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Sample records for african wild ass

  1. Ancient DNA from Nubian and Somali wild ass provides insights into donkey ancestry and domestication.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Birgitta; Marshall, Fiona B; Chen, Shanyuan; Rosenbom, Sónia; Moehlman, Patricia D; Tuross, Noreen; Sabin, Richard C; Peters, Joris; Barich, Barbara; Yohannes, Hagos; Kebede, Fanuel; Teclai, Redae; Beja-Pereira, Albano; Mulligan, Connie J

    2011-01-01

    Genetic data from extant donkeys (Equus asinus) have revealed two distinct mitochondrial DNA haplogroups, suggestive of two separate domestication events in northeast Africa about 5000 years ago. Without distinct phylogeographic structure in domestic donkey haplogroups and with little information on the genetic makeup of the ancestral African wild ass, however, it has been difficult to identify wild ancestors and geographical origins for the domestic mitochondrial clades. Our analysis of ancient archaeological and historic museum samples provides the first genetic information on the historic Nubian wild ass (Equus africanus africanus), Somali wild ass (Equus africanus somaliensis) and ancient donkey. The results demonstrate that the Nubian wild ass was an ancestor of the first donkey haplogroup. In contrast, the Somali wild ass has considerable mitochondrial divergence from the Nubian wild ass and domestic donkeys. These findings resolve the long-standing issue of the role of the Nubian wild ass in the domestication of the donkey, but raise new questions regarding the second ancestor for the donkey. Our results illustrate the complexity of animal domestication, and have conservation implications for critically endangered Nubian and Somali wild ass.

  2. Ancient DNA from Nubian and Somali wild ass provides insights into donkey ancestry and domestication

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Birgitta; Marshall, Fiona B.; Chen, Shanyuan; Rosenbom, Sónia; Moehlman, Patricia D.; Tuross, Noreen; Sabin, Richard C.; Peters, Joris; Barich, Barbara; Yohannes, Hagos; Kebede, Fanuel; Teclai, Redae; Beja-Pereira, Albano; Mulligan, Connie J.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic data from extant donkeys (Equus asinus) have revealed two distinct mitochondrial DNA haplogroups, suggestive of two separate domestication events in northeast Africa about 5000 years ago. Without distinct phylogeographic structure in domestic donkey haplogroups and with little information on the genetic makeup of the ancestral African wild ass, however, it has been difficult to identify wild ancestors and geographical origins for the domestic mitochondrial clades. Our analysis of ancient archaeological and historic museum samples provides the first genetic information on the historic Nubian wild ass (Equus africanus africanus), Somali wild ass (Equus africanus somaliensis) and ancient donkey. The results demonstrate that the Nubian wild ass was an ancestor of the first donkey haplogroup. In contrast, the Somali wild ass has considerable mitochondrial divergence from the Nubian wild ass and domestic donkeys. These findings resolve the long-standing issue of the role of the Nubian wild ass in the domestication of the donkey, but raise new questions regarding the second ancestor for the donkey. Our results illustrate the complexity of animal domestication, and have conservation implications for critically endangered Nubian and Somali wild ass. PMID:20667880

  3. Connectivity of the Asiatic wild ass population in the Mongolian Gobi

    PubMed Central

    Kaczensky, Petra; Kuehn, Ralph; Lhagvasuren, Badamjav; Pietsch, Stephanie; Yang, Weikang; Walzer, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Long-distance migrations of wildlife have been identified as important biological phenomena, but their conservation remains a major challenge. The Mongolian Gobi is one of the last refuges for the Asiatic wild ass (Equus hemionus) and other threatened migratory mammals. Using historic and current distribution ranges, population genetics, and telemetry data we assessed the connectivity of the wild ass population in the context of natural and anthropogenic landscape features and the existing network of protected areas. In the Mongolian Gobi mean biomass production is highly correlated with human and livestock density and seems to predict wild ass occurrence at the upper level. The current wild ass distribution range largely falls into areas below the 250 gC/m2/year productivity isoline, suggesting that under the present land use more productive areas have become unavailable for wild asses. Population genetics results identified two subpopulations and delineated a genetic boundary between the Dzungarian and Transaltai Gobi for which the most likely explanation are the mountain ranges separating the two areas. Home ranges and locations of 19 radiomarked wild asses support the assumed restricting effects of more productive habitats and mountain ranges and additionally point towards a barrier effect of fences. Furthermore, telemetry data shows that in the Dzungarian and Transaltai Gobi individual wild ass rarely ventured outside of the protected areas, whereas in the southeast Gobi asses only spend a small fraction of their time within the protected area network. Conserving the continuity of the wild ass population will need a landscape level approach, also including multi-use landscapes outside of protected areas, particularly in the southeast Gobi. In the southwest Gobi, allowing for openings in the border fence to China and managing the border area as an ecological corridor would connect three large protected areas together covering over 70,000 km2 of wild ass

  4. Connectivity of the Asiatic wild ass population in the Mongolian Gobi.

    PubMed

    Kaczensky, Petra; Kuehn, Ralph; Lhagvasuren, Badamjav; Pietsch, Stephanie; Yang, Weikang; Walzer, Chris

    2011-02-01

    Long-distance migrations of wildlife have been identified as important biological phenomena, but their conservation remains a major challenge. The Mongolian Gobi is one of the last refuges for the Asiatic wild ass (Equus hemionus) and other threatened migratory mammals. Using historic and current distribution ranges, population genetics, and telemetry data we assessed the connectivity of the wild ass population in the context of natural and anthropogenic landscape features and the existing network of protected areas. In the Mongolian Gobi mean biomass production is highly correlated with human and livestock density and seems to predict wild ass occurrence at the upper level. The current wild ass distribution range largely falls into areas below the 250 gC/m(2)/year productivity isoline, suggesting that under the present land use more productive areas have become unavailable for wild asses. Population genetics results identified two subpopulations and delineated a genetic boundary between the Dzungarian and Transaltai Gobi for which the most likely explanation are the mountain ranges separating the two areas. Home ranges and locations of 19 radiomarked wild asses support the assumed restricting effects of more productive habitats and mountain ranges and additionally point towards a barrier effect of fences. Furthermore, telemetry data shows that in the Dzungarian and Transaltai Gobi individual wild ass rarely ventured outside of the protected areas, whereas in the southeast Gobi asses only spend a small fraction of their time within the protected area network. Conserving the continuity of the wild ass population will need a landscape level approach, also including multi-use landscapes outside of protected areas, particularly in the southeast Gobi. In the southwest Gobi, allowing for openings in the border fence to China and managing the border area as an ecological corridor would connect three large protected areas together covering over 70,000 km(2) of wild ass

  5. Eurasian wild asses in time and space: morphological versus genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Geigl, Eva-Maria; Grange, Thierry

    2012-01-20

    The Equidae have a long evolutionary history that has interested palaeontologists for a long time. Their morphology-based taxonomy, however, is a matter of controversy. Since most equid species are now extinct, the phylogenetic tree based on genetic data can be established only imperfectly via deduction of present day genomes and little is known about the past genetic diversity of these species. Recent studies of ancient DNA preserved in fossil bones have led to a simplification of the phylogenetic tree and the classification system. The situation is still particularly unclear for the wild asses whose geographical distribution in the Pleistocene and the early Holocene stretched from Northern Africa to Eurasia before they became endangered or extinct. Therefore, we performed a phylogeographic study of bone remains of wild asses covering their former geographic range over the past 100,000 years based on the analysis of ancient mitochondrial DNA. Here, we will not show but rather discuss our results calling the morphology-based classification into question and indicating that morphological criteria alone can be an unreliable index in inferring various equid species. Indeed, the diversity of mitochondrial lineages in populations with similar morphology along with genetic signatures shared between morphologically distinct animals reveal a significant morphological plasticity among Equus species. The classification of palaeontological species based on morphological and genetic criteria will be discussed.

  6. Affiliative and aggressive behavior in a group of female Somali wild ass (Equus africanus somalicus).

    PubMed

    Asa, Cheryl S; Marshall, Fiona; Fischer, Martha

    2012-01-01

    We observed a group of three young female Somali wild asses to develop an ethogram of social behavior in the first phase of a longer term study of social, sexual, and maternal/infant behavior. The most unexpected finding was the frequency and extent of aggressive interactions, which included Charge, Drive, Neck Wrestle, Head Butt, and Body Slam, behaviors previously reported only for males of other equid species. The overall frequency of aggressive behavior was higher than that of affiliative behavior (84±16.5 vs. 32±5.5, P=0.03), yet no injuries occurred. The dyadic directionality of aggressive behavior suggested a dominance hierarchy, a feature not previously reported for either wild ass or domestic donkeys. The aggression observed may be an accurate representation of the behavior of this species, or their relatively young ages, or their recent transfer from their natal group through quarantine and into a new enclosure may have heightened agonistic tendencies. Further studies will determine whether with time their aggressive behavior becomes more intense or dissipates with maturity. PMID:21541987

  7. Eurasian wild asses in time and space: morphological versus genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Geigl, Eva-Maria; Grange, Thierry

    2012-01-20

    The Equidae have a long evolutionary history that has interested palaeontologists for a long time. Their morphology-based taxonomy, however, is a matter of controversy. Since most equid species are now extinct, the phylogenetic tree based on genetic data can be established only imperfectly via deduction of present day genomes and little is known about the past genetic diversity of these species. Recent studies of ancient DNA preserved in fossil bones have led to a simplification of the phylogenetic tree and the classification system. The situation is still particularly unclear for the wild asses whose geographical distribution in the Pleistocene and the early Holocene stretched from Northern Africa to Eurasia before they became endangered or extinct. Therefore, we performed a phylogeographic study of bone remains of wild asses covering their former geographic range over the past 100,000 years based on the analysis of ancient mitochondrial DNA. Here, we will not show but rather discuss our results calling the morphology-based classification into question and indicating that morphological criteria alone can be an unreliable index in inferring various equid species. Indeed, the diversity of mitochondrial lineages in populations with similar morphology along with genetic signatures shared between morphologically distinct animals reveal a significant morphological plasticity among Equus species. The classification of palaeontological species based on morphological and genetic criteria will be discussed. PMID:21820882

  8. Affiliative and aggressive behavior in a group of female Somali wild ass (Equus africanus somalicus).

    PubMed

    Asa, Cheryl S; Marshall, Fiona; Fischer, Martha

    2012-01-01

    We observed a group of three young female Somali wild asses to develop an ethogram of social behavior in the first phase of a longer term study of social, sexual, and maternal/infant behavior. The most unexpected finding was the frequency and extent of aggressive interactions, which included Charge, Drive, Neck Wrestle, Head Butt, and Body Slam, behaviors previously reported only for males of other equid species. The overall frequency of aggressive behavior was higher than that of affiliative behavior (84±16.5 vs. 32±5.5, P=0.03), yet no injuries occurred. The dyadic directionality of aggressive behavior suggested a dominance hierarchy, a feature not previously reported for either wild ass or domestic donkeys. The aggression observed may be an accurate representation of the behavior of this species, or their relatively young ages, or their recent transfer from their natal group through quarantine and into a new enclosure may have heightened agonistic tendencies. Further studies will determine whether with time their aggressive behavior becomes more intense or dissipates with maturity.

  9. First stable isotope analysis of Asiatic wild ass tail hair from the Mongolian Gobi

    PubMed Central

    Horacek, Micha; Sturm, Martina Burnik; Kaczensky, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis has become a powerful tool to study feeding ecology, water use or movement pattern in contemporary, historic and ancient species. Certain hair and teeth grow continuously, and when sampled longitudinally can provide temporally explicit information on dietary regime and movement pattern. In an initial trial, we analysed a tail sample of an Asiatic wild ass (Equus hemionus) from the Mongolian Gobi. We found seasonal variations in H, C and N isotope patterns, likely being the result of temporal variations in available feeds, water supply and possibly physiological status. Thus stable isotope analysis shows promise to study the comparative ecology of the three autochthonous equid species in the Mongolian Gobi. PMID:26339116

  10. Histological variability in the limb bones of the Asiatic wild ass and its significance for life history inferences

    PubMed Central

    Jordana, Xavier; Köhler, Meike

    2016-01-01

    The study of bone growth marks (BGMs) and other histological traits of bone tissue provides insights into the life history of present and past organisms. Important life history traits like longevity or age at maturity, which could be inferred from the analysis of these features, form the basis for estimations of demographic parameters that are essential in ecological and evolutionary studies of vertebrates. Here, we study the intraskeletal histological variability in an ontogenetic series of Asiatic wild ass (Equus hemionus) in order to assess the suitability of several skeletal elements to reconstruct the life history strategy of the species. Bone tissue types, vascular canal orientation and BGMs have been analyzed in 35 cross-sections of femur, tibia and metapodial bones of 9 individuals of different sexes, ages and habitats. Our results show that the number of BGMs recorded by the different limb bones varies within the same specimen. Our study supports that the femur is the most reliable bone for skeletochronology, as already suggested. Our findings also challenge traditional beliefs with regard to the meaning of deposition of the external fundamental system (EFS). In the Asiatic wild ass, this bone tissue is deposited some time after skeletal maturity and, in the case of the femora, coinciding with the reproductive maturity of the species. The results obtained from this research are not only relevant for future studies in fossil Equus, but could also contribute to improve the conservation strategies of threatened equid species. PMID:27761353

  11. Rabies and African wild dogs in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kat, P W; Alexander, K A; Smith, J S; Munson, L

    1995-11-22

    Three packs of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) ranging to the north of the Masai Mara National Reserve in southwestern Kenya were monitored from 1988 to 1990. During a six week period (August 2-September 14, 1989), 21 of 23 members of one of these packs died. Histological examination of two brain samples revealed eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions (Negri bodies), supporting a diagnosis of rabies viral encephalitis. An additional brain sample tested positive for rabies with a fluorescent antibody test. Nucleotide sequence of the rabies viral N and G genes from isolates of four African wild dogs (including an individual from Tanzania) indicated that infection was with a viral variant common among domestic dogs in Kenya and Tanzania. A hypothesis linking African wild dog rabies deaths to researcher handling is evaluated and considered implausible.

  12. The impact of increased environmental stochasticity due to climate change on the dynamics of asiatic wild ass.

    PubMed

    Saltz, David; Rubenstein, Daniel I; White, Gary C

    2006-10-01

    Theory proposes that increased environmental stochasticity negatively impacts population viability. Thus, in addition to the directional changes predicted for weather parameters under global climate change (GCC), the increase in variance of these parameters may also have a negative effect on biodiversity. As a case study, we assessed the impact of interannual variance in precipitation on the viability of an Asiatic wild ass (Equus hemionus) population reintroduced in Makhtesh Ramon Nature Reserve, Israel. We monitored the population from 1985 to 1999 to determine what environmental factors affect reproductive success. Annual precipitation during the year before conception, drought conditions during gestation, and population size determined reproductive success. We used the parameters derived from this model to assess population performance under various scenarios in a Leslie matrix type model with demographic and environmental stochasticity. Specifically, we used a change in the precipitation regime in our study area to formulate a GCC scenario and compared the simulated dynamics of the population with a no-change scenario. The coefficient of variation in population size under the global change scenario was 30% higher than under the no-change scenario. Minor die-offs (> or = 15%) following droughts increased extinction probability nearly 10-fold. Our results support the idea that an increase in environmental stochasticity due to GCC may, in itself, pose a significant threat to biodiversity. PMID:17002758

  13. Stochastic modelling of shifts in allele frequencies reveals a strongly polygynous mating system in the re-introduced Asiatic wild ass.

    PubMed

    Renan, Sharon; Greenbaum, Gili; Shahar, Naama; Templeton, Alan R; Bouskila, Amos; Bar-David, Shirli

    2015-04-01

    Small populations are prone to loss of genetic variation and hence to a reduction in their evolutionary potential. Therefore, studying the mating system of small populations and its potential effects on genetic drift and genetic diversity is of high importance for their viability assessments. The traditional method for studying genetic mating systems is paternity analysis. Yet, as small populations are often rare and elusive, the genetic data required for paternity analysis are frequently unavailable. The endangered Asiatic wild ass (Equus hemionus), like all equids, displays a behaviourally polygynous mating system; however, the level of polygyny has never been measured genetically in wild equids. Combining noninvasive genetic data with stochastic modelling of shifts in allele frequencies, we developed an alternative approach to paternity analysis for studying the genetic mating system of the re-introduced Asiatic wild ass in the Negev Desert, Israel. We compared the shifts in allele frequencies (as a measure of genetic drift) that have occurred in the wild ass population since re-introduction onset to simulated scenarios under different proportions of mating males. We revealed a strongly polygynous mating system in which less than 25% of all males participate in the mating process each generation. This strongly polygynous mating system and its potential effect on the re-introduced population's genetic diversity could have significant consequences for the long-term persistence of the population in the Negev. The stochastic modelling approach and the use of allele-frequency shifts can be further applied to systems that are affected by genetic drift and for which genetic data are limited. PMID:25728575

  14. Stochastic modelling of shifts in allele frequencies reveals a strongly polygynous mating system in the re-introduced Asiatic wild ass.

    PubMed

    Renan, Sharon; Greenbaum, Gili; Shahar, Naama; Templeton, Alan R; Bouskila, Amos; Bar-David, Shirli

    2015-04-01

    Small populations are prone to loss of genetic variation and hence to a reduction in their evolutionary potential. Therefore, studying the mating system of small populations and its potential effects on genetic drift and genetic diversity is of high importance for their viability assessments. The traditional method for studying genetic mating systems is paternity analysis. Yet, as small populations are often rare and elusive, the genetic data required for paternity analysis are frequently unavailable. The endangered Asiatic wild ass (Equus hemionus), like all equids, displays a behaviourally polygynous mating system; however, the level of polygyny has never been measured genetically in wild equids. Combining noninvasive genetic data with stochastic modelling of shifts in allele frequencies, we developed an alternative approach to paternity analysis for studying the genetic mating system of the re-introduced Asiatic wild ass in the Negev Desert, Israel. We compared the shifts in allele frequencies (as a measure of genetic drift) that have occurred in the wild ass population since re-introduction onset to simulated scenarios under different proportions of mating males. We revealed a strongly polygynous mating system in which less than 25% of all males participate in the mating process each generation. This strongly polygynous mating system and its potential effect on the re-introduced population's genetic diversity could have significant consequences for the long-term persistence of the population in the Negev. The stochastic modelling approach and the use of allele-frequency shifts can be further applied to systems that are affected by genetic drift and for which genetic data are limited.

  15. 77 FR 33100 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Technical Correction for African Wild Ass

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... Secretary to be endangered. Such a list was published on March 8, 1969, at 34 FR 5034, without reference to... Federal Register on April 14, 1970 (35 FR 6069), the Secretary of the Interior set forth the original list... species was published on June 2, 1970, at 35 FR 8491, Appendix A was retitled to read, ``Appendix...

  16. Reassessing the evolutionary history of ass-like equids: insights from patterns of genetic variation in contemporary extant populations.

    PubMed

    Rosenbom, Sónia; Costa, Vânia; Chen, Shanyuan; Khalatbari, Leili; Yusefi, Gholam Hosein; Abdukadir, Ablimit; Yangzom, Chamba; Kebede, Fanuel; Teclai, Redae; Yohannes, Hagos; Hagos, Futsum; Moehlman, Patricia D; Beja-Pereira, Albano

    2015-04-01

    All extant equid species are grouped in a single genus - Equus. Among those, ass-like equids have remained particularly unstudied and their phylogenetic relations were poorly understood, most probably because they inhabit extreme environments in remote geographic areas. To gain further insights into the evolutionary history of ass-like equids, we have used a non-invasive sampling approach to collect representative fecal samples of extant African and Asiatic ass-like equid populations across their distribution range and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing analyses to examine intraspecific genetic diversity and population structure, and to reconstruct phylogenetic relations among wild ass species/subspecies. Sequence analyses of 410 base pairs of the fast evolving mtDNA control region identified the Asiatic wild ass population of Kalamaili (China) as the one displaying the highest diversity among all wild ass populations. Phylogenetic analyses of complete cytochrome b sequences revealed that African and Asiatic wild asses shared a common ancestor approximately 2.3Mya and that diversification in both groups occurred much latter, probably driven by climatic events during the Pleistocene. Inferred genetic relationships among Asiatic wild ass species do not support E. kiang monophyly, highlighting the need of more extensive studies in order to clarify the taxonomic status of species/subspecies belonging to this branch of the Equus phylogeny. These results highlight the importance of re-assessing the evolutionary history of ass-like equid species, and urge to extend studies at the population level to efficiently design conservation and management actions for these threatened species. PMID:25681678

  17. Reassessing the evolutionary history of ass-like equids: insights from patterns of genetic variation in contemporary extant populations.

    PubMed

    Rosenbom, Sónia; Costa, Vânia; Chen, Shanyuan; Khalatbari, Leili; Yusefi, Gholam Hosein; Abdukadir, Ablimit; Yangzom, Chamba; Kebede, Fanuel; Teclai, Redae; Yohannes, Hagos; Hagos, Futsum; Moehlman, Patricia D; Beja-Pereira, Albano

    2015-04-01

    All extant equid species are grouped in a single genus - Equus. Among those, ass-like equids have remained particularly unstudied and their phylogenetic relations were poorly understood, most probably because they inhabit extreme environments in remote geographic areas. To gain further insights into the evolutionary history of ass-like equids, we have used a non-invasive sampling approach to collect representative fecal samples of extant African and Asiatic ass-like equid populations across their distribution range and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing analyses to examine intraspecific genetic diversity and population structure, and to reconstruct phylogenetic relations among wild ass species/subspecies. Sequence analyses of 410 base pairs of the fast evolving mtDNA control region identified the Asiatic wild ass population of Kalamaili (China) as the one displaying the highest diversity among all wild ass populations. Phylogenetic analyses of complete cytochrome b sequences revealed that African and Asiatic wild asses shared a common ancestor approximately 2.3Mya and that diversification in both groups occurred much latter, probably driven by climatic events during the Pleistocene. Inferred genetic relationships among Asiatic wild ass species do not support E. kiang monophyly, highlighting the need of more extensive studies in order to clarify the taxonomic status of species/subspecies belonging to this branch of the Equus phylogeny. These results highlight the importance of re-assessing the evolutionary history of ass-like equid species, and urge to extend studies at the population level to efficiently design conservation and management actions for these threatened species.

  18. African wild dogs test the 'survival of the fittest' paradigm.

    PubMed

    Pole, Alistair; Gordon, Iain J; Gorman, Martyn L

    2003-08-01

    Charles Darwin first used the term 'survival of the fittest' in the 5th edition of The origin of species. A literal interpretation implies that predators will selectively prey upon the weakest members of a population. We demonstrate that this is true for African wild dogs hunting impala. PMID:12952636

  19. African wild dogs test the 'survival of the fittest' paradigm.

    PubMed

    Pole, Alistair; Gordon, Iain J; Gorman, Martyn L

    2003-08-01

    Charles Darwin first used the term 'survival of the fittest' in the 5th edition of The origin of species. A literal interpretation implies that predators will selectively prey upon the weakest members of a population. We demonstrate that this is true for African wild dogs hunting impala.

  20. Antibody response to canine distemper vaccine in African wild dogs.

    PubMed

    Spencer, J; Burroughs, R

    1992-07-01

    Antibody levels against canine distemper virus were measured by means of an immunofluorescent antibody test prior to, and after, administration of a modified-live virus booster vaccine to seven African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus). Positive seroconversion with no harmful side-effects was seen in all the animals.

  1. Dental eruption in East African wild chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Machanda, Zarin; Brazeau, Nick F; Bernard, Andrew B; Donovan, Ronan M; Papakyrikos, Amanda M; Wrangham, Richard; Smith, Tanya M

    2015-05-01

    Knowledge of chimpanzee development has played an essential role in our understanding of the evolution of human ontogeny. However, recent studies of wild ape dentitions have cast doubt on the use of developmental standards derived from captive individuals. Others have called into question the use of deceased wild individuals to infer normative development. We conducted a high resolution photographic study of living known-age subadults in the Kanyawara community (Kibale National Park, Uganda) to generate a comprehensive three year record of dental eruption (including tooth emergence ages). These non-invasive data allow comparisons of captive and wild chimpanzees, establish accurate developmental standards for relatively healthy wild individuals, and facilitate direct assessments of primate-wide associations between dental development and life history. Emergence ages in the Kanyawara chimpanzees are very similar to living Gombe chimpanzees, and are broadly comparable to deceased Taï Forest chimpanzees. Early-emerging teeth such as the deciduous dentition and first molar (M1) appear during a time of maternal dependence, and are almost indistinguishable from captive chimpanzee emergence ages, while later forming teeth in the Kanyawara population emerge in the latter half of captive age ranges or beyond. Five juveniles whose lower M1s emerged by or before 3.3 years of age continued to nurse for a year or more beyond M1 emergence, and their mothers showed considerable variation in reproductive rates. The third molars of two adolescent females emerged several months to several years prior to the birth of their first offspring. Given that broad primate-wide relationships between molar emergence and life history do not necessarily hold within this population of chimpanzees, particularly for variables that are reported to be coincident with molar emergence, we suggest that further study is required in order to predict life history variables in hominins or hominoids.

  2. Space-Use Patterns of the Asiatic Wild Ass (Equus hemionus): Complementary Insights from Displacement, Recursion Movement and Habitat Selection Analyses.

    PubMed

    Giotto, Nina; Gerard, Jean-François; Ziv, Alon; Bouskila, Amos; Bar-David, Shirli

    2015-01-01

    The way in which animals move and use the landscape is influenced by the spatial distribution of resources, and is of importance when considering species conservation. We aimed at exploring how landscape-related factors affect a large herbivore's space-use patterns by using a combined approach, integrating movement (displacement and recursions) and habitat selection analyses. We studied the endangered Asiatic wild ass (Equus hemionus) in the Negev Desert, Israel, using GPS monitoring and direct observation. We found that the main landscape-related factors affecting the species' space-use patterns, on a daily and seasonal basis, were vegetation cover, water sources and topography. Two main habitat types were selected: high-elevation sites during the day (specific microclimate: windy on warm summer days) and streambed surroundings during the night (coupled with high vegetation when the animals were active in summer). Distribution of recursion times (duration between visits) revealed a 24-hour periodicity, a pattern that could be widespread among large herbivores. Characterizing frequently revisited sites suggested that recursion movements were mainly driven by a few landscape features (water sources, vegetation patches, high-elevation points), but also by social factors, such as territoriality, which should be further explored. This study provided complementary insights into the space-use patterns of E. hemionus. Understanding of the species' space-use patterns, at both large and fine spatial scale, is required for developing appropriate conservation protocols. Our approach could be further applied for studying the space-use patterns of other species in heterogeneous landscapes.

  3. Endometrial polyp in an African wild dog (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    Cho, H S; Park, N Y

    2006-11-01

    An 8-year-old female African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) from a zoo in Gyeonggi province, Republic of Korea presented with a 3.0 x 2.0 x 2.5 cm in size, smooth-surfaced, solitary pedunculated mass protruding into the uterine lumen. Microscopically, the mass was covered with epithelium, contained endometrial gland tissue, and was dilated in the vascularised stroma. Within the mass, there was extensive diffuse haemorrhage with several blood vessels apparently plugged with fibrin. At the base of the mass, the spaces lined with epithelium near the attachment of the stalk were interpreted to be glandular structures. There were segments of cuboidal epithelium found on the surface of the mass, which was similar to the lining the uterus. A diagnosis of an endometrial polyp was made based on the gross and histology findings. This is the first case report of a spontaneous endometrial polyp in an African wild dog.

  4. Isoflurane anaesthesia in an African wild dog, Lycaon pictus.

    PubMed

    Stegmann, G F

    2000-12-01

    Anaesthesia was required in a captive female African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) for surgical wound treatment. After it was immobilised with a medetomidine-ketamine combination, bradycardia, hypothermia, systolic hypertension and metabolic acidosis were observed. Surgical anaesthesia was maintained with a 1% end-tidal isoflurane concentration. A decrease in the arterial blood pressure, rectal temperature and pH occurred during maintenance of anaesthesia.

  5. Distemper outbreak and its effect on African wild dog conservation.

    PubMed

    van de Bildt, Marco W G; Kuiken, Thijs; Visee, Aart M; Lema, Sangito; Fitzjohn, Tony R; Osterhaus, Albert D M E

    2002-02-01

    In December 2000, an infectious disease spread through a captive breeding group of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) in Tanzania, killing 49 of 52 animals within 2 months. The causative agent was identified as Canine distemper virus (CDV) by means of histologic examination, virus isolation, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis, and nucleotide sequencing. This report emphasizes the importance of adequate protection against infectious diseases for the successful outcome of captive breeding programs of endangered species.

  6. Space-Use Patterns of the Asiatic Wild Ass (Equus hemionus): Complementary Insights from Displacement, Recursion Movement and Habitat Selection Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Giotto, Nina; Gerard, Jean-François; Ziv, Alon; Bouskila, Amos; Bar-David, Shirli

    2015-01-01

    The way in which animals move and use the landscape is influenced by the spatial distribution of resources, and is of importance when considering species conservation. We aimed at exploring how landscape-related factors affect a large herbivore’s space-use patterns by using a combined approach, integrating movement (displacement and recursions) and habitat selection analyses. We studied the endangered Asiatic wild ass (Equus hemionus) in the Negev Desert, Israel, using GPS monitoring and direct observation. We found that the main landscape-related factors affecting the species’ space-use patterns, on a daily and seasonal basis, were vegetation cover, water sources and topography. Two main habitat types were selected: high-elevation sites during the day (specific microclimate: windy on warm summer days) and streambed surroundings during the night (coupled with high vegetation when the animals were active in summer). Distribution of recursion times (duration between visits) revealed a 24-hour periodicity, a pattern that could be widespread among large herbivores. Characterizing frequently revisited sites suggested that recursion movements were mainly driven by a few landscape features (water sources, vegetation patches, high-elevation points), but also by social factors, such as territoriality, which should be further explored. This study provided complementary insights into the space-use patterns of E. hemionus. Understanding of the species’ space-use patterns, at both large and fine spatial scale, is required for developing appropriate conservation protocols. Our approach could be further applied for studying the space-use patterns of other species in heterogeneous landscapes. PMID:26630393

  7. Space-Use Patterns of the Asiatic Wild Ass (Equus hemionus): Complementary Insights from Displacement, Recursion Movement and Habitat Selection Analyses.

