged from below detectable level to 599 ng/g wet weight, representing more than 90% of the total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). Among the various OCPs analyzed, p,p'-DDE was detected most frequently. All the contaminants recorded show higher accumulation in liver than other tissues. Levels of contaminants measured in the tissues of vulture are comparable with the levels documented in a number of avian species and are lower than those reported to have caused deleterious effects. Although no threat is expected from the current level of contamination, the presence of varying levels of contaminants and their additive or synergistic toxicity is a cause of concern to vultures. Values reported in this study can serve as guideline for future research. PMID:24288666

  11. Levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides in various tissues of white-backed vulture in India.

    PubMed

    Dhananjayan, V; Muralidharan, S

    2013-01-01

    This study provides information on the current status of contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the tissues of endangered White-backed Vulture Gyps bengalensis in India. Chemical analyses revealed detectable amounts of PAHs, PCBs, and OCPs. Concentration ranges of ∑ PAHs, ∑ PCBs, and ∑ OCPs in tissues were 60-2037 ng/g, 30-5790 ng/g, and 3.2-5836 ng/g wet weight, respectively. 1,1-Dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE) concentrations ranged from below detectable level to 599 ng/g wet weight, representing more than 90% of the total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). Among the various OCPs analyzed, p,p'-DDE was detected most frequently. All the contaminants recorded show higher accumulation in liver than other tissues. Levels of contaminants measured in the tissues of vulture are comparable with the levels documented in a number of avian species and are lower than those reported to have caused deleterious effects. Although no threat is expected from the current level of contamination, the presence of varying levels of contaminants and their additive or synergistic toxicity is a cause of concern to vultures. Values reported in this study can serve as guideline for future research.

  12. Rate of decline of the Oriental white-backed vulture population in India estimated from a survey of diclofenac residues in carcasses of ungulates.

    PubMed

    Green, Rhys E; Taggart, Mark A; Senacha, Kalu Ram; Raghavan, Bindu; Pain, Deborah J; Jhala, Yadvendradev; Cuthbert, Richard

    2007-08-01

    The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac is a major cause of the rapid declines in the Indian subcontinent of three species of vultures endemic to South Asia. The drug causes kidney failure and death in vultures. Exposure probably arises through vultures feeding on carcasses of domesticated ungulates treated with the drug. However, before the study reported here, it had not been established from field surveys of ungulate carcasses that a sufficient proportion was contaminated to cause the observed declines. We surveyed diclofenac concentrations in samples of liver from carcasses of domesticated ungulates in India in 2004-2005. We estimated the concentration of diclofenac in tissues available to vultures, relative to that in liver, and the proportion of vultures killed after feeding on a carcass with a known level of contamination. We assessed the impact of this mortality on vulture population trend with a population model. We expected levels of diclofenac found in ungulate carcasses in 2004-2005 to cause oriental white-backed vulture population declines of 80-99% per year, depending upon the assumptions used in the model. This compares with an observed rate of decline, from road transect counts, of 48% per year in 2000-2003. The precision of the estimate based upon carcass surveys is low and the two types of estimate were not significantly different. Our analyses indicate that the level of diclofenac contamination found in carcasses of domesticated ungulates in 2004-2005 was sufficient to account for the observed rapid decline of the oriental white-backed vulture in India. The methods we describe could be used again to assess changes in the effect on vulture population trend of diclofenac and similar drugs. In this way, the effectiveness of the recent ban in India on the manufacture and importation of diclofenac for veterinary use could be monitored.

  13. Rate of Decline of the Oriental White-Backed Vulture Population in India Estimated from a Survey of Diclofenac Residues in Carcasses of Ungulates

    PubMed Central

    Green, Rhys E.; Taggart, Mark A.; Senacha, Kalu Ram; Raghavan, Bindu; Pain, Deborah J.; Jhala, Yadvendradev; Cuthbert, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac is a major cause of the rapid declines in the Indian subcontinent of three species of vultures endemic to South Asia. The drug causes kidney failure and death in vultures. Exposure probably arises through vultures feeding on carcasses of domesticated ungulates treated with the drug. However, before the study reported here, it had not been established from field surveys of ungulate carcasses that a sufficient proportion was contaminated to cause the observed declines. We surveyed diclofenac concentrations in samples of liver from carcasses of domesticated ungulates in India in 2004–2005. We estimated the concentration of diclofenac in tissues available to vultures, relative to that in liver, and the proportion of vultures killed after feeding on a carcass with a known level of contamination. We assessed the impact of this mortality on vulture population trend with a population model. We expected levels of diclofenac found in ungulate carcasses in 2004–2005 to cause oriental white-backed vulture population declines of 80–99% per year, depending upon the assumptions used in the model. This compares with an observed rate of decline, from road transect counts, of 48% per year in 2000–2003. The precision of the estimate based upon carcass surveys is low and the two types of estimate were not significantly different. Our analyses indicate that the level of diclofenac contamination found in carcasses of domesticated ungulates in 2004–2005 was sufficient to account for the observed rapid decline of the oriental white-backed vulture in India. The methods we describe could be used again to assess changes in the effect on vulture population trend of diclofenac and similar drugs. In this way, the effectiveness of the recent ban in India on the manufacture and importation of diclofenac for veterinary use could be monitored. PMID:17668064

  14. Epileptiform seizures in captive African vultures.

    PubMed

    Mundy, P J; Foggin, C M

    1981-04-01

    African vultures are held in captivity at Salisbury, Johannesburg, and Durban, and in each place a number of birds showed epileptiform seizures. Of 17 griffon vultures (Gyps africanus and G. coprotheres) in Salisbury, three recovered and 11 died after one or more seizures. Of eight vultures of three other species, one Lappetfaced Vulture (Torgos tracheliotus) recovered and one Whiteheaded Vulture (Trigonoceps occipitalis) died. A variety of diagnostic tests, in particular levels of serum calcium and blood glucose, and histological examination of brains, has so far failed to reveal a cause. PMID:7241712

  15. Pathology and proposed pathophysiology of diclofenac poisoning in free-living and experimentally exposed oriental white-backed vultures (Gyps bengalensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meteyer, C.U.; Rideout, B.A.; Gilbert, M.; Shivaprasad, H.L.; Oaks, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Oriental white-backed vultures (Gyps bengalensis; OWBVs) died of renal failure when they ingested diclofenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), in tissues of domestic livestock. Acute necrosis of proximal convoluted tubules in these vultures was severe. Glomeruli, distal convoluted tubules, and collecting tubules were relatively spared in the vultures that had early lesions. In most vultures, however, lesions became extensive with large urate aggregates obscuring renal architecture. Inflammation was minimal. Extensive urate precipitation on the surface and within organ parenchyma (visceral gout) was consistently found in vultures with renal failure. Very little is known about the physiologic effect of NSAIDs in birds. Research in mammals has shown that diclofenac inhibits formation of prostaglandins. We propose that the mechanism by which diclofenac induces renal failure in the OWBV is through the inhibition of the modulating effect of prostaglandin on angiotensin II-mediated adrenergic stimulation. Renal portal valves open in response to adrenergic stimulation, redirecting portal blood to the caudal vena cava and bypassing the kidney. If diclofenac removes a modulating effect of prostaglandins on the renal portal valves, indiscriminant activation of these valves would redirect the primary nutrient blood supply away from the renal cortex. Resulting ischemic necrosis of the cortical proximal convoluted tubules would be consistent with our histologic findings in these OWBVs.

  16. Pathology and proposed pathophysiology of diclofenac poisoning in free-living and experimentally exposed oriental white-backed vultures (Gyps bengalensis).

    PubMed

    Meteyer, Carol Uphoff; Rideout, Bruce A; Gilbert, Martin; Shivaprasad, H L; Oaks, J Lindsay

    2005-10-01

    Oriental white-backed vultures (Gyps bengalensis; OWBVs) died of renal failure when they ingested diclofenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), in tissues of domestic livestock. Acute necrosis of proximal convoluted tubules in these vultures was severe. Glomeruli, distal convoluted tubules, and collecting tubules were relatively spared in the vultures that had early lesions. In most vultures, however, lesions became extensive with large urate aggregates obscuring renal architecture. Inflammation was minimal. Extensive urate precipitation on the surface and within organ parenchyma (visceral gout) was consistently found in vultures with renal failure. Very little is known about the physiologic effect of NSAIDs in birds. Research in mammals has shown that diclofenac inhibits formation of prostaglandins. We propose that the mechanism by which diclofenac induces renal failure in the OWBV is through the inhibition of the modulating effect of prostaglandin on angiotensin II-mediated adrenergic stimulation. Renal portal valves open in response to adrenergic stimulation, redirecting portal blood to the caudal vena cava and bypassing the kidney. If diclofenac removes a modulating effect of prostaglandins on the renal portal valves, indiscriminant activation of these valves would redirect the primary nutrient blood supply away from the renal cortex. Resulting ischemic necrosis of the cortical proximal convoluted tubules would be consistent with our histologic findings in these OWBVs.

  17. Toxicity Assessment on the Levels of Select Metals in the Critically Endangered Indian White-backed Vulture, Gyps bengalensis, in India.

    PubMed

    Rajamani, Jayakumar; Subramanian, Muralidharan

    2015-06-01

    To assess the potential contribution of metals to the catastrophic population decline of the White-backed Vulture, Gyps bengalensis, their concentrations in various organs was quantified. Liver, kidney, pectoral muscle, gut contents and femur bone were collected from dead birds between 1999 and 2008. These samples were analysed for lead, cadmium, copper and zinc, which were detected in all organs with no significant variation among tissues or between sexes. Moreover, high lead levels in liver (8.56 µg/g wet weight) and kidney (9.31 µg/g wet weight) in some individuals indicate toxic effects. Nonetheless, the levels of most metals measured in the present study may be considered as normal.

  18. Hematozoa from Southern African vultures, with a description of Haemoproteus janovyi sp. n.

    PubMed

    Greiner, E C; Mundy, P J

    1979-02-01

    This study represents the first major survey of avian hematozoa from southern Africa and the only one dealing with blood parasites of vultures. Blood smears from 506 Rhodesian, Botswanan and South African vultures (Hooded, White-headed, Lappetfaced, Cape Griffon and Whitebacked Vultures) were examined for hematozoa. Haemoproteus janovyi sp. n. was observed in 35.2% of the vultures, Leucocytozoon toddi in 0.8%, Plasmodium fallax in 0.6%, Atoxoplasma sp. in 1.4% and microfilariae in 0.2%. Hematozoan prevalence increased with age of the vultures. Only 2 of 133 nestlings sampled during the dry season had patent parasitemias (L. toddi). Haemoproteid prevalence in immature vultures was depressed during the dry season, whereas it was stable throughout the year in adults. The only species which nests on cliffs (the Cape Griffon Vulture) did not harbor hematozoa whereas the other species which nest and roost in trees were infected with at least one hematozoan species. PMID:109605

  19. Hematozoa from Southern African vultures, with a description of Haemoproteus janovyi sp. n.

    PubMed

    Greiner, E C; Mundy, P J

    1979-02-01

    This study represents the first major survey of avian hematozoa from southern Africa and the only one dealing with blood parasites of vultures. Blood smears from 506 Rhodesian, Botswanan and South African vultures (Hooded, White-headed, Lappetfaced, Cape Griffon and Whitebacked Vultures) were examined for hematozoa. Haemoproteus janovyi sp. n. was observed in 35.2% of the vultures, Leucocytozoon toddi in 0.8%, Plasmodium fallax in 0.6%, Atoxoplasma sp. in 1.4% and microfilariae in 0.2%. Hematozoan prevalence increased with age of the vultures. Only 2 of 133 nestlings sampled during the dry season had patent parasitemias (L. toddi). Haemoproteid prevalence in immature vultures was depressed during the dry season, whereas it was stable throughout the year in adults. The only species which nests on cliffs (the Cape Griffon Vulture) did not harbor hematozoa whereas the other species which nest and roost in trees were infected with at least one hematozoan species.

  20. Veterinary diclofenac threatens Africa's endangered vulture species.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, V; Wolter, K; Cuthbert, R; Duncan, N

    2009-04-01

    Veterinary diclofenac has been responsible for the devastation of three species of Gyps vulture on the Indian subcontinent, and it is now regarded as one of the worst environmental contaminants in the recent past. While measures have been taken to control the manufacture of veterinary diclofenac in South Asia, the promotion of diclofenac on the African continent poses a risk to vultures in this region. In Southern Africa, the species of greatest conservation concern is the Cape Griffon Vulture (Gyps coprotheres), as only 2900 breeding pairs remain in the wild. The objective of this study was to test if this species is toxicologically sensitive to diclofenac. In a single dose-toxicity study, two adult Cape Griffon Vultures with severe injuries, that were considered to have a very poor prognostic outcome, were dosed intravenously with diclofenac at 0.8mg/kg. The changes in the clinical pathology were compared to the normal reference range established for 24 healthy Cape Griffon Vultures. Both birds died within 48h of dosing. The clinical signs, clinical pathology, gross pathology and histopathological finding were typical for diclofenac toxicity. It would appear that the sensitivity of the Cape Griffon is similar to that of their Asian counterparts and the African White-backed Vulture (Gyps africanus). Diclofenac is almost certainly toxic to all Gyps vultures species and strong efforts must be taken to ensure that veterinary diclofenac products are not licensed or introduced to the African continent. PMID:19545505

  1. Veterinary diclofenac threatens Africa's endangered vulture species.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, V; Wolter, K; Cuthbert, R; Duncan, N

    2009-04-01

    Veterinary diclofenac has been responsible for the devastation of three species of Gyps vulture on the Indian subcontinent, and it is now regarded as one of the worst environmental contaminants in the recent past. While measures have been taken to control the manufacture of veterinary diclofenac in South Asia, the promotion of diclofenac on the African continent poses a risk to vultures in this region. In Southern Africa, the species of greatest conservation concern is the Cape Griffon Vulture (Gyps coprotheres), as only 2900 breeding pairs remain in the wild. The objective of this study was to test if this species is toxicologically sensitive to diclofenac. In a single dose-toxicity study, two adult Cape Griffon Vultures with severe injuries, that were considered to have a very poor prognostic outcome, were dosed intravenously with diclofenac at 0.8mg/kg. The changes in the clinical pathology were compared to the normal reference range established for 24 healthy Cape Griffon Vultures. Both birds died within 48h of dosing. The clinical signs, clinical pathology, gross pathology and histopathological finding were typical for diclofenac toxicity. It would appear that the sensitivity of the Cape Griffon is similar to that of their Asian counterparts and the African White-backed Vulture (Gyps africanus). Diclofenac is almost certainly toxic to all Gyps vultures species and strong efforts must be taken to ensure that veterinary diclofenac products are not licensed or introduced to the African continent.

  2. The pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in vultures.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, V; Wolter, K; Cromarty, A D; Bartels, P; Bekker, L; McGaw, L; Taggart, M A; Cuthbert, R; Swan, G E

    2008-04-01

    Vulture populations across the Asian subcontinent have declined dramatically in the last 15 years and are now on the verge of extinction. Although the cause of the population decline was initially unknown, the decrease has recently been conclusively linked to the use of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac in cattle that inadvertently ended up in the vulture food chain. With the vulture numbers continuing to decline by up to 48% a year, the Indian, Nepali and Pakistan governments have recently banned the manufacture and importation of veterinary diclofenac. They have also suggested meloxicam as an alternate anti-inflammatory for use in cattle. This recommendation was based on extensive acute safety studies in the African White-backed vulture (Gyps africanus), which evaluated worst case scenarios of maximum intake based on a once in three day feeding pattern. However, the possible cumulative pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in vultures receiving multiple daily doses of meloxicam over time were not assessed. At present very little pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic information is available to add further support for the safety of meloxicam in this animal species. This article discusses the oral and intramuscular pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in Cape Griffon vultures (Gyps coprotheres). Therapeutic drug monitoring was also undertaken in White-backed, Egyptian (Neophron pernopterus) and one Lappet Faced vulture (Torgos tracheliotos). In all these species, meloxicam was characterized by a short half-life of elimination. The rapid metabolism of meloxicam in combination with a short duration of effect in the studied species Gyps vultures shown in this study makes it unlikely that the drug could accumulate. This confirms the safety of repeated exposure to meloxicam in vultures of this genus.

  3. The pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in vultures.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, V; Wolter, K; Cromarty, A D; Bartels, P; Bekker, L; McGaw, L; Taggart, M A; Cuthbert, R; Swan, G E

    2008-04-01

    Vulture populations across the Asian subcontinent have declined dramatically in the last 15 years and are now on the verge of extinction. Although the cause of the population decline was initially unknown, the decrease has recently been conclusively linked to the use of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac in cattle that inadvertently ended up in the vulture food chain. With the vulture numbers continuing to decline by up to 48% a year, the Indian, Nepali and Pakistan governments have recently banned the manufacture and importation of veterinary diclofenac. They have also suggested meloxicam as an alternate anti-inflammatory for use in cattle. This recommendation was based on extensive acute safety studies in the African White-backed vulture (Gyps africanus), which evaluated worst case scenarios of maximum intake based on a once in three day feeding pattern. However, the possible cumulative pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in vultures receiving multiple daily doses of meloxicam over time were not assessed. At present very little pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic information is available to add further support for the safety of meloxicam in this animal species. This article discusses the oral and intramuscular pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in Cape Griffon vultures (Gyps coprotheres). Therapeutic drug monitoring was also undertaken in White-backed, Egyptian (Neophron pernopterus) and one Lappet Faced vulture (Torgos tracheliotos). In all these species, meloxicam was characterized by a short half-life of elimination. The rapid metabolism of meloxicam in combination with a short duration of effect in the studied species Gyps vultures shown in this study makes it unlikely that the drug could accumulate. This confirms the safety of repeated exposure to meloxicam in vultures of this genus. PMID:18307504

  4. African vultures don't follow migratory herds: scavenger habitat use is not mediated by prey abundance.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Corinne J; Virani, Munir Z; Hopcraft, J Grant C; Bildstein, Keith L; Rubenstein, Daniel I

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing global decline in vulture populations raises major conservation concerns, but little is known about the factors that mediate scavenger habitat use, in particular the importance of abundance of live prey versus prey mortality. We test this using data from the Serengeti-Mara ecosystem in East Africa. The two hypotheses that prey abundance or prey mortality are the main drivers of vulture habitat use provide alternative predictions. If vultures select areas based only on prey abundance, we expect tracked vultures to remain close to herds of migratory wildebeest regardless of season. However, if vultures select areas where mortality rates are greatest then we expect vultures to select the driest regions, where animals are more likely to die of starvation, and to be attracted to migratory wildebeest only during the dry season when wildebeest mortality is greatest. We used data from GSM-GPS transmitters to assess the relationship between three vulture species and migratory wildebeest in the Mara-Serengeti ecosystem. Results indicate that vultures preferentially cluster around migratory herds only during the dry season, when herds experience their highest mortality. Additionally during the wet season, Ruppell's and Lappet-faced vultures select relatively dry areas, based on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, whereas White-backed vultures preferred wetter areas during the wet season. Differences in habitat use among species may mediate coexistence in this scavenger guild. In general, our results suggest that prey abundance is not the primary driver of avian scavenger habitat use. The apparent reliance of vultures on non-migratory ungulates during the wet season has important conservation implications for vultures in light of on-going declines in non-migratory ungulate species and use of poisons in unprotected areas.

  5. African Vultures Don’t Follow Migratory Herds: Scavenger Habitat Use Is Not Mediated by Prey Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Corinne J.; Virani, Munir Z.; Hopcraft, J. Grant C.; Bildstein, Keith L.; Rubenstein, Daniel I.

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing global decline in vulture populations raises major conservation concerns, but little is known about the factors that mediate scavenger habitat use, in particular the importance of abundance of live prey versus prey mortality. We test this using data from the Serengeti-Mara ecosystem in East Africa. The two hypotheses that prey abundance or prey mortality are the main drivers of vulture habitat use provide alternative predictions. If vultures select areas based only on prey abundance, we expect tracked vultures to remain close to herds of migratory wildebeest regardless of season. However, if vultures select areas where mortality rates are greatest then we expect vultures to select the driest regions, where animals are more likely to die of starvation, and to be attracted to migratory wildebeest only during the dry season when wildebeest mortality is greatest. We used data from GSM-GPS transmitters to assess the relationship between three vulture species and migratory wildebeest in the Mara-Serengeti ecosystem. Results indicate that vultures preferentially cluster around migratory herds only during the dry season, when herds experience their highest mortality. Additionally during the wet season, Ruppell’s and Lappet-faced vultures select relatively dry areas, based on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, whereas White-backed vultures preferred wetter areas during the wet season. Differences in habitat use among species may mediate coexistence in this scavenger guild. In general, our results suggest that prey abundance is not the primary driver of avian scavenger habitat use. The apparent reliance of vultures on non-migratory ungulates during the wet season has important conservation implications for vultures in light of on-going declines in non-migratory ungulate species and use of poisons in unprotected areas. PMID:24421887

  6. African vultures don't follow migratory herds: scavenger habitat use is not mediated by prey abundance.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Corinne J; Virani, Munir Z; Hopcraft, J Grant C; Bildstein, Keith L; Rubenstein, Daniel I

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing global decline in vulture populations raises major conservation concerns, but little is known about the factors that mediate scavenger habitat use, in particular the importance of abundance of live prey versus prey mortality. We test this using data from the Serengeti-Mara ecosystem in East Africa. The two hypotheses that prey abundance or prey mortality are the main drivers of vulture habitat use provide alternative predictions. If vultures select areas based only on prey abundance, we expect tracked vultures to remain close to herds of migratory wildebeest regardless of season. However, if vultures select areas where mortality rates are greatest then we expect vultures to select the driest regions, where animals are more likely to die of starvation, and to be attracted to migratory wildebeest only during the dry season when wildebeest mortality is greatest. We used data from GSM-GPS transmitters to assess the relationship between three vulture species and migratory wildebeest in the Mara-Serengeti ecosystem. Results indicate that vultures preferentially cluster around migratory herds only during the dry season, when herds experience their highest mortality. Additionally during the wet season, Ruppell's and Lappet-faced vultures select relatively dry areas, based on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, whereas White-backed vultures preferred wetter areas during the wet season. Differences in habitat use among species may mediate coexistence in this scavenger guild. In general, our results suggest that prey abundance is not the primary driver of avian scavenger habitat use. The apparent reliance of vultures on non-migratory ungulates during the wet season has important conservation implications for vultures in light of on-going declines in non-migratory ungulate species and use of poisons in unprotected areas. PMID:24421887

  7. Vulture rescue and rehabilitation in South Africa: an urban perspective.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, V; Wolter, K; Espie, I; Kotze, A

    2011-03-01

    South Africa is home to 9 vulture species, of which 7 are endangered. While the cause of the population declines remains largely speculative, a vast amount of effort has been dedicated towards the protection of populations by ensuring sustainable and safe food sources for the various colonies. Limited focus was placed in the past on efforts related to the rescue and/or rehabilitation (R&R) of injured birds and the release of these birds back into the wild. This paper provides an overview of the causes, the impact and success of 3 organisations involved in R&R efforts of vultures in the Magaliesberg mountain range and surrounding areas over a period of 10 years. Study material included 162 Cape griffon (CGV) and 38 African white-backed (AWBV) vultures. Datasets include the number, sex and age of birds received, the reason the vultures were brought in for R&R, surgical interventions performed and outcomes of rescue efforts. The CGV dominated the rehabilitation attempts. Results further show that a large number of apparently healthy birds were presented for veterinary treatment. The R&R data clearly indicate that the major cause of injuries was birds colliding with overhead pylons, as a high number of soft tissue and skeletal injuries were observed. The study also shows that successful releases of rescued birds are possible. It is concluded that urbanisation has had a major negative impact on vultures around the Magaliesberg mountain range. PMID:21826834

  8. Vulture rescue and rehabilitation in South Africa: an urban perspective.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, V; Wolter, K; Espie, I; Kotze, A

    2011-03-01

    South Africa is home to 9 vulture species, of which 7 are endangered. While the cause of the population declines remains largely speculative, a vast amount of effort has been dedicated towards the protection of populations by ensuring sustainable and safe food sources for the various colonies. Limited focus was placed in the past on efforts related to the rescue and/or rehabilitation (R&R) of injured birds and the release of these birds back into the wild. This paper provides an overview of the causes, the impact and success of 3 organisations involved in R&R efforts of vultures in the Magaliesberg mountain range and surrounding areas over a period of 10 years. Study material included 162 Cape griffon (CGV) and 38 African white-backed (AWBV) vultures. Datasets include the number, sex and age of birds received, the reason the vultures were brought in for R&R, surgical interventions performed and outcomes of rescue efforts. The CGV dominated the rehabilitation attempts. Results further show that a large number of apparently healthy birds were presented for veterinary treatment. The R&R data clearly indicate that the major cause of injuries was birds colliding with overhead pylons, as a high number of soft tissue and skeletal injuries were observed. The study also shows that successful releases of rescued birds are possible. It is concluded that urbanisation has had a major negative impact on vultures around the Magaliesberg mountain range.

  9. Systematics within Gyps vultures: a clade at risk

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jeff A; Lerner, Heather RL; Rasmussen, Pamela C; Mindell, David P

    2006-01-01

    Background Populations of the Oriental White-backed Vulture (Gyps bengalensis) have declined by over 95% within the past decade. This decline is largely due to incidental consumption of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory veterinary pharmaceutical diclofenac, commonly used to treat domestic livestock. The conservation status of other Gyps vultures in southern Asia is also of immediate concern, given the lack of knowledge regarding status of their populations and the continuing existence of taxonomic uncertainties. In this study, we assess phylogenetic relationships for all recognized species and the majority of subspecies within the genus Gyps. The continuing veterinary use of diclofenac is an unknown but potential risk to related species with similar feeding habits to Gyps bengalensis. Therefore, an accurate assessment of the phylogenetic relationships among Gyps vultures should aid in their conservation by clarifying taxonomic uncertainties, and enabling inference of their respective relatedness to susceptible G. bengalensis. Results Phylogenetic results using mitochondrial cytB, ND2 and control region sequence data indicate a recent and rapid diversification within the genus Gyps. All recognized species formed monophyletic groups with high statistical support, with the exception of the Eurasian Vulture, for which specimens identified as subspecies G. fulvus fulvescens appear closely related to the Himalayan Vulture (G. himalayensis). In all analyses, the earliest divergence separated the Oriental White-backed Vulture from other Gyps taxa, with the next diverging taxon being either the African White-backed Vulture (G. africanus), or the Himalayan Vulture. All analyses supported a sister relationship between the Eurasian Vulture (G. f. fulvus), and Rüppell's Vulture (G. rueppellii), with this clade being sister to another consisting of the two taxa of "Long-billed" Vulture (G. indicus indicus and G. i. tenuirostris), and the Cape Vulture (G. coprotheres). These

  10. Naturally acquired antibodies to Bacillus anthracis protective antigen in vultures of southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, P C B; Diekmann, M; Kilian, J W; Versfeld, W; De Vos, V; Arntzen, L; Wolter, K; Bartels, P; Kotze, A

    2008-06-01

    Sera from 19 wild caught vultures in northern Namibia and 15 (12 wild caught and three captive bred but with minimal histories) in North West Province, South Africa, were examined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to the Bacillus anthracis toxin protective antigen (PA). As assessed from the baseline established with a control group of ten captive reared vultures with well-documented histories, elevated titres were found in 12 of the 19 (63%) wild caught Namibian birds as compared with none of the 15 South African ones. There was a highly significant difference between the Namibian group as a whole and the other groups (P < 0.001) and no significant difference between the South African and control groups (P > 0.05). Numbers in the Namibian group were too small to determine any significances in species-, sex- or age-related differences within the raw data showing elevated titres in four out of six Cape Vultures, Gyps coprotheres, six out of ten White-backed Vultures, Gyps africanus, and one out of three Lappet-faced Vultures, Aegypius tracheliotus, or in five of six males versus three of seven females, and ten of 15 adults versus one of four juveniles. The results are in line with the available data on the incidence of anthrax in northern Namibia and South Africa and the likely contact of the vultures tested with anthrax carcasses. It is not known whether elevated titre indicates infection per se in vultures or absorption of incompletely digested epitopes of the toxin or both. The results are discussed in relation to distances travelled by vultures as determined by new tracking techniques, how serology can reveal anthrax activity in an area and the issue of the role of vultures in transmission of anthrax. PMID:18788202

  11. Naturally acquired antibodies to Bacillus anthracis protective antigen in vultures of southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, P C B; Diekmann, M; Kilian, J W; Versfeld, W; De Vos, V; Arntzen, L; Wolter, K; Bartels, P; Kotze, A

    2008-06-01

    Sera from 19 wild caught vultures in northern Namibia and 15 (12 wild caught and three captive bred but with minimal histories) in North West Province, South Africa, were examined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to the Bacillus anthracis toxin protective antigen (PA). As assessed from the baseline established with a control group of ten captive reared vultures with well-documented histories, elevated titres were found in 12 of the 19 (63%) wild caught Namibian birds as compared with none of the 15 South African ones. There was a highly significant difference between the Namibian group as a whole and the other groups (P < 0.001) and no significant difference between the South African and control groups (P > 0.05). Numbers in the Namibian group were too small to determine any significances in species-, sex- or age-related differences within the raw data showing elevated titres in four out of six Cape Vultures, Gyps coprotheres, six out of ten White-backed Vultures, Gyps africanus, and one out of three Lappet-faced Vultures, Aegypius tracheliotus, or in five of six males versus three of seven females, and ten of 15 adults versus one of four juveniles. The results are in line with the available data on the incidence of anthrax in northern Namibia and South Africa and the likely contact of the vultures tested with anthrax carcasses. It is not known whether elevated titre indicates infection per se in vultures or absorption of incompletely digested epitopes of the toxin or both. The results are discussed in relation to distances travelled by vultures as determined by new tracking techniques, how serology can reveal anthrax activity in an area and the issue of the role of vultures in transmission of anthrax.

  12. Toxicity of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to Gyps vultures: a new threat from ketoprofen.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Vinny; Wolter, Kerri; Cromarty, Duncan; Diekmann, Maria; Duncan, Neil; Meharg, Andrew A; Taggart, Mark A; Venter, Leon; Cuthbert, Richard

    2010-06-23

    Three Gyps vulture species are on the brink of extinction in South Asia owing to the veterinary non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diclofenac. Carcasses of domesticated ungulates are the main food source for Asia's vultures and birds die from kidney failure after consuming diclofenac-contaminated tissues. Here, we report on the safety testing of the NSAID ketoprofen, which was not reported to cause mortality in clinical treatment of scavenging birds and is rapidly eliminated from livestock tissues. Safety testing was undertaken using captive non-releasable Cape griffon vultures (Gyps coprotheres) and wild-caught African white-backed vultures (G. africanus), both previously identified as susceptible to diclofenac and suitable surrogates. Ketoprofen doses ranged from 0.5 to 5 mg kg(-1) vulture body weight, based upon recommended veterinary guidelines and maximum levels of exposure for wild vultures (estimated as 1.54 mg kg(-1)). Doses were administered by oral gavage or through feeding tissues from cattle dosed with ketoprofen at 6 mg kg(-1) cattle body weight, before slaughter. Mortalities occurred at dose levels of 1.5 and 5 mg kg(-1) vulture body weight (within the range recommended for clinical treatment) with the same clinical signs as observed for diclofenac. Surveys of livestock carcasses in India indicate that toxic levels of residual ketoprofen are already present in vulture food supplies. Consequently, we strongly recommend that ketoprofen is not used for veterinary treatment of livestock in Asia and in other regions of the world where vultures access livestock carcasses. The only alternative to diclofenac that should be promoted as safe for vultures is the NSAID meloxicam. PMID:20007163

  13. Toxicity of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to Gyps vultures: a new threat from ketoprofen.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Vinny; Wolter, Kerri; Cromarty, Duncan; Diekmann, Maria; Duncan, Neil; Meharg, Andrew A; Taggart, Mark A; Venter, Leon; Cuthbert, Richard

    2010-06-23

    Three Gyps vulture species are on the brink of extinction in South Asia owing to the veterinary non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diclofenac. Carcasses of domesticated ungulates are the main food source for Asia's vultures and birds die from kidney failure after consuming diclofenac-contaminated tissues. Here, we report on the safety testing of the NSAID ketoprofen, which was not reported to cause mortality in clinical treatment of scavenging birds and is rapidly eliminated from livestock tissues. Safety testing was undertaken using captive non-releasable Cape griffon vultures (Gyps coprotheres) and wild-caught African white-backed vultures (G. africanus), both previously identified as susceptible to diclofenac and suitable surrogates. Ketoprofen doses ranged from 0.5 to 5 mg kg(-1) vulture body weight, based upon recommended veterinary guidelines and maximum levels of exposure for wild vultures (estimated as 1.54 mg kg(-1)). Doses were administered by oral gavage or through feeding tissues from cattle dosed with ketoprofen at 6 mg kg(-1) cattle body weight, before slaughter. Mortalities occurred at dose levels of 1.5 and 5 mg kg(-1) vulture body weight (within the range recommended for clinical treatment) with the same clinical signs as observed for diclofenac. Surveys of livestock carcasses in India indicate that toxic levels of residual ketoprofen are already present in vulture food supplies. Consequently, we strongly recommend that ketoprofen is not used for veterinary treatment of livestock in Asia and in other regions of the world where vultures access livestock carcasses. The only alternative to diclofenac that should be promoted as safe for vultures is the NSAID meloxicam.

  14. Toxicity of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to Gyps vultures: a new threat from ketoprofen

    PubMed Central

    Naidoo, Vinny; Wolter, Kerri; Cromarty, Duncan; Diekmann, Maria; Duncan, Neil; Meharg, Andrew A.; Taggart, Mark A.; Venter, Leon; Cuthbert, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Three Gyps vulture species are on the brink of extinction in South Asia owing to the veterinary non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diclofenac. Carcasses of domesticated ungulates are the main food source for Asia's vultures and birds die from kidney failure after consuming diclofenac-contaminated tissues. Here, we report on the safety testing of the NSAID ketoprofen, which was not reported to cause mortality in clinical treatment of scavenging birds and is rapidly eliminated from livestock tissues. Safety testing was undertaken using captive non-releasable Cape griffon vultures (Gyps coprotheres) and wild-caught African white-backed vultures (G. africanus), both previously identified as susceptible to diclofenac and suitable surrogates. Ketoprofen doses ranged from 0.5 to 5 mg kg−1 vulture body weight, based upon recommended veterinary guidelines and maximum levels of exposure for wild vultures (estimated as 1.54 mg kg−1). Doses were administered by oral gavage or through feeding tissues from cattle dosed with ketoprofen at 6 mg kg−1 cattle body weight, before slaughter. Mortalities occurred at dose levels of 1.5 and 5 mg kg−1 vulture body weight (within the range recommended for clinical treatment) with the same clinical signs as observed for diclofenac. Surveys of livestock carcasses in India indicate that toxic levels of residual ketoprofen are already present in vulture food supplies. Consequently, we strongly recommend that ketoprofen is not used for veterinary treatment of livestock in Asia and in other regions of the world where vultures access livestock carcasses. The only alternative to diclofenac that should be promoted as safe for vultures is the NSAID meloxicam. PMID:20007163

  15. Removing the threat of diclofenac to critically endangered Asian vultures.

    PubMed

    Swan, Gerry; Naidoo, Vinasan; Cuthbert, Richard; Green, Rhys E; Pain, Deborah J; Swarup, Devendra; Prakash, Vibhu; Taggart, Mark; Bekker, Lizette; Das, Devojit; Diekmann, Jörg; Diekmann, Maria; Killian, Elmarié; Meharg, Andy; Patra, Ramesh Chandra; Saini, Mohini; Wolter, Kerri

    2006-03-01

    Veterinary use of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) drug diclofenac in South Asia has resulted in the collapse of populations of three vulture species of the genus Gyps to the most severe category of global extinction risk. Vultures are exposed to diclofenac when scavenging on livestock treated with the drug shortly before death. Diclofenac causes kidney damage, increased serum uric acid concentrations, visceral gout, and death. Concern about this issue led the Indian Government to announce its intention to ban the veterinary use of diclofenac by September 2005. Implementation of a ban is still in progress late in 2005, and to facilitate this we sought potential alternative NSAIDs by obtaining information from captive bird collections worldwide. We found that the NSAID meloxicam had been administered to 35 captive Gyps vultures with no apparent ill effects. We then undertook a phased programme of safety testing of meloxicam on the African white-backed vulture Gyps africanus, which we had previously established to be as susceptible to diclofenac poisoning as the endangered Asian Gyps vultures. We estimated the likely maximum level of exposure (MLE) of wild vultures and dosed birds by gavage (oral administration) with increasing quantities of the drug until the likely MLE was exceeded in a sample of 40 G. africanus. Subsequently, six G. africanus were fed tissues from cattle which had been treated with a higher than standard veterinary course of meloxicam prior to death. In the final phase, ten Asian vultures of two of the endangered species (Gyps bengalensis, Gyps indicus) were dosed with meloxicam by gavage; five of them at more than the likely MLE dosage. All meloxicam-treated birds survived all treatments, and none suffered any obvious clinical effects. Serum uric acid concentrations remained within the normal limits throughout, and were significantly lower than those from birds treated with diclofenac in other studies. We conclude that meloxicam is of

  16. Removing the threat of diclofenac to critically endangered Asian vultures.

    PubMed

    Swan, Gerry; Naidoo, Vinasan; Cuthbert, Richard; Green, Rhys E; Pain, Deborah J; Swarup, Devendra; Prakash, Vibhu; Taggart, Mark; Bekker, Lizette; Das, Devojit; Diekmann, Jörg; Diekmann, Maria; Killian, Elmarié; Meharg, Andy; Patra, Ramesh Chandra; Saini, Mohini; Wolter, Kerri

    2006-03-01

    Veterinary use of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) drug diclofenac in South Asia has resulted in the collapse of populations of three vulture species of the genus Gyps to the most severe category of global extinction risk. Vultures are exposed to diclofenac when scavenging on livestock treated with the drug shortly before death. Diclofenac causes kidney damage, increased serum uric acid concentrations, visceral gout, and death. Concern about this issue led the Indian Government to announce its intention to ban the veterinary use of diclofenac by September 2005. Implementation of a ban is still in progress late in 2005, and to facilitate this we sought potential alternative NSAIDs by obtaining information from captive bird collections worldwide. We found that the NSAID meloxicam had been administered to 35 captive Gyps vultures with no apparent ill effects. We then undertook a phased programme of safety testing of meloxicam on the African white-backed vulture Gyps africanus, which we had previously established to be as susceptible to diclofenac poisoning as the endangered Asian Gyps vultures. We estimated the likely maximum level of exposure (MLE) of wild vultures and dosed birds by gavage (oral administration) with increasing quantities of the drug until the likely MLE was exceeded in a sample of 40 G. africanus. Subsequently, six G. africanus were fed tissues from cattle which had been treated with a higher than standard veterinary course of meloxicam prior to death. In the final phase, ten Asian vultures of two of the endangered species (Gyps bengalensis, Gyps indicus) were dosed with meloxicam by gavage; five of them at more than the likely MLE dosage. All meloxicam-treated birds survived all treatments, and none suffered any obvious clinical effects. Serum uric acid concentrations remained within the normal limits throughout, and were significantly lower than those from birds treated with diclofenac in other studies. We conclude that meloxicam is of

  17. Removing the Threat of Diclofenac to Critically Endangered Asian Vultures

    PubMed Central

    Swan, Gerry; Naidoo, Vinasan; Cuthbert, Richard; Pain, Deborah J; Swarup, Devendra; Prakash, Vibhu; Taggart, Mark; Bekker, Lizette; Das, Devojit; Diekmann, Jörg; Diekmann, Maria; Killian, Elmarié; Meharg, Andy; Patra, Ramesh Chandra; Saini, Mohini; Wolter, Kerri

    2006-01-01

    Veterinary use of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) drug diclofenac in South Asia has resulted in the collapse of populations of three vulture species of the genusGyps to the most severe category of global extinction risk. Vultures are exposed to diclofenac when scavenging on livestock treated with the drug shortly before death. Diclofenac causes kidney damage, increased serum uric acid concentrations, visceral gout, and death. Concern about this issue led the Indian Government to announce its intention to ban the veterinary use of diclofenac by September 2005. Implementation of a ban is still in progress late in 2005, and to facilitate this we sought potential alternative NSAIDs by obtaining information from captive bird collections worldwide. We found that the NSAID meloxicam had been administered to 35 captiveGyps vultures with no apparent ill effects. We then undertook a phased programme of safety testing of meloxicam on the African white-backed vultureGyps africanus, which we had previously established to be as susceptible to diclofenac poisoning as the endangered AsianGyps vultures. We estimated the likely maximum level of exposure (MLE) of wild vultures and dosed birds by gavage (oral administration) with increasing quantities of the drug until the likely MLE was exceeded in a sample of 40G. africanus. Subsequently, sixG. africanus were fed tissues from cattle which had been treated with a higher than standard veterinary course of meloxicam prior to death. In the final phase, ten Asian vultures of two of the endangered species(Gyps bengalensis,Gyps indicus) were dosed with meloxicam by gavage; five of them at more than the likely MLE dosage. All meloxicam-treated birds survived all treatments, and none suffered any obvious clinical effects. Serum uric acid concentrations remained within the normal limits throughout, and were significantly lower than those from birds treated with diclofenac in other studies. We conclude that meloxicam is of low

  18. Diclofenac toxicity in Gyps vulture is associated with decreased uric acid excretion and not renal portal vasoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, V; Swan, G E

    2009-04-01

    Diclofenac (DF), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), is largely regarded as one of the most devastating environmental toxicant in recent times, after accidental exposure via their food-chain lead to massive mortalities in three vulture species on the Asian subcontinent. Although the use of diclofenac was recently banned on the Indian subcontinent, following the favourable safety profile of meloxicam, its mechanism of toxicity remains unknown. In an attempt to establish this mechanism, we test three hypotheses using models established from either the domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus) or the African White-backed vulture (Gyps africanus). We demonstrate that both DF and meloxicam are toxic to renal tubular epithelial (RTE) cells following 12 h of exposure, due to an increase in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which could be temporarily ameliorated by pre-incubation with uric acid (UA). When cultures were incubated with either drug for only 2 h, meloxicam showed no toxicity in contrast to diclofenac. In both cases no increase in ROS production was evident. In addition, diclofenac decreased the transport of uric acid, by interfering with the p-amino-hippuric acid (PAH) channel. We conclude that vulture susceptibility to diclofenac results from a combination of an increased ROS, interference with UA transport and the duration of exposure.

  19. Differential Range Use between Age Classes of Southern African Bearded Vultures Gypaetus barbatus

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Sonja; Reid, Timothy; Amar, Arjun

    2014-01-01

    Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus movements were investigated in southern Africa to determine whether an individual's age, sex or breeding status influenced its ranging behaviour and to provide the information required to guide conservation activities. Data from satellite transmitters fitted to 18 individuals of four age classes were used to determine range size and use. Because of the nature of the movements of marked individuals, these data could be used to determine the overall foraging range of the entire population, which was estimated to be 51 767 km2. Although juvenile, immature and sub-adult birds used different parts of the overall range, their combined foraging range was 65% (33 636 km2) of the overall range. Average adult home ranges (286 km2) were only around 1% the size of the average foraging ranges of non-adults (10 540 –25 985 km2), with those of breeding adults being even smaller (95 km2). Home ranges of breeding adults did not vary in size between seasons but adults utilized their home range more intensively whilst breeding, moving greater distances during the incubation and chick hatching period. Range size and use increased as non-adults aged. Immatures and sub-adults had larger range sizes during winter, but range use of non-adults did not vary seasonally. Range size and use did not differ between the sexes in any of the age classes. Information on home range size and use enables specific areas within the species' range to be targeted for management planning, education and conservation action. PMID:25551614

  20. Differential range use between age classes of southern African Bearded Vultures Gypaetus barbatus.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Sonja; Reid, Timothy; Amar, Arjun

    2014-01-01

    Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus movements were investigated in southern Africa to determine whether an individual's age, sex or breeding status influenced its ranging behaviour and to provide the information required to guide conservation activities. Data from satellite transmitters fitted to 18 individuals of four age classes were used to determine range size and use. Because of the nature of the movements of marked individuals, these data could be used to determine the overall foraging range of the entire population, which was estimated to be 51 767 km(2). Although juvenile, immature and sub-adult birds used different parts of the overall range, their combined foraging range was 65% (33 636 km(2)) of the overall range. Average adult home ranges (286 km(2)) were only around 1% the size of the average foraging ranges of non-adults (10 540 -25 985 km(2)), with those of breeding adults being even smaller (95 km(2)). Home ranges of breeding adults did not vary in size between seasons but adults utilized their home range more intensively whilst breeding, moving greater distances during the incubation and chick hatching period. Range size and use increased as non-adults aged. Immatures and sub-adults had larger range sizes during winter, but range use of non-adults did not vary seasonally. Range size and use did not differ between the sexes in any of the age classes. Information on home range size and use enables specific areas within the species' range to be targeted for management planning, education and conservation action. PMID:25551614

  1. Differential range use between age classes of southern African Bearded Vultures Gypaetus barbatus.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Sonja; Reid, Timothy; Amar, Arjun

    2014-01-01

    Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus movements were investigated in southern Africa to determine whether an individual's age, sex or breeding status influenced its ranging behaviour and to provide the information required to guide conservation activities. Data from satellite transmitters fitted to 18 individuals of four age classes were used to determine range size and use. Because of the nature of the movements of marked individuals, these data could be used to determine the overall foraging range of the entire population, which was estimated to be 51 767 km(2). Although juvenile, immature and sub-adult birds used different parts of the overall range, their combined foraging range was 65% (33 636 km(2)) of the overall range. Average adult home ranges (286 km(2)) were only around 1% the size of the average foraging ranges of non-adults (10 540 -25 985 km(2)), with those of breeding adults being even smaller (95 km(2)). Home ranges of breeding adults did not vary in size between seasons but adults utilized their home range more intensively whilst breeding, moving greater distances during the incubation and chick hatching period. Range size and use increased as non-adults aged. Immatures and sub-adults had larger range sizes during winter, but range use of non-adults did not vary seasonally. Range size and use did not differ between the sexes in any of the age classes. Information on home range size and use enables specific areas within the species' range to be targeted for management planning, education and conservation action.

  2. Diclofenac residues in blood plasma and tissues of vultures collected from Ahmedabad, India.

    PubMed

    Muralidharan, S; Dhananjayan, V

    2010-10-01

    The study reports residues of diclofenac, a non-steroidal anti inflammatory drug, in tissues of 11 White-backed Vulture, Gyps bengalensis collected between 2005 and 2007 and blood plasma of 12 White-backed Vulture, four Egyptian Vulture, Neophron percnopterus and two Griffon Vulture, Gyps fulvus collected during 2005. Samples were analysed using High Performance Liquid Chromatograhy (HPLC) equipped with UV detector. One of the White-backed Vultures collected during 2005 had substantial urate deposits on its viscera and diclofenac was detected in its liver (1.42 ppm wet weight) and kidney (1.18 ppm wet weight), which is suggestive of diclofenac exposure and intoxication. Although uric acid crystals were not observed in the remaining birds received during 2005, the residues of diclofenac detected were at levels higher than the toxic limits (0.25-1 ppm). No residues were detected in any of the tissues of birds collected during 2006 and 2007 (6 birds). About 89% (16 of 18) of plasma samples collected during 2005 had diclofenac residues (White-backed vulture: BDL to 0.17 ppm; Egyptian vulture: BDL to 0.09 ppm; Griffon vulture: 0.07-0.14 ppm). However, plasma diclofenac concentrations were less than the concentrations reported to be toxic. Although use of diclofenac for treating cattle has been banned in India, regular monitoring is recommended to assess the effectiveness of the ban on the drug in support of the conservation of these species.

  3. Diclofenac residues in blood plasma and tissues of vultures collected from Ahmedabad, India.

    PubMed

    Muralidharan, S; Dhananjayan, V

    2010-10-01

    The study reports residues of diclofenac, a non-steroidal anti inflammatory drug, in tissues of 11 White-backed Vulture, Gyps bengalensis collected between 2005 and 2007 and blood plasma of 12 White-backed Vulture, four Egyptian Vulture, Neophron percnopterus and two Griffon Vulture, Gyps fulvus collected during 2005. Samples were analysed using High Performance Liquid Chromatograhy (HPLC) equipped with UV detector. One of the White-backed Vultures collected during 2005 had substantial urate deposits on its viscera and diclofenac was detected in its liver (1.42 ppm wet weight) and kidney (1.18 ppm wet weight), which is suggestive of diclofenac exposure and intoxication. Although uric acid crystals were not observed in the remaining birds received during 2005, the residues of diclofenac detected were at levels higher than the toxic limits (0.25-1 ppm). No residues were detected in any of the tissues of birds collected during 2006 and 2007 (6 birds). About 89% (16 of 18) of plasma samples collected during 2005 had diclofenac residues (White-backed vulture: BDL to 0.17 ppm; Egyptian vulture: BDL to 0.09 ppm; Griffon vulture: 0.07-0.14 ppm). However, plasma diclofenac concentrations were less than the concentrations reported to be toxic. Although use of diclofenac for treating cattle has been banned in India, regular monitoring is recommended to assess the effectiveness of the ban on the drug in support of the conservation of these species. PMID:20865242

  4. Dropping dead: causes and consequences of vulture population declines worldwide.

    PubMed

    Ogada, Darcy L; Keesing, Felicia; Virani, Munir Z

    2012-02-01

    Vultures are nature's most successful scavengers, and they provide an array of ecological, economic, and cultural services. As the only known obligate scavengers, vultures are uniquely adapted to a scavenging lifestyle. Vultures' unique adaptations include soaring flight, keen eyesight, and extremely low pH levels in their stomachs. Presently, 14 of 23 (61%) vulture species worldwide are threatened with extinction, and the most rapid declines have occurred in the vulture-rich regions of Asia and Africa. The reasons for the population declines are varied, but poisoning or human persecution, or both, feature in the list of nearly every declining species. Deliberate poisoning of carnivores is likely the most widespread cause of vulture poisoning. In Asia, Gyps vultures have declined by >95% due to poisoning by the veterinary drug diclofenac, which was banned by regional governments in 2006. Human persecution of vultures has occurred for centuries, and shooting and deliberate poisoning are the most widely practiced activities. Ecological consequences of vulture declines include changes in community composition of scavengers at carcasses and an increased potential for disease transmission between mammalian scavengers at carcasses. There have been cultural and economic costs of vulture declines as well, particularly in Asia. In the wake of catastrophic vulture declines in Asia, regional governments, the international scientific and donor communities, and the media have given the crisis substantial attention. Even though the Asian vulture crisis focused attention on the plight of vultures worldwide, the situation for African vultures has received relatively little attention especially given the similar levels of population decline. While the Asian crisis has been largely linked to poisoning by diclofenac, vulture population declines in Africa have numerous causes, which have made conserving existing populations more difficult. And in Africa there has been little

  5. Allozyme variation in four populations of African whitebacked vultures (Gyps africanus) and phylogenetic relationships between four vulture species from southern Africa.

    PubMed

    van Wyk, E; van der Bank, H; Verdoorn, G H.

    2001-05-01

    Genetic variation detected by protein electrophoresis at 41 presumptive gene loci was assayed in four populations of Gyps africanus and compared to values previously obtained for Gyps coprotheres. Values calculated for percentage of polymorphic loci (P=34.15%, 0.99 criterion) and average heterozygosity (&Hmacr;=0.108, +/-0.032) in G. africanus, confirm low levels of genetic variation as reported for G. coprotheres. Allele frequency data, assessed at 19 loci, were obtained to evaluate genetic differentiation among four vulture species. Six (31.58%) of the 19 shared loci were polymorphic. Values of 1.26 (+/-0.1), 26.32% and 0.076 (+/-0.047) for G. africanus, 1.21 (+/-0.1), 21.05% and 0.097 (+/-0.045) for Torgos tracheliotus, 1.11 (+/-0.7), 21.05% and 0.053 (+/-0.053) for Neophron percnopterus and 1.05 (+/-0.5), 5.26% and 0.044 (+/-0.047) for G. coprotheres were obtained for the mean number of alleles per locus, P and &Hmacr;, respectively. An average between-population fixation index (F(ST)) value of 0.322 was obtained, which is indicative of significant (P<0.01) differentiation between the four accipitrid species studied. Considerable concordance was obtained between dendograms produced from different analyses, pointing to the distinctiveness of N. percnopterus, which has evolved along a separate lineage as G. africanus, G. coprotheres and T. tracheliotus. Along the latter lineage G. africanus is clustered together with G. coprotheres which is consistent with the morphological similarities of these species. PMID:11274771

  6. VULTURE manual

    SciTech Connect

    Loyd, M.L.

    1985-02-25

    VULTURE is a one dimensional electrostatic particle and field code to simulate electron beam devices such as klystrons or virtual cathode oscillators. It uses particle and cell calculation methods. VULTURE includes the relativistic motion of electrons and the nonrelativistic motion of protons and ions. The one dimensional model may be thought of as particle sheets parallel to the y-z plane moving in the x direction. Electric field, charge density and potential are calculated as a function of x. No magnetic fields are included and the plasma is collisionless. The model is bounded by end plates at x=0 and at a maximum value of x. These end plates are referred to as grids. Additional grids may be located within these bounds, and external circuits connected between the grids provide for the simulation of microwave cavities. Electrical energy is extracted by resistive loss in these circuits. In addition to initial electron, proton and ion conditions, electrons can be emitted and absorbed by all grids including the model boundaries. This electron emission can be varied in both spectrum and time for each grid.

  7. Dropping dead: causes and consequences of vulture population declines worldwide.

    PubMed

    Ogada, Darcy L; Keesing, Felicia; Virani, Munir Z

    2012-02-01

    Vultures are nature's most successful scavengers, and they provide an array of ecological, economic, and cultural services. As the only known obligate scavengers, vultures are uniquely adapted to a scavenging lifestyle. Vultures' unique adaptations include soaring flight, keen eyesight, and extremely low pH levels in their stomachs. Presently, 14 of 23 (61%) vulture species worldwide are threatened with extinction, and the most rapid declines have occurred in the vulture-rich regions of Asia and Africa. The reasons for the population declines are varied, but poisoning or human persecution, or both, feature in the list of nearly every declining species. Deliberate poisoning of carnivores is likely the most widespread cause of vulture poisoning. In Asia, Gyps vultures have declined by >95% due to poisoning by the veterinary drug diclofenac, which was banned by regional governments in 2006. Human persecution of vultures has occurred for centuries, and shooting and deliberate poisoning are the most widely practiced activities. Ecological consequences of vulture declines include changes in community composition of scavengers at carcasses and an increased potential for disease transmission between mammalian scavengers at carcasses. There have been cultural and economic costs of vulture declines as well, particularly in Asia. In the wake of catastrophic vulture declines in Asia, regional governments, the international scientific and donor communities, and the media have given the crisis substantial attention. Even though the Asian vulture crisis focused attention on the plight of vultures worldwide, the situation for African vultures has received relatively little attention especially given the similar levels of population decline. While the Asian crisis has been largely linked to poisoning by diclofenac, vulture population declines in Africa have numerous causes, which have made conserving existing populations more difficult. And in Africa there has been little

  8. Concentration of solar radiation by white backed photovoltaic panels.

    PubMed

    Smestad, G; Hamill, P

    1984-12-01

    In this paper, we present an analysis of the concentration achieved by white backed photovoltaic panels. Concentration is due to the trapping by light scattered in the refractive plate to which the solar cell is bonded. Using the reciprocity relation and assuming the ideal case of a Lambertian distribution, a detailed model is formulated that includes the effects of the thickness and walls of the concentrator. This model converges to the thermodynamic limit and is found to be consistent with experimental results for a wide range of cell sizes. Finally, the model is generalized to multiple-cell photovoltaic panels.

  9. Evolutionary history of New and Old World vultures inferred from nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene.

    PubMed

    Seibold, I; Helbig, A J

    1995-11-29

    The phylogeny of 11 species of Old World vultures (Aves: Accipitriformes, Aegypiinae), three species of New World vultures (Cathartidae) and theri nearest relatives within and outside the order Accipitriformes was investigated based on 1026 nucleotides of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. The data support the contention that New World vultures are not birds of prey, but phylogenetic information was insufficient to identify whether they are closer to storks (Ciconiidae) or to Accipitriformes. Four species of Gyps are all closely related and probably speciated within the Pleistocene. Molecular data do not support the split of 'white-backed' vultures from Gyps in a separate genus Pseudogyps. The monotypic genera of large, heavy-billed vultures, Aegypius, Torgos, Trigonoceps and Sarcogyps, are of monophyletic origin. We propose to merge Torgos with Aegypius, but retain Trigonoceps and Sarcogyps as separate genera, Sarcogyps being clearly the most primitive of the four. All four, together with Gyps and Necrosyrtes, form a monophyletic subfamily or 'core group', to which the subfamily Aegypiinae should be restricted. This group shares a more recent common ancestor with several non-vulture genera of Accipitrids, among them Buteo, Aquila, Haliaeetus and Circaetus, than it does with the two aberrent vultures Gypaetus barbatus and Neophron percnopterus. The last two are much more primitive; they seem to be each other's sister species and are closer to Pernis than to other Accipitrids. We propose separating Gypaetus and Neophron in the subfamily Gypaetinae. If the cytochrome b gene tree accurately reflects vulture phylogeny, Old World vultures are polyphyletic with the Aegypius-Gyps clade having evolved convergently to the more ancient Gypaetus and Neophron vultures. Polyphyly of Old World vultures, although in conflict with the DNA-DNA hybridization phylogeny of Sibley & Ahlquist (1990), is well supported by molecular, karyotypic, morphological and other phenotypic

  10. Confirmed organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide poisonings in South African wildlife (2009-2014).

    PubMed

    Botha, Christo J; Coetser, Heleen; Labuschagne, Leonie; Basson, Andre

    2015-01-01

    During a six-year period (from January 2009 to December 2014), specimens collected from 344 cases of suspected organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide poisonings in wildlife, including birds, were submitted to the Toxicology Laboratory (ARC-OVI) for analysis. A positive diagnosis was made in 135 (39%) of these cases. The majority of cases were from birds, which included Cape vultures (Gyps coprotheres) and African white-backed vultures (Gyps africanus) and bateleur eagles (Terathopius ecaudatus). In one incident 49 vultures were killed when a farmer intentionally laced carcasses with carbofuran in an attempt to control jackal predation. There were 22 incidents of poisoning in helmeted guineafowl (Numida meleagris). On nine different occasions blue cranes (Anthropoides paradiseus) were poisoned, in one incident 14 birds were reported to have been killed. Over the period of investigation, there were 20 cases of poisoning involving mammalian species, the majority being vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus pygerythrus). The carbamate pesticides were responsible for 57 incidents of poisoning. Aldicarb, carbofuran and methomyl were detected in 26, 18 and 12 cases respectively. The majority of organophosphorus pesticide poisonings were caused by diazinon (n = 19), monocrotophos (n = 13) and methamidophos (n = 10). PMID:26824339

  11. Genetic characterization of HPAI (H5N1) viruses from poultry and wild vultures, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Ducatez, Mariette F; Tarnagda, Zekiba; Tahita, Marc C; Sow, Adama; de Landtsheer, Sebastien; Londt, Brandon Z; Brown, Ian H; Osterhaus, D M E; Fouchier, Ron A M; Ouedraogo, Jean-Bosco B; Muller, Claude P

    2007-04-01

    Genetic analysis of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) viruses from poultry and hooded vultures in Burkina Faso shows that these viruses belong to 1 of 3 sublineages initially found in Nigeria and later in other African countries. Hooded vultures could potentially be vectors or sentinels of influenza subtype H5N1, as are cats and swans elsewhere. PMID:17553279

  12. Genetic Characterization of HPAI (H5N1) Viruses from Poultry and Wild Vultures, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ducatez, Mariette F.; Tarnagda, Zekiba; Tahita, Marc C.; Sow, Adama; de Landtsheer, Sebastien; Londt, Brandon Z.; Brown, Ian H.; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.; Fouchier, Ron A.M.; Ouedraogo, Jean-Bosco B.

    2007-01-01

    Genetic analysis of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) viruses from poultry and hooded vultures in Burkina Faso shows that these viruses belong to 1 of 3 sublineages initially found in Nigeria and later in other African countries. Hooded vultures could potentially be vectors or sentinels of influenza subtype H5N1, as are cats and swans elsewhere. PMID:17553279

  13. Turkey vulture surveys in Cuba

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wotzkow, C.; Wiley, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura), were surveyed monthly in Cuba from March 1982-January 1983. A total of 25371 vultures were tallied in 7186 km (3.5 vultures/transect km) of roadside counting along main highways leading from the city of La Habana (northwestern Cuba) to the city of Las Tunas (southeast). Numbers of vultures counted declined substantially beyond 200 m from the transect road. Density of vultures observed within 200 m of the road along the transect route was 0.06/ha. Highest counts were obtained in March, April and June. Turkey Vulture flying activity was greatest during the periods 0900-1200 H and 1400-1700 H.

  14. Diclofenac residues as the cause of vulture population decline in Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oaks, J.L.; Gilbert, M.; Virani, M.Z.; Watson, R.T.; Meteyer, C.U.; Rideout, B.A.; Shivaprasad, H.L.; Ahmed, S.; Chaudhry, M.J.I.; Arshad, M.; Mahmood, S.; Ali, A.; Khan, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Oriental white-backed vulture (OWBV; Gyps bengalensis) was once one of the most common raptors in the Indian subcontinent. A population decline of >95%, starting in the 1990s, was first noted at Keoladeo National Park, India. Since then, catastrophic declines, also involving Gyps indicus and Gyps tenuirostris, have continued to be reported across the subcontinent. Consequently these vultures are now listed as critically endangered by BirdLife International. In 2000, the Peregrine Fund initiated its Asian Vulture Crisis Project with the Ornithological Society of Pakistan, establishing study sites at 16 OWBV colonies in the Kasur, Khanewal and Muzaffargarha??Layyah Districts of Pakistan to measure mortality at over 2,400 active nest sites5. Between 2000 and 2003, high annual adult and subadult mortality (5a??86%) and resulting population declines (34a??95%) (ref. 5 and M.G., manuscript in preparation) were associated with renal failure and visceral gout. Here, we provide results that directly correlate residues of the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac with renal failure. Diclofenac residues and renal disease were reproduced experimentally in OWBVs by direct oral exposure and through feeding vultures diclofenac-treated livestock. We propose that residues of veterinary diclofenac are responsible for the OWBV decline.

  15. Distribution of persistent organochlorine chemical residues in blood plasma of three species of vultures from India.

    PubMed

    Dhananjayan, Venugopal; Muralidharan, Subramanian; Jayanthi, Palanisamy

    2011-02-01

    The presence of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in blood plasma of white-backed vulture Gyps bengalensis, Egyptian vulture Neophron percnopterus, and griffon vulture Gyps fulvus collected from Ahmedabad, India. All the samples had varying levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs. Statistically significant (P<0.05) differences among species were detected for beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH), ∑HCH, and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT). The mean concentration of ∑HCH, ∑DDT, and ∑PCBs among plasma ranged from 43.7 to 136, 8.8 to 64.8, and 226 to 585 ng/ml, respectively. Among the various OCPs analyzed, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE) was detected most frequently. The concentrations of cyclodiene insecticides detected were lower than the other organochlorine residues. The levels of pesticides measured in plasma samples of three species of vulture were comparable to the results documented for a number of avian species and were lower than those reported to have deleterious effects on survival or reproduction of birds. Although no threat is posed by any of the organochlorine pesticides detected, continuous monitoring of breeding colonies is recommended. This study is also the first account of a comprehensive analysis of toxicants present in blood plasma of vulture species in India. The values reported in this study can serve as guidelines for future research in general as well as control values during the analysis of samples obtained from birds in the event of suspected organochlorine poisoning.