    PubMed

    Giotto, Nina; Gerard, Jean-François; Ziv, Alon; Bouskila, Amos; Bar-David, Shirli

    2015-01-01

    The way in which animals move and use the landscape is influenced by the spatial distribution of resources, and is of importance when considering species conservation. We aimed at exploring how landscape-related factors affect a large herbivore's space-use patterns by using a combined approach, integrating movement (displacement and recursions) and habitat selection analyses. We studied the endangered Asiatic wild ass (Equus hemionus) in the Negev Desert, Israel, using GPS monitoring and direct observation. We found that the main landscape-related factors affecting the species' space-use patterns, on a daily and seasonal basis, were vegetation cover, water sources and topography. Two main habitat types were selected: high-elevation sites during the day (specific microclimate: windy on warm summer days) and streambed surroundings during the night (coupled with high vegetation when the animals were active in summer). Distribution of recursion times (duration between visits) revealed a 24-hour periodicity, a pattern that could be widespread among large herbivores. Characterizing frequently revisited sites suggested that recursion movements were mainly driven by a few landscape features (water sources, vegetation patches, high-elevation points), but also by social factors, such as territoriality, which should be further explored. This study provided complementary insights into the space-use patterns of E. hemionus. Understanding of the species' space-use patterns, at both large and fine spatial scale, is required for developing appropriate conservation protocols. Our approach could be further applied for studying the space-use patterns of other species in heterogeneous landscapes. PMID:26630393

  8. Mandibulodental allometry in the African wild dog, Lycaon pictus.

    PubMed

    Kieser, J A; Groeneveld, H T

    1992-08-01

    Mandibulodental relations were evaluated in a sample of 34 adult Lycaon pictus crania (18 males, 16 females). Standard mesiodistal and buccolingual measurements, together with 8 mandibular measurements (intercondylar distance, intercarnassial breadth, mandibular length, arch length, condylar height, canine-condylar length, mandibular width, mandibular height) were allometrically scaled to total skull length. These results were then compared with those of domestic dogs and of 3 smaller southern African canids, Vulpes chama, Canis adustus and C. mesomelas. The results highlighted the differences in mandibulodental relations between males and females and provided support for the theory that females have relatively larger postcanine tooth sizes to match the higher masticatory demands of lactation and pregnancy. The African wild dog is shown to be more closely related dentally to the domestic dog than has previously been supposed.

  9. Periaortic haemangiosarcoma in an African wild dog (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    Newell-Fugate, A; Lane, E

    2009-06-01

    A 9-year-old apparently healthy male African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) was found dead in its enclosure at the De Wildt Cheetah and Wildlife Centre. Necropsy revealed a pericardium distended by approximately 250 ml of thick blood. A soft, red, lobulated mass was attached to the periaortic fat between the level of the aortic valves and the pericardial reflection. Histologically, the mass was consistent with a haemangiosarcoma. Other findings in the heart included mild to moderate ventricular hypertrophy and moderate, acute perivascular myocardial necrosis. Sudden death was attributed to acute heart failure precipitated by cardiac tamponade.

  10. Cross-modal individual recognition in wild African lions.

    PubMed

    Gilfillan, Geoffrey; Vitale, Jessica; McNutt, John Weldon; McComb, Karen

    2016-08-01

    Individual recognition is considered to have been fundamental in the evolution of complex social systems and is thought to be a widespread ability throughout the animal kingdom. Although robust evidence for individual recognition remains limited, recent experimental paradigms that examine cross-modal processing have demonstrated individual recognition in a range of captive non-human animals. It is now highly relevant to test whether cross-modal individual recognition exists within wild populations and thus examine how it is employed during natural social interactions. We address this question by testing audio-visual cross-modal individual recognition in wild African lions (Panthera leo) using an expectancy-violation paradigm. When presented with a scenario where the playback of a loud-call (roaring) broadcast from behind a visual block is incongruent with the conspecific previously seen there, subjects responded more strongly than during the congruent scenario where the call and individual matched. These findings suggest that lions are capable of audio-visual cross-modal individual recognition and provide a useful method for studying this ability in wild populations. PMID:27555649

  11. Effects of economic downturns on mortality of wild African elephants.

    PubMed

    Wittemyer, George

    2011-10-01

    Declines in economic activity and associated changes in human livelihood strategies can increase threats of species overexploitation. This is exemplified by the effects of economic crises, which often drive intensification of subsistence poaching and greater reliance on natural resources. Whereas development theory links natural resource use to social-economic conditions, few empirical studies of the effect of economic downturns on wild animal species have been conducted. I assessed the relations between African elephant (Loxodonta africana) mortality and human-caused wounds in Samburu, Kenya and (1) livestock and maize prices (measures of local economic conditions), (2) change in national and regional gross domestic product (GDP) (measures of macroeconomic conditions), and (3) the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) (a correlate of primary productivity). In addition, I analyzed household survey data to determine the attitudes of local people toward protected areas and wild animals in the area. When cattle prices in the pastoralist study region were low, human-caused wounds to and adult mortality of elephants increased. The NDVI was negatively correlated with juvenile mortality, but not correlated with adult mortality. Changes in Kenyan and East Asian (primary market for ivory) GDP did not explain significant variation in mortality. Increased human wounding of elephants and elephant mortality during periods of low livestock prices (local economic downturns) likely reflect an economically driven increase in ivory poaching. Local but not macroeconomic indices explained significant variation in mortality, likely due to the dominance of the subsistence economy in the study area and its political and economic isolation. My results suggest economic metrics can serve as effective indicators of changes in human use of and resulting effects on natural resources. Such information can help focus management approaches (e.g., antipoaching effort or proffering of

  12. Effects of economic downturns on mortality of wild African elephants.

    PubMed

    Wittemyer, George

    2011-10-01

    Declines in economic activity and associated changes in human livelihood strategies can increase threats of species overexploitation. This is exemplified by the effects of economic crises, which often drive intensification of subsistence poaching and greater reliance on natural resources. Whereas development theory links natural resource use to social-economic conditions, few empirical studies of the effect of economic downturns on wild animal species have been conducted. I assessed the relations between African elephant (Loxodonta africana) mortality and human-caused wounds in Samburu, Kenya and (1) livestock and maize prices (measures of local economic conditions), (2) change in national and regional gross domestic product (GDP) (measures of macroeconomic conditions), and (3) the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) (a correlate of primary productivity). In addition, I analyzed household survey data to determine the attitudes of local people toward protected areas and wild animals in the area. When cattle prices in the pastoralist study region were low, human-caused wounds to and adult mortality of elephants increased. The NDVI was negatively correlated with juvenile mortality, but not correlated with adult mortality. Changes in Kenyan and East Asian (primary market for ivory) GDP did not explain significant variation in mortality. Increased human wounding of elephants and elephant mortality during periods of low livestock prices (local economic downturns) likely reflect an economically driven increase in ivory poaching. Local but not macroeconomic indices explained significant variation in mortality, likely due to the dominance of the subsistence economy in the study area and its political and economic isolation. My results suggest economic metrics can serve as effective indicators of changes in human use of and resulting effects on natural resources. Such information can help focus management approaches (e.g., antipoaching effort or proffering of

  13. Space use of African wild dogs in relation to other large carnivores.

    PubMed

    Darnell, Angela M; Graf, Jan A; Somers, Michael J; Slotow, Rob; Szykman Gunther, Micaela

    2014-01-01

    Interaction among species through competition is a principle process structuring ecological communities, affecting behavior, distribution, and ultimately the population dynamics of species. High competition among large African carnivores, associated with extensive diet overlap, manifests in interactions between subordinate African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and dominant lions (Panthera leo) and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta). Using locations of large carnivores in Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, South Africa, we found different responses from wild dogs to their two main competitors. Wild dogs avoided lions, particularly during denning, through a combination of spatial and temporal avoidance. However, wild dogs did not exhibit spatial or temporal avoidance of spotted hyenas, likely because wild dog pack sizes were large enough to adequately defend their kills. Understanding that larger carnivores affect the movements and space use of other carnivores is important for managing current small and fragmented carnivore populations, especially as reintroductions and translocations are essential tools used for the survival of endangered species, as with African wild dogs.

  14. Molecular genetic and morphological analyses of the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    Girman, D J; Kat, P W; Mills, M G; Ginsberg, J R; Borner, M; Wilson, V; Fanshawe, J H; Fitzgibbon, C; Lau, L M; Wayne, R K

    1993-01-01

    African wild dog populations have declined precipitously during the last 100 years in eastern Africa. The possible causes of this decline include a reduction in prey abundance and habitat; disease; and loss of genetic variability accompanied by inbreeding depression. We examined the levels of genetic variability and distinctiveness among populations of African wild dogs using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) restriction site and sequence analyses and multivariate analysis of cranial and dental measurements. Our results indicate that the genetic variability of eastern African wild dog populations is comparable to that of southern Africa and similar to levels of variability found in other large canids. Southern and eastern populations of wild dogs show about 1% divergence in mtDNA sequence and form two monophyletic assemblages containing three mtDNA genotypes each. No genotypes are shared between the two regions. With one exception, all wild dogs examined from zoos had southern African genotypes. Morphological analysis supports the distinction of eastern and southern African wild dog populations, and we suggest they should be considered separate subspecies. An eastern African wild dog breeding program should be initiated to ensure preservation of the eastern African form and to slow the loss of genetic variability that, while not yet apparent, will inevitably occur if wild populations continue to decline. Finally, we examined the phylogenetic relationships of wild dogs to other wolf-like canids through analysis of 736 base pairs (bp) of cytochrome b sequence and showed wild dogs to belong to a phylogenetically distinct lineage of the wolf-like canids.

  15. Energy cost and return for hunting in African wild dogs and cheetahs.

    PubMed

    Hubel, Tatjana Y; Myatt, Julia P; Jordan, Neil R; Dewhirst, Oliver P; McNutt, J Weldon; Wilson, Alan M

    2016-03-29

    African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are reported to hunt with energetically costly long chase distances. We used high-resolution GPS and inertial technology to record 1,119 high-speed chases of all members of a pack of six adult African wild dogs in northern Botswana. Dogs performed multiple short, high-speed, mostly unsuccessful chases to capture prey, while cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) undertook even shorter, higher-speed hunts. We used an energy balance model to show that the energy return from group hunting and feeding substantially outweighs the cost of multiple short chases, which indicates that African wild dogs are more energetically robust than previously believed. Comparison with cheetah illustrates the trade-off between sheer athleticism and high individual kill rate characteristic of cheetahs, and the energetic robustness of frequent opportunistic group hunting and feeding by African wild dogs.

  16. Energy cost and return for hunting in African wild dogs and cheetahs.

    PubMed

    Hubel, Tatjana Y; Myatt, Julia P; Jordan, Neil R; Dewhirst, Oliver P; McNutt, J Weldon; Wilson, Alan M

    2016-01-01

    African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are reported to hunt with energetically costly long chase distances. We used high-resolution GPS and inertial technology to record 1,119 high-speed chases of all members of a pack of six adult African wild dogs in northern Botswana. Dogs performed multiple short, high-speed, mostly unsuccessful chases to capture prey, while cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) undertook even shorter, higher-speed hunts. We used an energy balance model to show that the energy return from group hunting and feeding substantially outweighs the cost of multiple short chases, which indicates that African wild dogs are more energetically robust than previously believed. Comparison with cheetah illustrates the trade-off between sheer athleticism and high individual kill rate characteristic of cheetahs, and the energetic robustness of frequent opportunistic group hunting and feeding by African wild dogs. PMID:27023457

  17. Energy cost and return for hunting in African wild dogs and cheetahs

    PubMed Central

    Hubel, Tatjana Y.; Myatt, Julia P.; Jordan, Neil R.; Dewhirst, Oliver P.; McNutt, J. Weldon; Wilson, Alan M.

    2016-01-01

    African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are reported to hunt with energetically costly long chase distances. We used high-resolution GPS and inertial technology to record 1,119 high-speed chases of all members of a pack of six adult African wild dogs in northern Botswana. Dogs performed multiple short, high-speed, mostly unsuccessful chases to capture prey, while cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) undertook even shorter, higher-speed hunts. We used an energy balance model to show that the energy return from group hunting and feeding substantially outweighs the cost of multiple short chases, which indicates that African wild dogs are more energetically robust than previously believed. Comparison with cheetah illustrates the trade-off between sheer athleticism and high individual kill rate characteristic of cheetahs, and the energetic robustness of frequent opportunistic group hunting and feeding by African wild dogs. PMID:27023457

  18. Rabies in African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) in the Serengeti region, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Gascoyne, S C; Laurenson, M K; Lelo, S; Borner, M

    1993-07-01

    Rabies was confirmed as the cause of death of one African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) in the Serengeti region, Tanzania. One adult African wild dog in the same pack showed central nervous signs consistent with rabies infection. Inactivated rabies vaccine was administered intramuscularly to African wild dogs in two packs, by dart or by hand following anesthesia. These individuals comprised all known adults in the Serengeti National Park. In a limited study of seroprevalence of rabies antibody carried out at the time of vaccination, 3 of 12 African wild dogs sampled in the Serengeti had rabies serum neutralizing antibody titers before vaccination. Paired serum samples from two individuals sampled after vaccination showed increased antibody titers.

  19. Oral and dental conditions in adult African wild dog skulls: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Steenkamp, G; Gorrel, C

    1999-06-01

    Skulls of 29 adult African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) originating from museum collections were examined for evidence of oral pathology. A wide variety of conditions similar to those seen in the domestic dog were detected. Although other reports suggest that captive African wild dogs suffer more extensively from dental disease than those in the wild, we conclude that these wild carnivores suffer from the same oral diseases as their domestic relatives, suggesting that a natural diet does not protect against these diseases. As the African wild dog is threatened by extinction, further investigation of the incidence and development of oral and dental disease in this species may be of value. Preventive measures could be instituted leading to improved health for those held in captivity.

  20. Multilobular tumor of bone in an African wild dog (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    McAloose, Denise; Raske, Matthew; Moore, Robert; Rodriguez, Carlos E

    2012-12-01

    A 13-mo-old, captive-born, female African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) was presented with a progressively enlarging, firm mass on the dorsum of the head. Due to rapid tumor growth and the development of neurologic signs, elective euthanasia and a complete postmortem were performed 2 months after initial presentation. Histologic findings were similar in both antemortem biopsy and postmortem samples from the tumor and consisted of nodules of cartilage and/or bone separated by thin interconnected trabeculae that contained spindle-shaped cells, consistent with multilobular tumor of bone. Very few reports of tumors in the endangered African wild dog have been published to date. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of an osseous tumor in an African wild dog and the first report of a multilobular tumor of bone in a nondomestic canid. PMID:23272370

  1. Multilobular tumor of bone in an African wild dog (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    McAloose, Denise; Raske, Matthew; Moore, Robert; Rodriguez, Carlos E

    2012-12-01

    A 13-mo-old, captive-born, female African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) was presented with a progressively enlarging, firm mass on the dorsum of the head. Due to rapid tumor growth and the development of neurologic signs, elective euthanasia and a complete postmortem were performed 2 months after initial presentation. Histologic findings were similar in both antemortem biopsy and postmortem samples from the tumor and consisted of nodules of cartilage and/or bone separated by thin interconnected trabeculae that contained spindle-shaped cells, consistent with multilobular tumor of bone. Very few reports of tumors in the endangered African wild dog have been published to date. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of an osseous tumor in an African wild dog and the first report of a multilobular tumor of bone in a nondomestic canid.

  2. Viruses other than arenaviruses from West African wild mammals

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Graham E.

    1975-01-01

    At least thirty-seven different viruses have been isolated from wild mammals in West Africa since 1962. Some of these, including Lassa virus, are already known to cause serious human morbidity and mortality. Crimean haemorrhagic fever-Congo virus, Dugbe virus, Mokola virus, and a smallpox-like agent from a gerbil in Dahomey are briefly discussed. An account of social and ecologic factors affecting man, domestic animals, and their interaction with wild mammals is given. PMID:1085217

  3. Space Use of African Wild Dogs in Relation to Other Large Carnivores

    PubMed Central

    Darnell, Angela M.; Graf, Jan A.; Somers, Michael J.; Slotow, Rob; Szykman Gunther, Micaela

    2014-01-01

    Interaction among species through competition is a principle process structuring ecological communities, affecting behavior, distribution, and ultimately the population dynamics of species. High competition among large African carnivores, associated with extensive diet overlap, manifests in interactions between subordinate African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and dominant lions (Panthera leo) and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta). Using locations of large carnivores in Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, South Africa, we found different responses from wild dogs to their two main competitors. Wild dogs avoided lions, particularly during denning, through a combination of spatial and temporal avoidance. However, wild dogs did not exhibit spatial or temporal avoidance of spotted hyenas, likely because wild dog pack sizes were large enough to adequately defend their kills. Understanding that larger carnivores affect the movements and space use of other carnivores is important for managing current small and fragmented carnivore populations, especially as reintroductions and translocations are essential tools used for the survival of endangered species, as with African wild dogs. PMID:24896638

  4. Space use of African wild dogs in relation to other large carnivores.

    PubMed

    Darnell, Angela M; Graf, Jan A; Somers, Michael J; Slotow, Rob; Szykman Gunther, Micaela

    2014-01-01

    Interaction among species through competition is a principle process structuring ecological communities, affecting behavior, distribution, and ultimately the population dynamics of species. High competition among large African carnivores, associated with extensive diet overlap, manifests in interactions between subordinate African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and dominant lions (Panthera leo) and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta). Using locations of large carnivores in Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, South Africa, we found different responses from wild dogs to their two main competitors. Wild dogs avoided lions, particularly during denning, through a combination of spatial and temporal avoidance. However, wild dogs did not exhibit spatial or temporal avoidance of spotted hyenas, likely because wild dog pack sizes were large enough to adequately defend their kills. Understanding that larger carnivores affect the movements and space use of other carnivores is important for managing current small and fragmented carnivore populations, especially as reintroductions and translocations are essential tools used for the survival of endangered species, as with African wild dogs. PMID:24896638

  5. Recovery of African wild dogs suppresses prey but does not trigger a trophic cascade

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large carnivores can powerfully shape ecosystems by directly suppressing herbivores, thereby indirectly benefitting plants in a process known as a trophic cascade. In 2002, after a 20-year absence, African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) recolonized the Laikipia Plateau in central Kenya. We hypothesized t...

  6. Identification of volatiles from the secretions and excretions of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    Apps, Peter; Mmualefe, Lesego; McNutt, J Weldon

    2012-11-01

    Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to identify 103 organic compounds from urine, feces, anal glands, and preputial glands of free-ranging African wild dogs, Lycaon pictus. Aliphatic acids were the dominant class of compound in all materials. In addition to aliphatic acids, urine contained dimethyl sulfone, 1,3-propanediol, benzoic acid, 1-methyl-2,4-imidazolidinedione, and squalene as major components: feces contained indole and cholesterol; and both contained 2-piperidone, phenol, 4-methyl phenol, benzeneacetic acid, and benzenepropanoic acid and other compounds. Anal gland secretion was particularly rich in cholesterol and fatty acids, and preputial gland secretion rich in squalene. A large majority of the identified compounds have been reported from other mammals, including species sympatric with African wild dogs. Eleven of the African wild dog components have not been reported previously from mammals and have not been found in sympatric species; one component, 1-methylimidazole-5-carboxaldehyde has not been reported previously as a natural product. In the chemical profiles of their urine, feces, and anal gland secretion African wild dogs differ markedly from other canids. PMID:23129124

  7. Identification of volatiles from the secretions and excretions of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    Apps, Peter; Mmualefe, Lesego; McNutt, J Weldon

    2012-11-01

    Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to identify 103 organic compounds from urine, feces, anal glands, and preputial glands of free-ranging African wild dogs, Lycaon pictus. Aliphatic acids were the dominant class of compound in all materials. In addition to aliphatic acids, urine contained dimethyl sulfone, 1,3-propanediol, benzoic acid, 1-methyl-2,4-imidazolidinedione, and squalene as major components: feces contained indole and cholesterol; and both contained 2-piperidone, phenol, 4-methyl phenol, benzeneacetic acid, and benzenepropanoic acid and other compounds. Anal gland secretion was particularly rich in cholesterol and fatty acids, and preputial gland secretion rich in squalene. A large majority of the identified compounds have been reported from other mammals, including species sympatric with African wild dogs. Eleven of the African wild dog components have not been reported previously from mammals and have not been found in sympatric species; one component, 1-methylimidazole-5-carboxaldehyde has not been reported previously as a natural product. In the chemical profiles of their urine, feces, and anal gland secretion African wild dogs differ markedly from other canids.

  8. Establishment of baseline haematology and biochemistry parameters in wild adult African penguins (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Parsons, Nola J; Schaefer, Adam M; van der Spuy, Stephen D; Gous, Tertius A

    2015-01-01

    There are few publications on the clinical haematology and biochemistry of African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) and these are based on captive populations. Baseline haematology and serum biochemistry parameters were analysed from 108 blood samples from wild, adult African penguins. Samples were collected from the breeding range of the African penguin in South Africa and the results were compared between breeding region and sex. The haematological parameters that were measured were: haematocrit, haemoglobin, red cell count and white cell count. The biochemical parameters that were measured were: sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, inorganic phosphate, creatinine, cholesterol, serum glucose, uric acid, bile acid, total serum protein, albumin, aspartate transaminase and creatine kinase. All samples were serologically negative for selected avian diseases and no blood parasites were detected. No haemolysis was present in any of the analysed samples. Male African penguins were larger and heavier than females, with higher haematocrit, haemoglobin and red cell count values, but lower calcium and phosphate values. African penguins in the Eastern Cape were heavier than those in the Western Cape, with lower white cell count and globulin values and a higher albumin/globulin ratio, possibly indicating that birds are in a poorer condition in the Western Cape. Results were also compared between multiple penguin species and with African penguins in captivity. These values for healthy, wild, adult penguins can be used for future health and disease assessments. PMID:26016391

  9. Establishment of baseline haematology and biochemistry parameters in wild adult African penguins (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Parsons, Nola J; Schaefer, Adam M; van der Spuy, Stephen D; Gous, Tertius A

    2015-03-25

    There are few publications on the clinical haematology and biochemistry of African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) and these are based on captive populations. Baseline haematology and serum biochemistry parameters were analysed from 108 blood samples from wild, adult African penguins. Samples were collected from the breeding range of the African penguin in South Africa and the results were compared between breeding region and sex. The haematological parameters that were measured were: haematocrit, haemoglobin, red cell count and white cell count. The biochemical parameters that were measured were: sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, inorganic phosphate, creatinine, cholesterol, serum glucose, uric acid, bile acid, total serum protein, albumin, aspartate transaminase and creatine kinase. All samples were serologically negative for selected avian diseases and no blood parasites were detected. No haemolysis was present in any of the analysed samples. Male African penguins were larger and heavier than females, with higher haematocrit, haemoglobin and red cell count values, but lower calcium and phosphate values. African penguins in the Eastern Cape were heavier than those in the Western Cape, with lower white cell count and globulin values and a higher albumin/globulin ratio, possibly indicating that birds are in a poorer condition in the Western Cape. Results were also compared between multiple penguin species and with African penguins in captivity. These values for healthy, wild, adult penguins can be used for future health and disease assessments.

  10. Heading for the Hills: Risk Avoidance Drives Den Site Selection in African Wild Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Craig R.; Power, R. John; Groom, Rosemary J.; Masenga, Emmanuel H.; Mjingo, Ernest E.; Fyumagwa, Robert D.; Røskaft, Eivin; Davies-Mostert, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    Compared to their main competitors, African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) have inferior competitive abilities and interspecific competition is a serious fitness-limiting factor. Lions (Panthera leo) are the dominant large carnivore in African savannah ecosystems and wild dogs avoid them both spatially and temporally. Wild dog young are particularly vulnerable and suffer high rates of mortality from lions. Since lions do not utilize all parts of the landscape with an equal intensity, spatial variation in lion densities can be exploited by wild dogs both during their general ranging behaviour, but more specifically when they are confined to a den with vulnerable young. Since patches of rugged terrain are associated with lower lion densities, we hypothesized that these comparatively safe habitats should be selected by wild dogs for denning. We investigated the relationship between the distribution of 100 wild dog den sites and the occurrence of rugged terrain in four wild dog populations located in Tanzania, Zimbabwe and South Africa. A terrain ruggedness index was derived from a 90 m digital elevation model and used to map terrain ruggedness at each site. We compared characteristics of actual and potential (random) den sites to determine how wild dogs select den sites. The distributions of wild dog dens were strongly associated with rugged terrain and wild dogs actively selected terrain that was more rugged than that available on average. The likelihood of encountering lions is reduced in these habitats, minimizing the risk to both adults and pups. Our findings have important implications for the conservation management of the species, especially when assessing habitat suitability for potential reintroductions. The simple technique used to assess terrain ruggedness may be useful to investigate habitat suitability, and even predict highly suitable denning areas, across large landscapes. PMID:24918935

  11. Heading for the hills: risk avoidance drives den site selection in African wild dogs.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Craig R; Power, R John; Groom, Rosemary J; Masenga, Emmanuel H; Mjingo, Ernest E; Fyumagwa, Robert D; Røskaft, Eivin; Davies-Mostert, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    Compared to their main competitors, African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) have inferior competitive abilities and interspecific competition is a serious fitness-limiting factor. Lions (Panthera leo) are the dominant large carnivore in African savannah ecosystems and wild dogs avoid them both spatially and temporally. Wild dog young are particularly vulnerable and suffer high rates of mortality from lions. Since lions do not utilize all parts of the landscape with an equal intensity, spatial variation in lion densities can be exploited by wild dogs both during their general ranging behaviour, but more specifically when they are confined to a den with vulnerable young. Since patches of rugged terrain are associated with lower lion densities, we hypothesized that these comparatively safe habitats should be selected by wild dogs for denning. We investigated the relationship between the distribution of 100 wild dog den sites and the occurrence of rugged terrain in four wild dog populations located in Tanzania, Zimbabwe and South Africa. A terrain ruggedness index was derived from a 90 m digital elevation model and used to map terrain ruggedness at each site. We compared characteristics of actual and potential (random) den sites to determine how wild dogs select den sites. The distributions of wild dog dens were strongly associated with rugged terrain and wild dogs actively selected terrain that was more rugged than that available on average. The likelihood of encountering lions is reduced in these habitats, minimizing the risk to both adults and pups. Our findings have important implications for the conservation management of the species, especially when assessing habitat suitability for potential reintroductions. The simple technique used to assess terrain ruggedness may be useful to investigate habitat suitability, and even predict highly suitable denning areas, across large landscapes. PMID:24918935

  12. Heading for the hills: risk avoidance drives den site selection in African wild dogs.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Craig R; Power, R John; Groom, Rosemary J; Masenga, Emmanuel H; Mjingo, Ernest E; Fyumagwa, Robert D; Røskaft, Eivin; Davies-Mostert, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    Compared to their main competitors, African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) have inferior competitive abilities and interspecific competition is a serious fitness-limiting factor. Lions (Panthera leo) are the dominant large carnivore in African savannah ecosystems and wild dogs avoid them both spatially and temporally. Wild dog young are particularly vulnerable and suffer high rates of mortality from lions. Since lions do not utilize all parts of the landscape with an equal intensity, spatial variation in lion densities can be exploited by wild dogs both during their general ranging behaviour, but more specifically when they are confined to a den with vulnerable young. Since patches of rugged terrain are associated with lower lion densities, we hypothesized that these comparatively safe habitats should be selected by wild dogs for denning. We investigated the relationship between the distribution of 100 wild dog den sites and the occurrence of rugged terrain in four wild dog populations located in Tanzania, Zimbabwe and South Africa. A terrain ruggedness index was derived from a 90 m digital elevation model and used to map terrain ruggedness at each site. We compared characteristics of actual and potential (random) den sites to determine how wild dogs select den sites. The distributions of wild dog dens were strongly associated with rugged terrain and wild dogs actively selected terrain that was more rugged than that available on average. The likelihood of encountering lions is reduced in these habitats, minimizing the risk to both adults and pups. Our findings have important implications for the conservation management of the species, especially when assessing habitat suitability for potential reintroductions. The simple technique used to assess terrain ruggedness may be useful to investigate habitat suitability, and even predict highly suitable denning areas, across large landscapes.

  13. Evaluating adrenal activity in African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) by fecal corticosteroid analysis.

    PubMed

    Monfort, S L; Mashburn, K L; Brewer, B A; Creel, S R

    1998-06-01

    A noninvasive corticosteroid hormone monitoring technique was validated for use in African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus). The double-antibody 125I radioimmunoassay for corticosterone was validated by demonstrating parallelism between serial dilutions of wild dog fecal extracts and the standard curve, recovery of corticosterone added to fecal extracts, and the time course of fecal corticoid excretion after an exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge. All feces were collected from three female and two male African wild dogs for 72 hr before and 144 hr after i.m. injection of long-acting ACTH (Acthar Gel, 400 IU). Fecal corticosterone immunoreactivity increased 10-30-fold within 24 hr of ACTH administration in all individuals, with peak concentrations from 1,200-8,000 ng/g. High-pressure liquid chromatography analysis revealed that >90% of all corticosterone immunoreactivity was associated with a single peak that exhibited intermediate polarity relative to cortisol and corticosterone reference tracers. Fecal corticosterone immunoreactivity appears to reflect adrenal activity in the African wild dog and, therefore, may be useful for evaluating stress. From a conservation perspective, these techniques can complement in situ and ex situ research studies designed to evaluate how environmental conditions and management strategies affect overall animal health.

  14. Contact with Domestic Dogs Increases Pathogen Exposure in Endangered African Wild Dogs (Lycaon pictus)

    PubMed Central

    Woodroffe, Rosie; Prager, Katherine C.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Dubovi, Edward J.; Mazet, Jonna A. K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Infectious diseases have contributed to the decline and local extinction of several wildlife species, including African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus). Mitigating such disease threats is challenging, partly because uncertainty about disease dynamics makes it difficult to identify the best management approaches. Serious impacts on susceptible populations most frequently occur when generalist pathogens are maintained within populations of abundant (often domestic) “reservoir” hosts, and spill over into less abundant host species. If this is the case, disease control directed at the reservoir host might be most appropriate. However, pathogen transmission within threatened host populations may also be important, and may not be controllable by managing another host species. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated interspecific and intraspecific transmission routes, by comparing African wild dogs' exposure to six canine pathogens with behavioural measures of their opportunities for contact with domestic dogs and with other wild dogs. Domestic dog contact was associated with exposure to canine parvovirus, Ehrlichia canis, Neospora caninum and perhaps rabies virus, but not with exposure to canine distemper virus or canine coronavirus. Contact with other wild dogs appeared not to increase the risk of exposure to any of the pathogens. Conclusions/Significance These findings, combined with other data, suggest that management directed at domestic dogs might help to protect wild dog populations from rabies virus, but not from canine distemper virus. However, further analyses are needed to determine the management approaches – including no intervention – which are most appropriate for each pathogen. PMID:22238695

  15. The effects of husbandry training on stereotypic pacing in captive African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    Shyne, Amanda; Block, Martin

    2010-01-01

    To examine the effects of operant conditioning on stereotypic pacing in 3 female African wild dogs located at the Franklin Park Zoo in Boston, this study made recordings of pacing behavior immediately following individual sessions of husbandry training and 2 no-training conditions. The study found significant differences in the percentage of observations spent in stereotypic pacing behaviors for all 3 dogs among the 3 different conditions. The authors discuss the data in terms of the contribution of motivated tasks to the effects and the role of food deprivation in the expression of stereotypic pacing. The study suggests that even short periods of training may improve the African wild dogs' welfare by reducing stereotypic pacing following the conditioning sessions.

  16. Exceptional Simian Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Diversity in a Wild African Primate Community

    PubMed Central

    Lauck, Michael; Sibley, Samuel D.; Hyeroba, David; Tumukunde, Alex; Weny, Geoffrey; Chapman, Colin A.; Ting, Nelson; Switzer, William M.; Kuhn, Jens H.; Friedrich, Thomas C.; O'Connor, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) is an arterivirus that causes severe disease in captive macaques. We describe two new SHFV variants subclinically infecting wild African red-tailed guenons (Cercopithecus ascanius). Both variants are highly divergent from the prototype virus and variants infecting sympatric red colobus (Procolobus rufomitratus). All known SHFV variants are monophyletic and share three open reading frames not present in other arteriviruses. Our data suggest a need to modify the current arterivirus classification. PMID:23077302

  17. Immunogenicity of an inactivated oil-emulsion canine distemper vaccine in African wild dogs.

    PubMed

    Cirone, Francesco; Elia, Gabriella; Campolo, Marco; Friedrich, Klaus; Martella, Vito; Pratelli, Annamaria; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2004-04-01

    The immunogenicity of an inactivated oil-emulsion vaccine against canine distemper virus was evaluated in nine captive African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus). Antibody levels were determined by neutralization test in Vero cells. No significant local or systemic adverse reactions were observed in the animals. Virus neutralizing antibody levels >1:20 were detected, especially in animals that were vaccinated twice. The use of oil adjuvants is suggested as a good way to enhance the immune response to inactivated canine distemper vaccine.

  18. Patterns of population subdivision, gene flow and genetic variability in the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    Girman, D J; Vilà, C; Geffen, E; Creel, S; Mills, M G; McNutt, J W; Ginsberg, J; Kat, P W; Mamiya, K H; Wayne, R K

    2001-07-01

    African wild dogs are large, highly mobile carnivores that are known to disperse over considerable distances and are rare throughout much of their geographical range. Consequently, genetic variation within and differentiation between geographically separated populations is predicted to be minimal. We determined the genetic diversity of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences and microsatellite loci in seven populations of African wild dogs. Analysis of mtDNA nucleotide diversity suggests that, historically, wild dog populations have been small relative to other large carnivores. However, population declines due to recent habitat loss have not caused a dramatic reduction in genetic diversity. We found one historical and eight recent mtDNA genotypes in 280 individuals that defined two highly divergent clades. In contrast to a previous, more limited, mtDNA analysis, sequences from these clades are not geographically restricted to eastern or southern African populations. Rather, we found a large admixture zone spanning populations from Botswana, Zimbabwe and south-eastern Tanzania. Mitochondrial and microsatellite differentiation between populations was significant and unique mtDNA genotypes and alleles characterized the populations. However, gene flow estimates (Nm) based on microsatellite data were generally greater than one migrant per generation. In contrast, gene flow estimates based on the mtDNA control region were lower than expected given differences in the mode of inheritance of mitochondrial and nuclear markers which suggests a male bias in long-distance dispersal.

  19. Fatal canine distemper infection in a pack of African wild dogs in the Serengeti ecosystem, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Goller, Katja V; Fyumagwa, Robert D; Nikolin, Veljko; East, Marion L; Kilewo, Morris; Speck, Stephanie; Müller, Thomas; Matzke, Martina; Wibbelt, Gudrun

    2010-12-15

    In 2007, disease related mortality occurred in one African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) pack close to the north-eastern boundary of the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. Histopathological examination of tissues from six animals revealed that the main pathologic changes comprised interstitial pneumonia and suppurative to necrotizing bronchopneumonia. Respiratory epithelial cells contained numerous eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies and multiple syncytial cells were found throughout the parenchymal tissue, both reacting clearly positive with antibodies against canine distemper virus (CDV) antigen. Phylogenetic analysis based on a 388 nucleotide (nt) fragment of the CDV phosphoprotein (P) gene revealed that the pack was infected with a CDV variant most closely related to Tanzanian variants, including those obtained in 1994 during a CDV epidemic in the Serengeti National Park and from captive African wild dogs in the Mkomazi Game Reserve in 2000. Phylogenetic analysis of a 335-nt fragment of the fusion (F) gene confirmed that the pack in 2007 was infected with a variant most closely related to one variant from 1994 during the epidemic in the Serengeti National Park from which a comparable fragment is available. Screening of tissue samples for concurrent infections revealed evidence of canine parvovirus, Streptococcus equi subsp. ruminatorum and Hepatozoon sp. No evidence of infection with Babesia sp. or rabies virus was found. Possible implications of concurrent infections are discussed. This is the first molecular characterisation of CDV in free-ranging African wild dogs and only the third confirmed case of fatal CDV infection in a free-ranging pack.

  20. Recovery of African wild dogs suppresses prey but does not trigger a trophic cascade.

    PubMed

    Ford, Adam T; Goheen, Jacob R; Augustine, David J; Kinnaird, Margaret F; O'Brien, Timothy G; Palmer, Todd M; Pringle, Robert M; Woodroffe, Rosie

    2015-10-01

    Increasingly, the restoration of large carnivores is proposed as a means through which to restore community structure and ecosystem function via trophic cascades. After a decades-long absence, African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) recolonized the Laikipia Plateau in central Kenya, which we hypothesized would trigger a trophic cascade via suppression of their primary prey (dik-dik, Madoqua guentheri) and the subsequent relaxation of browsing pressure on trees. We tested the trophic-cascade hypothesis using (1) a 14-year time series of wild dog abundance; (2) surveys of dik-dik population densities conducted before and after wild dog recovery; and (3) two separate, replicated, herbivore-exclusion experiments initiated before and after wild dog recovery. The dik-dik population declined by 33% following wild dog recovery, which is best explained by wild dog predation. Dik-dik browsing suppressed tree abundance, but the strength of suppression did not differ between before and after wild dog recovery. Despite strong, top-down limitation between adjacent trophic levels (carnivore-herbivore and herbivore-plant), a trophic cascade did not occur, possibly because of a time lag in indirect effects, variation in rainfall, and foraging by herbivores other than dik-dik. Our ability to reject the trophic-cascade hypothesis required two important approaches: (1) temporally replicated herbivore exclusions, separately established before and after wild dog recovery; and (2) evaluating multiple drivers of variation in the abundance of dik-dik and trees. While the restoration of large carnivores is often a conservation priority, our results suggest that indirect effects are mediated by ecological context, and that trophic cascades are not a foregone conclusion of such recoveries.

  1. Recovery of African wild dogs suppresses prey but does not trigger a trophic cascade.

    PubMed

    Ford, Adam T; Goheen, Jacob R; Augustine, David J; Kinnaird, Margaret F; O'Brien, Timothy G; Palmer, Todd M; Pringle, Robert M; Woodroffe, Rosie

    2015-10-01

    Increasingly, the restoration of large carnivores is proposed as a means through which to restore community structure and ecosystem function via trophic cascades. After a decades-long absence, African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) recolonized the Laikipia Plateau in central Kenya, which we hypothesized would trigger a trophic cascade via suppression of their primary prey (dik-dik, Madoqua guentheri) and the subsequent relaxation of browsing pressure on trees. We tested the trophic-cascade hypothesis using (1) a 14-year time series of wild dog abundance; (2) surveys of dik-dik population densities conducted before and after wild dog recovery; and (3) two separate, replicated, herbivore-exclusion experiments initiated before and after wild dog recovery. The dik-dik population declined by 33% following wild dog recovery, which is best explained by wild dog predation. Dik-dik browsing suppressed tree abundance, but the strength of suppression did not differ between before and after wild dog recovery. Despite strong, top-down limitation between adjacent trophic levels (carnivore-herbivore and herbivore-plant), a trophic cascade did not occur, possibly because of a time lag in indirect effects, variation in rainfall, and foraging by herbivores other than dik-dik. Our ability to reject the trophic-cascade hypothesis required two important approaches: (1) temporally replicated herbivore exclusions, separately established before and after wild dog recovery; and (2) evaluating multiple drivers of variation in the abundance of dik-dik and trees. While the restoration of large carnivores is often a conservation priority, our results suggest that indirect effects are mediated by ecological context, and that trophic cascades are not a foregone conclusion of such recoveries. PMID:26649391

  2. Establishment of assisted reproduction technologies in female and male African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    Hermes, R; Göritz, F; Maltzan, J; Blottner, S; Proudfoot, J; Fritsch, G; Fassbender, M; Quest, M; Hildebrandt, T B

    2001-01-01

    Transrectal ultrasonography, electroejaculation and cryopreservation of spermatozoa were applied to the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) to establish non-invasive protocols for assessing the reproductive health of one of the most endangered African canids. Transrectal ultrasonography was performed on immobilized male (n = 2) and female (n = 5) captive wild dogs. The testes and epididymides of the male dogs were imaged transcutaneously, followed by electrostimulation and cryopreservation of spermatozoa. The sonomorphology of the female and male urogenital tracts was characterized. In females, the vagina, cervix, non-pregnant uterus and ovary were imaged and the reproductive health of each female was evaluated. The sonographic assessment helped to identify one pyometra and extensive abdominal fat deposits in two other individuals in which pyometra had been suspected. Images of the adrenal glands showed differences in size among individuals of the same breeding group. Whether these differences were related to the dominance hierarchy remains to be determined. In males, visualization of the prostate gland, testis and epididymis indicated sexual maturity. Three ejaculatory fractions (1.0, 1.5 and 0.5 ml, with 50, 95 and 95% motility, respectively; 1.125 x 10(8) spermatozoa per ejaculate) were collected from one male. The motility of each of these fractions after thawing was 0, 30 and 40%, respectively. Electrostimulation of the second male, in which a cystic structure in a testis had been identified by sonography, resulted in an aspermic ejaculate (0.5 and 1.0 ml). These technologies provided basic data on reproduction in female and male African wild dogs and were an efficient way to evaluate reproductive health.

  3. Intrapartum uterine rupture with coincidental uterine adenomyosis in an African wild dog (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    Newell-Fugate, Annie; Lane, Emily

    2009-12-01

    A 7-yr-old African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) multiparous bitch experienced severe dystocia and death one day after the onset of parturition. Necropsy revealed three placental attachments in the right uterine horn and one in the left. A full-thickness rupture of the right horn at the middle placental attachment and an autolysed fetus free in the abdomen were present. Death was attributed to hypovolemic and endotoxemic shock after uterine rupture. Myometrium adjacent to the rupture and in the left uterine horn was subdivided into irregular pseudolobules by fibrous connective tissue tracts containing small endometrial glandular acini suggestive of adenomyosis, which may have facilitated uterine rupture. This is the first reported case of dystocia-induced uterine rupture and of adenomyosis in a wild dog.

  4. Birth order, estrogens and sex-ratio adaptation in African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    Creel, S; Creel, N M; Monfort, S L

    1998-10-01

    Because the sex of mammals is chromosomally determined, populations generally produce a similar proportion of males and females. However, it has been recognized for more than century that individuals might increase their fitness by over-producing offspring of one sex, under certain conditions. Small biases in the secondary sex ratio are seen in many vertebrates. Here, we report that the sex ratio of primiparous African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) is strongly biased in favor of sons (63%), while multiparous females produce an excess of daughters (64%). The direction of these biases is predicted by individual females' need for subordinate helpers. For humans, elevated estrogens have been hypothesized to bias the secondary sex ratio toward males. Consistent with this hypothesis, primiparous female wild dogs had basal estrogen levels double those of multiparous females.

  5. Inbreeding avoidance influences the viability of reintroduced populations of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    Becker, Penny A; Miller, Philip S; Gunther, Micaela Szykman; Somers, Michael J; Wildt, David E; Maldonado, Jesús E

    2012-01-01

    The conservation of many fragmented and small populations of endangered African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) relies on understanding the natural processes affecting genetic diversity, demographics, and future viability. We used extensive behavioural, life-history, and genetic data from reintroduced African wild dogs in South Africa to (1) test for inbreeding avoidance via mate selection and (2) model the potential consequences of avoidance on population persistence. Results suggested that wild dogs avoided mating with kin. Inbreeding was rare in natal packs, after reproductive vacancies, and between sibling cohorts (observed on 0.8%, 12.5%, and 3.8% of occasions, respectively). Only one of the six (16.7%) breeding pairs confirmed as third-order (or closer) kin consisted of animals that were familiar with each other, while no other paired individuals had any prior association. Computer-simulated populations allowed to experience inbreeding had only a 1.6% probability of extinction within 100 years, whereas all populations avoiding incestuous matings became extinct due to the absence of unrelated mates. Populations that avoided mating with first-order relatives became extinct after 63 years compared with persistence of 37 and 19 years for those also prevented from second-order and third-order matings, respectively. Although stronger inbreeding avoidance maintains significantly more genetic variation, our results demonstrate the potentially severe demographic impacts of reduced numbers of suitable mates on the future viability of small, isolated wild dog populations. The rapid rate of population decline suggests that extinction may occur before inbreeding depression is observed. PMID:22615933

  6. Inbreeding avoidance influences the viability of reintroduced populations of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    Becker, Penny A; Miller, Philip S; Gunther, Micaela Szykman; Somers, Michael J; Wildt, David E; Maldonado, Jesús E

    2012-01-01

    The conservation of many fragmented and small populations of endangered African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) relies on understanding the natural processes affecting genetic diversity, demographics, and future viability. We used extensive behavioural, life-history, and genetic data from reintroduced African wild dogs in South Africa to (1) test for inbreeding avoidance via mate selection and (2) model the potential consequences of avoidance on population persistence. Results suggested that wild dogs avoided mating with kin. Inbreeding was rare in natal packs, after reproductive vacancies, and between sibling cohorts (observed on 0.8%, 12.5%, and 3.8% of occasions, respectively). Only one of the six (16.7%) breeding pairs confirmed as third-order (or closer) kin consisted of animals that were familiar with each other, while no other paired individuals had any prior association. Computer-simulated populations allowed to experience inbreeding had only a 1.6% probability of extinction within 100 years, whereas all populations avoiding incestuous matings became extinct due to the absence of unrelated mates. Populations that avoided mating with first-order relatives became extinct after 63 years compared with persistence of 37 and 19 years for those also prevented from second-order and third-order matings, respectively. Although stronger inbreeding avoidance maintains significantly more genetic variation, our results demonstrate the potentially severe demographic impacts of reduced numbers of suitable mates on the future viability of small, isolated wild dog populations. The rapid rate of population decline suggests that extinction may occur before inbreeding depression is observed.

  7. Serosurvey for selected viral diseases and demography of African wild dogs in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Creel, S; Creel, N M; Munson, L; Sanderlin, D; Appel, M J

    1997-10-01

    African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are endangered, with only 3,000-5,000 remaining in the wild. It is believed that wild dogs are unusually vulnerable to viral diseases, particularly rabies and canine distemper (CDV). However, canine distemper has been confirmed by laboratory diagnosis in only one free-living wild dog. The 43,000 km2 Selous Game Reserve (SGR; Tanzania) holds approximately 900 adult wild dogs. In a study area of 2,600 km2, the population maintained high density (> or = 1 dog/20.5 km2) from 1991 to 1996. The population was stable, varying 18% below and 9% above the mean density over the 6-yr period. Serum samples (n = 22) collected over 3 yr showed that most individuals were exposed to CDV (59%:95% confidence interval = 43-76% seropositive) and canine parvovirus (68%:95% CI = 54-81% seropositive), although none were seropositive for rabies (0%:95% CI = 0-17%). CDV titers were positively related to age, with no seropositive dogs younger than 1.9 yr. At least five of 13 dogs positive for CDV seroconverted during the study. Dogs with high CDV titers did not survive better in the years after sampling (mean survival +/- SE for those that died = 638 +/- 92 days,). Variation in mean litter size was inversely related to CPV exposure in the SGR and elsewhere. Annual mortality rates were low in comparison to other populations for all age classes (pups: 31 +/- 8%, n = 127, yearlings: 22 +/- 10%, n = 93, adults: 20 +/- 6%, n = 235). Annual mortality rates fluctuated little between 1992 and 1996. These data show that wild dog populations, like those of other canids, can remain stable and demographically healthy despite exposure to CDV and CPV.

  8. Genetic identification of five strongyle nematode parasites in wild african elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    McLean, E R; Kinsella, J M; Chiyo, P; Obanda, V; Moss, C; Archie, E A

    2012-07-01

    African savannah elephants (Loxodonta africana) are an ecologically and economically important species in many African habitats. However, despite the importance of elephants, research on their parasites is limited, especially in wild populations. Currently, we lack genetic tools to identify elephant parasites. We present genetic markers from ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to identify five elephant-specific nematode parasites in the family Strongylidae: Murshidia linstowi, Murshidia longicaudata, Murshidia africana, Quilonia africana, and Khalilia sameera. We collected adult nematodes from feces deposited by wild elephants living in Amboseli National Park, Kenya. Using both morphologic and genetic techniques, we found that the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region in rDNA provides a reliable marker to distinguish these species of strongyles. We found no evidence for cryptic genetic species within these morphologic species according to the cox-1 region of mtDNA. Levels of genetic diversity in strongyles from elephants were consistent with the genetic diversity seen within other strongyle species. We anticipate that these results will be a useful tool for identifying gastrointestinal nematode parasites in elephants.

  9. Discrepancies in the occurrence of Balantidium coli between wild and captive African great apes.

    PubMed

    Pomajbíková, Kateřina; Petrželková, Klára J; Profousová, Ilona; Petrášová, Jana; Modrý, David

    2010-12-01

    Balantidium coli is a ciliate reported in many mammalian species, including African great apes. In the former, asymptomatic infections as well as clinical balantidiasis have been reported in captivity. We carried out a cross-sectional study of B. coli in African great apes (chimpanzees, bonobos, and both species of gorillas) and examined 1,161 fecal samples from 28 captive facilities in Europe, plus 2 sanctuaries and 11 wild sites in Africa. Samples were analyzed with the use of Sheather's flotation and merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde (MIFC) sedimentation. MIFC sedimentation was the more sensitive technique for diagnostics of B. coli in apes. Although not detected in any wild-ape populations, B. coli was diagnosed in 52.6% of captive individuals. Surprisingly, in the apes' feces, trophozoites of B. coli were commonly detected, in contrast with other animals, e.g., Old World monkeys, pigs, etc. Most likely reservoirs for B. coli in captive apes include synantropic rats. High starch diets in captive apes are likely to exacerbate the occurrence of balantidiasis in captive apes.

  10. Additive opportunistic capture explains group hunting benefits in African wild dogs.

    PubMed

    Hubel, Tatjana Y; Myatt, Julia P; Jordan, Neil R; Dewhirst, Oliver P; McNutt, J Weldon; Wilson, Alan M

    2016-03-29

    African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are described as highly collaborative endurance pursuit hunters based on observations derived primarily from the grass plains of East Africa. However, the remaining population of this endangered species mainly occupies mixed woodland savannah where hunting strategies appear to differ from those previously described. We used high-resolution GPS and inertial technology to record fine-scale movement of all members of a single pack of six adult African wild dogs in northern Botswana. The dogs used multiple short-distance hunting attempts with a low individual kill rate (15.5%), but high group feeding rate due to the sharing of prey. Use of high-level cooperative chase strategies (coordination and collaboration) was not recorded. In the mixed woodland habitats typical of their current range, simultaneous, opportunistic, short-distance chasing by dogs pursuing multiple prey (rather than long collaborative pursuits of single prey by multiple individuals) could be the key to their relative success in these habitats.

  11. Additive opportunistic capture explains group hunting benefits in African wild dogs.

    PubMed

    Hubel, Tatjana Y; Myatt, Julia P; Jordan, Neil R; Dewhirst, Oliver P; McNutt, J Weldon; Wilson, Alan M

    2016-01-01

    African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are described as highly collaborative endurance pursuit hunters based on observations derived primarily from the grass plains of East Africa. However, the remaining population of this endangered species mainly occupies mixed woodland savannah where hunting strategies appear to differ from those previously described. We used high-resolution GPS and inertial technology to record fine-scale movement of all members of a single pack of six adult African wild dogs in northern Botswana. The dogs used multiple short-distance hunting attempts with a low individual kill rate (15.5%), but high group feeding rate due to the sharing of prey. Use of high-level cooperative chase strategies (coordination and collaboration) was not recorded. In the mixed woodland habitats typical of their current range, simultaneous, opportunistic, short-distance chasing by dogs pursuing multiple prey (rather than long collaborative pursuits of single prey by multiple individuals) could be the key to their relative success in these habitats. PMID:27023355

  12. SINGLE- VERSUS DOUBLE-DOSE RABIES VACCINATION IN CAPTIVE AFRICAN WILD DOGS (LYCAON PICTUS).

    PubMed

    Connolly, Maren; Thomas, Patrick; Woodroffe, Rosie; Raphael, Bonnie L

    2015-12-01

    The immune responses of 35 captive African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) to an inactivated rabies virus vaccine were evaluated. Seventeen animals received one 1-ml dose of inactivated rabies vaccine administered intramuscularly, while 18 received two 1-ml doses given simultaneously but at different injection sites. Sera were collected from all animals prior to vaccination and intermittently from a subset of animals between 3 and 49 mo postvaccination. Rabies neutralizing serum antibody titers were measured by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition testing. Within 3 mo postvaccination, all 28 animals that were tested within that time period had seroconverted. Overall, titers were significantly higher among animals given two doses of vaccine than among those given a single dose, although this difference was no longer significant by 15 mo postvaccination. Regardless of initial dose, a single administration of inactivated rabies virus vaccine resulted in long-term elevation of titers in the African wild dogs in this study. In the two individuals followed for greater than 36 mo, both (one from each group) maintained detectable titers.

  13. SINGLE- VERSUS DOUBLE-DOSE RABIES VACCINATION IN CAPTIVE AFRICAN WILD DOGS (LYCAON PICTUS).

    PubMed

    Connolly, Maren; Thomas, Patrick; Woodroffe, Rosie; Raphael, Bonnie L

    2015-12-01

    The immune responses of 35 captive African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) to an inactivated rabies virus vaccine were evaluated. Seventeen animals received one 1-ml dose of inactivated rabies vaccine administered intramuscularly, while 18 received two 1-ml doses given simultaneously but at different injection sites. Sera were collected from all animals prior to vaccination and intermittently from a subset of animals between 3 and 49 mo postvaccination. Rabies neutralizing serum antibody titers were measured by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition testing. Within 3 mo postvaccination, all 28 animals that were tested within that time period had seroconverted. Overall, titers were significantly higher among animals given two doses of vaccine than among those given a single dose, although this difference was no longer significant by 15 mo postvaccination. Regardless of initial dose, a single administration of inactivated rabies virus vaccine resulted in long-term elevation of titers in the African wild dogs in this study. In the two individuals followed for greater than 36 mo, both (one from each group) maintained detectable titers. PMID:26667524

  14. Additive opportunistic capture explains group hunting benefits in African wild dogs

    PubMed Central

    Hubel, Tatjana Y.; Myatt, Julia P.; Jordan, Neil R.; Dewhirst, Oliver P.; McNutt, J. Weldon; Wilson, Alan M.

    2016-01-01

    African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are described as highly collaborative endurance pursuit hunters based on observations derived primarily from the grass plains of East Africa. However, the remaining population of this endangered species mainly occupies mixed woodland savannah where hunting strategies appear to differ from those previously described. We used high-resolution GPS and inertial technology to record fine-scale movement of all members of a single pack of six adult African wild dogs in northern Botswana. The dogs used multiple short-distance hunting attempts with a low individual kill rate (15.5%), but high group feeding rate due to the sharing of prey. Use of high-level cooperative chase strategies (coordination and collaboration) was not recorded. In the mixed woodland habitats typical of their current range, simultaneous, opportunistic, short-distance chasing by dogs pursuing multiple prey (rather than long collaborative pursuits of single prey by multiple individuals) could be the key to their relative success in these habitats. PMID:27023355

  15. Discrepancies in the occurrence of Balantidium coli between wild and captive African great apes.

    PubMed

    Pomajbíková, Kateřina; Petrželková, Klára J; Profousová, Ilona; Petrášová, Jana; Modrý, David

    2010-12-01

    Balantidium coli is a ciliate reported in many mammalian species, including African great apes. In the former, asymptomatic infections as well as clinical balantidiasis have been reported in captivity. We carried out a cross-sectional study of B. coli in African great apes (chimpanzees, bonobos, and both species of gorillas) and examined 1,161 fecal samples from 28 captive facilities in Europe, plus 2 sanctuaries and 11 wild sites in Africa. Samples were analyzed with the use of Sheather's flotation and merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde (MIFC) sedimentation. MIFC sedimentation was the more sensitive technique for diagnostics of B. coli in apes. Although not detected in any wild-ape populations, B. coli was diagnosed in 52.6% of captive individuals. Surprisingly, in the apes' feces, trophozoites of B. coli were commonly detected, in contrast with other animals, e.g., Old World monkeys, pigs, etc. Most likely reservoirs for B. coli in captive apes include synantropic rats. High starch diets in captive apes are likely to exacerbate the occurrence of balantidiasis in captive apes. PMID:21158624

  16. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma presenting as a wound with discharging sinus tracts in a wild African lion (Panthera leo).

    PubMed

    Mwase, M; Mumba, C; Square, D; Kawarai, S; Madarame, H

    2013-11-01

    A female wild African lion (Panthera leo) was presented with an 8-month history of a wound with multiple discharging sinus tracts on the left paw. Microscopical examination revealed squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of cutaneous SCC in an African lion. Cutaneous SCC presenting as discharging sinus tracts lined by neoplastic squamous cells has not been reported previously in animals.

  17. Successful snakebite treatment in three juvenile African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) with polyvalent antivenom: a Namibian case report.

    PubMed

    Weise, Florian J; van Vuuren, Rudie J; Echement, Katherine E; Cleverley, Matthew P; van Vuuren, Marlice

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the first documented treatment of venomous snakebite with a polyvalent snake antivenom from the South African Institute for Medical Research in endangered African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus). Three juvenile male animals (6.5 months of age) showed clinical signs after being bitten by an unidentified venomous snake. The signs included loss of appetite, disorientation, impaired locomotion, excessive facial swelling, profuse salivation, reduced respiratory effort and an apparent depressed mental state. Intravenous treatment with isotonic Ringer lactate solution, hetastarch 6% and dexamethazone, subcutaneous administration of procaine benzylpenicillin and benzathine benzylpenicillin, and ultimately intravenous administration of the polyvalent snake antivenom resulted in the complete recovery of all three wild dogs.

  18. Reproductive hormonal patterns in pregnant, pseudopregnant and acyclic captive African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    Van der Weyde, L K; Martin, G B; Blackberry, M A; Gruen, V; Harland, A; Paris, M C J

    2015-05-01

    African wild dogs are one of the most endangered canid species, with free-living populations declining as a consequence of habitat loss, disease and human conflict. Captive breeding is considered an important conservation strategy, but is hampered by a poor overall understanding of the reproductive biology of the species. To improve our basic knowledge, we studied hormone patterns in 15 female wild dogs using non-invasive faecal collections. By comparing longitudinal hormone profiles with behavioural and anatomical changes, females could be allocated among three reproductive classes: pregnant (n=1), pseudopregnant (n=9) and acyclic (n=4). We also monitored a single female in which contraception was induced with a deslorelin implant. Comparison of pseudopregnant and acyclic females showed that, in both classes, faecal oestradiol concentrations increased from anoestrus to pro-oestrus then declined into the oestrous and dioestrous phases. Progestagen concentrations rose steadily from anoestrus to the dioestrous phase in both pseudopregnant and acyclic females and, pseudopregnant females had significantly higher concentrations of progestagens than acyclic females in all phases of the oestrous cycle. Most females classed as pseudopregnant were found in female-only groups, suggesting that wild dogs are spontaneous ovulators. Furthermore, only one adult female did not ovulate, so suppression of reproduction in subordinates is likely to be behavioural rather than physiological.