  16. Distribution of persistent organochlorine chemical residues in blood plasma of three species of vultures from India.

    PubMed

    Dhananjayan, Venugopal; Muralidharan, Subramanian; Jayanthi, Palanisamy

    2011-02-01

    The presence of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in blood plasma of white-backed vulture Gyps bengalensis, Egyptian vulture Neophron percnopterus, and griffon vulture Gyps fulvus collected from Ahmedabad, India. All the samples had varying levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs. Statistically significant (P<0.05) differences among species were detected for beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH), ∑HCH, and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT). The mean concentration of ∑HCH, ∑DDT, and ∑PCBs among plasma ranged from 43.7 to 136, 8.8 to 64.8, and 226 to 585 ng/ml, respectively. Among the various OCPs analyzed, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE) was detected most frequently. The concentrations of cyclodiene insecticides detected were lower than the other organochlorine residues. The levels of pesticides measured in plasma samples of three species of vulture were comparable to the results documented for a number of avian species and were lower than those reported to have deleterious effects on survival or reproduction of birds. Although no threat is posed by any of the organochlorine pesticides detected, continuous monitoring of breeding colonies is recommended. This study is also the first account of a comprehensive analysis of toxicants present in blood plasma of vulture species in India. The values reported in this study can serve as guidelines for future research in general as well as control values during the analysis of samples obtained from birds in the event of suspected organochlorine poisoning. PMID:20221793

  17. Effectiveness of action in India to reduce exposure of Gyps vultures to the toxic veterinary drug diclofenac.

    PubMed

    Cuthbert, Richard; Taggart, Mark A; Prakash, Vibhu; Saini, Mohini; Swarup, Devendra; Upreti, Suchitra; Mateo, Rafael; Chakraborty, Soumya Sunder; Deori, Parag; Green, Rhys E

    2011-05-11

    Contamination of their carrion food supply with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac has caused rapid population declines across the Indian subcontinent of three species of Gyps vultures endemic to South Asia. The governments of India, Pakistan and Nepal took action in 2006 to prevent the veterinary use of diclofenac on domesticated livestock, the route by which contamination occurs. We analyse data from three surveys of the prevalence and concentration of diclofenac residues in carcasses of domesticated ungulates in India, carried out before and after the implementation of a ban on veterinary use. There was little change in the prevalence and concentration of diclofenac between a survey before the ban and one conducted soon after its implementation, with the percentage of carcasses containing diclofenac in these surveys estimated at 10.8 and 10.7%, respectively. However, both the prevalence and concentration of diclofenac had fallen markedly 7-31 months after the implementation of the ban, with the true prevalence in this third survey estimated at 6.5%. Modelling of the impact of this reduction in diclofenac on the expected rate of decline of the oriental white-backed vulture (Gyps bengalensis) in India indicates that the decline rate has decreased to 40% of the rate before the ban, but is still likely to be rapid (about 18% year(-1)). Hence, further efforts to remove diclofenac from vulture food are still needed if the future recovery or successful reintroduction of vultures is to be feasible.

  18. Effectiveness of Action in India to Reduce Exposure of Gyps Vultures to the Toxic Veterinary Drug Diclofenac

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbert, Richard; Taggart, Mark A.; Prakash, Vibhu; Saini, Mohini; Swarup, Devendra; Upreti, Suchitra; Mateo, Rafael; Chakraborty, Soumya Sunder; Deori, Parag; Green, Rhys E.

    2011-01-01

    Contamination of their carrion food supply with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac has caused rapid population declines across the Indian subcontinent of three species of Gyps vultures endemic to South Asia. The governments of India, Pakistan and Nepal took action in 2006 to prevent the veterinary use of diclofenac on domesticated livestock, the route by which contamination occurs. We analyse data from three surveys of the prevalence and concentration of diclofenac residues in carcasses of domesticated ungulates in India, carried out before and after the implementation of a ban on veterinary use. There was little change in the prevalence and concentration of diclofenac between a survey before the ban and one conducted soon after its implementation, with the percentage of carcasses containing diclofenac in these surveys estimated at 10.8 and 10.7%, respectively. However, both the prevalence and concentration of diclofenac had fallen markedly 7–31 months after the implementation of the ban, with the true prevalence in this third survey estimated at 6.5%. Modelling of the impact of this reduction in diclofenac on the expected rate of decline of the oriental white-backed vulture (Gyps bengalensis) in India indicates that the decline rate has decreased to 40% of the rate before the ban, but is still likely to be rapid (about 18% year−1). Hence, further efforts to remove diclofenac from vulture food are still needed if the future recovery or successful reintroduction of vultures is to be feasible. PMID:21589920

  19. The population decline of Gyps vultures in India and Nepal has slowed since veterinary use of diclofenac was banned.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Vibhu; Bishwakarma, Mohan Chandra; Chaudhary, Anand; Cuthbert, Richard; Dave, Ruchi; Kulkarni, Mandar; Kumar, Sashi; Paudel, Khadananda; Ranade, Sachin; Shringarpure, Rohan; Green, Rhys E

    2012-01-01

    Populations of oriental white-backed vulture (Gyps bengalensis), long-billed vulture (Gyps indicus) and slender-billed vulture (Gyps tenuirostris) crashed during the mid-1990s throughout the Indian subcontinent. Surveys in India, initially conducted in 1991-1993 and repeated in 2000, 2002, 2003 and 2007, revealed that the population of Gyps bengalensis had fallen by 2007 to 0.1% of its numbers in the early 1990s, with the population of Gyps indicus and G. tenuirostris combined having fallen to 3.2% of its earlier level. A survey of G. bengalensis in western Nepal indicated that the size of the population in 2009 was 25% of that in 2002. In this paper, repeat surveys conducted in 2011 were analysed to estimate recent population trends. Populations of all three species of vulture remained at a low level, but the decline had slowed and may even have reversed for G. bengalensis, both in India and Nepal. However, estimates of the most recent population trends are imprecise, so it is possible that declines may be continuing, though at a significantly slower rate. The degree to which the decline of G. bengalensis in India has slowed is consistent with the expected effects on population trend of a measured change in the level of contamination of ungulate carcasses with the drug diclofenac, which is toxic to vultures, following a ban on its veterinary use in 2006. The most recent available information indicates that the elimination of diclofenac from the vultures' food supply is incomplete, so further efforts are required to fully implement the ban.

  20. The microbiome of New World vultures.

    PubMed

    Roggenbuck, Michael; Bærholm Schnell, Ida; Blom, Nikolaj; Bælum, Jacob; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Pontén, Thomas Sicheritz; Sørensen, Søren Johannes; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Graves, Gary R; Hansen, Lars H

    2014-01-01

    Vultures are scavengers that fill a key ecosystem niche, in which they have evolved a remarkable tolerance to bacterial toxins in decaying meat. Here we report the first deep metagenomic analysis of the vulture microbiome. Through face and gut comparisons of 50 vultures representing two species, we demonstrate a remarkably conserved low diversity of gut microbial flora. The gut samples contained an average of 76 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) per specimen, compared with 528 OTUs on the facial skin. Clostridia and Fusobacteria, widely pathogenic to other vertebrates, dominate the vulture's gut microbiota. We reveal a likely faecal-oral-gut route for their origin. DNA of prey species detectable on facial swabs was completely degraded in the gut samples from most vultures, suggesting that the gastrointestinal tracts of vultures are extremely selective. Our findings show a strong adaption of vultures and their bacteria to their food source, exemplifying a specialized host-microbial alliance. PMID:25423494

  1. The microbiome of New World vultures.

    PubMed

    Roggenbuck, Michael; Bærholm Schnell, Ida; Blom, Nikolaj; Bælum, Jacob; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Pontén, Thomas Sicheritz; Sørensen, Søren Johannes; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Graves, Gary R; Hansen, Lars H

    2014-11-25

    Vultures are scavengers that fill a key ecosystem niche, in which they have evolved a remarkable tolerance to bacterial toxins in decaying meat. Here we report the first deep metagenomic analysis of the vulture microbiome. Through face and gut comparisons of 50 vultures representing two species, we demonstrate a remarkably conserved low diversity of gut microbial flora. The gut samples contained an average of 76 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) per specimen, compared with 528 OTUs on the facial skin. Clostridia and Fusobacteria, widely pathogenic to other vertebrates, dominate the vulture's gut microbiota. We reveal a likely faecal-oral-gut route for their origin. DNA of prey species detectable on facial swabs was completely degraded in the gut samples from most vultures, suggesting that the gastrointestinal tracts of vultures are extremely selective. Our findings show a strong adaption of vultures and their bacteria to their food source, exemplifying a specialized host-microbial alliance.

  2. The influence of non-toxic concentrations of DDT and DDE on the old world vulture estrogen receptor alpha.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Vinny; Katsu, Yoshinao; Iguchi, Taisen

    2008-01-01

    Seven of the nine vulture species in South Africa are listed as endangered on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) red list. From these, the Cape Griffon vulture (Gyps corprotheres) is the most endangered species in the region. Although inadequate nutritional support has been blamed on the constant decline in populations, the process of vulture restaurants has failed to improve the population status over the last twenty years. One possible reason for the decline may be an underlying reproductive disorder as described in endocrine disruptive syndromes. Both DDT and p,p'-DDE have been detected previously at very high concentrations in the mid 1980s, with lower concentrations still being detectable as late as 2001. To establish the effect of DDT and DDE, the vulture estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) was sequenced from two species using 5' and 3' rapid amplification cDNA ends (RACE). Using transient transfected mammalian cell assays, vulture ERalpha estrogen-dependent transcription activity was validated using various estrogens and DDT derivatives. The receptor assay was sensitive to p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE with EC(50) of 2.41x10(-6), 3.47x10(-7) and 3.81x10(-5)M. When compared to results obtained from human, zebrafish, chicken, salamander and turtle, the vulture ERalpha showed high sensitivity to o,p'-DDT and intermediately responsive to p,p'-DDE. Vulture ERalpha is, however, not responsive to the DDT and DDE levels reported in the plasma of vultures from the last population survey, indicating that the Southern African vulture are not currently exposed to disruptive levels of these contaminants.

  3. The influence of non-toxic concentrations of DDT and DDE on the old world vulture estrogen receptor alpha.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Vinny; Katsu, Yoshinao; Iguchi, Taisen

    2008-01-01

    Seven of the nine vulture species in South Africa are listed as endangered on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) red list. From these, the Cape Griffon vulture (Gyps corprotheres) is the most endangered species in the region. Although inadequate nutritional support has been blamed on the constant decline in populations, the process of vulture restaurants has failed to improve the population status over the last twenty years. One possible reason for the decline may be an underlying reproductive disorder as described in endocrine disruptive syndromes. Both DDT and p,p'-DDE have been detected previously at very high concentrations in the mid 1980s, with lower concentrations still being detectable as late as 2001. To establish the effect of DDT and DDE, the vulture estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) was sequenced from two species using 5' and 3' rapid amplification cDNA ends (RACE). Using transient transfected mammalian cell assays, vulture ERalpha estrogen-dependent transcription activity was validated using various estrogens and DDT derivatives. The receptor assay was sensitive to p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE with EC(50) of 2.41x10(-6), 3.47x10(-7) and 3.81x10(-5)M. When compared to results obtained from human, zebrafish, chicken, salamander and turtle, the vulture ERalpha showed high sensitivity to o,p'-DDT and intermediately responsive to p,p'-DDE. Vulture ERalpha is, however, not responsive to the DDT and DDE levels reported in the plasma of vultures from the last population survey, indicating that the Southern African vulture are not currently exposed to disruptive levels of these contaminants. PMID:18801367

  4. Toxicity of diclofenac to Gyps vultures.

    PubMed

    Swan, Gerry E; Cuthbert, Richard; Quevedo, Miguel; Green, Rhys E; Pain, Deborah J; Bartels, Paul; Cunningham, Andrew A; Duncan, Neil; Meharg, Andrew A; Oaks, J Lindsay; Parry-Jones, Jemima; Shultz, Susanne; Taggart, Mark A; Verdoorn, Gerhard; Wolter, Kerri

    2006-06-22

    Three endemic vulture species Gyps bengalensis, Gyps indicus and Gyps tenuirostris are critically endangered following dramatic declines in South Asia resulting from exposure to diclofenac, a veterinary drug present in the livestock carcasses that they scavenge. Diclofenac is widely used globally and could present a risk to Gyps species from other regions. In this study, we test the toxicity of diclofenac to a Eurasian (Gyps fulvus) and an African (Gyps africanus) species, neither of which is threatened. A dose of 0.8 mg kg(-1) of diclofenac was highly toxic to both species, indicating that they are at least as sensitive to diclofenac as G. bengalensis, for which we estimate an LD50 of 0.1-0.2 mg kg(-1). We suggest that diclofenac is likely to be toxic to all eight Gyps species, and that G. africanus, which is phylogenetically close to G. bengalensis, would be a suitable surrogate for the safety testing of alternative drugs to diclofenac. PMID:17148382

  5. Toxicity of diclofenac to Gyps vultures

    PubMed Central

    Swan, Gerry E; Cuthbert, Richard; Quevedo, Miguel; Green, Rhys E; Pain, Deborah J; Bartels, Paul; Cunningham, Andrew A; Duncan, Neil; Meharg, Andrew A; Lindsay Oaks, J; Parry-Jones, Jemima; Shultz, Susanne; Taggart, Mark A; Verdoorn, Gerhard; Wolter, Kerri

    2006-01-01

    Three endemic vulture species Gyps bengalensis, Gyps indicus and Gyps tenuirostris are critically endangered following dramatic declines in South Asia resulting from exposure to diclofenac, a veterinary drug present in the livestock carcasses that they scavenge. Diclofenac is widely used globally and could present a risk to Gyps species from other regions. In this study, we test the toxicity of diclofenac to a Eurasian (Gyps fulvus) and an African (Gyps africanus) species, neither of which is threatened. A dose of 0.8 mg kg−1 of diclofenac was highly toxic to both species, indicating that they are at least as sensitive to diclofenac as G. bengalensis, for which we estimate an LD50 of 0.1–0.2 mg kg−1. We suggest that diclofenac is likely to be toxic to all eight Gyps species, and that G. africanus, which is phylogenetically close to G. bengalensis, would be a suitable surrogate for the safety testing of alternative drugs to diclofenac. PMID:17148382

  6. Transcriptomic and Expression Analysis of the Salivary Glands in White-Backed Planthoppers, Sogatella furcifera

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen; An, Xing-Kui; Liu, Yu-Di; Hou, Mao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    The white-backed planthopper (WBPH), Sogatella furcifera (Horváth), is one of the serious rice pests because of its destructive feeding. The salivary glands of the WBPH play an important role in the feeding behaviour. Currently, however, very little is known about the salivary glands at the molecular level. We sequenced the salivary gland transcriptome (sialotranscripome) of adult WBPHs using the Illumina sequencing. A total of 65,595 transcripts and 51,842 unigenes were obtained from salivary glands. According to annotations against the Nr database, many of the unigenes identified were associated with the most studied enzymes in hemipteran saliva. In the present study, we identified 32 salivary protein genes from the WBPH sialotranscripome, which were categorized as those involved in sugar metabolism, detoxification, suppression of plant defense responses, immunity-related responses, general digestion, and other phytophagy processes. Tissue expression profiles analysis revealed that four of 32 salivary protein genes (multicopper oxidase 4, multicopper oxidase 6, carboxylesterase and uridine phosphorylase 1 isform X2) were primarily expressed in the salivary gland, suggesting that they played putative role in insect-rice interactions. 13 of 32 salivary protein genes were primarily expressed in gut, which might play putative role in digestive and detoxify mechanism. Development expression profiles analysis revealed that the expression level of 26 of 32 salivary protein genes had no significant difference, suggesting that they may play roles in every developmental stages of salivary gland of WBPH. The other six genes have a high expression level in the salivary gland of adult. 31 of 32 genes (except putative acetylcholinesterase 1) have no significant difference in male and female adult, suggesting that their expression level have no difference between sexes. This report analysis of the sialotranscripome for the WBPH, and the transcriptome provides a foundational

  7. The putative Halloween gene phantom involved in ecdysteroidogenesis in the white-backed planthopper Sogatella furcifera.

    PubMed

    Wan, Pin-Jun; Jia, Shuang; Li, Na; Fan, Jin-Mei; Li, Guo-Qing

    2014-09-10

    Postembryonic development of insects is highly dependent on ecdysteroid hormones ecdysone (E) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). A cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP306A1, the product of the Halloween gene phantom (phm), is involved in the ecdysteroidogenesis in representative insects in Diptera, Lepidoptera and Orthoptera. In the present paper, Sfphm was cloned from a hemipteran insect species, the white-backed planthopper Sogatella furcifera. SfPHM has five insect conserved P450 motifs, i.e., Helix-C, Helix-I, Helix-K, PERF and heme-binding motifs. Temporal and spatial expression patterns of Sfphm were evaluated by q-PCR. Sfphm showed three expression peaks in late second-, third- and fourth-instar stages. In contrast, the expression levels were lower and formed three troughs in the newly-molted second-, third- and fourth-instar nymphs. The relative 20E levels exhibited similar temporal patterns to Sfphm expression levels. On day 3 of the fourth-instar nymphs, Sfphm clearly had a high transcript level in the thorax where PGs were located. Dietary introduction of double-stranded RNA of Sfphm into the second instars successfully knocked down the target gene, and greatly reduced 20E level and ecdysone receptor (EcR) expression level. Moreover, knockdown of Sfphm caused lethality and slowed down ecdysis during nymphal stages. Furthermore, ingestion of 20-hydroxyecdysone did not alter Sfphm expression level, but almost completely rescued SfEcR expression level, and relieved the negative effects on nymphal survival and ecdysis in Sfphm-dsRNA-exposed planthoppers. Thus, our results suggest that Sfphm plays a critical role in ecdysteroidogenesis in S. furcifera. PMID:25017052

  8. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in the white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zhao-Xia; Tang, Nan; Wang, Lin; Zhang, Li-Qing; Akinyemi, Ibukun A; Wu, Qing-Fa

    2016-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a novel class of small, non-coding endogenous RNAs that play critical regulatory roles in many metabolic activities in eukaryotes. Reports of the identification of miRNAs in Sogatella furcifera (white-backed planthopper), the insect that acts as the only confirmed vector of the southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), are limited. In this study, a total of 382 miRNAs were identified in S. furcifera, including 106 conserved and 276 novel miRNAs, using high-throughput sequencing based on two small RNA libraries from viruliferous and non-viruliferous S. furcifera, and these miRNAs belonged to 52 conserved miRNA families and 58 S. furcifera-specific families, respectively. Comparison with miRNAs from 26 insect species and five other species in miRBase showed that more than half of the conserved miRNA families are highly conserved in Hexapoda, while other miRNAs are only conserved in non-dipterans. Furthermore, 4 117 target genes predicted for the 382 identified miRNAs could be categorized into 45 functional groups annotated by Gene Ontology. Compared with non-viruliferous cells, eight up-regulated miRNAs and four down-regulated miRNAs were identified in cells inoculated with SRBSDV, among which miR-14 and miR-n98a may be involved in the immune response to SRBSDV infection. Analyses of the identified miRNAs will provide insights into the roles of these miRNAs in the regulation and expression of genes involved in the metabolism, development and viral infection of S. furcifera. PMID:27060479

  9. The putative Halloween gene phantom involved in ecdysteroidogenesis in the white-backed planthopper Sogatella furcifera.

    PubMed

    Wan, Pin-Jun; Jia, Shuang; Li, Na; Fan, Jin-Mei; Li, Guo-Qing

    2014-09-10

    Postembryonic development of insects is highly dependent on ecdysteroid hormones ecdysone (E) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). A cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP306A1, the product of the Halloween gene phantom (phm), is involved in the ecdysteroidogenesis in representative insects in Diptera, Lepidoptera and Orthoptera. In the present paper, Sfphm was cloned from a hemipteran insect species, the white-backed planthopper Sogatella furcifera. SfPHM has five insect conserved P450 motifs, i.e., Helix-C, Helix-I, Helix-K, PERF and heme-binding motifs. Temporal and spatial expression patterns of Sfphm were evaluated by q-PCR. Sfphm showed three expression peaks in late second-, third- and fourth-instar stages. In contrast, the expression levels were lower and formed three troughs in the newly-molted second-, third- and fourth-instar nymphs. The relative 20E levels exhibited similar temporal patterns to Sfphm expression levels. On day 3 of the fourth-instar nymphs, Sfphm clearly had a high transcript level in the thorax where PGs were located. Dietary introduction of double-stranded RNA of Sfphm into the second instars successfully knocked down the target gene, and greatly reduced 20E level and ecdysone receptor (EcR) expression level. Moreover, knockdown of Sfphm caused lethality and slowed down ecdysis during nymphal stages. Furthermore, ingestion of 20-hydroxyecdysone did not alter Sfphm expression level, but almost completely rescued SfEcR expression level, and relieved the negative effects on nymphal survival and ecdysis in Sfphm-dsRNA-exposed planthoppers. Thus, our results suggest that Sfphm plays a critical role in ecdysteroidogenesis in S. furcifera.

  10. Validity of Bartram's Painted Vulture (Aves: Cathartidae).

    PubMed

    Snyder, Noel F R; Fry, Joel T

    2013-02-07

    William Bartram described the Painted Vulture (Vultur sacra) as a new species in his 1791 book on travels in Florida and other southeastern states. However, no specimen of this bird survives, and it has not been reported by any subsequent ornithologist. Bartram's detailed description is not presently endorsed by the American Ornithologists' Union and has been widely regarded as a myth, a misdescribed King Vulture Sarcoramphus papa (Linnaeus), a misdescribed Northern Caracara Caracara cheriway (Jacquin), or a garbled mixture of species. In fact, his description bears almost no resemblance to a Northern Caracara, but it does match the King Vulture in all important respects except tail color (which is uniform dark brown in all ages and sexes of King Vultures but was white with a dark brown or black tip in Bartram's description). Most 20th century ornithologists commenting on Bartram's bird have been reluctant to accept his description because of the tail-color discrepancy. Only McAtee (1942) concluded that his description could be fully accurate as written, indicating a bird closely related to, but different from, a typical King Vulture. Paralleling Bartram's description is an apparently independent account and painting of a vulture of uncertain geographic origin by Eleazar Albin (1734). Details of Albin's description, including tail color, are very similar to those of Bartram's description. The only discrepancies are minor differences in color of softparts and tail that seem explicable as intraspecific variation. Available evidence suggests that Bartram knew nothing of Albin's description, and if so, Albin's bird provides quite persuasive support for the validity of Bartram's bird. Equally important, none of the arguments offered historically against the validity of the Painted Vulture is persuasive when examined closely. Together, these and other factors make a strong case for acceptance of Bartram's Painted Vulture as a historic resident of northern Florida and

  11. Validity of Bartram's Painted Vulture (Aves: Cathartidae).

    PubMed

    Snyder, Noel F R; Fry, Joel T

    2013-01-01

    William Bartram described the Painted Vulture (Vultur sacra) as a new species in his 1791 book on travels in Florida and other southeastern states. However, no specimen of this bird survives, and it has not been reported by any subsequent ornithologist. Bartram's detailed description is not presently endorsed by the American Ornithologists' Union and has been widely regarded as a myth, a misdescribed King Vulture Sarcoramphus papa (Linnaeus), a misdescribed Northern Caracara Caracara cheriway (Jacquin), or a garbled mixture of species. In fact, his description bears almost no resemblance to a Northern Caracara, but it does match the King Vulture in all important respects except tail color (which is uniform dark brown in all ages and sexes of King Vultures but was white with a dark brown or black tip in Bartram's description). Most 20th century ornithologists commenting on Bartram's bird have been reluctant to accept his description because of the tail-color discrepancy. Only McAtee (1942) concluded that his description could be fully accurate as written, indicating a bird closely related to, but different from, a typical King Vulture. Paralleling Bartram's description is an apparently independent account and painting of a vulture of uncertain geographic origin by Eleazar Albin (1734). Details of Albin's description, including tail color, are very similar to those of Bartram's description. The only discrepancies are minor differences in color of softparts and tail that seem explicable as intraspecific variation. Available evidence suggests that Bartram knew nothing of Albin's description, and if so, Albin's bird provides quite persuasive support for the validity of Bartram's bird. Equally important, none of the arguments offered historically against the validity of the Painted Vulture is persuasive when examined closely. Together, these and other factors make a strong case for acceptance of Bartram's Painted Vulture as a historic resident of northern Florida and

  12. Spatial patterning of vulture scavenged human remains.

    PubMed

    Spradley, M Katherine; Hamilton, Michelle D; Giordano, Alberto

    2012-06-10

    This article presents the results of a pilot study on the effects of vulture modification to human remains. A donated body from the Willed Body Donation Program was placed at the Forensic Anthropology Research Facility (FARF), an outdoor human decomposition laboratory located at Texas State University-San Marcos. The effects of vulture scavenging on the timing and sequence, and the rate of skeletonization, disarticulation, and dispersal were observed via a motion sensing camera and direct observation. Using GIS (Geographic Information Systems) and GPS (Global Positioning System) technologies and spatial analytical methods, the transport of skeletal elements was mapped in order to analyze dispersal and terrain-influenced patterns of active vulture scavenging. Results showed that the initial scavenging took place 37 days after placement at FARF. This delay in scavenging differs from previous research. After the initial appearance of the vultures, the body was reduced from a fully-fleshed individual to a skeleton within only 5h. This underscores the potential for errors in postmortem interval estimations made at vulture scavenged scenes. Additionally, spatial analysis showed that skeletal elements were dispersed by vultures to lower elevations, and that the disarticulation and dispersal of the skeletal elements occurs early in the scavenging sequence.

  13. Turkey vulture and California condor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pattee, O.H.; Wilbur, S.R.; Pendleton, Beth Giron

    1989-01-01

    Populations of turkey vultures in the western states appear stable, with no evidence of recent significant changes in distribution. Turkey vultures occupy a variety of habitats, nest in diverse situations and utilize a wide variety of carrion. Consequently, no particular limiting factor is likely to have a major effect on the total population. California condor numbers, in contrast, have continued to decline. With the capture of the last wild bird in 1987, the species has been extirpated from the wild. Reestablishment will depend on production and introduction of captive-reared birds, hopefully within the next 10 years. In the 18th century, condors inhabited areas along the Pacific coast from British Columbia to Baja California. Since 1950, the range has been restricted to a six county area adjacent to the southern San Joaquin Valley of California. Within this area, there appears to be no shortage of suitable nest sites; all recently used nest sites are within federally-controlled lands. Suitable foraging grounds have continued to diminish and are now largely limited to private rangelands and some Bureau of Land Management rangelands within the foothills of the San Joaquin Valley. Only these areas continue to supply the large mammal carcasses that the California condor needs for survival. The habitat of the condor is subject to a variety of land use practices and development pressures. Excessive mortality, coupled with low reproductive potential, continues to threaten the recovery of the species. Development of management practices to reduce mortality, particularly those that are contaminant-related, and of a preserve design to insure adequate habitat for the reintroduced population are still necessary for eventual recovery of the species.

  14. Persistent organochlorine pesticides detected in blood and tissue samples of vultures from different localities in South Africa.

    PubMed

    van Wyk, E; Bouwman, H; van der Bank, H; Verdoorn, G H; Hofmann, D

    2001-07-01

    Gas chromatography was used to establish the presence of quantifiable residues of 14 persistent chlorinated hydrocarbon pollutants in whole blood, clotted blood, heart, kidney, liver and muscle samples obtained from individual African whitebacked (Pseudogyps africanus), Cape griffon (Gyps coprotheres) and Lappetfaced (Torgos tracheliotos) vultures from different localities in South Africa. The levels of pesticides measured in whole blood samples of live specimens were compared between nestlings from two natural breeding colonies, adults from a wildlife area and birds held in captivity. Statistically significant (P<0.05) differences between populations were detected in geometric means calculated for gamma-BHC (lindane), alpha(cis)-chlordane and alpha-endosulfan. Five of the organochlorine contaminants displayed significant variations between concentrations detected in the clotted blood, organs and muscles excised from vulture carcasses. This includes residues of gamma-BHC, alpha-chlordane, dieldrin, beta-endosulfan and heptachlor epoxide. Values of the respective biocides measured in vulture samples were generally low in comparison to results documented for a number of avian species. Although no threat is posed by any of the organochloride pesticides, continual monitoring of especially breeding colonies is recommended. Furthermore, the suitability of African whitebacked vulture nestlings as basic bioindicators is highly advocated. PMID:11461840

  15. Detection of QTLs for white-back and basal-white grains caused by high temperature during ripening period in japonica rice.

    PubMed

    Wada, Takuya; Miyahara, Katsunori; Sonoda, Jun-Ya; Tsukaguchi, Tadashi; Miyazaki, Masayuki; Tsubone, Masao; Ando, Tsuyu; Ebana, Kaworu; Yamamoto, Toshio; Iwasawa, Norio; Umemoto, Takayuki; Kondo, Motohiko; Yano, Masahiro

    2015-06-01

    There is increasing evidence that global warming affects the development of rice. High temperatures during ripening increase the ratio of undesirable chalky grains followed by deteriorating grain appearance quality. In order to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling the occurrence of white-back and basal-white chalky grains of brown rice, QTL analysis was performed using recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between two strains, 'Tsukushiroman' (sensitive to heat stress) and 'Chikushi 52' (tolerant of heat stress). The F7 and F8 lines were exposed to heat stress during the ripening period in two locations, Fukuoka and Kagoshima, in Japan. QTLs for white-back grains and basal-white grains were detected on chromosomes 1, 3, and 8, and those for basal-white grains were detected on chromosomes 2, 3, and 12. QTLs on chromosome 8 for white-back grains were shared in the plants grown in both locations. Near-isogenic lines (NILs), which harbored a segment from 'Chikushi 52' on chromosome 8 with the genetic background of 'Tsukushiroman', showed relatively lower ratios of white-back grains than 'Tsukushiroman'. Therefore, insertion of the 'Chikushi 52' genomic region of the QTL on chromosome 8 can improve the quality of rice when it is grown under heat stress conditions.

  16. Detection of QTLs for white-back and basal-white grains caused by high temperature during ripening period in japonica rice

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Takuya; Miyahara, Katsunori; Sonoda, Jun-ya; Tsukaguchi, Tadashi; Miyazaki, Masayuki; Tsubone, Masao; Ando, Tsuyu; Ebana, Kaworu; Yamamoto, Toshio; Iwasawa, Norio; Umemoto, Takayuki; Kondo, Motohiko; Yano, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that global warming affects the development of rice. High temperatures during ripening increase the ratio of undesirable chalky grains followed by deteriorating grain appearance quality. In order to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling the occurrence of white-back and basal-white chalky grains of brown rice, QTL analysis was performed using recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between two strains, ‘Tsukushiroman’ (sensitive to heat stress) and ‘Chikushi 52’ (tolerant of heat stress). The F7 and F8 lines were exposed to heat stress during the ripening period in two locations, Fukuoka and Kagoshima, in Japan. QTLs for white-back grains and basal-white grains were detected on chromosomes 1, 3, and 8, and those for basal-white grains were detected on chromosomes 2, 3, and 12. QTLs on chromosome 8 for white-back grains were shared in the plants grown in both locations. Near-isogenic lines (NILs), which harbored a segment from ‘Chikushi 52’ on chromosome 8 with the genetic background of ‘Tsukushiroman’, showed relatively lower ratios of white-back grains than ‘Tsukushiroman’. Therefore, insertion of the ‘Chikushi 52’ genomic region of the QTL on chromosome 8 can improve the quality of rice when it is grown under heat stress conditions. PMID:26175618

  17. Magma evolution at mount vulture (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Fino, M.; La Volpe, L.; Piccarreta, G.

    1982-06-01

    The Vulture complex is made up of foiditic, tephritic, phonolitic-trachytic and phonolitic products. New rock analyses have been performed in order to ascertain whether the various rock types derive from a unique parental magma and, if so, to define its nature. The data presented support that the Vulture suite originated from a foiditic melt which had differentiated at low pressures. The main process determining the foidite → → tephrite → phonolitic trachyte evolution seems to be the crystal fractionation of mainly clinopyroxenes, and opaques, with the contribution of plagioclases and haüyne too in the tephrite → trachyte evolution. Additionary role must have been played by a mixing of melts at different evolution stages occurred in a shallow seated magma chamber.

  18. Modelling the effects of sanitary policies on European vulture conservation.

    PubMed

    Margalida, Antoni; Colomer, Ma Àngels

    2012-01-01

    Biodiversity losses are increasing as a consequence of negative anthropogenic effects on ecosystem dynamics. However, the magnitude and complexity of these effects may still be greatly underestimated. Most Old World vultures have experienced rapid population declines in recent years. In Europe, their immediate conservation depends on changes in health regulations affecting the availability of food provided by domestic carcasses. Information is lacking on the effects of a hypothetical food shortage on the population dynamics of vultures, and is necessary to assess the potential impacts of policy decisions on future changes in biodiversity and ecosystem services. A novel computational model (P-systems) was used to model these effects, forecasting a rapid decline in the Eurasian griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus). By contrast, vulture species with greater plasticity in their dietary range appeared less sensitive to declining food availability. This study extends our understanding of vulture ecosystem services, which have social and economic implications.

  19. Modelling the effects of sanitary policies on European vulture conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margalida, Antoni; Colomer, M.A. Àngels

    2012-10-01

    Biodiversity losses are increasing as a consequence of negative anthropogenic effects on ecosystem dynamics. However, the magnitude and complexity of these effects may still be greatly underestimated. Most Old World vultures have experienced rapid population declines in recent years. In Europe, their immediate conservation depends on changes in health regulations affecting the availability of food provided by domestic carcasses. Information is lacking on the effects of a hypothetical food shortage on the population dynamics of vultures, and is necessary to assess the potential impacts of policy decisions on future changes in biodiversity and ecosystem services. A novel computational model (P-systems) was used to model these effects, forecasting a rapid decline in the Eurasian griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus). By contrast, vulture species with greater plasticity in their dietary range appeared less sensitive to declining food availability. This study extends our understanding of vulture ecosystem services, which have social and economic implications.

  20. Modelling the effects of sanitary policies on European vulture conservation

    PubMed Central

    Margalida, Antoni; Colomer, Ma Àngels

    2012-01-01

    Biodiversity losses are increasing as a consequence of negative anthropogenic effects on ecosystem dynamics. However, the magnitude and complexity of these effects may still be greatly underestimated. Most Old World vultures have experienced rapid population declines in recent years. In Europe, their immediate conservation depends on changes in health regulations affecting the availability of food provided by domestic carcasses. Information is lacking on the effects of a hypothetical food shortage on the population dynamics of vultures, and is necessary to assess the potential impacts of policy decisions on future changes in biodiversity and ecosystem services. A novel computational model (P-systems) was used to model these effects, forecasting a rapid decline in the Eurasian griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus). By contrast, vulture species with greater plasticity in their dietary range appeared less sensitive to declining food availability. This study extends our understanding of vulture ecosystem services, which have social and economic implications. PMID:23082243

  1. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus: a white-backed planthopper-transmitted fijivirus threatening rice production in Asia.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guohui; Xu, Donglin; Xu, Dagao; Zhang, Maoxin

    2013-09-09

    Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a non-enveloped icosahedral virus with a genome of 10 double-stranded RNA segments, is a novel species in the genus Fijivirus (family Reoviridae) first recognized in 2008. Rice plants infected with this virus exhibit symptoms similar to those caused by Rice black-streaked dwarf virus. Since 2009, the virus has rapidly spread and caused serious rice losses in East and Southeast Asia. Significant progress has been made in recent years in understanding this disease, especially about the functions of the viral genes, rice-virus-insect interactions, and epidemiology and control measures. The virus can be efficiently transmitted by the white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera) in a persistent circulative propagative manner but cannot be transmitted by the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) and small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus). Rice, maize, Chinese sorghum (Coix lacryma-jobi) and other grass weeds can be infected via WBPH. However, only rice plays a major role in the virus infection cycle because of the vector's preference. In Southeast Asia, WBPH is a long-distance migratory rice pest. The disease cycle can be described as follows: SRBSDV and its WBPH vector overwinter in warm tropical or sub-tropical areas; viruliferous WBPH adults carry the virus from south to north via long-distance migration in early spring, transmit the virus to rice seedlings in the newly colonized areas, and lay eggs on the infected seedlings; the next generation of WBPHs propagate on infected seedlings, become viruliferous, disperse, and cause new disease outbreaks. Several molecular and serological methods have been developed to detect SRBSDV in plant tissues and individual insects. Control measures based on protection from WBPH, including seedbed coverage, chemical seed treatments, and chemical spraying of seedlings, have proven effective in China.

  2. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus: a white-backed planthopper-transmitted fijivirus threatening rice production in Asia.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guohui; Xu, Donglin; Xu, Dagao; Zhang, Maoxin

    2013-01-01

    Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a non-enveloped icosahedral virus with a genome of 10 double-stranded RNA segments, is a novel species in the genus Fijivirus (family Reoviridae) first recognized in 2008. Rice plants infected with this virus exhibit symptoms similar to those caused by Rice black-streaked dwarf virus. Since 2009, the virus has rapidly spread and caused serious rice losses in East and Southeast Asia. Significant progress has been made in recent years in understanding this disease, especially about the functions of the viral genes, rice-virus-insect interactions, and epidemiology and control measures. The virus can be efficiently transmitted by the white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera) in a persistent circulative propagative manner but cannot be transmitted by the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) and small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus). Rice, maize, Chinese sorghum (Coix lacryma-jobi) and other grass weeds can be infected via WBPH. However, only rice plays a major role in the virus infection cycle because of the vector's preference. In Southeast Asia, WBPH is a long-distance migratory rice pest. The disease cycle can be described as follows: SRBSDV and its WBPH vector overwinter in warm tropical or sub-tropical areas; viruliferous WBPH adults carry the virus from south to north via long-distance migration in early spring, transmit the virus to rice seedlings in the newly colonized areas, and lay eggs on the infected seedlings; the next generation of WBPHs propagate on infected seedlings, become viruliferous, disperse, and cause new disease outbreaks. Several molecular and serological methods have been developed to detect SRBSDV in plant tissues and individual insects. Control measures based on protection from WBPH, including seedbed coverage, chemical seed treatments, and chemical spraying of seedlings, have proven effective in China. PMID:24058362

  3. Organochlorine residues in blood of cinereous vultures and Eurasian griffon vultures in a northeastern Mediterranean area of nature conservation.

    PubMed

    Goutner, Vassilis; Skartsi, Theodora; Konstantinou, Ioannis K; Sakellarides, Theophanes M; Albanis, Triantafyllos A; Vasilakis, Dimitrios; Elorriaga, Javier; Poirazidis, Kostas

    2011-12-01

    In the National Park of Dadia-Lefkimi-Soufli Forest (Dadia NP, Greece), seven "target" PCBs and 16 organochlorine pesticides (OCs) were analysed in blood samples of cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus) and Eurasian griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus). PCB congeners 138, 153 and 180 predominated in both species' blood samples. In both species, no differences were detected in congener levels between successive age classes, but in cinereous vulture, there were significant differences between adult and nestling in levels of PCB 28, 52, 101, 118 and between nestling and immature in levels of PCB 101. Regarding pesticides, p,p'-DDE dominated in both vultures followed by β-HCH, lindane and endosulfan sulphate, but ∑OCs were higher in griffon vulture. Significant differences were detected only between nestling and sub-adult cinereous vultures in heptachlor levels and between nestling and adult in p,p'-DDT. The origin of pollutants differs between the two vulture species and pollution patterns may not reflect those at Dadia NP.

  4. Estimation of normal tear production in free-living Eurasian black vultures (Aegypius monachus) and griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) in Dadia National Park, Greece.

    PubMed

    Komnenou, Anastasia T; Thomas, Angelos L N; Danika, Stefania E; Skartsi, Theodora; Vasilakis, Dimitris P; Cárcamo, Beatriz; Ofri, Ron

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to record the Schirmer tear test I (STT I) measurements in free-living vultures in order to estimate normal values. The Eurasian black vulture (Aegypius monachus), which breeds in the Mediterranean region and Asia, is listed as near threatened; it is also classified as vulnerable at the European level and endangered in Greece. The griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus), once widespread across the continent, has undergone a dramatic decline which has led to its extinction in many regions. Sixty-two animals were examined in total including 54 black vultures and 8 griffon vultures. The birds were classified into five age groups while four age groups were then combined into one large group: free-flying. STT I measurements and complete ophthalmic examinations were performed. Mean STT I value for black vultures was 10.9 +/- 3.3 mm/min (right eye, oculus dexter, OD) and 11.9 +/- 3.3 mm/min (left eye, oculus sinister, OS) and for griffon vultures was 6.4 +/- 1.8 mm/min OD and 6.5 +/- 1.8 mm/min OS. In both eyes, STT I values in black vultures were significantly higher than those recorded in griffon vultures. Intraspecific comparisons yielded a significant difference between eyes of black vultures but not between those of griffon vultures, with OS producing higher STT I readings than did OD. When STT I was compared between OD and OS for each age group separately, a statistically significant difference was detected in the immature and free-flying black vultures. In addition, black vulture hatchlings had a significantly higher tear production than did free-flying juveniles, immatures, subadults, and adults. STT I values in black vultures are similar to those reported in other Accipitriformes but are lower in griffon vultures. This difference is probably related to anatomic, evolutionary, and feeding factors and requires further investigation. PMID:23805550

  5. Estimation of normal tear production in free-living Eurasian black vultures (Aegypius monachus) and griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) in Dadia National Park, Greece.

    PubMed

    Komnenou, Anastasia T; Thomas, Angelos L N; Danika, Stefania E; Skartsi, Theodora; Vasilakis, Dimitris P; Cárcamo, Beatriz; Ofri, Ron

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to record the Schirmer tear test I (STT I) measurements in free-living vultures in order to estimate normal values. The Eurasian black vulture (Aegypius monachus), which breeds in the Mediterranean region and Asia, is listed as near threatened; it is also classified as vulnerable at the European level and endangered in Greece. The griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus), once widespread across the continent, has undergone a dramatic decline which has led to its extinction in many regions. Sixty-two animals were examined in total including 54 black vultures and 8 griffon vultures. The birds were classified into five age groups while four age groups were then combined into one large group: free-flying. STT I measurements and complete ophthalmic examinations were performed. Mean STT I value for black vultures was 10.9 +/- 3.3 mm/min (right eye, oculus dexter, OD) and 11.9 +/- 3.3 mm/min (left eye, oculus sinister, OS) and for griffon vultures was 6.4 +/- 1.8 mm/min OD and 6.5 +/- 1.8 mm/min OS. In both eyes, STT I values in black vultures were significantly higher than those recorded in griffon vultures. Intraspecific comparisons yielded a significant difference between eyes of black vultures but not between those of griffon vultures, with OS producing higher STT I readings than did OD. When STT I was compared between OD and OS for each age group separately, a statistically significant difference was detected in the immature and free-flying black vultures. In addition, black vulture hatchlings had a significantly higher tear production than did free-flying juveniles, immatures, subadults, and adults. STT I values in black vultures are similar to those reported in other Accipitriformes but are lower in griffon vultures. This difference is probably related to anatomic, evolutionary, and feeding factors and requires further investigation.

  6. Experimental lead poisoning in Turkey Vultures, Cathartes aura

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, J.W.; Pattee, O.H.; Fritts, S.H.; Rattner, B.A.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Royle, J. Andrew; Smith, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    Lead-induced mortality appears to have been a major factor in the decline of the California condor, Gymnogyps californianus. We orally dosed turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) with BB-sized lead shot from January 1988 through July 1988 to determine physiological response (delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase inhibition, erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels, anemia), diagnostic tissue lead concentrations (blood, liver, and kidney), and comparative sensitivity of this species. Two turkey vultures died and two became so intoxicated they were euthanized. Overall, responses of measured parameters were comparable to other species exposed to lead although there was considerable individual variation. Survival time (143-211 days), even with the large number of shot and constant redosing, was much longer than reported for other species of birds, suggesting considerable tolerance by turkey vultures to the deleterious effects of lead ingestion. Based on these observations, turkey vultures appear to be poor models for assessing the risk of lead poisoning to California condors or predicting their physiological response.

  7. Experimental lead poisoning in turkey vultures (Cathartes aura).

    PubMed

    Carpenter, James W; Pattee, Oliver H; Fritts, Steven H; Rattner, Barnett A; Wiemeyer, Stanley N; Royle, J Andrew; Smith, Milton R

    2003-01-01

    Lead-induced mortality appears to have been a major factor in the decline of the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus). We orally dosed turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) with BB-sized lead shot from January 1988 through July 1988 to determine physiologic response (delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase inhibition, erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels, anemia), diagnostic tissue lead concentrations (blood, liver, and kidney), and comparative sensitivity of this species. Two turkey vultures died and two became so intoxicated they were euthanized. Overall, responses of measured parameters were comparable to other species exposed to lead although there was considerable individual variation. Survival time (143-211 days), even with the large numbers of shot and constant redosing, was much longer than reported for other species of birds, suggesting considerable tolerance by turkey vultures to the deleterious effects of lead ingestion. Based on these observations, turkey vultures appear to be poor models for assessing the risk of lead poisoning to California condors or predicting their physiologic response.

  8. Isolation of mycoplasmas from a buzzard, falcons and vultures.

    PubMed

    Poveda, J B; Giebel, J; Kirchhoff, H; Fernandez, A

    1990-10-01

    Thirteen mycoplasmas were isolated from a peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), two saker falcons (Falco cherrug), a buzzard (Buteo buteo), a black vulture (Aegypius monachus), and two griffon vultures (Gypsfuhus). Six of them could be identified: Mycoplasma gallinarum (three isolates), M. columborale (two isolates) and M. anatis (one isolate). The remaining seven isolates did not react with antisera against the known avian mycoplasma species in the indirect immunofluorescence and growth inhibition tests. They may represent new species.

  9. Reference Gene Selection and Evaluation for Gene Expression Studies Using qRT-PCR in the White-Backed Planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    PubMed

    An, Xing-kui; Hou, Mao-lin; Liu, Yu-di

    2016-04-01

    The white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera, Delphacidae), is one of the most devastating rice pests. For a better control strategy, various genetic studies have been conducted using reverse-transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The appropriate application of qRT-PCR requires reliable endogenous controls; however, studies on this aspect of the white-backed planthopper are lacking. In the present study, nine commonly used reference genes, elongation factor 1-α (EF1-α), polyubiquitin (UB), ribosomal protein S18 (RPS18), actin 1 (ACT), α-1 tubulin (TUB), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GAPDH), ribosomal protein L9 (RPL9), ribosomal protein L10 (RPL10), and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S), were evaluated by qRT-PCR for their expression stability under four different experimental conditions (different developmental stages, acquisition of Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), different tissues, and different temperature stress). These results were analyzed using four software programs (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and the delta Ct method) and a Web-based comprehensive tool RefFinder to compare and rank candidate reference genes. According to the results of RefFinder analysis, which integrates the abovementioned four software programs, TUB was ranked as the most suitable reference gene at different developmental stages and under different temperature stress, and GAPDH and RPL9 showed the highest stability for acquisition of SRBSDV and different tissues, respectively. These results will provide a solid foundation for future gene expression study on the white-backed planthopper, and also will give aids in establishing a standardized qRT-PCR procedure for other related insects.

  10. Reference Gene Selection and Evaluation for Gene Expression Studies Using qRT-PCR in the White-Backed Planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    PubMed

    An, Xing-kui; Hou, Mao-lin; Liu, Yu-di

    2016-04-01

    The white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera, Delphacidae), is one of the most devastating rice pests. For a better control strategy, various genetic studies have been conducted using reverse-transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The appropriate application of qRT-PCR requires reliable endogenous controls; however, studies on this aspect of the white-backed planthopper are lacking. In the present study, nine commonly used reference genes, elongation factor 1-α (EF1-α), polyubiquitin (UB), ribosomal protein S18 (RPS18), actin 1 (ACT), α-1 tubulin (TUB), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GAPDH), ribosomal protein L9 (RPL9), ribosomal protein L10 (RPL10), and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S), were evaluated by qRT-PCR for their expression stability under four different experimental conditions (different developmental stages, acquisition of Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), different tissues, and different temperature stress). These results were analyzed using four software programs (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and the delta Ct method) and a Web-based comprehensive tool RefFinder to compare and rank candidate reference genes. According to the results of RefFinder analysis, which integrates the abovementioned four software programs, TUB was ranked as the most suitable reference gene at different developmental stages and under different temperature stress, and GAPDH and RPL9 showed the highest stability for acquisition of SRBSDV and different tissues, respectively. These results will provide a solid foundation for future gene expression study on the white-backed planthopper, and also will give aids in establishing a standardized qRT-PCR procedure for other related insects. PMID:26612891

  11. Vultures acquire information on carcass location from scavenging eagles.

    PubMed

    Kane, Adam; Jackson, Andrew L; Ogada, Darcy L; Monadjem, Ara; McNally, Luke

    2014-10-22

    Vultures are recognized as the scroungers of the natural world, owing to their ecological role as obligate scavengers. While it is well known that vultures use intraspecific social information as they forage, the possibility of inter-guild social information transfer and the resulting multi-species social dilemmas has not been explored. Here, we use data on arrival times at carcasses to show that such social information transfer occurs, with raptors acting as producers of information and vultures acting as scroungers of information. We develop a game-theoretic model to show that competitive asymmetry, whereby vultures dominate raptors at carcasses, predicts this evolutionary outcome. We support this theoretical prediction using empirical data from competitive interactions at carcasses. Finally, we use an individual-based model to show that these producer-scrounger dynamics lead to vultures being vulnerable to declines in raptor populations. Our results show that social information transfer can lead to important non-trophic interactions among species and highlight important potential links among social evolution, community ecology and conservation biology. With vulture populations suffering global declines, our study underscores the importance of ecosystem-based management for these endangered keystone species. PMID:25209935

  12. Vultures acquire information on carcass location from scavenging eagles.

    PubMed

    Kane, Adam; Jackson, Andrew L; Ogada, Darcy L; Monadjem, Ara; McNally, Luke

    2014-10-22

    Vultures are recognized as the scroungers of the natural world, owing to their ecological role as obligate scavengers. While it is well known that vultures use intraspecific social information as they forage, the possibility of inter-guild social information transfer and the resulting multi-species social dilemmas has not been explored. Here, we use data on arrival times at carcasses to show that such social information transfer occurs, with raptors acting as producers of information and vultures acting as scroungers of information. We develop a game-theoretic model to show that competitive asymmetry, whereby vultures dominate raptors at carcasses, predicts this evolutionary outcome. We support this theoretical prediction using empirical data from competitive interactions at carcasses. Finally, we use an individual-based model to show that these producer-scrounger dynamics lead to vultures being vulnerable to declines in raptor populations. Our results show that social information transfer can lead to important non-trophic interactions among species and highlight important potential links among social evolution, community ecology and conservation biology. With vulture populations suffering global declines, our study underscores the importance of ecosystem-based management for these endangered keystone species.

  13. Vultures acquire information on carcass location from scavenging eagles

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Adam; Jackson, Andrew L.; Ogada, Darcy L.; Monadjem, Ara; McNally, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Vultures are recognized as the scroungers of the natural world, owing to their ecological role as obligate scavengers. While it is well known that vultures use intraspecific social information as they forage, the possibility of inter-guild social information transfer and the resulting multi-species social dilemmas has not been explored. Here, we use data on arrival times at carcasses to show that such social information transfer occurs, with raptors acting as producers of information and vultures acting as scroungers of information. We develop a game-theoretic model to show that competitive asymmetry, whereby vultures dominate raptors at carcasses, predicts this evolutionary outcome. We support this theoretical prediction using empirical data from competitive interactions at carcasses. Finally, we use an individual-based model to show that these producer–scrounger dynamics lead to vultures being vulnerable to declines in raptor populations. Our results show that social information transfer can lead to important non-trophic interactions among species and highlight important potential links among social evolution, community ecology and conservation biology. With vulture populations suffering global declines, our study underscores the importance of ecosystem-based management for these endangered keystone species. PMID:25209935

  14. Opportunistic infection of Aspergillus and bacteria in captive Cape vultures (Gyps coprotheres)

    PubMed Central

    Chege, Stephen; Howlett, Judith; Al Qassimi, Majid; Toosy, Arshad; Kinne, Joerg; Obanda, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe clinical signs, pathology, diagnosis and treatment of Cape vultures in which Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) and mixed species of bacteria were isolated. Methods Six Cape vultures sourced from South Africa for exhibition at Al Ain Zoo developed illness manifesting as anorexia, dyspnea, polyuria and lethargy. Three vultures died manifesting “pneumonia-like syndrome”. These three vultures were necropsied and gross lesions recorded, while organ tissues were collected for histopathology. Internal organs were swabbed for bacteriology and mycology. From live vultures, blood was collected for hematology and biochemistry, oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs were collected for mycology and bacteriology. Results A. fumigatus was isolated from the three dead vultures and two live ones that eventually survived. One of the dead vulture and two live vultures were co-infected with A. fumigatus and mixed species of bacteria that included Clostridium perfringens, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Escherichia, Proteus, Enterococcus and Enterbacter. One of the Cape vulture and a Lappet-faced vulture, however, were free of Aspergillus or bacterial infections. At necropsy, intestinal hemorrhages were observed and the lungs were overtly congested with granulomas present on caudal air sac. Histopathological examinations demonstrated granulomatous lesions that were infiltrated by mononuclear cells and giant cells. Conclusions Aspergillosis is a persistent threat to captive birds and we recommend routine health assessments so that early diagnosis may prompt early treatment. It is likely that prompt prophylaxis by broad spectrum antibiotics and antifungals medication contributed to the survival of some of the vultures. PMID:23646305

  15. Historic and recent nesting records of Turkey Vultures in South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Igl, Lawrence D.; Chepulis, Brian J.; McLean, Kyle E.

    2014-01-01

    Present-day vultures are generally classified into two distinct groups: Old World vultures and new World vultures. The two groups share morphological and behavioral characters (e.g. scavenger diet, energy-efficient soaring, mostly featherless head), but historically the two groups were considered phylogenetically distant with long and independent histories (Rich 198., Wink 1995, Zhang et al. 2012). Old World vultures occur in the family Accipitridae and are closely related to hawks and eagles. New World Vultures occur in the family Cathartidae but their taxonomic placement has been controversial. New World vultures were previously allied with storks (Ciconiidae) but were usually placed within the order Falconiformes. Recent phylogenomic analyses using DNA sequencing suggest that new World vultures show no affinity with storks and support placement of New World vultures with other landbirds (in the order Accipitriformes, near Accipitridae) rather than with waterbirds (Hackett et al. 2008). Old World vultures presently are confined to Europe, Asia, and Africa, and New World vultures presently occur in North and South America.

  16. Metabolism of aceclofenac in cattle to vulture-killing diclofenac.

    PubMed

    Galligan, T H; Taggart, M A; Cuthbert, R J; Svobodova, D; Chipangura, J; Alderson, D; Prakash, V M; Naidoo, V

    2016-10-01

    The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diclofenac is highly toxic to Gyps vultures, and its recent widespread use in South Asia caused catastrophic declines in at least 3 scavenging raptors. The manufacture of veterinary formulations of diclofenac has since been banned across the region with mixed success. However, at least 12 other NSAIDs are available for veterinary use in South Asia. Aceclofenac is one of these compounds, and it is known to metabolize into diclofenac in some mammal species. The metabolic pathway of aceclofenac in cattle, the primary food of vultures in South Asia, is unknown. We gave 6 cattle the recommended dose of aceclofenac (2 mg/kg), collected blood thereafter at intervals for up to 12 h, and used liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry in a pharmacokinetic analysis of aceclofenac and diclofenac in the plasma. Nearly all the aceclofenac administered to the cattle was very rapidly metabolized into diclofenac. At 2 h, half the aceclofenac had been converted into diclofenac, and at 12 h four-fifths of the aceclofenac had been converted into diclofenac. Therefore, administering aceclofenac to livestock poses the same risk to vultures as administering diclofenac to livestock. This, coupled with the risk that aceclofenac may replace diclofenac in the veterinary market, points to the need for an immediate ban on all aceclofenac formulations that can be used to treat livestock. Without such a ban, the recovery of vultures across South Asia will not be successful. PMID:26931376

  17. Metabolism of aceclofenac in cattle to vulture-killing diclofenac.

    PubMed

    Galligan, T H; Taggart, M A; Cuthbert, R J; Svobodova, D; Chipangura, J; Alderson, D; Prakash, V M; Naidoo, V

    2016-10-01

    The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diclofenac is highly toxic to Gyps vultures, and its recent widespread use in South Asia caused catastrophic declines in at least 3 scavenging raptors. The manufacture of veterinary formulations of diclofenac has since been banned across the region with mixed success. However, at least 12 other NSAIDs are available for veterinary use in South Asia. Aceclofenac is one of these compounds, and it is known to metabolize into diclofenac in some mammal species. The metabolic pathway of aceclofenac in cattle, the primary food of vultures in South Asia, is unknown. We gave 6 cattle the recommended dose of aceclofenac (2 mg/kg), collected blood thereafter at intervals for up to 12 h, and used liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry in a pharmacokinetic analysis of aceclofenac and diclofenac in the plasma. Nearly all the aceclofenac administered to the cattle was very rapidly metabolized into diclofenac. At 2 h, half the aceclofenac had been converted into diclofenac, and at 12 h four-fifths of the aceclofenac had been converted into diclofenac. Therefore, administering aceclofenac to livestock poses the same risk to vultures as administering diclofenac to livestock. This, coupled with the risk that aceclofenac may replace diclofenac in the veterinary market, points to the need for an immediate ban on all aceclofenac formulations that can be used to treat livestock. Without such a ban, the recovery of vultures across South Asia will not be successful.

  18. The population crash of the white-rumped vulture, and its struggle to recover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meteyer, Carol U.; Gilbert, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The white-rumped vulture Gyps bengalensis was once the most abundant bird of prey on the Indian sub-continent. This species easily adapted to life in urban settings; thriving as a keystone species that maintained an ecological balance between the living and the dead. Dead livestock comprised the bulk of the white-rumped vulture diet and was ultimately responsible for its catastrophic population crash. Within ten years of the first documented population declines more than 99% of the white-rumped vultures were lost. The white-rumped vulture was listed as critically endangered in 2000 and has since remained at high risk for extinction.

  19. The type specimens, type localities and nomenclature of Sarcoramphus vultures (Aves: Cathartidae), with a note on their speciation.

    PubMed

    Mlíkovský, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    A nomenclatural review of Sarcoramphus vultures resulted in the following: The genus Sarcoramphus was described by Duméril in 1805 rather than 1806. Vultur papa Linnaeus, 1758, is the type of Sarcoramphus by subsequent monotypy (Froriep in Duméril 1806), not by Vigors's (1825) designation. The type of the genus Gypagus Vieillot, 1816, is, by monotypy, Vultur gryphus Linnaeus, 1758, not Vultur papa Linnaeus, 1758. Due to this, Gypagus is a junior objective synonym of Vultur Linnaeus, 1758. Gyparchus was created by Gloger (1841) as a new genus for Vultur papa Linnaeus, 1758, not as an emendation of Gypagus Vieillot, 1816. Vultur papa Linnaeus, 1758 was found to be possibly based on syntypes from two different taxa and a lectotype is here designated. The author of Vultur sacer is Zimmermann (in Bartram 1793), not Cassin (1853). Possible speciation events in the genus Sarcoramphus are also discussed. PMID:25781112

  20. The type specimens, type localities and nomenclature of Sarcoramphus vultures (Aves: Cathartidae), with a note on their speciation.

    PubMed

    Mlíkovský, Jiří

    2015-02-13

    A nomenclatural review of Sarcoramphus vultures resulted in the following: The genus Sarcoramphus was described by Duméril in 1805 rather than 1806. Vultur papa Linnaeus, 1758, is the type of Sarcoramphus by subsequent monotypy (Froriep in Duméril 1806), not by Vigors's (1825) designation. The type of the genus Gypagus Vieillot, 1816, is, by monotypy, Vultur gryphus Linnaeus, 1758, not Vultur papa Linnaeus, 1758. Due to this, Gypagus is a junior objective synonym of Vultur Linnaeus, 1758. Gyparchus was created by Gloger (1841) as a new genus for Vultur papa Linnaeus, 1758, not as an emendation of Gypagus Vieillot, 1816. Vultur papa Linnaeus, 1758 was found to be possibly based on syntypes from two different taxa and a lectotype is here designated. The author of Vultur sacer is Zimmermann (in Bartram 1793), not Cassin (1853). Possible speciation events in the genus Sarcoramphus are also discussed.

  1. Molecular Characterization and Differential Expression of an Olfactory Receptor Gene Family in the White-Backed Planthopper Sogatella furcifera Based on Transcriptome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    He, Ming; Zhang, Ya-Nan; He, Peng

    2015-01-01

    The white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera, a notorious rice pest in Asia, employs host plant volatiles as cues for host location. In insects, odor detection is mediated by two types of olfactory receptors: odorant receptors (ORs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs). In this study, we identified 63 SfurORs and 14 SfurIRs in S. furcifera based on sequences obtained from the head transcriptome and bioinformatics analysis. The motif-pattern of 130 hemiptera ORs indicated an apparent differentiation in this order. Phylogenetic trees of the ORs and IRs were constructed using neighbor-joining estimates. Most of the ORs had orthologous genes, but a specific OR clade was identified in S. furcifera, which suggests that these ORs may have specific olfactory functions in this species. Our results provide a basis for further investigations of how S. furcifera coordinates its olfactory receptor genes with its plant hosts, thereby providing a foundation for novel pest management approaches based on these genes. PMID:26540266

  2. Sublethal landrin toxicity: Behavioral and physiological effects on captive vultures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forthman-Quick, D.L.; Hill, E.F.

    1988-01-01

    Use of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) has been proposed to reduce consumption of California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) eggs by ravens (Corvus corax). Although landrin has induced aversions in ravens and other birds, no data were available on behavioral and physiological effects of landrin on condors, non-target birds that might consume treated eggs. Because condors are endangered, we selected taxonomically related surrogates to approximate the effects on condors of acute oral doses of landrin. Seven black vultures (Coragyps atratus), 2 turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), and 2 king vultures (Sarcoramphus papa) received landrin and placebo treatments 1 week apart. Plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activity was monitored at zero, 3, and 24 hours posttreatment, and behavioral observations were made for 2 hours posttreatment. The doses tested were nonlethal, and ChE levels approached normal within 24 hours after treatment. Only the frequency of vomiting differed statistically between the placebo and landrin treatment. We conclude that with appropriate precautions, landrin can be used in applications of CTA to discourage consumption of condor eggs by ravens, while posing no apparent risk to reintroduced condors.

  3. The evolutionary pathway to obligate scavenging in Gyps vultures.

    PubMed

    Dermody, Brian J; Tanner, Colby J; Jackson, Andrew L

    2011-01-01

    The evolutionary pathway to obligate scavenging in Gyps vultures remains unclear. We propose that communal roosting plays a central role in setting up the information transfer network critical for obligate scavengers in ephemeral environments and that the formation of a flotilla-like foraging group is a likely strategy for foraging Gyps vultures. Using a spatial, individual-based, optimisation model we find that the communal roost is critical for establishing the information network that enables information transfer owing to the spatial-concentration of foragers close to the roost. There is also strong selection pressure for grouping behaviour owing to the importance of maintaining network integrity and hence information transfer during foraging. We present a simple mechanism for grouping, common in many animal species, which has the added implication that it negates the requirement for roost-centric information transfer. The formation of a flotilla-like foraging group also improves foraging efficiency through the reduction of overlapping search paths. Finally, we highlight the importance of consideration of information transfer mechanisms in order to maximise the success of vulture reintroduction programmes.