  19. Reproductive hormonal patterns in pregnant, pseudopregnant and acyclic captive African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    Van der Weyde, L K; Martin, G B; Blackberry, M A; Gruen, V; Harland, A; Paris, M C J

    2015-05-01

    African wild dogs are one of the most endangered canid species, with free-living populations declining as a consequence of habitat loss, disease and human conflict. Captive breeding is considered an important conservation strategy, but is hampered by a poor overall understanding of the reproductive biology of the species. To improve our basic knowledge, we studied hormone patterns in 15 female wild dogs using non-invasive faecal collections. By comparing longitudinal hormone profiles with behavioural and anatomical changes, females could be allocated among three reproductive classes: pregnant (n=1), pseudopregnant (n=9) and acyclic (n=4). We also monitored a single female in which contraception was induced with a deslorelin implant. Comparison of pseudopregnant and acyclic females showed that, in both classes, faecal oestradiol concentrations increased from anoestrus to pro-oestrus then declined into the oestrous and dioestrous phases. Progestagen concentrations rose steadily from anoestrus to the dioestrous phase in both pseudopregnant and acyclic females and, pseudopregnant females had significantly higher concentrations of progestagens than acyclic females in all phases of the oestrous cycle. Most females classed as pseudopregnant were found in female-only groups, suggesting that wild dogs are spontaneous ovulators. Furthermore, only one adult female did not ovulate, so suppression of reproduction in subordinates is likely to be behavioural rather than physiological. PMID:25818522

  20. Studies of male reproduction in captive African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    Johnston, S D; Ward, D; Lemon, J; Gunn, I; MacCallum, C A; Keeley, T; Blyde, D

    2007-08-01

    Implementation of assisted breeding in the captive African wild dog is restricted by a current lack of knowledge on their reproductive physiology and the apparent difficulty of effectively manipulating the complex social dynamic of the pack in order to conduct reproductive procedures. In this study, we describe protocols for the safe and repeated capture and restraint of the African wild dog (n=7) as well as techniques for assessment of male reproductive function, semen collection and preservation. In a serendipitous finding, captive African wild dogs appeared to display significant seasonal change in male reproduction. Testicular volume and tone, spermatorrhea and the ability to collect semen by electroejaculation all increased significantly during late summer and then subsequently declined by early spring. While there were no detectable seasonal changes in testosterone concentration in the population as whole, the alpha-dominant male in both years of the study, had a highly elevated testosterone concentration compared to subordinate males. Semen collection by electroejaculation during the late summer was most effective in peri-pubertal males (15 months) when all seven electroejaculates were of adequate quality for cryopreservation. In the second breeding season (27 months), there were numerous changes in the pack hierarchy and electroejaculation was not as successful (3/7). The characteristics of electroejaculated semen collected in the breeding season are described for seven animals including the first descriptions and incidence of sperm abnormalities in the species. Semen (n=7) was frozen using a Tris-citrate fructose buffer and final egg yolk and glycerol concentration of 20% and 4%, respectively. Sperm were loaded into 0.25 mL straws, frozen in liquid nitrogen vapor and then thawed at 37 degrees C. Initial post-thaw survival of spermatozoa was encouraging (% motile: 31.8+/-5.8%; rate: 2.8+/-0.3; % intact plasma membranes: 33.4+/-5.3% and the % of damaged

  1. Molecular characterization of Babesia and Cytauxzoon species in wild South-African meerkats.

    PubMed

    Leclaire, Sarah; Menard, Sandie; Berry, Antoine

    2015-04-01

    Piroplasms, including Babesia, Cytauxzoon and Theileria species, frequently infect domestic and wild mammals. At present, there is no information on the occurrence and molecular identity of these tick-borne blood parasites in the meerkat, one of South Africa's most endearing wildlife celebrities. Meerkats live in territorial groups, which may occur on ranchland in close proximity to humans, pets and livestock. Blood collected from 46 healthy meerkats living in the South-African Kalahari desert was screened by microscopy and molecular methods, using PCR and DNA sequencing of 18S rRNA and ITS1 genes. We found that meerkats were infected by 2 species: one species related to Babesia sp. and one species related to Cytauxzoon sp. Ninety one percent of the meerkats were infected by the Cytauxzoon and/or the Babesia species. Co-infection occurred in 46% of meerkats. The pathogenicity and vectors of these two piroplasm species remains to be determined.

  2. Comparison of oral and intramuscular recombinant canine distemper vaccination in African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    Connolly, Maren; Thomas, Patrick; Woodroffe, Rosie; Raphael, Bonnie L

    2013-12-01

    A series of three doses of recombinant canary-pox-vectored canine distemper virus vaccine was administered at 1-mo intervals, orally (n = 8) or intramuscularly (n = 13), to 21 previously unvaccinated juvenile African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) at the Wildlife Conservation Society's Bronx Zoo. Titers were measured by serum neutralization at each vaccination and at intervals over a period of 3.5-21.5 mo after the initial vaccination. All postvaccination titers were negative for orally vaccinated animals at all sampling time points. Of the animals that received intramuscular vaccinations, 100% had presumed protective titers by the end of the course of vaccination, but only 50% of those sampled at 6.5 mo postvaccination had positive titers. None of the three animals sampled at 21.5 mo postvaccination had positive titers. PMID:24450046

  3. Space use as an indicator of enclosure appropriateness in African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    Hunter, Sally C; Gusset, Markus; Miller, Lance J; Somers, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    A clear understanding of space use is required to more fully understand biological requirements of nonhuman animals in zoos, aid the design of exhibits, and maximize the animals' welfare. This study used electivity indexes to assess space use of two packs of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and the appropriateness of two naturalistic, outdoor enclosures at the San Diego Zoo and Bronx Zoo. The results identified enclosure features that were both underutilized and overutilized. They suggest that replacing underutilized areas with features similar to areas that were overutilized may provide more preferred opportunities for the animals. Assessing space use of animals in human care may serve as an indicator of enclosure appropriateness and could have welfare implications. By looking at the possible reasons for area preferences, animal managers can get an idea of where improvements could be made. Designing future exhibits accordingly thus can provide possible welfare benefits for the animals concerned. PMID:24665950

  4. Comparison of oral and intramuscular recombinant canine distemper vaccination in African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    Connolly, Maren; Thomas, Patrick; Woodroffe, Rosie; Raphael, Bonnie L

    2013-12-01

    A series of three doses of recombinant canary-pox-vectored canine distemper virus vaccine was administered at 1-mo intervals, orally (n = 8) or intramuscularly (n = 13), to 21 previously unvaccinated juvenile African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) at the Wildlife Conservation Society's Bronx Zoo. Titers were measured by serum neutralization at each vaccination and at intervals over a period of 3.5-21.5 mo after the initial vaccination. All postvaccination titers were negative for orally vaccinated animals at all sampling time points. Of the animals that received intramuscular vaccinations, 100% had presumed protective titers by the end of the course of vaccination, but only 50% of those sampled at 6.5 mo postvaccination had positive titers. None of the three animals sampled at 21.5 mo postvaccination had positive titers.

  5. Space use as an indicator of enclosure appropriateness in African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    Hunter, Sally C; Gusset, Markus; Miller, Lance J; Somers, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    A clear understanding of space use is required to more fully understand biological requirements of nonhuman animals in zoos, aid the design of exhibits, and maximize the animals' welfare. This study used electivity indexes to assess space use of two packs of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and the appropriateness of two naturalistic, outdoor enclosures at the San Diego Zoo and Bronx Zoo. The results identified enclosure features that were both underutilized and overutilized. They suggest that replacing underutilized areas with features similar to areas that were overutilized may provide more preferred opportunities for the animals. Assessing space use of animals in human care may serve as an indicator of enclosure appropriateness and could have welfare implications. By looking at the possible reasons for area preferences, animal managers can get an idea of where improvements could be made. Designing future exhibits accordingly thus can provide possible welfare benefits for the animals concerned.

  6. Transcriptome profiles of wild and cultured South African abalone, Haliotis midae.

    PubMed

    Picone, Barbara; Rhode, Clint; Roodt-Wilding, Rouvay

    2015-04-01

    This report describes the use of pyrosequencing technologies to generate the first comparative analysis of de novo assembled transcriptome data from cultured and wild specimens of the South African abalone. The transcriptome data and database described here provide a significant genomic resource for abalone research. The data set annotated 11,240 genes, which matched genes with known functions in other species. A large number of transmembrane protein domains (4087) that may indicate a high portion of undiscovered gene receptors were identified. Further, we detected an interesting set of transcription factors (516) that are valuable candidates for participating in regulatory events in developmental (such as cell proliferation and differentiation) and reproductive processes. PMID:25622884

  7. Molecular characterization of Babesia and Cytauxzoon species in wild South-African meerkats.

    PubMed

    Leclaire, Sarah; Menard, Sandie; Berry, Antoine

    2015-04-01

    Piroplasms, including Babesia, Cytauxzoon and Theileria species, frequently infect domestic and wild mammals. At present, there is no information on the occurrence and molecular identity of these tick-borne blood parasites in the meerkat, one of South Africa's most endearing wildlife celebrities. Meerkats live in territorial groups, which may occur on ranchland in close proximity to humans, pets and livestock. Blood collected from 46 healthy meerkats living in the South-African Kalahari desert was screened by microscopy and molecular methods, using PCR and DNA sequencing of 18S rRNA and ITS1 genes. We found that meerkats were infected by 2 species: one species related to Babesia sp. and one species related to Cytauxzoon sp. Ninety one percent of the meerkats were infected by the Cytauxzoon and/or the Babesia species. Co-infection occurred in 46% of meerkats. The pathogenicity and vectors of these two piroplasm species remains to be determined. PMID:25374302

  8. Social dynamics and the cortisol response to immobilization stress of the African wild dog, Lycaon pictus.

    PubMed

    de Villiers, M S; van Jaarsveld, A S; Meltzer, D G; Richardson, P R

    1997-02-01

    The aims of the study were to characterize the cortisol response to immobilization stress in African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and to investigate the relationship between stress and sociality in these pack-living canids. Ad lib. observations were made on a captive pack of 19 wild dogs. Individuals were classified as either dominant or subordinate. Cardinal and ordinal dominance indices were also calculated for pack members, as were three other behavioral indices. Active and passive dominance styles were distinguished. Serial blood samples were drawn from animals after chemical immobilization and again after ACTH challenge. The relationship among rank, plasma cortisol concentration, and behavioral style was investigated. When data were combined over the entire study period, there was no obvious relationship between rank and cortisol concentrations or cortisol responsiveness to immobilization stress. Instead, younger animals had higher cortisol concentrations than older ones. Age cohorts were also clearly separated on the basis of behavioral profiles. For males, these distinctions among age classes were especially apparent during the second part of the study period, when subadults occupied dominant positions in the hierarchy. Adult males maintained relatively low cortisol concentrations, despite being involved in and losing a high proportion of dominance interactions. Age-related differences in cortisol profiles of dominant individuals may be explained by differences in the style of dominance employed, with younger males using proportionately more active dominance (threats used to elicit submission). The separation of age classes according to rank, behavioral styles, and cortisol concentrations may reflect improved social skillfulness with age.

  9. Rabies among African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) in the Masai Mara, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kat, P W; Alexander, K A; Smith, J S; Richardson, J D; Munson, L

    1996-10-01

    A pack of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) ranging to the north of the Masai Mara National Reserve in southwestern Kenya was monitored from 1988 to 1989. During a 6-week period (August 1-September 13, 1989), 21 of 23 members of this pack died. Seven carcasses were retrieved, of which 4 were suitable for necropsy and histopathologic examination. Gross findings varied among individuals and included multiple bite wounds, synovitis, lymphadenopathy, submandibular, cervical, and vocal cord edema, blood in bronchi, bronchioles, stomach, and intestine, and interioventral lung lobe consolidation. Histologic examination of 2 available brain samples revealed nonsuppurative encephalitis with eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions (Negri bodies). An additional brain sample tested positive for rabies via a fluorescent antibody test. Other histologic features included severe suppurative bronchopneumonia, myocarditis, and lymphoid depletion of the lymph nodes, tonsils, and spleen. A 304-base pair (bp) nucleotide sequence from the N gene and a 310-bp sequence from the G gene from rabies isolates of 4 wild dogs indicated that infection was with a rabies variant common among domestic dogs in Kenya and Tanzania.

  10. Reproduction in the endangered African wild dog: basic physiology, reproductive suppression and possible benefits of artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Van den Berghe, F; Paris, D B B P; Van Soom, A; Rijsselaere, T; Van der Weyde, L; Bertschinger, H J; Paris, M C J

    2012-07-01

    The African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) is an endangered exotic canid with less than 5500 animals remaining in the wild. Despite numerous strategies to conserve this species, numbers of free-living animals are in decline. It is a highly social species with a complex pack structure: separate male and female dominant hierarchies with, typically, participation of subdominant adults in the rearing of the dominant breeding pairs' pups. Basic reproductive knowledge is largely missing in this species, with only limited information available on the profile of reproductive hormones, based on non-invasive endocrine monitoring. The dominant or alpha male and female are reproductively active and the subdominants are generally reproductively suppressed. However, the occasional production of litters by subdominant females and evidence of multiple paternity within litters suggests that fertility of subordinates is not completely inhibited. In this respect, there are still considerable gaps in our knowledge about the mechanisms governing reproduction and reproductive suppression in African wild dogs, particularly the influence of dominance and pack structure on both male and female fertility. Given concerns over the long-term survival of this species, further research in this area is essential to provide valuable information for their captive breeding and conservation. Reproductive information can also be applied to the development of Assisted Reproductive Techniques for this species; the utility of which in African wild dog conservation is also discussed. PMID:22748701

  11. Reproduction in the endangered African wild dog: basic physiology, reproductive suppression and possible benefits of artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Van den Berghe, F; Paris, D B B P; Van Soom, A; Rijsselaere, T; Van der Weyde, L; Bertschinger, H J; Paris, M C J

    2012-07-01

    The African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) is an endangered exotic canid with less than 5500 animals remaining in the wild. Despite numerous strategies to conserve this species, numbers of free-living animals are in decline. It is a highly social species with a complex pack structure: separate male and female dominant hierarchies with, typically, participation of subdominant adults in the rearing of the dominant breeding pairs' pups. Basic reproductive knowledge is largely missing in this species, with only limited information available on the profile of reproductive hormones, based on non-invasive endocrine monitoring. The dominant or alpha male and female are reproductively active and the subdominants are generally reproductively suppressed. However, the occasional production of litters by subdominant females and evidence of multiple paternity within litters suggests that fertility of subordinates is not completely inhibited. In this respect, there are still considerable gaps in our knowledge about the mechanisms governing reproduction and reproductive suppression in African wild dogs, particularly the influence of dominance and pack structure on both male and female fertility. Given concerns over the long-term survival of this species, further research in this area is essential to provide valuable information for their captive breeding and conservation. Reproductive information can also be applied to the development of Assisted Reproductive Techniques for this species; the utility of which in African wild dog conservation is also discussed.

  12. Anesthesia of captive African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) using a medetomidine-ketamine-atropine combination.

    PubMed

    Ward, David G; Blyde, David; Lemon, John; Johnston, Steve

    2006-06-01

    Seven captive male African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) weighing 25-32 kg each, were anesthetized by i.m. injection via hand syringe with a combination of 1.5 mg/kg ketamine, 40 microg/kg medetomidine, and 0.05 mg/kg atropine. Following endotracheal intubation, each animal was connected to a bain closed-circuit system that delivered 1.5% isoflurane and 2 L/min oxygen. Atipamezole (0.1 mg/kg i.v.; 0.1 mg/kg i.m.) was given at the end of each procedure (60 min following injection of medetomidine/ketamine/atropine). Time to sternal recumbency was 5-8 min. Times to standing after atipamezole administration were 8-20 min. This anesthetic regimen was repeated on three separate occasions (September 2000, February 2002, and October 2002) on all males to perform electroejaculation procedures. Each procedure was <80 min from injection to standing. Dogs showed excellent muscle relaxation during the procedures. Arterial blood samples were collected at 10-min intervals for blood gases in one procedure (September 2000). Separate venous samples were taken from each dog during each procedure for hematology and biochemistry. These values were within the normal range for this species. Arterial hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate (HR) were monitored continuously in addition to other anesthesia monitoring procedures (body temperature, respiratory rate [RR], capillary refill time, blink response, pupil position, deep pain perception reflex). All dogs maintained relatively stable SpO2 profiles during monitoring, with a mean (+/-SD) SpO2 of 92% +/-5.4%. All other physiological variables (HR, RR, body temperature, blood pressure) were within normal limits. Following each procedure, normal behavior was noted in all dogs. All the dogs were reunited into the pack at completion of their anesthetic procedures. An injectable medetomidine-ketamine-atropine combination with maintenance by gaseous isoflurane and oxygen provides an inexpensive, reliable anesthetic for captive African

  13. Photosynthetic Bradyrhizobia Are Natural Endophytes of the African Wild Rice Oryza breviligulata

    PubMed Central

    Chaintreuil, Clémence; Giraud, Eric; Prin, Yves; Lorquin, Jean; Bâ, Amadou; Gillis, Monique; de Lajudie, Philippe; Dreyfus, Bernard

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the presence of endophytic rhizobia within the roots of the wetland wild rice Oryza breviligulata, which is the ancestor of the African cultivated rice Oryza glaberrima. This primitive rice species grows in the same wetland sites as Aeschynomene sensitiva, an aquatic stem-nodulated legume associated with photosynthetic strains of Bradyrhizobium. Twenty endophytic and aquatic isolates were obtained at three different sites in West Africa (Senegal and Guinea) from nodal roots of O. breviligulata and surrounding water by using A. sensitiva as a trap legume. Most endophytic and aquatic isolates were photosynthetic and belonged to the same phylogenetic Bradyrhizobium/Blastobacter subgroup as the typical photosynthetic Bradyrhizobium strains previously isolated from Aeschynomene stem nodules. Nitrogen-fixing activity, measured by acetylene reduction, was detected in rice plants inoculated with endophytic isolates. A 20% increase in the shoot growth and grain yield of O. breviligulata grown in a greenhouse was also observed upon inoculation with one endophytic strain and one Aeschynomene photosynthetic strain. The photosynthetic Bradyrhizobium sp. strain ORS278 extensively colonized the root surface, followed by intercellular, and rarely intracellular, bacterial invasion of the rice roots, which was determined with a lacZ-tagged mutant of ORS278. The discovery that photosynthetic Bradyrhizobium strains, which are usually known to induce nitrogen-fixing nodules on stems of the legume Aeschynomene, are also natural true endophytes of the primitive rice O. breviligulata could significantly enhance cultivated rice production. PMID:11097925

  14. Structure and properties of silk from the African wild silkmoth Gonometa postica reared indoors.

    PubMed

    Teshome, Addis; Raina, S K; Vollrath, Fritz

    2014-01-01

    African wild silkmoth, Gonometa postica Walker (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), were reared indoors in order to examine the influence of rearing conditions on the structure and properties of silk cocoon shells and degummed fibers by using a scanning electron microscope, an Instron tensile tester, and a thermogravimetric analyzer. The cocoons reared indoors showed inferior quality in weight, length, width, and cocoon shell ratio compared to cocoons reared outdoors. There were no differences in cocoon shell and fiber surfaces and cross sectional structures. Cocoon shells were covered with calcium oxalate crystals with few visible fibers on their surface. Degummed fibers were smooth with minimum unfractured surfaces and globular to triangular cross sections. Indoor-reared cocoon shells had a significantly higher breaking strain, while the breaking stress was higher for cocoons reared outdoors. Fibers from indoor cocoons had a significantly higher breaking stress while outdoor fibers had higher breaking strain. Thermogravimetric analysis curves showed two main thermal reactions revealing the dehydration of water molecules and ir-reversible decomposition of the crystallites in both cocoons and fibers reared indoors and outdoors. Cocoon shells underwent additional peaks of decomposition with increased temperature. The total weight loss was higher for cocoon shells and degummed fibers from indoors. Rearing conditions (temperature and relative humidity), feeding method used, changes in total life span, days to molting, and spinning might have influenced the variation in the properties observed.The ecological and commercial significances of indoor rearing of G. posticaare discussed.

  15. Structure and Properties of Silk from the African Wild Silkmoth Gonometa postica Reared Indoors

    PubMed Central

    Teshome, Addis; Raina, S. K.; Vollrath, Fritz

    2014-01-01

    African wild silkmoth, Gonometa postica Walker (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), were reared indoors in order to examine the influence of rearing conditions on the structure and properties of silk cocoon shells and degummed fibers by using a scanning electron microscope, an Instron tensile tester, and a thermogravimetric analyzer. The cocoons reared indoors showed inferior quality in weight, length, width, and cocoon shell ratio compared to cocoons reared outdoors. There were no differences in cocoon shell and fiber surfaces and cross sectional structures. Cocoon shells were covered with calcium oxalate crystals with few visible fibers on their surface. Degummed fibers were smooth with minimum unfractured surfaces and globular to triangular cross sections. Indoor-reared cocoon shells had a significantly higher breaking strain, while the breaking stress was higher for cocoons reared outdoors. Fibers from indoor cocoons had a significantly higher breaking stress while outdoor fibers had higher breaking strain. Thermogravimetric analysis curves showed two main thermal reactions revealing the dehydration of water molecules and irreversible decomposition of the crystallites in both cocoons and fibers reared indoors and outdoors. Cocoon shells underwent additional peaks of decomposition with increased temperature. The total weight loss was higher for cocoon shells and degummed fibers from indoors. Rearing conditions (temperature and relative humidity), feeding method used, changes in total life span, days to molting, and spinning might have influenced the variation in the properties observed. The ecological and commercial significances of indoor rearing of G. postica are discussed. PMID:25373183

  16. The elephants of Zoba Gash Barka, Eritrea: part 4. Cholelithiasis in a wild African elephant (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Agnew, Dalen W; Hagey, Lee; Shoshani, Jeheskel

    2005-12-01

    A 4.0-kg cholelith was found within the abdominal cavity of a dead wild African elephant (Loxodonta africana) in Eritrea. Analysis of this cholelith by histochemistry, electron microscopy, electrospray mass spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy revealed it was composed of bile alcohols but no calcium, bilirubin, or cholesterol. Bacteria were also found in the cholelith. Similar, but smaller, bile stones have been identified previously in other wild African elephants and an excavated mammoth (Mammuthus columbi). Choleliths have been reported only once in a captive Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Elephants, along with hyraxes (Procavia capensis) and manatees (Trichechus manatus), are unique among mammals in producing only bile alcohols and no bile acids, which may predispose them to cholelithiasis, particularly in association with bacterial infection. Dietary factors may also play an important role in cholelith formation. PMID:17312726

  17. Successful snakebite treatment in three juvenile African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) with polyvalent antivenom: a Namibian case report.

    PubMed

    Weise, Florian J; van Vuuren, Rudie J; Echement, Katherine E; Cleverley, Matthew P; van Vuuren, Marlice

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the first documented treatment of venomous snakebite with a polyvalent snake antivenom from the South African Institute for Medical Research in endangered African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus). Three juvenile male animals (6.5 months of age) showed clinical signs after being bitten by an unidentified venomous snake. The signs included loss of appetite, disorientation, impaired locomotion, excessive facial swelling, profuse salivation, reduced respiratory effort and an apparent depressed mental state. Intravenous treatment with isotonic Ringer lactate solution, hetastarch 6% and dexamethazone, subcutaneous administration of procaine benzylpenicillin and benzathine benzylpenicillin, and ultimately intravenous administration of the polyvalent snake antivenom resulted in the complete recovery of all three wild dogs. PMID:23718740

  18. Nuclear transfer of synchronized African wild cat somatic cells into enucleated domestic cat oocytes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomez, M.C.; Jenkins, J.A.; Giraldo, A.; Harris, R.F.; King, A.; Dresser, B.L.; Pope, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    The African wild cat is one of the smallest wild cats and its future is threatened by hybridization with domestic cats. Nuclear transfer, a valuable tool for retaining genetic variability, offers the possibility of species continuation rather than extinction. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of somatic cell nuclei of the African wild cat (AWC) to dedifferentiate within domestic cat (DSH) cytoplasts and to support early development after nuclear transplantation. In experiment 1, distributions of AWC and DSH fibroblasts in each cell-cycle phase were assessed by flow cytometry using cells cultured to confluency and disaggregated with pronase, trypsin, or mechanical separation. Trypsin (89.0%) and pronase (93.0%) yielded higher proportions of AWC nuclei in the G0/G1 phase than mechanical separation (82.0%). In contrast, mechanical separation yielded higher percentages of DSH nuclei in the G0/G1 phase (86.6%) than pronase (79.7%) or trypsin (74.2%) treatments. In both species, pronase induced less DNA damage than trypsin. In experiment 2, the effects of serum starvation, culture to confluency, and exposure to roscovitine on the distribution of AWC and DSH fibroblasts in various phases of the cell cycle were determined. Flow cytometry analyses revealed that the dynamics of the cell cycle varied as culture conditions were modified. Specifically, a higher percentage of AWC and DSH nuclei were in the G0/G1 phase after cells were serum starved (83% vs. 96%) than were present in cycling cells (50% vs. 64%), after contact inhibition (61% vs. 88%), or after roscovitine (56% vs. 84%) treatment, respectively. In experiment 3, we evaluated the effects of cell synchronization and oocyte maturation (in vivo vs. in vitro) on the reconstruction and development of AWC-DSH- and DSH-DSH-cloned embryos. The method of cell synchronization did not affect the fusion and cleavage rate because only a slightly higher percentage of fused couplets cleaved when donor nuclei

  19. The Social and Ecological Integration of Captive-Raised Adolescent Male African Elephants (Loxodonta africana) into a Wild Population

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Kate; Moore, Randall; Harris, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Background A rapid rise in the number of captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana) used in the tourism industry in southern Africa and orphaned elephants in human care has led to concerns about their long-term management, particularly males. One solution is to release them into the wild at adolescence, when young males naturally leave their herd. However, this raises significant welfare concerns: little is known about how well released elephants integrate into wild populations and whether they pose a greater threat to humans than wild elephants. We document the release of three captive-raised adolescent male African elephants in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Methodology/Principal Findings Despite having been part of a herd of working elephants for at least eight years, the three males progressively integrated into the complex fission-fusion society of wild bull elephants. In the three years following release, they showed no tendency to be closer to human habitation, and there were no significant differences between wild and captive-raised adolescent males in the total number of social interactions, size of ranges and habitat use. However, the captive-raised elephants sparred less and vocalised more, and spent more time alone and in smaller social groups. Thereafter the released elephants continued to expand their ranges and interact with both mixed-sex herds and males. One male was shot by farmers 94 months after release, along with ten wild elephants, on a ranch outside the protected area. Conclusions/Significance We show that captive-raised adolescent male elephants can integrate into a wild population. Long-term studies are required to determine the longevity, breeding success, and eventual fate of released male elephants, but we identified no significant short-term welfare problems for the released elephants or recipient population. Release of captive-raised mammals with complex social systems is a husbandry option that should be explored further. PMID

  20. Evaluation of the Applicability of Different Age Determination Methods for Estimating Age of the Endangered African Wild Dog (Lycaon Pictus)

    PubMed Central

    Steenkamp, Gerhard; Groom, Rosemary J.

    2016-01-01

    African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are endangered and their population continues to decline throughout their range. Given their conservation status, more research focused on their population dynamics, population growth and age specific mortality is needed and this requires reliable estimates of age and age of mortality. Various age determination methods from teeth and skull measurements have been applied in numerous studies and it is fundamental to test the validity of these methods and their applicability to different species. In this study we assessed the accuracy of estimating chronological age and age class of African wild dogs, from dental age measured by (i) counting cementum annuli (ii) pulp cavity/tooth width ratio, (iii) tooth wear (measured by tooth crown height) (iv) tooth wear (measured by tooth crown width/crown height ratio) (v) tooth weight and (vi) skull measurements (length, width and height). A sample of 29 African wild dog skulls, from opportunistically located carcasses was analysed. Linear and ordinal regression analysis was done to investigate the performance of each of the six age determination methods in predicting wild dog chronological age and age class. Counting cementum annuli was the most accurate method for estimating chronological age of wild dogs with a 79% predictive capacity, while pulp cavity/tooth width ratio was also a reliable method with a 68% predictive capacity. Counting cementum annuli and pulp cavity/tooth width ratio were again the most accurate methods for separating wild dogs into three age classes (6–24 months; 25–60 months and > 60 months), with a McFadden’s Pseudo-R2 of 0.705 and 0.412 respectively. The use of the cementum annuli method is recommended when estimating age of wild dogs since it is the most reliable method. However, its use is limited as it requires tooth extraction and shipping, is time consuming and expensive, and is not applicable to living individuals. Pulp cavity/tooth width ratio is a

  1. The biosynthesis, structure and gelatinization properties of starches from wild and cultivated African rice species (Oryza barthii and Oryza glaberrima).

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Wambugu, Peterson W; Zhang, Bin; Wu, Alex Chi; Henry, Robert J; Gilbert, Robert G

    2015-09-20

    The molecular structure and gelatinization properties of starches from domesticated African rice (Oryza glaberrima) and its wild progenitor (Oryza barthii) are determined and comparison made with Asian domesticated rice (Oryza sativa), the commonest commercial rice. This suggests possible enzymatic processes contributing to the unique traits of the African varieties. These have similar starch structures, including smaller amylose molecules, but larger amounts of amylose chains across the whole amylose chain-length distribution, and higher amylose contents, than O. sativa. They also show a higher proportion of two- and three-lamellae spanning amylopectin branch chains (degree of polymerization 34-100) than O. sativa, which contributes to their higher gelatinization temperatures. Fitting amylopectin chain-length distribution with a biosynthesis-based mathematical model suggests that the reason for this difference might be because O. glaberrima and O. barthii have more active SSIIIa and/or less active SBEIIb enzymes.

  2. A Comparison of Walking Rates Between Wild and Zoo African Elephants.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lance J; Chase, Michael J; Hacker, Charlotte E

    2016-01-01

    With increased scrutiny surrounding the welfare of elephants in zoological institutions, it is important to have empirical evidence on their current welfare status. If elephants are not receiving adequate exercise, it could lead to obesity, which can lead to many issues including acyclicity and potentially heart disease. The goal of the current study was to compare the walking rates of elephants in the wild versus elephants in zoos to determine if elephants are walking similar distances relative to their wild counterparts. Eleven wild elephants throughout different habitats and locations in Botswana were compared to 8 elephants at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park. Direct comparisons revealed no significant difference in average walking rates of zoo elephants when compared with wild elephants. These results suggest that elephants at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park walk similar rates to those of wild elephants and may be meeting their exercise needs.

  3. A Comparison of Walking Rates Between Wild and Zoo African Elephants.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lance J; Chase, Michael J; Hacker, Charlotte E

    2016-01-01

    With increased scrutiny surrounding the welfare of elephants in zoological institutions, it is important to have empirical evidence on their current welfare status. If elephants are not receiving adequate exercise, it could lead to obesity, which can lead to many issues including acyclicity and potentially heart disease. The goal of the current study was to compare the walking rates of elephants in the wild versus elephants in zoos to determine if elephants are walking similar distances relative to their wild counterparts. Eleven wild elephants throughout different habitats and locations in Botswana were compared to 8 elephants at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park. Direct comparisons revealed no significant difference in average walking rates of zoo elephants when compared with wild elephants. These results suggest that elephants at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park walk similar rates to those of wild elephants and may be meeting their exercise needs. PMID:26963741

  4. Handling-induced stress and mortalities in African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    de Villiers, M S; Meltzer, D G; van Heerden, J; Mills, M G; Richardson, P R; van Jaarsveld, A S

    1995-11-22

    Recently it was suggested that the handling of wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) by researchers in the Serengeti ecosystem created stress, resulting in the reactivation of latent rabies viruses in carrier animals. We present data from ongoing studies on free-ranging and captive wild dogs elsewhere in Africa which do not support this hypothesis. Cortisol profiles suggest that immobilization of wild dogs does not cause the chronic stress required for stress-reactivation of latent viruses. Furthermore, there is no evidence of handling-related mortalities in wild dogs: the survivorship of unhandled and handled free-ranging wild dogs did not differ and no captive animals died within a year of handling (immobilization and/or vaccination against rabies). We suggest that the mortalities observed in Tanzania were due to an outbreak of a disease which rabies vaccination was unable to prevent. Intensive monitoring and active management research programmes on wild dogs are essential as without these, critically endangered wild dog populations have little hope of survival.

  5. Spatial and temporal patterns of neutral and adaptive genetic variation in the endangered African wild dog (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    Marsden, Clare D; Woodroffe, Rosie; Mills, Michael G L; McNutt, J Weldon; Creel, Scott; Groom, Rosemary; Emmanuel, Masenga; Cleaveland, Sarah; Kat, Pieter; Rasmussen, Gregory S A; Ginsberg, Joshua; Lines, Robin; André, Jean-Marc; Begg, Colleen; Wayne, Robert K; Mable, Barbara K

    2012-03-01

    Deciphering patterns of genetic variation within a species is essential for understanding population structure, local adaptation and differences in diversity between populations. Whilst neutrally evolving genetic markers can be used to elucidate demographic processes and genetic structure, they are not subject to selection and therefore are not informative about patterns of adaptive variation. As such, assessments of pertinent adaptive loci, such as the immunity genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), are increasingly being incorporated into genetic studies. In this study, we combined neutral (microsatellite, mtDNA) and adaptive (MHC class II DLA-DRB1 locus) markers to elucidate the factors influencing patterns of genetic variation in the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus); an endangered canid that has suffered extensive declines in distribution and abundance. Our genetic analyses found all extant wild dog populations to be relatively small (N(e)  < 30). Furthermore, through coalescent modelling, we detected a genetic signature of a recent and substantial demographic decline, which correlates with human expansion, but contrasts with findings in some other African mammals. We found strong structuring of wild dog populations, indicating the negative influence of extensive habitat fragmentation and loss of gene flow between habitat patches. Across populations, we found that the spatial and temporal structure of microsatellite diversity and MHC diversity were correlated and strongly influenced by demographic stability and population size, indicating the effects of genetic drift in these small populations. Despite this correlation, we detected signatures of selection at the MHC, implying that selection has not been completely overwhelmed by genetic drift. PMID:22320891

  6. Spatial and temporal patterns of neutral and adaptive genetic variation in the endangered African wild dog (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    Marsden, Clare D; Woodroffe, Rosie; Mills, Michael G L; McNutt, J Weldon; Creel, Scott; Groom, Rosemary; Emmanuel, Masenga; Cleaveland, Sarah; Kat, Pieter; Rasmussen, Gregory S A; Ginsberg, Joshua; Lines, Robin; André, Jean-Marc; Begg, Colleen; Wayne, Robert K; Mable, Barbara K

    2012-03-01

    Deciphering patterns of genetic variation within a species is essential for understanding population structure, local adaptation and differences in diversity between populations. Whilst neutrally evolving genetic markers can be used to elucidate demographic processes and genetic structure, they are not subject to selection and therefore are not informative about patterns of adaptive variation. As such, assessments of pertinent adaptive loci, such as the immunity genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), are increasingly being incorporated into genetic studies. In this study, we combined neutral (microsatellite, mtDNA) and adaptive (MHC class II DLA-DRB1 locus) markers to elucidate the factors influencing patterns of genetic variation in the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus); an endangered canid that has suffered extensive declines in distribution and abundance. Our genetic analyses found all extant wild dog populations to be relatively small (N(e)  < 30). Furthermore, through coalescent modelling, we detected a genetic signature of a recent and substantial demographic decline, which correlates with human expansion, but contrasts with findings in some other African mammals. We found strong structuring of wild dog populations, indicating the negative influence of extensive habitat fragmentation and loss of gene flow between habitat patches. Across populations, we found that the spatial and temporal structure of microsatellite diversity and MHC diversity were correlated and strongly influenced by demographic stability and population size, indicating the effects of genetic drift in these small populations. Despite this correlation, we detected signatures of selection at the MHC, implying that selection has not been completely overwhelmed by genetic drift.

  7. Monitoring stress in captive and free-ranging African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) using faecal glucocorticoid metabolites.

    PubMed

    Van der Weyde, L K; Martin, G B; Paris, M C J

    2016-01-15

    An understanding of stress physiology is important for species management because high levels of stress can hamper reproduction and affect an individual's ability to cope with threats to their survival, such as disease and human-wildlife conflict. A commonly used indicator of stress, faecal concentrations of cortisol metabolites (FCM), can be used to assess the impact of social, biological and environmental factors. Measurements of FCM are particularly valuable for endangered species that are logistically challenging to study and where non-invasive techniques are preferred. As the second most endangered canid in Africa, the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) has been the focus of considerable conservation research, yet there is still little understanding of factors associated with stress, in either captive or free-ranging populations. The present study therefore aimed to determine whether stress levels differ between captive and free-ranging populations, and to detect social, biological and environmental factors that are stressful in these populations. Faecal samples were collected from 20 captive and 62 free-ranging animals. Within free-ranging populations, the sexes differed significantly, but there was no effect of social status, age or breeding period for either sex. Captive females had higher FCM concentrations than free-ranging females. In captive populations, FCM concentrations differed among zoos and with reproductive status in females, but were not related to age class or group-housing structure. In conclusion, FCM is a useful indicator of stress and should be considered an integrative aspect of management, for both in situ and ex situ African wild dog populations.

  8. Monitoring stress in captive and free-ranging African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) using faecal glucocorticoid metabolites.

    PubMed

    Van der Weyde, L K; Martin, G B; Paris, M C J

    2016-01-15

    An understanding of stress physiology is important for species management because high levels of stress can hamper reproduction and affect an individual's ability to cope with threats to their survival, such as disease and human-wildlife conflict. A commonly used indicator of stress, faecal concentrations of cortisol metabolites (FCM), can be used to assess the impact of social, biological and environmental factors. Measurements of FCM are particularly valuable for endangered species that are logistically challenging to study and where non-invasive techniques are preferred. As the second most endangered canid in Africa, the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) has been the focus of considerable conservation research, yet there is still little understanding of factors associated with stress, in either captive or free-ranging populations. The present study therefore aimed to determine whether stress levels differ between captive and free-ranging populations, and to detect social, biological and environmental factors that are stressful in these populations. Faecal samples were collected from 20 captive and 62 free-ranging animals. Within free-ranging populations, the sexes differed significantly, but there was no effect of social status, age or breeding period for either sex. Captive females had higher FCM concentrations than free-ranging females. In captive populations, FCM concentrations differed among zoos and with reproductive status in females, but were not related to age class or group-housing structure. In conclusion, FCM is a useful indicator of stress and should be considered an integrative aspect of management, for both in situ and ex situ African wild dog populations. PMID:26723188

  9. Improved semen collection method for wild felids: urethral catheterization yields high sperm quality in African lions (Panthera leo).

    PubMed

    Lueders, I; Luther, I; Scheepers, G; van der Horst, G

    2012-08-01

    For wild and domestic felids, electroejaculation (EE) is the most common semen collection method. However, the equipment is expensive, there is a risk of urine contamination and animals usually show strong muscular contraction despite general anesthesia. Accordingly, we tested the feasibility of a different approach using urethral catheterization (UC) in seven African lions, previously described for domestic cats only. After general anesthesia with the α2-agonist medetomidine (which also stimulates semen release into the urethra) and ketamine, a transrectal ultrasound was performed to locate the prostate. A commercial dog urinary catheter (2.6 or 3.3 mm in diameter) was advanced approximately 30 cm into the urethra to allow semen collection into the lumen of the catheter by capillary forces. After retraction, sperm volumes between of 422.86 ± 296.07 μl yielded motility of 88.83 ± 13.27% (mean ± SD) with a mean sperm concentration of 1.94 × 10(9)/ml. Here we describe a simple, field friendly and effective method to attain highly concentrated semen samples with excellent motility in lions and potentially other wild felid species as an alternative to electroejaculation. PMID:22538007

  10. Improved semen collection method for wild felids: urethral catheterization yields high sperm quality in African lions (Panthera leo).

    PubMed

    Lueders, I; Luther, I; Scheepers, G; van der Horst, G

    2012-08-01

    For wild and domestic felids, electroejaculation (EE) is the most common semen collection method. However, the equipment is expensive, there is a risk of urine contamination and animals usually show strong muscular contraction despite general anesthesia. Accordingly, we tested the feasibility of a different approach using urethral catheterization (UC) in seven African lions, previously described for domestic cats only. After general anesthesia with the α2-agonist medetomidine (which also stimulates semen release into the urethra) and ketamine, a transrectal ultrasound was performed to locate the prostate. A commercial dog urinary catheter (2.6 or 3.3 mm in diameter) was advanced approximately 30 cm into the urethra to allow semen collection into the lumen of the catheter by capillary forces. After retraction, sperm volumes between of 422.86 ± 296.07 μl yielded motility of 88.83 ± 13.27% (mean ± SD) with a mean sperm concentration of 1.94 × 10(9)/ml. Here we describe a simple, field friendly and effective method to attain highly concentrated semen samples with excellent motility in lions and potentially other wild felid species as an alternative to electroejaculation.

  11. Wild Herbivore Grazing Enhances Insect Diversity over Livestock Grazing in an African Grassland System

    PubMed Central

    Roets, Francois; Samways, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Southern Africa’s grassland biodiversity is threatened by habitat transformation such as commercial forestry. Ecological networks (ENs) have been instigated to alleviate the pressure of habitat transformation on local biodiversity. ENs are large scale webs of corridors and patches of natural vegetation criss-crossing production landscapes that can simulate conditions in protected areas (PAs). Many ENs have lost many native large mammal species, which have been replaced by domestic livestock to retain natural grazing dynamics, which could have an impact on the long-term value of ENs for insects. Here we compared dung beetle, butterfly and grasshopper diversity in ENs across a landscape mosaic of timber plantations, where 1) wild megaherbivores were maintained, 2) in ENs where these herbivores were replaced by livestock and, 3) in a nearby World Heritage PA which retained its natural complement of megaherbivores. Sites in the PA far from any plantation were similar in composition to those in the wild grazed EN. Presence of the wild grazers improved the alpha- and beta-diversity of all focal insect taxa when compared to domestic grazing. Furthermore, species composition shows significant differences between the two grazing systems indicating that an assemblage of native large mammals facilitates insect diversity conservation. We support the maintenance or introduction of large native mammals in ENs or similar conservation areas in production landscapes to simulate the ecological conditions and natural heterogeneity in nearby PAs. PMID:27783685

  12. Indirect effects of domestic and wild herbivores on butterflies in an African savanna.

    PubMed

    Wilkerson, Marit L; Roche, Leslie M; Young, Truman P

    2013-10-01

    Indirect interactions driven by livestock and wild herbivores are increasingly recognized as important aspects of community dynamics in savannas and rangelands. Large ungulate herbivores can both directly and indirectly impact the reproductive structures of plants, which in turn can affect the pollinators of those plants. We examined how wild herbivores and cattle each indirectly affect the abundance of a common pollinator butterfly taxon, Colotis spp., at a set of long-term, large herbivore exclosure plots in a semiarid savanna in central Kenya. We also examined effects of herbivore exclusion on the main food plant of Colotis spp., which was also the most common flowering species in our plots: the shrub Cadaba farinosa. The study was conducted in four types of experimental plots: cattle-only, wildlife-only, cattle and wildlife (all large herbivores), and no large herbivores. Across all plots, Colotis spp. abundances were positively correlated with both Cadaba flower numbers (adult food resources) and total Cadaba canopy area (larval food resources). Structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed that floral resources drove the abundance of Colotis butterflies. Excluding browsing wildlife increased the abundances of both Cadaba flowers and Colotis butterflies. However, flower numbers and Colotis spp. abundances were greater in plots with cattle herbivory than in plots that excluded all large herbivores. Our results suggest that wild browsing herbivores can suppress pollinator species whereas well-managed cattle use may benefit important pollinators and the plants that depend on them. This study documents a novel set of ecological interactions that demonstrate how both conservation and livelihood goals can be met in a working landscape with abundant wildlife and livestock.

  13. Crystal structure of new AsS2 compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolotina, N. B.; Brazhkin, V. V.; Dyuzheva, T. I.; Lityagina, L. M.; Kulikova, L. F.; Nikolaev, N. A.; Verin, I. A.

    2013-01-01

    AsS2 single crystals have been obtained for the first time from an As2S3 melt at pressures above 6 GPa and temperatures above 800 K in the As2S3 → AsS + AsS2 reaction. The monoclinic structure of the new high-pressure phase is solved by X-ray diffraction analysis and compared to the structure of high-pressure AsS phase, which was studied previously.

  14. Social systems and behaviour of the African wild dog Lycaon pictus and the spotted hyaena Crocuta crocuta with special reference to rabies.

    PubMed

    Mills, M G

    1993-12-01

    Differences in the social systems and behaviour of two potentially important hosts of rabies, the African wild dog and the spotted hyaena, may lead to differences in the epizootiology of the disease in the two species. Wild dogs are highly social animals in which pack members are in constant physical contact with each other, but in which inter-pack interactions are rare. Spotted hyaenas are more flexible in their social systems and behaviour. Clan members interact less frequently than do wild dogs, but inter-clan contact rates may be high in high density populations. Rabies transmission within wild dog packs should be rapid, but rare between packs. In spotted hyaenas rabies transmission between clan members may partially depend on the social status of the animals involved and between packs on the density of hyaenas in the area.

  15. Female fecundity traits in wild populations of African annual fish: the role of the aridity gradient.

    PubMed

    Vrtílek, Milan; Reichard, Martin

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of life history is shaped by life expectancy. Life-history traits coevolve, and optimal states for particular traits are constrained by trade-offs with other life-history traits. Life histories contrast among species, but may also diverge intraspecifically, at the level of populations. We studied the evolution of female reproductive allocation strategy, using natural populations of two sympatric species of African annual fishes, Nothobranchius furzeri and Nothobranchius orthonotus. These species inhabit pools in the Mozambican savanna that are formed in the rainy season and persist for only 2-10 months. Using 207 female N. furzeri from 11 populations and 243 female N. orthonotus from 14 populations, we tested the effects of genetic background (intraspecific lineage) and life expectancy (position on the aridity gradient determining maximum duration of their temporary habitat) on female fecundity traits. First, we found that variation in female body mass was small within populations, but varied considerably among populations. Second, we found that fecundity was largely defined by female body mass and that females spawned most of their eggs in the morning. Third, we found that the trade-off between egg size and egg number varied among lineages of N. furzeri and this outcome has been confirmed by data from two separate years. Overall, we demonstrate that local conditions were important determinants for Nothobranchius growth and fecundity and that eggs size in arid region was less limited by female fecundity than in humid region. PMID:27547365

  16. Reduced reproductive function in wild baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis) related to natural consumption of the African black plum (Vitex doniana).

    PubMed

    Higham, James P; Ross, Caroline; Warren, Ymke; Heistermann, Michael; MacLarnon, Ann M

    2007-09-01

    Several authors have suggested that the consumption of plant compounds may have direct effects on wild primate reproductive biology, but no studies have presented physiological evidence of such effects. Here, for two troops of olive baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis) at Gashaka-Gumti National Park, Nigeria, we show major seasonal increases in levels of fecal progesterone metabolites in females, and provide evidence that this is linked to the consumption of natural plant compounds. Increases in fecal progestogen excretion occurred seasonally in all females, in all reproductive states, including lactation. Detailed feeding data on the study animals showed that only one food species is consumed by both troops at the time of observed progestogen peaks, and at no other times of the year: the African black plum, Vitex doniana. Laboratory tests demonstrated the presence of high concentrations of progestogen-like compounds in V. doniana. Together with published findings linking the consumption of a related Vitex species (Vitex agnus castus) to increased progestogen levels in humans, our data suggest that natural consumption of V. doniana was a likely cause of the observed increases in progestogens. Levels of progestogen excretion in the study baboons during periods of V. doniana consumption are higher than those found during pregnancy, and prevent the expression of the sexual swelling, which is associated with ovulatory activity. As consortship and copulatory activity in baboons occur almost exclusively in the presence of a sexual swelling, V. doniana appears to act on cycling females as both a physiological contraceptive (simulating pregnancy in a similar way to some forms of the human contraceptive pill) and a social contraceptive (preventing sexual swelling, thus reducing association and copulation with males). The negative effects of V. doniana on reproduction may be counter-balanced by the wide-range of medicinal properties attributed to plants in this genus. This is

  17. PATHOLOGICAL MANIFESTATIONS OF FELINE IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (FIV) INFECTION IN WILD AFRICAN LIONS

    PubMed Central

    Roelke, Melody E.; Brown, Meredith A.; Troyer, Jennifer L.; Winterbach, Hanlie; Winterbach, Christiaan; Hemson, Graham; Smith, Dahlem; Johnson, Randall C.; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Roca, Alfred L.; Alexander, Katherine; Klein, Lin; Martinelli, Paulo; Krishnasamu, Karthiuani; O'Brien, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) causes AIDS in the domestic cat (Felis catus) but has not been explicitly associated with AIDS pathology in any of the eight free-ranging species of Felidae that are endemic with circulating FIV strains. African lion (Panthera leo) populations are infected with lion-specific FIV strains (FIVple), yet there remains uncertainty about the degree to which FIV infection impacts their health. Reported CD4+ T-lymphocyte depletion in FIVple infected lions and anecdotal reports of lion morbidity associated with FIV sero-prevalence emphasize the concern as to whether FIVple is innocuous or pathogenic. Here we monitored clinical, biochemical, histological and serological parameters among FIVple-positive (N=47) as compared to FIVple negative (N=17) lions anesthetized and sampled on multiple occasions between 1999 and 2006 in Botswana. Relative to uninfected lions, FIVple infected lions displayed a significant elevation in the prevalence of AIDS defining conditions: lymphandenopathy, gingivitis, tongue papillomas, dehydration, and poor coat condition, as well as displaying abnormal red blood cell parameters and elevated liver enzymes and serum proteins. Spleen and lymph node laparoscopic biopsies from free-ranging FIVple infected lions (N=8) revealed evidence of lymphoid depletion, the hallmark pathology documented in immunodefieciency virus infections of humans (HIV-1), macaques, and domestic cats. We conclude that over time FIVple infections in free-ranging lions can lead to adverse clinical, immunological, and pathological outcomes in some individuals that parallel sequelae caused by lentivirus infection in humans (HIV), Asian macaques (SIV) and domestic cats (FIVfca). PMID:19464039

  18. Population dynamics, intervention and survival in African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    Burrows, R; Hofer, H; East, M L

    1995-11-22

    The demography of Serengeti wild dog study packs and their extinction in 1991 was documented by Burrows et al. (1994). One explanation for pack loss compatible with demographic evidence was viral disease induced by stress caused by intervention (vaccination, immobilization and radio-collaring). Several studies claim to reject this hypothesis. However, cortisol levels measured in immobilized Lycaon, whose pathogen exposure is unknown, do not demonstrate that interventions in the Serengeti were benign. The analysis of survivorship in Lycaon in other ecosystems minimized the chance of demonstrating any effect of intervention and failed to consider vaccinations as intervention. There is now evidence that intervention significantly decreased survivorship of Masai Mara Lycaon. Further simulations of the likelihood of population extinction in Serengeti Lycaon, evidence of limited population variability and a small scaling factor in Serengeti Lycaon strengthen Burrows et al.'s conclusion that the extinction was unlikely to be due to chance alone. Although some studies claim that Lycaon conservation is doomed without intervention, to date vaccinations, blood sampling and radio-telemetry have contributed little to Lycaon conservation. All studies fail to disprove the Burrows hypothesis or provide convincing alternatives.

  19. Inhibition of LPS toxicity by hepatic argininosuccinate synthase (ASS): novel roles for ASS in innate immune responses to bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Prima, Victor; Wang, Alvin; Molina, Gabriel; Wang, Kevin K W; Svetlov, Stanislav I

    2011-09-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a structural component of Gram-negative bacteria, is implicated in the pathogenesis of endotoxemia/sepsis and multi-organ injury, including liver damage. We have shown that argininosuccinate synthase (ASS), a hepatic enzyme of the urea cycle, accumulates in circulation within 1h after treatment with both LPS alone and hepatotoxic combination of LPS and D-Galactosamine. These findings indicate ASS as a sensitive biomarker of liver responses to bacterial endotoxin. Furthermore, we suggest that the ASS release represents a potential counteracting liver reaction to LPS, and demonstrates anti-LPS activity of recombinant ASS (rASS) in vitro and in rodent models of endotoxemia in vivo. rASS physically bound to LPS, as indicated by a gel shift assay, and suppressed Escherichia coli growth in cultures consistent with direct antimicrobial properties of ASS. rASS reduced LPS cytotoxicity, TNF-α production, and increased cell viability in cultured mouse macrophages, even when added one hour following LPS challenge. Intraperitoneal injection of rASS (5 mg/kg) after treatment with a high dose of LPS remarkably increased survival of rodents, with a concomitant decrease of sepsis markers TNF-α, C-reactive protein (CRP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in blood. These results suggest that the endogenous ASS constitutes a novel liver-derived component of the innate immune response to bacterial LPS, and that recombinant ASS could mitigate the lethal effects of bacterial endotoxins during sepsis.

  20. Evaluating the status of African wild dogs Lycaon pictus and cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus through tourist-based photographic surveys in the Kruger National Park [corrected].

    PubMed

    Marnewick, Kelly; Ferreira, Sam M; Grange, Sophie; Watermeyer, Jessica; Maputla, Nakedi; Davies-Mostert, Harriet T

    2014-01-01

    The Kruger National Park is a stronghold for African wild dog Lycaon pictus and cheetah Acinonyx jubatus conservation in South Africa. Tourist photographic surveys have been used to evaluate the minimum number of wild dogs and cheetahs alive over the last two decades. Photographic-based capture-recapture techniques for open populations were used on data collected during a survey done in 2008/9. Models were run for the park as a whole and per region (northern, central, southern). A total of 412 (329-495; SE 41.95) cheetahs and 151 (144-157; SE 3.21) wild dogs occur in the Kruger National Park. Cheetah capture probabilities were affected by time (number of entries) and sex, whereas wild dog capture probabilities were affected by the region of the park. When plotting the number of new individuals identified against the number of entries received, the addition of new wild dogs to the survey reached an asymptote at 210 entries, but cheetahs did not reach an asymptote. The cheetah population of Kruger appears to be acceptable, while the wild dog population size and density are of concern. The effectiveness of tourist-based surveys for estimating population sizes through capture-recapture analyses is shown.

  1. Evaluating the status of African wild dogs Lycaon pictus and cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus through tourist-based photographic surveys in the Kruger National Park [corrected].

    PubMed

    Marnewick, Kelly; Ferreira, Sam M; Grange, Sophie; Watermeyer, Jessica; Maputla, Nakedi; Davies-Mostert, Harriet T

    2014-01-01

    The Kruger National Park is a stronghold for African wild dog Lycaon pictus and cheetah Acinonyx jubatus conservation in South Africa. Tourist photographic surveys have been used to evaluate the minimum number of wild dogs and cheetahs alive over the last two decades. Photographic-based capture-recapture techniques for open populations were used on data collected during a survey done in 2008/9. Models were run for the park as a whole and per region (northern, central, southern). A total of 412 (329-495; SE 41.95) cheetahs and 151 (144-157; SE 3.21) wild dogs occur in the Kruger National Park. Cheetah capture probabilities were affected by time (number of entries) and sex, whereas wild dog capture probabilities were affected by the region of the park. When plotting the number of new individuals identified against the number of entries received, the addition of new wild dogs to the survey reached an asymptote at 210 entries, but cheetahs did not reach an asymptote. The cheetah population of Kruger appears to be acceptable, while the wild dog population size and density are of concern. The effectiveness of tourist-based surveys for estimating population sizes through capture-recapture analyses is shown. PMID:24465998

  2. Using odor cues to elicit a behavioral and hormonal response in zoo-housed African wild dogs.

    PubMed

    Rafacz, Michelle L; Santymire, Rachel M

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory enrichment, like odor cues, can positively affect behavior, reproductive success, and stress physiology in zoo-housed species. Our goal was to determine if odor cues were enriching to the African wild dog (AWD; Lycaon pictus), a species with a complex social structure and a highly developed sense of smell. Our objectives were to: (1) examine changes in activity levels and stress hormone physiology in response to fecal odor cues from natural competitor and natural/unnatural prey species; and (2) determine whether these odor cues could function as effective enrichment for zoo-housed AWDs. Over a 6-month period, fecal samples were collected from two males (AWD 1: dominant, AWD 2: subordinate), fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGMs) were validated using an ACTH-challenge, and hormones were analyzed for FGMs by enzyme immunoassay. Behavioral observations were conducted using scan-sampling, and contact and proximity were recorded. AWDs were presented with three fecal odor cues: LION (competitor), CATTLE (unnatural prey), and GAZELLE (natural prey). Only the GAZELLE cue elicited an increase in activity (10.6%) in both individuals and increased positive social behaviors with higher frequencies of affiliative, submissive, and dominant behavior. AWD 1 demonstrated lower (P < 0.05) FGMs than AWD 2 both before and after all odor cues, and FGMs decreased (P = 0.08) in AWD 2 after all cues. We conclude that exposure to natural prey odor cues may be used as effective enrichment for AWDs, and that changes in stress hormone physiology in response to odor cues may be dependent on social rank in this species.

  3. Using odor cues to elicit a behavioral and hormonal response in zoo-housed African wild dogs.

    PubMed

    Rafacz, Michelle L; Santymire, Rachel M

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory enrichment, like odor cues, can positively affect behavior, reproductive success, and stress physiology in zoo-housed species. Our goal was to determine if odor cues were enriching to the African wild dog (AWD; Lycaon pictus), a species with a complex social structure and a highly developed sense of smell. Our objectives were to: (1) examine changes in activity levels and stress hormone physiology in response to fecal odor cues from natural competitor and natural/unnatural prey species; and (2) determine whether these odor cues could function as effective enrichment for zoo-housed AWDs. Over a 6-month period, fecal samples were collected from two males (AWD 1: dominant, AWD 2: subordinate), fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGMs) were validated using an ACTH-challenge, and hormones were analyzed for FGMs by enzyme immunoassay. Behavioral observations were conducted using scan-sampling, and contact and proximity were recorded. AWDs were presented with three fecal odor cues: LION (competitor), CATTLE (unnatural prey), and GAZELLE (natural prey). Only the GAZELLE cue elicited an increase in activity (10.6%) in both individuals and increased positive social behaviors with higher frequencies of affiliative, submissive, and dominant behavior. AWD 1 demonstrated lower (P < 0.05) FGMs than AWD 2 both before and after all odor cues, and FGMs decreased (P = 0.08) in AWD 2 after all cues. We conclude that exposure to natural prey odor cues may be used as effective enrichment for AWDs, and that changes in stress hormone physiology in response to odor cues may be dependent on social rank in this species. PMID:24375480

  4. Development of a field-friendly technique for fecal steroid extraction and storage using the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    Santymire, R M; Armstrong, D M

    2010-01-01

    Hormonal analysis provides information about wildlife populations, but is difficult to conduct in the field. Our goal was to develop a rapid and effective field method for fecal steroid analysis by comparing: (1) three extraction methods (laboratory (LAB), homogenize (HO) and handshake (HS)) and (2) two storage methods (solid-phase extraction (SPE) tubes vs. plastic tubes (PT)). Samples (n=23) from captive African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) were thoroughly mixed, three aliquots of each were weighed ( approximately 0.5 g) and 5 ml of 90% ethanol was added. For LAB, samples were agitated (mixer setting 60; 30 min), centrifuged (1,500 rpm; 20 min) and poured into glass tubes. Or aliquots were HO (1 min) or HS (1 min) and poured through filter paper into glass tubes. Samples were split, analyzed for corticosterone (C) and testosterone (T) metabolites using enzyme immunoassays or stored in SPE or PT. Samples were stored (room temperature) for 30, 60 or 180 days, reconstituted in buffer and analyzed. Mean C and T recoveries of HO were greater (P=0.03) than HS compared with LAB, which was similar to HO (P>0.05). After 30 days <21% of C and T was recovered from SPE, but approximately 100% of each was recovered from HO-PT and HS-PT. Similarly, after 60 and 180 days, approximately 100% of C and T was recovered from HO-PT and HS-PT. Results demonstrated that, for C and T, HO was more comparable (P<0.001) to LAB than HS and PT storage was more efficient than SPE (P<0.001).

  5. Development of a bait and baiting system for delivery of oral rabies vaccine to free-ranging African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    Knobel, D L; du Toit, J T; Bingham, J

    2002-04-01

    The objective of the study was to develop a bait and baiting system capable of delivering one effective dose of oral rabies vaccine to each member of a free-ranging African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) pack. Trials were conducted between June and October 2000. The results of cafeteria-style bait preference trials testing seven candidate baits in captive wild dogs revealed a significant preference for chicken heads (June trials: P = 0.023, September trials: P = 0.021). Trials using a topical biomarker (rhodamine B) showed that chicken head baits were sufficiently chewed on most occasions to rupture the vaccine container. Free-ranging wild dogs and young pups ingested chicken head baits. Significant dominance of bait intake by a single individual was seen in four of six study packs and in the three packs in which an alpha pair could be distinguished, the dominant feeder was an alpha animal. Pattern of bait distribution and degree of satiation had no effect on pack coverage (proportion of pack ingesting at least one bait). Pack coverage was significantly related to trial number (r = 0.71, P < 0.001), with pack coverage increasing with increased exposure of the pack to the baits. During 46 hr of diurnal observations of free-ranging wild dogs only two baits were lost to non-target species. A baiting system for the oral vaccination of captive and free-ranging wild dogs is proposed.

  6. Seroconversion in captive African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) following administration of a chicken head bait/SAG-2 oral rabies vaccine combination.

    PubMed

    Knobel, D L; Liebenberg, A; Du Toit, J T

    2003-03-01

    This study determined the proportion of captive juvenile and adult African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) that developed protective titres of rabies neutralising antibodies following ingestion of a chicken head bait/SAG-2 oral rabies vaccine combination. A single chicken head containing 1.8 ml of SAG-2 vaccine (10(8.0) TCID50/ml) in a plastic blister was fed to each of eight adult and three juvenile wild dogs. Bait ingestion resulted in a significant rise in serum neutralising antibody titres. Overall seroconversion rate was eight out of 11 (72.7%), and all the puppies and five out of eight (62.5%) adults showed potentially protective levels of antibodies on day 31. The mean post-vaccination neutralising antibody titre was within the range reported to be protective against challenge with virulent rabies virus in other species. PMID:12825684

  7. Seroconversion in captive African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) following administration of a chicken head bait/SAG-2 oral rabies vaccine combination.