  4. Using Wind Tunnels to Predict Bird Mortality in Wind Farms: The Case of Griffon Vultures

    PubMed Central

    de Lucas, Manuela; Ferrer, Miguel; Janss, Guyonne F. E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Wind farms have shown a spectacular growth during the last 15 years. Avian mortality through collision with moving rotor blades is well-known as one of the main adverse impacts of wind farms. In Spain, the griffon vulture incurs the highest mortality rates in wind farms. Methodology/Principal Findings As far as we know, this study is the first attempt to predict flight trajectories of birds in order to foresee potentially dangerous areas for wind farm development. We analyse topography and wind flows in relation to flight paths of griffon vultures, using a scaled model of the wind farm area in an aerodynamic wind tunnel, and test the difference between the observed flight paths of griffon vultures and the predominant wind flows. Different wind currents for each wind direction in the aerodynamic model were observed. Simulations of wind flows in a wind tunnel were compared with observed flight paths of griffon vultures. No statistical differences were detected between the observed flight trajectories of griffon vultures and the wind passages observed in our wind tunnel model. A significant correlation was found between dead vultures predicted proportion of vultures crossing those cells according to the aerodynamic model. Conclusions Griffon vulture flight routes matched the predominant wind flows in the area (i.e. they followed the routes where less flight effort was needed). We suggest using these kinds of simulations to predict flight paths over complex terrains can inform the location of wind turbines and thereby reduce soaring bird mortality. PMID:23152764

  5. Effects of vulture declines on facultative scavengers and potential implications for mammalian disease transmission.

    PubMed

    Ogada, D L; Torchin, M E; Kinnaird, M F; Ezenwa, V O

    2012-06-01

    Vultures (Accipitridae and Cathartidae) are the only known obligate scavengers. They feed on rotting carcasses and are the most threatened avian functional group in the world. Possible effects of vulture declines include longer persistence of carcasses and increasing abundance of and contact between facultative scavengers at these carcasses. These changes could increase rates of transmission of infectious diseases, with carcasses serving as hubs of infection. To evaluate these possibilities, we conducted a series of observations and experimental tests of the effects of vulture extirpation on decomposition rates of livestock carcasses and mammalian scavengers in Kenya. We examined whether the absence of vultures changed carcass decomposition time, number of mammalian scavengers visiting carcasses, time spent by mammals at carcasses, and potential for disease transmission at carcasses (measured by changes in intraspecific contact rates). In the absence of vultures, mean carcass decomposition rates nearly tripled. Furthermore, the mean number of mammals at carcasses increased 3-fold (from 1.5 to 4.4 individuals/carcass), and the average time spent by mammals at carcasses increased almost 3-fold (from 55 min to 143 min). There was a nearly 3-fold increase in the mean number of contacts between mammalian scavengers at carcasses without vultures. These results highlight the role of vultures in carcass decomposition and level of contact among mammalian scavengers. In combination, our findings lead us to hypothesize that changes in vulture abundance may affect patterns of disease transmission among mammalian carnivores.

  6. Suspected flunixin poisoning of a wild Eurasian Griffon Vulture from Spain.

    PubMed

    Zorrilla, Irene; Martinez, Rosa; Taggart, Mark A; Richards, Ngaio

    2015-04-01

    Exposure to residues of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diclofenac present in livestock carcasses has caused extensive declines in 3 Gyps vulture species across Asia. The carcass of a wild Eurasian Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus) was found in 2012 on an Andalucian (Spain) game hunting reserve and examined forensically. The bird had severe visceral gout, a finding consistent with Gyps vultures from Asia that have been poisoned by diclofenac. Liver and kidney samples from this Eurasian Griffon Vulture contained elevated flunixin (an NSAID) levels (median = 2.70 and 6.50 mg/kg, respectively). This is the first reported case of a wild vulture being exposed to and apparently killed by an NSAID outside Asia. It is also the first reported instance of mortality in the wild resulting from environmental exposure to an NSAID other than diclofenac. PMID:25303011

  7. Suspected flunixin poisoning of a wild Eurasian Griffon Vulture from Spain.

    PubMed

    Zorrilla, Irene; Martinez, Rosa; Taggart, Mark A; Richards, Ngaio

    2015-04-01

    Exposure to residues of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diclofenac present in livestock carcasses has caused extensive declines in 3 Gyps vulture species across Asia. The carcass of a wild Eurasian Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus) was found in 2012 on an Andalucian (Spain) game hunting reserve and examined forensically. The bird had severe visceral gout, a finding consistent with Gyps vultures from Asia that have been poisoned by diclofenac. Liver and kidney samples from this Eurasian Griffon Vulture contained elevated flunixin (an NSAID) levels (median = 2.70 and 6.50 mg/kg, respectively). This is the first reported case of a wild vulture being exposed to and apparently killed by an NSAID outside Asia. It is also the first reported instance of mortality in the wild resulting from environmental exposure to an NSAID other than diclofenac.

  8. Examination of Eurasian griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus fulvus) in Israel for exposure to environmental toxicants using dried blood spots.

    PubMed

    Shlosberg, Alan; Wu, Qian; Rumbeiha, Wilson K; Lehner, Andreas; Cuneah, Olga; King, Roni; Hatzofe, Ohad; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Johnson, Margaret

    2012-04-01

    The griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus) is one of seven species of Old World Gyps vultures found over a wide range from the Iberian peninsula in the west through the Balkans, Turkey, and the Middle East to India in the east. The population of the griffon vultures in Israel has suffered a dramatic decrease, and in recent years productivity has been severely reduced. In this study, whole-blood samples taken from 25 apparently healthy griffon vultures at various stages of maturity were examined to investigate whether the vultures are being excessively exposed to environmental contaminants that might deleteriously affect their reproduction. Five groups of environmental contaminants, comprising toxic elements, organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and perfluorinated compounds, were monitored in dried blood spots. Results of the analyses showed low levels of exposure of griffon vultures to environmental contaminants compared with the sparse data available on griffon vultures and other diurnal raptors in other countries.

  9. Organization and variation of the mitochondrial control region in two vulture species, Gypaetus barbatus and Neophron percnopterus.

    PubMed

    Roques, S; Godoy, J A; Negro, J J; Hiraldo, F

    2004-01-01

    We report the first entire mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences in two endangered vulture species, the bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) and the Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus). Results showed that the general organization of vulture control regions was very similar to other birds, with three distinct domains: a left variable domain (DI), a central conserved one (DII) including the F, E, D, and C boxes, and a right domain (DIII) containing the CSB1 sequence. However, due to the presence of long tandem repeats, vulture control regions differed from other avian control regions both in size and nucleotide composition. The Egyptian vulture control region was found to be the largest sequenced so far (2031 bp), due to the simultaneous presence of repeats in both DI (80 bp) and DIII (77 bp). Low variation was found in vulture control regions, particularly in G. barbatus, as the probable result of populations declines in the last few centuries.

  10. Organization and variation of the mitochondrial control region in two vulture species, Gypaetus barbatus and Neophron percnopterus.

    PubMed

    Roques, S; Godoy, J A; Negro, J J; Hiraldo, F

    2004-01-01

    We report the first entire mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences in two endangered vulture species, the bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) and the Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus). Results showed that the general organization of vulture control regions was very similar to other birds, with three distinct domains: a left variable domain (DI), a central conserved one (DII) including the F, E, D, and C boxes, and a right domain (DIII) containing the CSB1 sequence. However, due to the presence of long tandem repeats, vulture control regions differed from other avian control regions both in size and nucleotide composition. The Egyptian vulture control region was found to be the largest sequenced so far (2031 bp), due to the simultaneous presence of repeats in both DI (80 bp) and DIII (77 bp). Low variation was found in vulture control regions, particularly in G. barbatus, as the probable result of populations declines in the last few centuries. PMID:15247313

  11. Comparison of eye morphology and retinal topography in two species of New World vultures (Aves: Cathartidae).

    PubMed

    Lisney, Thomas J; Stecyk, Karyn; Kolominsky, Jeffrey; Graves, Gary R; Wylie, Douglas R; Iwaniuk, Andrew N

    2013-12-01

    Vultures are highly reliant on their sensory systems for the rapid detection and localization of carrion before other scavengers can exploit the resource. In this study, we compared eye morphology and retinal topography in two species of New World vultures (Cathartidae), turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), with a highly developed olfactory sense, and black vultures (Coragyps atratus), with a less developed sense of olfaction. We found that eye size relative to body mass was the same in both species, but that black vultures have larger corneas relative to eye size than turkey vultures. However, the overall retinal topography, the total number of cells in the retinal ganglion cell layer, peak and average cell densities, cell soma area frequency distributions, and the theoretical peak anatomical spatial resolving power were the same in both species. This suggests that the visual systems of these two species are similar and that vision plays an equally important role in the biology of both species, despite the apparently greater reliance on olfaction for finding carrion in turkey vultures. PMID:24249399

  12. Comparison of eye morphology and retinal topography in two species of New World vultures (Aves: Cathartidae).

    PubMed

    Lisney, Thomas J; Stecyk, Karyn; Kolominsky, Jeffrey; Graves, Gary R; Wylie, Douglas R; Iwaniuk, Andrew N

    2013-12-01

    Vultures are highly reliant on their sensory systems for the rapid detection and localization of carrion before other scavengers can exploit the resource. In this study, we compared eye morphology and retinal topography in two species of New World vultures (Cathartidae), turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), with a highly developed olfactory sense, and black vultures (Coragyps atratus), with a less developed sense of olfaction. We found that eye size relative to body mass was the same in both species, but that black vultures have larger corneas relative to eye size than turkey vultures. However, the overall retinal topography, the total number of cells in the retinal ganglion cell layer, peak and average cell densities, cell soma area frequency distributions, and the theoretical peak anatomical spatial resolving power were the same in both species. This suggests that the visual systems of these two species are similar and that vision plays an equally important role in the biology of both species, despite the apparently greater reliance on olfaction for finding carrion in turkey vultures.

  13. Mycoplasma corogypsi-associated polyarthritis and tenosynovitis in black vultures (Coragyps atratus).

    PubMed

    Van Wettere, A J; Ley, D H; Scott, D E; Buckanoff, H D; Degernes, L A

    2013-03-01

    Three wild American black vultures (Coragyps atratus) were presented to rehabilitation centers with swelling of multiple joints, including elbows, stifles, hocks, and carpal joints, and of the gastrocnemius tendons. Cytological examination of the joint fluid exudate indicated heterophilic arthritis. Radiographic examination in 2 vultures demonstrated periarticular soft tissue swelling in both birds and irregular articular surfaces with subchondral bone erosion in both elbows in 1 bird. Prolonged antibiotic therapy administered in 2 birds did not improve the clinical signs. Necropsy and histological examination demonstrated a chronic lymphoplasmacytic arthritis involving multiple joints and gastrocnemius tenosynovitis. Articular lesions varied in severity and ranged from moderate synovitis and cartilage erosion and fibrillation to severe synovitis, diffuse cartilage ulceration, subchondral bone loss and/or sclerosis, pannus, synovial cysts, and epiphyseal osteomyelitis. No walled bacteria were observed or isolated from the joints. However, mycoplasmas polymerase chain reactions were positive in at least 1 affected joint from each bird. Mycoplasmas were isolated from joints of 1 vulture that did not receive antibiotic therapy. Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from joint samples and the mycoplasma isolate identified Mycoplasma corogypsi in 2 vultures and was suggestive in the third vulture. Mycoplasma corogypsi identification was confirmed by sequencing the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region of mycoplasma isolates. This report provides further evidence that M. corogypsi is a likely cause of arthritis and tenosynovitis in American black vultures. Cases of arthritis and tenosynovitis in New World vultures should be investigated for presence of Mycoplasma spp, especially M. corogypsi.

  14. Hematozoa and a new haemoproteid species from Cathartidae (New World vulture) in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Ellis C; Fedynich, Alan M; Webb, Stephen L; DeVault, Travis L; Rhodes, Olin E

    2011-12-01

    A survey of turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) in South Carolina revealed the presence of a novel haemoproteid. Haemoproteus catharti n. sp. is described from the slides developed from the blood of this vulture. The new species is a thick, halteridial form with complete margins, and is considered distinct from the other recognized haemoproteids from the diurnal raptors in shape, pigment number, parasite outline, and host-family specificity. While reviewing blood films, a series of unusual immature schizonts of Plasmodium sp. were also observed, and these are illustrated, along with another distinct haemoproteid from old slides of poor quality produced from turkey vulture blood.

  15. Lead poisoning in captive Andean condors (Vultur gryphus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pattee, O.H.; Carpenter, J.W.; Fritts, S.H.; Rattner, B.A.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Royle, J. Andrew; Smith, M.R.

    2006-01-01

    Elevated lead in the tissues of raptors, especially those that scavenge, is a common occurrence, and lead poisoning appears to be a significant problem in the ongoing recovery effort for California condors (Gymnogyps californianus). Elevated blood lead levels have been found in released birds, and a number of birds have died of lead poisoning. In earlier work, we dosed turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) with lead shot but found them to be a poor model for lead poisoning. In this study, we dosed four Andean condors (Vultur gryphus) with lead shot and found them to be quite sensitive, as two of the birds died and the other two exhibit signs of lead poisoning within 50 days. All lead-responsive parameters were affected, and regurgitation of dosed shot occurred only once. The response of the Andean condors appeared to mimic California condors, suggesting that once exposed to lead, the possibility of survival is poor. This is consistent with observations in the wild, where otherwise healthy birds exposed to metallic lead quickly succumb. At the very least, the release program has to maintain constant surveillance and an active lead monitoring program.

  16. Adult vultures outperform juveniles in challenging thermal soaring conditions.

    PubMed

    Harel, Roi; Horvitz, Nir; Nathan, Ran

    2016-01-01

    Due to the potentially detrimental consequences of low performance in basic functional tasks, individuals are expected to improve performance with age and show the most marked changes during early stages of life. Soaring-gliding birds use rising-air columns (thermals) to reduce energy expenditure allocated to flight. We offer a framework to evaluate thermal soaring performance, and use GPS-tracking to study movements of Eurasian griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus). Because the location and intensity of thermals are variable, we hypothesized that soaring performance would improve with experience and predicted that the performance of inexperienced individuals (<2 months) would be inferior to that of experienced ones (>5 years). No differences were found in body characteristics, climb rates under low wind shear, and thermal selection, presumably due to vultures' tendency to forage in mixed-age groups. Adults, however, outperformed juveniles in their ability to adjust fine-scale movements under challenging conditions, as juveniles had lower climb rates under intermediate wind shear, particularly on the lee-side of thermal columns. Juveniles were also less efficient along the route both in terms of time and energy. The consequences of these handicaps are probably exacerbated if juveniles lag behind adults in finding and approaching food. PMID:27291590

  17. Adult vultures outperform juveniles in challenging thermal soaring conditions.

    PubMed

    Harel, Roi; Horvitz, Nir; Nathan, Ran

    2016-06-13

    Due to the potentially detrimental consequences of low performance in basic functional tasks, individuals are expected to improve performance with age and show the most marked changes during early stages of life. Soaring-gliding birds use rising-air columns (thermals) to reduce energy expenditure allocated to flight. We offer a framework to evaluate thermal soaring performance, and use GPS-tracking to study movements of Eurasian griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus). Because the location and intensity of thermals are variable, we hypothesized that soaring performance would improve with experience and predicted that the performance of inexperienced individuals (<2 months) would be inferior to that of experienced ones (>5 years). No differences were found in body characteristics, climb rates under low wind shear, and thermal selection, presumably due to vultures' tendency to forage in mixed-age groups. Adults, however, outperformed juveniles in their ability to adjust fine-scale movements under challenging conditions, as juveniles had lower climb rates under intermediate wind shear, particularly on the lee-side of thermal columns. Juveniles were also less efficient along the route both in terms of time and energy. The consequences of these handicaps are probably exacerbated if juveniles lag behind adults in finding and approaching food.

  18. Geographic variation in the taphonomic effect of vulture scavenging: the case for Southern Illinois.

    PubMed

    Dabbs, Gretchen R; Martin, D C

    2013-01-01

    The taphonomic effect of vulture scavenging has been previously documented in central Texas (J Forensic Sci, 2009, 54, 524). This study reports on the behavioral differences between two species of vultures (Coragyps atratus, Cathartes aura) observed over a period of 1 year at the Complex for Forensic Anthropology Research in Southern Illinois. The decomposition of six research subjects and two control subjects was observed. Compared with the previous findings of vulture activity, the authors observed a severe delay in the time of first arrival (up to 28 days), decreased feeding time on remains (14-40 min), a less voracious feeding rate (7 days to 2 months to skeletonization), and a completely different feeding pattern of vultures in Southern Illinois. Additionally, no characteristic markings were observed on skeletal elements of research subjects. This study suggests the taphonomic effects of scavengers varies with climate and regions and may affect decomposition rates and patterns. PMID:23181511

  19. Geographic variation in the taphonomic effect of vulture scavenging: the case for Southern Illinois.

    PubMed

    Dabbs, Gretchen R; Martin, D C

    2013-01-01

    The taphonomic effect of vulture scavenging has been previously documented in central Texas (J Forensic Sci, 2009, 54, 524). This study reports on the behavioral differences between two species of vultures (Coragyps atratus, Cathartes aura) observed over a period of 1 year at the Complex for Forensic Anthropology Research in Southern Illinois. The decomposition of six research subjects and two control subjects was observed. Compared with the previous findings of vulture activity, the authors observed a severe delay in the time of first arrival (up to 28 days), decreased feeding time on remains (14-40 min), a less voracious feeding rate (7 days to 2 months to skeletonization), and a completely different feeding pattern of vultures in Southern Illinois. Additionally, no characteristic markings were observed on skeletal elements of research subjects. This study suggests the taphonomic effects of scavengers varies with climate and regions and may affect decomposition rates and patterns.

  20. Multi-locus phylogenetic inference among New World Vultures (Aves: Cathartidae).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeff A; Brown, Joseph W; Fuchs, Jérôme; Mindell, David P

    2016-12-01

    New World Vultures are large-bodied carrion feeding birds in the family Cathartidae, currently consisting of seven species from five genera with geographic distributions in North and South America. No study to date has included all cathartid species in a single phylogenetic analysis. In this study, we investigated the phylogenetic relationships among all cathartid species using five nuclear (nuc; 4060bp) and two mitochondrial (mt; 2165bp) DNA loci with fossil calibrated gene tree (27 outgroup taxa) and coalescent-based species tree (2 outgroup taxa) analyses. We also included an additional four nuclear loci (2578bp) for the species tree analysis to explore changes in nodal support values. Although the stem lineage is inferred to have originated ∼69 million years ago (Ma; 74.5-64.9 credible interval), a more recent basal split within Cathartidae was recovered at ∼14Ma (17.1-11.1 credible interval). Two primary clades were identified: (1) Black Vulture (Coragyps atratus) together with the three Cathartes species (Lesser C. burrovianus and Greater C. melambrotus Yellow-headed Vultures, and Turkey Vulture C. aura), and (2) King Vulture (Sarcoramphus papa), California (Gymnogyps californianus) and Andean (Vultur gryphus) Condors. Support for taxon relationships within the two basal clades were inconsistent between analyses with the exception of Black Vulture sister to a monophyletic Cathartes clade. Increased support for a yellow-headed vulture clade was recovered in the species tree analysis using the four additional nuclear loci. Overall, these results are in agreement with cathartid life history (e.g. olfaction ability and behavior) and contrasting habitat affinities among sister taxa with overlapping geographic distributions. More research is needed using additional molecular loci to further resolve the phylogenetic relationships within the two basal cathartid clades, as speciation appeared to have occurred in a relatively short period of time.

  1. Do power lines and protected areas present a catch-22 situation for Cape vultures (Gyps coprotheres)?

    PubMed

    Phipps, W Louis; Wolter, Kerri; Michael, Michael D; MacTavish, Lynne M; Yarnell, Richard W

    2013-01-01

    Cape vulture Gyps coprotheres populations have declined across their range due to multiple anthropogenic threats. Their susceptibility to fatal collisions with the expanding power line network and the prevalence of carcasses contaminated with illegal poisons and other threats outside protected areas are thought to be the primary drivers of declines in southern Africa. We used GPS-GSM units to track the movements and delineate the home ranges of five adult (mean ±SD minimum convex polygon area = 121,655±90,845 km(2)) and four immature (mean ±SD minimum convex polygon area = 492,300±259,427 km(2)) Cape vultures to investigate the influence of power lines and their use of protected areas. The vultures travelled more than 1,000 km from the capture site and collectively entered five different countries in southern Africa. Their movement patterns and core foraging ranges were closely associated with the spatial distribution of transmission power lines and we present evidence that the construction of power lines has allowed the species to extend its range to areas previously devoid of suitable perches. The distribution of locations of known Cape vulture mortalities caused by interactions with power lines corresponded to the core ranges of the tracked vultures. Although some of the vultures regularly roosted at breeding colonies located inside protected areas the majority of foraging activity took place on unprotected farmland. Their ability to travel vast distances very quickly and the high proportion of time they spend in the vicinity of power lines and outside protected areas make Cape vultures especially vulnerable to negative interactions with the expanding power line network and the full range of threats across the region. Co-ordinated cross-border conservation strategies beyond the protected area network will therefore be necessary to ensure the future survival of threatened vultures in Africa. PMID:24137496

  2. Do power lines and protected areas present a catch-22 situation for Cape vultures (Gyps coprotheres)?

    PubMed

    Phipps, W Louis; Wolter, Kerri; Michael, Michael D; MacTavish, Lynne M; Yarnell, Richard W

    2013-01-01

    Cape vulture Gyps coprotheres populations have declined across their range due to multiple anthropogenic threats. Their susceptibility to fatal collisions with the expanding power line network and the prevalence of carcasses contaminated with illegal poisons and other threats outside protected areas are thought to be the primary drivers of declines in southern Africa. We used GPS-GSM units to track the movements and delineate the home ranges of five adult (mean ±SD minimum convex polygon area = 121,655±90,845 km(2)) and four immature (mean ±SD minimum convex polygon area = 492,300±259,427 km(2)) Cape vultures to investigate the influence of power lines and their use of protected areas. The vultures travelled more than 1,000 km from the capture site and collectively entered five different countries in southern Africa. Their movement patterns and core foraging ranges were closely associated with the spatial distribution of transmission power lines and we present evidence that the construction of power lines has allowed the species to extend its range to areas previously devoid of suitable perches. The distribution of locations of known Cape vulture mortalities caused by interactions with power lines corresponded to the core ranges of the tracked vultures. Although some of the vultures regularly roosted at breeding colonies located inside protected areas the majority of foraging activity took place on unprotected farmland. Their ability to travel vast distances very quickly and the high proportion of time they spend in the vicinity of power lines and outside protected areas make Cape vultures especially vulnerable to negative interactions with the expanding power line network and the full range of threats across the region. Co-ordinated cross-border conservation strategies beyond the protected area network will therefore be necessary to ensure the future survival of threatened vultures in Africa.

  3. Do Power Lines and Protected Areas Present a Catch-22 Situation for Cape Vultures (Gyps coprotheres)?

    PubMed Central

    Phipps, W. Louis; Wolter, Kerri; Michael, Michael D.; MacTavish, Lynne M.; Yarnell, Richard W.

    2013-01-01

    Cape vulture Gyps coprotheres populations have declined across their range due to multiple anthropogenic threats. Their susceptibility to fatal collisions with the expanding power line network and the prevalence of carcasses contaminated with illegal poisons and other threats outside protected areas are thought to be the primary drivers of declines in southern Africa. We used GPS-GSM units to track the movements and delineate the home ranges of five adult (mean ±SD minimum convex polygon area  =  121,655±90,845 km2) and four immature (mean ±SD minimum convex polygon area  =  492,300±259,427 km2) Cape vultures to investigate the influence of power lines and their use of protected areas. The vultures travelled more than 1,000 km from the capture site and collectively entered five different countries in southern Africa. Their movement patterns and core foraging ranges were closely associated with the spatial distribution of transmission power lines and we present evidence that the construction of power lines has allowed the species to extend its range to areas previously devoid of suitable perches. The distribution of locations of known Cape vulture mortalities caused by interactions with power lines corresponded to the core ranges of the tracked vultures. Although some of the vultures regularly roosted at breeding colonies located inside protected areas the majority of foraging activity took place on unprotected farmland. Their ability to travel vast distances very quickly and the high proportion of time they spend in the vicinity of power lines and outside protected areas make Cape vultures especially vulnerable to negative interactions with the expanding power line network and the full range of threats across the region. Co-ordinated cross-border conservation strategies beyond the protected area network will therefore be necessary to ensure the future survival of threatened vultures in Africa. PMID:24137496

  4. Multi-locus phylogenetic inference among New World Vultures (Aves: Cathartidae).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeff A; Brown, Joseph W; Fuchs, Jérôme; Mindell, David P

    2016-12-01

    New World Vultures are large-bodied carrion feeding birds in the family Cathartidae, currently consisting of seven species from five genera with geographic distributions in North and South America. No study to date has included all cathartid species in a single phylogenetic analysis. In this study, we investigated the phylogenetic relationships among all cathartid species using five nuclear (nuc; 4060bp) and two mitochondrial (mt; 2165bp) DNA loci with fossil calibrated gene tree (27 outgroup taxa) and coalescent-based species tree (2 outgroup taxa) analyses. We also included an additional four nuclear loci (2578bp) for the species tree analysis to explore changes in nodal support values. Although the stem lineage is inferred to have originated ∼69 million years ago (Ma; 74.5-64.9 credible interval), a more recent basal split within Cathartidae was recovered at ∼14Ma (17.1-11.1 credible interval). Two primary clades were identified: (1) Black Vulture (Coragyps atratus) together with the three Cathartes species (Lesser C. burrovianus and Greater C. melambrotus Yellow-headed Vultures, and Turkey Vulture C. aura), and (2) King Vulture (Sarcoramphus papa), California (Gymnogyps californianus) and Andean (Vultur gryphus) Condors. Support for taxon relationships within the two basal clades were inconsistent between analyses with the exception of Black Vulture sister to a monophyletic Cathartes clade. Increased support for a yellow-headed vulture clade was recovered in the species tree analysis using the four additional nuclear loci. Overall, these results are in agreement with cathartid life history (e.g. olfaction ability and behavior) and contrasting habitat affinities among sister taxa with overlapping geographic distributions. More research is needed using additional molecular loci to further resolve the phylogenetic relationships within the two basal cathartid clades, as speciation appeared to have occurred in a relatively short period of time. PMID:27601346

  5. Testing problem solving in turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) using the string-pulling test.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Anne Margaret; Watson, Jane; Demers, Eric

    2015-01-01

    To examine problem solving in turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), six captive vultures were presented with a string-pulling task, which involved drawing a string up to access food. This test has been used to assess cognition in many bird species. A small piece of meat suspended by a string was attached to a perch. Two birds solved the problem without apparent trial-and-error learning; a third bird solved the problem after observing a successful bird, suggesting that this individual learned from the other vulture. The remaining birds failed to complete the task. The successful birds significantly reduced the time needed to solve the task from early trials compared to late trials, suggesting that they had learned to solve the problem and improved their technique. The successful vultures solved the problem in a novel way: they pulled the string through their beak with their tongue, and may have gathered the string in their crop until the food was in reach. In contrast, ravens, parrots and finches use a stepwise process; they pull the string up, tuck it under foot, and reach down to pull up another length. As scavengers, turkey vultures use their beak for tearing and ripping at carcasses, but possess large, flat, webbed feet that are ill-suited to pulling or grasping. The ability to solve this problem and the novel approach used by the turkey vultures in this study may be a result of the unique evolutionary pressures imposed on this scavenging species. PMID:25015133

  6. Determination of fluoroquinolone antibiotic residues in the plasma of Eurasian griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) in Spain.

    PubMed

    Casas-Díaz, Encarna; Cristòfol, Carles; Cuenca, Rafaela; Agustí, Susana; Carneiro, Manuela; Marco, Ignasi; Lavín, Santiago; Margalida, Antoni

    2016-07-01

    Due to the possible toxicological impact, the accumulation of pharmaceuticals in wildlife as a consequence of human practices is of growing concern. The consumption of carrion at feeding stations - the so-called 'vulture restaurants' - with no management of the veterinary drugs it contains may expose scavengers to pharmaceuticals. To demonstrate this, we analyzed plasma from Eurasian griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) originating from two different areas of Spain for antibiotics such as enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, its primary metabolite. Quinolone residues were detected in about 65% (n=106) of birds, of which 15.1% (16/106) had quantifiable amounts of enrofloxacin (0.049±0.102μg/mL) and 5.7% (6/106) of ciprofloxacin (0.009±0.007μg/mL). The differences in exposure between the two sampled areas are attributable to different types of carrion management: the vultures that fed in areas with a high density of dead livestock (supplied directly to feeding stations) were more prone to exposure than those that sought food in areas where carcass availability is more unpredictable. Our findings are evidence that vultures have access to medicated livestock and that there are quantifiable levels of livestock antibiotics in vulture plasma. However, the vultures analyzed in this study had maximum antibiotic concentrations of only 0.4μg/mL, much less than the concentrations used in the clinical treatment of scavengers and a level that is probably too small to cause intoxication.

  7. Testing problem solving in turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) using the string-pulling test.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Anne Margaret; Watson, Jane; Demers, Eric

    2015-01-01

    To examine problem solving in turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), six captive vultures were presented with a string-pulling task, which involved drawing a string up to access food. This test has been used to assess cognition in many bird species. A small piece of meat suspended by a string was attached to a perch. Two birds solved the problem without apparent trial-and-error learning; a third bird solved the problem after observing a successful bird, suggesting that this individual learned from the other vulture. The remaining birds failed to complete the task. The successful birds significantly reduced the time needed to solve the task from early trials compared to late trials, suggesting that they had learned to solve the problem and improved their technique. The successful vultures solved the problem in a novel way: they pulled the string through their beak with their tongue, and may have gathered the string in their crop until the food was in reach. In contrast, ravens, parrots and finches use a stepwise process; they pull the string up, tuck it under foot, and reach down to pull up another length. As scavengers, turkey vultures use their beak for tearing and ripping at carcasses, but possess large, flat, webbed feet that are ill-suited to pulling or grasping. The ability to solve this problem and the novel approach used by the turkey vultures in this study may be a result of the unique evolutionary pressures imposed on this scavenging species.

  8. Enteric pathogens and antimicrobial resistance in turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) feeding at the wildlife-livestock interface.

    PubMed

    Sulzner, Kate; Kelly, Terra; Smith, Woutrina; Johnson, Christine K

    2014-12-01

    Free-flying turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) were sampled in California to investigate the fecal shedding prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp., and Escherichia coli. Nine different serotypes of Salmonella enterica were detected in cloacal swabs from turkey vultures, and 6% of vultures were shedding Campylobacter spp.. Turkey vultures sampled at a location with range sheep were more likely to shed tetracycline-resistant E. coli, suggesting that proximity to livestock facilities could facilitate acquisition of drug-resistant bacteria in avian scavengers. These findings illustrate the importance of assessing drug-resistant pathogen transfer at the livestock-wildlife interface. PMID:25632686

  9. Enteric pathogens and antimicrobial resistance in turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) feeding at the wildlife-livestock interface.

    PubMed

    Sulzner, Kate; Kelly, Terra; Smith, Woutrina; Johnson, Christine K

    2014-12-01

    Free-flying turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) were sampled in California to investigate the fecal shedding prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp., and Escherichia coli. Nine different serotypes of Salmonella enterica were detected in cloacal swabs from turkey vultures, and 6% of vultures were shedding Campylobacter spp.. Turkey vultures sampled at a location with range sheep were more likely to shed tetracycline-resistant E. coli, suggesting that proximity to livestock facilities could facilitate acquisition of drug-resistant bacteria in avian scavengers. These findings illustrate the importance of assessing drug-resistant pathogen transfer at the livestock-wildlife interface.

  10. Aspidoscelis deppii (Black-bellied Racerunner). Predation by Turkey Vulture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Robert P.; Gebhard, Christina A.

    2014-01-01

    minimize wildlife hazards at the Aeropuerto Internacional de El Salvador (ca. 50 km SE of San Salvador, 13.4408°N 89.0556°W; datum WGS84) on 10 July 2012 and subsequently cataloged (USNM 646876) in the Bird Division at the National Museum of Natural History (NMNH) in Washington, DC. Dissection during preparation of the bird as a museum specimen revealed a male A. deppii (ca. 56 mm SVL) in the stomach. It was cataloged at the NMNH in the Division of Amphibians and Reptiles (USNM 580989). Tissue samples were removed from both the lizard and the bird and deposited in the biorepository at the NMNH. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented record identifying A. deppii as a prey item of the Turkey Vulture.

  11. Toxoplasma gondii prevalence in Israeli crows and Griffon vultures.

    PubMed

    Salant, H; Hamburger, J; King, R; Baneth, G

    2013-01-16

    A cross-sectional Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence study was performed on free ranging crows (Corvus cornis, Corvus monedula, Corvus splendens) and Griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) from Israel in order to assess exposure to this pathogen in scavenger birds that feed on animal carcasses and their possible role in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis. Using the modified agglutination test (MAT) with a cutoff titer of 1:25, 52 of 122 crows (42.6%) and 40 of 101 Griffon vultures (39.6%) were found to be T. gondii seropositive. Crow T. gondii seroprevalence was significantly higher in northern areas of Israel (p=0.007) where annual precipitation is higher and annual summer maximum temperatures are lower than in the drier and warmer south. Seroprevalence in crows was positively associated with higher human population densities possibly related to the increased cat population in these areas. PCR analysis of brain extracts from crows resulted in the detection of T. gondii DNA in 1 seropositive crow from northern Israel. Genetic analysis of DNA from the positive crow brain confirmed infection with T. gondii type 2 using a multiplex multilocus nested PCR-RFLP (Mn-PCR-RFLP) of the SAG1, 5-3' SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, C22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico loci. The high T. gondii seroprevalence in these bird species suggests that infected carrion may be responsible for widespread infection of carcass scavenger birds which may further transmit infection to other carnivorous intermediate hosts or feline definitive hosts when consumed post-mortally.

  12. Mycoplasma corogypsi associated polyarthritis and tenosynovitis in black vultures (Coragyps atratus)

    PubMed Central

    Van Wettere, A. J.; Ley, D. H.; Scott, D. E.; Buckanoff, H. D.; Degernes, L. A.

    2013-01-01

    Three wild American black vultures (Coragyps atratus) were presented to rehabilitation centers with swelling of multiple joints, including elbows, stifles, hocks, and carpal joints, and of the gastrocnemius tendons. Cytological examination of the joint fluid exudate indicated heterophilic arthritis. Radiographic examination in 2 vultures demonstrated periarticular soft tissue swelling in both birds and irregular articular surfaces with subchondral bone erosion in both elbows in 1 bird. Prolonged antibiotic therapy administered in 2 birds did not improve the clinical signs. Necropsy and histological examination demonstrated a chronic lymphoplasmacytic arthritis involving multiple joints and gastrocnemius tenosynovitis. Articular lesions varied in severity and ranged from moderate synovitis and cartilage erosion and fibrillation to severe synovitis, diffuse cartilage ulceration, subchondral bone loss and/or sclerosis, pannus, synovial cysts, and epiphyseal osteomyelitis. No walled bacteria were observed or isolated from the joints. However, mycoplasmas polymerase chain reactions were positive in at least 1 affected joint from each bird. Mycoplasmas were isolated from joints of 1 vulture that did not receive antibiotic therapy. Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from joint samples and the mycoplasma isolate identified Mycoplasma corogypsi in 2 vultures and was suggestive in the third vulture. Mycoplasma corogypsi identification was confirmed by sequencing the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region of mycoplasma isolates. This report provides further evidence that M. corogypsi is a likely cause of arthritis and tenosynovitis in American black vultures. Cases of arthritis and tenosynovitis in New World vultures should be investigated for presence of Mycoplasma spp, especially M. corogypsi. PMID:22903399

  13. Effects of vehicle speed on flight initiation by Turkey vultures: implications for bird-vehicle collisions.

    PubMed

    DeVault, Travis L; Blackwell, Bradley F; Seamans, Thomas W; Lima, Steven L; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    The avoidance of motorized vehicles is a common challenge for birds in the modern world. Birds appear to rely on antipredator behaviors to avoid vehicles, but modern vehicles (automobiles and aircraft) are faster than natural predators. Thus, birds may be relatively ill-equipped, in terms of sensory capabilities and behaviors, to avoid vehicles. We examined the idea that birds may be unable to accurately assess particularly high speeds of approaching vehicles, which could contribute to miscalculations in avoidance behaviors and ultimately cause collisions. We baited turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) to roads with animal carcasses and measured flight initiation distance and effective time-to-collision in response to a truck driving directly towards vultures from a starting distance of 1.13 km and at one of three speeds: 30, 60, or 90 kph (no vultures were struck). Flight initiation distance of vultures increased by a factor of 1.85 as speed increased from 30 to 90 kph. However, for 90-kph approaches there was no clear trend in flight initiation distance across replicates: birds appeared equally likely to initiate escape behavior at 40 m as at 220 m. Time-to-collision decreased by a factor of 0.62 with approach speeds from 30 to 90 kph. Also, at 90 kph, four vehicle approaches (17%) resulted in near collisions with vultures (time-to-collision ≤ 1.7 s), compared to none during 60 kph approaches and one during 30 kph approaches (4%). Our findings suggest that antipredator behaviors in turkey vultures, particularly stimulus processing and response, might not be well tuned to vehicles approaching at speeds ≥ 90 kph. The possible inability of turkey vultures to react appropriately to high-speed vehicles could be common among birds, and might represent an important determinant of bird-vehicle collisions. PMID:24503622

  14. Effects of Vehicle Speed on Flight Initiation by Turkey Vultures: Implications for Bird-Vehicle Collisions

    PubMed Central

    DeVault, Travis L.; Blackwell, Bradley F.; Seamans, Thomas W.; Lima, Steven L.; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    The avoidance of motorized vehicles is a common challenge for birds in the modern world. Birds appear to rely on antipredator behaviors to avoid vehicles, but modern vehicles (automobiles and aircraft) are faster than natural predators. Thus, birds may be relatively ill-equipped, in terms of sensory capabilities and behaviors, to avoid vehicles. We examined the idea that birds may be unable to accurately assess particularly high speeds of approaching vehicles, which could contribute to miscalculations in avoidance behaviors and ultimately cause collisions. We baited turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) to roads with animal carcasses and measured flight initiation distance and effective time-to-collision in response to a truck driving directly towards vultures from a starting distance of 1.13 km and at one of three speeds: 30, 60, or 90 kph (no vultures were struck). Flight initiation distance of vultures increased by a factor of 1.85 as speed increased from 30 to 90 kph. However, for 90-kph approaches there was no clear trend in flight initiation distance across replicates: birds appeared equally likely to initiate escape behavior at 40 m as at 220 m. Time-to-collision decreased by a factor of 0.62 with approach speeds from 30 to 90 kph. Also, at 90 kph, four vehicle approaches (17%) resulted in near collisions with vultures (time-to-collision ≤1.7 s), compared to none during 60 kph approaches and one during 30 kph approaches (4%). Our findings suggest that antipredator behaviors in turkey vultures, particularly stimulus processing and response, might not be well tuned to vehicles approaching at speeds ≥90 kph. The possible inability of turkey vultures to react appropriately to high-speed vehicles could be common among birds, and might represent an important determinant of bird-vehicle collisions. PMID:24503622

  15. Effects of vehicle speed on flight initiation by Turkey vultures: implications for bird-vehicle collisions.

    PubMed

    DeVault, Travis L; Blackwell, Bradley F; Seamans, Thomas W; Lima, Steven L; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    The avoidance of motorized vehicles is a common challenge for birds in the modern world. Birds appear to rely on antipredator behaviors to avoid vehicles, but modern vehicles (automobiles and aircraft) are faster than natural predators. Thus, birds may be relatively ill-equipped, in terms of sensory capabilities and behaviors, to avoid vehicles. We examined the idea that birds may be unable to accurately assess particularly high speeds of approaching vehicles, which could contribute to miscalculations in avoidance behaviors and ultimately cause collisions. We baited turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) to roads with animal carcasses and measured flight initiation distance and effective time-to-collision in response to a truck driving directly towards vultures from a starting distance of 1.13 km and at one of three speeds: 30, 60, or 90 kph (no vultures were struck). Flight initiation distance of vultures increased by a factor of 1.85 as speed increased from 30 to 90 kph. However, for 90-kph approaches there was no clear trend in flight initiation distance across replicates: birds appeared equally likely to initiate escape behavior at 40 m as at 220 m. Time-to-collision decreased by a factor of 0.62 with approach speeds from 30 to 90 kph. Also, at 90 kph, four vehicle approaches (17%) resulted in near collisions with vultures (time-to-collision ≤ 1.7 s), compared to none during 60 kph approaches and one during 30 kph approaches (4%). Our findings suggest that antipredator behaviors in turkey vultures, particularly stimulus processing and response, might not be well tuned to vehicles approaching at speeds ≥ 90 kph. The possible inability of turkey vultures to react appropriately to high-speed vehicles could be common among birds, and might represent an important determinant of bird-vehicle collisions.

  16. A helium isotope cross-section study through the Vulture line, southern Apennines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caracausi, Antonio; Martelli, Mauro; Nuccio, Mario; Paternoster, Michele; Stuart, Finlay

    2013-04-01

    We report the results of a geochemical study of gas emissions and spring waters collected along a NE-SW transect through the southern Apennines in order to quantify the contribution of mantle-derived helium in crustal fluids and consequently to evaluate the existence of a structural discontinuity (the "Vulture line"). This tectonic discontinuity is interpreted as N40°-50° trending deep fault, cutting the entire chain-foreland system in southern Apennines (Schiattarella et al., 2005). The lithospheric discontinuity was generated by variation in the velocity of subduction rollback along the length of the subducting plate and has generated a vertical slab window (i.e., Doglioni et al., 1994; D'Orazio et al., 2007), that is responsible for the origin of Mt. Vulture volcano. Mount Vulture is the eastern-most occurrence of the Quaternary Italian volcanism, and is the only volcano to the east of the Apennine mountain belt. Its volcanic activity started at 742±11 kyr and continued until 142±11 kyr, interrupted by several long inter-eruptive periods (Buettner et al., 2006, and references therein). The volcanism is strongly silica undersaturated, from alkaline potassic to ultrapotassic affinities. We investigated lavas from the Mt. Vulture displaying 3He/4He (up to ~6.0 Ra) and Sr isotopes that are consistent with an origin in mantle that has had minimal pollution from subducted Adriatic slab. This value is rather constant along the history of the volcano, and represent the highest helium isotope signature of the Italian peninsular magmatism even if it is slightly lower than that of the most uncontaminated Sicilian terms. Similar 3He/4He in fluids from around Mt. Vulture indicate that the deep volcanic system is still degassing. The 3He/4He of the investigated fluids along the NE-SW transect of the Vulture line highlights that degassing of mantle-derived helium occur from the Apulian foreland to the Tyrrhenian sea. The highest contribution of mantle-derived fluids is

  17. Assessment of the exposure to heavy metals in Griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) from the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Manuela; Colaço, Bruno; Brandão, Ricardo; Azorín, Beatriz; Nicolas, Olga; Colaço, Jorge; Pires, Maria João; Agustí, Susana; Casas-Díaz, Encarna; Lavin, Santiago; Oliveira, Paula A

    2015-03-01

    Griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus), by virtue of their position at the top of the food chain and as obligate scavengers, are at risk of accumulating and concentrating heavy metals in their tissues and may be more predisposed to their toxic effects. The aim of this study is to investigate heavy metal concentrations in Griffon vultures in Portugal and Catalonia, Spain and to determine if heavy metal concentrations in the blood of weak and/or injured Griffon vultures admitted to wildlife rehabilitation centres (WRC) reflect contamination profiles in the local, free-living and outwardly healthy population. Whole-blood samples taken from 121 Griffon vultures caught in the wild or admitted to WRC in Portugal and Catalonia, Spain were examined for cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Cd and Hg were not detected in most samples (98.3% and 95%, respectively), while Pb was detected in all birds in concentrations ranging between 4.97 and 300.23 µg/dl. Birds admitted to WRC had significantly lower Pb concentrations (24.15 ± 15.07 and 25.98 ± 18.04 µg/dl in Portugal and Catalonia, Spain, respectively) than animals caught in the wild (29.67 ± 13.19 and 42.22 ± 50.08 µg/dl in Portugal and Catalonia, Spain, respectively) (p<0.05). This may be explained by the fact that malnutrition was the main cause of admission of Griffon vultures to WRC, as ingestion has been described as the most significant pathway for Pb exposure in raptors. Therefore Griffon vultures admitted to WRC do not seem to be representative of the local, free-flying populations, so it remains necessary to continue catching when one intends to monitor Pb exposure in this species. The population of vultures captured in Catalonia, Spain showed the highest mean blood Pb concentration, perhaps due to the municipal rubbish dump located near the feeding station, with rubbish providing a significant fraction of their trophic needs. The ingestion of game meat

  18. Assessment of the exposure to heavy metals in Griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) from the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Manuela; Colaço, Bruno; Brandão, Ricardo; Azorín, Beatriz; Nicolas, Olga; Colaço, Jorge; Pires, Maria João; Agustí, Susana; Casas-Díaz, Encarna; Lavin, Santiago; Oliveira, Paula A

    2015-03-01

    Griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus), by virtue of their position at the top of the food chain and as obligate scavengers, are at risk of accumulating and concentrating heavy metals in their tissues and may be more predisposed to their toxic effects. The aim of this study is to investigate heavy metal concentrations in Griffon vultures in Portugal and Catalonia, Spain and to determine if heavy metal concentrations in the blood of weak and/or injured Griffon vultures admitted to wildlife rehabilitation centres (WRC) reflect contamination profiles in the local, free-living and outwardly healthy population. Whole-blood samples taken from 121 Griffon vultures caught in the wild or admitted to WRC in Portugal and Catalonia, Spain were examined for cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Cd and Hg were not detected in most samples (98.3% and 95%, respectively), while Pb was detected in all birds in concentrations ranging between 4.97 and 300.23 µg/dl. Birds admitted to WRC had significantly lower Pb concentrations (24.15 ± 15.07 and 25.98 ± 18.04 µg/dl in Portugal and Catalonia, Spain, respectively) than animals caught in the wild (29.67 ± 13.19 and 42.22 ± 50.08 µg/dl in Portugal and Catalonia, Spain, respectively) (p<0.05). This may be explained by the fact that malnutrition was the main cause of admission of Griffon vultures to WRC, as ingestion has been described as the most significant pathway for Pb exposure in raptors. Therefore Griffon vultures admitted to WRC do not seem to be representative of the local, free-flying populations, so it remains necessary to continue catching when one intends to monitor Pb exposure in this species. The population of vultures captured in Catalonia, Spain showed the highest mean blood Pb concentration, perhaps due to the municipal rubbish dump located near the feeding station, with rubbish providing a significant fraction of their trophic needs. The ingestion of game meat

  19. Effects of heavy metals on biomarkers for oxidative stress in Griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus).

    PubMed

    Espín, Silvia; Martínez-López, Emma; Jiménez, Pedro; María-Mojica, Pedro; García-Fernández, Antonio J

    2014-02-01

    Metals are involved in the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which may result in metal-related oxidative stress that can lead to oxidative damage to lipids, DNA and proteins. It is necessary to understand the mechanisms of metal toxicity in wild birds, and the concentrations that cause effects on oxidative stress biomarkers. The aim of this study is to assess the concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) with regards to oxidative stress in blood samples of 66 Griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) from two areas of the Autonomous Community of Valencia (East of Spain). The two study areas (Alcoy n=36 and Cinctorres n=30) were selected as random locations of interest that had not yet been studied, and are feeding stations where supplementary food, mainly of pork origin, is provided for vultures. Given that the two study areas are not considered polluted sites, we expected to find low metal concentrations. However, there are no known threshold concentrations at which metals can affect antioxidant systems, and low metal levels may have an effect on antioxidant biomolecules. In this study, since sampling was done at the beginning of the hunting season, the low Pb levels found in most Griffon vultures from Alcoy and Cinctorres (median=12.37 and 16.26μg/dl, respectively) are suggestive of background levels usually found in vultures that feed on pork carcasses all year round. The ingestion of game meat with bullet fragments in carcasses or with Pb shots embedded in the flesh could be the cause of the high blood Pb concentrations found in three vultures from Cinctorres (83, 290 and 362μg/dl). Griffon vultures feeding in Cinctorres had enhanced CAT and GST activities and tGSH concentrations, which may be interpreted as protective response against the higher TBARS levels. This study provides threshold concentrations at which metals affect antioxidant system derived from 66 samples of Griffon vulture. Blood Cd concentrations greater

  20. Effects of heavy metals on biomarkers for oxidative stress in Griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus).

    PubMed

    Espín, Silvia; Martínez-López, Emma; Jiménez, Pedro; María-Mojica, Pedro; García-Fernández, Antonio J

    2014-02-01

    Metals are involved in the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which may result in metal-related oxidative stress that can lead to oxidative damage to lipids, DNA and proteins. It is necessary to understand the mechanisms of metal toxicity in wild birds, and the concentrations that cause effects on oxidative stress biomarkers. The aim of this study is to assess the concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) with regards to oxidative stress in blood samples of 66 Griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) from two areas of the Autonomous Community of Valencia (East of Spain). The two study areas (Alcoy n=36 and Cinctorres n=30) were selected as random locations of interest that had not yet been studied, and are feeding stations where supplementary food, mainly of pork origin, is provided for vultures. Given that the two study areas are not considered polluted sites, we expected to find low metal concentrations. However, there are no known threshold concentrations at which metals can affect antioxidant systems, and low metal levels may have an effect on antioxidant biomolecules. In this study, since sampling was done at the beginning of the hunting season, the low Pb levels found in most Griffon vultures from Alcoy and Cinctorres (median=12.37 and 16.26μg/dl, respectively) are suggestive of background levels usually found in vultures that feed on pork carcasses all year round. The ingestion of game meat with bullet fragments in carcasses or with Pb shots embedded in the flesh could be the cause of the high blood Pb concentrations found in three vultures from Cinctorres (83, 290 and 362μg/dl). Griffon vultures feeding in Cinctorres had enhanced CAT and GST activities and tGSH concentrations, which may be interpreted as protective response against the higher TBARS levels. This study provides threshold concentrations at which metals affect antioxidant system derived from 66 samples of Griffon vulture. Blood Cd concentrations greater

  1. Estimation of cultivable bacterial diversity in the cloacae and pharynx in Eurasian griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus).

    PubMed

    Vela, Ana I; Casas-Díaz, Encarna; Fernández-Garayzábal, José F; Serrano, Emmanuel; Agustí, Susana; Porrero, María C; Sánchez del Rey, Verónica; Marco, Ignasi; Lavín, Santiago; Domínguez, Lucas

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we describe the biodiversity of cloacal and pharynx culture-based bacteria (commensal and pathogenic), in 75 Eurasian griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) from two geographic areas. We address the question of whether the cultivable microbiota of vultures is organised into assemblages occurring by chance. In addition, we assess bacterial diversity in both anatomic regions and geographic areas. Bacterial diversity was represented by 26 Gram-negative and 20 Gram-positive genera. The most common genera were Escherichia, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, Clostridium and Lactococcus. Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis were the most common species in cloacal and pharyngeal samples. Staphylococcus and Erysipelothrix were isolated from the pharynx and Salmonella and Corynebacterium from the cloacae, and no Campylobacter was isolated from the cloacal swabs. Ten cloacal swabs were positive for Salmonella, of which five isolates were Salmonella enterica serotype 4,(5),12:i:-, one isolate was S. enterica serotype Derby, three isolates were S. enterica serotype 61:k:1,5,7 and one isolate was S. enterica serotype Infantis. The null modelling approach revealed that the commensal bacteria of vultures are not structured in assemblages. On the other hand, differences in bacterial genus and species richness between cloacal and pharyngeal samples or between geographic areas were clear, with the pharynx in vultures from both geographic areas being richer. The results of this study indicate also that vultures can serve as a reservoir of certain pathogenic zoonotic bacteria. The dissemination of these zoonotic pathogens in wildlife could be prevented by periodic sanitary surveys.

  2. Molecular sexing of threatened Gyps vultures: an important strategy for conservation breeding and ecological studies.

    PubMed

    Ghorpade, Prabhakar B; Gupta, Praveen K; Prakash, Vibhu; Cuthbert, Richard J; Kulkarni, Mandar; Prakash, Nikita; Das, Asit; Sharma, Anil K; Saini, Mohini

    2012-12-01

    During the last two decades populations of three resident species of Gyps vulture have declined dramatically and are now threatened with extinction in South Asia. Sex identification of vultures is of key importance for the purpose of conservation breeding as it is desirable to have an equal sex ratio in these monogamous species which are housed together in large colony aviaries. Because vultures are monomorphic, with no differences in external morphology or plumage colour between the sexes, other methods are required for sex identification. Molecular methods for sex identification in birds rely on allelic length or nucleotide sequence discrimination of the chromohelicase-DNA binding (CHD) gene located on male and female chromosomes ZZ and ZW, respectively. We characterized the partial sequences of CHD alleles from Gyps indicus, Gyps bengalensis, Gyps himalayensis and Aegypius monachus and analysed the applicability of five molecular methods of sex identification of 46 individual vultures including 26 known-sex G. bengalensis and G. indicus. The results revealed that W-specific PCR in combination with ZW-common PCR is a quick, accurate and simple method, and is ideal for sex identification of vultures. The method is also suitable to augment ecological studies for identifying sex of these endangered birds during necropsy examinations especially when gonads are not apparent, possibly due to regression during non-breeding seasons. PMID:23316450

  3. Molecular sexing of threatened Gyps vultures: an important strategy for conservation breeding and ecological studies.

    PubMed

    Ghorpade, Prabhakar B; Gupta, Praveen K; Prakash, Vibhu; Cuthbert, Richard J; Kulkarni, Mandar; Prakash, Nikita; Das, Asit; Sharma, Anil K; Saini, Mohini

    2012-12-01

    During the last two decades populations of three resident species of Gyps vulture have declined dramatically and are now threatened with extinction in South Asia. Sex identification of vultures is of key importance for the purpose of conservation breeding as it is desirable to have an equal sex ratio in these monogamous species which are housed together in large colony aviaries. Because vultures are monomorphic, with no differences in external morphology or plumage colour between the sexes, other methods are required for sex identification. Molecular methods for sex identification in birds rely on allelic length or nucleotide sequence discrimination of the chromohelicase-DNA binding (CHD) gene located on male and female chromosomes ZZ and ZW, respectively. We characterized the partial sequences of CHD alleles from Gyps indicus, Gyps bengalensis, Gyps himalayensis and Aegypius monachus and analysed the applicability of five molecular methods of sex identification of 46 individual vultures including 26 known-sex G. bengalensis and G. indicus. The results revealed that W-specific PCR in combination with ZW-common PCR is a quick, accurate and simple method, and is ideal for sex identification of vultures. The method is also suitable to augment ecological studies for identifying sex of these endangered birds during necropsy examinations especially when gonads are not apparent, possibly due to regression during non-breeding seasons.

  4. Molecular cloning and characterisation of the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus) toll-like receptor 1.

    PubMed

    de la Lastra, José Manuel Pérez; de la Fuente, José

    2007-01-01

    The toll-like receptor (TLR) family is an ancient pattern recognition receptor family, conserved from insects to mammals. Members of the TLR family are vital to immune function through the sensing of pathogenic agents and initiation of an appropriate immune response. In this study, we cloned a cDNA encoding for a griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus) orthologue of mammalian TLR1 (CD281). The predicted 650 amino acid sequence comprised an extracellular domain with five leucine-rich repeats (LRR) and an LRR-C-terminal (LRR-CT) motif, followed by a 23 amino acid transmembrane segment, and a 190 amino acid intracytoplasmic region containing the Toll/IL-1R (TIR) domain. Vulture TLR1 and TIR domain showed 64% and 86% amino acid sequence similarity with chicken sequences. The tissue and cell expression pattern of vulture TLR1 were analysed by real time-PCR (RT-PCR) and correlated with the ability to respond to various pathogenic challenges. Despite the similarities in the overall structure and expression pattern of vulture TLR1 with other vertebrate TLRs, the length of the vulture TLR ectodomain, number and position of LRRs and N-glycosylation sites suggest structural differences that may have functional implications.

  5. Soaring flight in Guinea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Idrac, P

    1920-01-01

    The term soaring is applied here to the flight of certain large birds which maneuver in the air without moving their wings. The author explains the methods of his research and here gives approximate figures for the soaring flight of the Egyptian Vulture and the African White backed Vulture. Figures are given in tabular form for relative air speed per foot per second, air velocity per foot per second, lift/drag ratio, and selected coefficients. The author argues that although the figures given were taken from a very limited series of observations, they have nevertheless thrown some light on the use by birds of the internal energy of the air.

  6. Maintenance of syntenic groups between Cathartidae and Gallus gallus indicates symplesiomorphic karyotypes in new world vultures

    PubMed Central

    Tagliarini, Marcella M.; O'Brien, Patricia C.M.; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A.; de Oliveira, Edivaldo H.C.

    2011-01-01

    Similarities between New World and Old World vultures have been interpreted to reflect a close relationship and to suggest the inclusion of both in Accipitridae (Falconiformes). However, deeper analyses indicated that the placement of the New World vultures (cathartids) in this Order is uncertain. Chromosome analysis has shown that cathartids retained a karyotype similar to the putative avian ancestor. In order to verify the occurrence of intrachromosomal rearrangements in cathartids, we hybridized whole chromosome probes of two species (Gallus gallus and Leucopternis albicollis) onto metaphases of Cathartes aura. The results showed that not only were the syntenic groups conserved between Gallus and C. aura, but probably also the general gene order, suggesting that New World vultures share chromosomal symplesiomorphies with most bird lineages. PMID:21637548

  7. Maintenance of syntenic groups between Cathartidae and Gallus gallus indicates symplesiomorphic karyotypes in new world vultures.

    PubMed

    Tagliarini, Marcella M; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; de Oliveira, Edivaldo H C

    2011-01-01

    Similarities between New World and Old World vultures have been interpreted to reflect a close relationship and to suggest the inclusion of both in Accipitridae (Falconiformes). However, deeper analyses indicated that the placement of the New World vultures (cathartids) in this Order is uncertain. Chromosome analysis has shown that cathartids retained a karyotype similar to the putative avian ancestor. In order to verify the occurrence of intrachromosomal rearrangements in cathartids, we hybridized whole chromosome probes of two species (Gallus gallus and Leucopternis albicollis) onto metaphases of Cathartes aura. The results showed that not only were the syntenic groups conserved between Gallus and C. aura, but probably also the general gene order, suggesting that New World vultures share chromosomal symplesiomorphies with most bird lineages.

  8. Disposition of marbofloxacin in vulture (Gyps fulvus) after intravenous administration of a single dose.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Montijano, Marino; Waxman, Samanta; de Lucas, J Julio; Luaces, I; de San Andrés, María Dolores; Rodríguez, Casilda

    2011-04-01

    The pharmacokinetics properties of marbofloxacin were studied in adult Eurassian Griffon vulture after single-dose intravenous (IV) administration of 2mg/kg. Drug concentration in plasma was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and the data obtained were subjected to compartmental and non-compartmental kinetic analysis. Marbofloxacin presented a volume of distribution at steady-state (Vdss) of 1.51±0.22L and total plasma clearance (Cl) of 0.109±0.023L/hkg. The permanence of this drug was long in vultures (T(1/2)(λ)=12.51±2.52h; MRT(∞)=13.54±2.29h). The optimal dose of marbofloxacin estimated is 2.73mg/kg per day for the treatment of infections in vultures with MIC(90)=0.2μg/mL.

  9. Wild Griffon Vultures (Gyps fulvus) as a Source of Salmonella and Campylobacter in Eastern Spain

    PubMed Central

    Marin, Clara; Palomeque, Maria-Dolores; Marco-Jiménez, Francisco; Vega, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    The existence of Campylobacter and Salmonella reservoirs in wildlife is a potential hazard to animal and human health; however, the prevalence of these species is largely unknown. Until now, only a few studies have evaluated the presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in wild griffon vultures and based on a small number of birds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in wild griffon vultures (n = 97) during the normal ringing programme at the Cinctorres Observatory in Eastern Spain. In addition, the effect of ages of individuals (juveniles, subadult and adult) on the presence were compared. Campylobacter was isolated from 1 of 97 (1.0%) griffon vultures and identified as C. jejuni. Salmonella was isolated from 51 of 97 (52.6%) griffon vultures. No significant differences were found between the ages of individuals for the presence of Salmonella. Serotyping revealed 6 different serovars among two Salmonella enterica subspecies; S. enterica subsp. enterica (n = 49, 96.1%) and S. enterica subsp. salamae (n = 2, 3.9%). No more than one serovar was isolated per individual. The serovars isolated were S. Typhimurium (n = 42, 82.3%), S. Rissen (n = 4, 7.8%), S. Senftenberg (n = 3, 5.9%) and S. 4,12:b[-] (n = 2, 3.9%). Our results imply that wild griffon vultures are a risk factor for Salmonella transmission, but do not seem to be a reservoir for Campylobacter. We therefore rule out vultures as a risk factor for human campylobacteriosis. Nevertheless, further studies should be undertaken in other countries to confirm these results. PMID:24710464

  10. Wild griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) as a source of Salmonella and Campylobacter in Eastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Marin, Clara; Palomeque, Maria-Dolores; Marco-Jiménez, Francisco; Vega, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    The existence of Campylobacter and Salmonella reservoirs in wildlife is a potential hazard to animal and human health; however, the prevalence of these species is largely unknown. Until now, only a few studies have evaluated the presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in wild griffon vultures and based on a small number of birds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in wild griffon vultures (n = 97) during the normal ringing programme at the Cinctorres Observatory in Eastern Spain. In addition, the effect of ages of individuals (juveniles, subadult and adult) on the presence were compared. Campylobacter was isolated from 1 of 97 (1.0%) griffon vultures and identified as C. jejuni. Salmonella was isolated from 51 of 97 (52.6%) griffon vultures. No significant differences were found between the ages of individuals for the presence of Salmonella. Serotyping revealed 6 different serovars among two Salmonella enterica subspecies; S. enterica subsp. enterica (n = 49, 96.1%) and S. enterica subsp. salamae (n = 2, 3.9%). No more than one serovar was isolated per individual. The serovars isolated were S. Typhimurium (n = 42, 82.3%), S. Rissen (n = 4, 7.8%), S. Senftenberg (n = 3, 5.9%) and S. 4,12:b[-] (n = 2, 3.9%). Our results imply that wild griffon vultures are a risk factor for Salmonella transmission, but do not seem to be a reservoir for Campylobacter. We therefore rule out vultures as a risk factor for human campylobacteriosis. Nevertheless, further studies should be undertaken in other countries to confirm these results. PMID:24710464

  11. Food predictability determines space use of endangered vultures: implications for management of supplementary feeding.

    PubMed

    López-López, Pascual; García-Ripollés, Clara; Urios, Vicente

    2014-07-01

    Understanding space use of free-living endangered animals is key to informing management decisions for conservation planning. Like most scavengers, vultures have evolved under a context of unpredictability of food resources (i.e., exploiting scattered carcasses that are intermittently available). However, the role of predictable sources of food in shaping spatial ecology of vultures has seldom been studied in detail. Here, we quantify the home range of the Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus), a long-lived raptor that has experienced severe population decline throughout its range and is qualified as endangered worldwide. To this end, six adults were tracked by satellite telemetry in Spain during the breeding season, from 2007 to 2012, recording 10360 GPS locations. Using Resource Utilization Functions, we assessed the topology of the Utilization Distribution, a three-dimensional measure that shows the probability of finding an animal within the home range. Our results showed how food availability, and principally, how food predictability, determines ranging behavior of this species. Egyptian Vultures showed consistent site fidelity across years, measured as the two- and three-dimensional overlap in their home ranges. Space use varied considerably within the home range and remarkably, places located far from nesting sites were used more frequently than some areas located closer. Therefore, traditional conservation measures based on establishing restrictive rules within a fixed radius around nesting sites could be biologically meaningless if other areas within the home range are not protected too. Finally, our results emphasize the importance of anthropogenic predictable sources of food (mainly vulture restaurants) in shaping the space use of scavengers, which is in agreement with recent findings. Hence, measures aimed at ensuring food availability are essential to preserve this endangered vulture, especially in the present context of limiting carrion dumping in

  12. Wild griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) as a source of Salmonella and Campylobacter in Eastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Marin, Clara; Palomeque, Maria-Dolores; Marco-Jiménez, Francisco; Vega, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    The existence of Campylobacter and Salmonella reservoirs in wildlife is a potential hazard to animal and human health; however, the prevalence of these species is largely unknown. Until now, only a few studies have evaluated the presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in wild griffon vultures and based on a small number of birds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in wild griffon vultures (n = 97) during the normal ringing programme at the Cinctorres Observatory in Eastern Spain. In addition, the effect of ages of individuals (juveniles, subadult and adult) on the presence were compared. Campylobacter was isolated from 1 of 97 (1.0%) griffon vultures and identified as C. jejuni. Salmonella was isolated from 51 of 97 (52.6%) griffon vultures. No significant differences were found between the ages of individuals for the presence of Salmonella. Serotyping revealed 6 different serovars among two Salmonella enterica subspecies; S. enterica subsp. enterica (n = 49, 96.1%) and S. enterica subsp. salamae (n = 2, 3.9%). No more than one serovar was isolated per individual. The serovars isolated were S. Typhimurium (n = 42, 82.3%), S. Rissen (n = 4, 7.8%), S. Senftenberg (n = 3, 5.9%) and S. 4,12:b[-] (n = 2, 3.9%). Our results imply that wild griffon vultures are a risk factor for Salmonella transmission, but do not seem to be a reservoir for Campylobacter. We therefore rule out vultures as a risk factor for human campylobacteriosis. Nevertheless, further studies should be undertaken in other countries to confirm these results.