    PubMed

    Knobel, D L; Liebenberg, A; Du Toit, J T

    2003-03-01

    This study determined the proportion of captive juvenile and adult African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) that developed protective titres of rabies neutralising antibodies following ingestion of a chicken head bait/SAG-2 oral rabies vaccine combination. A single chicken head containing 1.8 ml of SAG-2 vaccine (10(8.0) TCID50/ml) in a plastic blister was fed to each of eight adult and three juvenile wild dogs. Bait ingestion resulted in a significant rise in serum neutralising antibody titres. Overall seroconversion rate was eight out of 11 (72.7%), and all the puppies and five out of eight (62.5%) adults showed potentially protective levels of antibodies on day 31. The mean post-vaccination neutralising antibody titre was within the range reported to be protective against challenge with virulent rabies virus in other species.

  8. The HK/LK polymorphism of erythrocyte cation content in two wild species of east African bovids: demonstrated in wildebeest but not in African buffalo.

    PubMed

    Georgiadis, N; Dunham, P B

    1990-01-01

    Concentrations of K and Na were determined in erythrocytes from wildebeest and African buffalo resident in Tanzania. The object was to determine if these species possess the HK/LK polymorphism which is typical of other bovid species, but not of other mammals. The polymorphism is characterized by individuals that are either of the HK phenotype (high K and low Na concentrations in red cells) or LK phenotype (low K and high Na concentrations in red cells). Wildebeest were shown to be polymorphic, with the distribution of phenotypes resembling that in domestic cattle. By contrast the polymorphism was not found in the African buffalo; all 59 individuals examined exhibited the HK phenotype. This was unexpected, since the polymorphism has been observed in five divergent bovid species, including two species (water buffalo and domestic cow) that are closely related to the African buffalo, and classified in the same subfamily (Bovinae). The most parsimonious interpretation of this pattern is that the trait was lost from the African buffalo after species in the Bovinae diverged. The biological significance of the HK/LK polymorphism, and reasons for its presence or absence among species in the Bovidae, remain obscure.

  9. African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) endangered by a canine distemper epizootic among domestic dogs near the Masai Mara National Reserve, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Alexander, K A; Appel, M J

    1994-10-01

    A longitudinal study of canine distemper (CD) among domestic dogs on Malsai communal land to the north of the Masai Mara National Reserve in Kenya was conducted from 1989 to 1991. Prevalence of antibodies to CD was very low among domestic dogs in 1989 and 1990 (4%, n = 49; and 1%, n = 119, respectively) and no African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus; n = 16) collected simultaneously from the same area had detectable antibodies. Among 51 domestic dogs sampled in 1991, however, prevalence of CD antibodies rose significantly (P < 0.01) to 76%. Disease-related mortality rates among domestic dogs were estimated from 1990 to 1992; they rose significantly (P < 0.01) from 21% in 1990 to 50% in 1991 and then decreased significantly (P < 0.01) to 38% in 1992. The 1992 mortality rate remained significantly (P < 0.01) higher than that of 1990. Signs observed in clinically ill domestic dogs were consistent with CD and included listlessness, decreased appetite, bilateral serous to mucopurulent oculonasal discharge, and diarrhea. No carcasses could be retrieved for virus isolation and postmortem examination. Concurrent with this CD epizootic in domestic dogs, the known African wild dog packs in this region disappeared.

  10. Natural realgar and amorphous AsS oxidation kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lengke, Maggy F.; Tempel, Regina N.

    2003-03-01

    The oxidation rates of natural realgar and amorphous synthetic AsS by dissolved oxygen were evaluated using mixed flow reactors at pH 7.2 to 8.8 and dissolved oxygen contents of 5.9 to 16.5 ppm over a temperature range of 25 to 40°C. The ratios of As/S are stoichiometric for all amorphous AsS oxidation experiments except for two experiments conducted at pH ˜8.8. In these experiments, stoichiometric ratios of As/S were only observed in the early stages of AsS (am) oxidation whereas lower As/S ratios were observed during steady state. For realgar oxidation experiments, the As/S ratio is less than the stoichiometric ratio of realgar, ranging between 0.61 and 0.71. This nonstoichiometric release of As and S to solution indicates that realgar oxidation is more selective for S after the rates of oxidation become constant. All measured oxidation rates at 25°C can be described within experimental uncertainties as follows: Table 1

  11. Molecular detection of Babesia rossi and Hepatozoon sp. in African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Matjila, Paul Tshepo; Leisewitz, Andrew L; Jongejan, Frans; Bertschinger, Henk J; Penzhorn, Barend L

    2008-10-20

    Blood specimens from wild dogs (n=301) were obtained from De Wildt Cheetah and Wildlife Centre (Pretoria) and five game reserves (4 in the North-West Province and 1 in Limpopo Province), South Africa. Specimens were screened for Babesia, Theileria, Hepatozoon and Ehrlichia/Anaplasma species using PCR and Reverse Line Blot (RLB) assays. Positive results were obtained in 18 (6%) wild dogs. Sixteen specimens were found positive for Babesia rossi and two dogs were Hepatozoon sp. positive. It appears that these tick-borne pathogens are not widely distributed in wild dog populations.

  12. Course and transmission characteristics of oral low-dose infection of domestic pigs and European wild boar with a Caucasian African swine fever virus isolate.

    PubMed

    Pietschmann, Jana; Guinat, Claire; Beer, Martin; Pronin, Valery; Tauscher, Kerstin; Petrov, Anja; Keil, Günther; Blome, Sandra

    2015-07-01

    In 2007, African swine fever virus (ASFV) was introduced into the Transcaucasian countries and Russia. Since then, it has spread alarmingly and reached the European Union. ASFV strains are highly virulent and lead to almost 100% mortality under experimental conditions. However, the possibility of dose-dependent disease courses has been discussed. For this reason, a study was undertaken to assess the risk of chronic disease and the establishment of carriers upon low-dose oronasal infection of domestic pigs and European wild boar. It was demonstrated that very low doses of ASFV are sufficient to infect especially weak or runted animals by the oronasal route. Some of these animals did not show clinical signs indicative of ASF, and they developed almost no fever. However, no changes were observed in individual animal regarding the onset, course and outcome of infection as assessed by diagnostic tests. After amplification of ASFV by these animals, pen- and stablemates became infected and developed acute lethal disease with similar characteristics in all animals. Thus, we found no indication of prolonged or chronic individual courses upon low-dose infection in either species. The scattered onset of clinical signs and pathogen detection within and among groups confirms moderate contagiosity that is strongly linked with blood contact. In conclusion, the prolonged course at the "herd level" together with the exceptionally low dose that proved to be sufficient to infect a runted wild boar could be important for disease dynamics in wild-boar populations and in backyard settings.

  13. [Wild is not really wild: brain weight of wild domestic mammals].

    PubMed

    Röhrs, M; Ebinger, P

    1999-01-01

    Domestication leads to the reduction of brain weight, decreases reach from 8.1% in laboratory rats up to 33.6% in domesticated pigs. The question is: Do brain weights increase by feralization? We compared the brain weights of domesticated mammals (cat, dog, pig, goat, ass) with their feral forms. In none of the cases studied, brain weight is increased in wild domestic mammals. So, feral mammals do not return back to the status of their wild species.

  14. Wild and Domestic Pig Interactions at the Wildlife-Livestock Interface of Murchison Falls National Park, Uganda, and the Potential Association with African Swine Fever Outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Kukielka, Esther A; Jori, Ferran; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Chenais, Erika; Masembe, Charles; Chavernac, David; Ståhl, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Bushpigs (BPs) (Potamochoerus larvatus) and warthogs (WHs) (Phacochoerus africanus), which are widely distributed in Eastern Africa, are likely to cohabitate in the same environment with domestic pigs (DPs), facilitating the transmission of shared pathogens. However, potential interactions between BP, WH, and DP, and the resulting potential circulation of infectious diseases have rarely been investigated in Africa to date. In order to understand the dynamics of such interactions and the potential influence of human behavior and husbandry practices on them, individual interviews (n = 233) and participatory rural appraisals (n = 11) were carried out among Ugandan pig farmers at the edge of Murchison Falls National Park, northern Uganda. In addition, as an example of possible implications of wild and DP interactions, non-linear multivariate analysis (multiple correspondence analyses) was used to investigate the potential association between the aforementioned factors (interactions and human behavior and practices) and farmer reported African swine fever (ASF) outbreaks. No direct interactions between wild pigs (WPs) and DP were reported in our study area. However, indirect interactions were described by 83 (35.6%) of the participants and were identified to be more common at water sources during the dry season. Equally, eight (3.4%) farmers declared exposing their DP to raw hunting leftovers of WPs. The exploratory analysis performed suggested possible associations between the farmer reported ASF outbreaks and indirect interactions, free-range housing systems, dry season, and having a WH burrow less than 3 km from the household. Our study was useful to gather local knowledge and to identify knowledge gaps about potential interactions between wild and DP in this area. This information could be useful to facilitate the design of future observational studies to better understand the potential transmission of pathogens between wild and DPs. PMID:27148545

  15. Wild and Domestic Pig Interactions at the Wildlife–Livestock Interface of Murchison Falls National Park, Uganda, and the Potential Association with African Swine Fever Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Kukielka, Esther A.; Jori, Ferran; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Chenais, Erika; Masembe, Charles; Chavernac, David; Ståhl, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Bushpigs (BPs) (Potamochoerus larvatus) and warthogs (WHs) (Phacochoerus africanus), which are widely distributed in Eastern Africa, are likely to cohabitate in the same environment with domestic pigs (DPs), facilitating the transmission of shared pathogens. However, potential interactions between BP, WH, and DP, and the resulting potential circulation of infectious diseases have rarely been investigated in Africa to date. In order to understand the dynamics of such interactions and the potential influence of human behavior and husbandry practices on them, individual interviews (n = 233) and participatory rural appraisals (n = 11) were carried out among Ugandan pig farmers at the edge of Murchison Falls National Park, northern Uganda. In addition, as an example of possible implications of wild and DP interactions, non-linear multivariate analysis (multiple correspondence analyses) was used to investigate the potential association between the aforementioned factors (interactions and human behavior and practices) and farmer reported African swine fever (ASF) outbreaks. No direct interactions between wild pigs (WPs) and DP were reported in our study area. However, indirect interactions were described by 83 (35.6%) of the participants and were identified to be more common at water sources during the dry season. Equally, eight (3.4%) farmers declared exposing their DP to raw hunting leftovers of WPs. The exploratory analysis performed suggested possible associations between the farmer reported ASF outbreaks and indirect interactions, free-range housing systems, dry season, and having a WH burrow less than 3 km from the household. Our study was useful to gather local knowledge and to identify knowledge gaps about potential interactions between wild and DP in this area. This information could be useful to facilitate the design of future observational studies to better understand the potential transmission of pathogens between wild and DPs. PMID:27148545

  16. Temporal variation in the genetic structure of a drone congregation area: an insight into the population dynamics of wild African honeybees (Apis mellifera scutellata).

    PubMed

    Jaffé, R; Dietemann, V; Crewe, R M; Moritz, R F A

    2009-04-01

    The mating system of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) has been regarded as one of the most panmictic in the animal kingdom, with thousands of males aggregating in drone congregation areas (DCAs) that virgin queens visit to mate with tens of partners. Although males from many colonies gather at such congregations, the temporal changes in the colonies contributing drones remain unknown. Yet, changes in the DCAs' genetic structure will ultimately determine population gene flow and effective population size. By repeatedly sampling drones from an African DCA over a period of 3 years, we studied the temporal changes in the genetic structure of a wild honeybee population. Using three sets of tightly linked microsatellite markers, we were able to reconstruct individual queen genotypes with a high accuracy, follow them through time and estimate their rate of replacement. The number of queens contributing drones to the DCA varied from 12 to 72 and was correlated with temperature and rainfall. We found that more than 80% of these queens were replaced by mostly unrelated ones in successive eight months sampling intervals, which resulted in a clear temporal genetic differentiation of the DCA. Our results suggest that the frequent long-range migration of colonies without nest-site fidelity is the main driver of this high queen turnover. DCAs of African honeybees should thus be regarded as extremely dynamic systems which together with migration boost the effective population size and maintain a high genetic diversity in the population.

  17. Temporal variation in the genetic structure of a drone congregation area: an insight into the population dynamics of wild African honeybees (Apis mellifera scutellata).

    PubMed

    Jaffé, R; Dietemann, V; Crewe, R M; Moritz, R F A

    2009-04-01

    The mating system of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) has been regarded as one of the most panmictic in the animal kingdom, with thousands of males aggregating in drone congregation areas (DCAs) that virgin queens visit to mate with tens of partners. Although males from many colonies gather at such congregations, the temporal changes in the colonies contributing drones remain unknown. Yet, changes in the DCAs' genetic structure will ultimately determine population gene flow and effective population size. By repeatedly sampling drones from an African DCA over a period of 3 years, we studied the temporal changes in the genetic structure of a wild honeybee population. Using three sets of tightly linked microsatellite markers, we were able to reconstruct individual queen genotypes with a high accuracy, follow them through time and estimate their rate of replacement. The number of queens contributing drones to the DCA varied from 12 to 72 and was correlated with temperature and rainfall. We found that more than 80% of these queens were replaced by mostly unrelated ones in successive eight months sampling intervals, which resulted in a clear temporal genetic differentiation of the DCA. Our results suggest that the frequent long-range migration of colonies without nest-site fidelity is the main driver of this high queen turnover. DCAs of African honeybees should thus be regarded as extremely dynamic systems which together with migration boost the effective population size and maintain a high genetic diversity in the population. PMID:19368651

  18. Establishment of selected baseline blood chemistry and hematologic parameters in captive and wild-caught African white-backed vultures (Gyps africanus).

    PubMed

    Naidoo, V; Diekmann, M; Wolters, K; Swan, G E

    2008-07-01

    Despite the devastating collapse of three vulture populations on the Asian subcontinent as a result of their exposure to diclofenac, there is little available information on the normal physiology of many vulture species, including the African White-backed Vulture (Gyps africanus). Such information is needed to fully understand mechanisms for toxicity and to identify and prevent future health problems. The aim of this study was to establish baseline parameters for hematologic and selected serum chemistry parameters for this model species for further studies into the toxicity of diclofenac. Captive nonreleasable and wild African White-backed Vultures were used to determine reference values. For hematology, erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and total and differential leukocyte counts were measured. Chemical analytes measured included sodium, potassium, calcium, albumin, and globulin concentrations, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, and alanine aminotransferase activities. Uric acid and urea concentrations and the urea:uric acid ratio also were evaluated. Values are presented as means, standard deviations, and reference intervals. The serum chemistry parameters selected may provide a starting point for the evaluation of changes in renal and hepatic function; these organ systems are most severely affected by diclofenac. Results were also compared with values reported for G. africanus nestlings, and from these results it is evident that the clinical pathologic parameters are age related. This indicates that the use of nestling values for the evaluation of clinical pathologic findings in adults may be unreliable and could lead to incorrect assumptions. PMID:18689650

  19. Induction of contraception in some African wild carnivores by downregulation of LH and FSH secretion using the GnRH analogue deslorelin.

    PubMed

    Bertschinger, H J; Trigg, T E; Jöchle, W; Human, A

    2002-01-01

    The GnRH analogue deslorelin, in long-acting biocompatible implants, was used as a contraceptive in 31 cheetahs (13 females and 18 males), 21 African wild dogs (15 females and 6 males), 10 lionesses and four leopards (three females and one male). A dose of 12 or 15 mg deslorelin was administered to lions, whereas 6 mg deslorelin was administered to the other species. Monitoring consisted of observations, measurement of plasma progesterone and testosterone concentrations, vaginal cytology and evaluation of semen and sex organs. Deslorelin induced contraception in lionesses for 12-18 months, and in female cheetahs and leopards for a minimum of 12 months after treatment. Two male cheetahs had no viable spermatozoa or detectable plasma testosterone 21 months after treatment with deslorelin. Female wild dogs responded less consistently and one bitch conceived 4 weeks after implantation. However, in nine bitches, mating could be postponed until the next breeding season. Male dogs responded consistently and the contraception was effective for approximately 12 months. Although lionesses and cheetahs may become attractive to males for a few days after treatment, mating was not observed. No side-effects or behavioural changes were noted, indicating that deslorelin is a safe drug to use for the contraception of the species described. Males remain fertile for the first 6 weeks after the insertion of implants and should be separated from cyclic females during this period.

  20. Seasonal changes in steroid hormone profiles, body weight, semen quality, and the reproductive tract in captive African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Newell-Fugate, Annie E; O Nöthling, Johan; J Bertschinger, Henk

    2012-09-01

    Characterization of reproductive seasonality in the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) could assist reintroduction programs. Male wild dogs (n=14) were assessed quarterly (January, mid-summer; April, late summer; August, late winter; November, early summer) for serum testosterone, body weight, testicular and prostatic volume, preputial gland measurement, and ejaculate characteristics. Bi-monthly fecal samples were collected from male (n=11) and female (n=4) wild dogs for analysis of fecal androgens and progestagens. Fecal androgens were higher in early summer (246.4 ± 14.5 ng/g) than in early winter (218.6 ± 13.4 ng/g). Serum testosterone was higher in mid-summer (1.4 ± 0.3 ng/ml) than in late winter (0.7 ± 0.1 ng/ml). Number of spermatozoa per ejaculate was greatest in late summer (301.4 ± 39.3 × 10(6)). Other semen parameters peaked in mid-summer (pH: 7.4; progressive motility: 85.0 ± 0.1%; live spermatozoa: 81.0 ± 16%; normal morphology: 71.5 ± 8.2%). Total testicular and prostatic volume were greater during summer (testicular: 36.7 ± 4.2 cm(3); prostatic: 12.0 ± 1.9 cm(3)) than winter (testicular: 25.2 ± 1.9 cm(3); prostatic: 5.8 ± 0.8 cm(3)). Preputial pendulance also was greater in summer (7.1 ± 0.5 cm; n=9) than winter (5.9 ± 0.2 cm). Baseline fecal progestagen metabolites were 6.2 ± 2.5 μg/g and peak fecal progestagen metabolites were 14.7 ± 2.8 μg/g. Copulations resulting in pregnancies (n=2) occurred in late summer and gestation was 71 days. Female wild dogs were seasonally monoestrous with mating in summer and winter. In conclusion, wild dogs are reproductively seasonal with improvement in male reproductive variables during summer and a bi-phasic seasonal pattern to female receptivity. PMID:22683282

  1. Seasonal changes in steroid hormone profiles, body weight, semen quality, and the reproductive tract in captive African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Newell-Fugate, Annie E; O Nöthling, Johan; J Bertschinger, Henk

    2012-09-01

    Characterization of reproductive seasonality in the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) could assist reintroduction programs. Male wild dogs (n=14) were assessed quarterly (January, mid-summer; April, late summer; August, late winter; November, early summer) for serum testosterone, body weight, testicular and prostatic volume, preputial gland measurement, and ejaculate characteristics. Bi-monthly fecal samples were collected from male (n=11) and female (n=4) wild dogs for analysis of fecal androgens and progestagens. Fecal androgens were higher in early summer (246.4 ± 14.5 ng/g) than in early winter (218.6 ± 13.4 ng/g). Serum testosterone was higher in mid-summer (1.4 ± 0.3 ng/ml) than in late winter (0.7 ± 0.1 ng/ml). Number of spermatozoa per ejaculate was greatest in late summer (301.4 ± 39.3 × 10(6)). Other semen parameters peaked in mid-summer (pH: 7.4; progressive motility: 85.0 ± 0.1%; live spermatozoa: 81.0 ± 16%; normal morphology: 71.5 ± 8.2%). Total testicular and prostatic volume were greater during summer (testicular: 36.7 ± 4.2 cm(3); prostatic: 12.0 ± 1.9 cm(3)) than winter (testicular: 25.2 ± 1.9 cm(3); prostatic: 5.8 ± 0.8 cm(3)). Preputial pendulance also was greater in summer (7.1 ± 0.5 cm; n=9) than winter (5.9 ± 0.2 cm). Baseline fecal progestagen metabolites were 6.2 ± 2.5 μg/g and peak fecal progestagen metabolites were 14.7 ± 2.8 μg/g. Copulations resulting in pregnancies (n=2) occurred in late summer and gestation was 71 days. Female wild dogs were seasonally monoestrous with mating in summer and winter. In conclusion, wild dogs are reproductively seasonal with improvement in male reproductive variables during summer and a bi-phasic seasonal pattern to female receptivity.

  2. Virus recovery rates for wild-type and live-attenuated vaccine strains of African horse sickness virus serotype 7 in orally infected South African Culicoides species.

    PubMed

    Venter, G J; Paweska, J T

    2007-12-01

    Previously reported virus recovery rates from Culicoides (Avaritia) imicola Kieffer and Culicoides (Avaritia) bolitinos Meiswinkel (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) orally infected with vaccine strain of African horse sickness virus serotype 7 (AHSV-7) were compared with results obtained from concurrently conducted oral infections with five recent AHSV-7 isolates from naturally infected horses from various localities in South Africa. Culicoides were fed sheep bloods spiked with 10(7.6) TCID(50)/mL of a live-attenuated vaccine strain AHSV-7, and with five field isolates in which virus titre in the bloodmeals ranged from 10(7.1) to 10(8.2) TCID(50)/mL). After an extrinsic incubation of 10 days at 23.5 degrees C, virus recovery rates were significantly higher in C. imicola (13.3%) and C. bolitinos (4.2%) infected with the live-attenuated virus than in midges infected with any of the field isolates. The virus recovery rates for the latter groups ranged from 0% to 9.5% for C. imicola and from 0% to 1.5% for C. bolitinos. The C. imicola population at Onderstepoort was significantly more susceptible to infection with AHSV-7 isolated at Onderstepoort than to the virus strains isolated from other localities. Results of this study suggest that tissue culture attenuation of AHSV-7 does not reduce its ability to orally infect competent Culicoides species and may even lead to enhanced replication in the vector. Furthermore, oral susceptibility in a midge population appears to vary for geographically distinct isolates of AHSV-7.

  3. [Clinical experience and comparison of ketamine-medetomidine with ketamine-xylazine anesthesia in the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) in captivity].

    PubMed

    Váhala, J

    1993-01-01

    The effects of two mixtures, ketamine-xylazine and ketamine-medetomidine, were compared in anesthesia of African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) in the Zoo park at Dvůr Králové; the effects of these combinations were also investigated on the triad values and on the basic hematological (red blood counts, hematocrit, hemoglobin content, derived parameters MCM, MCHC, MCV, white blood counts, differential blood counting) and biochemical (total proteins, glucose, creatinine, urea, cholesterol, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, chlorides, sodium, potassium, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, alanine transferase, aspartate transaminase) parameters of blood and blood serum in anesthesia. Tab. I shows the reasons for anesthesia in 68 individuals of African wild dog in the years 1980-1990. As for both mixtures, application of drugs with a blowpipe was used. In the anesthetized animals, the outset of ataxia, laying down and the outset of sleep were followed (Tab. II), as well as the time of wakening up without and with antidote administration (Tabs. IV and V). The outset of ataxia was fast 1.5 +/- 0.6 min) in the ketamine-xylazine mixture administered at doses of 5.07 +/- 1.16 mg/kg ketamine and 2.11 +/- 0.53 mg/kg xylazine, similarly like lying down (3.2 +/- 1.0 min) and loosing sensation (6.3 +/- 1.6 min). At the start of the drug action, vomiting was often observed, and sometimes in the first ten minutes after drug harpooning short clonic convulsions of the limbs or the whole body occurred. In further course, immobilization and anesthesia were complete and satisfactory in all cases. The first reactions to outer stimuli during wakening up without antidote administration were observed in 135 +/- 11.9 minutes while the animals stood up in 210 +/- 44.5 minutes after drug harpooning (Tab. IV). When the nonspecific antidote xylazine-yohimbine was used, the first reactions after i.m. instillation at a dose of 0.31 +/- 0.02 mg/kg appeared in 20.3 +/- 0.57 min, after i

  4. Thermal limits of wild and laboratory strains of two African malaria vector species, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Malaria affects large parts of the developing world and is responsible for almost 800,000 deaths annually. As climates change, concerns have arisen as to how this vector-borne disease will be impacted by changing rainfall patterns and warming temperatures. Despite the importance and controversy surrounding the impact of climate change on the potential spread of this disease, little information exists on the tolerances of several of the vector species themselves. Methods Using a ramping protocol (to assess critical thermal limits - CT) and plunge protocol (to assess lethal temperature limits - LT) information on the thermal tolerance of two of Africa’s important malaria vectors, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus was collected. The effects of age, thermal acclimation treatment, sex and strain (laboratory versus wild adults) were investigated for CT determinations for each species. The effects of age and sex for adults and life stage (larvae, pupae, adults) were investigated for LT determinations. Results In both species, females are more tolerant to low and high temperatures than males; larvae and pupae have higher upper lethal limits than do adults. Thermal acclimation of adults has large effects in some instances but small effects in others. Younger adults tend to be more tolerant of low or high temperatures than older age groups. Long-standing laboratory colonies are sufficiently similar in thermal tolerance to field-collected animals to provide reasonable surrogates when making inferences about wild population responses. Differences between these two vectors in their thermal tolerances, especially in larvae and pupae, are plausibly a consequence of different habitat utilization. Conclusions Limited plasticity is characteristic of the adults of these vector species relative to others examined to date, suggesting limited scope for within-generation change in thermal tolerance. These findings and the greater tolerance of females to thermal

  5. The "Ass" Camouflage Construction: Masks as Parasitic Heads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    Collins et al. 2008 offers a principles-and-parameters-based analysis of an AAVE construction first described in Spears 1998, in which nominal phrases such as "John's ass" appear to have exactly the same denotation, and behavior with respect to familiar conditions on anaphora, as the possessor ["John," and similarly for pronominal possessors.…

  6. An Ecological Paradox: The African Wild Dog (Lycaon Pictus) Is Not Attracted to Water Points When Water Is Scarce in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Ndaimani, Henry; Tagwireyi, Paradzayi; Sebele, Lovelater; Madzikanda, Hillary

    2016-01-01

    In dry biomes, spatio-temporal variation in surface water resource stocks is pervasive, with unknown effects on the ranging behaviour of large predators. This study assessed the effect of spatial variation in surface water resources on the ranging behaviour of the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus). We analyzed data for 1992 (dry year with 20 water points) and 2000 (wet year with 30 water points) against presence-only data for five packs of L. pictus in a part of Hwange National Park and adjacent smallholder communal farming areas in western Zimbabwe. Modelling the potential habitat for L. pictus using Maxent with distance from water points (Dw) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as predictor variables was successful for 2000 (AUC = 0.793) but not successful for 1992 (AUC = 0.423), with L. pictus probability of occurrence near water points being more for year 2000 than for year 1992. The predicted L. pictus range was wider in 1992 (~13888.1 km2) than in 2000 (~958.4 km2) (Test of Proportions, χ2 = 124.52, df = 1, P = 0.00). Using the 2nd order Multitype Nearest Neighbour Distance Function (Gcross), we also observed significant attraction between L. pictus and water points within only ~1km radius for 1992 but up to ~8km radius for 2000. Our study reinforced the notion that surface water resources attract wild dogs in the savannahs but paradoxically less so when water resources are scarce. In particular, our study furthers current understanding of the effects of changing water availability regimes on the endangered L. pictus, providing evidence that the endangered predator’s home range encroaches into potential ecological traps (i.e., smallholder communal farming areas) when water resources are scarce. PMID:26816321

  7. An Ecological Paradox: The African Wild Dog (Lycaon Pictus) Is Not Attracted to Water Points When Water Is Scarce in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Ndaimani, Henry; Tagwireyi, Paradzayi; Sebele, Lovelater; Madzikanda, Hillary

    2016-01-01

    In dry biomes, spatio-temporal variation in surface water resource stocks is pervasive, with unknown effects on the ranging behaviour of large predators. This study assessed the effect of spatial variation in surface water resources on the ranging behaviour of the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus). We analyzed data for 1992 (dry year with 20 water points) and 2000 (wet year with 30 water points) against presence-only data for five packs of L. pictus in a part of Hwange National Park and adjacent smallholder communal farming areas in western Zimbabwe. Modelling the potential habitat for L. pictus using Maxent with distance from water points (Dw) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as predictor variables was successful for 2000 (AUC = 0.793) but not successful for 1992 (AUC = 0.423), with L. pictus probability of occurrence near water points being more for year 2000 than for year 1992. The predicted L. pictus range was wider in 1992 (~13888.1 km2) than in 2000 (~958.4 km2) (Test of Proportions, χ2 = 124.52, df = 1, P = 0.00). Using the 2nd order Multitype Nearest Neighbour Distance Function (Gcross), we also observed significant attraction between L. pictus and water points within only ~1km radius for 1992 but up to ~8km radius for 2000. Our study reinforced the notion that surface water resources attract wild dogs in the savannahs but paradoxically less so when water resources are scarce. In particular, our study furthers current understanding of the effects of changing water availability regimes on the endangered L. pictus, providing evidence that the endangered predator's home range encroaches into potential ecological traps (i.e., smallholder communal farming areas) when water resources are scarce. PMID:26816321

  8. An Ecological Paradox: The African Wild Dog (Lycaon Pictus) Is Not Attracted to Water Points When Water Is Scarce in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Ndaimani, Henry; Tagwireyi, Paradzayi; Sebele, Lovelater; Madzikanda, Hillary

    2016-01-01

    In dry biomes, spatio-temporal variation in surface water resource stocks is pervasive, with unknown effects on the ranging behaviour of large predators. This study assessed the effect of spatial variation in surface water resources on the ranging behaviour of the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus). We analyzed data for 1992 (dry year with 20 water points) and 2000 (wet year with 30 water points) against presence-only data for five packs of L. pictus in a part of Hwange National Park and adjacent smallholder communal farming areas in western Zimbabwe. Modelling the potential habitat for L. pictus using Maxent with distance from water points (Dw) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as predictor variables was successful for 2000 (AUC = 0.793) but not successful for 1992 (AUC = 0.423), with L. pictus probability of occurrence near water points being more for year 2000 than for year 1992. The predicted L. pictus range was wider in 1992 (~13888.1 km2) than in 2000 (~958.4 km2) (Test of Proportions, χ2 = 124.52, df = 1, P = 0.00). Using the 2nd order Multitype Nearest Neighbour Distance Function (Gcross), we also observed significant attraction between L. pictus and water points within only ~1km radius for 1992 but up to ~8km radius for 2000. Our study reinforced the notion that surface water resources attract wild dogs in the savannahs but paradoxically less so when water resources are scarce. In particular, our study furthers current understanding of the effects of changing water availability regimes on the endangered L. pictus, providing evidence that the endangered predator's home range encroaches into potential ecological traps (i.e., smallholder communal farming areas) when water resources are scarce.