  13. Determination of fluoroquinolone antibiotic residues in the plasma of Eurasian griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) in Spain.

    PubMed

    Casas-Díaz, Encarna; Cristòfol, Carles; Cuenca, Rafaela; Agustí, Susana; Carneiro, Manuela; Marco, Ignasi; Lavín, Santiago; Margalida, Antoni

    2016-07-01

    Due to the possible toxicological impact, the accumulation of pharmaceuticals in wildlife as a consequence of human practices is of growing concern. The consumption of carrion at feeding stations - the so-called 'vulture restaurants' - with no management of the veterinary drugs it contains may expose scavengers to pharmaceuticals. To demonstrate this, we analyzed plasma from Eurasian griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) originating from two different areas of Spain for antibiotics such as enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, its primary metabolite. Quinolone residues were detected in about 65% (n=106) of birds, of which 15.1% (16/106) had quantifiable amounts of enrofloxacin (0.049±0.102μg/mL) and 5.7% (6/106) of ciprofloxacin (0.009±0.007μg/mL). The differences in exposure between the two sampled areas are attributable to different types of carrion management: the vultures that fed in areas with a high density of dead livestock (supplied directly to feeding stations) were more prone to exposure than those that sought food in areas where carcass availability is more unpredictable. Our findings are evidence that vultures have access to medicated livestock and that there are quantifiable levels of livestock antibiotics in vulture plasma. However, the vultures analyzed in this study had maximum antibiotic concentrations of only 0.4μg/mL, much less than the concentrations used in the clinical treatment of scavengers and a level that is probably too small to cause intoxication. PMID:27037883

  14. Food predictability determines space use of endangered vultures: implications for management of supplementary feeding.

    PubMed

    López-López, Pascual; García-Ripollés, Clara; Urios, Vicente

    2014-07-01

    Understanding space use of free-living endangered animals is key to informing management decisions for conservation planning. Like most scavengers, vultures have evolved under a context of unpredictability of food resources (i.e., exploiting scattered carcasses that are intermittently available). However, the role of predictable sources of food in shaping spatial ecology of vultures has seldom been studied in detail. Here, we quantify the home range of the Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus), a long-lived raptor that has experienced severe population decline throughout its range and is qualified as endangered worldwide. To this end, six adults were tracked by satellite telemetry in Spain during the breeding season, from 2007 to 2012, recording 10360 GPS locations. Using Resource Utilization Functions, we assessed the topology of the Utilization Distribution, a three-dimensional measure that shows the probability of finding an animal within the home range. Our results showed how food availability, and principally, how food predictability, determines ranging behavior of this species. Egyptian Vultures showed consistent site fidelity across years, measured as the two- and three-dimensional overlap in their home ranges. Space use varied considerably within the home range and remarkably, places located far from nesting sites were used more frequently than some areas located closer. Therefore, traditional conservation measures based on establishing restrictive rules within a fixed radius around nesting sites could be biologically meaningless if other areas within the home range are not protected too. Finally, our results emphasize the importance of anthropogenic predictable sources of food (mainly vulture restaurants) in shaping the space use of scavengers, which is in agreement with recent findings. Hence, measures aimed at ensuring food availability are essential to preserve this endangered vulture, especially in the present context of limiting carrion dumping in

  15. Isotopic ratio and concentration of sulfur in the undersaturated alkaline magmas of Vulture Volcano (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marini, L.; Paiotti, A.; Principe, C.; Ferrara, G.; Cioni, R.

    1994-12-01

    Both the δ34S value and the total S content of products from Vulture Volcano, Italy are mainly controlled by the separation of S gases, predominantly SO2, from high f O2 magmas containing S predominantly as SO2 4. The addition of evaporites to such magmas appears to be a relatively uncommon and limited phenomenon. The total S content of the most primitive product of Vulture Volcano (5600 mg/kg) is very high. The high δ34S value of 4ö indicates an origin through the partial melting of a mantle containing high S, enriched in 34S of unknown origin.

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome of Cinereous vulture Aegypius monachus (Falconiformes: Accipitridae).

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Liu, Gang; Zhou, Lizhi; Gu, Changming

    2015-01-01

    In this study we report the complete mitochondrial (mt) DNA sequence from Cinereous vulture Aegypius monachus, a large raptorial bird species of Falconiformes. The mtDNA is a 17,811-bp circular molecule with a total A+T content of 54.03%. The mitochondrial genome contains 37 genes and an extra pseudo-control region. The gene arrangement pattern is identical to Buteo and Falco, which has remnant CR2 gene order. All protein-coding genes use the standard mitochondrial initiation codon ATN, except for COI start with GTG. Of the 13 protein coding genes, 11 stop with TAN, the COI and ND1 stop with AGG. All tRNAs possess the classic clover-leaf secondary structure except for tRNASer (AGN) and tRNALys (CUN), which lacks the "DHU" stem, only forming a simple loop. The non-coding region contains some intergenic spacers, a control region and an extra pseudo-control region.

  17. Adult vultures outperform juveniles in challenging thermal soaring conditions

    PubMed Central

    Harel, Roi; Horvitz, Nir; Nathan, Ran

    2016-01-01

    Due to the potentially detrimental consequences of low performance in basic functional tasks, individuals are expected to improve performance with age and show the most marked changes during early stages of life. Soaring-gliding birds use rising-air columns (thermals) to reduce energy expenditure allocated to flight. We offer a framework to evaluate thermal soaring performance, and use GPS-tracking to study movements of Eurasian griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus). Because the location and intensity of thermals are variable, we hypothesized that soaring performance would improve with experience and predicted that the performance of inexperienced individuals (<2 months) would be inferior to that of experienced ones (>5 years). No differences were found in body characteristics, climb rates under low wind shear, and thermal selection, presumably due to vultures’ tendency to forage in mixed-age groups. Adults, however, outperformed juveniles in their ability to adjust fine-scale movements under challenging conditions, as juveniles had lower climb rates under intermediate wind shear, particularly on the lee-side of thermal columns. Juveniles were also less efficient along the route both in terms of time and energy. The consequences of these handicaps are probably exacerbated if juveniles lag behind adults in finding and approaching food. PMID:27291590

  18. The presence of black vultures at the calving sites and its effects on cows' and calves' behaviour immediately following parturition.

    PubMed

    Toledo, L M; Paranhos da Costa, M J R; Schmidek, A; Jung, J; Ciryllo, J N S G; Cromberg, V U

    2013-03-01

    Black vultures (Coragyps atratus) are often present near calving sites, and under this situation they may play a positive role by removing animal carcasses and afterbirth or a negative role by attacking neonate calves or disturbing cow-calf behaviours following parturition. Cow-calf behaviour was recorded over a 4-year study period from a total of 300 births involving 200 Nellore, 54 Guzerat, 20 Gyr and 26 Caracu cows. The calving site in relation to the location of the herd, considering cow-calf pairs within, close or distant to the herd, the presence of vultures and the behaviour of cows and calves were recorded instantaneously, at 5-min interval. On average, vultures were present at 80% of the calving sites. The frequency of vultures present at calving sites was dependent on the years for the Nellore herd, increasing from 1998 to 2003. When vultures were present, the time that the cow was in contact with its calf decreased, and the percentage of time that the cow was standing still increased. Vultures were observed pecking cows and their neonates during 34.1% of all recordings. However, in only two cases pecking injuries were actually observed on calves that were noted to be very weak. The preliminary results suggest that although black vultures cannot be characterized as a predator of neonate calves, they sometimes attack neonate calves and their presence near the calving sites alter the behaviours of cows and calves.

  19. Effects of heavy metals on biomarkers for oxidative stress in Griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus)

    SciTech Connect

    Espín, Silvia; Martínez-López, Emma; Jiménez, Pedro; María-Mojica, Pedro; García-Fernández, Antonio J.

    2014-02-01

    Metals are involved in the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which may result in metal-related oxidative stress that can lead to oxidative damage to lipids, DNA and proteins. It is necessary to understand the mechanisms of metal toxicity in wild birds, and the concentrations that cause effects on oxidative stress biomarkers. The aim of this study is to assess the concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) with regards to oxidative stress in blood samples of 66 Griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) from two areas of the Autonomous Community of Valencia (East of Spain). The two study areas (Alcoy n=36 and Cinctorres n=30) were selected as random locations of interest that had not yet been studied, and are feeding stations where supplementary food, mainly of pork origin, is provided for vultures. Given that the two study areas are not considered polluted sites, we expected to find low metal concentrations. However, there are no known threshold concentrations at which metals can affect antioxidant systems, and low metal levels may have an effect on antioxidant biomolecules. In this study, since sampling was done at the beginning of the hunting season, the low Pb levels found in most Griffon vultures from Alcoy and Cinctorres (median=12.37 and 16.26 μg/dl, respectively) are suggestive of background levels usually found in vultures that feed on pork carcasses all year round. The ingestion of game meat with bullet fragments in carcasses or with Pb shots embedded in the flesh could be the cause of the high blood Pb concentrations found in three vultures from Cinctorres (83, 290 and 362 μg/dl). Griffon vultures feeding in Cinctorres had enhanced CAT and GST activities and tGSH concentrations, which may be interpreted as protective response against the higher TBARS levels. This study provides threshold concentrations at which metals affect antioxidant system derived from 66 samples of Griffon vulture. Blood Cd concentrations

  20. Abnormal lead exposure in globally threatened Cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus) wintering in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Nam, Dong-Ha; Lee, Doo-Pyo

    2009-02-01

    Globally threatened Cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus) regularly over-winter in South Korea, and they have frequently been found dead in their natural habitats. As one possible factor for their mortality, we investigated tissues for heavy metal contaminants along with necropsies on 20 dead Cinereous vultures. Severe emaciation was found in the survey, being associated with 19 of the deaths. Two of the 19 showed lesions suggestive of lead poisoning in the tissues; there was no indication of trauma, embedded shot, lead bullets in the stomach, or signs of electrocution in the specimens. Of 20 vultures, two showed lesions compatible with death from lead poisoning with 19.7 ppm dry weight (6.9 ppm wet weight) and 34.1 ppm dry weight (11.1 ppm wet weight), and 14 individuals had a potentially toxic level of lead with >6 ppm dry weight (about 2 ppm wet weight) in liver or kidney. The ingestion of lead-contaminated carcasses probably occurs along their migratory route. The possibility of lead exposure from the breeding site (Mongolia) or stopover area (China) should also be considered because some individuals are likely to die at or upon arrival. Our results suggest that most of the dead Cinereous vultures may be suffering from abnormally high lead exposure, indicating a potentially important cause of mortality in this endangered species.

  1. The present Pyrenean population of bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus): its genetic characteristics.

    PubMed

    García, C B; Gil, J A; Alcántara, M; González, J; Cortés, M R; Bonafonte, J I; Arruga, M V

    2012-09-01

    The Pyrenean population of the endangered bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) is the largest natural population in Europe. In this study, its current genetic variability was assessed using 110 animals of the recent population in order to know what the present situation. Sex identification by DNA methodology in the 110 bearded vultures, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and eight microsatellite markers in 87 bearded vultures have been analysed. Our results for sex identification present a number of 49 males and 61 females; no significant differences for number of males and females in this population have been observed. mtDNA studies indicate that nucleotide and haplotype diversities and number of variable sites were low. Tajima's D test and Fu and Li's D* and F* tests suggest that mutations are selectively neutral and the population is expanding. A mean number of alleles per locus and a mean observed heterozygosity have been obtained by microsatellite analysis. FIS is not high, and inbreeding depression could be discarded in the near future. The results suggest that the Pyrenean population of bearded vultures have to be controlled in order to avoid the loss of genetic variability. This data should be taken into account when considering conservation plans for the species.

  2. Serum and Plasma Cholinesterase Activity in the Cape Griffon Vulture (Gyps coprotheres).

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Vinny; Wolter, Kerri

    2016-04-28

    Vulture (Accipitridae) poisonings are a concern in South Africa, with hundreds of birds dying annually. Although some of these poisonings are accidental, there has been an increase in the number of intentional baiting of poached rhinoceros (Rhinocerotidae) and elephant (Elephantidae) carcasses to kill vultures that alert officials to poaching sites by circling overhead. The primary chemicals implicated are the organophosphorous and carbamate compounds. Although most poisoning events can be identified by dead vultures surrounding the scavenged carcass, weak birds are occasionally found and brought to rehabilitation centers for treatment. The treating veterinarian needs to make an informed decision on the cause of illness or poisoning prior to treatment. We established the reference interval for serum and plasma cholinesterase activity in the Cape Griffon Vulture ( Gyps coprotheres ) as 591.58-1,528.26 U/L, providing a clinical assay for determining potential exposure to cholinesterase-depressing pesticides. Both manual and automated samplers were used with the butyrylthiocholine method. Species reference intervals for both serum and plasma cholinesterase showed good correlation and manual and automated measurements yielded similar results.

  3. DNA sequence support for a close phylogenetic relationship between some storks and New World vultures.

    PubMed Central

    Avise, J C; Nelson, W S; Sibley, C G

    1994-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene were used to address a controversial suggestion that New World vultures are related more closely to storks than to Old World vultures. Phylogenetic analyses of 1-kb sequences from 18 relevant avian species indicate that the similarities in morphology and behavior between New World and Old World vultures probably manifest convergent adaptations associated with carrion-feeding, rather than propinquity of descent. Direct sequence evidence for a close phylogenetic alliance between at least some New World vultures and storks lends support to conclusions reached previously from DNA.DNA hybridization methods and detailed morphology-based appraisals, and it illustrates how mistaken assumptions of homology for organismal adaptations can compromise biological classifications. However, there was a lack of significant resolution for most other branches in the cytochrome b phylogenetic reconstructions. This irresolution is most likely attributable to a close temporal clustering of nodes, rather than to ceiling effects (mutational saturation) producing an inappropriate window of resolution for the cytochrome b sequences. Images PMID:8197203

  4. Serum and Plasma Cholinesterase Activity in the Cape Griffon Vulture (Gyps coprotheres).

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Vinny; Wolter, Kerri

    2016-04-28

    Vulture (Accipitridae) poisonings are a concern in South Africa, with hundreds of birds dying annually. Although some of these poisonings are accidental, there has been an increase in the number of intentional baiting of poached rhinoceros (Rhinocerotidae) and elephant (Elephantidae) carcasses to kill vultures that alert officials to poaching sites by circling overhead. The primary chemicals implicated are the organophosphorous and carbamate compounds. Although most poisoning events can be identified by dead vultures surrounding the scavenged carcass, weak birds are occasionally found and brought to rehabilitation centers for treatment. The treating veterinarian needs to make an informed decision on the cause of illness or poisoning prior to treatment. We established the reference interval for serum and plasma cholinesterase activity in the Cape Griffon Vulture ( Gyps coprotheres ) as 591.58-1,528.26 U/L, providing a clinical assay for determining potential exposure to cholinesterase-depressing pesticides. Both manual and automated samplers were used with the butyrylthiocholine method. Species reference intervals for both serum and plasma cholinesterase showed good correlation and manual and automated measurements yielded similar results. PMID:26981685

  5. Assessing species habitat using Google Street View: a case study of cliff-nesting vultures.

    PubMed

    Olea, Pedro P; Mateo-Tomás, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of a species' habitat is a crucial issue in ecology and conservation. While the collection of habitat data has been boosted by the availability of remote sensing technologies, certain habitat types have yet to be collected through costly, on-ground surveys, limiting study over large areas. Cliffs are ecosystems that provide habitat for a rich biodiversity, especially raptors. Because of their principally vertical structure, however, cliffs are not easy to study by remote sensing technologies, posing a challenge for many researches and managers working with cliff-related biodiversity. We explore the feasibility of Google Street View, a freely available on-line tool, to remotely identify and assess the nesting habitat of two cliff-nesting vultures (the griffon vulture and the globally endangered Egyptian vulture) in northwestern Spain. Two main usefulness of Google Street View to ecologists and conservation biologists were evaluated: i) remotely identifying a species' potential habitat and ii) extracting fine-scale habitat information. Google Street View imagery covered 49% (1,907 km) of the roads of our study area (7,000 km²). The potential visibility covered by on-ground surveys was significantly greater (mean: 97.4%) than that of Google Street View (48.1%). However, incorporating Google Street View to the vulture's habitat survey would save, on average, 36% in time and 49.5% in funds with respect to the on-ground survey only. The ability of Google Street View to identify cliffs (overall accuracy = 100%) outperformed the classification maps derived from digital elevation models (DEMs) (62-95%). Nonetheless, high-performance DEM maps may be useful to compensate Google Street View coverage limitations. Through Google Street View we could examine 66% of the vultures' nesting-cliffs existing in the study area (n = 148): 64% from griffon vultures and 65% from Egyptian vultures. It also allowed us the extraction of fine-scale features of cliffs

  6. Lead toxicosis of captive vultures: case description and responses to chelation therapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lead, a serious threat for raptors, can hamper the success of their conservation. This study reports on experience with accidental lead intoxication and responses to chelation therapy in captive Cinereous (Aegypius monachus) and Egyptian (Neophron percnopterus) Vultures. Results Soil contamination by lead-based paint sanded off the steel aviary resulted in poisoning of eight Cinereous and two Egyptian Vultures. A male Egyptian Vulture developed signs of apathy, polydipsia, polyuria, regurgitation, and stupor, and died on the next day. Liver, kidney and blood lead concentrations were 12.2, 8.16 and 2.66 μg/g, respectively. Laboratory analyses confirmed severe liver and kidney damage and anaemia. Blood Pb levels of Pb-exposed Cinereous Vultures were 1.571 ± 0.510 μg/g shortly after intoxication, decreased to 0.530 ± 0.165 μg/g without any therapy in a month and to 0.254 ± 0.097 μg/g one month after CaNa2EDTA administration. Eight months later, blood lead levels decreased to close to the background of the control group. Blood parameters of healthy Pb-non-exposed Cinereous Vultures were compared with those of the exposed group prior to and after chelation therapy. Iron levels in the lead-exposed pre-treatment birds significantly decreased after chelation. Haematocrit levels in Pb-exposed birds were significantly lower than those of the controls and improved one month after chelation. Creatine kinase was higher in pre-treatment birds than in the controls but normalised after therapy. Alkaline phosphatase increased after chelation. A marked increase in the level of lipid peroxidation measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive species was demonstrated in birds both prior to and after chelation. The ferric reducing antioxidant power was significantly lower in pre-treatment vultures and returned to normal following chelation therapy. Blood metallothionein levels in lead-exposed birds were higher than in controls. Reduced glutathione dropped after

  7. Assessing species habitat using Google Street View: a case study of cliff-nesting vultures.

    PubMed

    Olea, Pedro P; Mateo-Tomás, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of a species' habitat is a crucial issue in ecology and conservation. While the collection of habitat data has been boosted by the availability of remote sensing technologies, certain habitat types have yet to be collected through costly, on-ground surveys, limiting study over large areas. Cliffs are ecosystems that provide habitat for a rich biodiversity, especially raptors. Because of their principally vertical structure, however, cliffs are not easy to study by remote sensing technologies, posing a challenge for many researches and managers working with cliff-related biodiversity. We explore the feasibility of Google Street View, a freely available on-line tool, to remotely identify and assess the nesting habitat of two cliff-nesting vultures (the griffon vulture and the globally endangered Egyptian vulture) in northwestern Spain. Two main usefulness of Google Street View to ecologists and conservation biologists were evaluated: i) remotely identifying a species' potential habitat and ii) extracting fine-scale habitat information. Google Street View imagery covered 49% (1,907 km) of the roads of our study area (7,000 km²). The potential visibility covered by on-ground surveys was significantly greater (mean: 97.4%) than that of Google Street View (48.1%). However, incorporating Google Street View to the vulture's habitat survey would save, on average, 36% in time and 49.5% in funds with respect to the on-ground survey only. The ability of Google Street View to identify cliffs (overall accuracy = 100%) outperformed the classification maps derived from digital elevation models (DEMs) (62-95%). Nonetheless, high-performance DEM maps may be useful to compensate Google Street View coverage limitations. Through Google Street View we could examine 66% of the vultures' nesting-cliffs existing in the study area (n = 148): 64% from griffon vultures and 65% from Egyptian vultures. It also allowed us the extraction of fine-scale features of cliffs

  8. Estimation of cultivable bacterial diversity in the cloacae and pharynx in Eurasian griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus).

    PubMed

    Vela, Ana I; Casas-Díaz, Encarna; Fernández-Garayzábal, José F; Serrano, Emmanuel; Agustí, Susana; Porrero, María C; Sánchez del Rey, Verónica; Marco, Ignasi; Lavín, Santiago; Domínguez, Lucas

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we describe the biodiversity of cloacal and pharynx culture-based bacteria (commensal and pathogenic), in 75 Eurasian griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) from two geographic areas. We address the question of whether the cultivable microbiota of vultures is organised into assemblages occurring by chance. In addition, we assess bacterial diversity in both anatomic regions and geographic areas. Bacterial diversity was represented by 26 Gram-negative and 20 Gram-positive genera. The most common genera were Escherichia, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, Clostridium and Lactococcus. Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis were the most common species in cloacal and pharyngeal samples. Staphylococcus and Erysipelothrix were isolated from the pharynx and Salmonella and Corynebacterium from the cloacae, and no Campylobacter was isolated from the cloacal swabs. Ten cloacal swabs were positive for Salmonella, of which five isolates were Salmonella enterica serotype 4,(5),12:i:-, one isolate was S. enterica serotype Derby, three isolates were S. enterica serotype 61:k:1,5,7 and one isolate was S. enterica serotype Infantis. The null modelling approach revealed that the commensal bacteria of vultures are not structured in assemblages. On the other hand, differences in bacterial genus and species richness between cloacal and pharyngeal samples or between geographic areas were clear, with the pharynx in vultures from both geographic areas being richer. The results of this study indicate also that vultures can serve as a reservoir of certain pathogenic zoonotic bacteria. The dissemination of these zoonotic pathogens in wildlife could be prevented by periodic sanitary surveys. PMID:25388757

  9. Apparent tolerance of turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) to the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Whitehead, M.A.; Gasper, G.; Meteyer, C.U.; Link, W.A.; Taggart, M.A.; Meharg, A.A.; Pattee, O.H.; Pain, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac is extremely toxic to Old World Gyps vultures (median lethal dose 0.1?0.2 mg/kg), evoking visceral gout, renal necrosis, and mortality within a few days of exposure. Unintentional secondary poisoning of vultures that fed upon carcasses of diclofenac-treated livestock decimated populations in the Indian subcontinent. Because of the widespread use of diclofenac and other cyclooxygenase-2 inhibiting drugs, a toxicological study was undertaken in turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) as an initial step in examining sensitivity of New World scavenging birds. Two trials were conducted entailing oral gavage of diclofenac at doses ranging from 0.08 to 25 mg/kg body weight. Birds were observed for 7 d, blood samples were collected for plasma chemistry (predose and 12, 24, and 48 h and 7 d postdose), and select individuals were necropsied. Diclofenac failed to evoke overt signs of toxicity, visceral gout, renal necrosis, or elevate plasma uric acid at concentrations greater than 100 times the estimated median lethal dose reported for Gyps vultures. For turkey vultures receiving 8 or 25 mg/kg, the plasma half-life of diclofenac was estimated to be 6 h, and it was apparently cleared after several days as no residues were detectable in liver or kidney at necropsy. Differential sensitivity among avian species is a hallmark of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, and despite the tolerance of turkey vultures to diclofenac, additional studies in related scavenging species seem warranted.

  10. Chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in blood of black and turkey vultures from Savannah River Site, South Carolina, USA.

    PubMed

    Senthil Kumar, Kurunthachalam; Bowerman, William W; DeVault, Travis L; Takasuga, Takumi; Rhodes, Olin E; Lehr Brisbin, I; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2003-10-01

    Blood of adult and juvenile black and turkey vultures in the Savannah River Site of South Carolina, USA was analyzed for the presence of 2,3,7,8-chlorine substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (2,3,7,8-PCDDs), dibenzofurans (2,3,7,8-PCDFs), -dioxin-like and -di-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls. Concentration ranges of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/DFs in blood of black and turkey vultures were 14.2-34.6 and 8.7-56.2 pg/ml wet wt., respectively. Dioxin-like PCBs were in the ranges of 815-4627 and 753-3611 pg/ml wet wt. respectively, in black and turkey vultures. Considerable concentrations of two congeners of di-ortho PCBs were noticed in the ranges of 1415-10325 and 663-7500 pg/ml respectively, in black and turkey vultures. Comparatively, greater toxic equivalency (TEQ) were observed in blood of turkey vultures with the ranges of 3.2-20, whereas black vulture contained 1.8-8.4 pgTEQ/ml wet wt. basis. The species-specific accumulation profiles of PCDD/DFs and dioxin-like PCBs may reflect the different feeding habits, ecology, metabolic capacity and migratory movements of these two scavenging species.

  11. Apparent tolerance of turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) to the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac.

    PubMed

    Rattner, Barnett A; Whitehead, Maria A; Gasper, Grace; Meteyer, Carol U; Link, William A; Taggart, Mark A; Meharg, Andrew A; Pattee, Oliver H; Pain, Deborah J

    2008-11-01

    The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac is extremely toxic to Old World Gyps vultures (median lethal dose -0.1-0.2 mg/kg), evoking visceral gout, renal necrosis, and mortality within a few days of exposure. Unintentional secondary poisoning of vultures that fed upon carcasses of diclofenac-treated livestock decimated populations in the Indian subcontinent. Because of the widespread use of diclofenac and other cyclooxygenase-2 inhibiting drugs, a toxicological study was undertaken in turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) as an initial step in examining sensitivity of New World scavenging birds. Two trials were conducted entailing oral gavage of diclofenac at doses ranging from 0.08 to 25 mg/kg body weight. Birds were observed for 7 d, blood samples were collected for plasma chemistry (predose and 12, 24, and 48 h and 7 d postdose), and select individuals were necropsied. Diclofenac failed to evoke overt signs of toxicity, visceral gout, renal necrosis, or elevate plasma uric acid at concentrations greater than 100 times the estimated median lethal dose reported for Gyps vultures. For turkey vultures receiving 8 or 25 mg/kg, the plasma half-life of diclofenac was estimated to be 6 h, and it was apparently cleared after several days as no residues were detectable in liver or kidney at necropsy. Differential sensitivity among avian species is a hallmark of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, and despite the tolerance of turkey vultures to diclofenac, additional studies in related scavenging species seem warranted.

  12. A Late Miocene Accipitrid (Aves: Accipitriformes) from Nebraska and Its Implications for the Divergence of Old World Vultures

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zihui; Feduccia, Alan; James, Helen F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Old World vultures are likely polyphyletic, representing two subfamilies, the Aegypiinae and Gypaetinae, and some genera of the latter may be of independent origin. Evidence concerning the origin, as well as the timing of the divergence of each subfamily and even genera of the Gypaetinae has been elusive. Methodology/Principal Findings Compared with the Old World, the New World has an unexpectedly diverse and rich fossil component of Old World vultures. Here we describe a new accipitriform bird, Anchigyps voorhiesi gen. et sp. nov., from the Ash Hollow Formation (Upper Clarendonian, Late Miocene) of Nebraska. It represents a form close in morphology to the Old World vultures. Characteristics of its wing bones suggest it was less specialized for soaring than modern vultures. It was likely an opportunistic predator or scavenger having a grasping foot and a mandible morphologically similar to modern carrion-feeding birds. Conclusions/Significance The new fossil reported here is intermediate in morphology between the bulk of accipitrids and the Old World gypaetine vultures, representing a basal lineage of Accipitridae trending towards the vulturine habit, and of its Late Miocene age suggests the divergence of true gypaetine vultures, may have occurred during or slightly before the Miocene. PMID:23152811

  13. Identification and characterization of novel Mycoplasma spp. belonging to the hominis group from griffon vultures.

    PubMed

    Lecis, R; Chessa, B; Cacciotto, C; Addis, M F; Coradduzza, E; Berlinguer, F; Muzzeddu, M; Lierz, M; Carcangiu, L; Pittau, M; Alberti, A

    2010-08-01

    Mycoplasmas are commensals and pathogens of various avian species, and are also regularly found in birds of prey, although their significance to birds' health remains unclear. Here we describe two novel Mycoplasma isolated from the upper respiratory tract of four Eurasian griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) housed in a wildlife recovery centre in Sardinia (Italy). By sequencing the 16S rRNA gene and the entire 16S/23S intergenic spacer region, the new strains were classified within the Mycoplasma taxonomy at the group and cluster levels, showing that the two isolates fall into the Mycoplasma synoviae and Mycoplasma hominis clusters of the hominis group, respectively. We combined molecular tools and immunoblotting methods in order to further characterize these isolates, and antigenic analyses overall confirmed the molecular findings. Different levels of pathogenicity and prevalence of these strains might have different implications for the conservation and reintroduction of vultures.

  14. Livestock drugs and disease: the fatal combination behind breeding failure in endangered bearded vultures.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Guillermo; Lemus, Jesús A

    2010-11-30

    There is increasing concern about the impact of veterinary drugs and livestock pathogens as factors damaging wildlife health, especially of threatened avian scavengers feeding upon medicated livestock carcasses. We conducted a comprehensive study of failed eggs and dead nestlings in bearded vultures (Gypaetus barbatus) to attempt to elucidate the proximate causes of breeding failure behind the recent decline in productivity in the Spanish Pyrenees. We found high concentrations of multiple veterinary drugs, primarily fluoroquinolones, in most failed eggs and nestlings, associated with multiple internal organ damage and livestock pathogens causing disease, especially septicaemia by swine pathogens and infectious bursal disease. The combined impact of drugs and disease as stochastic factors may result in potentially devastating effects exacerbating an already high risk of extinction and should be considered in current conservation programs for bearded vultures and other scavenger species, especially in regards to dangerous veterinary drugs and highly pathogenic poultry viruses.

  15. Association of Mycoplasma corogypsi and Polyarthritis in a Black Vulture (Coragyps atratus) in Virginia.

    PubMed

    Ruder, Mark G; Feldman, Sanford H; Wünschmann, Arno; McRuer, David L

    2009-07-01

    On 10 October 2007, a Black Vulture (Coragyps atratus) was presented to the Wildlife Center of Virginia, Waynesboro, Virginia, USA, because of an inability to fly. Examination revealed multiple swollen, fluctuant joints. The bird suffered from lead toxicosis and had a prominent leukocytosis. Histopathologic evaluation revealed an acute fibrinoheterophilic polyarthritis, and results of routine aerobic and anaerobic culture of joint fluid were negative, although Mycoplasma sp. sequence-specific polymerase chain reaction was positive. Amplification of a portion of the 16S rRNA and subsequent phylogenetic analysis of the amplicon identified Mycoplasma corogypsi. This is the first report of polyarthritis being diagnosed in association with a Mycoplasma sp. in a vulture species. However, fulfilling Koch's postulates through experimental infections is required to draw conclusions concerning an etiologic diagnosis.

  16. Livestock Drugs and Disease: The Fatal Combination behind Breeding Failure in Endangered Bearded Vultures

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Guillermo; Lemus, Jesús A.

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing concern about the impact of veterinary drugs and livestock pathogens as factors damaging wildlife health, especially of threatened avian scavengers feeding upon medicated livestock carcasses. We conducted a comprehensive study of failed eggs and dead nestlings in bearded vultures (Gypaetus barbatus) to attempt to elucidate the proximate causes of breeding failure behind the recent decline in productivity in the Spanish Pyrenees. We found high concentrations of multiple veterinary drugs, primarily fluoroquinolones, in most failed eggs and nestlings, associated with multiple internal organ damage and livestock pathogens causing disease, especially septicaemia by swine pathogens and infectious bursal disease. The combined impact of drugs and disease as stochastic factors may result in potentially devastating effects exacerbating an already high risk of extinction and should be considered in current conservation programs for bearded vultures and other scavenger species, especially in regards to dangerous veterinary drugs and highly pathogenic poultry viruses. PMID:21152405

  17. Anticipating Knowledge to Inform Species Management: Predicting Spatially Explicit Habitat Suitability of a Colonial Vulture Spreading Its Range

    PubMed Central

    Mateo-Tomás, Patricia; Olea, Pedro P.

    2010-01-01

    Background The knowledge of both potential distribution and habitat suitability is fundamental in spreading species to inform in advance management and conservation planning. After a severe decline in the past decades, the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus) is now spreading its breeding range towards the northwest in Spain and Europe. Because of its key ecological function, anticipated spatial knowledge is required to inform appropriately both vulture and ecosystem management. Methodology/Findings Here we used maximum entropy (Maxent) models to determine the habitat suitability of potential and current breeding distribution of the griffon vulture using presence-only data (N = 124 colonies) in north-western Spain. The most relevant ecological factors shaping this habitat suitability were also identified. The resulting model had a high predictive performance and was able to predict species' historical distribution. 7.5% (∼1,850 km2) of the study area resulted to be suitable breeding habitat, most of which (∼70%) is already occupied by the species. Cliff availability and livestock density, especially of sheep and goats, around 10 km of the colonies were the fundamental factors determining breeding habitat suitability for this species. Conclusions/Significance Griffon vultures could still spread 50–60 km towards the west, increasing their breeding range in 1,782 km2. According to our results, 7.22% of the area suitable for griffon vulture will be affected by wind farms, so our results could help to better plan wind farm locations. The approach here developed could be useful to inform management of reintroductions and recovery programmes currently being implemented for both the griffon vulture and other threatened vulture species. PMID:20811501

  18. Risk assessment of bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) exposure to topical antiparasitics used in livestock within an ecotoxicovigilance framework.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Rafael; Sánchez-Barbudo, Inés S; Camarero, Pablo R; Martínez, José M

    2015-12-01

    Between 2004 and 2013, 486 suspected scavenger poisoning cases, including 24 bearded vultures (Gypaetus barbatus), were investigated in the Pyrenees and surrounding areas in Spain as part of a monitoring programme regarding accidental and intentional poisoning of wildlife. Poisoning was confirmed in 36% of all analysed cases where scavenger species were found dead within the distribution range of bearded vultures. Organophosphates and carbamates were the most frequently detected poisons. Four of the bearded vulture cases were positive for the presence of topical antiparasitics (3 with diazinon and 1 with permethrin). These likely represented accidental exposure due to the legal use of these veterinary pharmaceuticals. In order to confirm the risk of exposure to topical antiparasitics in bearded vultures, pig feet (n=24) and lamb feet (n=24) were analysed as these are one of the main food resources provided to bearded vultures at supplementary feeding stations. Pig feet had no detectable residues of topical antiparasitics. In contrast, 71.4% of lamb feet showed residues of antiparasitics including diazinon (64.3%), pirimiphos-methyl (25.4%), chlorpyrifos (7.1%), fenthion (1.6%), permethrin (0.8%) and cypermethrin (27.8%). Washing the feet with water significantly reduced levels of these topical antiparasitics, as such, this should be a recommended practice for lamb feet supplied at feeding stations for bearded vultures. Although the detected levels of antiparasitics were relatively low (≤1 μg/g), a risk assessment suggests that observed diazinon levels may affect brain acetylcholinesterase and thermoregulation in bearded vultures subject to chronic exposure.

  19. The evolution of the Monte Vulture volcano (Southern Italy): Inferences from volcanological, geological and deep dipole electrical soundings data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Volpe, L.; Patella, D.; Rapisardi, L.; Tramacere, A.

    1984-10-01

    The activity of Monte Vulture started in the Middle Pleistocene; stratigraphic evidence suggests that the volcanic events may have occurred in the following succession: (1) formation of widespread pyroclastic pumice deposits; (2) sporadic and localized explosive and minor extrusive eruptions; (3) highly explosive eruptions with the formation of some tuff cones and of the oldest part of the Monte Vulture central volcano; and (4) activity at the central volcano, initially mainly explosive and successively increasingly effusive. The western part of the composite volcano, and probably also its summit part were affected by caldera collapses. The volcanic activity ended with hydromagmatic explosion, which formed two explosion craters. Monte Vulture was built up on the external units of the Southern Apennines at the western border of the foretrough. The upper part of the sedimentary substratum consists mainly of clayey formations of the Lagonegro and Sannitic units. Beneath these terrains radiolarites and cherty-limestones of the Lagonegro units outcrop west of Monte Vulture. Rocks of the Apulia carbonate platform were drilled east of the volcano. Deep dipole electrical soundings showed a resistant basement at a depth ranging from 0.2 km down to 4.3 km beneath Monte Vulture. Volcanological, geological and geoelectrical data allow us to hypothesize that: (a) the magma chamber could be located at the boundary between the rigid resistant basement and the overlying conductive plastic terrains; (b) the Apulia carbonate platform forms a structural high beneath the Monte Vulture; and (c) the overthrusting of the Lagonegro units on the Apulia platform may be located beneath the floors of the calderas of Monte Vulture.

  20. Risk assessment of bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) exposure to topical antiparasitics used in livestock within an ecotoxicovigilance framework.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Rafael; Sánchez-Barbudo, Inés S; Camarero, Pablo R; Martínez, José M

    2015-12-01

    Between 2004 and 2013, 486 suspected scavenger poisoning cases, including 24 bearded vultures (Gypaetus barbatus), were investigated in the Pyrenees and surrounding areas in Spain as part of a monitoring programme regarding accidental and intentional poisoning of wildlife. Poisoning was confirmed in 36% of all analysed cases where scavenger species were found dead within the distribution range of bearded vultures. Organophosphates and carbamates were the most frequently detected poisons. Four of the bearded vulture cases were positive for the presence of topical antiparasitics (3 with diazinon and 1 with permethrin). These likely represented accidental exposure due to the legal use of these veterinary pharmaceuticals. In order to confirm the risk of exposure to topical antiparasitics in bearded vultures, pig feet (n=24) and lamb feet (n=24) were analysed as these are one of the main food resources provided to bearded vultures at supplementary feeding stations. Pig feet had no detectable residues of topical antiparasitics. In contrast, 71.4% of lamb feet showed residues of antiparasitics including diazinon (64.3%), pirimiphos-methyl (25.4%), chlorpyrifos (7.1%), fenthion (1.6%), permethrin (0.8%) and cypermethrin (27.8%). Washing the feet with water significantly reduced levels of these topical antiparasitics, as such, this should be a recommended practice for lamb feet supplied at feeding stations for bearded vultures. Although the detected levels of antiparasitics were relatively low (≤1 μg/g), a risk assessment suggests that observed diazinon levels may affect brain acetylcholinesterase and thermoregulation in bearded vultures subject to chronic exposure. PMID:26254071

  1. Chronostratigraphy of Monte Vulture volcano (southern Italy): secondary mineral microtextures and 39Ar-40Ar systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, Igor M.; Buettner, Annett

    2009-12-01

    The eruptive history of Monte Vulture has been the subject of several geochronological investigations during the past decades, which reliably dated only a small number of eruptions. Understanding the causes of sub-optimum data yield in the past requires an interdisciplinary approach. We re-analyzed samples from previous works and present new data on samples from the main volcano-stratigraphic units of Monte Vulture, so as to provide an improved, consistent chronostratigraphic database. Imaging of minerals by cathodoluminescence and backscattered electrons reveals that heterochemical, high-temperature deuteric reaction textures are ubiquitous. Such observations are common in metamorphic rocks but had not frequently been reported from volcanic rocks. In view of the mineralogical complexity, we base our chronological interpretation on isochemical steps, defined as steps for which the Cl/K and/or the Ca/K ratios are constant. Isochemical steps carry the isotopic signature of chemically homogeneous mineral phases and therefore allow a well-constrained age interpretation. Comparison of old and new 39Ar-40Ar data proves the reproducibility of age spectra and their shapes. This quantifies the analytical reliability of the irradiation and mass-spectrometric analyses. Anomalous age spectra are a reproducible property of some specific samples and correlate with mineralogical anomalies. The present data allow us to fine-tune the age of the volcanostratigraphic units of Monte Vulture during the known interval of main volcanic activity from ca. 740 to 610 ka. After a very long stasis, the volcanic activity in the Monte Vulture area resumed with diatremic eruptions, one of which (Lago Piccolo di Monticchio, the site of a palynological-paleoclimatological drilling) was dated at ca. 140 ka.

  2. Veterinary assessment for free-ranging Eurasian Black Vulture (Aegypius monachus) chicks in southeastern Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Kenny, David E; Bickel, Cynthia L; Reading, Richard P

    2013-11-01

    Working as a veterinarian in remote field locations can be physically and intellectually challenging. A collaborative multi-disciplinary approach is often required for successful data collection. Technologies and methodologies frequently need to be modified to work in these harsh field environments. This article will describe a collaboration in southeastern Mongolia collecting blood for sera analytes and physiologic data from Eurasian Black Vulture (Aegypius monachus) chicks during a tagging operation.

  3. Pesticide abuse in Europe: effects on the Cinereous vulture (Aegypius monachus) population in Spain.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Mauro; Margalida, Antoni

    2008-05-01

    A survey was carried out to investigate incidents of pesticide poisoning of the Cinereous vulture (Aegypius monachus) in Spain during the period 1990-2006. A total of 241 incidents affecting 464 vultures were investigated to establish their causes: approved use, misuse, or deliberate abuse. Other factors studied were compounds, other species affected by the incident, the mode of application, spatial and temporal variation and reasons for the pesticide abuse involved. Approved use was responsible for only a minor fraction (1.3%) of the incidents whereas up to 98% of the investigated incidents were intentional poisonings. Pesticide mortality mainly affects adult individuals (83%) and the implications of this for population dynamics could be important. Eleven different compounds were involved in these incidents although three compounds accounted for up to 88% of the poisoning cases: carbofuran, aldicarb, and strychnine. Most of the pesticide kills seem to be related to the illegal control of predators. Given the minor impact of labeled-use pesticides, currently approved pesticide use does not represent a problem for the Cinereous vulture. Nevertheless, availability of highly toxic pesticides may exacerbate illegal use. As a few compounds, mainly granular insecticides, are responsible for most pesticide kills, stronger regulation and control of these in the EU could result in a decrease of mortality related to pesticide abuse in several endangered species without a significant effect on agriculture.

  4. How cheap is soaring flight in raptors? A preliminary investigation in freely-flying vultures.

    PubMed

    Duriez, Olivier; Kato, Akiko; Tromp, Clara; Dell'Omo, Giacomo; Vyssotski, Alexei L; Sarrazin, François; Ropert-Coudert, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the costs of soaring, gliding and flapping flight in raptors is challenging, but essential for understanding their ecology. Among raptors, vultures are scavengers that have evolved highly efficient soaring-gliding flight techniques to minimize energy costs to find unpredictable food resources. Using electrocardiogram, GPS and accelerometer bio-loggers, we report the heart rate (HR) of captive griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus and G. himalayensis) trained for freely-flying. HR increased three-fold at take-off (characterized by prolonged flapping flight) and landing (>300 beats-per-minute, (bpm)) compared to baseline levels (80-100 bpm). However, within 10 minutes after the initial flapping phase, HR in soaring/gliding flight dropped to values similar to baseline levels, i.e. slightly lower than theoretically expected. However, the extremely rapid decrease in HR was unexpected, when compared with other marine gliders, such as albatrosses. Weather conditions influenced flight performance and HR was noticeably higher during cloudy compared to sunny conditions when prolonged soaring flight is made easier by thermal ascending air currents. Soaring as a cheap locomotory mode is a crucial adaptation for vultures who spend so long on the wing for wide-ranging movements to find food. PMID:24454760

  5. How cheap is soaring flight in raptors? A preliminary investigation in freely-flying vultures.

    PubMed

    Duriez, Olivier; Kato, Akiko; Tromp, Clara; Dell'Omo, Giacomo; Vyssotski, Alexei L; Sarrazin, François; Ropert-Coudert, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the costs of soaring, gliding and flapping flight in raptors is challenging, but essential for understanding their ecology. Among raptors, vultures are scavengers that have evolved highly efficient soaring-gliding flight techniques to minimize energy costs to find unpredictable food resources. Using electrocardiogram, GPS and accelerometer bio-loggers, we report the heart rate (HR) of captive griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus and G. himalayensis) trained for freely-flying. HR increased three-fold at take-off (characterized by prolonged flapping flight) and landing (>300 beats-per-minute, (bpm)) compared to baseline levels (80-100 bpm). However, within 10 minutes after the initial flapping phase, HR in soaring/gliding flight dropped to values similar to baseline levels, i.e. slightly lower than theoretically expected. However, the extremely rapid decrease in HR was unexpected, when compared with other marine gliders, such as albatrosses. Weather conditions influenced flight performance and HR was noticeably higher during cloudy compared to sunny conditions when prolonged soaring flight is made easier by thermal ascending air currents. Soaring as a cheap locomotory mode is a crucial adaptation for vultures who spend so long on the wing for wide-ranging movements to find food.

  6. Minimum anesthetic concentration and cardiovascular dose-response relationship of isoflurane in cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus).

    PubMed

    Kim, Young K; Lee, Scott S; Suh, Euy H; Lee, Lyon; Lee, Hee C; Lee, Hyo J; Yeon, Seong C

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the minimum anesthetic concentration (MAC) and dose-related cardiovascular effects of isoflurane during controlled ventilation in cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus). The MAC was determined for 10 cinereous vultures as the midpoint between the end-tidal isoflurane concentration that allows gross purposeful movement and that which prevents the movement in response to clamping a pedal digit. Immediately after the MAC was determined, the cardiovascular effects of isoflurane at 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 times the MAC were investigated in seven of the 10 birds. The MAC of isoflurane for 10 cinereous vultures during controlled ventilation was 1.06 +/- 0.07% (mean +/- SD). When the isoflurane concentration was increased to 1.5 and 2.0 times the MAC, there was significant dose-dependent decrease in the arterial blood pressure. However, the heart rate did not change over a range of 1.0 to 2.0 times the MAC.

  7. Lead exposure in free-flying turkey vultures is associated with big game hunting in California.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Terra R; Johnson, Christine K

    2011-04-06

    Predatory and scavenging birds are at risk of lead exposure when they feed on animals injured or killed by lead ammunition. While lead ammunition has been banned from waterfowl hunting in North America for almost two decades, lead ammunition is still widely used for hunting big game and small game animals. In this study, we evaluated the association between big game hunting and blood lead concentration in an avian scavenger species that feeds regularly on large mammals in California. We compared blood lead concentration in turkey vultures within and outside of the deer hunting season, and in areas with varying wild pig hunting intensity. Lead exposure in turkey vultures was significantly higher during the deer hunting season compared to the off-season, and blood lead concentration was positively correlated with increasing wild pig hunting intensity. Our results link lead exposure in turkey vultures to deer and wild pig hunting activity at these study sites, and we provide evidence that spent lead ammunition in carrion poses a significant risk of lead exposure to scavengers.

  8. Combining scales in habitat models to improve conservation planning in an endangered vulture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateo-Tomás, Patricia; Olea, Pedro P.

    2009-07-01

    Predictive modelling of species' distributions has been successfully applied in conservation ecology, but effective conservation requires predictive and accurate models. The combination of different scales to build habitat models might improve their predictive ability and hence their usefulness for conservation, but this approach has rarely been evaluated. We developed habitat-occupancy models combining scales from nest-site to landscape for a key population at the northwestern edge of the distribution of the globally endangered Egyptian vulture ( Neophron percnopterus). We used generalised linear models (GLM) and an information-theoretic approach to identify the best combination of scales and resolutions for explaining occurrence. Those models that combined nest-site and landscape scales improved the predictive ability compared with the scale-specific ones. The best combined model had a very high predictive ability when used against an independent dataset (92% correct classifications). Egyptian vultures preferred to nest in caves with vegetation at the entrance that were situated at the base of long cliffs, provided that these cliffs are embedded within low-lying, heterogeneous areas with little topographic irregularity and with little human disturbance. The density of sheep around the nest positively influenced Egyptian vulture presence. Conservation of the studied population should focus on minimising human disturbance and on promoting sustainable development through conservation of traditional pastoralism. Our findings highlight the importance of developing region-specific multiscale models in order to design effective conservation strategies. The approach described here may be applied similarly in other populations and species.

  9. Monte Vulture Volcano (Basilicata, Italy): an analysis of morphology and volcaniclastic facies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guest, J. E.; Duncan, A. M.; Chester, D. K.

    1988-07-01

    The earliest activity of Monte Vulture, central Italy, included ignimbrites but the bulk of the volcano was built up by plinian airfall deposits. Contemporaneous remobilisation of these deposits formed an apron of lahars around the base of the main cone. The volcano was constructed on a ridge; the valley to the east and tributaries to the north and south became sediment traps for volcaniclastic materials emplaced by fluvial reworking and directly from volcanic activity. To the west the valley was swept clear by active downcutting. Instability of the west flank as a result of this erosion was probably a contributory cause of major gravitational sector collapse on the volcano's flank, terminating the main cone-building phase. The resultant scar is an amphitheatre-shaped hollow called here the Valle dei Grigi. Previous workers have attributed this feature to coalescing calderas formed by engulfment. The last volcanic phase was the production of the Monticchio calderas and associated phreatomagmatic explosions producing airfall and surge deposits. Because most of the activity at Vulture has been repeated plinian eruptions producing similar assemblages of products, detailed stratigraphy of the volcano is difficult to accomplish. To characterise Vulture in terms of its products, various facies are identified and interpreted in relation to volcanic processes, distance from vent and environmental conditions.

  10. Lead Exposure in Free-Flying Turkey Vultures Is Associated with Big Game Hunting in California

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Terra R.; Johnson, Christine K.

    2011-01-01

    Predatory and scavenging birds are at risk of lead exposure when they feed on animals injured or killed by lead ammunition. While lead ammunition has been banned from waterfowl hunting in North America for almost two decades, lead ammunition is still widely used for hunting big game and small game animals. In this study, we evaluated the association between big game hunting and blood lead concentration in an avian scavenger species that feeds regularly on large mammals in California. We compared blood lead concentration in turkey vultures within and outside of the deer hunting season, and in areas with varying wild pig hunting intensity. Lead exposure in turkey vultures was significantly higher during the deer hunting season compared to the off-season, and blood lead concentration was positively correlated with increasing wild pig hunting intensity. Our results link lead exposure in turkey vultures to deer and wild pig hunting activity at these study sites, and we provide evidence that spent lead ammunition in carrion poses a significant risk of lead exposure to scavengers. PMID:21494326

  11. Wildlife contamination with fluoroquinolones from livestock: Widespread occurrence of enrofloxacin and marbofloxacin in vultures.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Guillermo; Junza, Alexandra; Segarra, David; Barbosa, José; Barrón, Dolores

    2016-02-01

    There is much recent interest in the presence and impact of veterinary pharmaceuticals in wildlife. Livestock carcasses are often disposed of in supplementary feeding stations for avian scavengers, as a management and conservation tool for these species worldwide. In feeding stations, vultures and other scavengers can consume carcasses almost immediately after disposal, which implies the potential ingestion of veterinary pharmaceuticals as a non-target consequence of supplementary feeding. Using UPLC-MS/MS and HPLC-TOF, we evaluated the presence and concentration of fluoroquinolone residues in plasma of nestling vultures feeding on domestic livestock carrion. Three different fluoroquinolones (marbofloxacin, enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin) and a non-targeted β-lactam (nafcillin) were detected in vulture plasma. The high proportion of individuals (92%) with fluoroquinolone residues at variable concentrations (up to ∼20 μg L(-1) of enrofloxacin and ∼150 μg L(-1) of marbofloxacin) sampled in several geographically distant colonies and on different dates suggests that these and other drugs were potentially ingested throughout nestling development. Contamination with veterinary fluoroquinolones and other pharmaceuticals should be considered as an unintended but alarming consequence of food management in threatened wildlife.

  12. Wildlife contamination with fluoroquinolones from livestock: Widespread occurrence of enrofloxacin and marbofloxacin in vultures.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Guillermo; Junza, Alexandra; Segarra, David; Barbosa, José; Barrón, Dolores

    2016-02-01

    There is much recent interest in the presence and impact of veterinary pharmaceuticals in wildlife. Livestock carcasses are often disposed of in supplementary feeding stations for avian scavengers, as a management and conservation tool for these species worldwide. In feeding stations, vultures and other scavengers can consume carcasses almost immediately after disposal, which implies the potential ingestion of veterinary pharmaceuticals as a non-target consequence of supplementary feeding. Using UPLC-MS/MS and HPLC-TOF, we evaluated the presence and concentration of fluoroquinolone residues in plasma of nestling vultures feeding on domestic livestock carrion. Three different fluoroquinolones (marbofloxacin, enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin) and a non-targeted β-lactam (nafcillin) were detected in vulture plasma. The high proportion of individuals (92%) with fluoroquinolone residues at variable concentrations (up to ∼20 μg L(-1) of enrofloxacin and ∼150 μg L(-1) of marbofloxacin) sampled in several geographically distant colonies and on different dates suggests that these and other drugs were potentially ingested throughout nestling development. Contamination with veterinary fluoroquinolones and other pharmaceuticals should be considered as an unintended but alarming consequence of food management in threatened wildlife. PMID:26498102

  13. Cellular and humoral immunodepression in vultures feeding upon medicated livestock carrion

    PubMed Central

    Lemus, Jesús A.; Blanco, Guillermo

    2009-01-01

    Veterinary pharmaceuticals contained in dead livestock may be ingested by avian scavengers and negatively affect their health and consequently their population dynamics and conservation. We evaluated the potential role of antibiotics as immunodepressors using multiple parameters measuring the condition of the cellular and humoral immune system in griffon (Gyps fulvus), cinereous (Aegypius monachus) and Egyptian vultures (Neophron percnopterus). We confirmed the presence of circulating antimicrobial residues, especially quinolones, in nestlings of the three vulture species breeding in central Spain. Individuals ingesting antibiotics showed clearly depressed cellular and humoral immune systems compared with nestlings from the control areas, which did not ingest antibiotics. Within central Spain, we found that individuals with circulating antibiotics showed depressed cellular (especially CD4+and CD8+T-lymphocyte subsets) and humoral (especially acellular APV complement and IL8-like) immune systems compared with nestlings without circulating antibiotics. This suggests that ingestion of antibiotics together with food may depress the immune system of developing nestlings, temporarily reducing their resistance to opportunistic pathogens, which require experimental confirmation. Medicated livestock carrion should be considered inadequate food for vultures due to their detrimental consequences on health derived from the ingestion and potential effects of the veterinary drugs contained in them and for this reason rejected as a management tool in conservation programmes. PMID:19324751

  14. Cellular and humoral immunodepression in vultures feeding upon medicated livestock carrion.

    PubMed

    Lemus, Jesús A; Blanco, Guillermo

    2009-06-22

    Veterinary pharmaceuticals contained in dead livestock may be ingested by avian scavengers and negatively affect their health and consequently their population dynamics and conservation. We evaluated the potential role of antibiotics as immunodepressors using multiple parameters measuring the condition of the cellular and humoral immune system in griffon (Gyps fulvus), cinereous (Aegypius monachus) and Egyptian vultures (Neophron percnopterus). We confirmed the presence of circulating antimicrobial residues, especially quinolones, in nestlings of the three vulture species breeding in central Spain. Individuals ingesting antibiotics showed clearly depressed cellular and humoral immune systems compared with nestlings from the control areas, which did not ingest antibiotics. Within central Spain, we found that individuals with circulating antibiotics showed depressed cellular (especially CD4(+)and CD8(+)T-lymphocyte subsets) and humoral (especially acellular APV complement and IL8-like) immune systems compared with nestlings without circulating antibiotics. This suggests that ingestion of antibiotics together with food may depress the immune system of developing nestlings, temporarily reducing their resistance to opportunistic pathogens, which require experimental confirmation. Medicated livestock carrion should be considered inadequate food for vultures due to their detrimental consequences on health derived from the ingestion and potential effects of the veterinary drugs contained in them and for this reason rejected as a management tool in conservation programmes. PMID:19324751

  15. How Cheap Is Soaring Flight in Raptors? A Preliminary Investigation in Freely-Flying Vultures

    PubMed Central

    Duriez, Olivier; Kato, Akiko; Tromp, Clara; Dell'Omo, Giacomo; Vyssotski, Alexei L.; Sarrazin, François; Ropert-Coudert, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the costs of soaring, gliding and flapping flight in raptors is challenging, but essential for understanding their ecology. Among raptors, vultures are scavengers that have evolved highly efficient soaring-gliding flight techniques to minimize energy costs to find unpredictable food resources. Using electrocardiogram, GPS and accelerometer bio-loggers, we report the heart rate (HR) of captive griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus and G. himalayensis) trained for freely-flying. HR increased three-fold at take-off (characterized by prolonged flapping flight) and landing (>300 beats-per-minute, (bpm)) compared to baseline levels (80–100 bpm). However, within 10 minutes after the initial flapping phase, HR in soaring/gliding flight dropped to values similar to baseline levels, i.e. slightly lower than theoretically expected. However, the extremely rapid decrease in HR was unexpected, when compared with other marine gliders, such as albatrosses. Weather conditions influenced flight performance and HR was noticeably higher during cloudy compared to sunny conditions when prolonged soaring flight is made easier by thermal ascending air currents. Soaring as a cheap locomotory mode is a crucial adaptation for vultures who spend so long on the wing for wide-ranging movements to find food. PMID:24454760

  16. Hematology and blood chemistry reference values and age-related changes in wild Bearded Vultures (Gypaetus barbatus).

    PubMed

    Hernández, M; Margalida, A

    2010-04-01

    Normal hematologic and blood chemistry values for clinical use and age-related changes are reported as reference values for the endangered Bearded Vulture (Gypaetus barbatus). Blood samples were obtained from 21 nestlings and 26 free-living subadults and adults. No significant differences were found between subadults and adults or between sexes for any of the studied parameters. Reference ranges have been established for Bearded Vulture nestlings (less than 3 mo of age) and for free-living Bearded Vultures, with subadult and adult data combined without affecting clinical interpretation. Some reference values for the parameters reported in this study are similar to those previously described for vultures and other raptor species, although creatine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities were higher than those reported for birds of prey. Significant age-related differences were identified in urea, uric acid, triglycerides, total serum protein, inorganic phosphorus, and magnesium concentrations, as well as aspartate aminotransferase, creatine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, amylase, and lipase activities (P<0.05). Additionally, significant age-related differences were noted in red and white blood cell counts, packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, fibrinogen level, and heterophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils (P<0.005). The results obtained from this study provide reference ranges that will be useful for evaluating the pathologic conditions and general health of Bearded Vulture populations and reveal the existence of important age-related differences in the species.

  17. Set a thief to catch a thief: brown-necked raven ( Corvus ruficollis) cooperatively kleptoparasitize Egyptian vulture ( Neophron percnopterus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yosef, Reuven; Kabesa, Shai; Yosef, Nufar

    2011-05-01

    Our study describes how brown-necked ravens ( Corvus ruficollis) are able to take advantage of an ordinarily inaccessible, high-quality food source by relying upon their innovative and manipulative thinking capabilities to exploit methods used by Egyptian vulture ( Neophron percnopterus) to overcome the problem. In five observed interactions, the ravens were first seen in the vicinity of an abandoned clutch of ostrich eggs ( Struthio camelus). The area was frequented by a pair of Egyptian vultures that bred on the cliffs across the road from the nature reserve. The Egyptian vulture exhibits tool use in birds, and is able to crack the hard shells of ostrich eggs by lifting a rock in the beak and pounding at the egg till it breaks open or cracks. If the egg is only cracked, the vulture inserts its narrow bill into the fissure and widens it by opening the mandibles. Pieces of eggshell are removed from around the crack in order to further open the egg. This is the point at which the pair of ravens attacked the vulture and harassed it till it abandoned the egg and left the area. The ravens then jointly enjoyed the contents of the egg which was otherwise inaccessible to them because of the strong egg shell.

  18. Set a thief to catch a thief: brown-necked raven (Corvus ruficollis) cooperatively kleptoparasitize Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus).

    PubMed

    Yosef, Reuven; Kabesa, Shai; Yosef, Nufar

    2011-05-01

    Our study describes how brown-necked ravens (Corvus ruficollis) are able to take advantage of an ordinarily inaccessible, high-quality food source by relying upon their innovative and manipulative thinking capabilities to exploit methods used by Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus) to overcome the problem. In five observed interactions, the ravens were first seen in the vicinity of an abandoned clutch of ostrich eggs (Struthio camelus). The area was frequented by a pair of Egyptian vultures that bred on the cliffs across the road from the nature reserve. The Egyptian vulture exhibits tool use in birds, and is able to crack the hard shells of ostrich eggs by lifting a rock in the beak and pounding at the egg till it breaks open or cracks. If the egg is only cracked, the vulture inserts its narrow bill into the fissure and widens it by opening the mandibles. Pieces of eggshell are removed from around the crack in order to further open the egg. This is the point at which the pair of ravens attacked the vulture and harassed it till it abandoned the egg and left the area. The ravens then jointly enjoyed the contents of the egg which was otherwise inaccessible to them because of the strong egg shell.

  19. Ochre Bathing of the Bearded Vulture: A Bio-Mimetic Model for Early Humans towards Smell Prevention and Health.

    PubMed

    Tributsch, Helmut

    2016-01-15

    Since primordial times, vultures have been competing with man for animal carcasses. One of these vultures, the once widespread bearded vulture ( Gypaetus barbatus ), has the habit of bathing its polluted feathers and skin in red iron oxide - ochre - tainted water puddles. Why? Primitive man may have tried to find out and may have discovered its advantages. Red ochre, which has accompanied human rituals and everyday life for more than 100,000 years, is not just a simple red paint for decoration or a symbol for blood. As modern experiments demonstrate, it is active in sunlight producing aggressive chemical species. They can kill viruses and bacteria and convert smelly organic substances into volatile neutral carbon dioxide gas. In this way, ochre can in sunlight sterilize and clean the skin to provide health and comfort and make it scentless, a definitive advantage for nomadic meat hunters. This research thus also demonstrates a sanitary reason for the vulture's habit of bathing in red ochre mud. Prehistoric people have therefore included ochre use into their rituals, especially into those in relation to birth and death. Significant ritual impulses during evolution of man may thus have developed bio-mimetically, inspired from the habits of a vulture. It is discussed how this health strategy could be developed to a modern standard helping to fight antibiotics-resistant bacteria in hospitals.

  20. Ochre Bathing of the Bearded Vulture: A Bio-Mimetic Model for Early Humans towards Smell Prevention and Health.

    PubMed

    Tributsch, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Since primordial times, vultures have been competing with man for animal carcasses. One of these vultures, the once widespread bearded vulture ( Gypaetus barbatus ), has the habit of bathing its polluted feathers and skin in red iron oxide - ochre - tainted water puddles. Why? Primitive man may have tried to find out and may have discovered its advantages. Red ochre, which has accompanied human rituals and everyday life for more than 100,000 years, is not just a simple red paint for decoration or a symbol for blood. As modern experiments demonstrate, it is active in sunlight producing aggressive chemical species. They can kill viruses and bacteria and convert smelly organic substances into volatile neutral carbon dioxide gas. In this way, ochre can in sunlight sterilize and clean the skin to provide health and comfort and make it scentless, a definitive advantage for nomadic meat hunters. This research thus also demonstrates a sanitary reason for the vulture's habit of bathing in red ochre mud. Prehistoric people have therefore included ochre use into their rituals, especially into those in relation to birth and death. Significant ritual impulses during evolution of man may thus have developed bio-mimetically, inspired from the habits of a vulture. It is discussed how this health strategy could be developed to a modern standard helping to fight antibiotics-resistant bacteria in hospitals. PMID:26784238

  1. Set a thief to catch a thief: brown-necked raven (Corvus ruficollis) cooperatively kleptoparasitize Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus).

    PubMed

    Yosef, Reuven; Kabesa, Shai; Yosef, Nufar

    2011-05-01

    Our study describes how brown-necked ravens (Corvus ruficollis) are able to take advantage of an ordinarily inaccessible, high-quality food source by relying upon their innovative and manipulative thinking capabilities to exploit methods used by Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus) to overcome the problem. In five observed interactions, the ravens were first seen in the vicinity of an abandoned clutch of ostrich eggs (Struthio camelus). The area was frequented by a pair of Egyptian vultures that bred on the cliffs across the road from the nature reserve. The Egyptian vulture exhibits tool use in birds, and is able to crack the hard shells of ostrich eggs by lifting a rock in the beak and pounding at the egg till it breaks open or cracks. If the egg is only cracked, the vulture inserts its narrow bill into the fissure and widens it by opening the mandibles. Pieces of eggshell are removed from around the crack in order to further open the egg. This is the point at which the pair of ravens attacked the vulture and harassed it till it abandoned the egg and left the area. The ravens then jointly enjoyed the contents of the egg which was otherwise inaccessible to them because of the strong egg shell. PMID:21409436

  2. Assessing Species Habitat Using Google Street View: A Case Study of Cliff-Nesting Vultures

    PubMed Central

    Olea, Pedro P.; Mateo-Tomás, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of a species’ habitat is a crucial issue in ecology and conservation. While the collection of habitat data has been boosted by the availability of remote sensing technologies, certain habitat types have yet to be collected through costly, on-ground surveys, limiting study over large areas. Cliffs are ecosystems that provide habitat for a rich biodiversity, especially raptors. Because of their principally vertical structure, however, cliffs are not easy to study by remote sensing technologies, posing a challenge for many researches and managers working with cliff-related biodiversity. We explore the feasibility of Google Street View, a freely available on-line tool, to remotely identify and assess the nesting habitat of two cliff-nesting vultures (the griffon vulture and the globally endangered Egyptian vulture) in northwestern Spain. Two main usefulness of Google Street View to ecologists and conservation biologists were evaluated: i) remotely identifying a species’ potential habitat and ii) extracting fine-scale habitat information. Google Street View imagery covered 49% (1,907 km) of the roads of our study area (7,000 km2). The potential visibility covered by on-ground surveys was significantly greater (mean: 97.4%) than that of Google Street View (48.1%). However, incorporating Google Street View to the vulture’s habitat survey would save, on average, 36% in time and 49.5% in funds with respect to the on-ground survey only. The ability of Google Street View to identify cliffs (overall accuracy = 100%) outperformed the classification maps derived from digital elevation models (DEMs) (62–95%). Nonetheless, high-performance DEM maps may be useful to compensate Google Street View coverage limitations. Through Google Street View we could examine 66% of the vultures’ nesting-cliffs existing in the study area (n = 148): 64% from griffon vultures and 65% from Egyptian vultures. It also allowed us the extraction of fine-scale features of

  3. Need and seek for dietary micronutrients: endogenous regulation, external signalling and food sources of carotenoids in new world vultures.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Guillermo; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso; Lambertucci, Sergio A; Bautista, Luis M; Wiemeyer, Guillermo; Sanchez-Zapata, José A; Garrido-Fernández, Juan; Hiraldo, Fernando; Donázar, José A

    2013-01-01

    Among birds, vultures show low concentrations of plasma carotenoids due to the combination of their large size, general dull colouration and a diet based on carrion. We recorded the concentration of each carotenoid type present in plasma of the Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) according to age and sex, that determine colour signalling and dominance hierarchies in the carcasses. We compared the carotenoid profile in wild condors with that of captive condors fed with a controlled diet of flesh to test the hypothesis that wild individuals could acquire extra carotenoids from vegetal matter contained in carcass viscera and fresh vegetation. Wild American black vultures (Coragyps atratus) were also sampled to evaluate the potential influence of colouration in the integument on absorption and accumulation patterns of plasma carotenoids. A remarkably higher concentration of lutein than β-carotene was found in wild condors, while the contrary pattern was recorded in American black vultures and captive condors. We found a consistent decrease in all plasma carotenoids with age, and a lower concentration of most xanthophylls in male compared to female wild condors. Positive correlations of all carotenoids indicated general common absorption and accumulation strategies or a single dietary source containing all pigments found in plasma. The comparatively low total concentration of carotenoids, and especially of lutein rather than β-carotene, found in captive condors fed with a diet restricted to flesh supports the hypothesis that Andean condors can efficiently acquire carotenoids from vegetal matter in the wild. Andean condors seem to be physiologically more competent in the uptake or accumulation of xanthophylls than American black vultures, which agrees with the use of colour-signalling strategies in sexual and competitive contexts in the Andean condor. This study suggests that vultures may use dietary vegetal supplements that provide pigments and micronutrients that are

  4. Need and Seek for Dietary Micronutrients: Endogenous Regulation, External Signalling and Food Sources of Carotenoids in New World Vultures

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Guillermo; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso; Lambertucci, Sergio A.; Bautista, Luis M.; Wiemeyer, Guillermo; Sanchez-Zapata, José A.; Garrido-Fernández, Juan; Hiraldo, Fernando; Donázar, José A.

    2013-01-01

    Among birds, vultures show low concentrations of plasma carotenoids due to the combination of their large size, general dull colouration and a diet based on carrion. We recorded the concentration of each carotenoid type present in plasma of the Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) according to age and sex, that determine colour signalling and dominance hierarchies in the carcasses. We compared the carotenoid profile in wild condors with that of captive condors fed with a controlled diet of flesh to test the hypothesis that wild individuals could acquire extra carotenoids from vegetal matter contained in carcass viscera and fresh vegetation. Wild American black vultures (Coragyps atratus) were also sampled to evaluate the potential influence of colouration in the integument on absorption and accumulation patterns of plasma carotenoids. A remarkably higher concentration of lutein than β-carotene was found in wild condors, while the contrary pattern was recorded in American black vultures and captive condors. We found a consistent decrease in all plasma carotenoids with age, and a lower concentration of most xanthophylls in male compared to female wild condors. Positive correlations of all carotenoids indicated general common absorption and accumulation strategies or a single dietary source containing all pigments found in plasma. The comparatively low total concentration of carotenoids, and especially of lutein rather than β-carotene, found in captive condors fed with a diet restricted to flesh supports the hypothesis that Andean condors can efficiently acquire carotenoids from vegetal matter in the wild. Andean condors seem to be physiologically more competent in the uptake or accumulation of xanthophylls than American black vultures, which agrees with the use of colour-signalling strategies in sexual and competitive contexts in the Andean condor. This study suggests that vultures may use dietary vegetal supplements that provide pigments and micronutrients that are

  5. Need and seek for dietary micronutrients: endogenous regulation, external signalling and food sources of carotenoids in new world vultures.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Guillermo; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso; Lambertucci, Sergio A; Bautista, Luis M; Wiemeyer, Guillermo; Sanchez-Zapata, José A; Garrido-Fernández, Juan; Hiraldo, Fernando; Donázar, José A

    2013-01-01

    Among birds, vultures show low concentrations of plasma carotenoids due to the combination of their large size, general dull colouration and a diet based on carrion. We recorded the concentration of each carotenoid type present in plasma of the Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) according to age and sex, that determine colour signalling and dominance hierarchies in the carcasses. We compared the carotenoid profile in wild condors with that of captive condors fed with a controlled diet of flesh to test the hypothesis that wild individuals could acquire extra carotenoids from vegetal matter contained in carcass viscera and fresh vegetation. Wild American black vultures (Coragyps atratus) were also sampled to evaluate the potential influence of colouration in the integument on absorption and accumulation patterns of plasma carotenoids. A remarkably higher concentration of lutein than β-carotene was found in wild condors, while the contrary pattern was recorded in American black vultures and captive condors. We found a consistent decrease in all plasma carotenoids with age, and a lower concentration of most xanthophylls in male compared to female wild condors. Positive correlations of all carotenoids indicated general common absorption and accumulation strategies or a single dietary source containing all pigments found in plasma. The comparatively low total concentration of carotenoids, and especially of lutein rather than β-carotene, found in captive condors fed with a diet restricted to flesh supports the hypothesis that Andean condors can efficiently acquire carotenoids from vegetal matter in the wild. Andean condors seem to be physiologically more competent in the uptake or accumulation of xanthophylls than American black vultures, which agrees with the use of colour-signalling strategies in sexual and competitive contexts in the Andean condor. This study suggests that vultures may use dietary vegetal supplements that provide pigments and micronutrients that are

  6. Phylogeny of Old and New World vultures (Aves: Accipitridae and Cathartidae) inferred from nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene.

    PubMed

    Wink, M

    1995-01-01

    The molecular phylogeny of 11 Old World and 5 New World vultures was inferred from nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) gene. According to this analysis carrion-feeding has evolved independently at least three times during evolution: 1.) In the New World vultures, which are clearly separated from vultures of the family Accipitridae; 2.) in the Neophron-Gypaetus clade which is positioned at the base of the Accipitrid tree and 3.) in the Gyps-Aegypius-complex which encloses the largest group of Old World vultures. Thus the genetic data clearly show that the carrion-feeding lifestyles and associated morphologies shared by New and Old World vultures are rather based on convergence than on close genetic relatedness. Employing the cyt b sequences of 12 other members of the Falconiformes and 10 members of the Ciconiiformes (sensu Sibley and Monroe, 1990) the phylogenetic relationship between the three clades of vultures and these other taxa was assessed. New World Vultures appear to share distant ancestry with storks but a close relationship is unlikely.

  7. Petrogenesis of Monte Vulture volcano (Italy): inferences from mineral chemistry, major and trace element data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Fino, M.; La Volpe, L.; Peccerillo, A.; Piccarreta, G.; Poli, G.

    1986-02-01

    The paper presents major and trace element data and mineral compositions for a series of foiditic-tephritic to phonolitic rocks coming from Monte Vulture, Southern Italy, and investigates their origin, evolution and relationship with the other centres of the Roman province. Major and trace element variation in the foiditic to tephritic suite agrees with a hypothesis of evolution by simple crystal/liquid fractionation, whereas the early erupted phonolitic trachytes and phonolites have geochemical characteristics which do not support their derivation from tephritic magma by crystal fractionation. Foiditic and phonolitic rocks have mineral compositions which are interpreted as indicating magma mixing. However geochemical evidence shows that this process did not play an important role during the magma evolution. The Vulture rocks have compositional peculiarities such as high abundance of Na2O, CaO, Cl and S, when compared with other Roman volcanics. Instead, the distribution of incompatible elements is similar to those of Roman rocks, except for a lower content of Rb and K, higher P and lower Th/Ta and Th/Nb ratios which are still close to the values of arc volcanics. The high contents of Na, Ca and of volatile components are tentatively attributed to the interaction of magma with aqueous solutions, rich in calcium sulphate and sodium chloride, related to the Miocene or Triassic evaporites occurring within the sedimentary sequence underlying the volcano. The distribution pattern of the incompatible elements is interpreted as indicative of magma-forming in a subduction modified upper mantle and of the peculiar location of M. Vulture.

  8. Carbonatites in a subduction system: The Pleistocene alvikites from Mt. Vulture (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Orazio, Massimo; Innocenti, Fabrizio; Tonarini, Sonia; Doglioni, Carlo

    2007-10-01

    We report here, for the first time, on the new finding of extrusive calciocarbonatite (alvikite) rocks from the Pleistocene Mt. Vulture volcano (southern Italy). These volcanic rocks, which represent an outstanding occurrence in the wider scenario of the Italian potassic magmatism, form lavas, pyroclastic deposits, and feeder dikes exposed on the northern slope of the volcano. The petrography, mineralogy and whole-rock chemistry attest the genuine carbonatitic nature of these rocks, that are characterized by high to very high contents of Sr, Ba, U, LREE, Nb, P, F, Th, high Nb/Ta and LREE/HREE ratios, and low contents of Ti, Zr, K, Rb, Na and Cs. The O-C isotope compositions are close to the "primary igneous carbonatite" field and, thus, are compatible with an ultimate mantle origin for these rocks. The Sr-Nd-Pb-B isotope compositions, measured both in the alvikites and in the silicate volcanic rocks, indicate a close genetic relationship between the alvikites and the associated melilitite/nephelinite rocks. Furthermore, these latter products are geochemically distinct from the main foiditic-phonolitic association of Mt. Vulture. We propose a petrogenetic/geodynamic interpretation which has important implications for understanding the relationships between carbonatites and orogenic activity. In particular, we propose that the studied alvikites are generated through liquid unmixing at crustal levels, starting from nephelinitic or melilititic parent liquids. These latter were produced in a hybrid mantle resulting from the interaction through a vertical slab window, between a metasomatized mantle wedge, moving eastward from the Tyrrhenian/Campanian region, and the local Adriatic mantle. The occurrence of carbonatite rocks at Mt. Vulture, that lies on the leading edge of the Southern Apennines accretionary prism, is taken as an evidence for the carbonatation of the mantle sources of this volcano. We speculate that mantle carbonatation is related to the introduction of

  9. Environmental drivers of variability in the movement ecology of turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) in North and South America.

    PubMed

    Dodge, Somayeh; Bohrer, Gil; Bildstein, Keith; Davidson, Sarah C; Weinzierl, Rolf; Bechard, Marc J; Barber, David; Kays, Roland; Brandes, David; Han, Jiawei; Wikelski, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Variation is key to the adaptability of species and their ability to survive changes to the Earth's climate and habitats. Plasticity in movement strategies allows a species to better track spatial dynamics of habitat quality. We describe the mechanisms that shape the movement of a long-distance migrant bird (turkey vulture, Cathartes aura) across two continents using satellite tracking coupled with remote-sensing science. Using nearly 10 years of data from 24 satellite-tracked vultures in four distinct populations, we describe an enormous amount of variation in their movement patterns. We related vulture movement to environmental conditions and found important correlations explaining how far they need to move to find food (indexed by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and how fast they can move based on the prevalence of thermals and temperature. We conclude that the extensive variability in the movement ecology of turkey vultures, facilitated by their energetically efficient thermal soaring, suggests that this species is likely to do well across periods of modest climate change. The large scale and sample sizes needed for such analysis in a widespread migrant emphasizes the need for integrated and collaborative efforts to obtain tracking data and for policies, tools and open datasets to encourage such collaborations and data sharing. PMID:24733950

  10. Environmental drivers of variability in the movement ecology of turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) in North and South America.

    PubMed

    Dodge, Somayeh; Bohrer, Gil; Bildstein, Keith; Davidson, Sarah C; Weinzierl, Rolf; Bechard, Marc J; Barber, David; Kays, Roland; Brandes, David; Han, Jiawei; Wikelski, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Variation is key to the adaptability of species and their ability to survive changes to the Earth's climate and habitats. Plasticity in movement strategies allows a species to better track spatial dynamics of habitat quality. We describe the mechanisms that shape the movement of a long-distance migrant bird (turkey vulture, Cathartes aura) across two continents using satellite tracking coupled with remote-sensing science. Using nearly 10 years of data from 24 satellite-tracked vultures in four distinct populations, we describe an enormous amount of variation in their movement patterns. We related vulture movement to environmental conditions and found important correlations explaining how far they need to move to find food (indexed by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and how fast they can move based on the prevalence of thermals and temperature. We conclude that the extensive variability in the movement ecology of turkey vultures, facilitated by their energetically efficient thermal soaring, suggests that this species is likely to do well across periods of modest climate change. The large scale and sample sizes needed for such analysis in a widespread migrant emphasizes the need for integrated and collaborative efforts to obtain tracking data and for policies, tools and open datasets to encourage such collaborations and data sharing.

  11. Active degassing of mantle-derived fluid: A geochemical study along the Vulture line, southern Apennines (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caracausi, A.; Martelli, M.; Nuccio, P. M.; Paternoster, M.; Stuart, F. M.

    2013-03-01

    We report the results of a geochemical study of gas emissions along a NE-SW transect in southern Italy in order to test the hypothesis that the region around Monte Vulture is affected by degassing of mantle-derived fluids through a lithospheric discontinuity. We also investigated lavas from the Monte Vulture volcano displaying 3He/4He (up to ~ 6.0 Ra) and Sr isotopes that are consistent with an origin in mantle that has had minimal pollution from subducted Adriatic slab. Similar 3He/4He in fluids from around Mt. Vulture indicate that the deep volcanic system is still degassing. Mantle-derived He occurs in fluids along the length of the Vulture line, reinforcing the hypothesis that it is a deep tectonic discontinuity along which mantle fluids and/or melts advect to the surface. The CO2/3He ratios are highly variable (2.7 × 108-2.15 × 1011) in response to processes such as gas dissolution into aquifers, addition of crustal gases and degassing fractionation.

  12. Environmental drivers of variability in the movement ecology of turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) in North and South America

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, Somayeh; Bohrer, Gil; Bildstein, Keith; Davidson, Sarah C.; Weinzierl, Rolf; Bechard, Marc J.; Barber, David; Kays, Roland; Brandes, David; Han, Jiawei; Wikelski, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Variation is key to the adaptability of species and their ability to survive changes to the Earth's climate and habitats. Plasticity in movement strategies allows a species to better track spatial dynamics of habitat quality. We describe the mechanisms that shape the movement of a long-distance migrant bird (turkey vulture, Cathartes aura) across two continents using satellite tracking coupled with remote-sensing science. Using nearly 10 years of data from 24 satellite-tracked vultures in four distinct populations, we describe an enormous amount of variation in their movement patterns. We related vulture movement to environmental conditions and found important correlations explaining how far they need to move to find food (indexed by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and how fast they can move based on the prevalence of thermals and temperature. We conclude that the extensive variability in the movement ecology of turkey vultures, facilitated by their energetically efficient thermal soaring, suggests that this species is likely to do well across periods of modest climate change. The large scale and sample sizes needed for such analysis in a widespread migrant emphasizes the need for integrated and collaborative efforts to obtain tracking data and for policies, tools and open datasets to encourage such collaborations and data sharing. PMID:24733950

  13. How do colonial Eurasian Griffon Vultures prevent extra-pair mating?

    PubMed Central

    Bertran, Joan; Macià, Francesc Xavier

    2016-01-01

    In colonial breeding species, preventive measures to reduce the risks of extra-pair copulations (EPCs) should reflect the actual risk perceived by males (e.g., proximity of neighbors, intrusions into the nest) mainly during the fertile period. In colonial vultures, specific studies examining the preventive measures that minimize the risks of EPCs occurring within the competitive context of colonial breeding have not been conducted. Here we tested at Eurasian Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus) nesting sites the intensity of paternity assurance behavior, shown as frequency and duration of within-pair copulations (WPCs), potential mate vigilance or nest attendance, and levels of aggressivity. This was measured according to the frequency of territorial intrusions and comparison of the fertile vs. the non-fertile period. Our findings suggest that the frequency of WPCs and their duration increased significantly during the presumed fertile period, regarded as the period when Griffon pairs spent significantly more time together at their nests. In addition, low levels of territorial intrusions were observed, an aggressive response of pairs towards intruders, and a relatively high presence of pairs at the nests during the fertile period. Thus, although nesting sites are subject to low exposure to EPC attempts, the increased frequency and duration of copulations during the fertile period suggests that, under pressure from the colonial breeding system, a higher rate of copulations is the most effective preventive mechanism against relative uncertainty of paternity. PMID:26966674

  14. Spatial and temporal movements in Pyrenean bearded vultures (Gypaetus barbatus): Integrating movement ecology into conservation practice

    PubMed Central

    Margalida, Antoni; Pérez-García, Juan Manuel; Afonso, Ivan; Moreno-Opo, Rubén

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the movement of threatened species is important if we are to optimize management and conservation actions. Here, we describe the age and sex specific spatial and temporal ranging patterns of 19 bearded vultures Gypaetus barbatus tracked with GPS technology. Our findings suggest that spatial asymmetries are a consequence of breeding status and age-classes. Territorial individuals exploited home ranges of about 50 km2, while non-territorial birds used areas of around 10 000 km2 (with no seasonal differences). Mean daily movements differed between territorial (23.8 km) and non-territorial birds (46.1 km), and differences were also found between sexes in non-territorial birds. Daily maximum distances travelled per day also differed between territorial (8.2 km) and non-territorial individuals (26.5 km). Territorial females moved greater distances (12 km) than males (6.6 km). Taking into account high-use core areas (K20), Supplementary Feeding Sites (SFS) do not seem to play an important role in the use of space by bearded vultures. For non-territorial and territorial individuals, 54% and 46% of their home ranges (K90), respectively, were outside protected areas. Our findings will help develop guidelines for establishing priority areas based on spatial use, and also optimize management and conservation actions for this threatened species. PMID:27779179

  15. How do colonial Eurasian Griffon Vultures prevent extra-pair mating?

    PubMed

    Bertran, Joan; Macià, Francesc Xavier; Margalida, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    In colonial breeding species, preventive measures to reduce the risks of extra-pair copulations (EPCs) should reflect the actual risk perceived by males (e.g., proximity of neighbors, intrusions into the nest) mainly during the fertile period. In colonial vultures, specific studies examining the preventive measures that minimize the risks of EPCs occurring within the competitive context of colonial breeding have not been conducted. Here we tested at Eurasian Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus) nesting sites the intensity of paternity assurance behavior, shown as frequency and duration of within-pair copulations (WPCs), potential mate vigilance or nest attendance, and levels of aggressivity. This was measured according to the frequency of territorial intrusions and comparison of the fertile vs. the non-fertile period. Our findings suggest that the frequency of WPCs and their duration increased significantly during the presumed fertile period, regarded as the period when Griffon pairs spent significantly more time together at their nests. In addition, low levels of territorial intrusions were observed, an aggressive response of pairs towards intruders, and a relatively high presence of pairs at the nests during the fertile period. Thus, although nesting sites are subject to low exposure to EPC attempts, the increased frequency and duration of copulations during the fertile period suggests that, under pressure from the colonial breeding system, a higher rate of copulations is the most effective preventive mechanism against relative uncertainty of paternity.

  16. Calcio-carbonatite melts and metasomatism in the mantle beneath Mt. Vulture (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosatelli, Gianluigi; Wall, Frances; Stoppa, Francesco

    2007-12-01

    At Mt. Vulture volcano (Basilicata, Italy) calcite globules (5-150 μm) are hosted by silicate glass pools or veins cross-cutting amphibole-bearing, or more common spinel-bearing mantle xenoliths and xenocrysts. The carbonate globules are rounded or elongated and are composed of a mosaic of 2-20 μm crystals, with varying optical orientation. These features are consistent with formation from a quenched calciocarbonatite melt. Where in contact with carbonate amphibole has reacted to form fassaitic pyroxene. Some of these globules contain liquid/gaseous CO 2 bubbles and sulphide inclusions, and are pierced by quench microphenocrysts of silicate phases. The carbonate composition varies from calcite to Mg-calcite (3.8-5.0 wt.% MgO) both within the carbonate globules and from globule to globule. Trace element contents of the carbonate, determined by LAICPMS, are similar to those of carbonatites worldwide including ΣREE up to 123 ppm. The Sr-Nd isotope ratios of the xenolith carbonate are similar to the extrusive carbonatite and silicate rocks of Mt. Vulture testifying to derivation from the same mantle source. Formation of immiscibile silicate-carbonatite liquids within mantle xenoliths occurred via disequilibrium immiscibility during their exhumation.

  17. Ochre Bathing of the Bearded Vulture: A Bio-Mimetic Model for Early Humans towards Smell Prevention and Health

    PubMed Central

    Tributsch, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary The once widespread bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) has the habit of bathing its polluted feathers and skin in red iron oxide-ochre-tainted water puddles. Primitive man may have tried to find out why: ochre is active in sunlight producing aggressive chemical species. They can kill viruses and bacteria and convert smelly organic substances into volatile neutral carbon dioxide gas. There is consequently a sanitary reason for the vulture’s habit of bathing in red ochre mud and this explains why prehistoric people included ochre use into their habits and rituals. Abstract Since primordial times, vultures have been competing with man for animal carcasses. One of these vultures, the once widespread bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus), has the habit of bathing its polluted feathers and skin in red iron oxide - ochre - tainted water puddles. Why? Primitive man may have tried to find out and may have discovered its advantages. Red ochre, which has accompanied human rituals and everyday life for more than 100,000 years, is not just a simple red paint for decoration or a symbol for blood. As modern experiments demonstrate, it is active in sunlight producing aggressive chemical species. They can kill viruses and bacteria and convert smelly organic substances into volatile neutral carbon dioxide gas. In this way, ochre can in sunlight sterilize and clean the skin to provide health and comfort and make it scentless, a definitive advantage for nomadic meat hunters. This research thus also demonstrates a sanitary reason for the vulture’s habit of bathing in red ochre mud. Prehistoric people have therefore included ochre use into their rituals, especially into those in relation to birth and death. Significant ritual impulses during evolution of man may thus have developed bio-mimetically, inspired from the habits of a vulture. It is discussed how this health strategy could be developed to a modern standard helping to fight antibiotics-resistant bacteria in

  18. Ejaculate collection efficiency and post-thaw semen quality in wild-caught Griffon vultures from the Sardinian population

    PubMed Central

    Madeddu, Manuela; Berlinguer, Fiammetta; Ledda, Massimo; Leoni, Giovanni G; Satta, Valentina; Succu, Sara; Rotta, Andrea; Pasciu, Valeria; Zinellu, Angelo; Muzzeddu, Marco; Carru, Ciriaco; Naitana, Salvatore

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to test the feasibility of a programme of semen collection and cryopreservation in Griffon vultures. Four wild-caught individuals kept in captivity because of unrecoverable traumas were used. Semen collection attempts were made twice a week during three consecutive reproductive seasons (December – March) using the abdominal massage method. Ejaculation was successfully induced between late January and late February. Semen collection efficiency was rather low (27.9%) and it did not vary among individuals (p > 0.05). No differences were found in ejaculate volumes (12.5 +/- 9.1 μl), spermatozoa concentration (28.4 +/- 30.9 million cells/ml) and viability (61.3 +/- 13.9%) among the 4 vultures. ATP values differed among the four vultures (p < 0.001); B showed higher nucleotide concentration than both C and D, while it did not differ form A, whose values were higher compared with D. After freezing and thawing, semen in vitro viability, DNA integrity and ATP intracellular concentration were determined. Spermatozoa viability after thawing did not differ among the four individuals (52.6 +/- 5.8 in A, 53.4 +/- 4.6 in B, 50.4 +/- 3.2 in C, 42.5 +/- 2.7 in D), but it decreased significantly compared to fresh semen (p < 0.05). During 4 hrs in vitro culture, spermatozoa collected from B maintained over time a higher viability in vitro when compared to A, C and D. As evaluated by the comet assay method, DNA fragmentation after freezing and thawing did not differ in the 4 vultures. ATP concentration in frozen/thawed semen was significantly lower than in fresh semen (p < 0.0001). This study indicates that semen cryopreservation can be considered as a useful tool in the conservation of Griffon vulture genetic resources, but further studies are needed to optimize this technique. PMID:19228408

  19. Ejaculate collection efficiency and post-thaw semen quality in wild-caught Griffon vultures from the Sardinian population.

    PubMed

    Madeddu, Manuela; Berlinguer, Fiammetta; Ledda, Massimo; Leoni, Giovanni G; Satta, Valentina; Succu, Sara; Rotta, Andrea; Pasciu, Valeria; Zinellu, Angelo; Muzzeddu, Marco; Carru, Ciriaco; Naitana, Salvatore

    2009-02-19

    This study aimed to test the feasibility of a programme of semen collection and cryopreservation in Griffon vultures. Four wild-caught individuals kept in captivity because of unrecoverable traumas were used. Semen collection attempts were made twice a week during three consecutive reproductive seasons (December - March) using the abdominal massage method. Ejaculation was successfully induced between late January and late February. Semen collection efficiency was rather low (27.9%) and it did not vary among individuals (p > 0.05). No differences were found in ejaculate volumes (12.5 +/- 9.1 microl), spermatozoa concentration (28.4 +/- 30.9 million cells/ml) and viability (61.3 +/- 13.9%) among the 4 vultures. ATP values differed among the four vultures (p < 0.001); B showed higher nucleotide concentration than both C and D, while it did not differ form A, whose values were higher compared with D. After freezing and thawing, semen in vitro viability, DNA integrity and ATP intracellular concentration were determined. Spermatozoa viability after thawing did not differ among the four individuals (52.6 +/- 5.8 in A, 53.4 +/- 4.6 in B, 50.4 +/- 3.2 in C, 42.5 +/- 2.7 in D), but it decreased significantly compared to fresh semen (p < 0.05). During 4 hrs in vitro culture, spermatozoa collected from B maintained over time a higher viability in vitro when compared to A, C and D. As evaluated by the comet assay method, DNA fragmentation after freezing and thawing did not differ in the 4 vultures. ATP concentration in frozen/thawed semen was significantly lower than in fresh semen (p < 0.0001). This study indicates that semen cryopreservation can be considered as a useful tool in the conservation of Griffon vulture genetic resources, but further studies are needed to optimize this technique.

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of the Bacteriocin-Producing Strain Enterococcus faecium M3K31, Isolated from Griffon Vultures (Gyps fulvus subsp. fulvus).

    PubMed

    Arbulu, Sara; Frantzen, Cyril; Lohans, Christopher T; Cintas, Luis M; Herranz, Carmen; Holo, Helge; Diep, Dzung B; Vederas, John C; Hernández, Pablo E

    2016-03-24

    Enterococcus faeciumM3K31 is a bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacterium (LAB) isolated from griffon vulture (Gyps fulvussubsp.fulvus) feces. The draft genome sequence of this strain provides genetic data that support its biotechnological potential.

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of the Bacteriocin-Producing Strain Enterococcus faecium M3K31, Isolated from Griffon Vultures (Gyps fulvus subsp. fulvus)

    PubMed Central

    Arbulu, Sara; Frantzen, Cyril; Lohans, Christopher T.; Cintas, Luis M.; Herranz, Carmen; Holo, Helge; Diep, Dzung B.; Vederas, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium M3K31 is a bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacterium (LAB) isolated from griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus subsp. fulvus) feces. The draft genome sequence of this strain provides genetic data that support its biotechnological potential. PMID:27013035

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of the Bacteriocin-Producing Strain Enterococcus faecium M3K31, Isolated from Griffon Vultures (Gyps fulvus subsp. fulvus).

    PubMed

    Arbulu, Sara; Frantzen, Cyril; Lohans, Christopher T; Cintas, Luis M; Herranz, Carmen; Holo, Helge; Diep, Dzung B; Vederas, John C; Hernández, Pablo E

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faeciumM3K31 is a bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacterium (LAB) isolated from griffon vulture (Gyps fulvussubsp.fulvus) feces. The draft genome sequence of this strain provides genetic data that support its biotechnological potential. PMID:27013035

  3. Investigating the impact of large carcass feeding on the behavior of captive Andean condors (Vultur gryphus) and its perception by zoo visitors.

    PubMed

    Gaengler, Hannah; Clum, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Naturalistic feeding methods, such as the provision of whole carcasses to zoo animals, are potentially controversial because zoo visitors might not approve of them. However, since several species of zoo animals feed from large carcasses in the wild, this food type could benefit their welfare in captivity compared to other less-natural food types. Scavengers in particular almost exclusively live on carcasses in nature; therefore, their welfare in captivity could significantly depend on the opportunity to express behaviors related to carcass feeding. In this study, we assessed the frequency of carcass feeding for vultures in North American zoos and investigated the effect of different food types on the behavior of zoo-housed Andean condors (Vultur gryphus). We also evaluated the opinion of North American zoo visitors about carcass feeding. Our results show that small whole carcasses (rats, rabbits) are part of the diet of vultures in most North American zoos, but large whole carcasses (ungulates) are rarely fed. Our behavioral study indicated that Andean condors appear to be more motivated to feed on more natural food types, which also seem to physically engage the birds more and occupy them longer. Most zoo visitors approved of carcass feeding for captive vultures over a range of prey animals, and the majority would also like to observe the vultures eat. Collectively, our results demonstrate that carcass feeding, particularly with larger prey, potentially enriches both zoo-housed vultures as well as the visitor experience.

  4. Investigating the impact of large carcass feeding on the behavior of captive Andean condors (Vultur gryphus) and its perception by zoo visitors.

    PubMed

    Gaengler, Hannah; Clum, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Naturalistic feeding methods, such as the provision of whole carcasses to zoo animals, are potentially controversial because zoo visitors might not approve of them. However, since several species of zoo animals feed from large carcasses in the wild, this food type could benefit their welfare in captivity compared to other less-natural food types. Scavengers in particular almost exclusively live on carcasses in nature; therefore, their welfare in captivity could significantly depend on the opportunity to express behaviors related to carcass feeding. In this study, we assessed the frequency of carcass feeding for vultures in North American zoos and investigated the effect of different food types on the behavior of zoo-housed Andean condors (Vultur gryphus). We also evaluated the opinion of North American zoo visitors about carcass feeding. Our results show that small whole carcasses (rats, rabbits) are part of the diet of vultures in most North American zoos, but large whole carcasses (ungulates) are rarely fed. Our behavioral study indicated that Andean condors appear to be more motivated to feed on more natural food types, which also seem to physically engage the birds more and occupy them longer. Most zoo visitors approved of carcass feeding for captive vultures over a range of prey animals, and the majority would also like to observe the vultures eat. Collectively, our results demonstrate that carcass feeding, particularly with larger prey, potentially enriches both zoo-housed vultures as well as the visitor experience. PMID:25653198

  5. Crystal chemistry of clinopyroxene from alkaline undersaturated rocks of the Monte Vulture Volcano, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindi, Luca; Cellai, Daniela; Melluso, Leone; Conticelli, Sandro; Morra, Vincenzo; Menchetti, Silvio

    1999-02-01

    The Monte Vulture is a Late Pleistocene stratovolcano, composed of highly undersaturated alkaline potassic to ultrapotassic rocks belonging to the Roman Magmatic Province. These rocks are notably richer in Na 2O if compared to similar rocks of the Roman Province. Two distinct magmatic Series have been recognized: (1) feldspar-bearing series, ranging from basanite to phonolite, and a volumetrically subordinate (2) feldspar-free series, consisting of melilitite, melafoidite, and haüynophyre. The clinopyroxene compositions of the feldspar-bearing series ranges from diopside to ferro-salite (hedenbergite), and shows, from basanite to phonotephrite, increasing FeO tot, Al 2O 3, and TiO 2 and decreasing of MgO contents. Clinopyroxene in basanites and tephrites has generally high Fe 3+ contents, which is typical for clinopyroxene from the Roman Province. Clinopyroxene of the feldspar-free series shows a more restricted variation in MgO, and has often very high Al 2O 3, FeO tot, and TiO 2 contents. In all the crystals examined the Al 3+ content is high and is present mostly on the T site and for a minor part on the M1 site. The M1-O2 distance shows a good correlation with the R M13+ content; clinopyroxene from basanites (feldspar-bearing series) has the lowest R M13+ and that from melilitite and haüynophyre (feldspar-free series) the highest R M13+ contents. Clinopyroxene crystals from feldspar-free rocks have smaller M1 and larger T polyhedral volumes when compared to those in olivine-melilitites and melilitites (kamafugites) from Umbria, but they show similar polyhedral volumes as clinopyroxene crystals from leucite-bearing rocks. Although clinopyroxene from feldspar-free rocks has small M1 volumes due to the high R 3+ contents, M1 volumes of clinopyroxene from melilitites are larger than expected because of the higher (Fe 3+/Al 3+) M1 values. This larger M1 volume of clinopyroxene in melilitites causes a shortening of and a lengthening of the M2-O3 distance

  6. Tephrochronology of a late quatternary lacustrine record from the monticchio maar (vulture volcano, southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narcisi, Biancamaria

    With the aim of defining the chronological framework of the 51 m deep sedimentary sequence (core D) from Lago Grande di Monticchio (Mt Vulture volcano), macroscopic, microscopic and geochemical investigations have been carried out on the 14 thickest (at least 3 cm) tephra layers recorded in the core. The results indicate that the tephras are related to the main late Quaternary explosive events from Ischia, Vesuvius and the Phlegrean Fields districts of the Campanian area. Following these results, a usable time scale has been obtained, according to which the sequence spans the last 70 ka. Beyond the chronological information, this investigation has made it possible: (a) to identify widespread time-parallel markers for reliable correlations in the Central Mediterranean; (b) to collect useful data about past powerful eruptions, particularly from Vesuvius, for a better assessment of volcanic hazards in Central and Southern Italy.

  7. Dermatological remedies in the traditional pharmacopoeia of Vulture-Alto Bradano, inland southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Quave, Cassandra L; Pieroni, Andrea; Bennett, Bradley C

    2008-01-01

    Background Dermatological remedies make up at least one-third of the traditional pharmacopoeia in southern Italy. The identification of folk remedies for the skin is important both for the preservation of traditional medical knowledge and in the search for novel antimicrobial agents in the treatment of skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). Our goal is to document traditional remedies from botanical, animal, mineral and industrial sources for the topical treatment of skin ailments. In addition to SSTI remedies for humans, we also discuss certain ethnoveterinary applications. Methods Field research was conducted in ten communities in the Vulture-Alto Bradano area of the Basilicata province, southern Italy. We randomly sampled 112 interviewees, stratified by age and gender. After obtaining prior informed consent, we collected data through semi-structured interviews, participant-observation, and small focus groups techniques. Voucher specimens of all cited botanic species were deposited at FTG and HLUC herbaria located in the US and Italy. Results We report the preparation and topical application of 116 remedies derived from 38 plant species. Remedies are used to treat laceration, burn wound, wart, inflammation, rash, dental abscess, furuncle, dermatitis, and other conditions. The pharmacopoeia also includes 49 animal remedies derived from sources such as pigs, slugs, and humans. Ethnoveterinary medicine, which incorporates both animal and plant derived remedies, is addressed. We also examine the recent decline in knowledge regarding the dermatological pharmacopoeia. Conclusion The traditional dermatological pharmacopoeia of Vulture-Alto Bradano is based on a dynamic folk medical construct of natural and spiritual illness and healing. Remedies are used to treat more than 45 skin and soft tissue conditions of both humans and animals. Of the total 165 remedies reported, 110 have never before been published in the mainland southern Italian ethnomedical literature. PMID

  8. Lead toxicity: consequences and interventions in an intensively managed (Gyps coprotheres) vulture colony.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Vinny; Wolter, Kerri; Espie, Ian; Kotze, Antoinette

    2012-09-01

    The National Zoological Gardens of South Africa (NZG) is involved in the ex situ conservation of Gyps coprotheres, the Cape Griffon vulture (CGV) and houses 24 birds in a 100-yr-old aviary. Following the death of one vulture with high liver lead concentrations, an investigation was launched to ascertain the source(s) and consequences of lead toxicity in this breeding colony. Whole blood from 24 CGV, paint from the enclosure, water, and soil sampled at various locations within the enclosure were evaluated for their lead concentration, and data were gathered from NZG's medical records. The lead concentration in the paint, water, and enclosure soil was 5,100 microg/g, 0.5 microg/dl, and 72.48 +/- 21.83 microg/g, respectively. The whole-blood lead concentrations were 56.58 +/- 11 microg/dl. The breeding history of six pairs within the contaminated enclosure since 2002 showed 45 eggs laid, of which 44% were infertile and 24% successfully reared. The medical records revealed evidence of osteodystrophy despite adequate nutrition. As intervention measures, six birds were treated with Ca2+EDTA and the topsoil inside the enclosure was replaced. As a result, the lead concentration in the enclosure soil dropped to 14.74 +/- 14.39 microg/g, and the whole-blood lead concentrations declined to 42.75 +/- 11.64 microg/dl. It was concluded that lead concentrations in whole blood in excess of 100 microg/dl leads to clinical signs of lead toxicity in the CGV. Lower levels appear to interfere mainly with reproductive potential.

  9. Estimating updraft velocity components over large spatial scales: contrasting migration strategies of golden eagles and turkey vultures.

    PubMed

    Bohrer, Gil; Brandes, David; Mandel, James T; Bildstein, Keith L; Miller, Tricia A; Lanzone, Michael; Katzner, Todd; Maisonneuve, Charles; Tremblay, Junior A

    2012-02-01

    Soaring birds migrate in massive numbers worldwide. These migrations are complex and dynamic phenomena, strongly influenced by meteorological conditions that produce thermal and orographic uplift as the birds traverse the landscape. Herein we report on how methods were developed to estimate the strength of thermal and orographic uplift using publicly available digital weather and topography datasets at continental scale. We apply these methods to contrast flight strategies of two morphologically similar but behaviourally different species: golden eagle, Aquila chrysaetos, and turkey vulture, Cathartes aura, during autumn migration across eastern North America tracked using GPS tags. We show that turkey vultures nearly exclusively used thermal lift, whereas golden eagles primarily use orographic lift during migration. It has not been shown previously that migration tracks are affected by species-specific specialisation to a particular uplift mode. The methods introduced herein to estimate uplift components and test for differences in weather use can be applied to study movement of any soaring species.

  10. Estimating updraft velocity components over large spatial scales: contrasting migration strategies of golden eagles and turkey vultures.

    PubMed

    Bohrer, Gil; Brandes, David; Mandel, James T; Bildstein, Keith L; Miller, Tricia A; Lanzone, Michael; Katzner, Todd; Maisonneuve, Charles; Tremblay, Junior A

    2012-02-01

    Soaring birds migrate in massive numbers worldwide. These migrations are complex and dynamic phenomena, strongly influenced by meteorological conditions that produce thermal and orographic uplift as the birds traverse the landscape. Herein we report on how methods were developed to estimate the strength of thermal and orographic uplift using publicly available digital weather and topography datasets at continental scale. We apply these methods to contrast flight strategies of two morphologically similar but behaviourally different species: golden eagle, Aquila chrysaetos, and turkey vulture, Cathartes aura, during autumn migration across eastern North America tracked using GPS tags. We show that turkey vultures nearly exclusively used thermal lift, whereas golden eagles primarily use orographic lift during migration. It has not been shown previously that migration tracks are affected by species-specific specialisation to a particular uplift mode. The methods introduced herein to estimate uplift components and test for differences in weather use can be applied to study movement of any soaring species. PMID:22077120

  11. Impact of the California lead ammunition ban on reducing lead exposure in golden eagles and turkey vultures.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Terra R; Bloom, Peter H; Torres, Steve G; Hernandez, Yvette Z; Poppenga, Robert H; Boyce, Walter M; Johnson, Christine K

    2011-04-06

    Predatory and scavenging birds may be exposed to high levels of lead when they ingest shot or bullet fragments embedded in the tissues of animals injured or killed with lead ammunition. Lead poisoning was a contributing factor in the decline of the endangered California condor population in the 1980s, and remains one of the primary factors threatening species recovery. In response to this threat, a ban on the use of lead ammunition for most hunting activities in the range of the condor in California was implemented in 2008. Monitoring of lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds is essential for assessing the effectiveness of the lead ammunition ban in reducing lead exposure in these species. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of the regulation in decreasing blood lead concentration in two avian sentinels, golden eagles and turkey vultures, within the condor range in California. We compared blood lead concentration in golden eagles and turkey vultures prior to the lead ammunition ban and one year following implementation of the ban. Lead exposure in both golden eagles and turkey vultures declined significantly post-ban. Our findings provide evidence that hunter compliance with lead ammunition regulations was sufficient to reduce lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds at our study sites.

  12. Impact of the California Lead Ammunition Ban on Reducing Lead Exposure in Golden Eagles and Turkey Vultures

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Terra R.; Bloom, Peter H.; Torres, Steve G.; Hernandez, Yvette Z.; Poppenga, Robert H.; Boyce, Walter M.; Johnson, Christine K.

    2011-01-01

    Predatory and scavenging birds may be exposed to high levels of lead when they ingest shot or bullet fragments embedded in the tissues of animals injured or killed with lead ammunition. Lead poisoning was a contributing factor in the decline of the endangered California condor population in the 1980s, and remains one of the primary factors threatening species recovery. In response to this threat, a ban on the use of lead ammunition for most hunting activities in the range of the condor in California was implemented in 2008. Monitoring of lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds is essential for assessing the effectiveness of the lead ammunition ban in reducing lead exposure in these species. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of the regulation in decreasing blood lead concentration in two avian sentinels, golden eagles and turkey vultures, within the condor range in California. We compared blood lead concentration in golden eagles and turkey vultures prior to the lead ammunition ban and one year following implementation of the ban. Lead exposure in both golden eagles and turkey vultures declined significantly post-ban. Our findings provide evidence that hunter compliance with lead ammunition regulations was sufficient to reduce lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds at our study sites. PMID:21494329

  13. Nyerereite from carbonatite rocks at Vulture volcano: implications for mantle metasomatism and petrogenesis of alkali carbonate melts Research Article

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoppa, Francesco; Jones, Adrian; Sharygin, Victor

    2009-06-01

    Vulture volcano displays a wide range of mafic to alkaline, carbonate-, and/or CaO-rich volcanic rocks, with subvolcanic and plutonic rocks together with mantle xenoliths in pyroclastic ejecta. The roles of magmatic volatiles such as CO2, S, and Cl have been determined from compositions and trapping temperatures of inclusions in phenocrysts, which include the Na-K-Ca-carbonate nyerereite within melilite. We surmise that this alkali carbonate crystallised from an appropriate carbonatitic melt at relatively high temperature. Carbonatitic metasomatic features are traceable throughout many of the mantle xenoliths, and various carbonatitic components are found in the late stage extrusive suite. There is no evidence that alkali carbonatite developed as a separate magma, but it may have been an important evolutionary stage. We compare the rare occurrence of nyerereite at Vulture with other carbonatites and with an unaltered kimberlite from the Udachnaya pipe. We review the evidence at Vulture for associated carbonatitic metasomatism in the mantle, and we suggest that low viscosity alkali carbonatitic melts may have a primary and much deeper origin than previously considered.

  14. Groundwater recharge areas of a volcanic aquifer system inferred from hydraulic, hydrogeochemical and stable isotope data: Mount Vulture, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, Serena; Paternoster, Michele; Kohfahl, Claus; Pekdeger, Asaf; Meyer, Hanno; Hubberten, Hans Wolfgang; Spilotro, Giuseppe; Mongelli, Giovanni

    2011-02-01

    Environmental isotope techniques, hydrogeochemical analysis and hydraulic data are employed to identify the main recharge areas of the Mt. Vulture hydrogeological basin, one of the most important aquifers of southern Italy. The groundwaters are derived from seepage of rainwater, flowing from the highest to the lowest elevations through the shallow volcanic weathered host-rock fracture zones. Samples of shallow and deep groundwater were collected at 48 locations with elevations ranging from 352 to 1,100 m above sea level (a.s.l.), for stable isotope (δ18O, δD) and major ion analyses. A complete dataset of available hydraulic information has been integrated with measurements carried out in the present study. Inferred recharge elevations, estimated on the basis of the local vertical isotopic gradient of δ18O, range between 550 and 1,200 m a.s.l. The isotope pattern of the Quaternary aquifer reflects the spatial separation of different recharge sources. Knowledge of the local hydrogeological setting was the starting point for a detailed hydrogeochemical and isotopic study to define the recharge and discharge patterns identifying the groundwater flow pathways of the Mt. Vulture basin. The integration of all the data allowed for the tracing of the groundwater flows of the Mt. Vulture basin.

  15. Impact of the California lead ammunition ban on reducing lead exposure in golden eagles and turkey vultures.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Terra R; Bloom, Peter H; Torres, Steve G; Hernandez, Yvette Z; Poppenga, Robert H; Boyce, Walter M; Johnson, Christine K

    2011-01-01

    Predatory and scavenging birds may be exposed to high levels of lead when they ingest shot or bullet fragments embedded in the tissues of animals injured or killed with lead ammunition. Lead poisoning was a contributing factor in the decline of the endangered California condor population in the 1980s, and remains one of the primary factors threatening species recovery. In response to this threat, a ban on the use of lead ammunition for most hunting activities in the range of the condor in California was implemented in 2008. Monitoring of lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds is essential for assessing the effectiveness of the lead ammunition ban in reducing lead exposure in these species. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of the regulation in decreasing blood lead concentration in two avian sentinels, golden eagles and turkey vultures, within the condor range in California. We compared blood lead concentration in golden eagles and turkey vultures prior to the lead ammunition ban and one year following implementation of the ban. Lead exposure in both golden eagles and turkey vultures declined significantly post-ban. Our findings provide evidence that hunter compliance with lead ammunition regulations was sufficient to reduce lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds at our study sites. PMID:21494329

  16. African Aesthetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abiodun, Rowland

    2001-01-01

    No single traditional discipline can adequately supply answers to the many unresolved questions in African art history. Because of the aesthetic, cultural, historical, and, not infrequently, political biases, already built into the conception and development of Western art history, the discipline of art history as defined and practiced in the West…

  17. "African Connection."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Cathy; And Others

    This interdisciplinary unit provides students in grades kindergarten through seventh grade an opportunity to understand diversity through a study of Africa as a diverse continent. The project is designed to provide all elementary students with cultural enrichment by exposing them to African music, art, storytelling, and movement. This project can…

  18. Carbon sources and biogeochemical processes in Monticchio maar lakes, Mt Vulture volcano (southern Italy): New geochemical constrains of active degassing of mantle derived fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caracausi, A.; Nuccio, P. M.; Favara, R.; Grassa, F.

    2012-04-01

    Since the catastrophic releases of carbon dioxide from the African volcanic lakes Nyos and Monoun in the 1980s, the scientific community draw attention towards all those crater lakes able to accumulate massive amount of CO2, which could be catastrophically released following overturn of their deep waters. This implies a quantification of the gas accumulation rate into the lakes and the knowledge of recharge processes and their evolution in time. In fact the gaseous recharge in a lake occurs at alarming rates, when an active degassing of hazardous nature volatiles occurs into the lakes and the structure and dynamic of the lake permit the accumulation of gases into the water. The Monticchio lakes, LPM and LGM, occupies two maar craters formed during the last volcanic activity of Mt. Vulture occurred ˜ 140 000 years ago. LPM is a permanently stratified lake, with a thick deep volume of stagnant water and a shallower layer affected by seasonal overturn. On the contrary LGM is a monomittic lake with a complete overturn of the water during winter time. The major dissolved volatiles are methane and CO2. Dissolved helium is in trace amounts and its isotopic signature ranges between 6.1 and 5.3 Ra (Ra is the atmospheric 3He/4He isotopic ratio). These values are within the range of those measured in the olivine fluid inclusions (both of mantle xenoliths and dispersed in the pyroclastics) of LPM maar ejecta. During three years of investigations we observed that dissolved methane in the deep waters of LGM drastically decreases in wintertime as consequence of the complete overturn of the water. The isotopic signature of methane in the deepest portions of LGM (both sediment and water) is quite stable with time and highlights a biogenic origin, being produced both by acetate fermentation and by CO2-reduction in variable proportions. In contrast, a higher contribution of methane produced via CO2 reduction characterizes sediments at shallower depths. At LPM, there is a great

  19. Ar-Ar investigations on Quarternary volcanic sequences of Monte Vulture (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buettner, A.; Principe, C.; Villa, I. M.

    2003-04-01

    Volcanic sanidines and phlogopites from feldspathoid- or sanidine-bearing volcanic sequences of Monte Vulture (Southern Italy) were analysed using Ar-Ar stepwise heating. In all samples phlogopite and sanidine are internally inhomogeneous as observed in a plot of Cl/K ratio vs step-age. At least two phases that are degassed during different temperature steps can be distinguished, resulting in internal discordance. Hence, all samples are affected by impurities and have to be treated as heterochemical mixtures. These effects are strongest in phlogopite. The high uncertainty of the calculated ages mirrors the statistically significant age discordance. The calculation of average ages was focused on isochemical steps. Isochron calculations necessarily give less precise ages because of the excessive scatter of datapoints. Moreover, most coarse grained phlogopites could contain excess 40Ar (as suggested by non-atmospheric intercepts in isochron plots) which could be of mantle origin. The analysed phlogopites from carbonatitic and melilite-foiditolite rocks of the upper stratigraphical sequence of Monte Vulture are Mg-rich, which indicates a mantle provenance (Stoppa and Woolley, 1997). All calculated phlogopite ages have, therefore, to be considered with caution. One sample, PG5, contains both sanidine and matrix phlogopite. This offers the possibility to directly compare the analytical results and further decipher possible inconsistencies. Ages were calculated as the average of isochemical steps, and errors are indicated at the 95% confidence level. Sanidine gives a weighted average age of 752±13 ka in agreement with the phlogopite age of 801±88 ka. In comparison to these average step ages, an isochron over five sanidine-steps yields an age of 737±35 ka (MSWD=1.5) and an atmospheric intercept of 295±49. The eruptive time-span covered by the analysed samples is 75±20 ka, confirming that the eruption history of Monte Vulture has been organised in clusters of activity

  20. Comments on: Carbonatites in a subduction system: The Pleistocene alvikites from Mt. Vulture (southern Italy) by d'Orazio et al., (2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoppa, F.; Principe, C.; Giannandrea, P.

    2008-07-01

    [D'Orazio, M., Innocenti, F., Tonarini, S., Doglioni, C., 2007. Carbonatites in a subduction system: the Pleistocene alvikites from Mt. Vulture (southern Italy). Lithos 98, 313-334] describe a new finding of alvikite Ca-carbonatite at Vulture. They stress its importance as being the first carbonatite to be discovered in a subduction environment. They suggest that this rock is different from the other Italian carbonatites, considered as 'rocks sharing a carbonatitic affinity', which are radiogenic and chemically diluted by addition of sedimentary limestone. They note that Vulture 'alvikite' is not diluted and is very unradiogenic with respect to other Italian carbonatites. However, they maintain that Vulture 'alvikite' carbonate is derived from subducted limestones. We present an account of the field relationships relating to the above-mentioned rocks, setting the geological and petrographic records straight and describing pyroclastic rocks. We did not find that these rocks are formed from alvikite dykes or lava, but instead recognised them to be a continuous blanket of 'flaggy', welded tuff. We found that the rocks consist of physically separated melilitite and carbonatite juvenile lapilli settled into a carbonatite ash matrix form the rock. We disagree with the geochemical interpretation of the rock by [D'Orazio, M., Innocenti, F., Tonarini, S., Doglioni, C., 2007. Carbonatites in a subduction system: the Pleistocene alvikites from Mt. Vulture (southern Italy). Lithos 98, 313-334], and are particularly concerned by their conclusion of its carbonate origin. We remark on the rock's geodynamic assignment in the frame of an extensional tectonic setting, also referring to the other Italian carbonatite occurrences. We reject any ad hoc modified subduction as a direct source of Vulture and Italian carbonatites.

  1. Characterization of exo-s, exo-u, and alg virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from migratory Egyptian vultures from India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pradeep; Faridi, Farah; Mir, Irfan A; Sharma, Sandeep K

    2014-01-01

    This study of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in fecal droppings of migratory Egyptian vultures (Neophron p. percnopterus) revealed eight positive samples (n=25) by a 16S rRNA gene-based PCR in two consecutive winter seasons. Disk diffusion sensitivity testing revealed three multiple antimicrobial resistant (MAR) isolates. Genotypic characterization showed mutually exclusive exo-s and exo-u virulence genes in five and three isolates, respectively, while the alg gene was present in all of the isolates. MAR isolates with virulence genes were detected in both seasons. The Egyptian vultures could potentially be vectors of pathogenic and MAR P. aeruginosa, thereby affecting regional control and preventive measures. PMID:25317261

  2. Characterization of exo-s, exo-u, and alg virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from migratory Egyptian vultures from India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pradeep; Faridi, Farah; Mir, Irfan A; Sharma, Sandeep K

    2014-01-01

    This study of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in fecal droppings of migratory Egyptian vultures (Neophron p. percnopterus) revealed eight positive samples (n=25) by a 16S rRNA gene-based PCR in two consecutive winter seasons. Disk diffusion sensitivity testing revealed three multiple antimicrobial resistant (MAR) isolates. Genotypic characterization showed mutually exclusive exo-s and exo-u virulence genes in five and three isolates, respectively, while the alg gene was present in all of the isolates. MAR isolates with virulence genes were detected in both seasons. The Egyptian vultures could potentially be vectors of pathogenic and MAR P. aeruginosa, thereby affecting regional control and preventive measures.

  3. Characterization of an avianpox virus isolated from an Andean condor (Vultur gryphus).

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Joong; Schnitzlein, William M; McAloose, Denise; Pessier, Allan P; Tripathy, Deoki N

    2003-10-30

    A novel pox virus, condorpox virus (CPV) isolated from the spleen of an Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) by inoculation of chorioallantoic membranes (CAM) of specific pathogen free (SPF) chicken embryos was compared biologically, antigenically and genetically with fowlpox virus (FPV), the type species of the genus Avipoxvirus. Susceptible chickens inoculated with CPV developed only mild localized lesions but were not protected against subsequent challenge with FPV. Based on Western blotting, in addition to the presence of cross-reacting antigens, distinct differences in antigenic profiles of CPV and FPV were observed. Sequence analysis of a 4.5 kb HindIII fragment of CPV genomic DNA revealed the presence of eight co-linear genes corresponding to FPV open reading frame (ORF)193-198, 201 and 203. Interestingly, reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) sequences present in the genome of all FPV were absent in CPV. Although, the results of a phylogenic analysis suggested that CPV is a member of the genus Avipoxvirus, its unique antigenic, biologic and genetic characteristics distinguish it from FPV to be considered as a new member of this genus.

  4. Clostridium vulturis sp. nov., isolated from the intestine of the cinereous vulture (Aegypius monachus).

    PubMed

    Paek, Jayoung; Lee, Mi-Hwa; Kim, Byung-Chun; Sang, Byoung-In; Paek, Woon Kee; Jin, Tae-Eun; Shin, Yeseul; Park, In-Soon; Chang, Young-Hyo

    2014-09-01

    A Gram-stain positive, strict anaerobe, spore-forming, motile rod-shaped bacterial strain with peritrichous flagella, designated YMB-57(T), was isolated from the intestine of a cinereous vulture (Aegypius monachus) in Korea. Strain YMB-57(T) was found to show optimal growth at 37 °C, pH 7.5 and 1.0 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain YMB-57(T) belongs to the genus Clostridium and is most closely related to the type strains of Clostridium subterminale (96.9 % sequence similarity), Clostridium thiosulfatireducens (96.7 %) and Clostridium sulfidigenes (96.6 %). The main fermentation end-products identified following growth in PYG medium were acetate, butyrate, ethanol, propanol, carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Peptone was converted to ethanol, and butanol, whereas glucose was fermented to ethanol. The major cellular fatty acids were identified as C16:0, C18:1 ω9c, and C18:1 ω9c DMA and the DNA G+C content was determined to be 34.0 mol%. Phenotypic and phylogenetic differences indicate that strain YMB-57(T) is distinct from other Clostridium species. It is proposed that strain YMB-57(T) be classified as the type strain of a novel species of the genus Clostridium, with the name Clostridium vulturis sp. nov. The type strain is YMB-57(T) (=KCTC 15114(T) = JCM 17998(T)).

  5. Compositions of magmas and carbonate silicate liquid immiscibility in the Vulture alkaline igneous complex, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovova, I. P.; Girnis, A. V.; Kogarko, L. N.; Kononkova, N. N.; Stoppa, F.; Rosatelli, G.

    2005-11-01

    This paper presents a study of melt and fluid inclusions in minerals of an olivine-leucite phonolitic nephelinite bomb from the Monticchio Lake Formation, Vulture. The rock contains 50 vol.% clinopyroxene, 12% leucite, 10% alkali feldspars, 8% hauyne/sodalite, 7.5% nepheline, 4.5% apatite, 3.2% olivine, 2% opaques, 2.6% plagioclase, and < 1% amphibole. We distinguished three generations of clinopyroxene differing in composition and morphology. All the phenocrysts bear primary and secondary melt and fluid inclusions, which recorded successive stages of melt evolution. The most primitive melts were found in the most magnesian olivine and the earliest clinopyroxene phenocrysts. The melts are near primary mantle liquids and are rich in Ca, Mg and incompatible and volatile elements. Thermometric experiments with the melt inclusions suggested that melt crystallization began at temperatures of about 1200 °C. Because of the partial leakage of all primary fluid inclusions, the pressure of crystallization is constrained only to minimum of 3.5 kbar. Combined silicate-carbonate melt inclusions were found in apatite phenocrysts. They are indicative of carbonate-silicate liquid immiscibility, which occurred during magma evolution. Large hydrous secondary melt inclusions were found in olivine and clinopyroxene. The inclusions in the phenocrysts recorded an open-system magma evolution during its rise towards the surface including crystallization, degassing, oxidation, and liquid immiscibility processes.

  6. Stable isotope ratios in meteoric recharge and groundwater at Mt. Vulture volcano, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paternoster, M.; Liotta, M.; Favara, R.

    2008-01-01

    SummaryA rain gauge network consisting of five sites located at different altitudes, ranging from 320 to 1285 m.a.s.l., was installed at Mt. Vulture volcano (southern Italy). Rain water samples were collected monthly over a two-year period and their isotopic composition (δ 18O and δD) was analyzed. During the same period, circulating groundwater was sampled from 24 springs and wells distributed throughout the study area. Monthly isotopic composition values were used to determine the local meteoric water line (LMWL). Its slope is slightly lower than the relationship defined by Longinelli and Selmo (Longinelli, A., Selmo, E., 2003. Isotopic composition of precipitation in Italy: a first overall map. J. Hydrol. 270, 75-88) for southern Italy. The groundwater samples analyzed were distributed essentially along the LMWL. The weighted local meteoric water line (WLMWL), defined through the mean values weighted by the rainfall amount, however, may define in a short range the meteoric end-member in the local hydrological cycle more precisely. Since most of the groundwater sampling locations do not show seasonal variations in their stable isotope values, the flow system appears to be relatively homogeneous. The mean altitude of the recharge by rainfall infiltration was estimated on the basis of the local vertical isotopic gradient δ 18O. A few springs, which show anomalous isotopic values, reveal more regional circulation systems, associated with tectonic structures responsible for the ascent of deeper water.

  7. Melanin-based color variation in the Bearded Vulture suggests a thermoregulatory function.

    PubMed

    Margalida, Antoni; Negro, Juan José; Galván, Ismael

    2008-01-01

    We document a case of intraspecific variation in plumage colouration in Bearded Vultures that may have arisen as a functional response to climate conditions. Two subspecies, Gypaetus barbatus barbatus (Eurasia and North Africa populations) and Gypaetus barbatus meridionalis (Eastern and Southern Africa), have been described on the basis of plumage colour differences. The plumage of G. b. barbatus tends to be darker in comparison with that of G. b. meridionalis. The plumage of the two subspecies differ in the feathering of the tarsi (more abundant in G. b. barbatus) and presence/absence of dark ear tufts (only present in G. b. barbatus, and this being the most useful character to distinguish adult specimens of both subspecies). When exposing skins under the sun or to electric bulbs in a cold room, temperature increases were significantly higher in the black ear tufts than in the frontal region of the head, suggesting that the melanized ear patch of G. b. barbatus serves, at least, to heat up the air entering the ear channel and perhaps also the underlying skin. In addition, G. b. barbatus, which inhabits mountainous regions with harsh and long winters, would benefit more from feathered tarsi to prevent heat loss through the legs. PMID:18060818

  8. Long-term effects of lead poisoning on bone mineralization in vultures exposed to ammunition sources.

    PubMed

    Gangoso, Laura; Alvarez-Lloret, Pedro; Rodríguez-Navarro, Alejandro A B; Mateo, Rafael; Hiraldo, Fernando; Donázar, José Antonio

    2009-02-01

    Long-lived species are particularly susceptible to bioaccumulation of lead in bone tissues. In this paper we gain insights into the sublethal effects of lead contamination on Egyptian vultures (Neophron percnopterus). Our approach was done on the comparison of two populations (Canary Islands and Iberian Peninsula) differing in exposures to the ingestion of lead ammunition. Blood lead levels were higher in the island population (Canary Islands range: 5.10-1780 microg L(-1) n=137; Iberian Peninsula range: 5.60-217.30 microg L(-1) n=32) showing clear seasonal trends, peaking during the hunting season. Moreover, males were more susceptible to lead accumulation than females. Bone lead concentration increased with age, reflecting a bioaccumulation effect. The bone composition was significatively altered by this contaminant: the mineralization degree decreased as lead concentration levels increased. These results demonstrate the existence of long-term effects of lead poisoning, which may be of importance in the declines of threatened populations of long-lived species exposed to this contaminant. PMID:18995938

  9. Obesity and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  10. The Safety and Pharmacokinetics of Carprofen, Flunixin and Phenylbutazone in the Cape Vulture (Gyps coprotheres) following Oral Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Fourie, Tamsyn; Cromarty, Duncan; Duncan, Neil; Wolter, Kerri; Naidoo, Vinny

    2015-01-01

    The following study evaluates the overt toxic potential of carprofen (CRP), flunixin (FXN) and phenylbutazone (PBZ) in Old world vultures in relation to historic toxicity data for diclofenac and ketoprofen, with the Cape vulture (Gyps coprotheres) being the indicator species. The toxic potential of a single oral dose of CRP (11.5 mg/kg), FXN (1 mg/kg),PBZ (1.7 mg/kg) or water was evaluated by means of a four-way parallel study (n = 2), as means of ascertaining if these drugs were as toxic as diclofenac in the vulture. No unscheduled deaths or pathological lesions were noted following exposure. Clinical signs of lethargy and depression were, however, noted in one CRP, two FXN and one PBZ treated birds. Mild reversible inhibition of UA excretion was evident in all three groups, although UA remained within the population reference interval in contrast to the effects previously described for diclofenac and ketoprofen. All treatment groups had a drug concentration responsive increase in alanine transferase activity. CRP, FXN and PBZ were characterised by a maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of 1051.8 ± 620.7 ng/ml, 335.9 ± 36.3 ng/ml and 11150 ± 2474.9 ng/ml at 4 ± 4.3, 0.45 ± 0.02 and 5.3 ± 5.2 hours (Tmax) respectively and a half-life of elimination of 13.3 ±5, 1.8±1 and 18.7 ±11.4 hours respectively. While we could not demonstrate a lethal effect of the tested substances, the presence of toxic clinical signs, clinical pathological changes and/or long half-lives of elimination suggests that all three drugs have a potential for toxicity in a larger population or on repeat administration. In conclusion while the studied substances were not as overtly toxic as diclofenac, they are of safety concern. PMID:26512724

  11. The Safety and Pharmacokinetics of Carprofen, Flunixin and Phenylbutazone in the Cape Vulture (Gyps coprotheres) following Oral Exposure.