  9. Salinity-related variation in gene expression in wild populations of the black-chinned tilapia from various West African coastal marine, estuarine and freshwater habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tine, Mbaye; McKenzie, David J.; Bonhomme, François; Durand, Jean-Dominique

    2011-01-01

    This study measured the relative expression of the genes coding for Na +, K +-ATPase 1α(NAKA), voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), cytochrome c oxidase-1 (COX), and NADH dehydrogenase (NDH), in gills of six wild populations of a West African tilapia species, acclimatised to a range of seasonal (rainy or dry) salinities in coastal, estuarine and freshwater sites. Previous laboratory experiments have demonstrated that these genes, involved in active ion transport, oxidative phosphorylation, and intra-cellular ATP transport, are relatively over-expressed in gill tissues of this species acclimated to high salinity. Positive correlations between relative expression and ambient salinity were found for all genes in the wild populations (Spearman rank correlation, p < 0.05), although for some genes these were only significant in either the rainy season or dry season. Most significantly, however, relative expression was positively correlated amongst the four genes, indicating that they are functionally interrelated in adaptation of Sarotherodon melanotheron to salinity variations in its natural environment. In the rainy season, when salinity was unstable and ranged between zero and 37 psu across the sites, overall mean expression of the genes was higher than in the dry season, which may have reflected more variable particularly sudden fluctuations in salinity and poorer overall water quality. In the dry season, when the salinity is more stable but ranged between zero and 100 psu across the sites, NAKA, NDH and VDAC expression revealed U-shaped relationships with lowest relative expression at salinities approaching seawater, between 25 and 45 psu. Although it is not simple to establish direct relationship between gene expression levels and energy requirement for osmoregulation, these results may indicate that costs of adaptation to salinity are lowest in seawater, the natural environment of this species. While S. melanotheron can colonise environments with extremely

  10. Molecular Evidence for the Presence of Rickettsia Felis in the Feces of Wild-living African Apes

    PubMed Central

    Keita, Alpha Kabinet; Socolovschi, Cristina; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Ratmanov, Pavel; Butel, Christelle; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Inogwabini, Bila-Isia; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine; Fenollar, Florence; Raoult, Didier

    2013-01-01

    Background Rickettsia felis is a common emerging pathogen detected in mosquitoes in sub-Saharan Africa. We hypothesized that, as with malaria, great apes may be exposed to the infectious bite of infected mosquitoes and release R. felis DNA in their feces. Methods We conducted a study of 17 forest sites in Central Africa, testing 1,028 fecal samples from 313 chimpanzees, 430 gorillas and 285 bonobos. The presence of rickettsial DNA was investigated by specific quantitative real-time PCR. Positive results were confirmed by a second PCR using primers and a probe targeting a specific gene for R. felis. All positive samples were sequenced. Results Overall, 113 samples (11%) were positive for the Rickettsia-specific gltA gene, including 25 (22%) that were positive for R. felis. The citrate synthase (gltA) sequence and outer membrane protein A (ompA) sequence analysis indicated 99% identity at the nucleotide level to R. felis. The 88 other samples (78%) were negative using R. felis-specific qPCR and were compatible with R. felis-like organisms. Conclusion For the first time, we detected R. felis in wild-living ape feces. This non invasive detection of human pathogens in endangered species opens up new possibilities in the molecular epidemiology and evolutionary analysis of infectious diseases, beside HIV and malaria. PMID:23405087

  11. Helminth and protozoan gastrointestinal tract parasites in captive and wild-trapped African non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Munene, E; Otsyula, M; Mbaabu, D A; Mutahi, W T; Muriuki, S M; Muchemi, G M

    1998-08-14

    The objective of this study was to investigate the gastro-intestinal (GIT) parasites commonly occurring in captive and wild-trapped (WT) non-human primates (baboons, vervets and Sykes) in Kenya and compare their prevalence. Three hundred and fifteen faecal samples were subjected to a battery of diagnostic tests, namely, direct smear, modified formal ether sedimentation, Kato thick smear, Harada-Mori techniques for parasite detection and culture to facilitate nematode larvae identification. Of these, 203 (64.4%) harboured helminths and 54 (17.1%) had protozoa. The helminth parasites comprised Strongyloides fulleborni 141 (44.8%), Trichuris trichuira 200 (63.5,%), Oesophagostomum sp. 48 (15.2%), Trichostrongylus sp. 73 (23.2%), Enterobius vermicularis 44 (14.0%), Schistosoma mansoni 4/92 (4.3%) and Streptopharagus sp. 68 (21.6%). Protozoan parasites consisted of Entamoeba coli 204 (64.8%), Balantidium coli 127 (40.3%) and Entamoeba histolytica 78 (24.8%). Both WT and colony-borne (CB) primates had similar species of parasites, but higher prevalences of protozoan infection were observed in CB baboons while helminth infections were relatively more common in WT primates. Some of the parasites observed in this study are reported to be zoonotic in various parasitological literatures. Chemoprophylaxis and other managerial practices were believed to be responsible for the lower worm prevalence in CB primates. Similar intervention against protozoa and other agents will not only improve primate health, but also increase safety to animal handlers and colony workers. PMID:9760061

  12. Metagenomic sequence of saline desert microbiota from wild ass sanctuary, Little Rann of Kutch, Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rajesh; Mevada, Vishal; Prajapati, Dhaval; Dudhagara, Pravin; Koringa, Prakash; Joshi, C G

    2015-03-01

    We report Metagenome from the saline desert soil sample of Little Rann of Kutch, Gujarat State, India. Metagenome consisted of 633,760 sequences with size 141,307,202 bp and 56% G + C content. Metagenome sequence data are available at EBI under EBI Metagenomics database with accession no. ERP005612. Community metagenomics revealed total 1802 species belonged to 43 different phyla with dominating Marinobacter (48.7%) and Halobacterium (4.6%) genus in bacterial and archaeal domain respectively. Remarkably, 18.2% sequences in a poorly characterized group and 4% gene for various stress responses along with versatile presence of commercial enzyme were evident in a functional metagenome analysis.

  13. Metagenomic sequence of saline desert microbiota from wild ass sanctuary, Little Rann of Kutch, Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rajesh; Mevada, Vishal; Prajapati, Dhaval; Dudhagara, Pravin; Koringa, Prakash; Joshi, C G

    2015-03-01

    We report Metagenome from the saline desert soil sample of Little Rann of Kutch, Gujarat State, India. Metagenome consisted of 633,760 sequences with size 141,307,202 bp and 56% G + C content. Metagenome sequence data are available at EBI under EBI Metagenomics database with accession no. ERP005612. Community metagenomics revealed total 1802 species belonged to 43 different phyla with dominating Marinobacter (48.7%) and Halobacterium (4.6%) genus in bacterial and archaeal domain respectively. Remarkably, 18.2% sequences in a poorly characterized group and 4% gene for various stress responses along with versatile presence of commercial enzyme were evident in a functional metagenome analysis. PMID:26484162

  14. Diversion of aspartate in ASS1-deficient tumours fosters de novo pyrimidine synthesis.

    PubMed

    Rabinovich, Shiran; Adler, Lital; Yizhak, Keren; Sarver, Alona; Silberman, Alon; Agron, Shani; Stettner, Noa; Sun, Qin; Brandis, Alexander; Helbling, Daniel; Korman, Stanley; Itzkovitz, Shalev; Dimmock, David; Ulitsky, Igor; Nagamani, Sandesh C S; Ruppin, Eytan; Erez, Ayelet

    2015-11-19

    Cancer cells hijack and remodel existing metabolic pathways for their benefit. Argininosuccinate synthase (ASS1) is a urea cycle enzyme that is essential in the conversion of nitrogen from ammonia and aspartate to urea. A decrease in nitrogen flux through ASS1 in the liver causes the urea cycle disorder citrullinaemia. In contrast to the well-studied consequences of loss of ASS1 activity on ureagenesis, the purpose of its somatic silencing in multiple cancers is largely unknown. Here we show that decreased activity of ASS1 in cancers supports proliferation by facilitating pyrimidine synthesis via CAD (carbamoyl-phosphate synthase 2, aspartate transcarbamylase, and dihydroorotase complex) activation. Our studies were initiated by delineating the consequences of loss of ASS1 activity in humans with two types of citrullinaemia. We find that in citrullinaemia type I (CTLN I), which is caused by deficiency of ASS1, there is increased pyrimidine synthesis and proliferation compared with citrullinaemia type II (CTLN II), in which there is decreased substrate availability for ASS1 caused by deficiency of the aspartate transporter citrin. Building on these results, we demonstrate that ASS1 deficiency in cancer increases cytosolic aspartate levels, which increases CAD activation by upregulating its substrate availability and by increasing its phosphorylation by S6K1 through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Decreasing CAD activity by blocking citrin, the mTOR signalling, or pyrimidine synthesis decreases proliferation and thus may serve as a therapeutic strategy in multiple cancers where ASS1 is downregulated. Our results demonstrate that ASS1 downregulation is a novel mechanism supporting cancerous proliferation, and they provide a metabolic link between the urea cycle enzymes and pyrimidine synthesis.

  15. Diversion of aspartate in ASS1-deficient tumours fosters de novo pyrimidine synthesis.

    PubMed

    Rabinovich, Shiran; Adler, Lital; Yizhak, Keren; Sarver, Alona; Silberman, Alon; Agron, Shani; Stettner, Noa; Sun, Qin; Brandis, Alexander; Helbling, Daniel; Korman, Stanley; Itzkovitz, Shalev; Dimmock, David; Ulitsky, Igor; Nagamani, Sandesh C S; Ruppin, Eytan; Erez, Ayelet

    2015-11-19

    Cancer cells hijack and remodel existing metabolic pathways for their benefit. Argininosuccinate synthase (ASS1) is a urea cycle enzyme that is essential in the conversion of nitrogen from ammonia and aspartate to urea. A decrease in nitrogen flux through ASS1 in the liver causes the urea cycle disorder citrullinaemia. In contrast to the well-studied consequences of loss of ASS1 activity on ureagenesis, the purpose of its somatic silencing in multiple cancers is largely unknown. Here we show that decreased activity of ASS1 in cancers supports proliferation by facilitating pyrimidine synthesis via CAD (carbamoyl-phosphate synthase 2, aspartate transcarbamylase, and dihydroorotase complex) activation. Our studies were initiated by delineating the consequences of loss of ASS1 activity in humans with two types of citrullinaemia. We find that in citrullinaemia type I (CTLN I), which is caused by deficiency of ASS1, there is increased pyrimidine synthesis and proliferation compared with citrullinaemia type II (CTLN II), in which there is decreased substrate availability for ASS1 caused by deficiency of the aspartate transporter citrin. Building on these results, we demonstrate that ASS1 deficiency in cancer increases cytosolic aspartate levels, which increases CAD activation by upregulating its substrate availability and by increasing its phosphorylation by S6K1 through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Decreasing CAD activity by blocking citrin, the mTOR signalling, or pyrimidine synthesis decreases proliferation and thus may serve as a therapeutic strategy in multiple cancers where ASS1 is downregulated. Our results demonstrate that ASS1 downregulation is a novel mechanism supporting cancerous proliferation, and they provide a metabolic link between the urea cycle enzymes and pyrimidine synthesis. PMID:26560030

  16. Refractive-index change caused by electrons in amorphous AsS and AsSe thin films doped with different metals by photodiffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Nordman, Olli; Nordman, Nina; Pashkevich, Valfrid

    2001-08-01

    The refractive-index change caused by electrons was measured in amorphous AsS and AsSe thin films. Films were coated with different metals. Diffraction gratings were written by electron-beam lithography. The interactions of electrons in films with and without the photodiffusion of overcoated metal were compared. Incoming electrons caused metal atom and ion diffusion in both investigated cases. The metal diffusion was dependent on the metal and it was found to influence the refractive index. In some cases lateral diffusion of the metal was noticed. The conditions for applications were verified. {copyright} 2001 Optical Society of America

  17. Biogenic formation of As-S nanotubes by diverse Shewanella strains

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Shenghua; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Min-Gyu; Myung, Nosang V.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Hur, Hor-Gil

    2009-11-01

    Shewanella sp. strain HN-41 was previously shown to produce novel, photoactive, As-S nanotubes via the reduction of As(V) and S2O3 2* under anaerobic conditions. To determine if this ability was unique to this bacterium, 10 different Shewanella strains, including Shewanella sp. strain HN-41, Shewanella sp. strain PV-4, Shewanella alga BrY, Shewanella amazonensis SB2B, Shewanella denitrificans OS217, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, Shewanella putrefaciens CN-32, S. putrefaciens IR-1, S. putrefaciens SP200, and S. putrefaciens W3-6-1, were examined for production of As-S nanotubes under standardized conditions. Of the 10 strains examined, three formed As-S nanotubes like those of strain HN-41. While Shewanella sp. strain HN-41 and S.putrefaciens CN-32 rapidly formed As-S precipitates in 7 days, strains S. alga BrY and S. oneidensis MR-1 reduced As(V) at a much lower rate and formed yellow As-S after 30 days. Electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and extended X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy analyses showed that the morphological and chemical properties of As-S formed by strains S. putrefaciens CN-32, S. alga BrY, and S. oneidensis MR-1 were similar to those previously determined for Shewanella sp. strain HN-41 As-S nanotubes. These studies indicated that the formation of As-S nanotubes is widespread among Shewanella strains and is closely related to bacterial growth and the reduction rate of As(V) and thiosulfate.

  18. ASS234, As a New Multi-Target Directed Propargylamine for Alzheimer's Disease Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Marco-Contelles, José; Unzeta, Mercedes; Bolea, Irene; Esteban, Gerard; Ramsay, Rona R.; Romero, Alejandro; Martínez-Murillo, Ricard; Carreiras, M. Carmo; Ismaili, Lhassane

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: ASS2324 is a hybrid compound resulting from the juxtaposition of donepezil and the propargylamine PF9601NASS2324 is a multi-target directed propargylamine able to bind to all the AChE/BuChE and MAO A/B enzymesASS2324 shows antioxidant, neuroprotective and suitable permeability propertiesASS2324 restores the scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment to the same extent as donepezil, and is less toxicASS2324 prevents β-amyloid induced aggregation in the cortex of double transgenic miceASS2324 is the most advanced anti-Alzheimer agent for pre-clinical studies that we have identified in our laboratories The complex nature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has prompted the design of Multi-Target-Directed Ligands (MTDL) able to bind to diverse biochemical targets involved in the progress and development of the disease. In this context, we have designed a number of MTD propargylamines (MTDP) showing antioxidant, anti-beta-amyloid, anti-inflammatory, as well as cholinesterase and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition capacities. Here, we describe these properties in the MTDL ASS234, our lead-compound ready to enter in pre-clinical studies for AD, as a new multipotent, permeable cholinesterase/monoamine oxidase inhibitor, able to inhibit Aβ-aggregation, and possessing antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. PMID:27445665

  19. Enalapril and ASS inhibit tumor growth in a transgenic mouse model of islet cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Fendrich, V; Lopez, C L; Manoharan, J; Maschuw, K; Wichmann, S; Baier, A; Holler, J P; Ramaswamy, A; Bartsch, D K; Waldmann, J

    2014-10-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests a role for angiotensin-converting enzymes involving the angiotensin II-receptor 1 (AT1-R) and the cyclooxygenase pathway in carcinogenesis. The effects of ASS and enalapril were assessed in vitro and in a transgenic mouse model of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (pNENs). The effects of enalapril and ASS on proliferation and expression of the AGTR1A and its target gene vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegfa) were assessed in the neuroendocrine cell line BON1. Rip1-Tag2 mice were treated daily with either 0.6 mg/kg bodyweight of enalapril i.p., 20 mg/kg bodyweight of ASS i.p., or a vehicle in a prevention (weeks 5-12) and a survival group (week 5 till death). Tumor surface, weight of pancreatic glands, immunostaining for AT1-R and nuclear factor kappa beta (NFKB), and mice survival were analyzed. In addition, sections from human specimens of 20 insulinomas, ten gastrinomas, and 12 non-functional pNENs were evaluated for AT1-R and NFKB (NFKB1) expression and grouped according to the current WHO classification. Proliferation was significantly inhibited by enalapril and ASS in BON1 cells, with the combination being the most effective. Treatment with enalapril and ASS led to significant downregulation of known target genes Vegf and Rela at RNA level. Tumor growth was significantly inhibited by enalapril and ASS in the prevention group displayed by a reduction of tumor size (84%/67%) and number (30%/45%). Furthermore, daily treatment with enalapril and ASS prolonged the overall median survival compared with vehicle-treated Rip1-Tag2 (107 days) mice by 9 and 17 days (P=0.016 and P=0.013). The AT1-R and the inflammatory transcription factor NFKB were abolished completely upon enalapril and ASS treatment. AT1-R and NFKB expressions were observed in 80% of human pNENs. Enalapril and ASS may provide an approach for chemoprevention and treatment of pNENs.

  20. Reduced expression of ASS is closely related to clinicopathological features and post-resectional survival of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hua; Lin, Ming; Xiong, Fu Xia; Yang, Yu; Nie, Xiu; Zhou, Rou Li

    2010-01-01

    Argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) has previously been proven to be reductively expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and various types of HCC cell lines. Arginine, the product of ASS, has been used as a target in HCC by recombinant human arginase or arginine deiminase, which is now in the phase II clinical trial stage. This study aimed to present the levels of ASS expression in HCCs and its correlation with clinicopathological features and prognosis of HCC patients. Immunohistochemical detection of ASS was performed on samples from 71 patients with HCC. Positive staining was found in 21 HCCs, with a score of 2, as well as in normal liver tissues. Reduced ASS staining was found in 70.4% (50/71) of HCC tissues, including 21 with a score of 0 and 29 with a score of 1. The staining score in cancer tissues was significantly associated with gender, background liver, histopathological differentiation, recurrence, TNM staging and portal vein invasion (P<0.05), but not with age, viral status, tumor size and serum α-fetoprotein level. Patients with a high ASS expression had significantly poorer overall and disease-free survival (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). These data showed that ASS was reductively or negatively expressed in a large portion of HCC, and that ASS levels in HCCs correlated inversely with prognosis. In conclusion, a high expression of ASS may be a novel marker of poor prognosis of patients presenting with HCC.

  1. Polymerization transition in liquid AsS under pressure: An ab initio molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmura, Satoshi; Shimojo, Fuyuki

    2011-12-01

    We study the pressure dependence of the structural and electronic properties of liquid AsS by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. We confirm that liquid AsS consists of As4S4 molecules at ambient pressure, as in the crystalline state. With increasing pressure, a structural transition from molecular to polymeric liquid occurs near 2 GPa, which is eventually followed by metallization. The pressure dependence of the density and diffusion coefficients changes qualitatively with this transition. We find that, during metallization in the polymeric phase at higher pressures, the remnants of covalent interactions between atoms play an important role in the dynamics, i.e., the As-S bond length becomes longer with increasing pressure and the diffusion coefficients have a local maximum near 5 GPa. When the pressure approaches about 15 GPa, the covalent nature of the liquid becomes quite weak. These results explain recent experiments on the pressure dependence of the viscosity.

  2. Determination of radionuclide concentrations in ground level air using the ASS-500 high volume sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Frenzel, E.; Arnold, D.; Wershofen, H.

    1996-06-01

    A method for determination of radionuclide concentrations in air aerosol samples collected by the high volume aerosol sampler ASS-500 was elaborated. The aerosol sampling station ASS-500 is a Stand alone, all-weather proofed instrument. It is designed for representative sampling of airborne radionuclides from ground level air at a height of about 1.5 m above ground level. The ASS-500 station enables continuous air monitoring both normal and emergency Situations. The collection of aerosols on the Petrianov FPP-15-1.5 type filter out of an air volume of about 100,000 m{sup 3} (sampling period 1 wk) or of about 250,000 m{sup 3} (sampling period 3 wk) admits accurate spectrometric low level measurements of natural and artificial radionuclides. The achieved detection limit is 0.5 {mu}Bq m{sup -3} and 0.2 {mu}Bq m{sup -3} for {sup 137}Cs, respectively. A new developed air flow Meter system allows to enhance the collected air volume to about 150,000 m{sup 3} per week and lowers the detection limit to <0.4 {mu}Bq m{sup -3} for {sup 137}Cs for weekly collected aerosol samples. In Poland the CLOR uses 9 Stations ASS-500 at different sites as atmospheric radioactivity control system. On the basis of spectrometric measurements of natural and artificial radionuclides in the collected aerosol samples at the different sites, CLOR establishes a weekly report about the radiological situation at Poland for responsible authorities. The very low achievable detection limit of the Station ASS-500 due 10 the high air flow fate and the long possible sampling period were the key argument for other government radiation protection authorities in Europe to introduce the Station ASS-500 into their low level radionuclide atmospheric monitoring programs (Austria, Belarus, France, Germany, Iceland, Spain, Switzerland, Ukraine).

  3. Hypothesis for the causes and periodicity of repetitive linear enamel hypoplasia in large, wild African (Pan troglodytes and Gorilla gorilla) and Asian (Pongo pygmaeus) apes.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Mark F; Hopwood, David

    2004-03-01

    Repetitive linear enamel hypoplasia (rLEH) is often observed in recent large-bodied apes from Africa and Asia as well as Mid- to Late Miocene sites from Spain to China. The ubiquity and periodicity of rLEH are not understood. Its potential as an ontogenetic marker of developmental stress in threatened species (as well as their ancient relatives) makes rLEH an important if enigmatic problem. We report research designed to show the periodicity of rLEH among West African Pan troglodytes (12 male, 32 female), Gorilla gorilla (10 male, 10 female), and Bornean and Sumatran Pongo pygmaeus (11 male, 9 female, 9 unknown) from collections in Europe. Two methods were employed. In the common chimpanzees and gorillas, the space between adjacent, macroscopically visible LEH grooves on teeth with two or more episodes was expressed as an absolute measure and as a ratio of complete unworn crown height. In the orangutans, the number of perikymata between episode onsets, as well as duration of rLEH, was determined from scanning electron micrographs of casts of incisors and canines. We conclude that stress in the form of LEH commences as early as 2.5 years of age in all taxa and lasts for several years, and even longer in orangutans; the stress is not chronic but episodic; the stressor has a strong tendency to occur in pulses of two occurrences each; and large apes from both land masses exhibit rLEH with an average periodicity of 6 months (or multiples thereof; Sumatran orangutans seem to show only annual stress), but this needs further research. This is supported by evidence of spacing between rLEH as well as perikymata counts. Duration of stress in orangutans averages about 6 weeks. Finally, the semiannual stressor transcends geographic and temporal boundaries, and is attributed to regular moisture cycles associated with the intertropical convergence zone modified by the monsoon. While seasonal cycles can influence both disease and nutritional stress, it is likely the combination of

  4. Variation of chemical composition of essential oils in wild populations of Thymus algeriensis Boiss. et Reut., a North African endemic Species

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Thymus algeriensis is an endemic aromatic plant to Tunisia largely used in folk medicine and as a culinary herb. The bulks aromatic plants come from wild populations whose essential oils compositions as well as their biological properties are severely affected by the geographical location and the phase of the plant development. Therefore, the aim of the present work is to provide more information on the variation of essential oil composition of T. algeriensis collected during the vegetative and the flowering phases and from eight different geographical regions. Besides, influence of population location and phenological stage on yield and metal chelating activity of essential oils is also assessed. Methods The essential oil composition of Thymus algeriensis was determined mainly by GC/FID and GC/MS. The chemical differentiation among populations performed on all compounds was assessed by linear discriminate analysis and cluster analysis based on Euclidean distance. Results A total of 71 compounds, representing 88.99 to 99.76% of the total oil, were identified. A significant effect of the population location on the chemical composition variability of T. algeriensis oil was observed. Only 18 out of 71 compounds showed a statistically significant variation among population locations and phenological stages. Chemical differentiation among populations was high. Minor compounds play an important role to distinguish between chemical groups. Five chemotypes according to the major compounds have been distinguished. Chemotypes distribution is linked to the population location and not to bioclimate, indicating that local selective environmental factors acted on the chemotype diversity. Conclusions The major compounds at the species level were α-pinene (7.41-13.94%), 1,8-cineole (7.55-22.07%), cis-sabinene hydrate (0.10-12.95%), camphor (6.8-19.93%), 4-terpineol (1.55-11.86%), terpenyl acetate (0-14.92%) and viridiflorol (0-11.49%). Based on major compounds, the

  5. Wild Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet K-8, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This annotated subject guide to Web sites and other resources focuses on wild animals. Includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines, and professional resources, as well as a class activity. (LRW)

  6. Wild analysis.

    PubMed

    Schafer, R

    1985-01-01

    Contemporary debates over psychoanalytic theory and practice warrant a reconsideration of the concept of wild analysis. Freud's initial formulation of the problem, subsequent developments in the Freudian conventions, and the work of Melanie Klein, Kohut, and Gill are compared in order to bring out different conceptions of interpretation that is wild, sound, or too tame. These different conceptions are system-bound. Moral implications of Klein's, Kohut's, and Gill's critiques and alternative systems are taken up. PMID:4020025

  7. Compositional trends of γ-induced optical changes observed in chalcogenide glasses of binary As-S system

    SciTech Connect

    Shpotyuk, M.; Shpotyuk, O.; Golovchak, Roman; McCloy, John S.; Riley, Brian J.

    2014-01-23

    Compositional trends of γ-induced optical changes in chalcogenide glasses are studied with the binary As-S system. Effects of γ-irradiation and annealing are compared using the changes measured in the fundamental optical absorption edge region. It is shown that annealing near the glass transition temperature leads to bleaching of As-S glasses, while γ-irradiation leads to darkening; both depend on the glass composition and thermal history of the specimens. These results are explained in terms of competitive destruction–polymerization transformations and physical aging occurring in As-S chalcogenide glasses under the influence of γ-irradiation.

  8. Acoustic anisotropy of acoustooptic TI(3)AsS(4) crystals.

    PubMed

    Martynyuk-Lototska, Iryna; Kushnirevych, Marian; Zapeka, Bohdan; Krupych, Oleh; Kokhan, Oleksandr; Pogodin, Artem; Peresh, Eugen; Mys, Oksana; Vlokh, Rostyslav

    2015-02-20

    We present comprehensive experimental measurements and analysis of anisotropy of the acoustic wave velocities for TI(3)AsS(4) crystals, including the obliquity and nonorthogonality of the acoustic waves, and the deviations from purely longitudinal and transverse polarization types. We have found that the crystals under analysis are characterized by rather low transverse wave velocities v(23) and v(32), which are both equal to 630 m/s. It is shown that the efficiency of acoustooptic (AO) interactions in TI(3)AsS(4) can be notably increased when providing anisotropic interaction with the slowest transverse acoustic wave. Under the previously mentioned conditions, the AO figure-of-merit can be estimated to be extremely high, i.e., approximately 3×10(-12) s(3)/kg. PMID:25968191

  9. Acoustic anisotropy of acoustooptic TI(3)AsS(4) crystals.

    PubMed

    Martynyuk-Lototska, Iryna; Kushnirevych, Marian; Zapeka, Bohdan; Krupych, Oleh; Kokhan, Oleksandr; Pogodin, Artem; Peresh, Eugen; Mys, Oksana; Vlokh, Rostyslav

    2015-02-20

    We present comprehensive experimental measurements and analysis of anisotropy of the acoustic wave velocities for TI(3)AsS(4) crystals, including the obliquity and nonorthogonality of the acoustic waves, and the deviations from purely longitudinal and transverse polarization types. We have found that the crystals under analysis are characterized by rather low transverse wave velocities v(23) and v(32), which are both equal to 630 m/s. It is shown that the efficiency of acoustooptic (AO) interactions in TI(3)AsS(4) can be notably increased when providing anisotropic interaction with the slowest transverse acoustic wave. Under the previously mentioned conditions, the AO figure-of-merit can be estimated to be extremely high, i.e., approximately 3×10(-12) s(3)/kg.

  10. Physics League Across Numerous Countries for Kick-ass Students (PLANCKS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haasnoot, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Physics League Across Numerous Countries for Kick-ass Students (PLANCKS) is an international theoretical physics competition for bachelor and master students. The intention of PLANCKS is to increase international collaboration and stimulate the personal development of individual contestants. This is done by organizing a three-day-event which take place every year and is hosted by different countries. Besides the contest, social and scientific activities will be organised, including an opening symposium where leading physicists give lectures to inspire the participants.

  11. Arginine Starvation Impairs Mitochondrial Respiratory Function in ASS1-Deficient Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiyong; Chu, Cheng-Ying; Shen, Li-Jiuan; Xu, Jinghong; Gaur, Shikha; Forman, Henry Jay; Zhang, Hang; Zheng, Shu; Yen, Yun; Huang, Jian; Kung, Hsing-Jien; Ann, David K.

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is the principal catabolic response to nutrient starvation and is necessary to clear dysfunctional or damaged organelles, but excessive autophagy can be cytotoxic or cytostatic and contributes to cell death. Depending on the abundance of enzymes involved in molecule biosynthesis, cells can be dependent on uptake of exogenous nutrients to provide these molecules. Argininosuccinate synthetase 1 (ASS1) is a key enzyme in arginine biosynthesis, and its abundance is reduced in many solid tumors, making them sensitive to external arginine depletion. We demonstrated that prolonged arginine starvation by exposure to ADI-PEG20 (pegylated arginine deiminase) induced autophagy-dependent death of ASS1-deficient breast cancer cells, because these cells are arginine auxotrophs (dependent on uptake of extracellular arginine). Indeed, these breast cancer cells died in culture when exposed to ADI-PEG20 or cultured in the absence of arginine. Arginine starvation induced mitochondrial oxidative stress, which impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics and integrity. Furthermore, arginine starvation killed breast cancer cells in vivo and in vitro only if they were autophagy-competent. Thus, a key mechanism underlying the lethality induced by prolonged arginine starvation was the cytotoxic autophagy that occurred in response to mitochondrial damage. Last, ASS1 was either low in abundance or absent in more than 60% of 149 random breast cancer bio-samples, suggesting that patients with such tumors could be candidates for arginine starvation therapy. PMID:24692592

  12. Brine migration test report: Asse Salt Mine, Federal Republic of Germany: Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Coyle, A.J.; Eckert, J.; Kalia, H.