    PubMed

    Fourie, Tamsyn; Cromarty, Duncan; Duncan, Neil; Wolter, Kerri; Naidoo, Vinny

    2015-01-01

    The following study evaluates the overt toxic potential of carprofen (CRP), flunixin (FXN) and phenylbutazone (PBZ) in Old world vultures in relation to historic toxicity data for diclofenac and ketoprofen, with the Cape vulture (Gyps coprotheres) being the indicator species. The toxic potential of a single oral dose of CRP (11.5 mg/kg), FXN (1 mg/kg),PBZ (1.7 mg/kg) or water was evaluated by means of a four-way parallel study (n = 2), as means of ascertaining if these drugs were as toxic as diclofenac in the vulture. No unscheduled deaths or pathological lesions were noted following exposure. Clinical signs of lethargy and depression were, however, noted in one CRP, two FXN and one PBZ treated birds. Mild reversible inhibition of UA excretion was evident in all three groups, although UA remained within the population reference interval in contrast to the effects previously described for diclofenac and ketoprofen. All treatment groups had a drug concentration responsive increase in alanine transferase activity. CRP, FXN and PBZ were characterised by a maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of 1051.8 ± 620.7 ng/ml, 335.9 ± 36.3 ng/ml and 11150 ± 2474.9 ng/ml at 4 ± 4.3, 0.45 ± 0.02 and 5.3 ± 5.2 hours (Tmax) respectively and a half-life of elimination of 13.3 ±5, 1.8±1 and 18.7 ±11.4 hours respectively. While we could not demonstrate a lethal effect of the tested substances, the presence of toxic clinical signs, clinical pathological changes and/or long half-lives of elimination suggests that all three drugs have a potential for toxicity in a larger population or on repeat administration. In conclusion while the studied substances were not as overtly toxic as diclofenac, they are of safety concern.

  12. Assessing the risk of lead exposure for the conservation of the endangered Pyrenean bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) population.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Mauro; Margalida, Antoni

    2009-10-01

    Acute and chronic lead (Pb) poisoning have been recognized as some of the most important causes of mortality for raptors worldwide. We simultaneously examined the recent, medium-term and long-term lead exposure of the endangered bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) from the Pyrenees (northern Spain and southern France). One hundred and one blood samples from 87 captured individuals and tissue samples (liver and bone) from a further 43 dead individuals were analyzed for lead residues. The majority of individuals examined had very low lead concentrations in blood, liver and bone. However, two individuals showed elevated blood Pb levels, two individuals showed liver lead concentrations indicative of excessive lead exposure and one individual showed bone lead levels indicative of chronic lead poisoning, suggesting that the Pyrenean population is not free from the risk of poisoning. We found that Pb exposure was significantly higher in adult individuals as well as in the northern (France) and eastern (Catalonia) range of their distribution. These differences could be related to different feeding habits between age classes (pre-adults are more linked to supplementary feeding sites) and differences in hunting practices between regions (in some regions, carcasses and offal of game animals are not retrieved). Blood, liver and bone lead levels found were slightly higher during the hunting season than outside of the hunting season. Lead presents an unnecessary threat to adult birds and the only way to remove this risk is to ban all hunting with lead within the range of distribution of the endangered bearded vulture. Acute and chronic lead poisoning should be considered in differential diagnosis in any diseased or injured wild bearded vulture, especially subadult and adult individuals, and the potential risk of Pb poisoning should be considered in future reintroduction programs.

  13. The Safety and Pharmacokinetics of Carprofen, Flunixin and Phenylbutazone in the Cape Vulture (Gyps coprotheres) following Oral Exposure.

    PubMed

    Fourie, Tamsyn; Cromarty, Duncan; Duncan, Neil; Wolter, Kerri; Naidoo, Vinny

    2015-01-01

    The following study evaluates the overt toxic potential of carprofen (CRP), flunixin (FXN) and phenylbutazone (PBZ) in Old world vultures in relation to historic toxicity data for diclofenac and ketoprofen, with the Cape vulture (Gyps coprotheres) being the indicator species. The toxic potential of a single oral dose of CRP (11.5 mg/kg), FXN (1 mg/kg),PBZ (1.7 mg/kg) or water was evaluated by means of a four-way parallel study (n = 2), as means of ascertaining if these drugs were as toxic as diclofenac in the vulture. No unscheduled deaths or pathological lesions were noted following exposure. Clinical signs of lethargy and depression were, however, noted in one CRP, two FXN and one PBZ treated birds. Mild reversible inhibition of UA excretion was evident in all three groups, although UA remained within the population reference interval in contrast to the effects previously described for diclofenac and ketoprofen. All treatment groups had a drug concentration responsive increase in alanine transferase activity. CRP, FXN and PBZ were characterised by a maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of 1051.8 ± 620.7 ng/ml, 335.9 ± 36.3 ng/ml and 11150 ± 2474.9 ng/ml at 4 ± 4.3, 0.45 ± 0.02 and 5.3 ± 5.2 hours (Tmax) respectively and a half-life of elimination of 13.3 ±5, 1.8±1 and 18.7 ±11.4 hours respectively. While we could not demonstrate a lethal effect of the tested substances, the presence of toxic clinical signs, clinical pathological changes and/or long half-lives of elimination suggests that all three drugs have a potential for toxicity in a larger population or on repeat administration. In conclusion while the studied substances were not as overtly toxic as diclofenac, they are of safety concern. PMID:26512724

  14. Susceptibility to Infection and Immune Response in Insular and Continental Populations of Egyptian Vulture: Implications for Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Gangoso, Laura; Grande, Juan M.; Lemus, Jesús A.; Blanco, Guillermo; Grande, Javier; Donázar, José A.

    2009-01-01

    Background A generalized decline in populations of Old World avian scavengers is occurring on a global scale. The main cause of the observed crisis in continental populations of these birds should be looked for in the interaction between two factors - changes in livestock management, including the increased use of pharmaceutical products, and disease. Insular vertebrates seem to be especially susceptible to diseases induced by the arrival of exotic pathogens, a process often favored by human activities, and sedentary and highly dense insular scavengers populations may be thus especially exposed to infection by such pathogens. Here, we compare pathogen prevalence and immune response in insular and continental populations of the globally endangered Egyptian vulture under similar livestock management scenarios, but with different ecological and evolutionary perspectives. Methods/Principal Findings Adult, immature, and fledgling vultures from the Canary Islands and the Iberian Peninsula were sampled to determine a) the prevalence of seven pathogen taxa and b) their immunocompetence, as measured by monitoring techniques (white blood cells counts and immunoglobulins). In the Canarian population, pathogen prevalence was higher and, in addition, an association among pathogens was apparent, contrary to the situation detected in continental populations. Despite that, insular fledglings showed lower leukocyte profiles than continental birds and Canarian fledglings infected by Chlamydophila psittaci showed poorer cellular immune response. Conclusions/Significance A combination of environmental and ecological factors may contribute to explain the high susceptibility to infection found in insular vultures. The scenario described here may be similar in other insular systems where populations of carrion-eaters are in strong decline and are seriously threatened. Higher susceptibility to infection may be a further factor contributing decisively to the extinction of island scavengers

  15. Trace element and isotopic variations from Mt. Vulture to Campanian volcanoes: constraints for slab detachment and mantle inflow beneath southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Astis, G.; Kempton, P. D.; Peccerillo, A.; Wu, T. W.

    2006-03-01

    New Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic ratios and trace element data for volcanic mafic rocks outcropping along a E-W transect in southern Italy, from Mt. Vulture to Neapolitan volcanoes, are reported. The variation of LILE/HFSE, HFSE/HFSE and radiogenic isotopes along this transect indicates that all of these volcanoes contain both intra-plate and subduction-related signatures, with the former decreasing from Mt. Vulture to Campanian volcanoes. New data are also reported for the Paleocene alkaline rocks from Pietre Nere (Apulia foreland), which show isotopic ratios mostly overlapping the values for Mediterranean intra-plate volcanoes as well as the Eocene-Oligocene alkaline mafic lavas from the northern Adria plate. Pietre Nere provides evidence for an OIB mantle composition of FOZO-type, free of subduction influences, that is present beneath the Adria plate (Africa) before its collision with Europe. After this collision, and formation of the southern Apennines, westward inflow of mantle from the Adria plate to the Campanian area occurred, as a consequence of slab break off. Interaction of subduction components with inflowing Adria mantle generated hybrid sources beneath the Vulture-Campania area, which can explain the compositional features of both Mt. Vulture and the Campanian mafic rocks. Therefore, mafic magmas from these volcanoes represent variable degrees of mixing between different mantle components.

  16. Africans in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Ayanna; Spangler, Earl

    This book introduces African-American history and culture to children. The first Africans in America came from many different regions and cultures, but became united in this country by being black, African, and slaves. Once in America, Africans began a long struggle for freedom which still continues. Slavery, the Civil War, emancipation, and the…

  17. Therapy with African Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwadiora, Emeka

    1996-01-01

    Informs helping professionals about the unique history and challenges of African families to guide them toward providing ethnically sensitive psychological services to African immigrant families in need. African families undergo great stress when faced with the alienation of being Black and African in a Euro-American culture. (SLD)

  18. African Outreach Workshop 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Nancy J.

    This report discusses the 1974 African Outreach Workshop planned and coordinated by the African Studies Program at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Its major aim was to assist teachers in developing curriculum units on African using materials available in their local community. A second aim was for the African Studies Program to…

  19. Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) in Ecuador: Geographic Distribution, Population Size and Extinction Risk.

    PubMed

    Naveda-Rodríguez, Adrián; Vargas, Félix Hernán; Kohn, Sebastián; Zapata-Ríos, Galo

    2016-01-01

    The Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) in Ecuador is classified as Critically Endangered. Before 2015, standardized and systematic estimates of geographic distribution, population size and structure were not available for this species, hampering the assessment of its current status and hindering the design and implementation of effective conservation actions. In this study, we performed the first quantitative assessment of geographic distribution, population size and population viability of Andean Condor in Ecuador. We used a methodological approach that included an ecological niche model to study geographic distribution, a simultaneous survey of 70 roosting sites to estimate population size and a population viability analysis (PVA) for the next 100 years. Geographic distribution in the form of extent of occurrence was 49 725 km2. During a two-day census, 93 Andean Condors were recorded and a population of 94 to 102 individuals was estimated. In this population, adult-to-immature ratio was 1:0.5. In the modeled PVA scenarios, the probability of extinction, mean time to extinction and minimum population size varied from zero to 100%, 63 years and 193 individuals, respectively. Habitat loss is the greatest threat to the conservation of Andean Condor populations in Ecuador. Population size reduction in scenarios that included habitat loss began within the first 15 years of this threat. Population reinforcement had no effects on the recovery of Andean Condor populations given the current status of the species in Ecuador. The population size estimate presented in this study is the lower than those reported previously in other countries where the species occur. The inferences derived from the population viability analysis have implications for Condor management in Ecuador. This study highlights the need to redirect efforts from captive breeding and population reinforcement to habitat conservation. PMID:26986004

  20. Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) in Ecuador: Geographic Distribution, Population Size and Extinction Risk

    PubMed Central

    Naveda-Rodríguez, Adrián; Vargas, Félix Hernán; Kohn, Sebastián; Zapata-Ríos, Galo

    2016-01-01

    The Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) in Ecuador is classified as Critically Endangered. Before 2015, standardized and systematic estimates of geographic distribution, population size and structure were not available for this species, hampering the assessment of its current status and hindering the design and implementation of effective conservation actions. In this study, we performed the first quantitative assessment of geographic distribution, population size and population viability of Andean Condor in Ecuador. We used a methodological approach that included an ecological niche model to study geographic distribution, a simultaneous survey of 70 roosting sites to estimate population size and a population viability analysis (PVA) for the next 100 years. Geographic distribution in the form of extent of occurrence was 49 725 km2. During a two-day census, 93 Andean Condors were recorded and a population of 94 to 102 individuals was estimated. In this population, adult-to-immature ratio was 1:0.5. In the modeled PVA scenarios, the probability of extinction, mean time to extinction and minimum population size varied from zero to 100%, 63 years and 193 individuals, respectively. Habitat loss is the greatest threat to the conservation of Andean Condor populations in Ecuador. Population size reduction in scenarios that included habitat loss began within the first 15 years of this threat. Population reinforcement had no effects on the recovery of Andean Condor populations given the current status of the species in Ecuador. The population size estimate presented in this study is the lower than those reported previously in other countries where the species occur. The inferences derived from the population viability analysis have implications for Condor management in Ecuador. This study highlights the need to redirect efforts from captive breeding and population reinforcement to habitat conservation. PMID:26986004

  1. Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) in Ecuador: Geographic Distribution, Population Size and Extinction Risk.

    PubMed

    Naveda-Rodríguez, Adrián; Vargas, Félix Hernán; Kohn, Sebastián; Zapata-Ríos, Galo

    2016-01-01

    The Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) in Ecuador is classified as Critically Endangered. Before 2015, standardized and systematic estimates of geographic distribution, population size and structure were not available for this species, hampering the assessment of its current status and hindering the design and implementation of effective conservation actions. In this study, we performed the first quantitative assessment of geographic distribution, population size and population viability of Andean Condor in Ecuador. We used a methodological approach that included an ecological niche model to study geographic distribution, a simultaneous survey of 70 roosting sites to estimate population size and a population viability analysis (PVA) for the next 100 years. Geographic distribution in the form of extent of occurrence was 49 725 km2. During a two-day census, 93 Andean Condors were recorded and a population of 94 to 102 individuals was estimated. In this population, adult-to-immature ratio was 1:0.5. In the modeled PVA scenarios, the probability of extinction, mean time to extinction and minimum population size varied from zero to 100%, 63 years and 193 individuals, respectively. Habitat loss is the greatest threat to the conservation of Andean Condor populations in Ecuador. Population size reduction in scenarios that included habitat loss began within the first 15 years of this threat. Population reinforcement had no effects on the recovery of Andean Condor populations given the current status of the species in Ecuador. The population size estimate presented in this study is the lower than those reported previously in other countries where the species occur. The inferences derived from the population viability analysis have implications for Condor management in Ecuador. This study highlights the need to redirect efforts from captive breeding and population reinforcement to habitat conservation.

  2. Electrocardiography in conscious releasable Andean condors (Vultur gryphus): reference panel and unusual findings.

    PubMed

    Wiemeyer, Guillermo M; Lambertucci, Sergio A; Bianchini, Laura Torres; Belerenian, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Electrocardiography is a useful tool when included in healthcare protocols and is increasingly utilized for monitoring wild birds. However, the lack of reference data for many species is limiting the clinical value of this technique. In this study 26 Andean condors (Vultur gryphus) coming from rehabilitation and captive breeding programs were examined to determine electrocardiographic references prior to being released. Standard bipolar (I, II, and III) and augmented unipolar limb (aVR, aVL, and aVF) leads were recorded with birds under physical restraint. Five beats were analyzed on Lead II at 50 mm/sec and 1 cm = 1 mV to determine QRS complex morphology, cardiac rhythm, heart rate, P, PR, R, S, QRS, T, QT, and ST amplitude and/or duration. P and T wave configuration was determined for all leads, and Mean Electrical Axis (MEA) in the frontal plane was determined using leads I and III. Cardiac rhythm corresponded to regular sinus rhythm in 42% of the birds, with a relevant rate of sinus arrhythmia in 58%, and rS as the most common pattern (42%) for QRS complex in lead II. We found an influence of age and heart rate but not of sex on several ECG waves and intervals. Relevant ECG findings for studied Andean condors include a high rate of T(a), R', and U wave detection. Waves T(a) and R' were considered non-pathological, while the significance of U waves remains unclear. Our results provide a useful reference to improve clinical interpretation of full electrocardiographic examination in Andean condors.

  3. Density-dependent productivity in a colonial vulture at two spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Bellon, Darío; Cortés-Avizanda, Ainara; Arenas, Rafael; Donázar, José Antonio

    2016-02-01

    Understanding how density dependence modifies demographic parameters in long-lived vertebrates is a challenge for ecologists. Two alternative hypotheses have been used to explain the mechanisms behind density-dependent effects on breeding output: habitat heterogeneity and individual adjustment (also known as interference competition). A number of studies have highlighted the importance of habitat heterogeneity in density dependence in territorial species, but less information exists on demographic processes in colonial species. For these, we expect density-dependent mechanisms to operate at two spatial scales: colony and breeding unit. In this study, we used long-term data from a recovering population of Cinereous Vultures (Aegypius monachus) in southern Spain. We analyzed a long-term data set with information on 2162 breeding attempts at four colonies over a nine-year period (2002-2010) to evaluate environmental and population parameters influencing breeding output. Our results suggest that breeding productivity is subject to density-dependent processes at the colony and the nest site scale and is best explained by interference competition. Factors intrinsic to each colony, as well as environmental constraints linked to physiography and human presence, also play a role in regulatory processes. We detected the existence of a trade-off between the disadvantages of nesting too close to conspecifics and the benefits of coloniality. These could be mediated by the agonistic interactions between breeding pairs and the benefits derived from social sharing of information by breeding individuals. We propose that this trade-off may play a role in defining colony structure and may hold true for other colonial breeding bird species. Our findings also have important management implications for the conservation of this threatened species.

  4. Electrocardiography in conscious releasable Andean condors (Vultur gryphus): reference panel and unusual findings.

    PubMed

    Wiemeyer, Guillermo M; Lambertucci, Sergio A; Bianchini, Laura Torres; Belerenian, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Electrocardiography is a useful tool when included in healthcare protocols and is increasingly utilized for monitoring wild birds. However, the lack of reference data for many species is limiting the clinical value of this technique. In this study 26 Andean condors (Vultur gryphus) coming from rehabilitation and captive breeding programs were examined to determine electrocardiographic references prior to being released. Standard bipolar (I, II, and III) and augmented unipolar limb (aVR, aVL, and aVF) leads were recorded with birds under physical restraint. Five beats were analyzed on Lead II at 50 mm/sec and 1 cm = 1 mV to determine QRS complex morphology, cardiac rhythm, heart rate, P, PR, R, S, QRS, T, QT, and ST amplitude and/or duration. P and T wave configuration was determined for all leads, and Mean Electrical Axis (MEA) in the frontal plane was determined using leads I and III. Cardiac rhythm corresponded to regular sinus rhythm in 42% of the birds, with a relevant rate of sinus arrhythmia in 58%, and rS as the most common pattern (42%) for QRS complex in lead II. We found an influence of age and heart rate but not of sex on several ECG waves and intervals. Relevant ECG findings for studied Andean condors include a high rate of T(a), R', and U wave detection. Waves T(a) and R' were considered non-pathological, while the significance of U waves remains unclear. Our results provide a useful reference to improve clinical interpretation of full electrocardiographic examination in Andean condors. PMID:23386535

  5. Density-dependent productivity in a colonial vulture at two spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Bellon, Darío; Cortés-Avizanda, Ainara; Arenas, Rafael; Donázar, José Antonio

    2016-02-01

    Understanding how density dependence modifies demographic parameters in long-lived vertebrates is a challenge for ecologists. Two alternative hypotheses have been used to explain the mechanisms behind density-dependent effects on breeding output: habitat heterogeneity and individual adjustment (also known as interference competition). A number of studies have highlighted the importance of habitat heterogeneity in density dependence in territorial species, but less information exists on demographic processes in colonial species. For these, we expect density-dependent mechanisms to operate at two spatial scales: colony and breeding unit. In this study, we used long-term data from a recovering population of Cinereous Vultures (Aegypius monachus) in southern Spain. We analyzed a long-term data set with information on 2162 breeding attempts at four colonies over a nine-year period (2002-2010) to evaluate environmental and population parameters influencing breeding output. Our results suggest that breeding productivity is subject to density-dependent processes at the colony and the nest site scale and is best explained by interference competition. Factors intrinsic to each colony, as well as environmental constraints linked to physiography and human presence, also play a role in regulatory processes. We detected the existence of a trade-off between the disadvantages of nesting too close to conspecifics and the benefits of coloniality. These could be mediated by the agonistic interactions between breeding pairs and the benefits derived from social sharing of information by breeding individuals. We propose that this trade-off may play a role in defining colony structure and may hold true for other colonial breeding bird species. Our findings also have important management implications for the conservation of this threatened species. PMID:27145615

  6. The Pied Crow (Corvus albus) is insensitive to diclofenac at concentrations present in carrion.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Vinny; Mompati, Kefiloe Feliciity; Duncan, Neil; Taggart, Mark Anthony

    2011-10-01

    Diclofenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), kills vultures (Gyps spp.) that consume tainted carcasses. As a result, vulture populations in India, Nepal, and Pakistan have been devastated. Studies on meloxicam and ketoprofen demonstrated that the toxicity of the NSAIDs is unpredictable, thereby necessitating individual testing of all available NSAIDs. Because it is no longer practical to use vultures for toxicity testing, we evaluated the Pied Crow (Corvus albus) as a model. Pied Crows (n=6) were exposed to a dose of 0.8 and 10 mg/kg of diclofenac, with no signs of toxicity, and a rapid half-life of elimination. Using primary renal cell and hepatocyte cultures, a high tolerance was demonstrated at the cellular level. Meta-analysis of pharmacokinetic data for the Domestic Chicken (Gallus gallus) and the African White-backed (Gyps africanus), Cape Griffon (Gyps coprotheres), and Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura) showed a trend toward toxicity when the half-life of elimination increased. We conclude that the crow is not susceptible to diclofenac and, more important, that toxicity in the Gyps species is probably related to zero-order metabolism. PMID:22102664

  7. Mycoplasma neophronis sp. nov., isolated from the upper respiratory tract of Canarian Egyptian vultures (Neophron percnopterus majorensis).

    PubMed

    Suárez-Pérez, A; Ramírez, A S; Rosales, R S; Calabuig, P; Poveda, C; Rosselló-Móra, R; Nicholas, R A J; Poveda, J B

    2012-06-01

    Six strains with the typical characteristics of mycoplasmas were isolated from the tracheae of six Canarian Egyptian vultures (Neophron percnopterus majorensis). The results of biochemical, serological and molecular genetic studies showed that the isolates were nearly identical and that they could be considered as representing a novel species of the genus Mycoplasma. Colonies possessed the typical fried-egg appearance and electron micrographs revealed a pleomorphic cellular morphology with the lack of a cell wall. The isolates hydrolysed arginine and required sterol for growth but did not ferment glucose or hydrolyse urea. We propose that the isolates be assigned to a novel species,Mycoplasma neophronis sp. nov. The type strain is G.A.(T) ( = DSM 24097(T) = ATCC BAA-2157(T)). The antiserum of strain G.A.(T) has been deposited in the Mollicutes collection at Purdue University (Indiana, USA).

  8. Iron site populations from Mössbauer spectroscopy in Ti-bearing garnets from Mt Vulture (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortalli, I.; Pedrazzi, G.; Schingaro, E.; Scordari, F.

    1994-12-01

    The present work concerns the determination of the cation site populations and crystal chemical formulae of some Ti-rich silicate garnets. The samples come from Mt. Vulture, a volcanic complex located on the east side of the Lucania Apennines (south Italy). Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS) has been used in order to obtain the iron site occupancies. Two different models for interpreting the Fe2+ peak positions in the Mössbauer spectra are compared, and some methodological aspects are discussed. The derived iron distributions have then been combined with the data obtained by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) to obtain consistent crystal chemical formulae for these compounds.

  9. The African Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2012-01-01

    From student and faculty exchanges to joint research projects, U.S. universities maintain a broad spectrum of collaborative relationships with African universities. It's unclear how many U.S. colleges and universities have partnerships with African universities. The African Studies Association, an organization of scholars, doesn't keep that kind…

  10. Linguistic Imperialism: African Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Responds to an article on aspects of African language policy and discusses the following issues: multilingualism and monolingualism, proposed changes in language policy from the Organization for African Unity and South African initiatives, the language of literature, bilingual education, and whose interests English-language teaching is serving.…

  11. Uneven large-scale movement patterns in wild and reintroduced pre-adult bearded vultures: conservation implications.

    PubMed

    Margalida, Antoni; Carrete, Martina; Hegglin, Daniel; Serrano, David; Arenas, Rafael; Donázar, José A

    2013-01-01

    After the quasi-extinction of much of the European vertebrate megafauna during the last few centuries, many reintroduction projects seek to restore decimated populations. However, the future of numerous species depends on the management scenarios of metapopulations where the flow of individuals can be critical to ensure their viability. This is the case of the bearded vulture Gypaetus barbatus, an Old World, large body-sized and long-lived scavenger living in mountain ranges. Although persecution in Western Europe restrained it to the Pyrenees, the species is nowadays present in other mountains thanks to reintroduction projects. We examined the movement patterns of pre-adult non-breeding individuals born in the wild population of the Pyrenees (n = 9) and in the reintroduced populations of the Alps (n = 24) and Andalusia (n = 13). Most birds were equipped with GPS-GSM radio transmitters, which allowed accurate determination of individual dispersal patterns. Two estimators were considered: i) step length (i.e., the distance travelled per day by each individual, calculated considering only successive days); and ii) total dispersal distance (i.e., the distance travelled between each mean daily location and the point of release). Both dispersal estimators showed a positive relationship with age but were also highly dependent on the source population, birds in Andalusia and Alps moving farther than in Pyrenees. Future research should confirm if differences in dispersal distances are the rule, in which case the dynamics of future populations would be strongly influenced. In summary, our findings highlight that inter-population differences can affect the flow of individuals among patches (a key aspect to ensure the viability of the European metapopulation of the endangered bearded vulture), and thus should be taken into account when planning reintroduction programs. This result also raises questions about whether similar scenarios may occur in other restoration

  12. Effect of Methodological and Ecological Approaches on Heterogeneity of Nest-Site Selection of a Long-Lived Vulture

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Opo, Rubén; Fernández-Olalla, Mariana; Margalida, Antoni; Arredondo, Ángel; Guil, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    The application of scientific-based conservation measures requires that sampling methodologies in studies modelling similar ecological aspects produce comparable results making easier their interpretation. We aimed to show how the choice of different methodological and ecological approaches can affect conclusions in nest-site selection studies along different Palearctic meta-populations of an indicator species. First, a multivariate analysis of the variables affecting nest-site selection in a breeding colony of cinereous vulture (Aegypius monachus) in central Spain was performed. Then, a meta-analysis was applied to establish how methodological and habitat-type factors determine differences and similarities in the results obtained by previous studies that have modelled the forest breeding habitat of the species. Our results revealed patterns in nesting-habitat modelling by the cinereous vulture throughout its whole range: steep and south-facing slopes, great cover of large trees and distance to human activities were generally selected. The ratio and situation of the studied plots (nests/random), the use of plots vs. polygons as sampling units and the number of years of data set determined the variability explained by the model. Moreover, a greater size of the breeding colony implied that ecological and geomorphological variables at landscape level were more influential. Additionally, human activities affected in greater proportion to colonies situated in Mediterranean forests. For the first time, a meta-analysis regarding the factors determining nest-site selection heterogeneity for a single species at broad scale was achieved. It is essential to homogenize and coordinate experimental design in modelling the selection of species' ecological requirements in order to avoid that differences in results among studies would be due to methodological heterogeneity. This would optimize best conservation and management practices for habitats and species in a global context

  13. Uneven large-scale movement patterns in wild and reintroduced pre-adult bearded vultures: conservation implications.

    PubMed

    Margalida, Antoni; Carrete, Martina; Hegglin, Daniel; Serrano, David; Arenas, Rafael; Donázar, José A

    2013-01-01

    After the quasi-extinction of much of the European vertebrate megafauna during the last few centuries, many reintroduction projects seek to restore decimated populations. However, the future of numerous species depends on the management scenarios of metapopulations where the flow of individuals can be critical to ensure their viability. This is the case of the bearded vulture Gypaetus barbatus, an Old World, large body-sized and long-lived scavenger living in mountain ranges. Although persecution in Western Europe restrained it to the Pyrenees, the species is nowadays present in other mountains thanks to reintroduction projects. We examined the movement patterns of pre-adult non-breeding individuals born in the wild population of the Pyrenees (n = 9) and in the reintroduced populations of the Alps (n = 24) and Andalusia (n = 13). Most birds were equipped with GPS-GSM radio transmitters, which allowed accurate determination of individual dispersal patterns. Two estimators were considered: i) step length (i.e., the distance travelled per day by each individual, calculated considering only successive days); and ii) total dispersal distance (i.e., the distance travelled between each mean daily location and the point of release). Both dispersal estimators showed a positive relationship with age but were also highly dependent on the source population, birds in Andalusia and Alps moving farther than in Pyrenees. Future research should confirm if differences in dispersal distances are the rule, in which case the dynamics of future populations would be strongly influenced. In summary, our findings highlight that inter-population differences can affect the flow of individuals among patches (a key aspect to ensure the viability of the European metapopulation of the endangered bearded vulture), and thus should be taken into account when planning reintroduction programs. This result also raises questions about whether similar scenarios may occur in other restoration

  14. Effect of methodological and ecological approaches on heterogeneity of nest-site selection of a long-lived vulture.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Opo, Rubén; Fernández-Olalla, Mariana; Margalida, Antoni; Arredondo, Ángel; Guil, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    The application of scientific-based conservation measures requires that sampling methodologies in studies modelling similar ecological aspects produce comparable results making easier their interpretation. We aimed to show how the choice of different methodological and ecological approaches can affect conclusions in nest-site selection studies along different Palearctic meta-populations of an indicator species. First, a multivariate analysis of the variables affecting nest-site selection in a breeding colony of cinereous vulture (Aegypius monachus) in central Spain was performed. Then, a meta-analysis was applied to establish how methodological and habitat-type factors determine differences and similarities in the results obtained by previous studies that have modelled the forest breeding habitat of the species. Our results revealed patterns in nesting-habitat modelling by the cinereous vulture throughout its whole range: steep and south-facing slopes, great cover of large trees and distance to human activities were generally selected. The ratio and situation of the studied plots (nests/random), the use of plots vs. polygons as sampling units and the number of years of data set determined the variability explained by the model. Moreover, a greater size of the breeding colony implied that ecological and geomorphological variables at landscape level were more influential. Additionally, human activities affected in greater proportion to colonies situated in Mediterranean forests. For the first time, a meta-analysis regarding the factors determining nest-site selection heterogeneity for a single species at broad scale was achieved. It is essential to homogenize and coordinate experimental design in modelling the selection of species' ecological requirements in order to avoid that differences in results among studies would be due to methodological heterogeneity. This would optimize best conservation and management practices for habitats and species in a global context.

  15. Pathologic bone tissues in a Turkey vulture and a nonavian dinosaur: implications for interpreting endosteal bone and radial fibrolamellar bone in fossil dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Chinsamy, Anusuya; Tumarkin-Deratzian, Allison

    2009-09-01

    We report on similar pathological bone microstructure in an extant turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) and a nonavian dinosaur from Transylvania. Both these individuals exhibit distinctive periosteal reactive bone deposition accompanied by endosteal bone deposits in the medullary cavity. Our findings have direct implications on the two novel bone tissues recently described among nonavian dinosaurs, radial fibrolamellar bone tissue and medullary bone tissue. On the basis of the observed morphology of the periosteal reactive bone in the turkey vulture and the Transylvanian dinosaur, we propose that the radial fibrolamellar bone tissues observed in mature dinosaurs may have had a pathological origin. Our analysis also shows that on the basis of origin, location, and morphology, pathologically derived endosteal bone tissue can be similar to medullary bone tissues described in nonavian dinosaurs. As such, we caution the interpretation of all endosteally derived bone tissue as homologous to avian medullary bone.

  16. Using tri-axial acceleration data to identify behavioral modes of free-ranging animals: general concepts and tools illustrated for griffon vultures.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Ran; Spiegel, Orr; Fortmann-Roe, Scott; Harel, Roi; Wikelski, Martin; Getz, Wayne M

    2012-03-15

    Integrating biomechanics, behavior and ecology requires a mechanistic understanding of the processes producing the movement of animals. This calls for contemporaneous biomechanical, behavioral and environmental data along movement pathways. A recently formulated unifying movement ecology paradigm facilitates the integration of existing biomechanics, optimality, cognitive and random paradigms for studying movement. We focus on the use of tri-axial acceleration (ACC) data to identify behavioral modes of GPS-tracked free-ranging wild animals and demonstrate its application to study the movements of griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus, Hablizl 1783). In particular, we explore a selection of nonlinear and decision tree methods that include support vector machines, classification and regression trees, random forest methods and artificial neural networks and compare them with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) as a baseline for classifying behavioral modes. Using a dataset of 1035 ground-truthed ACC segments, we found that all methods can accurately classify behavior (80-90%) and, as expected, all nonlinear methods outperformed LDA. We also illustrate how ACC-identified behavioral modes provide the means to examine how vulture flight is affected by environmental factors, hence facilitating the integration of behavioral, biomechanical and ecological data. Our analysis of just over three-quarters of a million GPS and ACC measurements obtained from 43 free-ranging vultures across 9783 vulture-days suggests that their annual breeding schedule might be selected primarily in response to seasonal conditions favoring rising-air columns (thermals) and that rare long-range forays of up to 1750 km from the home range are performed despite potentially heavy energetic costs and a low rate of food intake, presumably to explore new breeding, social and long-term resource location opportunities.

  17. Using tri-axial acceleration data to identify behavioral modes of free-ranging animals: general concepts and tools illustrated for griffon vultures

    PubMed Central

    Nathan, Ran; Spiegel, Orr; Fortmann-Roe, Scott; Harel, Roi; Wikelski, Martin; Getz, Wayne M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Integrating biomechanics, behavior and ecology requires a mechanistic understanding of the processes producing the movement of animals. This calls for contemporaneous biomechanical, behavioral and environmental data along movement pathways. A recently formulated unifying movement ecology paradigm facilitates the integration of existing biomechanics, optimality, cognitive and random paradigms for studying movement. We focus on the use of tri-axial acceleration (ACC) data to identify behavioral modes of GPS-tracked free-ranging wild animals and demonstrate its application to study the movements of griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus, Hablizl 1783). In particular, we explore a selection of nonlinear and decision tree methods that include support vector machines, classification and regression trees, random forest methods and artificial neural networks and compare them with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) as a baseline for classifying behavioral modes. Using a dataset of 1035 ground-truthed ACC segments, we found that all methods can accurately classify behavior (80–90%) and, as expected, all nonlinear methods outperformed LDA. We also illustrate how ACC-identified behavioral modes provide the means to examine how vulture flight is affected by environmental factors, hence facilitating the integration of behavioral, biomechanical and ecological data. Our analysis of just over three-quarters of a million GPS and ACC measurements obtained from 43 free-ranging vultures across 9783 vulture-days suggests that their annual breeding schedule might be selected primarily in response to seasonal conditions favoring rising-air columns (thermals) and that rare long-range forays of up to 1750 km from the home range are performed despite potentially heavy energetic costs and a low rate of food intake, presumably to explore new breeding, social and long-term resource location opportunities. PMID:22357592

  18. Molecular cloning and characterisation of a homologue of the alpha inhibitor of NF-kappaB in the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus).

    PubMed

    de la Lastra, José Manuel Pérez; de la Fuente, José

    2008-04-15

    NF-kappaB has been found to play roles in many different compartments of the immune system during differentiation of immune cells and development of lymphoid organs and during immune activation. The activity of NF-kappaB is primarily regulated by a family of structurally related proteins known as the IkappaB proteins. Herein, we report the molecular cloning and characterisation of a griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus) orthologue of the alpha inhibitor of NF-kappaB (IkappaBalpha). The full-length cDNA consists of 1553 bp with an ORF encoding a 313 amino acids protein (GenBank accession number EU161944). The putative G. fulvus IkappaBalpha protein (Gf-IkappaBalpha) possesses the characteristic organization of the mammalian IkappaBalpha proteins. Gf-IkappaBalpha contains an N-terminal signalling receiver domain, a central ankyrin repeat domain, required for its interaction with NF-kappaB, and a putative PEST-like sequence in the C-terminus. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that Gf-IkappaBalpha mRNA levels were higher in vulture heart, lung, artery and PBMC cells than in small and large intenstine and kidney. The predicted amino acid sequence of Gf-IkappaBalpha was 73% identical to human IkappaBalpha, and 91% identical to chicken IkappaBalpha. These results confirm the existence of the NF-kappaB signalling pathway in vulture and suggest a similar functional interaction between IkappaBalpha and NF-kappaB. Based on the results and the homology to the vertebrate NF-kappaB cascade, these studies help to highlight a potentially important regulatory pathway for the study of the related functions in vulture immune system.

  19. Geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of mantle xenoliths from the Monte Vulture carbonatite-melilitite volcano, central southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downes, H.; Kostoula, T.; Jones, A. P.; Beard, A. D.; Thirlwall, M. F.; Bodinier, J.-L.

    2002-08-01

    Spinel peridotite xenoliths found in the Monte Vulture carbonatite-melilitite volcano have been derived from the subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath central southern Italy. Clinopyroxene-poor lherzolites and harzburgites are the most common rock types, with subordinate wehrlites and dunites. Small quantities of phlogopite and carbonate are present in a few samples. The peridotites record a large degree of partial melting and have experienced subsequent enrichment which has increased their LILE and LREE contents, but in most cases their HFSE contents are low. Despite being carried to the surface by a carbonatite-melilitite host, the whole-rock and clinopyroxene compositions of the xenoliths have a trace-element signature more closely resembling that of silicate-melt metasomatised mantle rather than carbonatite-metasomatised peridotites. 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd isotopic ratios for clinopyroxene from the Vulture peridotites are 0.7042-0.7058 and 0.51260-0.5131 respectively. They form a trend away from the depleted mantle to the composition of the host magmas, and show a significant enrichment in 87Sr/86Sr compared with most European mantle samples. The mantle beneath Monte Vulture has had a complex evolution - we propose that the lithosphere had already undergone extensive partial melting before being affected by metasomatism from a silicate melt which may have been subduction-related.

  20. Who are we feeding? Asymmetric individual use of surplus food resources in an insular population of the endangered Egyptian vulture Neophron percnopterus.

    PubMed

    García-Heras, Marie-Sophie; Cortés-Avizanda, Ainara; Donázar, José-Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Supplementary feeding stations, or "vulture restaurants", are common conservation management tools. While a number of studies have investigated the consequences of surplus food on the population dynamics of scavengers, relatively little is known about the effects of such practices at the individual level. Within the long-term monitored breeding population of Canarian Egyptian vultures (Neophron percnopterus majorensis) we investigated individual bird's patterns of use of a supplementary feeding station at Fuerteventura (Canary Islands), over the course of breeding (2001, 2002; 2004-2011) and non-breeding seasons (2000-2010). Our results show that during the breeding season the individual use of the supplementary feeding station was inversely related to the distance to the breeding territory, which suggests the existence of central-place foraging constraints. In addition, larger birds of poor body-condition and individuals that ultimately failed to fledge young were detected more frequently at the feeding station. During the non-breeding season, and because most breeding birds abandoned the breeding territories, the overall abundance of Egyptian vultures at the feeding station grew. Moreover, the only variable increasing the probability of presence of individuals was poor body condition so that birds with lower wing residual visited the feeding station more frequently. Supplementary feeding may benefit individuals who would otherwise have been subject to selective pressures. From our results it follows that this conservation strategy must be used with caution because it can have consequences on an individual level and thus potentially affect the viability of endangered populations.

  1. Who are we feeding? Asymmetric individual use of surplus food resources in an insular population of the endangered Egyptian vulture Neophron percnopterus.

    PubMed

    García-Heras, Marie-Sophie; Cortés-Avizanda, Ainara; Donázar, José-Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Supplementary feeding stations, or "vulture restaurants", are common conservation management tools. While a number of studies have investigated the consequences of surplus food on the population dynamics of scavengers, relatively little is known about the effects of such practices at the individual level. Within the long-term monitored breeding population of Canarian Egyptian vultures (Neophron percnopterus majorensis) we investigated individual bird's patterns of use of a supplementary feeding station at Fuerteventura (Canary Islands), over the course of breeding (2001, 2002; 2004-2011) and non-breeding seasons (2000-2010). Our results show that during the breeding season the individual use of the supplementary feeding station was inversely related to the distance to the breeding territory, which suggests the existence of central-place foraging constraints. In addition, larger birds of poor body-condition and individuals that ultimately failed to fledge young were detected more frequently at the feeding station. During the non-breeding season, and because most breeding birds abandoned the breeding territories, the overall abundance of Egyptian vultures at the feeding station grew. Moreover, the only variable increasing the probability of presence of individuals was poor body condition so that birds with lower wing residual visited the feeding station more frequently. Supplementary feeding may benefit individuals who would otherwise have been subject to selective pressures. From our results it follows that this conservation strategy must be used with caution because it can have consequences on an individual level and thus potentially affect the viability of endangered populations. PMID:24244695

  2. XRD micro-XANES EMPA and SIMS investigation on phlogopite single crystals from Mt. Vulture (Italy)

    SciTech Connect

    F Scordari; M Dyar; E Schingaro; M Lacalamita; L Ottolini

    2011-12-31

    Selected phlogopite flakes from Mt. Vulture in southern Italy were studied using a combination of single-crystal techniques: electron microprobe analysis (EMPA), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD), and micro-X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES). The latter technique was employed to analyze the structure of the Fe-K absorption edge over the region from 7080-8100 eV and to determine Fe{sup 3+}/{Sigma}Fe at a micrometer scale, albeit with large error bars due to known effects of orientation on pre-edge energy. The annite component, Fe/(Mg+Fe), of the samples studied ranged from 0.16 to 0.31, the Ti content from 0.11 to 0.27 atoms per formula unit (apfu) and the Ba content from 0.03 to 0.09 apfu. SIMS analysis showed H{sub 2}O (wt%) = 1.81-3.30, F (wt%) = 0.44-1.29, and Li{sub 2}O (wt%) = 0.001-0.027. The intra single-crystal chemical variability for major/minor elements (Mg, Fe, Al, Ba, Ti, and K) was found particularly significant for samples VUT191{_}11 and PG5{_}1, less significant for the other samples of the set. SIMS data relative to crystals VUT187{_}24, VUT191{_}10, VUT191{_}11, and VUT187{_}28 showed a noteworthy variation in the concentrations of some light elements (H, Li, and F) with coefficient of variation CV (as 1{sigma}%) up to {approx}18% for H{sub 2}O. The analyzed micas belong to the 1M polytype. Structure refinements using anisotropic displacement parameters were performed in space group C2/m and converged at 3.08 {<=} R {<=} 3.63, 3.32 {<=} R{sub w} {<=} 3.98%. Micro-XANES results yielded Fe{sup 3+}/{Sigma}Fe from 51-93%. Previous Moessbauer data from powdered samples suggested Fe{sup 3+}/{Sigma}Fe values ranging from 49-87%. However, the Fe{sup 3+} content determined by both techniques is sometimes remarkably different, in part because of the large errors ({+-}10-15%) presently associated with the micro-XANES technique and in part because the Fe{sup 3+} content of a single crystal may

  3. The African superswell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyblade, Andrew A.; Robinson, Scott W.

    1994-01-01

    Maps of residual bathymetry in the ocean basins around the African continent reveal a broad bathymetric swell in the southeastern Atlantic Ocean with an amplitude of about 500 m. We propose that this region of anomalously shallow bathymetry, together with the contiguous eastern and southern African plateaus, form a superswell which we refer to as the African superswell. The origin of the African superswell is uncertain. However, rifting and volcanism in eastern Africa, as well as heat flow measurements in southern Africa and the southeastern Atlantic Ocean, suggest that the superswell may be attributed, at least in part, to heating of the lithosphere.

  4. Eruption style and petrology of a new carbonatitic suite from the Mt. Vulture Southern Italy/: The Monticchio Lakes Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoppa, Francesco; Principe, Claudia

    1997-09-01

    The Monticchio Lakes Formation MLF is a newly identified carbonatite-melilitite tuff sequence which is exposed in the southwestern sector of the Vulture volcano. It is the youngest example ca. 0.13 m.y. of this type of volcanism in Italy, although other carbonatites of smaller volume, but with similar characteristics, have been discovered recently. This volcanic event occurred in isolation after a 0.35 m.y. period of inactivity at Vulture. The eruption produced two maar-type vents and formed tuff aprons mainly composed of dune beds of lapilli. Depositional features suggest that a dry surge mechanism, possibly triggered by CO 2 expansion, was dominant during tuff emplacement. The MLF event involved a mixture of carbonatite and melilitite liquids which were physically separated before the eruption. Abundant mantle xenoliths are direct evidence of the deep-seated origin of the parental magma and its high velocity of propagation towards the surface. Often, these nodules form the core of lapilli composed of concentric shells of melilitite andror porphyritic carbonatite. Coarse-ash beds alternate with lapilli beds and consist of abundant lumps and spherulae of very fine-grained calcite immersed in a welded, highly compacted carbonatite matrix. Porphyritic carbonatite shells of the lapilli and fine-grained spherulae of calcite in the tuff matrix suggest incipient crystallisation of a carbonatite liquid in subvolcanic conditions and eruption of carbonatite-spray droplets. Dark coloured juvenile fragments mainly consist of melilite, phlogopite, calcite, apatite, perovskite, and häuyne crystals in a carbonatite or melilitite matrix. The rocks have an extremely primitive, ultramafic composition with very high Mga) 85. and Cr and Ni content 1500 ppm-. The calcite contains high SrO, BaO and REE of up to 1.5 wt.%. Similar compositions are typical of primary, magmatic carbonates which are found in both intrusive and extrusive carbonatites. The high modal Sr-Ba-REE-rich calcite

  5. 16 Extraordinary African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    This collection for children tells the stories of 16 African Americans who helped make America what it is today. African Americans can take pride in the heritage of these contributors to society. Biographies are given for the following: (1) Sojourner Truth, preacher and abolitionist; (2) Frederick Douglass, abolitionist; (3) Harriet Tubman, leader…

  6. African Studies Computer Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    African studies computer resources that are readily available in the United States with linkages to Africa are described, highlighting those most directly corresponding to African content. Africanists can use the following four fundamental computer systems: (1) Internet/Bitnet; (2) Fidonet; (3) Usenet; and (4) dial-up bulletin board services. The…

  7. Understanding African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward Earl

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the socialization skills, self-esteem, and academic readiness of African American males in a school environment. Discussions with students and the School Perceptions Questionnaire provided data for this investigation. The intended targets for this investigation were African American students; however, there…

  8. Africans Away from Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, John Henrik

    Africans who were brought across the Atlantic as slaves never fully adjusted to slavery or accepted its inevitability. Resistance began on board the slave ships, where many jumped overboard or committed suicide. African slaves in South America led the first revolts against tyranny in the New World. The first slave revolt in the Caribbean occurred…

  9. Keeping African Masks Real

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddington, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Art is a good place to learn about our multicultural planet, and African masks are prized throughout the world as powerfully expressive artistic images. Unfortunately, multicultural education, especially for young children, can perpetuate stereotypes. Masks taken out of context lose their meaning and the term "African masks" suggests that there is…

  10. Educating African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American…

  11. African horse sickness and African carnivores.

    PubMed

    Alexander, K A; Kat, P W; House, J; House, C; O'Brien, S J; Laurenson, M K; McNutt, J W; Osburn, B I

    1995-11-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a disease that affects equids, and is principally transmitted by Culicoides spp. that are biological vectors of AHS viruses (AHSV). The repeated spread of AHSV from sub-Saharan Africa to the Middle East, northern Africa and the Iberian peninsula indicate that a better understanding of AHS epizootiology is needed. African horse sickness has long been known to infect and cause mortality among domestic dogs that ingest virus contaminated meat, but it is uncertain what role carnivores play in transmission of the virus. We present evidence of widespread natural AHS infection among a diversity of African carnivore species. We hypothesize that such infection resulted from ingestion of meat and organs from AHS-infected prey species. The effect of AHS on the carnivores is unknown, as is their role in the maintenance cycle of the disease.

  12. Vultures of the Seas: Hyperacidic Stomachs in Wandering Albatrosses as an Adaptation to Dispersed Food Resources, including Fishery Wastes

    PubMed Central

    Grémillet, David; Prudor, Aurélien; le Maho, Yvon; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2012-01-01

    Animals are primarily limited by their capacity to acquire food, yet digestive performance also conditions energy acquisition, and ultimately fitness. Optimal foraging theory predicts that organisms feeding on patchy resources should maximize their food loads within each patch, and should digest these loads quickly to minimize travelling costs between food patches. We tested the prediction of high digestive performance in wandering albatrosses, which can ingest prey of up to 3 kg, and feed on highly dispersed food resources across the southern ocean. GPS-tracking of 40 wandering albatrosses from the Crozet archipelago during the incubation phase confirmed foraging movements of between 475–4705 km, which give birds access to a variety of prey, including fishery wastes. Moreover, using miniaturized, autonomous data recorders placed in the stomach of three birds, we performed the first-ever measurements of gastric pH and temperature in procellariformes. These revealed surprisingly low pH levels (average 1.50±0.13), markedly lower than in other seabirds, and comparable to those of vultures feeding on carrion. Such low stomach pH gives wandering albatrosses a strategic advantage since it allows them a rapid chemical breakdown of ingested food and therefore a rapid digestion. This is useful for feeding on patchy, natural prey, but also on fishery wastes, which might be an important additional food resource for wandering albatrosses. PMID:22701581

  13. Vultures of the seas: hyperacidic stomachs in wandering albatrosses as an adaptation to dispersed food resources, including fishery wastes.

    PubMed

    Grémillet, David; Prudor, Aurélien; le Maho, Yvon; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2012-01-01

    Animals are primarily limited by their capacity to acquire food, yet digestive performance also conditions energy acquisition, and ultimately fitness. Optimal foraging theory predicts that organisms feeding on patchy resources should maximize their food loads within each patch, and should digest these loads quickly to minimize travelling costs between food patches. We tested the prediction of high digestive performance in wandering albatrosses, which can ingest prey of up to 3 kg, and feed on highly dispersed food resources across the southern ocean. GPS-tracking of 40 wandering albatrosses from the Crozet archipelago during the incubation phase confirmed foraging movements of between 475-4705 km, which give birds access to a variety of prey, including fishery wastes. Moreover, using miniaturized, autonomous data recorders placed in the stomach of three birds, we performed the first-ever measurements of gastric pH and temperature in procellariformes. These revealed surprisingly low pH levels (average 1.50±0.13), markedly lower than in other seabirds, and comparable to those of vultures feeding on carrion. Such low stomach pH gives wandering albatrosses a strategic advantage since it allows them a rapid chemical breakdown of ingested food and therefore a rapid digestion. This is useful for feeding on patchy, natural prey, but also on fishery wastes, which might be an important additional food resource for wandering albatrosses.

  14. Red micas from basal ignimbrites of Mt. Vulture (Italy): interlayer content appraisal by a multi-methodic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scordari, Fernando; Schingaro, Emanuela; Ventruti, Gennaro; Lacalamita, Maria; Ottolini, Luisa

    2008-04-01

    The crystal chemistry of red phlogopites from Mt. Vulture (Italy) ignimbrites has been studied by electron microprobe, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), single crystal structural investigation and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The analysed phlogopite has Fe/(Fe + Mg) ˜ 0.35, TiO2 (wt%): 2.8-5.0 and H2O (wt%): 1.24-3.37. Infrared spectra revealed the presence of bands due to the NH{4/+} and H2O stretching and bending vibrations. The samples belong to the 1 M polytype. The bimodal behaviour of several structural parameters allows red micas to be clustered into two distinct groups: K+ ↔ NH{4/+}, H2O and M3+-vacancy substitutions dominate in the first group; M3+,4+-oxy, in the second group. It has to be pointed out that quantitative analysis of hydrogen (via SIMS) together with the characterization of the local environment of the anionic site (via FTIR) are fundamental in assessing the correct structural formula and the substitution mechanisms in micas.

  15. Exceptional soft tissue fossilization of a Pleistocene vulture (Gyps fulvus): new evidence for emplacement temperatures of pyroclastic flow deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iurino, Dawid A.; Bellucci, Luca; Schreve, Danielle; Sardella, Raffaele

    2014-07-01

    Volcanic sediments are often unsuitable for the fossilization of both hard and soft organic tissues, however, in some circumstances, they can provide unusual conditions for the preservation of remains. Here we report an exceptional case of soft tissue fossilization of a Late Pleistocene Eurasian griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus) in the pyroclastic sequence of the Alban Hills volcanic region (SE Rome, Italy). CT analyses have revealed an exceptional natural cast of the complete head and neck that preserve extraordinary detail including the fossilized everted tongue, beak, feather insertions and the first record of the nictitating membrane of the eye. This fossilization (superior in detail even to the victims of the AD 79 Plinian eruption of Vesuvius) reveals no evidence of burning and requires re-evaluation of the thermal constraints in operation for the preservation of organic materials within pyroclastic sediments. The analysis of the external morphological features has provided key information regarding the taphonomic processes in operation, the emplacement temperatures of distal pyroclastic flow deposits and the relationships between organic materials and low temperature phreatomagmatic flows. This sheds light not only on the extremely rare situation of fossilization in volcanic contexts but also provides a new perspective on taphonomic studies of highly detailed casts of fossil vertebrates.

  16. Misleading population estimates: biases and consistency of visual surveys and matrix modelling in the endangered bearded vulture.

    PubMed

    Margalida, Antoni; Oro, Daniel; Cortés-Avizanda, Ainara; Heredia, Rafael; Donázar, José A

    2011-01-01

    Conservation strategies for long-lived vertebrates require accurate estimates of parameters relative to the populations' size, numbers of non-breeding individuals (the "cryptic" fraction of the population) and the age structure. Frequently, visual survey techniques are used to make these estimates but the accuracy of these approaches is questionable, mainly because of the existence of numerous potential biases. Here we compare data on population trends and age structure in a bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) population from visual surveys performed at supplementary feeding stations with data derived from population matrix-modelling approximations. Our results suggest that visual surveys overestimate the number of immature (<2 years old) birds, whereas subadults (3-5 y.o.) and adults (>6 y.o.) were underestimated in comparison with the predictions of a population model using a stable-age distribution. In addition, we found that visual surveys did not provide conclusive information on true variations in the size of the focal population. Our results suggest that although long-term studies (i.e. population matrix modelling based on capture-recapture procedures) are a more time-consuming method, they provide more reliable and robust estimates of population parameters needed in designing and applying conservation strategies. The findings shown here are likely transferable to the management and conservation of other long-lived vertebrate populations that share similar life-history traits and ecological requirements.

  17. Detecting diclofenac in livestock carcasses in India with an ELISA: a tool to prevent widespread vulture poisoning.

    PubMed

    Saini, Mohini; Taggart, Mark A; Knopp, Dietmar; Upreti, Suchitra; Swarup, Devendra; Das, Asit; Gupta, Praveen K; Niessner, Reinhard; Prakash, Vibhu; Mateo, Rafael; Cuthbert, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    Diclofenac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), has caused catastrophic vulture declines across the Indian sub-continent. Here, an indirect ELISA is used to detect and quantify diclofenac in 1251 liver samples from livestock carcasses collected across India between August 2007 and June 2008, one to two years after a ban on diclofenac manufacture and distribution for veterinary use was implemented. The ELISAs applicability was authenticated with independent data obtained using LC-ESI/MS. Of 1251 samples, 1150 (91.9%) were negative for diclofenac using both methods, and 60 (4.8%) were positive at 10-4348 and 10-4441 μg kg(-1) when analysed by ELISA and LC-ESI/MS, respectively. The residue level relationship in the 60 positive samples was highly significant (p < 0.001, r(2) = 0.644). Data suggest that this immunological assay could be used not only for cost effective sample screening, but also for residue level semi-quantification.

  18. Carbofuran and its toxic metabolites provide forensic evidence for furadan exposure in vultures (Gyps africanus) in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Otieno, Peter O; Lalah, Joseph O; Virani, Munir; Jondiko, Isaac O; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2010-05-01

    Forensic analysis of carbofuran residues in weathered tissue samples for evidence of Furadan exposure in vultures (Gps africanus) by HPLC gave concentration (mg/Kg dry tissue weight) ranges of bdl - 0.07 (carbofuran), bdl - 0.499 (3-ketocarbofuran) and 0.013-0.147 (3-hydroxycarbofuran) in beaks, bdl-0.65 (carbofuran), 0.024-0.190 (3-ketocarbofuran) and 0.017-0.098 (3-hydroxycarbofuran) in feet, 0.179-0.219 (3-ketocarbofuran) and 0.081-0.093 (3-hydroxycarbofuran) in crop content, 0.078-0.082 (3-ketocarbofuran) and 0.091-0.101 (3-hydroxycarbofuran) in muscle of a laced carcass and 0.006-0.014 (carbofuran), 0.590-1.010 (3-ketocarbofuran) and 0.095-0.135 (3-hydroxycarbofuran) in soil sampled from a poisoning site. These compounds were confirmed by GC-MS. The results showed that HPLC combined with GC-MS is suitable for forensic analysis of carbofuran residues in bird tissue samples and that forensic investigation should include its two toxic metabolites, 3-hydroxycarbofuran and 3-ketocarbofuran.

  19. Misleading Population Estimates: Biases and Consistency of Visual Surveys and Matrix Modelling in the Endangered Bearded Vulture

    PubMed Central

    Margalida, Antoni; Oro, Daniel; Cortés-Avizanda, Ainara; Heredia, Rafael; Donázar, José A.

    2011-01-01

    Conservation strategies for long-lived vertebrates require accurate estimates of parameters relative to the populations' size, numbers of non-breeding individuals (the “cryptic” fraction of the population) and the age structure. Frequently, visual survey techniques are used to make these estimates but the accuracy of these approaches is questionable, mainly because of the existence of numerous potential biases. Here we compare data on population trends and age structure in a bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) population from visual surveys performed at supplementary feeding stations with data derived from population matrix-modelling approximations. Our results suggest that visual surveys overestimate the number of immature (<2 years old) birds, whereas subadults (3–5 y.o.) and adults (>6 y.o.) were underestimated in comparison with the predictions of a population model using a stable-age distribution. In addition, we found that visual surveys did not provide conclusive information on true variations in the size of the focal population. Our results suggest that although long-term studies (i.e. population matrix modelling based on capture-recapture procedures) are a more time-consuming method, they provide more reliable and robust estimates of population parameters needed in designing and applying conservation strategies. The findings shown here are likely transferable to the management and conservation of other long-lived vertebrate populations that share similar life-history traits and ecological requirements. PMID:22039550

  20. Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in serum samples of Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus) from Spain.

    PubMed

    Gómara, B; Ramos, L; Gangoso, L; Donázar, J A; González, M J

    2004-04-01

    Concentrations of 23 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p'-DDT and two of its metabolites, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-TDE have been measured in serum samples of up to 1 ml of Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus) gathered from five populations in Spain. SigmaPCB concentrations were found to be in the range 3.2-97 ng/ml, while those of SigmaDDTs ranged from 0.93 to 38 ng/ml. p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE ratios higher than one were only found in the Segovia population, which could be an indication of recent use of p,p'-DDT in the area. In all cases, PCB profiles were dominated by congeners 52, 132 + 105, 138, 153 and 180. However, some differences among the five populations studied became evident when their profiles were compared with those of technical PCB mixtures by principal components analysis. The DDT and PCB levels detected in the serums analysed were lower than those previously reported for similar avian species and those reported to have deleterious effects on survival or reproduction of birds. PMID:15006510

  1. Diabetes in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, M

    2005-01-01

    African Americans have a high risk for type 2 diabetes. Genetic traits, the prevalence of obesity, and insulin resistance all contribute to the risk of diabetes in the African American community. African Americans have a high rate of diabetic complications, because of poor glycaemic control and racial disparities in health care in the USA. African Americans with diabetes may have an atypical presentation that simulates type 1 diabetes, but then their subsequent clinical course is typical of type 2 diabetes. Culturally sensitive strategies, structured disease management protocols, and the assistance of nurses, diabetic educators, and other health care professionals are effective in improving the outcome of diabetes in the African American community. PMID:16344294

  2. African bees to control African elephants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollrath, Fritz; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2002-11-01

    Numbers of elephants have declined in Africa and Asia over the past 30 years while numbers of humans have increased, both substantially. Friction between these two keystone species is reaching levels which are worryingly high from an ecological as well as a political viewpoint. Ways and means must be found to keep the two apart, at least in areas sensitive to each species' survival. The aggressive African bee might be one such method. Here we demonstrate that African bees deter elephants from damaging the vegetation and trees which house their hives. We argue that bees can be employed profitably to protect not only selected trees, but also selected areas, from elephant damage.

  3. Who Are We Feeding? Asymmetric Individual Use of Surplus Food Resources in an Insular Population of the Endangered Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus

    PubMed Central

    García-Heras, Marie-Sophie; Cortés-Avizanda, Ainara; Donázar, José-Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Supplementary feeding stations, or “vulture restaurants”, are common conservation management tools. While a number of studies have investigated the consequences of surplus food on the population dynamics of scavengers, relatively little is known about the effects of such practices at the individual level. Within the long-term monitored breeding population of Canarian Egyptian vultures (Neophron percnopterus majorensis) we investigated individual bird’s patterns of use of a supplementary feeding station at Fuerteventura (Canary Islands), over the course of breeding (2001, 2002; 2004-2011) and non-breeding seasons (2000-2010). Our results show that during the breeding season the individual use of the supplementary feeding station was inversely related to the distance to the breeding territory, which suggests the existence of central-place foraging constraints. In addition, larger birds of poor body-condition and individuals that ultimately failed to fledge young were detected more frequently at the feeding station. During the non-breeding season, and because most breeding birds abandoned the breeding territories, the overall abundance of Egyptian vultures at the feeding station grew. Moreover, the only variable increasing the probability of presence of individuals was poor body condition so that birds with lower wing residual visited the feeding station more frequently. Supplementary feeding may benefit individuals who would otherwise have been subject to selective pressures. From our results it follows that this conservation strategy must be used with caution because it can have consequences on an individual level and thus potentially affect the viability of endangered populations. PMID:24244695

  4. Astronomy for African development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govender, Kevindran

    2011-06-01

    In recent years there have been a number of efforts across Africa to develop the field of astronomy as well as to reap benefit from astronomy for African people. This presentation will discuss the case of the SALT (Southern African Large Telescope) Collateral Benefits Programme (SCBP) which was set up to ensure societal benefit from astronomy. With African society as the target, the SCBP has embarked on various projects from school level education to public understanding of science to socio-economic development, the latter mainly being felt in the rural communities surrounding the South African Astronomical Observatory (home to SALT). A development plan for ``Astronomy in Africa'' will also be discussed. This plan has been drawn up with input from all over Africa and themed ``Astronomy for Education''. The Africa case stands as a good example for the IYA cornerstone project ``Developing Astronomy Globally'' which focuses on developing regions.

  5. African American Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... specific health concerns. Differences in the health of groups can result from Genetics Environmental factors Access to care Cultural factors On this page, you'll find links to health issues that affect African Americans.

  6. African American Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... accounted for 83.8% of Caucasian elderly suicides. • Firearms were the predominant method of suicide among African ... per 100,000 annually. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Vital Statistics System. Mortality Data. ...

  7. Origin and transport of CH4 in two maar lakes fed by mantle-derived volatiles (Mt. Vulture volcano, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caracausi, Antonio; Cosenza, Paolo; Favara, Rocco; Foresta Martin, Luigi; Galli, Nunzio; Grassa, Fausto; Nuccio, Pasquale Mario; Paternoster, Michele; Riccobono, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    It has been assessed that lakes contribute 6 to 16% to global CH4 emission in atmosphere. Accumulation of CH4 in the water is strongly dependent on the input of gas and the dynamic of the lake's water. Lakes located on tectonically and volcanically active areas (e.g., Kivu, Nyos) generally contain relevant amount of mantle-derived volatiles. This generated an open debate on the origin of CO2 and CH4 in volcanic lakes because the complex bio-geological cycling of these two gases. This study is a part of larger investigation carried out on two maar lakes (LPM and LGM) formed about 140.000 years ago during the last eruption of Mt. Vulture (Italy). In spite of it generally is considered to be extinct, both lakes are characterized by an active inflow of mantle-derived fluids (Caracausi et al., 2013). Although the two lakes are only 150 m apart, their respective dynamics are different being LPM a meromictic lake, while LGM a monomictic one (Caracausi et al., 2013). The stagnant waters of LPM are enriched in CO2 and CH4 but the total gas pressure is below the hydrostatic pressure, so that the transfer of gas towards the surface doesn't occur via bubbles. Vertical profiles at LPM reveal a marked decrease of the dissolved CH4 content in the shallower layers due to aerated water. The amount of CH4 dissolved in LGM water column shows seasonal variations: in autumn it is comparable to that of LPM at the same depth; in winter CH4 is fully released into atmosphere through overturn of waters. C and H isotopes of CH4 clearly indicate in both lakes an active production both by acetoclastic methanogenesis and by CO2 reduction although with different proportions. Historical reports describe intense episodic releases of gases from both lakes occurred up to about 200 years ago. Caracausi et al. (2013) highlight that these events could be caused by a release of mantle-derived CO2 accumulated in the crust or directly linked to magma degassing. In the present study the knowledge gained

  8. Major histocompatibility complex variation in insular populations of the Egyptian vulture: inferences about the roles of genetic drift and selection.

    PubMed

    Agudo, Rosa; Alcaide, Miguel; Rico, Ciro; Lemus, Jesus A; Blanco, Guillermo; Hiraldo, Fernando; Donázar, Jose A

    2011-06-01

    Insular populations have attracted the attention of evolutionary biologists because of their morphological and ecological peculiarities with respect to their mainland counterparts. Founder effects and genetic drift are known to distribute neutral genetic variability in these demes. However, elucidating whether these evolutionary forces have also shaped adaptive variation is crucial to evaluate the real impact of reduced genetic variation in small populations. Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are classical examples of evolutionarily relevant loci because of their well-known role in pathogen confrontation and clearance. In this study, we aim to disentangle the partial roles of genetic drift and natural selection in the spatial distribution of MHC variation in insular populations. To this end, we integrate the study of neutral (22 microsatellites and one mtDNA locus) and MHC class II variation in one mainland (Iberia) and two insular populations (Fuerteventura and Menorca) of the endangered Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus). Overall, the distribution of the frequencies of individual MHC alleles (n=17 alleles from two class II B loci) does not significantly depart from neutral expectations, which indicates a prominent role for genetic drift over selection. However, our results point towards an interesting co-evolution of gene duplicates that maintains different pairs of divergent alleles in strong linkage disequilibrium on islands. We hypothesize that the co-evolution of genes may counteract the loss of genetic diversity in insular demes, maximize antigen recognition capabilities when gene diversity is reduced, and promote the co-segregation of the most efficient allele combinations to cope with local pathogen communities.

  9. Major histocompatibility complex variation in insular populations of the Egyptian vulture: inferences about the roles of genetic drift and selection.

    PubMed

    Agudo, Rosa; Alcaide, Miguel; Rico, Ciro; Lemus, Jesus A; Blanco, Guillermo; Hiraldo, Fernando; Donázar, Jose A

    2011-06-01

    Insular populations have attracted the attention of evolutionary biologists because of their morphological and ecological peculiarities with respect to their mainland counterparts. Founder effects and genetic drift are known to distribute neutral genetic variability in these demes. However, elucidating whether these evolutionary forces have also shaped adaptive variation is crucial to evaluate the real impact of reduced genetic variation in small populations. Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are classical examples of evolutionarily relevant loci because of their well-known role in pathogen confrontation and clearance. In this study, we aim to disentangle the partial roles of genetic drift and natural selection in the spatial distribution of MHC variation in insular populations. To this end, we integrate the study of neutral (22 microsatellites and one mtDNA locus) and MHC class II variation in one mainland (Iberia) and two insular populations (Fuerteventura and Menorca) of the endangered Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus). Overall, the distribution of the frequencies of individual MHC alleles (n=17 alleles from two class II B loci) does not significantly depart from neutral expectations, which indicates a prominent role for genetic drift over selection. However, our results point towards an interesting co-evolution of gene duplicates that maintains different pairs of divergent alleles in strong linkage disequilibrium on islands. We hypothesize that the co-evolution of genes may counteract the loss of genetic diversity in insular demes, maximize antigen recognition capabilities when gene diversity is reduced, and promote the co-segregation of the most efficient allele combinations to cope with local pathogen communities. PMID:21535276

  10. Mantle CO2 degassing at Mt. Vulture volcano (Italy): Relationship between CO2 outgassing of volcanoes and the time of their last eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caracausi, Antonio; Paternoster, Michele; Nuccio, Pasquale Mario

    2015-02-01

    Mantle volatiles are mainly lost from the Earth to the atmosphere through subaerial and submarine volcanism. Recent studies have shown that degassing of mantle volatiles also occurs from inactive volcanic areas and in tectonically active areas. A new challenge in Earth science is to quantify the mantle-derived flux of volatiles (e.g., CO2) which is important for understanding such diverse issues as the evolution of the atmosphere, the relationships between magma degassing and volcanic activity, gas pressure and seismogenic processes, and the hazards posed by volcanic lakes. Here we present a detailed study of mantle-derived CO2 budget from Mt. Vulture volcano in the Apennines, Italy, whose latest eruption occurred 141 ± 11 kyr ago. The relationship between δ13CCO2 and total dissolved carbon at Mt. Vulture volcano indicates that the emitted CO2 is a mixture of a biogenic end-member with an average δ13CCO2 of about - 17 ‰ and a mantle-derived CO2 end-member with δ13CCO2 values from - 3 ‰ to + 2 ‰. These values of mantle-derived δ13CCO2 are in the range of those for gas emitted from active volcanoes in the Mediterranean. We calculated the contribution of individual components (CO2 in groundwater, in lakes and from main pools) to the total CO2 budget in the area. We used new measurements of water flow, combined with literature data, to calculate the CO2 flux associated with groundwater, and measured the gas flux from the main pools on the volcanic edifice. Finally, we calculated the CO2 flow in the lakes based on the gradient concentration and eddy diffusivity. The total mantle-derived CO2 budget in the area is 4.85 ×108 molyr-1, which is more than double previous estimates. This is higher than those observed in younger volcanic systems elsewhere, thereby supporting the existence of actively degassing mantle melts below Mt. Vulture volcano. A structural map highlights the tectonic control on CO2 flow across the Mt. Vulture volcanic edifice. Indeed, the

  11. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  12. English as an African Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desai, Gaurav

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the role of the English language in postcolonial African literature, focusing on the politics of language, "Africanized" English, and the social languages used in Chinua Achebe's novels and concludes that English today is as much an African language as a British or American one. (Contains 37 references.) (MDM)

  13. The Struggles over African Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maseko, Pam; Vale, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this interview, African Language expert Pam Maseko speaks of her own background and her first encounter with culture outside of her mother tongue, isiXhosa. A statistical breakdown of South African languages is provided as background. She discusses Western (originally missionary) codification of African languages and suggests that this approach…

  14. The Genetic Structure and History of Africans and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Tishkoff, Sarah A.; Reed, Floyd A.; Friedlaender, Françoise R.; Ehret, Christopher; Ranciaro, Alessia; Froment, Alain; Hirbo, Jibril B.; Awomoyi, Agnes A.; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Juma, Abdalla T.; Kotze, Maritha J.; Lema, Godfrey; Moore, Jason H.; Mortensen, Holly; Nyambo, Thomas B.; Omar, Sabah A.; Powell, Kweli; Pretorius, Gideon S.; Smith, Michael W.; Thera, Mahamadou A.; Wambebe, Charles; Weber, James L.; Williams, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    Africa is the source of all modern humans, but characterization of genetic variation and of relationships among populations across the continent has been enigmatic. We studied 121 African populations, four African American populations, and 60 non-African populations for patterns of variation at 1327 nuclear microsatellite and insertion/deletion markers. We identified 14 ancestral population clusters in Africa that correlate with self-described ethnicity and shared cultural and/or linguistic properties. We observed high levels of mixed ancestry in most populations, reflecting historical migration events across the continent. Our data also provide evidence for shared ancestry among geographically diverse hunter-gatherer populations (Khoesan speakers and Pygmies). The ancestry of African Americans is predominantly from Niger-Kordofanian (~71%), European (~13%), and other African (~8%) populations, although admixture levels varied considerably among individuals. This study helps tease apart the complex evolutionary history of Africans and African Americans, aiding both anthropological and genetic epidemiologic studies. PMID:19407144

  15. The Other African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matory, J. Lorand

    Black North America is ethnically and culturally diverse. It contains many groups who do not call themselves or have not always called themselves "Negro,""Black,""African-American," and so forth, such as Louisiana Creoles of color and many of the Indian tribes east of the Mississippi. There are also numerous North American ethnic groups of African…

  16. African Oral Tradition Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Doris

    1985-01-01

    Presents the basic principles of two systems for notating African music and dance: Labanotation (created to record and analyze movements) and Greenotation (created to notate musical instruments of Africa and to parallel Labanotation whereby both music and dance are incorporated into one integrated score). (KH)

  17. Elective: African Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Kenneth V.

    The make-up of a course in African literature for high school students is discussed. It is pointed out that the course can be constructed on already familiar lines. High school students will be able to describe clearly, for example, the relationship between environment and character or the dilemma of characters caught between traditional values…

  18. Using Africa's protected area network to estimate the global population of a threatened and declining species: a case study of the Critically Endangered White-headed Vulture Trigonoceps occipitalis.

    PubMed

    Murn, Campbell; Mundy, Peter; Virani, Munir Z; Borello, Wendy D; Holloway, Graham J; Thiollay, Jean-Marc

    2016-02-01

    The White-headed Vulture Trigonoceps occipitalis (WhV) is uncommon and largely restricted to protected areas across its range in sub-Saharan Africa. We used the World Database on Protected Areas to identify protected areas (PAs) likely to contain White-headed Vultures. Vulture occurrence on road transects in Southern, East, and West Africa was adjusted to nests per km(2) using data from areas with known numbers of nests and corresponding road transect data. Nest density was used to calculate the number of WhV nests within identified PAs and from there extrapolated to estimate the global population. Across a fragmented range, 400 PAs are estimated to contain 1893 WhV nests. Eastern Africa is estimated to contain 721 nests, Central Africa 548 nests, Southern Africa 468 nests, and West Africa 156 nests. Including immature and nonbreeding birds, and accounting for data deficient PAs, the estimated global population is 5475 - 5493 birds. The identified distribution highlights are alarming: over 78% (n = 313) of identified PAs contain fewer than five nests. A further 17% (n = 68) of PAs contain 5 - 20 nests and 4% (n = 14) of identified PAs are estimated to contain >20 nests. Just 1% (n = 5) of PAs are estimated to contain >40 nests; none is located in West Africa. Whilst ranging behavior of WhVs is currently unknown, 35% of PAs large enough to hold >20 nests are isolated by more than 100 km from other PAs. Spatially discrete and unpredictable mortality events such as poisoning pose major threats to small localized vulture populations and will accelerate ongoing local extinctions. Apart from reducing the threat of poisoning events, conservation actions promoting linkages between protected areas should be pursued. Identifying potential areas for assisted re-establishment via translocation offers the potential to expand the range of this species and alleviate risk.

  19. Using Africa's protected area network to estimate the global population of a threatened and declining species: a case study of the Critically Endangered White-headed Vulture Trigonoceps occipitalis.

    PubMed

    Murn, Campbell; Mundy, Peter; Virani, Munir Z; Borello, Wendy D; Holloway, Graham J; Thiollay, Jean-Marc

    2016-02-01

    The White-headed Vulture Trigonoceps occipitalis (WhV) is uncommon and largely restricted to protected areas across its range in sub-Saharan Africa. We used the World Database on Protected Areas to identify protected areas (PAs) likely to contain White-headed Vultures. Vulture occurrence on road transects in Southern, East, and West Africa was adjusted to nests per km(2) using data from areas with known numbers of nests and corresponding road transect data. Nest density was used to calculate the number of WhV nests within identified PAs and from there extrapolated to estimate the global population. Across a fragmented range, 400 PAs are estimated to contain 1893 WhV nests. Eastern Africa is estimated to contain 721 nests, Central Africa 548 nests, Southern Africa 468 nests, and West Africa 156 nests. Including immature and nonbreeding birds, and accounting for data deficient PAs, the estimated global population is 5475 - 5493 birds. The identified distribution highlights are alarming: over 78% (n = 313) of identified PAs contain fewer than five nests. A further 17% (n = 68) of PAs contain 5 - 20 nests and 4% (n = 14) of identified PAs are estimated to contain >20 nests. Just 1% (n = 5) of PAs are estimated to contain >40 nests; none is located in West Africa. Whilst ranging behavior of WhVs is currently unknown, 35% of PAs large enough to hold >20 nests are isolated by more than 100 km from other PAs. Spatially discrete and unpredictable mortality events such as poisoning pose major threats to small localized vulture populations and will accelerate ongoing local extinctions. Apart from reducing the threat of poisoning events, conservation actions promoting linkages between protected areas should be pursued. Identifying potential areas for assisted re-establishment via translocation offers the potential to expand the range of this species and alleviate risk. PMID:26941945

  20. Understanding traditional African healing

    PubMed Central

    MOKGOBI, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of traditional healers as well as the role of traditional healers in their communities are discussed. In conclusion, the services of traditional healers go far beyond the uses of herbs for physical illnesses. Traditional healers serve many roles which include but not limited to custodians of the traditional African religion and customs, educators about culture, counselors, social workers and psychologists. PMID:26594664

  1. Human African trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Lejon, Veerle; Bentivoglio, Marina; Franco, José Ramon

    2013-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness is a neglected tropical disease that affects populations in sub-Saharan Africa. The disease is caused by infection with the gambiense and rhodesiense subspecies of the extracellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei, and is transmitted to humans by bites of infected tsetse flies. The disease evolves in two stages, the hemolymphatic and meningoencephalitic stages, the latter being defined by central nervous system infection after trypanosomal traversal of the blood-brain barrier. African trypanosomiasis, which leads to severe neuroinflammation, is fatal without treatment, but the available drugs are toxic and complicated to administer. The choice of medication is determined by the infecting parasite subspecies and disease stage. Clinical features include a constellation of nonspecific symptoms and signs with evolving neurological and psychiatric alterations and characteristic sleep-wake disturbances. Because of the clinical profile variability and insidiously progressive central nervous system involvement, disease staging is currently based on cerebrospinal fluid examination, which is usually performed after the finding of trypanosomes in blood or other body fluids. No vaccine being available, control of human African trypanosomiasis relies on diagnosis and treatment of infected patients, assisted by vector control. Better diagnostic tools and safer, easy to use drugs are needed to facilitate elimination of the disease.

  2. Diversity among African Pygmies

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez Rozzi, Fernando V.; Sardi, Marina L.

    2010-01-01

    Although dissimilarities in cranial and post-cranial morphology among African pygmies groups have been recognized, comparative studies on skull morphology usually pull all pygmies together assuming that morphological characters are similar among them and different with respect to other populations. The main aim of this study is to compare cranial morphology between African pygmies and non-pygmies populations from Equatorial Africa derived from both the Eastern and the Western regions in order to test if the greatest morphological difference is obtained in the comparison between pygmies and non-pygmies. Thirty three-dimensional (3D) landmarks registered with Microscribe in four cranial samples (Western and Eastern pygmies and non-pygmies) were obtained. Multivariate analysis (generalized Procrustes analysis, Mahalanobis distances, multivariate regression) and complementary dimensions of size were evaluated with ANOVA and post hoc LSD. Results suggest that important cranial shape differentiation does occur between pygmies and non-pygmies but also between Eastern and Western populations and that size changes and allometries do not affect similarly Eastern and Western pygmies. Therefore, our findings raise serious doubt about the fact to consider African pygmies as a homogenous group in studies on skull morphology. Differences in cranial morphology among pygmies would suggest differentiation after divergence. Although not directly related to skull differentiation, the diversity among pygmies would probably suggest that the process responsible for reduced stature occurred after the split of the ancestors of modern Eastern and Western pygmies. PMID:21049030

  3. African horse sickness.

    PubMed

    Zientara, S; Weyer, C T; Lecollinet, S

    2015-08-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a devastating disease of equids caused by an arthropod-borne virus belonging to the Reoviridae family, genus Orbivirus. It is considered a major health threat for horses in endemic areas in sub-Saharan Africa. African horse sickness virus (AHSV) repeatedly caused large epizootics in the Mediterranean region (North Africa and southern Europe in particular) as a result of trade in infected equids. The unexpected emergence of a closely related virus, the bluetongue virus, in northern Europe in 2006 has raised fears about AHSV introduction into Europe, and more specifically into AHSV-free regions that have reported the presence of AHSV vectors, e.g. Culicoides midges. North African and European countries should be prepared to face AHSV incursions in the future, especially since two AHSV serotypes (serotypes 2 and 7) have recently spread northwards to western (e.g. Senegal, Nigeria, Gambia) and eastern Africa (Ethiopia), where historically only serotype 9 had been isolated. The authors review key elements of AHS epidemiology, surveillance and prophylaxis. PMID:26601437

  4. East African Rift Valley, Kenya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This rare, cloud free view of the East African Rift Valley, Kenya (1.5N, 35.5E) shows a clear view of the Turkwell River Valley, an offshoot of the African REift System. The East African Rift is part of a vast plate fracture which extends from southern Turkey, through the Red Sea, East Africa and into Mozambique. Dark green patches of forests are seen along the rift margin and tea plantations occupy the cooler higher ground.

  5. A Teacher's Guide to African Narratives. Studies in African Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Sara Talis

    This guide is designed to help secondary school teachers include African literature in their classes. It furnishes English and social studies teachers with a foundation for teaching African literature by offering critical commentary on the texts themselves. A synthesis of anthropological and historical material is presented to help both teachers…

  6. Trace elements and REE fractionation in subsoils developed on sedimentary and volcanic rocks: case study of the Mt. Vulture area, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mongelli, Giovanni; Paternoster, Michele; Rizzo, Giovanna; Sinisi, Rosa

    2014-06-01

    There is an increasing interest in the distribution of rare earth elements (REEs) within soils, primarily as these elements can be used to identify pedogenetic processes and because soils may be future sources for REE extraction, despite much attention should be paid to the protection and preservation of present soils. Here, we evaluate the processes that control the distribution of REEs in subsoil horizons developed over differing lithologies in an area of low anthropogenic contamination, allowing estimates of the importance of source rocks and weathering. Specifically, this study presents new data on the distribution of REEs and other trace elements, including transition and high-field-strength elements, in subsoils developed on both Quaternary silica-undersaturated volcanic rocks and Pliocene siliciclastic sedimentary rocks within the Mt. Vulture area of the southern Apennines in Italy. The subsoils in the Mt. Vulture area formed during moderate weathering (as classified using the chemical index of alteration) and contain an assemblage of secondary minerals that is dominated by trioctahedral illite with minor vermiculite. The REEs, high-field-strength elements, and transition metals have higher abundances in subsoils that developed from volcanic rocks, and pedogenesis caused the Mt. Vulture subsoils to have REE concentrations that are an order of magnitude higher than typical values for the upper continental crust. This result indicates that the distribution of REEs in soils is a valuable tool for mineral exploration. A statistical analysis of inter-elemental relationships indicates that REEs are concentrated in clay-rich fractions that also contain significant amounts of low-solubility elements such as Zr and Th, regardless of the parent rock. This suggests that low-solubility refractory minerals, such as zircon, play a significant role in controlling the distribution of REEs in soils. The values of (La/Yb)N and (Gd/Yb)N fractionation indices are dependent on

  7. African American Administrators and Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Dianne; Taylor, Janice D.; Burrell, Charlotte; Stewart, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the issues of African American participation in the administrative ranks of the academy. The authors find that African Americans tend to hold positions that are marginal in academic organizations, lacking power and influence, and that not much has changed over recent decades. Forces influencing this condition are explored,…

  8. African-American Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Lucinda

    This paper examines the history of African American children's literature, the present-day status of it, and ventures predictions about its future. The paper also considers the historic and social factors of the debate about whether an author who is not African American can write a book that will/should be accepted in this category of children's…

  9. African-American Sacred Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, A. Peter

    1991-01-01

    The history of African-American sacred music is traced from the time of slavery to the present interest in gospel music. The religious music of African Americans is geared toward liberation themes. It is important that this music does not dilute its power through cross-over with other music forms. (SLD)

  10. Africanization in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, M. Alice; Rubink, William L.; Patton, John C.; Coulson, Robert N.; Johnston, J. Spencer

    2005-01-01

    The expansion of Africanized honeybees from South America to the southwestern United States in <50 years is considered one of the most spectacular biological invasions yet documented. In the American tropics, it has been shown that during their expansion Africanized honeybees have low levels of introgressed alleles from resident European populations. In the United States, it has been speculated, but not shown, that Africanized honeybees would hybridize extensively with European honeybees. Here we report a continuous 11-year study investigating temporal changes in the genetic structure of a feral population from the southern United States undergoing Africanization. Our microsatellite data showed that (1) the process of Africanization involved both maternal and paternal bidirectional gene flow between European and Africanized honeybees and (2) the panmitic European population was replaced by panmitic mixtures of A. m. scutellata and European genes within 5 years after Africanization. The post-Africanization gene pool (1998–2001) was composed of a diverse array of recombinant classes with a substantial European genetic contribution (mean 25–37%). Therefore, the resulting feral honeybee population of south Texas was best viewed as a hybrid swarm. PMID:15937139

  11. The history of African trypanosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Steverding, Dietmar

    2008-01-01

    The prehistory of African trypanosomiasis indicates that the disease may have been an important selective factor in the evolution of hominids. Ancient history and medieval history reveal that African trypanosomiasis affected the lives of people living in sub-Saharan African at all times. Modern history of African trypanosomiasis revolves around the identification of the causative agents and the mode of transmission of the infection, and the development of drugs for treatment and methods for control of the disease. From the recent history of sleeping sickness we can learn that the disease can be controlled but probably not be eradicated. Current history of human African trypanosomiasis has shown that the production of anti-sleeping sickness drugs is not always guaranteed, and therefore, new, better and cheaper drugs are urgently required. PMID:18275594

  12. Silicate-carbonate-salt liquid immiscibility and origin of the sodalite-haüyne rocks: study of melt inclusions in olivine foidite from Vulture volcano, S. Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panina, Liya I.; Stoppa, Francesco

    2009-12-01

    Melt inclusions in clinopyroxenes of olivine foidite bombs from Serra di Constantinopoli pyroclastic flows of the Vulture volcano (Southern Italy) were studied in detail. The rocks contain abundant zoned phenocrysts and xenocrysts of clinopyroxene, scarce grains of olivine, leucite, haüyne, glass with microlites of plagioclase and K-feldspar. The composition of clinopyroxene in xenocrysts (Cpx I), cores (Cpx II), and in rims (Cpx III) of phenocrysts differs in the content of Mg, Fe, Ti, and Al. All clinopyroxenes contain two types of primary inclusion-pure silicate and of silicate-carbonate-salt composition. This fact suggests that the phenomena of silicate-carbonate immiscibility took place prior to crystallization of clinopyroxene. Homogenization of pure silicate inclusions proceeded at 1 225 - 1 190°C. The composition of conserved melts corresponded to that of olivine foidite in Cpx I, to tephrite-phonolite in Cpx II, and phonolite-nepheline trachyte in Cpx III. The amount of water in them was no more than 0.9 wt.%. Silicate-carbonate inclusions decrepitated on heating. Salt globules contained salts of alkali-sulphate, alkali-carbonate, and Ca-carbonate composition somewhat enriched in Ba and Sr. This composition is typical of carbonatite melts when decomposed into immiscible fractions. The formation of sodalite-haüyne rocks from Vulture is related to the presence of carbonate-salt melts in magma chamber. The melts conserved in clinopyroxenes were enriched in incompatible elements, especially in Cpx III. High ratios of La, Nb, and Ta in melts on crystallization of Cpx I and Cpx II suggest the influence of a carbonatite melt as carbonatites have extremely high La/Nb and Nb/Ta and this is confirmed by the appearance of carbonatite melts in magma chamber. Some anomalies in the concentrations and relatives values of Eu and especially Ga seems typical of Italian carbonatite related melts. The mantle source for initial melts was, most likely, rather uniform

  13. Cancer statistics for African Americans.

    PubMed

    Ghafoor, Asma; Jemal, Ahmedin; Cokkinides, Vilma; Cardinez, Cheryll; Murray, Taylor; Samuels, Alicia; Thun, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    The American Cancer Society provides estimates on the number of new cancer cases and deaths, and compiles health statistics on African Americans in a biennial publication, Cancer Facts and Figures for African Americans. The compiled statistics include cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and lifestyle behaviors using the most recent data on incidence and survival from the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program, mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), and behavioral information from the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), and National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). It is estimated that 132,700 new cases of cancer and 63,100 deaths will occur among African Americans in the year 2003. Although African Americans have experienced higher incidence and mortality rates of cancer than whites for many years, incidence rates have declined by 2.7 percent per year in African-American males since 1992, while stabilizing in African-American females. During the same period, death rates declined by 2.1 percent and 0.4 percent per year among African-American males and females, respectively. The decrease in both incidence and death rates from cancer among African-American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. Nonetheless, African Americans still carry the highest cancer burden among US racial and ethnic groups. Most cancers detectable by screening are diagnosed at a later stage and survival rates are lower within each stage of disease in African Americans than in whites. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors is an active area of research.

  14. Bioenergy and African transformation.

    PubMed

    Lynd, Lee R; Sow, Mariam; Chimphango, Annie Fa; Cortez, Luis Ab; Brito Cruz, Carlos H; Elmissiry, Mosad; Laser, Mark; Mayaki, Ibrahim A; Moraes, Marcia Afd; Nogueira, Luiz Ah; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem H

    2015-01-01

    Among the world's continents, Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern bioenergy production in Africa. Here we consider bioenergy as an enabler for development, and provide an overview of modern bioenergy technologies with a comment on application in an Africa context. Experience with bioenergy in Africa offers evidence of social benefits and also some important lessons. In Brazil, social development, agricultural development and food security, and bioenergy development have been synergistic rather than antagonistic. Realizing similar success in African countries will require clear vision, good governance, and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, and business models to myriad local circumstances. Strategies for integrated production of food crops, livestock, and bioenergy are potentially attractive and offer an alternative to an agricultural model featuring specialized land use. If done thoughtfully, there is considerable evidence that food security and economic development in Africa can be addressed more effectively with modern bioenergy than without it. Modern bioenergy can be an agent of African transformation, with potential social benefits accruing to multiple sectors and extending well beyond energy supply per se. Potential negative impacts also cut across sectors. Thus, institutionally inclusive multi-sector legislative structures will be more effective at maximizing the social benefits of bioenergy compared to institutionally exclusive, single-sector structures. PMID:25709714

  15. African oil plays

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, A.J. )

    1989-09-01

    The vast continent of Africa hosts over eight sedimentary basins, covering approximately half its total area. Of these basins, only 82% have entered a mature exploration phase, 9% have had little or no exploration at all. Since oil was first discovered in Africa during the mid-1950s, old play concepts continue to bear fruit, for example in Egypt and Nigeria, while new play concepts promise to become more important, such as in Algeria, Angola, Chad, Egypt, Gabon, and Sudan. The most exciting developments of recent years in African oil exploration are: (1) the Gamba/Dentale play, onshore Gabon; (2) the Pinda play, offshore Angola; (3) the Lucula/Toca play, offshore Cabinda; (4) the Metlaoui play, offshore Libya/Tunisia; (5) the mid-Cretaceous sand play, Chad/Sudan; and (6) the TAG-I/F6 play, onshore Algeria. Examples of these plays are illustrated along with some of the more traditional oil plays. Where are the future oil plays likely to develop No doubt, the Saharan basins of Algeria and Libya will feature strongly, also the presalt of Equatorial West Africa, the Central African Rift System and, more speculatively, offshore Ethiopia and Namibia, and onshore Madagascar, Mozambique, and Tanzania.

  16. Bioenergy and African transformation.

    PubMed

    Lynd, Lee R; Sow, Mariam; Chimphango, Annie Fa; Cortez, Luis Ab; Brito Cruz, Carlos H; Elmissiry, Mosad; Laser, Mark; Mayaki, Ibrahim A; Moraes, Marcia Afd; Nogueira, Luiz Ah; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem H

    2015-01-01

    Among the world's continents, Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern bioenergy production in Africa. Here we consider bioenergy as an enabler for development, and provide an overview of modern bioenergy technologies with a comment on application in an Africa context. Experience with bioenergy in Africa offers evidence of social benefits and also some important lessons. In Brazil, social development, agricultural development and food security, and bioenergy development have been synergistic rather than antagonistic. Realizing similar success in African countries will require clear vision, good governance, and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, and business models to myriad local circumstances. Strategies for integrated production of food crops, livestock, and bioenergy are potentially attractive and offer an alternative to an agricultural model featuring specialized land use. If done thoughtfully, there is considerable evidence that food security and economic development in Africa can be addressed more effectively with modern bioenergy than without it. Modern bioenergy can be an agent of African transformation, with potential social benefits accruing to multiple sectors and extending well beyond energy supply per se. Potential negative impacts also cut across sectors. Thus, institutionally inclusive multi-sector legislative structures will be more effective at maximizing the social benefits of bioenergy compared to institutionally exclusive, single-sector structures.

  17. Successfully Educating Our African-American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moncree-Moffett, Kareem

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this empirical study was to explore the lived experiences of African American retired female teachers who have prior experience with educating urban African American students in public schools. Also explored are the experiences of active African American female teachers of urban African American students and comparisons are…

  18. Negro, Black, Black African, African Caribbean, African American or what? Labelling African origin populations in the health arena in the 21st century

    PubMed Central

    Agyemang, C.; Bhopal, R.; Bruijnzeels, M.

    2005-01-01

    Broad terms such as Black, African, or Black African are entrenched in scientific writings although there is considerable diversity within African descent populations and such terms may be both offensive and inaccurate. This paper outlines the heterogeneity within African populations, and discusses the strengths and limitations of the term Black and related labels from epidemiological and public health perspectives in Europe and the USA. This paper calls for debate on appropriate terminologies for African descent populations and concludes with the proposals that (1) describing the population under consideration is of paramount importance (2) the word African origin or simply African is an appropriate and necessary prefix for an ethnic label, for example, African Caribbean or African Kenyan or African Surinamese (3) documents should define the ethnic labels (4) the label Black should be phased out except when used in political contexts. PMID:16286485

  19. Negro, Black, Black African, African Caribbean, African American or what? Labelling African origin populations in the health arena in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Agyemang, Charles; Bhopal, Raj; Bruijnzeels, Marc

    2005-12-01

    Broad terms such as Black, African, or Black African are entrenched in scientific writings although there is considerable diversity within African descent populations and such terms may be both offensive and inaccurate. This paper outlines the heterogeneity within African populations, and discusses the strengths and limitations of the term Black and related labels from epidemiological and public health perspectives in Europe and the USA. This paper calls for debate on appropriate terminologies for African descent populations and concludes with the proposals that (1) describing the population under consideration is of paramount importance (2) the word African origin or simply African is an appropriate and necessary prefix for an ethnic label, for example, African Caribbean or African Kenyan or African Surinamese (3) documents should define the ethnic labels (4) the label Black should be phased out except when used in political contexts. PMID:16286485

  20. Risks to birds traded for African traditional medicine: a quantitative assessment.

    PubMed

    Williams, Vivienne L; Cunningham, Anthony B; Kemp, Alan C; Bruyns, Robin K

    2014-01-01

    Few regional or continent-wide assessments of bird use for traditional medicine have been attempted anywhere in the world. Africa has the highest known diversity of bird species used for this purpose. This study assesses the vulnerability of 354 bird species used for traditional medicine in 25 African countries, from 205 genera, 70 families, and 25 orders. The orders most represented were Passeriformes (107 species), Falconiformes (45 species), and Coraciiformes (24 species), and the families Accipitridae (37 species), Ardeidae (15 species), and Bucerotidae (12 species). The Barn owl (Tyto alba) was the most widely sold species (seven countries). The similarity of avifaunal orders traded is high (analogous to "morphospecies", and using Sørensen's index), which suggests opportunities for a common understanding of cultural factors driving demand. The highest similarity was between bird orders sold in markets of Benin vs. Burkina Faso (90%), but even bird orders sold in two geographically separated countries (Benin vs. South Africa and Nigeria vs. South Africa) were 87% and 81% similar, respectively. Rabinowitz's "7 forms of rarity" model, used to group species according to commonness or rarity, indicated that 24% of traded bird species are very common, locally abundant in several habitats, and occur over a large geographical area, but 10% are rare, occur in low numbers in specific habitats, and over a small geographical area. The order with the highest proportion of rare species was the Musophagiformes. An analysis of species mass (as a proxy for size) indicated that large and/or conspicuous species tend to be targeted by harvesters for the traditional medicine trade. Furthermore, based on cluster analyses for species groups of similar risk, vultures, hornbills, and other large avifauna, such as bustards, are most threatened by selective harvesting and should be prioritised for conservation action. PMID:25162700

  1. Risks to Birds Traded for African Traditional Medicine: A Quantitative Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Vivienne L.; Cunningham, Anthony B.; Kemp, Alan C.; Bruyns, Robin K.

    2014-01-01

    Few regional or continent-wide assessments of bird use for traditional medicine have been attempted anywhere in the world. Africa has the highest known diversity of bird species used for this purpose. This study assesses the vulnerability of 354 bird species used for traditional medicine in 25 African countries, from 205 genera, 70 families, and 25 orders. The orders most represented were Passeriformes (107 species), Falconiformes (45 species), and Coraciiformes (24 species), and the families Accipitridae (37 species), Ardeidae (15 species), and Bucerotidae (12 species). The Barn owl (Tyto alba) was the most widely sold species (seven countries). The similarity of avifaunal orders traded is high (analogous to “morphospecies”, and using Sørensen's index), which suggests opportunities for a common understanding of cultural factors driving demand. The highest similarity was between bird orders sold in markets of Benin vs. Burkina Faso (90%), but even bird orders sold in two geographically separated countries (Benin vs. South Africa and Nigeria vs. South Africa) were 87% and 81% similar, respectively. Rabinowitz's “7 forms of rarity” model, used to group species according to commonness or rarity, indicated that 24% of traded bird species are very common, locally abundant in several habitats, and occur over a large geographical area, but 10% are rare, occur in low numbers in specific habitats, and over a small geographical area. The order with the highest proportion of rare species was the Musophagiformes. An analysis of species mass (as a proxy for size) indicated that large and/or conspicuous species tend to be targeted by harvesters for the traditional medicine trade. Furthermore, based on cluster analyses for species groups of similar risk, vultures, hornbills, and other large avifauna, such as bustards, are most threatened by selective harvesting and should be prioritised for conservation action. PMID:25162700

  2. Risks to birds traded for African traditional medicine: a quantitative assessment.

    PubMed

    Williams, Vivienne L; Cunningham, Anthony B; Kemp, Alan C; Bruyns, Robin K

    2014-01-01

    Few regional or continent-wide assessments of bird use for traditional medicine have been attempted anywhere in the world. Africa has the highest known diversity of bird species used for this purpose. This study assesses the vulnerability of 354 bird species used for traditional medicine in 25 African countries, from 205 genera, 70 families, and 25 orders. The orders most represented were Passeriformes (107 species), Falconiformes (45 species), and Coraciiformes (24 species), and the families Accipitridae (37 species), Ardeidae (15 species), and Bucerotidae (12 species). The Barn owl (Tyto alba) was the most widely sold species (seven countries). The similarity of avifaunal orders traded is high (analogous to "morphospecies", and using Sørensen's index), which suggests opportunities for a common understanding of cultural factors driving demand. The highest similarity was between bird orders sold in markets of Benin vs. Burkina Faso (90%), but even bird orders sold in two geographically separated countries (Benin vs. South Africa and Nigeria vs. South Africa) were 87% and 81% similar, respectively. Rabinowitz's "7 forms of rarity" model, used to group species according to commonness or rarity, indicated that 24% of traded bird species are very common, locally abundant in several habitats, and occur over a large geographical area, but 10% are rare, occur in low numbers in specific habitats, and over a small geographical area. The order with the highest proportion of rare species was the Musophagiformes. An analysis of species mass (as a proxy for size) indicated that large and/or conspicuous species tend to be targeted by harvesters for the traditional medicine trade. Furthermore, based on cluster analyses for species groups of similar risk, vultures, hornbills, and other large avifauna, such as bustards, are most threatened by selective harvesting and should be prioritised for conservation action.

  3. African and African Caribbean users' perceptions of inpatient services.

    PubMed

    Secker, J; Harding, C

    2002-04-01

    It has been suggested that well-documented differences in African and African Caribbean people's contact with mental health services may stem from the organization, processes and practices of services themselves. This article presents the findings of a qualitative study which explored the inpatient experiences of a sample of African and African Caribbean people. Although some positive experiences were described, in the main, participants' accounts revolved around a sense of loss of control and around experiences of overt and implicit racism. Underpinning these experiences were relationships with staff that were perceived to be unhelpful. On the basis of both the positive and negative experiences described, we draw conclusions about the changes required to ensure that inpatient services more effectively meet the needs of this group.

  4. The African Millennium Villages

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Pedro; Palm, Cheryl; Sachs, Jeffrey; Denning, Glenn; Flor, Rafael; Harawa, Rebbie; Jama, Bashir; Kiflemariam, Tsegazeab; Konecky, Bronwen; Kozar, Raffaela; Lelerai, Eliud; Malik, Alia; Modi, Vijay; Mutuo, Patrick; Niang, Amadou; Okoth, Herine; Place, Frank; Sachs, Sonia Ehrlich; Said, Amir; Siriri, David; Teklehaimanot, Awash; Wang, Karen; Wangila, Justine; Zamba, Colleen

    2007-01-01

    We describe the concept, strategy, and initial results of the Millennium Villages Project and implications regarding sustainability and scalability. Our underlying hypothesis is that the interacting crises of agriculture, health, and infrastructure in rural Africa can be overcome through targeted public-sector investments to raise rural productivity and, thereby, to increased private-sector saving and investments. This is carried out by empowering impoverished communities with science-based interventions. Seventy-eight Millennium Villages have been initiated in 12 sites in 10 African countries, each representing a major agroecological zone. In early results, the research villages in Kenya, Ethiopia, and Malawi have reduced malaria prevalence, met caloric requirements, generated crop surpluses, enabled school feeding programs, and provided cash earnings for farm families. PMID:17942701

  5. Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    1989-11-01

    The Central African Republic contains 242,000 square miles, which rolling terrain almost 2000 feet above sea level. The climate is tropical, and it has a population of 2.8 million people with a 2.5% growth rate. There are more than 80 ethnic groups including Baya 34%, Banda 28%, Sara 10%, Mandja 9%, Mboum 9%, and M'Baka 7%. The religions are traditional African 35%, protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, and Muslim 15%, and the languages are French and Sangho. The infant mortality rate is 143/1000, with expectancy at 49 years and a 40% literacy rate. The work force of 1 million is 70% agricultural, industry 6% and commerce and service 6% and government 3%. The government consists of a president assisted by cabinet ministers and a single party. Natural resources include diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, and oil, and major industries are beverages, textiles, and soap. Agricultural products feature coffee, cotton, peanuts, tobacco, food crops and livestock. Most of the population live in rural areas and most of the 80 ethnic groups have their own language. This is one of the world's least developed countries, with a per capita income of $375/year. The main problems with development are the poor transportation infrastructure, and the weak internal and international marketing systems. The US and various international organizations have aided in agriculture development, health programs, and family planning. US investment is mainly in diamond and gold mining, and although oil drilling has been successful it is not economically feasible at current prices.

  6. Early African Hominids: Pedagogic Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, James L.

    1984-01-01

    By studying early African hominids, students can learn about the interactive testing and creative aspects of scientific thinking and sharpen their geographical skills. It is impossible to study this topic without giving prominence to space and time. (RM)

  7. Hepatitis C in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Saab, Sammy; Jackson, Christian; Nieto, Jose; Francois, Fritz

    2014-10-01

    The care of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in African Americans represents an opportunity to address a major health disparity in medicine. In all facets of HCV infection, African Americans are inexplicably affected, including in the prevalence of the virus, which is higher among them compared with most of the racial and ethnic groups. Ironically, although fibrosis rates may be slow, hepatocellular carcinoma and mortality rates appear to be higher among African Americans. Sustained viral response (SVR) rates have historically significantly trailed behind Caucasians. The reasons for this gap in SVR are related to both viral and host factors. Moreover, low enrollment rates in clinical trials hamper the study of the efficacy of anti-viral therapy. Nevertheless, the gap in SVR between African Americans and Caucasians may be narrowing with the use of direct-acting agents. Gastroenterologists, hepatologists, primary care physicians, and other health-care providers need to address modifiable risk factors that affect the natural history, as well as treatment outcomes, for HCV among African Americans. Efforts need to be made to improve awareness among health-care providers to address the differences in screening and referral patterns for African Americans.

  8. The African Pediatric Fellowship Program: Training in Africa for Africans.

    PubMed

    Wilmshurst, Jo M; Morrow, Brenda; du Preez, Avril; Githanga, David; Kennedy, Neil; Zar, Heather J

    2016-01-01

    Africa has a significant burden of childhood disease, with relatively few skilled health care professionals. The African Paediatric Fellowship Programme was developed by the Department of Pediatrics and Child Health at the University of Cape Town to provide relevant training for African child health professionals, by Africans, within Africa. Trainees identified by partner academic institutions spend 6 months to 2 years training in the Department of Pediatrics and allied disciplines. They then return to their home institution to build practice, training, research, and advocacy. From 2008 to 2015, 73 physicians have completed or are completing training in general pediatrics or a pediatric subspecialty. At 1 year posttraining, 98% to 100% are practicing back in their home institution. The impact of the returning fellows is evident from their practice interventions, research collaborations, and positions as stakeholders who can change health care policies. Thirty-three centers in 13 African countries are partners with the program, and the program template is now followed by other partner sites in Africa. Increasing and retaining the skills pool of African child health specialists is building a network of motivated, highly skilled clinicians who are equipped to advance child health in Africa. PMID:26659458

  9. The African Pediatric Fellowship Program: Training in Africa for Africans.

    PubMed

    Wilmshurst, Jo M; Morrow, Brenda; du Preez, Avril; Githanga, David; Kennedy, Neil; Zar, Heather J

    2016-01-01

    Africa has a significant burden of childhood disease, with relatively few skilled health care professionals. The African Paediatric Fellowship Programme was developed by the Department of Pediatrics and Child Health at the University of Cape Town to provide relevant training for African child health professionals, by Africans, within Africa. Trainees identified by partner academic institutions spend 6 months to 2 years training in the Department of Pediatrics and allied disciplines. They then return to their home institution to build practice, training, research, and advocacy. From 2008 to 2015, 73 physicians have completed or are completing training in general pediatrics or a pediatric subspecialty. At 1 year posttraining, 98% to 100% are practicing back in their home institution. The impact of the returning fellows is evident from their practice interventions, research collaborations, and positions as stakeholders who can change health care policies. Thirty-three centers in 13 African countries are partners with the program, and the program template is now followed by other partner sites in Africa. Increasing and retaining the skills pool of African child health specialists is building a network of motivated, highly skilled clinicians who are equipped to advance child health in Africa.

  10. East African Rift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Places where the earth's crust has formed deep fissures and the plates have begun to move apart develop rift structures in which elongate blocks have subsided relative to the blocks on either side. The East African Rift is a world-famous example of such rifting. It is characterized by 1) topographic deep valleys in the rift zone, 2) sheer escarpments along the faulted walls of the rift zone, 3) a chain of lakes within the rift, most of the lakes highly saline due to evaporation in the hot temperatures characteristic of climates near the equator, 4) voluminous amounts of volcanic rocks that have flowed from faults along the sides of the rift, and 5) volcanic cones where magma flow was most intense. This example in Kenya displays most of these features near Lake Begoria.

    The image was acquired December 18, 2002, covers an area of 40.5 x 32 km, and is located at 0.1 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  11. An African ethic for nursing?

    PubMed

    Haegert, S

    2000-11-01

    This article derives from a doctoral thesis in which a particular discourse was used as a 'paradigm case'. From this discourse an ethic set within a South African culture arose. Using many cultural 'voices' to aid the understanding of this narrative, the ethic shows that one can build on both a 'justice' and a 'care' ethic. With further development based on African culture one can take the ethic of care deeper and reveal 'layers of understanding'. Care, together with compassion, forms the foundation of morality. Nursing ethics has followed particular western moral philosophers. Often nursing ethics has been taught along the lines of Kohlberg's theory of morality, with its emphasis on rules, rights, duties and general obligations. These principles were universalistic, masculine and noncontextual. However, there is a new ethical movement among Thomist philosophers along the lines to be expounded in this article. Nurses such as Benner, Bevis, Dunlop, Fry and Gadow--to name but a few--have welcomed the concept of an 'ethic of care'. Gilligan's work gave a feminist view and situated ethics in the everyday aspects of responsiveness, responsibility, context and concern. Shutte's search for a 'philosophy for Africa' has resulted in finding similarities in Setiloane and in Senghor with those of Thomist philosophers. Using this African philosophy and a research participant's narrative, an African ethic evolves out of the African proverb: 'A person is a person through other persons', or its alternative rendering: 'I am because we are: we are because I am.' This hermeneutic narrative reveals 'the way affect imbues activity with ethical meaning' within the context of a black nursing sister in a rural South African hospital. It expands upon the above proverb and incorporates the South African constitutional idea of 'Ubuntu' (compassion and justice or humanness).

  12. Geochemical insight into differences in the physical structures and dynamics of two adjacent maar lakes at Mt. Vulture volcano (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caracausi, A.; Nicolosi, M.; Nuccio, P. M.; Favara, R.; Paternoster, M.; Rosciglione, A.

    2013-05-01

    report on the first geochemical investigation of the Monticchio maar lakes (Mt. Vulture volcano, southern Italy) covering an annual cycle that aimed at understanding the characteristic features of the physical structures and dynamics of the two lakes. We provide the first detailed description of the lakes based on high-resolution conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) profiles, chemical and isotopic (H and O) compositions of the water, and the amounts of dissolved gases (e.g., He, Ar, CH4, and CO2). The combined data set reveals that the two lakes, which are separated by less than 200 m, exhibit different dynamics: one is a meromictic lake, where the waters are rich in biogenic and mantle-derived gases, while the other is a monomictic lake, which exhibits complete turnover of the water in winter and the release of dissolved gases. Our data strongly suggest that the differences in the dynamics of the two lakes are due to different density profiles affected by dissolved solutes, mainly Fe, which is strongly enriched in the deep water of the meromictic lake. A conceptual model of water balance was constructed based on the correlation between the chemical composition of the water and the hydrogen isotopic signature. Gas-rich groundwaters that feed both of the lakes and evaporation processes subsequently modify the water chemistry of the lakes. Our data highlight that no further potential hazardous accumulation of lethal gases is expected at the Monticchio lakes. Nevertheless, geochemical monitoring is needed to prevent the possibility of vigorous gas releases that have previously occurred in historical time.

  13. African American Males. A Critical Link in the African American Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dionne J., Ed.

    African Americans are experiencing extreme stress in the United States, and African-American males appear to suffer the most. The chapters in this volume examine some of the issues confronting African-American men today. They include: (1) "Introduction" (Dionne J. Jones); (2) "Reaffirming Young African American Males: Mentoring and Community…

  14. African American Preschoolers' Language, Emergent Literacy Skills, and Use of African American English: A Complex Relation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Craig, Holly K.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relation between African American preschoolers' use of African American English (AAE) and their language and emergent literacy skills in an effort to better understand the perplexing and persistent difficulties many African American children experience learning to read proficiently. Method: African American…

  15. African horse sickness.

    PubMed

    Mellor, Philip Scott; Hamblin, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    African horse sickness virus (AHSV) causes a non-contagious, infectious insect-borne disease of equids and is endemic in many areas of sub-Saharan Africa and possibly Yemen in the Arabian Peninsula. However, periodically the virus makes excursions beyond its endemic areas and has at times extended as far as India and Pakistan in the east and Spain and Portugal in the west. The vectors are certain species of Culicoides biting midge the most important of which is the Afro-Asiatic species C. imicola. This paper describes the effects that AHSV has on its equid hosts, aspects of its epidemiology, and present and future prospects for control. The distribution of AHSV seems to be governed by a number of factors including the efficiency of control measures, the presence or absence of a long term vertebrate reservoir and, most importantly, the prevalence and seasonal incidence of the major vector which is controlled by climate. However, with the advent of climate-change the major vector, C. imicola, has now significantly extended its range northwards to include much of Portugal, Spain, Italy and Greece and has even been recorded from southern Switzerland. Furthermore, in many of these new locations the insect is present and active throughout the entire year. With the related bluetongue virus, which utilises the same vector species of Culicoides this has, since 1998, precipitated the worst outbreaks of bluetongue disease ever recorded with the virus extending further north in Europe than ever before and apparently becoming endemic in that continent. The prospects for similar changes in the epidemiology and distribution of AHSV are discussed.

  16. African N Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekunda, M.; Galford, G. L.; Hickman, J. E.; Palm, C.

    2011-12-01

    Africa's smallholder agricultural systems face unique challenges in planning for reducing poverty, concurrent with adaptation and mitigation to climate change. At continental level, policy seeks to promote a uniquely African Green Revolution to increase crop yields and food production, and improve local livelihoods. However, the consequences on the environment and climate are not clear; these pro-economic development measures should be linked to climate change adaptation and mitigation measures, and research is required to help achieve these policy proposals by identifying options, and testing impacts. In particular, increased nitrogen (N) inputs are essential for increasing food production in Africa, but are accompanied by inevitable increases in losses to the environment. These losses appear to be low at input levels promoted in agricultural development programs, while the increased N inputs both increase current food production and appear to reduce the vulnerability of food production to changes in climate. We present field and remote sensing evidence from Malawi that subsidizing improved seed and fertilizers increases resilience to drought without adding excess N to the environment. In Kenya, field research identified thresholds in N2O losses, where emissions are very low at fertilization rates of less than 200 kg ha-1. Village-scale models have identified potential inefficiencies in the food production process where the largest losses of reactive N occur, and which could be targeted to reduce the amount of N released to the environment. We further review some on-going research activities and progress in Africa that compare different methods of managing resources that target resilience in food production and adaptation to climate change, using nutrient N as an indicator, while evaluating the effects of these resource management practices on ecosystems and the environment.

  17. African Perceptions of Female Attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Coetzee, Vinet; Faerber, Stella J.; Greeff, Jaco M.; Lefevre, Carmen E.; Re, Daniel E.; Perrett, David I.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about mate choice preferences outside Western, educated, industrialised, rich and democratic societies, even though these Western populations may be particularly unrepresentative of human populations. To our knowledge, this is the first study to test which facial cues contribute to African perceptions of African female attractiveness and also the first study to test the combined role of facial adiposity, skin colour (lightness, yellowness and redness), skin homogeneity and youthfulness in the facial attractiveness preferences of any population. Results show that youthfulness, skin colour, skin homogeneity and facial adiposity significantly and independently predict attractiveness in female African faces. Younger, thinner women with a lighter, yellower skin colour and a more homogenous skin tone are considered more attractive. These findings provide a more global perspective on human mate choice and point to a universal role for these four facial cues in female facial attractiveness. PMID:23144734

  18. Plio-pleistocene African climate

    SciTech Connect

    deMenocal, P.B.

    1995-10-06

    Marine records of African climate variability document a shift toward more arid conditions after 2.8 million years ago (Ma), evidently resulting from remote forcing by cold North Atlantic sea-surface temperatures associated with the onset of Northern Hemisphere glacial cycles. African climate before 2.8 Ma was regulated by low-latitude insolation forcing of monsoonal climate due to Earth orbital precession. Major steps in the evolution of African hominids and other vertebrates are coincident with shifts to more arid, open conditions near 2.8 Ma, 1.7 Ma, and 1.0 Ma, suggesting that some Pliocene (Plio)-Pleistocene speciation events may have been climatically mediated. 65 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Plio-Pleistocene African Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demenocal, Peter B.

    1995-10-01

    Marine records of African climate variability document a shift toward more arid conditions after 2.8 million years ago (Ma), evidently resulting from remote forcing by cold North Atlantic sea-surface temperatures associated with the onset of Northern Hemisphere glacial cycles. African climate before 2.8 Ma was regulated by low-latitude insolation forcing of monsoonal climate due to Earth orbital precession. Major steps in the evolution of African hominids and other vertebrates are coincident with shifts to more arid, open conditions near 2.8 Ma, 1.7 Ma, and 1.0 Ma, suggesting that some Pliocene (Plio)-Pleistocene speciation events may have been climatically mediated.

  20. West African crude production diversifies

    SciTech Connect

    Aalund, L.

    1983-06-01

    Nigeria, with its seven crude-oil export streams, dominated West African production and accounted for over 70% of the depressed 1.8 million b/d output from the region last year. However, during the 1970s a flurry of new producing fields, primarily off the African coast, diversified production among a number of countries and touched off a wave of oil activity. The Journal takes a close look at the quality of West African oil in this installment of assays on world export crudes. This issue covers, in alphabetical order, Bonny Light (Nigeria) to Espoir (Ivory Coast). A following issue will wrap up West Africa by presenting assays on crudes from Forcados Blend (Nigeria) to Zaire Crude (Zaire).

  1. The African Cultural Astronomy Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urama, Johnson O.; Holbrook, Jarita C.

    2011-06-01

    Indigenous, endogenous, traditional, or cultural astronomy focuses on the many ways that people and cultures interact with celestial bodies. In most parts of Africa, there is very little or no awareness about modern astronomy. However, like ancient people everywhere, Africans wondered at the sky and struggled to make sense of it. The African Cultural Astronomy Project aims to unearth the body of traditional knowledge of astronomy possessed by peoples of the different ethnic groups in Africa and to consider scientific interpretations when appropriate for cosmogonies and ancient astronomical practices. Regardless of scientific validity, every scientist can relate to the process of making observations and creating theoretical mechanisms for explaining what is observed. Through linking the traditional and the scientific, it is believed that this would be used to create awareness and interest in astronomy in most parts of Africa. This paper discusses the vision, challenges and prospects of the African Cultural Astronomy Project in her quest to popularize astronomy in Africa.

  2. The African American Image in American Cinema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourne, St. Clair

    1990-01-01

    Political conditions have influenced the screen images of U.S. cinema, and the images of African Americans have reflected prevailing social stereotypes. The history of African-American representation in films is traced, and it is noted that the tendency to portray African Americans stereotypically has not changed. (SLD)

  3. Towards a Norm in South African Englishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Walt, Johann L.; van Rooy, Bertus

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the perception and application of the norm in South African English with specific reference to Black South African English. Hypothesizes that South African English is in the hibernation and expansion phase. Three sets of data are presented and analyzed. (Author/VWL)

  4. African Centered Knowledge: A British Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Considers the impact of African centered knowledge within the United Kingdom. Recent development of African Diaspora studies has forged links between various black Atlantic communities. The United Kingdom has experienced positive grassroots community response to the work of noted African centered scholars, yet within the British academy,…

  5. Freedom Road: Adult Education of African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Elizabeth A., Ed.

    This book contains six chapters by various authors about the history of African Americans' contributions and participation in adult education. The book reports on how some African American leaders saw the connection between education and the eventual freedom or uplift of the African American people. Following a foreword (Phyllis M. Cunningham) and…

  6. An Introduction to West African Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taiwo, Oladele

    Intended to provide help for those interested in studying West African literature, this book is divided into three parts. Part One provides background information: the various African oral traditions are discussed, related to the way of life of the people, and examined for the extent to which they form the basis of present West African literary…

  7. Engaging African Americans in Smoking Cessation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…

  8. African American Teaching and the Matriarchal Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffries, Rhonda Baynes

    This paper discusses the role of matriarchs in African-American culture, explaining that traditionally, African-American matriarchs arise from a combination of African norms and American social positions that naturally forces them to assume leadership conditions. The roles these women assume are a response to the desire to survive in a society…

  9. The Economic Question and the African Novel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okonkwo, J. I.

    1989-01-01

    Presents examples of how African novelists express their ideas on the restructuring of African economic orders and the social and political implications that emanate from them. Discusses the present state of the African economy reflected in the visions of these writers, and their visions of future socio-economic health of Africa. (JS)

  10. Content-based Instruction for African Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moshi, Lioba

    2001-01-01

    Examines content-based instruction for African languages and considers Schleicher's (2000) expatiation of goal-based instruction for African languages. Focuses on the parameters for content-based instruction, the profile of a content-based instructional program, the nature of content-based instruction, the first steps for African languages, and…

  11. Complex Syntax Production of African American Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Sandra C.; Roberts, Joanne E.

    2001-01-01

    This study examined changes in the complex syntax production of 85 African American preschoolers and the role of child (gender, age, African American English) and family (home environment) factors. Age, gender, and home environment effects were found for the amount of complex language used. African American English was not related to amount of…

  12. Heart failure in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Yancy, Clyde W

    2005-10-10

    The demographics of the United States are changing, and in the next few decades there will no longer be a racial/ethnic majority population. Increased awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in special populations is warranted as these populations increase. Heart failure carries a substantial burden on those affected, particularly African Americans, who have a disproportionate burden of heart disease. Current treatments for heart failure include angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers, angiotensin II-receptor antagonists, and vasodilating agents. This review discusses the unique characteristics of CVD in African Americans and addresses the need for targeted treatments to reduce the excess burden found in this population.

  13. Classic African American Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNair, Jonda C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to assert that there are classic African American children's books and to identify a sampling of them. The author presents multiple definitions of the term classic based on the responses of children's literature experts and relevant scholarship. Next, the manner in which data were collected and analyzed in regard to…

  14. Wellness among African American Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day-Vines, Norma L.; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    Although there are various definitions of wellness, few conceptual definitions have addressed the contextual dimensions of wellness relative to African American counselors. The authors present an overview of generic models of wellness, discuss factors that both inhibit and promote wellness, offer some culture-specific models of wellness, and…

  15. Liberia: America's Closest African Ally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Samuel; Mowell, Barry

    1997-01-01

    Profiles Liberia, the West African nation patterned after the United States and colonized with freed U.S. slaves in the early 19th century. Reviews the country's history and its eruption into civil strife in 1990, showing how tensions have often characterized relationships between Liberians of different ethnic identities. (MJP)

  16. Improvisation in West African Musics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, David

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is music of the sub-Sahara. Vocal, instrumental, and dance drumming from the Sudan Desert, the North Coast, East Horn, Central and West Africa, and contrapuntal yodeling of Pygmies is described. For African musicians, the ability to improvise, and creativity, are gifts from God. Includes selected readings and recordings. (KC)

  17. African American Men in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuyjet, Michael J., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This book is a much-needed resource that includes examples of real-world programs and activities to enhance academic success in the college environment for African American men. The examples are collected from a variety of institutions across the country. With contributions from leading practitioners and scholars in the field, this book explores…

  18. Developing anatomical terms in an African language.

    PubMed

    Madzimbamuto, Farai Daniel

    2012-03-01

    Clinical and technical information imparted in most African languages involves inexact terminology and code switching, so it lacks the explanatory power characterised by the English language. African languages are absent in the tertiary science education environment and forums where African scientists could present scientific material in the medium of African languages. This limits the development of African languages in the scientific domain. There has recently been a trend in several African languages to develop and intellectualise them, especially in the field of medical sciences. The ChiShona language is used to explore the ability of an African language to develop new terminology, to name the vertebral skeleton and describe it scientifically. It uses word compounding to demonstrate terminology development. ChiShona has similarities with several hundred other Bantu languages in East, Central and Southern Africa. Advancing this language can promote similar developments in others, making them more explanatory for the lay public and health professionals. PMID:22380900

  19. Chemical zoning and colour changes in the phases of the sodalite group from the Mt. Vulture haüynophyre lava (Potenza-italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Muro, A.; Bonaccorsi, E.; Principe, C.

    2003-04-01

    The haüynophyre is a sulfur-rich differentiated lava flow erupted from a parasitic vent of the Vulture volcano (Potenza-Italy). This porphyritic lithotype (43 vol%) is characterised by a very high content (20-30 vol%) of feldspathoids belonging to the sodalite group. Chemical and structural analysis of the sodalite-group minerals has led to the identification of i) a colourless to white nosean, ii) a blue to light-blue haüyne, and iii) a black to grey haüyne. Numerous phenocrysts present a resorbed core and/or a pronounced concentric division into zones with a complex colour sequence. The X-ray diffraction study (XRPD through Gandolfi technique and single crystal structure refinements) has confirmed the occurrence of nosean and has allowed to discard the presence of lazurite. All the analysed crystals, those chromatically homogeneous as well as the zoned ones, have marked core-rim chemical variations. Nosean crystals contain small pyrite inclusions and are characterised by an evolution from a Ca-K poor core to Ca-K rich rim. K_2O content increases towards the rim in blue haüyne, while Na_2O/CaO ratio remains almost constant. Black haüyne has chemical characteristics intermediate between the nosean and the blue haüyne-end members and has the highest S/Cl ratio in the core. Black and blue haüyne have similar patterns of depletion in REE and most other highly lithophile elements relative to the bulk rock. Positive anomaly for the Eu content and spinel composition are indicative of high fO_2 conditions in the magmas in which both haüyne varieties formed. Higher contents of compatible (Sr, Ba) and semicompatible (Ta) elements characterise the black phase. A high Fe content in the black variety could be at least in part responsible for the chromatic difference. Limited contamination by sedimentary evaporites and probably mixing between a sulfur-rich black haüyne-bearing magma and a more cooled magma having stable blue haüyne and nosean is proposed to explain

  20. Coming of Age: African American Male Rites-of-Passage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Paul, Jr.

    An overview is provided of issues confronting the African American male, along with a strategy to nurture a new generation of African American males. Chapters 1 and 2 focus on the social status and new demographics of the African American male and the external threats that are devastating to the African American male and the African American…

  1. The UCAR Africa Initiative: Enabling African Solutions to African Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, R.; Bruintjes, R.; Foote, B.; Heck, S.; Hermann, S.; Hoswell, L.; Konate, M.; Kucera, P.; Laing, A.; Lamptey, B.; Moncrieff, M.; Ramamurthy, M.; Roberts, R.; Spangler, T.; Traoré, A.; Yoksas, T.; Warner, T.

    2007-12-01

    The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) Africa Initiative (AI) is a coordinated effort aimed at building sustainable partnerships between UCAR and African institutions in order to pursue research and applications for the benefit of the African people. The initiative is based on four fundamental operating principles, concisely summarized by the overall philosophy of enabling African solutions to African needs. The four principles are: • Collaborate with African institutions • Focus on institutional capacity building and research support • Explore science research themes critical to Africa and important for the world • Leverage the research infrastructure in UCAR to add value These principles are realized in a set of pilot activities, chosen for their high probability of short-term results and ability to set the stage for longer-term collaboration. The three pilot activities are listed below. 1. A modest radar network and data-distribution system in Mali and Burkina Faso, including a data-sharing MOU between the Mail and Burkina Faso Weather Services. 2. A partnership among UCAR, the Ghana Meteorological Agency, and the Ghana university community to develop an operational Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for West Africa. The output is used by researchers and operational forecasters in Africa. Model output is also part of a demonstration project that aims to allow humanitarian agencies to share geo-referenced information in Africa via a web portal. 3. A workshop in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from April 2-6, 2007, with the theme Improving Lives by Understanding Weather. The workshop, co-organized with Programme SAAGA and the Commité Permanent Inter-Etats de Lutte Contre la Sécheresse dans le Sahel (CILSS), included over 80 participants from 18 countries, and produced a set of recommendations for continued collaboration. Our presentation will provide an update of these pilot activities and point to future directions. Recognizing

  2. Schistosomes in South African penguins.

    PubMed

    Aldhoun, Jitka A; Horne, Elizabeth C

    2015-01-01

    During the years 2009-2012, faeces of African penguins (Spheniscus demersus L.) from South African rehabilitation centres were examined for helminths. In total, 46 out 555 samples (8.29 %), mostly belonging to adult birds, were found to contain oval schistosome eggs with a spine on one pole. Their dimensions were 153.21 ± 9.07 × 87.14 ± 8.67 μm. Selected DNA fragments (18S, 28S and ITS rDNA) were sequenced and compared to other schistosome isolates deposited in GenBank. The shape of the eggs suggests that they belong to the genus Gigantobilharzia; however, due to the insufficient stage of knowledge of the genus and limited number of species available for comparison, we were not able to assign the isolate unambiguously to this genus based on either the egg morphology or the results of molecular analysis. PMID:25339513

  3. Schistosomes in South African penguins.

    PubMed

    Aldhoun, Jitka A; Horne, Elizabeth C

    2015-01-01

    During the years 2009-2012, faeces of African penguins (Spheniscus demersus L.) from South African rehabilitation centres were examined for helminths. In total, 46 out 555 samples (8.29 %), mostly belonging to adult birds, were found to contain oval schistosome eggs with a spine on one pole. Their dimensions were 153.21 ± 9.07 × 87.14 ± 8.67 μm. Selected DNA fragments (18S, 28S and ITS rDNA) were sequenced and compared to other schistosome isolates deposited in GenBank. The shape of the eggs suggests that they belong to the genus Gigantobilharzia; however, due to the insufficient stage of knowledge of the genus and limited number of species available for comparison, we were not able to assign the isolate unambiguously to this genus based on either the egg morphology or the results of molecular analysis.

  4. Mental health concerns among African immigrants.

    PubMed

    Venters, Homer; Adekugbe, Olayinka; Massaquoi, Jacob; Nadeau, Cheryl; Saul, Jack; Gany, Francesca

    2011-08-01

    African immigrants represent a rapidly expanding group of immigrants in the United States. In New York City, Africans constitute the fastest growing segment of immigrants but the needs and practices of African immigrants in the U.S. remain poorly understood. A community based organization (CBO) serving African immigrants in Staten Island, NY began a health screening program in 2008 with the goal of promoting access to primary care. Over 18 months, 296 visits were recorded at African Refuge health screenings, representing a total of 87 people who averaged just over 3 visits per person. The screenings identified mental health among the top three medical problems of clients but referral to mental health services was rare. Dedicated services are required to better screen for mental health concerns and refer African immigrants to mental health care.

  5. Hair care practices in African American women.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Chemene R; Quinn, Timothy M; Kelly, A Paul

    2003-10-01

    Hair care in African American women is wrought with historical and cultural issues. Dermatologists need to improve their understanding of hair and scalp disorders in their African American patient population by being informed about the styling methods commonly used by and for these patients. The styling habits described in this article are intended to encompass the hairstyles adapted by a wide range of African American women with varying hair textures.

  6. African American Therapists Working with African American Families: An Exploration of the Strengths Perspective in Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell-Tolliver, Laverne; Burgess, Ruby; Brock, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    With the exception of Hill's (1971, 1999) work, historically much of the literature on African American families has focused more on pathology than strengths. This study used interviews with 30 African American psychotherapists, self-identified as employing a strengths perspective with African American families, to investigate which strengths they…

  7. 75 FR 2844 - African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ...; ] AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting Time: Tuesday, January 26, 2010, 8:30 a.m. to 1 p.m. Place: African Development Foundation, Conference Room, 1400...

  8. 75 FR 14418 - African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ...; ] AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting Time: Tuesday, April 13, 2010, 9:30 a.m. to 1 p.m. Place: African Development Foundation, Conference Room, 1400...

  9. 75 FR 45600 - African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ...; ] AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting Time: Tuesday, August 17, 2010, 8:30 a.m. to 1 p.m. Place: African Development Foundation, Conference Room, 1400...

  10. Gentle Africanized bees on an oceanic island

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Marchand, Bert; Oskay, Devrim; Giray, Tugrul

    2012-01-01

    Oceanic islands have reduced resources and natural enemies and potentially affect life history traits of arriving organisms. Among the most spectacular invasions in the Western hemisphere is that of the Africanized honeybee. We hypothesized that in the oceanic island Puerto Rico, Africanized bees will exhibit differences from the mainland population such as for defensiveness and other linked traits. We evaluated the extent of Africanization through three typical Africanized traits: wing size, defensive behavior, and resistance to Varroa destructor mites. All sampled colonies were Africanized by maternal descent, with over 65% presence of European alleles at the S-3 nuclear locus. In two assays evaluating defense, Puerto Rican bees showed low defensiveness similar to European bees. In morphology and resistance to mites, Africanized bees from Puerto Rico are similar to other Africanized bees. In behavioral assays on mechanisms of resistance to Varroa, we directly observed that Puerto Rican Africanized bees groomed-off and bit the mites as been observed in other studies. In no other location, Africanized bees have reduced defensiveness while retaining typical traits such as wing size and mite resistance. This mosaic of traits that has resulted during the invasion of an oceanic island has implications for behavior, evolution, and agriculture. PMID:23144660

  11. Gentle Africanized bees on an oceanic island.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Marchand, Bert; Oskay, Devrim; Giray, Tugrul

    2012-11-01

    Oceanic islands have reduced resources and natural enemies and potentially affect life history traits of arriving organisms. Among the most spectacular invasions in the Western hemisphere is that of the Africanized honeybee. We hypothesized that in the oceanic island Puerto Rico, Africanized bees will exhibit differences from the mainland population such as for defensiveness and other linked traits. We evaluated the extent of Africanization through three typical Africanized traits: wing size, defensive behavior, and resistance to Varroa destructor mites. All sampled colonies were Africanized by maternal descent, with over 65% presence of European alleles at the S-3 nuclear locus. In two assays evaluating defense, Puerto Rican bees showed low defensiveness similar to European bees. In morphology and resistance to mites, Africanized bees from Puerto Rico are similar to other Africanized bees. In behavioral assays on mechanisms of resistance to Varroa, we directly observed that Puerto Rican Africanized bees groomed-off and bit the mites as been observed in other studies. In no other location, Africanized bees have reduced defensiveness while retaining typical traits such as wing size and mite resistance. This mosaic of traits that has resulted during the invasion of an oceanic island has implications for behavior, evolution, and agriculture.

  12. Race, health, and the African Diaspora.

    PubMed

    Spigner, Clarence

    Health inequalities exist throughout the African Diaspora and are viewed in this article as largely color-coded. In developed, developing, and undeveloped nations today, "racial" stratification is consistently reflected in an inability to provide adequate health regardless of national policy or ideology. For instance, African Americans experience less than adequate health care very similar to Blacks in Britain, in spite of each nations differing health systems. Latin America's Africana Negra communities experience poorer health similar to Blacks throughout the Caribbean. The African continent itself is arguably the poorest on earth. A common history of racism correlates with health disparities across the African Diaspora.

  13. Suicidal Behaviors in the African American Community

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Alex; Molock, Sherry Davis

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the risk and protective factors associated with suicidal thoughts and behaviors in the African American community. The authors provide a brief review of the history of suicide research in African American communities and critique some of the paradigms and underlying assumptions that have made it difficult to address the problem of suicidal behaviors in the African American community. The article also summarizes the articles that are presented in this special edition of the Journal of Black Psychology on suicidality in the African American community. PMID:17047727

  14. Precolonial African History. AHA Pamphlets, 501.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Philip D.

    This pamphlet surveys western historiography of precolonial Africa. Prior to World War II, African history emphasized the European role in Africa, relegating African history before European colonization to minor importance. Only after the increase in university enrollments and funding in the 1960's did opportunities for innovative research and new…

  15. African Education and Globalization: Critical Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdi, Ali A., Ed.; Puplampu, Korbla P., Ed.; Dei, George J. Sefa, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Containing both theoretical discussions of globalization and specific case analyses of individual African countries, this collection of essays examines the intersections of African education and globalization with multiple analytical and geographical emphases and intentions. The 11 essays critically analyze the issues from historical, cultural,…

  16. Prostate cancer in men of African origin.

    PubMed

    McGinley, Kathleen F; Tay, Kae Jack; Moul, Judd W

    2016-02-01

    Men of African origin are disproportionately affected by prostate cancer: prostate cancer incidence is highest among men of African origin in the USA, prostate cancer mortality is highest among men of African origin in the Caribbean, and tumour stage and grade at diagnosis are highest among men in sub-Saharan Africa. Socioeconomic, educational, cultural, and genetic factors, as well as variations in care delivery and treatment selection, contribute to this cancer disparity. Emerging data on single-nucleotide-polymorphism patterns, epigenetic changes, and variations in fusion-gene products among men of African origin add to the understanding of genetic differences underlying this disease. On the diagnosis of prostate cancer, when all treatment options are available, men of African origin are more likely to choose radiation therapy or to receive no definitive treatment than white men. Among men of African origin undergoing surgery, increased rates of biochemical recurrence have been identified. Understanding differences in the cancer-survivorship experience and quality-of-life outcomes among men of African origin are critical to appropriately counsel patients and improve cultural sensitivity. Efforts to curtail prostate cancer screening will likely affect men of African origin disproportionately and widen the racial disparity of disease.

  17. Improving African American Achievement in Geometry Honors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mims, Adrian B.

    2010-01-01

    This case study evaluated the significance of implementing an enrichment mathematics course during the summer to rising African American ninth graders entitled, "Geometry Honors Preview." In the past, 60 to 70 percent of African American students in this school district had withdrawn from Geometry Honors by the second academic quarter. This study…

  18. African (Black) Psychology: Issues and Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Joseph A.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the recent attempts of Black psychologists and social scientists to formulate a conceptual-operational framework for the study of psychological phenomena as they bear on the cultural-survival conditions of Black-African people. Outlines issues and problems in the attempt to define African (Black) psychology and discusses its relation to…

  19. Kenya's Maligned African Press: A Reassessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scotton, James F.

    Kenya's dozen or more newspapers and 50 news sheets edited and published by Africans in the turbulent 1945-52 preindependence period were condemned as irresponsible, inflammatory, antiwhite, and seditious by the Kenya colonial government, and this characterization has been accepted by many scholars and journalists, including Africans. There is…

  20. Cancer and the African American Experience

    Cancer.gov

    The first plenary of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the many factors that lead to inequalities in cancer care outcomes for African Americans.

  1. African American Undergraduates and the Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmire, Ethelene

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the academic library experiences of African American undergraduates attending a research university in the Midwest. Data collection techniques included questionnaires and ethnographic observations. The results indicated that African American undergraduates are using the academic library primarily to read and to study with their…

  2. Children Ask Questions about West African Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abercrombie, Denice; Cochran, Mathilda; Mims, Margaret

    1997-01-01

    Presents a collection of questions that fifth-grade students asked about African artwork and answers provided by staff from the Museum of Fine Arts in Houston, Texas. Observes that students' interest in important visual aspects of the art creates lead-ins to more detailed discussions of West African art and culture. (DSK)

  3. Genetics Home Reference: African iron overload

    MedlinePlus

    ... of a genetic condition? Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Frequency African iron overload is common in rural areas of central and ... more about the gene associated with African iron overload SLC40A1 Related Information What is a gene? What is a gene ...

  4. An African Perspective on Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiman, David

    1992-01-01

    Presents a series of classroom activities comparing differing views of human rights in the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the African Charter on Human and People's Rights. Includes excerpts from the African Charter on Human and People's Rights and the full text of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. (CFR)

  5. Smoking Cessation in African-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    1996-01-01

    Because the smoking behavior of African Americans differs considerably from that of other groups, researchers examined differences between African Americans who did and did not use the nicotine patch as an adjunct to counseling and education for smoking cessation. Results indicated the nicotine patch significantly improved six-month cessation…

  6. New data on African health professionals abroad

    PubMed Central

    Clemens, Michael A; Pettersson, Gunilla

    2008-01-01

    Background The migration of doctors and nurses from Africa to developed countries has raised fears of an African medical brain drain. But empirical research on the causes and effects of the phenomenon has been hampered by a lack of systematic data on the extent of African health workers' international movements. Methods We use destination-country census data to estimate the number of African-born doctors and professional nurses working abroad in a developed country circa 2000, and compare this to the stocks of these workers in each country of origin. Results Approximately 65,000 African-born physicians and 70,000 African-born professional nurses were working overseas in a developed country in the year 2000. This represents about one fifth of African-born physicians in the world, and about one tenth of African-born professional nurses. The fraction of health professionals abroad varies enormously across African countries, from 1% to over 70% according to the occupation and country. Conclusion These numbers are the first standardized, systematic, occupation-specific measure of skilled professionals working in developed countries and born in a large number of developing countries. PMID:18186916

  7. The African American Woman. Runta (Truth).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Monica L.; Watson, Betty Collier, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    The African American woman has commanded widespread public attention, but popular misconceptions of her socioeconomic role and status differ sharply from her actual situation. The following basic characteristics of the contemporary African American woman, drawn from census figures, are outlined: (1) demographically, females comprise a majority of…

  8. A Mirror Image African American Student Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon Dawson, Candice

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a narrative inquiry research project that focuses on the collegiate experiences of African American students at both historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly white institutions (PWIs). I look at how African American college students who engage in race or culturally specific activities, the degree…

  9. African Higher Education: An International Reference Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teferra, Damtew, Ed.; Altbach, Philip G., Ed.

    This book is a comprehensive survey of all aspects and dimensions of higher education in Africa. It includes a historical overview of higher education, descriptions of the higher education systems in each African country, and analyses of current and timely topics in higher education. Part 1, "Themes," contains 13 essays on trends in African higher…

  10. African American Art: A Los Angeles Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Harriet

    This curriculum unit focuses on the importance of Los Angeles (California) as a center for African American art and shows how African American artists have developed their own styles and how critics and collectors have encouraged them. The unit consists of four lessons, each of which can stand alone or be used in conjunction with the others. It…

  11. British African Caribbean Women and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla; Maynard, Donna; Johnson, Phillip; Carter, Stephaney

    2009-01-01

    Depression is a common condition among women in the United Kingdom. However, little is known about the context of depression among British African Caribbean women. This article offers a preliminary discussion regarding issues and information pertaining to depression among British African Caribbean women. Characteristics and symptoms of depression…

  12. Heart Truth for African American Women

    MedlinePlus

    THE HEART TRUTH ® FOR AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN: AN ACTION PLAN When you hear the term “heart disease,” what’s your first reaction? Like many women, you may ... in four women dies of heart disease. For African American women, the risk of heart disease is especially ...

  13. Kunta Kinte's Struggle to be African

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courlander, Harold

    1986-01-01

    This article reveals the differences between the character Kunta Kinte and the historical record concerning African males in the preslavery period. Kunta's non-African behaviors include displays of blind anger and rage, prudishness, and actions unknown in his Mandinka culture. These represent the many misrepresentations and ambiguities in Alex…

  14. The African Diaspora: A Literary Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duodu, Mark W.

    1988-01-01

    Identifies historical factors crucial to the evolution of Black literature in America and the Caribbean, including the triangular trade that displaced and destroyed many Africans, the literary movements of Negritude and the Harlem Renaissance, and the literary collaboration between American and African writers. (DMM)

  15. Computer Networks and African Studies Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    The use of electronic communication in the 12 Title VI African Studies Centers is discussed, and the networks available for their use are reviewed. It is argued that the African Studies Centers should be on the cutting edge of contemporary electronic communication and that computer networks should be a fundamental aspect of their programs. An…

  16. Hidden Education among African Americans during Slavery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundaker, Grey

    2007-01-01

    Background/Context: Historical studies examine aspects of African American education in and out of school in detail (Woodson 1915, 1933, Bullock 1970, Anderson 1988, Morris 1982, Rachal 1986, Rose 1964, Webber 1978, Williams 2005). Scholars of African American literacy have noted ways that education intersects other arenas such as religion and…

  17. Traditional African Religion: A Resource Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, William E.

    This resource unit is based on research conducted by Lynn Mitchell and Ernest Valenzuela, experienced classroom teachers of African history and culture. The unit consists of an introduction by Mr. Garland and two major parts. Part I is an annotated bibliography of selected sources on various aspects of traditional African Religion useful in…

  18. South African Education Program: An Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Florence C.

    Consequences of participation in the South African Education Program, which enabled 290 South Africans to study in the United States between 1979 and 1985, were evaluated. Attention was directed to outcomes of participation and the educational experience and intellectual and social growth experienced by the students and alumni, who were Black…

  19. African American Teachers and Culturally Relevant Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Michele

    An overview is presented of research on African American teachers, addressing the large body of literature written by policy analysts, first-person narratives, and the sociological and anthropological literature. Policy research has identified the small number of African American teachers and has studied some reasons for this shortage and some of…

  20. Reading Comprehension among African American Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Mayes, Eric; Arthur, Leslie; Johnson, Joseph; Robinson, Veronica; Ashe, Shante; Elbedour, Salman; Collins, Kathleen M. T.

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the reading comprehension performance of African American graduate students. The result showed that though the African American sample attained statistically significantly higher levels of reading comprehension than a normative sample of undergraduate students, they achieved lower levels of reading comprehension…

  1. The TG/HDL-C ratio does not predict insulin resistance in overweight women of African descent: a study of South African, African American and West African women.

    PubMed

    Knight, Michael G; Goedecke, Julia H; Ricks, Madia; Evans, Juliet; Levitt, Naomi S; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K; Sumner, Anne E

    2011-01-01

    Women of African descent have a high prevalence of diseases caused by insulin resistance. To positively impact cardiometabolic health in Black women, effective screening tests for insulin resistance must be identified. Recently, the TG/HDL-C ratio has been recommended as a tool to predict insulin resistance in overweight people. While the ratio predicts insulin resistance in White women, it is ineffective in African American women. As there are no data for African women, we tested the ability of the TG/HDL-C ratio to predict insulin resistance in Black women from South Africa, West Africa and the United States. For comparison, the ratio was also tested in White women from South Africa. Participants were 801 women (157 Black South African, 382 African American, 119 West African, 143 White South African, age 36 +/- 9y [mean +/- SD]). Standardized scores were created from log-transformed homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance values from each population. Participants in the upper third of their population distribution were classified as insulin-resistant. To predict insulin resistance by the TC/HDL-C ratio, area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC-ROC) curve was used and criteria were: 0.50 for no discrimination and > or = 0.70 for acceptable. Seventy-one percent of the Black women were overweight vs 51% of White women (P<.01). In overweight White women, AUC-ROC curve for prediction of insulin resistance by TG/HDL-C was 0.76 +/- 0.06, but below the 0.70 threshold in each group of overweight Black women (Black South African: 0.64 +/- 0.06, African American: 0.66 +/- 0.03, and West African: 0.63 +/- 0.07). Therefore, TG/HDL-C does not predict insulin resistance in overweight African American women and this investigation extends that finding to overweight Black South African and West African women. Resources to identify effective markers of insulin resistance are needed to improve cardiometabolic health in women of African descent.

  2. African Americans and the medical establishment.

    PubMed

    Smith, C

    1999-09-01

    The African American community's response to the AIDS epidemic has reflected the profound mistrust of the medical establishment which many African Americans feel. Among African Americans, the belief that the epidemic originated in a genocidal plot is widespread. It is thought that organized medicine has been significantly involved in this plot. If we look at African Americans' historical relationship to the medical establishment from the era of slavery to the recent past, the suspicious attitudes which make such beliefs possible can be seen as an intelligible response to a new disease which disproportionately affects African Americans. Successful medical and public health responses to the epidemic have depended and will continue to depend upon overcoming the historical legacy of suspicion and gaining the trust of the community.

  3. Relationships among obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance in African Americans and West Africans.

    PubMed

    Doumatey, Ayo P; Lashley, Kerrie S; Huang, Hanxia; Zhou, Jie; Chen, Guanjie; Amoah, Albert; Agyenim-Boateng, Kofi; Oli, Johnnie; Fasanmade, Olufemi; Adebamowo, Clement A; Adeyemo, Adebowale A; Rotimi, Charles N

    2010-03-01

    Several research studies in different populations indicate that inflammation may be the link between obesity and insulin resistance (IR). However, this relationship has not been adequately explored among African Americans, an ethnic group with disproportionately high rates of obesity and IR. In this study, we conducted a comparative study of the relationship among adiposity, inflammation, and IR in African Americans and West Africans, the ancestral source population for African Americans. The associations between obesity markers (BMI and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)), inflammatory markers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), haptoglobin, interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha), and IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA(IR))) were evaluated in 247 West Africans and 315 African Americans. In average, African Americans were heavier than the West Africans (by an average of 1.6 BMI units for women and 3 BMI units for men). Plasma hsCRP, haptoglobin, and IL-6 (but not TNF-alpha level) were higher in African Americans than in West Africans. In both populations, BMI was associated with markers of inflammation and with HOMA(IR), and these associations remained significant after adjusting for sex and age. However, the pattern of associations between measured inflammatory markers and IR was different between the two groups. In West Africans, hsCRP was the only inflammatory marker associated with IR. In contrast, hsCRP, haptoglobin, and IL-6 were all associated with IR in African Americans. Interestingly, none of the associations between markers of inflammation and IR remained significant after adjusting for BMI. This finding suggests that in African Americans, the relationship between inflammatory markers and IR is mediated by adiposity.

  4. The Call for an African University: A Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wyk, Berte; Higgs, Philip

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we draw on philosophy (particularly African philosophy) to analyse the call for an African university. The call for an African university may be viewed as a call that insists that all critical and transformative educators in Africa embrace an indigenous African worldview and root their nation's educational paradigms in an indigenous…

  5. Fatigue Severity among African Americans: Gender and Age Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Sharon; Jason, Leonard A.; Taylor, Renee R.; Torres-Harding, Susan R.; Helgerson, Jena; Witter, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between fatigue, age, and gender among African Americans, Caucasians, and Latinos. Survey results found significant age and gender interactions among African Americans and Caucasians. African American women and older African American men had the highest fatigue rates. There was no significant difference in levels of…

  6. The African-American History of Martha's Vineyard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weintraub, Elaine

    1993-01-01

    Reports on research into African American history and experiences in Martha's Vineyard (Massachusetts). Examines primary sources and oral traditions of African American cultural and social history from 1703 to the present. Discusses African American sailors, race relations, and contributions by African American individuals to the community. (CFR)

  7. Racism: perceptions of distress among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Vetta L Sanders

    2002-04-01

    Some scholars have suggested that stressful living conditions are a major source of mental disorder among African Americans (Krieger, 1999; Neighbors, 1990; Kessler & Neighbors, 1986). There has, however, been debate as to whether this higher level of distress is due to racism or the fact that African Americans are more often of lower socioeconomic status. Stressors that play a significant role in mental disorder might be expected to occur more frequently among African Americans than the general population. This paper attempts to provide empirical support for the notion that racism is a separate and unique source of stress for African Americans. Specifically, it was hypothesized that African Americans would report more experiences of (1) daily stress and (2) racism than other groups and (3) the impact of racial stress would be greater among African Americans. One hundred and fifty six participants completed the Daily Stress Inventory and the Experience of Discrimination questionnaire. Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that African Americans reported higher impact of discrimination scores than European Americans. There were no gender or ethnicity differences in daily stress or the number of racial incidents reported. The implications of the data are discussed.

  8. Constraining the African pole of rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asfaw, Laike M.

    1992-08-01

    In the absence of well defined transform faults in the East African rift system for constraining the plate kinematic reconstruction, the pole of relative motion for the African (Nubian) and Somalian plates has been determined from residual motion. If Africa and Somalia are to continue to drift apart along the East African rift system (which would then evolve into a series of ridges offset by transform faults) then incipient transform faults that may reflect the direction of relative motion should already be in place along the East African rift system. The incipient transforms along the East African rift system are characterized by shear zones, such as the Zambezi shear zone in the south and the Aswa and Hamer shear zones in the north. Some of these shear zones have been associated with recent strike-slip faulting in the NW-SE direction during periods of earthquakes. Provided that these, consistently NW-SE oriented, strike-slip movements in the shear zones give the direction of relative motion of the adjacent plates, then they can be used to constrain the position of the Africa-Somalia Euler pole. Due to the fact that identifying transform faults in the East African rift system is difficult and because the genesis of transform faults characterizing a plate boundary at an inception stage is not well known, the discussion here is limited to the northern segment of the East African rift system where shear zones are better characterized by the existing geophysical data. The characterizing features vary with latitude, indicating the complexity of the problem of the genesis of transform faults. I believe, however, that the relatively well defined intra-continental transform fault in the northern East African rift system, which is characterized by strike-slip faulting and earthquakes, constrains the pole of relative motion for the African and Somalian plates to a position near 1.5°S and 29.0°E.

  9. The Epworth Score in African American Populations

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Amanda L.; Spilsbury, James C.; Patel, Sanjay R.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: African Americans have elevated scores on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) compared to whites. The reason for this difference is not clear. Methods: Responses to the ESS were assessed in 687 patients (52.3% African American) referred to a hospital-based sleep clinic. Differences in total ESS score and the scores on individual Epworth questions were compared in African Americans and whites. Findings were validated in an independent sleep apnea research cohort of 712 subjects (57.3% African Americans). Results: African Americans in the clinic-based population had a higher mean ESS score than whites (11.4 ± 0.3 vs. 9.8 ± 0.3, p < 0.0001). This difference persisted after adjusting for sleepiness risk factors. In adjusted analyses including responses to the other ESS questions, African Americans scored significantly greater on 3 of the 8 ESS component questions: questions 2-“Watching TV,” 6-“Sitting and talking to someone,” and 7-“Sitting quietly after lunch without alcohol.” In the validation cohort, African Americans also had a higher mean ESS score (9.1 ± 0.3, vs. 8.2 ± 0.3, p = 0.04). In addition they had significantly elevated scores on questions 6 and 7 (p = 0.0002, p = 0.012 respectively) even after adjusting for responses to the other Epworth questions. Conclusions: African Americans have greater sleepiness than whites as assessed by the ESS; this is independent of sleepiness risk factors. The difference appears due primarily to differences in responses to questions 6 and 7 of the ESS questions suggesting a difference in the interpretation of these 2 questions. Citation: Hayes AL; Spilsbury JC; Patel SR. The Epworth score in African American populations. J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(4):344-348. PMID:19968012

  10. African American Women's Preparation for Childbirth From the Perspective of African American Health-Care Providers.

    PubMed

    Abbyad, Christine; Robertson, Trina Reed

    2011-01-01

    Preparation for birthing has focused primarily on Caucasian women. No studies have explored African American women's birth preparation. From the perceptions of 12 African American maternity health-care providers, this study elicited perceptions of the ways in which pregnant African American women prepare for childbirth. Focus group participants answered seven semistructured questions. Four themes emerged: connecting with nurturers, traversing an unresponsive system, the need to be strong, and childbirth classes not a priority. Recommendations for nurses and childbirth educators include: (a) self-awareness of attitudes toward African Americans, (b) empowering of clients for birthing, (c) recognition of the role that pregnant women's mothers play, (d) tailoring of childbirth classes for African American women, and (e) research on how racism influences pregnant African American women's preparation for birthing.

  11. Enslaved Africans and doctors in South Carolina.

    PubMed Central

    Goodson, Martia Graham

    2003-01-01

    This interpretation of the relationship between enslavement and American medicine in 19th century South Carolina reveals the intimacy that existed between Africans enslaved in that state and the doctors who practiced and taught there. Enslaved Africans were resourceful and reliable medical figures in the slave community. Their knowledge of medical botany permeated the slave quarters and plantation hospitals and was appropriated into southern medical knowledge. The trajectories of the careers of three South Carolina physicians are tied to their practice around and on the enslaved. The beginnings of gynecological surgery are linked to 1840s experimentation on enslaved African women performed by one of them. PMID:12749683

  12. Substance abuse in African American women.

    PubMed

    Wingo, L K

    2001-01-01

    Substance abuse is a serious problem from which, regardless of sex or race, no one is immune. Each racial and gender group has specific etiological factors relating to the use of illicit drugs. Data regarding substance abuse in African American women has only recently begun to emerge in the literature. Issues such as socio-economic, racism, and sexism, place African American women at particular risk for substance abuse. Limited availability to treatment, a lack of appropriate treatment and poor social supports impact recovery and places these women at risk for relapse. This article provides an overview of the current literature regarding substance abuse, treatment and recovery in African American women.

  13. Misconceptions of depression in african americans.

    PubMed

    Sohail, Zohaib; Bailey, Rahn Kennedy; Richie, William D

    2014-01-01

    Major depression is a very common disabling disorder. Although the relationship between race and depression is complex, depression affects all races, all ethnic and geographic locations as well as all age groups. The prevalence of depression in African Americans is controversial, due to the paucity of research. The deficit in the knowledge and skills in treating depression in African Americans have not been adequately addressed so far. Inadequate and insufficient data on African Americans contributes to the problems of under diagnoses, misdiagnosis, and under treatment of depression. This article will highlight the existing problem of depression in Afro American with a focus on diagnostic and treatment issues.

  14. Discussing Cancer: Communication with African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Caito, Nikki; Hood, Sula; Thompson, Vetta L. Sanders

    2015-01-01

    Regular screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) facilitates earlier detection, lowers mortality, and may reduce incidence through detection and removal of pre-cancerous polyps. Optimizing health professional delivery of CRC screening information and recommendations can assist in reducing CRC disparity in the African American community. This paper presents qualitative data on African Americans’ attitudes about health professional CRC communications based on the analysis of focus groups (N=79). Using a social-ecological framework, colorectal cancer and professional communication themes are examined to offer four general and nine cancer specific theoretically based and culturally appropriate strategies for improving health professional cancer communication with African Americans. PMID:25050658

  15. Assessing spirituality in mentally ill African Americans.

    PubMed

    Perdue, Bobbie; Johnson, Deanna; Singley, Doretha; Jackson, Cheylon

    2006-01-01

    The case scenario illustrates the advantage of using spirituality as a tool for recovery when working with mentally ill African American clients. Often spiritual and clinical perspectives are seen as contradictory. But for African Americans, these perspectives can be mutually reinforcing. Spirituality can serve as a resource of strength. It can provide emotional consolation, inspiration, guidance, and security. It can foster personal responsibility, identity, respect for ethical codes and community building. Mental Health professionals who use spirituality as a tool for recovery can expect to have better client outcomes when working with African Americans than those who do not.

  16. Competitive interactions between neotropical pollinators and africanized honey bees.

    PubMed

    Roubik, D W

    1978-09-15

    The Africanized honey bee, a hybrid of European and African honey bees, is thought to displace native pollinators. After experimental introduction of Africanized honey bee hives near flowers, stingless bees became less abundant or harvested-less resource as visitation by Africanized honey bees increased. Shifts in resource use caused by colonizing Africanized honey bees may lead to population decline of Neotropical pollinators. PMID:17743636

  17. Erratum to ``Eruption style and petrology of a new carbonatitic suite from the Mt. Vulture (Southern Italy): The Monticchio Lakes Formation'' [Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 78 (1997) 251 265

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoppa, Francesco; Principe, Claudia

    1998-01-01

    The Monticchio Lakes Formation (MLF) is a newly identified carbonatite-melilitite tuff sequence which is exposed in the southwestern sector of the Vulture volcano. It is the youngest example (ca. 0.13 m.y.) of this type of volcanism in Italy, although other carbonatites of smaller volume, but with similar characteristics, have been discovered recently. This volcanic event occurred in isolation after a 0.35 m.y. period of inactivity at Vulture. The eruption produced two maar-type vents and formed tuff aprons mainly composed of dune beds of lapilli. Depositional features suggest that a dry surge mechanism, possibly triggered by CO 2 expansion, was dominant during tuff emplacement. The MLF event involved a mixture of carbonatite and melilitite liquids which were physically separated before the eruption. Abundant mantle xenoliths are direct evidence of the deep-seated origin of the parental magma and its high velocity of propagation towards the surface. Often, these nodules form the core of lapilli composed of concentric shells of melilitite and/or porphyritic carbonatite. Coarse-ash beds alternate with lapilli beds and consist of abundant lumps and spherulae of very fine-grained calcite immersed in a welded, highly compacted carbonatite matrix. Porphyritic carbonatite shells of the lapilli and fine-grained spherulae of calcite in the tuff matrix suggest incipient crystallisation of a carbonatite liquid in subvolcanic conditions and eruption of carbonatite-spray droplets. Dark coloured juvenile fragments mainly consist of melilite, phlogopite, calcite, apatite, perovskite, and häuyne crystals in a carbonatite or melilitite matrix. The rocks have an extremely primitive, ultramafic composition with very high Mg# (> 85) and Cr and Ni content (1500 ppm). The calcite contains high SrO, BaO and REE of up to 1.5 wt.%. Similar compositions are typical of primary, magmatic carbonates which are found in both intrusive and extrusive carbonatites. The high modal Sr

  18. Cognition and Health in African American Men

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Regina C.; Thorpe, Roland J.; Gamaldo, Alyssa A.; Aiken-Morgan, Adrienne T.; Hill, LaBarron K.; Allaire, Jason C.; Whitfield, Keith E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Despite high rates of poor health outcomes, little attention has been focused on associations between prominent health factors and cognitive function in African American men, exclusively. The objective was to examine relationships between cardiovascular and pulmonary health, and cognitive function in African American men. Method Data from 257 men were pooled from two studies of African American aging. The mean age of participants was 58.15 and mean educational attainment was 11.78 years. Participants provided self-reported health and demographic information, completed cognitive measures, and had their blood pressure and peak expiratory flow assessed. Results After adjustment, significant relationships were found between average peak expiratory flow rate (APEFR) and cognitive performance measures. Discussion Results suggest that lung function is important to consider when examining cognitive function in African American men. Understanding the role of health in cognition and implications for quality of life in this population will be critical as life expectancies increase. PMID:25053802

  19. Health Conditions Common in African American Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... health. Return to top Health conditions common in African-American women Asthma Breast cancer Cancer Cervical cancer Diabetes Glaucoma and cataracts Heart disease High blood pressure High cholesterol HIV/AIDS Infant death Kidney disease Lupus Mental health ...

  20. African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... more about African-Americans and stroke at our Power To End Stroke website This content was last reviewed July 2015. ... Attack • Heart Failure (HF) • Heart Valve Problems and Disease • High Blood ...

  1. Mellonee Burnim on African American Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Patricia Shehan

    1995-01-01

    Describes the role and influence of Mellonee Burnim on U.S. music education. Discusses the origins and impact of African American gospel music. Includes a list of selected resources and two lesson plans featuring gospel music. (CFR)

  2. What physicians should know about Africanized honeybees.

    PubMed

    Sherman, R A

    1995-12-01

    The Africanized honeybee, popularly known as the "killer bee," is already well established in Texas and has recently entered California and Arizona. As the Africanized honeybee spreads in North America, the medical community must become aware of the problems associated with this insect and ensure that sting emergencies can be handled quickly and appropriately. The major differences between Africanized and European honeybees are that the former are more irritable, they swarm more readily and frequently, they defend their hives more vehemently, and they sting more collectively. It is not the composition nor the volume of an individual bee's venom, but rather the cumulative dose of multiple stings that accounts for the morbidity and mortality associated with Africanized honeybee-sting incidents. Even nonallergic persons are susceptible to the toxic effects of these large combined venom loads. Africanized honeybee-sting victims are treated the same as victims of European honeybee stings. Authorities will prepare for the bees' arrival by expanding public awareness, teaching risk-avoidance behavior, providing for the removal of troublesome hives, and developing sting treatment protocols that can be initiated rapidly in the field or emergency departments. Health care professionals should participate in the educational efforts and in the development of needed emergency response protocols so that the effects of the Africanized honeybee will be merely a nuisance rather than a plague. PMID:8553637

  3. What physicians should know about Africanized honeybees.

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, R A

    1995-01-01

    The Africanized honeybee, popularly known as the "killer bee," is already well established in Texas and has recently entered California and Arizona. As the Africanized honeybee spreads in North America, the medical community must become aware of the problems associated with this insect and ensure that sting emergencies can be handled quickly and appropriately. The major differences between Africanized and European honeybees are that the former are more irritable, they swarm more readily and frequently, they defend their hives more vehemently, and they sting more collectively. It is not the composition nor the volume of an individual bee's venom, but rather the cumulative dose of multiple stings that accounts for the morbidity and mortality associated with Africanized honeybee-sting incidents. Even nonallergic persons are susceptible to the toxic effects of these large combined venom loads. Africanized honeybee-sting victims are treated the same as victims of European honeybee stings. Authorities will prepare for the bees' arrival by expanding public awareness, teaching risk-avoidance behavior, providing for the removal of troublesome hives, and developing sting treatment protocols that can be initiated rapidly in the field or emergency departments. Health care professionals should participate in the educational efforts and in the development of needed emergency response protocols so that the effects of the Africanized honeybee will be merely a nuisance rather than a plague. PMID:8553637

  4. Multiple sclerosis susceptibility alleles in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Britt A.; Wang, Joanne; Taylor, Elise M.; Caillier, Stacy J.; Herbert, Joseph; Khan, Omar A.; Cross, Anne H.; De Jager, Philip L.; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine F.; Cree, Bruce C.A.; Hauser, Stephen L.; Oksenberg, Jorge R.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease characterized by complex genetics and multifaceted gene-environment interactions. Compared to whites, African Americans have a lower risk for developing MS, but African Americans with MS have a greater risk of disability. These differences between African Americans and whites may represent differences in genetic susceptibility and/or environmental factors. SNPs from 12 candidate genes have recently been identified and validated with MS risk in white populations. We performed a replication study using 918 cases and 656 unrelated controls to test whether these candidate genes are also associated with MS risk in African Americans. CD6, CLEC16a, EVI5, GPC5, and TYK2 contained SNPs that are associated with MS risk in the African American dataset. EVI5 showed the strongest association outside the MHC (rs10735781, OR = 1.233, 95% CI = 1.06–1.43, P value = 0.006). In addition, RGS1 appears to affect age of onset whereas TNFRSF1A appears to be associated with disease progression. None of the tested variants showed results that were statistically in-consistent with the effects established in whites. The results are consistent with shared disease genetic mechanisms among individuals of European and African ancestry. PMID:19865102

  5. Teaching African American Youth: Learning from the Lives of Three African American Social Studies Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Chantee Earl

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the life histories of three African American social studies teachers, focusing on the evolution and changes in their identities, perspectives, and attitudes related to their profession and instructional practice. In addition, the study addresses the significance of the teachers' racialized experiences as African Americans and…

  6. "Women ... Mourn and Men Carry on": African Women Storying Mourning Practices--A South African Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotze, Elmarie; Els, Lishje; Rajuili-Masilo, Ntsiki

    2012-01-01

    African mourning of loss of lives in South Africa has been shaped by discursive practices of both traditional African cultures and the sociopolitical developments under apartheid and in post-apartheid South Africa. This article reports on changes in mourning practices on the basis of a literature review and uses a collection of examples to…

  7. Crossing Cultures in Marriage: Implications for Counseling African American/African Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durodoye, Beth A.; Coker, Angela D.

    2008-01-01

    A wealth of literature exists regarding intermarriage between White and ethnic minority couples. Noticeably lacking, however, is information considering within-group diversity amongst Black couples. This paper will focus on cultural dynamics that may operate with African American and African couples residing in the United States. Through an…

  8. Changing Fatherhood: An Exploratory Qualitative Study with African and African Caribbean Men in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert; Hewison, Alistair; Wildman, Stuart; Roskell, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a qualitative study undertaken with 46 African and African Caribbean men exploring their experiences of fatherhood. Data analysis was informed by Connell's theoretical work on changing gender relations. Findings indicate that fathers' lives were mediated by masculinities, racism, gender, migration and…

  9. Perceptions of African American and European American Teachers on the Education of African American Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Ellen; Banks, Joy; Young, Kathryn; Jackson, Francesina R.

    2007-01-01

    The authors interviewed 27 teachers (16 African American and 11 European American) on instructional factors contributing to overidentification of behavior problems in African American boys. Interviews focused on teachers' perspectives of effective teachers, teacher-student relationships, and communication styles. Analysis of the interviews showed…

  10. An Ambivalent Community: International African Students in Residence at a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Everard

    2016-01-01

    This is a qualitative case study of the experiences and perceptions of South African and especially international, African students living in university residences in South Africa. The concept, community, is used to interpret interview data. This community was characterised by ambivalent social relations: There was discrimination by South Africans…

  11. A SNP test to identify Africanized honeybees via proportion of 'African' ancestry.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Nadine C; Harpur, Brock A; Lim, Julianne; Rinderer, Thomas E; Allsopp, Michael H; Zayed, Amro; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2015-11-01

    The honeybee, Apis mellifera, is the world's most important pollinator and is ubiquitous in most agricultural ecosystems. Four major evolutionary lineages and at least 24 subspecies are recognized. Commercial populations are mainly derived from subspecies originating in Europe (75-95%). The Africanized honeybee is a New World hybrid of A. m. scutellata from Africa and European subspecies, with the African component making up 50-90% of the genome. Africanized honeybees are considered undesirable for bee-keeping in most countries, due to their extreme defensiveness and poor honey production. The international trade in honeybees is restricted, due in part to bans on the importation of queens (and semen) from countries where Africanized honeybees are extant. Some desirable strains from the United States of America that have been bred for traits such as resistance to the mite Varroa destructor are unfortunately excluded from export to countries such as Australia due to the presence of Africanized honeybees in the USA. This study shows that a panel of 95 single nucleotide polymorphisms, chosen to differentiate between the African, Eastern European and Western European lineages, can detect Africanized honeybees with a high degree of confidence via ancestry assignment. Our panel therefore offers a valuable tool to mitigate the risks of spreading Africanized honeybees across the globe and may enable the resumption of queen and bee semen imports from the Americas.

  12. African American Pastors' Beliefs and Actions Regarding Childhood Incest in the African American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Tesia Denis

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study sought to explore African American pastors' beliefs and actions regarding childhood incest in the African American community and their decisions to inform the proper authorities. This exploratory study was developed in order to draw both public and academic attention to the understudied phenomenon of childhood incest…

  13. African swine fever virus serotype-specific proteins are significant protective antigens for African swine fever

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African swine fever (ASF) is an emerging disease threat for the swine industry worldwide. No ASF vaccine is available and progress is hindered by lack of knowledge concerning the extent of African swine fever virus (ASFV) strain diversity and the viral antigens conferring type specific protective im...

  14. Research with African Americans: Lessons Learned about Recruiting African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coker, Angela D.; Huang, Hsin-Hsin; Kashubeck-West, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The authors briefly explore literature related to recruiting African American research participants, reflect on their experiences conducting body image research with a sample of African American college women in an earlier study (S. Kashubeck-West et al., 2008), and discuss some methodological and cultural challenges that they encountered during…

  15. African Games of Strategy: A Teaching Manual. African Outreach Series, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Louise

    Appreciation of African games has increased in this country; especially board games which have been popularized through commercial versions. African games are invaluable resources for studying subjects requiring mathematical concepts, as well as social studies, history, geography, and languages. This manual presents some of the better known…

  16. Trade in Educational Services: Reflections on the African and South African Higher Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sehoole, Chika Trevor

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses and analyses the emergence of globalisation and its impact on developments within the African continent. Africa's response at a regional level through the New Partnership for Africa's Development and at a subregional level through the Southern African Development Community's "Protocol on Education" come under scrutiny. These…

  17. Antigenic variation in African trypanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Horn, David

    2014-01-01

    Studies on Variant Surface Glycoproteins (VSGs) and antigenic variation in the African trypanosome, Trypanosoma brucei, have yielded a remarkable range of novel and important insights. The features first identified in T. brucei extend from unique to conserved-among-trypanosomatids to conserved-among-eukaryotes. Consequently, much of what we now know about trypanosomatid biology and much of the technology available has its origin in studies related to VSGs. T. brucei is now probably the most advanced early branched eukaryote in terms of experimental tractability and can be approached as a pathogen, as a model for studies on fundamental processes, as a model for studies on eukaryotic evolution or often all of the above. In terms of antigenic variation itself, substantial progress has been made in understanding the expression and switching of the VSG coat, while outstanding questions continue to stimulate innovative new approaches. There are large numbers of VSG genes in the genome but only one is expressed at a time, always immediately adjacent to a telomere. DNA repair processes allow a new VSG to be copied into the single transcribed locus. A coordinated transcriptional switch can also allow a new VSG gene to be activated without any detectable change in the DNA sequence, thereby maintaining singular expression, also known as allelic exclusion. I review the story behind VSGs; the genes, their expression and switching, their central role in T. brucei virulence, the discoveries that emerged along the way and the persistent questions relating to allelic exclusion in particular. PMID:24859277

  18. African female sexuality and the heterosexual form.

    PubMed

    Mcfadden, P

    1994-03-01

    All women find sexuality problematical, especially women living in countries that were colonized or colonized others. The stereotype of repressed sexuality in Victorian England found its antithesis in the stereotype of promiscuous African sexuality which had to be "civilized" and controlled through religion and repression. Colonizing nations have seen the discourse on sexuality move from the private to the public domain, while Africa maintains its silence on the subject. Sexuality is a difficult topic because it embraces the most intimate and individual of our human emotions, thus, it is difficult even to voice sexual preferences to a lifetime partner. In addition, especially in Africa, sexuality is a very gender-specific social construct. Africans foster heterosexuality through socialization from early childhood and discourage any sign of sexual stimulation in their children. After teaching that humans are "naturally" heterosexual, Africans teach their children that marriage is essential for the moral uprightness of society, although most Africans are, in fact, raised in many types of alternative families. Critique of the heterosexual form is literally nonexistent in African feminist genre because African sexuality is really male sexuality. When people assert that an African culture exists, they really mean that patriarchal constructs about maleness and femaleness pervade the continent. Women are not expected to experience sexual satisfaction, and, indeed, the practice of female genital mutilation assures that they will never experience sexual pleasure. This practice assures that female sexuality exists only through men. It represents a misogynist point of view about the female body and is equally repulsive whether it takes the form of "excision" of a part of the clitoris or removal of all of the external genitalia. This practice controls female sexuality by depriving women of the opportunity to masturbate or to engage in homosexual relations. The resulting option

  19. Genetic bottlenecks, perceived racism, and hypertension risk among African Americans and first-generation African immigrants.

    PubMed

    Poston, W S; Pavlik, V N; Hyman, D J; Ogbonnaya, K; Hanis, C L; Haddock, C K; Hyder, M L; Foreyt, J P

    2001-05-01

    The complexity of factors influencing the development of hypertension (HTN) in African Americans has given rise to theories suggesting that genetic changes occurred due to selection pressures/genetic bottleneck effects (ie, constriction of existing genetic variability) over the course of the slave trade. Ninety-nine US-born and 86 African-born health professionals were compared in a cross-sectional survey examining genetic and psychosocial predictors of HTN. We examined the distributions of three genetic loci (G-protein, AGT-235, and ACE I/D) that have been associated with increased HTN risk. There were no significant differences between US-born African Americans and African-born immigrants in the studied genetic loci or biological variables (eg, plasma renin and angiotensin converting enzyme activity), except that the AGT-235 homozygous T genotype was somewhat more frequent among African-born participants than US-born African Americans. Only age, body mass index, and birthplace consistently demonstrated associations with HTN status. Thus, there was no evidence of a genetic bottleneck in the loci studied, ie, that US-born African Americans have different genotype distributions that increase their risk for HTN. In fact, some of the genotypic distributions evidenced lower frequencies of HTN-related alleles among US-born African Americans, providing evidence of European admixture. The consistent finding that birthplace (ie, US vs Africa) was associated with HTN, even though it was not always significant, suggests potential and unmeasured cultural, lifestyle, and environmental differences between African immigrants and US-born African Americans that are protective against HTN.

  20. Africans and Black Americans in the United States: Social Distance and Differential Acculturation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emoungu, Paul-Albert

    1992-01-01

    Presents an exploratory examination of the causes of social distance characterizing the association between Africans and African Americans. African American's perceptions about Africa and Africans are assessed through anecdotes and impressions, and thoughts and criticisms of Africans about African Americans are considered. A social science…

  1. Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium collaborates on epidemiologic studies to address the high burden of prostate cancer and to understand the causes of etiology and outcomes among men of African ancestry.

  2. Afro-Americans and Early Pan-Africanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contee, Clarence G.

    1970-01-01

    History of the Pan-African movement, the roles of W.E.B.Du Bois and Marcus Garvey in the movement activities, and the shift to African based leadership of the movement in the 1940's are discussed. (KG)

  3. What about African Americans and High Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? The prevalence of high blood pressure in African Americans is among the highest in ...

  4. The Communicative Orientation of First-Year African language Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleicher, Antonia Folarin; Gleisner, Karin

    2001-01-01

    Examines how well first-year African language textbooks convey communicative competency issues to African language learners and provides a suitable guide for the selection of communicatively-oriented first-year textbooks. (Author/VWL)

  5. Lift every voice: voices of African-American lesbian elders.

    PubMed

    Woody, Imani

    2015-01-01

    Old lesbians of African descent have experienced racism, heterosexism, homophobia, and ageism. This article explores the topics of aging, ageism, heterosexism, and minority stress among older African-American lesbians. The narratives and subsequent analysis offer significant contributions to the dialogue regarding Black aging lesbians in the aging and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities generally and in the African-American and African-American lesbian communities specifically.

  6. Heart failure in African Americans: disparities can be overcome.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Alok; Colvin-Adams, Monica; Yancy, Clyde W

    2014-05-01

    African Americans are disproportionately affected by heart failure, with a high prevalence at an early age. Hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and chronic kidney disease are all common in African Americans and all predispose to heart failure. Neurohormonal imbalances, endothelial dysfunction, genetic polymorphisms, and socioeconomic factors also contribute. In general, the same evidence-based treatment guidelines that apply to white patients with heart failure also apply to African Americans. However, the combination of hydralazine and isosorbide dinitrate is advised specifically for African Americans.

  7. KSC kicks off African-American History Month

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Clothed in her traditional African garb, Michelle Amos, mistress of ceremonies, welcomes the audience on Feb. 3 at the kick-off of African-American History Month. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.

  8. The decade of the African child.

    PubMed

    Schuftan, C

    1995-11-01

    The Organization of African States and UNICEF in 1992 jointly proposed that 1994-2003 be designated the Decade of the African Child. Although Africa would like to solve its children's problems on its own, especially in health and nutrition, it cannot do so alone. This paper identifies nine challenges and windows of opportunity on which consensus exists in Africa, and where donors can collaborate with moral, technical, and financial support to improve every African child's quality of life. Sections discuss the empowerment factor; health and nutrition policies; breaking out of poverty; women and child care; the right to know; linking people, primary health care, and nutrition; the need for early warning systems; restructuring the economy; and the changing face of the 1990s. The author stresses that neither governments, nongovernmental organizations, nor donors can afford to be passive observers of the pressing problems of the 1990s. Concerted efforts are needed now more than ever to fight important problems head-on.

  9. Intimate Partner Violence among West African Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    AKINSULURE-SMITH, ADEYINKA M.; CHU, TRACY; KEATLEY, EVA; RASMUSSEN, ANDREW

    2013-01-01

    Although the number of African immigrants arriving to the United States has increased significantly, there has been little investigation regarding their experiences of intimate partner violence or coping strategies. This study used focus groups and individual interviews to explore intimate partner violence among 32 heterosexual West African immigrants. Results suggest that although cultural expectations influence their coping strategies, West African–born men and women face different realities, with women reporting multiple instances of abuse and a sense of frustration with the existing options for assistance. Although participants discussed multilevel support structures within the immediate West African community to address intimate partner violence, all of these options maintained a gender hierarchy, leaving women dissatisfied. Challenges and barriers to partner violence resolution and coping strategies are identified. Results are examined in terms of their implications for addressing the needs of this underserved population. Implications for future research and services are discussed and highlighted. PMID:23730146

  10. Gastrointestinal Symptoms among African Americans Undergoing Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Glenda; Robinson, Janie R; Walker, Charles; Pennings, Jacquelyn S; Anderson, Staci T

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of end stage renal disease is more than three times higher in African Americans. Treatment regimens contribute to gastrointestinal (GI) complaints. This study's purpose was to examine the incidence of GI symptoms in African-American patients undergoing hemodialysis. Younger participants were more likely to report mild indigestion, while older participants reported severe indigestion or none at all. Females were more likely to report gastrointestinal symptoms. Commonly reported co-morbidities included hypertension, diabetes, and heart disease. Time on hemodialysis ranged from 1 to 279 months. Those who had been on hemodialysis the longest were more likely to report acid reflux, stomach rumbling and mild diarrhea. This study provides a foundation for early identification of GI symptoms in African-Americans patients undergoing hemodialysis.

  11. Rabies and African wild dogs in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kat, P W; Alexander, K A; Smith, J S; Munson, L

    1995-11-22

    Three packs of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) ranging to the north of the Masai Mara National Reserve in southwestern Kenya were monitored from 1988 to 1990. During a six week period (August 2-September 14, 1989), 21 of 23 members of one of these packs died. Histological examination of two brain samples revealed eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions (Negri bodies), supporting a diagnosis of rabies viral encephalitis. An additional brain sample tested positive for rabies with a fluorescent antibody test. Nucleotide sequence of the rabies viral N and G genes from isolates of four African wild dogs (including an individual from Tanzania) indicated that infection was with a viral variant common among domestic dogs in Kenya and Tanzania. A hypothesis linking African wild dog rabies deaths to researcher handling is evaluated and considered implausible.

  12. The management of hypertension in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, Keith C; Armani, Annemarie M

    2007-06-01

    The prevalence of hypertension in blacks in the United States is among the highest in the world. Compared with whites, blacks develop hypertension at an earlier age, their average blood pressures are much higher and they experience worse disease severity. Consequently, blacks have a 1.3 times greater rate of nonfatal stroke, 1.8 times greater rate of fatal stroke, 1.5 times greater rate of heart disease death, 4.2 times greater rate of end-stage kidney disease, and a 50% higher frequency of heart failure; overall, mortality due to hypertension and its consequences is 4 to 5 times more likely in African Americans than in whites. The increased prevalence of hypertension and excessive target organ damage is due to a combination of genetic and, most likely, environmental factors. There are no clinical trial data at present to suggest that lower-than-usual BP targets should be set for high-risk demographic groups such as African Americans. The primary means of prevention and early treatment of hypertension in African Americans will be the appropriate use of lifestyle modification. The International Society of Hypertension in Blacks guidelines realize that most patients will require combination therapy, many of them first-line, to reach appropriate BP goals. Although certain classes and combinations of antihypertensive agents have been well-established to be effective, the choice of drugs for combination therapy in African American patients may be different. Within the African American group, the responsiveness to monotherapy with ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and beta blockers may be less than the responsiveness to diuretics and calcium channel blockers, but these differences are corrected when diuretics are added to the neurohormonal antagonists. Of note, African American patients with systolic BP >15 mm Hg or a diastolic BP >10 mm Hg above goal should be treated with first-line combination therapy.

  13. Cancer statistics for African Americans, 2013.

    PubMed

    DeSantis, Carol; Naishadham, Deepa; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2013-05-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society estimates the number of new cancer cases and deaths for African Americans and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and screening prevalence based upon incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. It is estimated that 176,620 new cases of cancer and 64,880 deaths will occur among African Americans in 2013. From 2000 to 2009, the overall cancer death rate among males declined faster among African Americans than whites (2.4% vs 1.7% per year), but among females, the rate of decline was similar (1.5% vs 1.4% per year, respectively). The decrease in cancer death rates among African American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. The reduction in overall cancer death rates since 1990 in men and 1991 in women translates to the avoidance of nearly 200,000 deaths from cancer among African Americans. Five-year relative survival is lower for African Americans than whites for most cancers at each stage of diagnosis. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors remains an active area of research. Overall, progress in reducing cancer death rates has been made, although more can and should be done to accelerate this progress through ensuring equitable access to cancer prevention, early detection, and state-of-the-art treatments.

  14. Assessing the contributions of East African and West Pacific warming to the 2014 boreal spring East African drought

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, Christopher C.; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Hoell, Andrew; Livneh, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic warming contributed to the 2014 East African drought by increasing East African and west Pacific temperatures, and increasing the gradient between standardized western and central Pacific SST causing reduced rainfall, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture.

  15. Race, Culture, and the Education of African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Marvin

    2006-01-01

    In this essay, Marvin Lynn explores a range of perspectives on African American education, with particular focus on three works: "Black American Students in an Affluent Suburb: A Study of Academic Disengagement," by social anthropologist John Ogbu; "African-Centered Pedagogy: Developing Schools of Achievement for African American Children," by…

  16. Conducting Children's Health Insurance Outreach in African American Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Jacqueline

    In 1998, 19.7 percent of African American children were uninsured. Since a majority of African American children live in families with incomes below 200 percent of the federal poverty line, they are eligible for free or low-cost insurance coverage. This report presents strategies for facilitating the recruitment and enrollment of African American…

  17. Requests in a South African Variety of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasanga, Luanga A.

    2006-01-01

    The main assumption in this article is that the pragmatics of the variety of South African English commonly referred to as black South African English (BSAE) have been shaped, over time, by educated bilinguals, through a transfer of features from African languages. Transfer of syntactic forms, now firmly established in the variety, is evidenced…

  18. Effective Coping Strategies Employed in African-American Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Novella Channell

    Living in a society that is quick to label and condemn, has been, and continues to be a source of pain for African-Americans. However, society's microscope has for sometime had a one dimensional lens, particularly when examining the coping styles of African-American male-female relationships within the African-American family. There exists a great…

  19. Some Growth Points in African Child Development Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serpell, Robert; Marfo, Kofi

    2014-01-01

    We reflect on ways in which research presented in earlier chapters responds to challenges of generating an African child development field and identify additional issues calling for the field's attention. The chapters collectively display a variety of African contexts and reflexive evidence of the authors' African cultural roots.…

  20. Contrastive Studies - African Languages and English. Specialised Bibliography C9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    This selective bibliography lists 8 books and 19 journal articles dealing with contrastive studies of African languages and English. The entries range in date from 1953 to 1972 with the majority published since 1965. The books cited are African and British publications and the articles appeared in well-known African, European or American…

  1. An Investigation into the Achievement of African-Caribbean Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Gloria

    1996-01-01

    The case study of an African Caribbean boy in a British preschool class illustrates the ways in which African Caribbean students are caught between a devalued culture and a culture with which they do not identify. Approaches to promote cultural sensitivity toward African Caribbean children are discussed. (SLD)

  2. Student-Centered Designs of Pan-African Literature Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    M'Baye, Babacar

    2010-01-01

    A student-centered teaching methodology is an essential ingredient of a successful Pan-African literary course. In this article, the author defines Pan-Africanism and how to go about designing a Pan-African literature course. The author combines reading assignments with journals, film presentations, and lectures in a productive learning…

  3. Teaching African Politics at American Colleges and Universities: A Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenski, Henry C.; Kenski, Margaret C.

    Political scientists who teach African politics courses at U.S. colleges and universities were surveyed in 1973 to (1) discover successful teaching techniques, approaches, and texts; (2) determine the popularity of courses in African politics; and (3) collect data on the status of African politics as a research area. A questionnaire was mailed to…

  4. Problems of Transition for African Students in an American University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelegan, Francis O.; Parks, David J.

    1985-01-01

    Surveyed Black East African, Black West African and Arabic North African students (N=33) enrolled in an American university to identify their problems and personal attributes and environmental conditions influencing their experience. Discusses social, transportation, food, loneliness, and other problems. (MCF)

  5. Exposure of African-American Youth to Alcohol Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The marketing of alcohol products in African-American communities has, on occasion, stirred national controversy and met with fierce resistance from African Americans and others. Despite occasional media and community spotlights on the marketing of alcohol products in the African-American community, there has been no systematic review of the…

  6. Seeing African Americans as Competent Parents: Implications for Family Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla

    2011-01-01

    One of the primary roles of parents is to guide and socialize children to make meaningful life choices. African American parents, in particular, have the additional tasks of preparing their children to thrive in an environment that has historically been hostile toward African Americans. Yet, many African American parents are often depicted as…

  7. African American Educational Leadership in the School Superintendency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Eva C.

    2013-01-01

    African American educational leadership has long been part of American education and African American activism to resist oppression. However, the field of educational leadership has rarely included the contributions of African American leaders, particularly women leaders, into mainstream leadership theory and practices. This omission is difficult…

  8. Persistence among African American Males in the Honors College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson Goins, Johnell Roxann

    2014-01-01

    Retaining African American students, specifically African American males, is an issue that plagues the American higher education system. Research shows that African American male students are the lowest represented group in the gifted studies programs (Ford, 2010). Lockie and Burke (1999); Chen and DeJardins (2010) and Bell (2010a) found that…

  9. An Exploration of African American Students' Attitudes toward Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okwumabua, Theresa M.; Walker, Kristin M.; Hu, Xiangen; Watson, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The current work presents exploratory research findings concerning African American students' attitudes toward online learning. The Online Tutoring Attitudes Scale (OTAS; Graff, 2003) was administered to 124 African American students in a positive youth development program. Findings suggest that African American students' attitudes toward…

  10. African-American Artists in Context: The Philadelphia Art Museum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdino-Sullivan, Carla Maria

    1992-01-01

    Reviews two exhibits of visual art at the Philadelphia (Pennsylvania) Art Museum, "Works by African-Americans," which showcases the contributions of nineteenth- and twentieth-century African-American artists; and "Pertaining to Philadelphia," acquisitions from the collection of Julius Bloch, an artist and mentor to many African American artists in…

  11. African American Acculturation and Black Racial Identity: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope-Davis, Donald B.; Liu, William M.; Ledesma-Jones, Shannon; Nevitt, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    Examines the relationship between acculturation and racial identity among African Americans. One hundred eighty-seven African American students completed the Black Racial Identity Attitude Scale and the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS). Acculturation was associated with three of the five AAAS subscales: Dissonance, Immersion, and…

  12. African American Males in Counseling: Who's Pulling the Trigger Now?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethea-Whitfield, Patricia

    African American males face numerous challenges to their physical and psychological well-being. This project is a survey of the literature and trends relative to African American males from 1987 to the present. In reviewing the fifteen years since Parham and McDavis published their now famous article on African American men as an endangered…

  13. Engaging Youth through African-Derived Dance and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Kikora

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of African and African-derived dance and culture and highlights the physical health, dance education, historical, and cultural benefits of a school-based program that incorporates African dance as its core component. The article also includes the phases of the programming and brings attention to potential…

  14. Registers in the Academic Writing of African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syrquin, Anna F.

    2006-01-01

    The study examines the development of the registers of academic writing by African American college-level students through style and grammar: indirection inherent in the oral culture of the African American community and the paratactic functions of "because." Discourse analysis of 74 samples of academic writing by 20 African American undergraduate…

  15. Representing African American Women in U.S. History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schocker, Jessica B.; Woyshner, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the dearth of African American women in high school U.S. history textbooks. The authors conducted a content analysis of the images in an African American history textbook and found that black women are underrepresented. Women are found in less than 15 percent of the images in the African American history text, while they…

  16. Perceptions of Domestic Violence: A Dialogue with African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bent-Goodley, Tricia B.

    2004-01-01

    Although empirical research has accumulated over the past 20 years regarding African Americans and domestic violence, many questions remain about African American perceptions of domestic violence. This article explores African American women's perceptions about domestic violence through three focus groups held at a New York social services agency.…

  17. From Crisis to Empowerment: African American Women in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Marcie Ann

    2012-01-01

    Social challenges tear at the fabric of the African American family, revealing complexities that identify a de facto leader, the African American woman. She exists in a chasm of overt circumstances which heavily influences her successes. The purpose of this study is to identify factors that motivated seven female African American community college…

  18. Help-Seeking Attitudes among African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    So, Dominicus W.; Gilbert, Stefanie; Romero, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, African American students display a low-rate of seeking mental health treatment. Issues such as mistrust of White therapists, attitudes toward mental health problems, and African American spirituality affect their help-seeking behavior. The present study examined a sample of 134 African American students at a Historically Black…

  19. African American Studies in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Henry Louis, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Explores the future of African-American studies. African-American studies should be the home of free inquiry into the complexity of being of African descent in the world, rather than a closed-shop or a resurrected version of thought police. A true proliferation of ideologies and methodologies is required. (SLD)

  20. Going to School: The African-American Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lomotey, Kofi, Ed.

    This volume presents the views of a range of African-American educators on questions related to African-American academic achievement. The concern in this volume is with the persistent, pervasive, and disproportionate underachievement of African-American students. The book is divided into four parts. Part 1, "Problem Identification," comprises the…