    1987-01-01

    This report presents a summary of Brine Migration Tests which were undertaken at the Asse mine of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) under a bilateral US/FRG agreement. This experiment simulates a nuclear waste repository at the 800-m (2624-ft) level of the Asse salt mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. This report describes the Asse salt mine, the test equipment, and the pretest properties of the salt in the mine and in the vicinity of the test area. Also included are selected test data (for the first 28 months of operation) on the following: brine migration rates, thermomechaical behavior of the salt (including room closure, stress reading, and thermal profiles), borehole gas pressures, and borehole gas analyses. In addition to field data, laboratory analyses of pretest salt properties are included in this report. The operational phase of these experiments was completed on October 4, 1985, with the commencement of cooldown and the start of posttest activities. 7 refs., 68 figs., 48 tabs.

  13. Induction of arginosuccinate synthetase (ASS) expression affects the antiproliferative activity of arginine deiminase (ADI) in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Manca, Antonella; Sini, Maria Cristina; Izzo, Francesco; Ascierto, Paolo A; Tatangelo, Fabiana; Botti, Gerardo; Gentilcore, Giusy; Capone, Marilena; Mozzillo, Nicola; Rozzo, Carla; Cossu, Antonio; Tanda, Francesco; Palmieri, Giuseppe

    2011-06-01

    Arginine deiminase (ADI), an arginine-degrading enzyme, has been used in the treatment of tumours sensitive to arginine deprivation, such as malignant melanoma (MM) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Endogenous production of arginine is mainly dependent on activity of ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) and argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) enzymes. We evaluated the effect of ADI treatment on OTC and ASS expression in a series of melanoma cell lines. Twenty-five primary melanoma cell lines and normal fibroblasts as controls underwent cell proliferation assays and Western blot analyses in the presence or absence of ADI. Tissue sections from primary MMs (N = 20) and HCCs (N = 20) were investigated by immunohistochemistry for ASS expression. Overall, 21/25 (84%) MM cell lines presented a cell growth inhibition by ADI treatment; none of them presented constitutive detectable levels of the ASS protein. However, 7/21 (33%) ADI-sensitive melanoma cell lines presented markedly increased expression levels of the ASS protein following ADI treatment, with a significantly higher IC50 median value. Growth was not inhibited and the IC50 was not reached among the remaining 4/25 (16%) MM cell lines; all of them showed constitutive ASS expression. The OTC protein was found expressed in all melanoma cell lines before and after the ADI treatment. Lack of ASS immunostaining was observed in all analyzed in vivo specimens. Our findings suggest that response to ADI treatment in melanoma is significantly correlated with the ability of cells to express ASS either constitutively at basal level (inducing drug resistance) or after the treatment (reducing sensitivity to ADI).

  14. Wild Marshmallows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallas, John N.

    1984-01-01

    Provides information for teaching a unit on wild plants, including resources to use, plants to learn, safety considerations, list of plants (with scientific name, edible parts, and uses), list of plants that might cause allergic reactions when eaten. Also describes the chickweed, bull thistle, and common mallow. (BC)

  15. Cooperative rearranging region size and free volume in As-Se glasses.

    PubMed

    Saiter, A; Saiter, J-M; Golovchak, R; Shpotyuk, M; Shpotyuk, O

    2009-02-18

    Glasses of the As-Se system have been used as model objects of the covalent disordered inorganic polymers to investigate the correlation between the cooperative rearranging region (CRR) size determined at the glass transition temperature and the free volume fraction in the glassy state. The CRR size has been determined using temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry data according to Donth's approach, while the free volume fraction in the investigated materials has been estimated using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy data. The obtained results testify that the appearance of open-volume defects greater than 80 Å(3) leads to a significant decrease in the CRR size.

  16. Brine migration test for Asse Mine, Federal Republic of Germany: final test plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-07-01

    The United States and the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) will conduct a brine migration test in the Asse Salt Mine in the FRG as part of the US/FRG Cooperative Radioactive Waste Management Agreement. Two sets of two tests each will be conducted to study both liquid inclusion migration and vapor migration in the two salt types chosen for the experiments: (1) pure salt, for its characteristics similar to the salt that might occur in potential US repositories, and (2) transitional salt, for its similarity to the salt that might occur in potential repositories in Germany.

  17. Atomistic Model of Physical Ageing in Se-rich As-Se Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Golovchak,R.; Shpotyuk, O.; Kozdras, A.; Bureau, B.; Vlcek, M.; Ganjoo, A.; Jain, H.

    2007-01-01

    Thermal, optical, X-ray excited and magnetic methods were used to develop a microstructural model of physical ageing in Se-rich glasses. The glass composition As10Se90, possessing a typical cross-linked chain structure, was chosen as a model object for the investigations. The effect of physical ageing in this glass was revealed by differential scanning calorimetry, whereas the corresponding changes in its atomic arrangement were studied by extended X-ray absorption fine structure, Raman and solid-state 77Se nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Straightening-shrinkage processes are shown to be responsible for the physical ageing in this Se-rich As-Se glass.

  18. Investigation of the structure of an amorphous As-Se semiconductor system by relaxation methods

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, R. A. Bordovsky, V. A.; Grabko, G. I.; Taturevich, T. V.

    2011-12-15

    The results of a complex investigation into dark-current relaxation in the long-time region of an MIM structure based on an As-Se thin-film chalcogenide system are presented. The values of parameters describing the electronic processes ocurring in the contact layers of the investigated compounds are estimated. The coincidence of the nature of conductivity and charge-accumulation mechanisms is revealed. The relaxation-time distribution function is calculated, and its structural sensitivity to such technological factors as the change in the composition stoichiometry and the method for manufacturing experimental samples is established.

  19. Analysis of Gene Expression in 3D Spheroids Highlights a Survival Role for ASS1 in Mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Barbone, Dario; Van Dam, Loes; Follo, Carlo; Jithesh, Puthen V.; Zhang, Shu-Dong; Richards, William G.; Bueno, Raphael; Fennell, Dean A.; Broaddus, V. Courtney

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the underlying causes of chemoresistance in malignant pleural mesothelioma, we have studied mesothelioma cell lines as 3D spheroids, which acquire increased chemoresistance compared to 2D monolayers. We asked whether the gene expression of 3D spheroids would reveal mechanisms of resistance. To address this, we measured gene expression of three mesothelioma cell lines, M28, REN and VAMT, grown as 2D monolayers and 3D spheroids. A total of 209 genes were differentially expressed in common by the three cell lines in 3D (138 upregulated and 71 downregulated), although a clear resistance pathway was not apparent. We then compared the list of 3D genes with two publicly available datasets of gene expression of 56 pleural mesotheliomas compared to normal tissues. Interestingly, only three genes were increased in both 3D spheroids and human tumors: argininosuccinate synthase 1 (ASS1), annexin A4 (ANXA4) and major vault protein (MVP); of these, ASS1 was the only consistently upregulated of the three genes by qRT-PCR. To measure ASS1 protein expression, we stained 2 sets of tissue microarrays (TMA): one with 88 pleural mesothelioma samples and the other with additional 88 pleural mesotheliomas paired with matched normal tissues. Of the 176 tumors represented on the two TMAs, ASS1 was expressed in 87 (50%; staining greater than 1 up to 3+). For the paired samples, ASS1 expression in mesothelioma was significantly greater than in the normal tissues. Reduction of ASS1 expression by siRNA significantly sensitized mesothelioma spheroids to the pro-apoptotic effects of bortezomib and of cisplatin plus pemetrexed. Although mesothelioma is considered by many to be an ASS1-deficient tumor, our results show that ASS1 is elevated at the mRNA and protein levels in mesothelioma 3D spheroids and in human pleural mesotheliomas. We also have uncovered a survival role for ASS1, which may be amenable to targeting to undermine mesothelioma multicellular resistance. PMID:26982031

  20. High-pressure polymorphism of As2S3 and new AsS2 modification with layered structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolotina, N. B.; Brazhkin, V. V.; Dyuzheva, T. I.; Katayama, Y.; Kulikova, L. F.; Lityagina, L. V.; Nikolaev, N. A.

    2014-01-01

    At normal pressure, the As2S3 compound is the most stable equilibrium modification with unique layered structure. The possibility of high-pressure polymorphism of this substance remains questionable. Our research showed that the As2S3 substance was metastable under pressures P > 6 GPa decomposing into two high-pressure phases: As2S3 → AsS2 + AsS. New AsS2 phase can be conserved in the single crystalline form in metastable state at room pressure up to its melting temperature (470 K). This modification has the layered structure with P1211 monoclinic symmetry group; the unit-cell values are a = 7.916(2) Å, b = 9.937(2) Å, c = 7.118(1) Å, β = 106.41° ( Z = 8, density 3.44 g/cm3). Along with the recently studied AsS high-pressure modification, the new AsS2 phase suggests that high pressure polymorphism is a very powerful tool to create new layered-structure phases with "wrong" stoichiometry.

  1. Thermal and Gamma-ray induced relaxation in As-S glasses: modeling and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Pierre; King, Ellyn A.; Erdmann, Robert G.; Riley, Brian J.; Sundaram, S. K.; McCloy, John S.

    2011-09-09

    Enthalpy relaxation is measured in a series of As-S glasses irradiated with gamma rays and these samples are compared with a set of identical control samples kept in the dark. It is shown that gamma irradiation lifts the kinetic barrier for relaxation at room temperature and speeds up the enthalpy release. The measured values of thermal relaxation in the dark agree closely with modeling results obtained by fitting differential scanning calorimetry curves with the TNM equations. The measured values of activation energy for enthalpy relaxation are also in close agreement with that predicted by the TNM model therefore lending credence to the fitting results. These measurements permit extraction of the effect of gamma irradiation on the glass structure for a series of As-S glasses with increasing structural coordination, and gamma irradiation is shown to reduce the structural relaxation time. It is also shown that lower coordination glasses exhibit greater radiation sensitivity but also greater thermal relaxation due to their lower Tg. On the other end, over-coordinated glasses show lower relaxation and almost no radiation sensitivity. This behavior is similar to the glass response under sub-bandgap light irradiation.

  2. Analysis of earing behaviour in deep drawing of ASS 304 at elevated temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Amit Kumar; Deole, Aditya; Kotkunde, Nitin; Singh, Swadesh Kumar; jella, Gangadhar

    2016-08-01

    Earing tendency in a deep drawn cup of circular blanks is one the most prominent characteristics observed due to anisotropy in a metal sheet. Such formation of uneven rim is mainly due to dissimilarity in yield stress as well as Lankford parameter (r- value) in different orientations. In this paper, an analytical function coupled with different yield functions viz., Hill 1948, Barlat 1989 and Barlat Yld 2000-2d has been used to provide an approximation of earing profile. In order to validate the results, material parameters for yield functions and hardening rule have been calibrated for ASS 304 at 250°C and deep drawing experiment is conducted to measure the earing profile. The predicted earing profiles based on analytical results have been validated using experimental earing profile. Based on this analysis, Barlat Yld 2000-2d has been observed to be a well suited yield model for deep drawing of ASS 304, which also confirms the reliability of analytical function for earing profile estimation.

  3. Severe respiratory failure as a presenting feature of an interstitial lung disease associated with anti-synthetase syndrome (ASS).

    PubMed

    Piroddi, Ines Maria Grazia; Ferraioli, Gianluca; Barlascini, Cornelius; Castagneto, Corrado; Nicolini, Antonello

    2016-07-01

    Anti-synthetase syndrome (ASS) is defined as a heterogeneous connective tissue disorder characterized by the association of an interstitial lung disease (ILD) with or without inflammatory myositis with the presence of anti-aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetase antibodies. ILD is one of the major extra-muscular manifestations of polymyositis and dermatomyositis. We report a case of a patient with dyspnea, cough, and intermittent fever as well as ILD associated ASS in the absence of muscular involvement. This patient was admitted to the emergency department with severe respiratory failure requiring non-invasive ventilation. Our patient's case demonstrates that the diagnosis of ASS may not be obvious. However, its diagnosis leads to appropriate and potentially life-saving treatment.

  4. Severe respiratory failure as a presenting feature of an interstitial lung disease associated with anti-synthetase syndrome (ASS).

    PubMed

    Piroddi, Ines Maria Grazia; Ferraioli, Gianluca; Barlascini, Cornelius; Castagneto, Corrado; Nicolini, Antonello

    2016-07-01

    Anti-synthetase syndrome (ASS) is defined as a heterogeneous connective tissue disorder characterized by the association of an interstitial lung disease (ILD) with or without inflammatory myositis with the presence of anti-aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetase antibodies. ILD is one of the major extra-muscular manifestations of polymyositis and dermatomyositis. We report a case of a patient with dyspnea, cough, and intermittent fever as well as ILD associated ASS in the absence of muscular involvement. This patient was admitted to the emergency department with severe respiratory failure requiring non-invasive ventilation. Our patient's case demonstrates that the diagnosis of ASS may not be obvious. However, its diagnosis leads to appropriate and potentially life-saving treatment. PMID:27424829

  5. Breakdown of intermediate range order in AsSe chalcogenide glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Azkar S.; Glazyrin, K.; Liermann, H. P.; Franz, H.; Wang, X. D.; Cao, Q. P.; Zhang, D. X.; Jiang, J. Z.

    2016-10-01

    As-cast amorphous AsSe (a-AsSe) has been characterized by in-situ high pressure XRD and Raman spectroscopy up to the pressure of ˜30 GPa using diamond anvil cell together with ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations. A gradual densification has been observed under compression along with the breakdown of intermediate range ordering at ˜16 GPa. The whole transformation process can be divided into three relatively distinct pressure regimes from 1 bar to 7 GPa, from 7 to 16 GPa, and beyond 16 GPa. Our XRD results together with Raman spectroscopic studies confirm that in the a-AsSe pressure tuning results in network transformations only, without sudden jump in the density. The results obtained by high pressure ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate the variations in the local structures associated with the experimentally observed transformations. The amorphous-to-amorphous network transformation is found to be reversible upon decompression.

  6. Optical studies of (AsSe)100- x Sb x thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkova, T.; Ilcheva, V.; Petkov, E.; Petkov, P.; Socol, G.; Sima, F.; Ristoscu, C.; Mihailescu, C. N.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Popov, C.; Reithmaier, J. P.

    2011-09-01

    Thin arsenic-selenium-antimony films (AsSe)100- x Sb x ( x=0,5,10,15 mol.%) have been deposited on glass substrates by vacuum thermal evaporation (VTE) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) techniques from the corresponding bulk glassy materials. The refractive index and the film thickness have been determined from the optical transmission spectra by modified Swanepoel method. The optical band gap calculated using the Tauc's approximation showed a narrowing as a function of the increased Sb content from 1.74 eV to 1.53 eV in the VTE films and from 1.64 eV to 1.42 eV in the PLD films. The refractive index of the Sb-doped films strongly increased with the Sb content and reached the largest value for the PLD films. The results verify that both techniques are suitable for deposition of thin glassy films with high optical quality.

  7. GOS.SP.ASS.'98: an assessment for speech disorders associated with cleft palate and/or velopharyngeal dysfunction (revised).

    PubMed

    Sell, D; Harding, A; Grunwell, P

    1999-01-01

    In 1994 the present authors proposed a speech assessment protocol for speech disorders associated with cleft palate and/or velopharyngeal dysfunction known as GOS.SP.ASS. (Great Ormond Street Speech Assessment). In a recent survey undertaken to review the different speech assessment protocols used in six cleft palate centres in the UK, GOS.SP.ASS. was selected from six protocols as the optimal procedure for clinical and research purposes. The process of identifying an optimal procedure involved analysis of completed forms for each assessment. Analysis of the completed GOS.SP.ASS. forms revealed significant ambiguities in the protocol which led to differences in form completion. This paper describes important revisions to the original GOS.SP.ASS. protocol in order to ensure comparable data from different clinicians. This detailed speech assessment is now complemented by the Cleft Audit Protocol for Speech (CAPS), a tool recommended for clinical audit. As a result of close collaboration in their preparation, the results are directly comparable. In addition, the speech elicitation sentences and the phonetic diagram have been modified.

  8. Electrical conductivity studies in (Ag3AsS3)x(As2S3)1-x superionic glasses and composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studenyak, I. P.; Neimet, Yu. Yu.; Kranjčec, M.; Solomon, A. M.; Orliukas, A. F.; Kežionis, A.; Kazakevičius, E.; Šalkus, T.

    2014-01-01

    Compositional, frequency, and temperature studies of impedance and electrical conductivity in (Ag3AsS3)x(As2S3)1-x superionic glasses and composites were performed. Frequency range from 10 Hz to 3 × 109 Hz and temperature interval 300-400 K were used for the measurements. Compositional dependences of electrical conductivity and activation energy are analyzed; the most substantial changes are observed with the transition from (Ag3AsS3)0.4(As2S3)0.6 glass to (Ag3AsS3)0.5(As2S3)0.5 composite. With increase of Ag3AsS3 content, the investigated materials are found to have crystalline inclusions and show the two-phase composite nature. Addition of Ag3AsS3 leads to the increase of electrical conductivity whereas the activation energy decreases.

  9. Illustrated identification keys to strongylid parasites (Strongylidae: Nematoda) of horses, zebras and asses (Equidae).

    PubMed

    Lichtenfels, J Ralph; Kharchenko, Vitaliy A; Dvojnos, Grigory M

    2008-09-15

    The Equidae (the horse, Equus caballus, the ass, Equus asinus, zebras and their hybrids) are hosts to a great variety of nematode parasites, some of which can cause significant morbidity or mortality if individual hosts are untreated. Worldwide the nematode parasites of horses belong to 7 suborders, 12 families, 29 genera and 83 species. The great majority (19 of 29 genera and 64 of 83 species) are members of the family Strongylidae, which includes the most common and pathogenic nematode parasites of horses. Only the Strongylidae are included in this treatise. The Strongylidae (common name strongylids) of horses--nematodes with a well-developed buccal capsule, a mouth collar with two leaf-crowns, and a strongyloid (common name of superfamily Strongyloidea) copulatory bursa--can be separated into two subfamilies: Strongylinae (common name strongylins), usually large or medium-sized with a globular or funnel-shaped buccal capsule; and Cyathostominae (common name cyathostomins), usually small to medium-sized with a cylindrical buccal capsule. The increased attention to strongylid nematode parasites of horses has resulted in the need for updated diagnostic keys to these parasites using readily recognizable characters and the most recent literature on their systematics. Because the cyathostomins have been historically difficult to identify, and because they have emerged as the most significant nematode pathogens of horses, we provide a brief nomenclatural and taxonomic history and an introduction to the morphology of this group. This treatise is intended to serve as a basic working tool--providing easy identifications to genus and species of adult strongylid nematodes of equids. All strongylid nematodes normally parasitic in horses, the ass (and their hybrids), and zebras are included. The keys are illustrated with line drawings and halftone photomicrographs of each species. A short discussion of the systematics of the genus and species is provided for each genus

  10. African Aesthetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abiodun, Rowland

    2001-01-01

    No single traditional discipline can adequately supply answers to the many unresolved questions in African art history. Because of the aesthetic, cultural, historical, and, not infrequently, political biases, already built into the conception and development of Western art history, the discipline of art history as defined and practiced in the West…

  11. "African Connection."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Cathy; And Others

    This interdisciplinary unit provides students in grades kindergarten through seventh grade an opportunity to understand diversity through a study of Africa as a diverse continent. The project is designed to provide all elementary students with cultural enrichment by exposing them to African music, art, storytelling, and movement. This project can…

  12. High power broadband mid-infrared supercontinuum fiber laser using a novel chalcogenide AsSe2 photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diouf, Mbaye; Ben Salem, Amine; Cherif, Rim; Wague, Ahmadou; Zghal, Mourad

    2016-05-01

    A high power supercontinuum (SC) based on a new type of chalcogenide AsSe2 material for broadband mid-infrared light source is numerically reported. Ultra-broadband coherent mid-IR SC generation with more than 3 octave-spanning from 1.7 to 14 μm in a novel design of chalcogenide AsSe2 photonic crystal fiber (PCF) is demonstrated. To the best of our knowledge and aiming to properly model the nonlinear propagation, an accurate fit of the Raman response function and the corresponding Raman gain of the novel AsSe2 chalcogenide glass are proposed numerically for the first time. The obtained SC is generated by pumping at 3.9 μm in the anomalous dispersion regime in only 8 mm long fiber. Our study shows that the initially generated SC from 150 fs pulse duration with 8.8 kW peak power exhibits high power proportion of more than 80% for wavelengths beyond 3 μm which is very promising for designing high power SC fiber laser sources in the mid-IR atmospheric windows and the molecular fingerprint region.

  13. Obesity and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  14. Satellite Data and Hydrological Model to Asses Water Quantity and Quality in the Yangtze River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancini, Marco; Li, Jiren; Corbari, Chiara; Zhang, Xingnan; Fang, Yuanhao; Xin, Jinfeng; Zhang, Jianli; Su, Bob

    2014-11-01

    The main objective of the project (ID 10664) is to assess water quantity and quality for the Yangtze River basin through remote sensing data and a distributed hydrological model. Water quantity analyses are assed with a fully distributed hydrological model FEST-EWB which is calibrated assimilating satellite-based Land Surface Temperature (LST) tuning soil and vegetation parameters in each pixel of the domain as a complementary method to the traditional calibration with local Soil Moisture or discharge data. This approach is feasible because the model algorithm uses the land surface temperature as state variable that is directly compared to the satellite LST. The model computes the pixel water balance solving the system of energy and mass balances in terms of a representative equilibrium temperature (RET), that is the land surface temperature that closes the energy balance equation and so governs the fluxes of energy and mass over the basin domain. This equilibrium surface temperature, is comparable to LST as retrieved from operational remote sensing data (MODIS and AATSR) which is used for the calibration of soil and vegetation parameters. FEST-EWB is run for the whole Yangtze River basin at spatial resolution of 0.05° and temporal resolution of 3 hours. Results are provided in terms of hourly evapotranspiration, soil moisture and land surface temperature maps at a pixel resolution and in term of flow duration curves for four river cross sections for the period 2003-2006 where observed data are available. The effects of the Three Gorges dam, the largest hydropower project in the world, is evaluated on the Yangtze flow regime as well as on the two large lakes (Poyang and Dongting) which change considerably their area during the seasons. Satellite data (MERIS) provide in these cases a control of the surface lake dynamic of these water bodies. Cooperation activities between Chinese and European teams is also demonstrated from the use of the FEST-EWB algorithms in the

  15. Spectroelectrochemistry and modeling of enargite (Cu3AsS4) reactivity under atmospheric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gow, Robert Nicholas Verne

    Raman spectroscopy has been a useful technology for fundamental studies in the mining industry. Surface changes through oxidation and reduction reactions can be monitored in-situ, allowing the changes to be monitored in real time. In conjunction with cyclic voltammetry, to change the conditions at which a mineral surface is subjected to, reaction and reaction conditions can be identified. The results can then be plotted to create a map similar to that of an EH-pH diagram. In this study, the copper arsenic sulfide mineral, enargite (Cu 3AsS4) was subjected to a series of tests. Relatively pure samples were obtained from Butte, MT and Quirivilca, Peru and used to create mineral electrodes. The electrodes were cycled over an EH range of -1000 to +1000 mV (vs SHE) at pH values ranging from 1 to 13. Changes to the surface of the mineral were identified by comparing Raman spectra to a mineral Raman database. Plotted results were then compared against mass-balanced EH-pH diagrams for the Cu-As-S-H2O system, created using the STABCAL thermodynamic calculation program. Ultimately, the EH-pH diagram is modified based on the results, and an updated version was created. The mass-balanced methodology is applied, in conjunction with Gibbs' phase rule, to an aqueous quaternary system. Variations in EH-pH diagrams of the Cu-As-S-H2O system based on slight changes in concentrations of copper, arsenic and sulfur are examined. Finally, a novel nano-graphene material was tested for its ability to adsorb arsenic. Arsenic remediation, downstream of an enargite leach, remains an unsolved issue. The nano-graphene platelets were not able to successfully reduce arsenic levels in solution below the EPA-required limitation of 10 ppb. A thermodynamic evaluation of the adsorption characterized the process as physisorption, and likely unsuitable for long-term arsenic storage. A functionalized version of the nano-graphene may enhance results.

  16. Solvothermal syntheses, crystal structures, and properties of lanthanide(III) thioarsenates [Ln(dien)2(μ-1κ,2κ2-AsS4)]n (Ln==Sm, Eu, Gd) and [Ln(dien)2(1κ2-AsS4)] (Ln==Tb, Dy, Ho)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang; Tang, Chunying; Chen, Ruihong; Zhang, Yong; Jia, Dingxian

    2013-10-01

    Solvothermal reactions of Ln2O3, As and S in diethylenetriamine (dien) at 170 °C for 6 days afforded two structural types of lanthanide thioarsenates with the general formulae [Ln(dien)2(μ-1κ,2κ2-AsS4)]n [Ln=Sm(1), Eu(2), Gd(3)] and [Ln(dien)2(1κ2-AsS4)] [Ln=Tb(4), Dy(5), Ho(6)]. The Ln2O3 oxides were converted to [Ln(dien)2]3+ complex units in the solvothermal reactions. The As atom binds four S atoms, forming a tetrahedral AsS4 unit. In 1-3, the AsS4 units interconnect the [Ln(dien)2]3+ cations via Ln-S bonds as tridentate μ-1κ,2κ2-AsS4 bridging ligands, resulting in the neutral coordination polymers [Ln(dien)2(μ-1κ,2κ2-AsS4)]n (Ln1). In 4-6, the AsS4 units coordinate with the Ln3+ ion of [Ln(dien)2]3+ as 1κ2-AsS4 chelating ligands to form neutral coordination compounds [Ln(dien)2(1κ2-AsS4)] (Ln2). The Ln3+ ions are in nine- and eight-coordinated environments in Ln1 and Ln2, respectively. The formation of Ln1 and Ln2 is related with ionic size of the Ln3+ ions. Optical absorption spectra showed that 1-6 have potential use as semiconductors with the band gaps in the range 2.18-3.21 eV.

  17. Structure and vibrational modes of AgI-doped AsSe glasses: Raman scattering and ab initio calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Kostadinova, O.; Chrissanthopoulos, A.; Petkova, T.; Petkov, P.; Yannopoulos, S.N.

    2011-02-15

    We report an investigation of the structure and vibrational modes of (AgI){sub x} (AsSe){sub 100-x}, bulk glasses using Raman spectroscopy and first principles calculations. The short- and medium-range structural order of the glasses was elucidated by analyzing the reduced Raman spectra, recorded at off-resonance conditions. Three distinct local environments were revealed for the AsSe glass including stoichiometric-like and As-rich network sub-structures, and cage-like molecules (As{sub 4}Se{sub n}, n=3, 4) decoupled from the network. To facilitate the interpretation of the Raman spectra ab initio calculations are employed to study the geometric and vibrational properties of As{sub 4}Se{sub n} molecular units that are parts of the glass structure. The incorporation of AgI causes appreciable structural changes into the glass structure. AgI is responsible for the population reduction of molecular units and for the degradation of the As-rich network-like sub-structure via the introduction of As-I terminal bonds. Ab initio calculations of mixed chalcohalide pyramids AsSe{sub m}I{sub 3-m} provided useful information augmenting the interpretation of the Raman spectra. -- Graphical abstract: Raman scattering and ab initio calculations are employed to study the structure of AgI-AsSe superionic glasses. The role of mixed chalcohalide pyramidal units as illustrated in the figure is elucidated. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} Doping binary As-Se glasses with AgI cause dramatic changes in glass structure. {yields} Raman scattering and ab initio calculations determine changes in short- and medium-range order. {yields} Three local environments exist in AsSe glass including a network sub-structure and cage-like molecules. {yields} Mixed chalcohalide pyramids AsSe{sub m}I{sub 3-m} dominate the AgI-doped glass structure.

  18. Effective Partnership is an underpinning of ANSI/ASSE Z88.2–2015 Practices for Respiratory Protection

    PubMed Central

    Metzler, Richard W.; Spelce, David; Johnson, James S.; Rehak, Timothy R

    2016-01-01

    In the U.S., respiratory protection is broadly supported by a system of coordinated efforts among governmental organizations, professional associations, researchers, industrial hygienists, manufacturers, and others who produce knowledge, best practice guidance, standards, regulations, technologies, and products to assure workers can be effectively protected. Ultimately, the work of these partners is applied by employers in establishing and implementing an effective ANSI/ASSE Z88.2–2015 conforming respirator program. This article describes key partners and their activities and/or responsibilities to assure an effective respirator program. PMID:27563169

  19. Africans in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Ayanna; Spangler, Earl

    This book introduces African-American history and culture to children. The first Africans in America came from many different regions and cultures, but became united in this country by being black, African, and slaves. Once in America, Africans began a long struggle for freedom which still continues. Slavery, the Civil War, emancipation, and the…

  20. Therapy with African Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwadiora, Emeka

    1996-01-01

    Informs helping professionals about the unique history and challenges of African families to guide them toward providing ethnically sensitive psychological services to African immigrant families in need. African families undergo great stress when faced with the alienation of being Black and African in a Euro-American culture. (SLD)

  1. African Outreach Workshop 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Nancy J.

    This report discusses the 1974 African Outreach Workshop planned and coordinated by the African Studies Program at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Its major aim was to assist teachers in developing curriculum units on African using materials available in their local community. A second aim was for the African Studies Program to…

  2. Internal friction in silver-containing (Ag3AsS3) x (As2S3)100 - x superionic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilanych, V. S.; Buchuk, R. Yu.; Skubenych, K. V.; Makauz, I. I.; Studenyak, I. P.

    2012-12-01

    The mechanical properties of glasses in the Ag3AsS3-As2S3 system have been studied by the internal friction method. Measurements of internal friction and shear modulus have been carried out in the temperature interval 80-300 K at deformation frequencies of 10-50 mHz. Relaxation-type maxima of internal friction have been revealed. It has been shown that the concentration-induced variations in the parameters of the mechanical relaxation process in (Ag3AsS3) x (As2S3)100 - x glasses observed in the region of 20 at % Ag3AsS3 are of the threshold character. It has been established that this feature can be associated with the variation in the structural unit, which accounts for the process of mechanical energy dissipation within the temperature interval 150-250 K.

  3. Two distinct mtDNA lineages among captive African penguins in Japan.

    PubMed

    Murata, Michiko; Murakami, Masaru

    2014-04-01

    The African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) is one of the world's most endangered seabirds. In Japan, although the number of African penguins in captivity continues to increase, genetic data have not been collected for either wild or captive populations. To reveal genetic diversity and characterization in captive African penguins, we analyzed the nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from a sample of 236 African penguins. Analysis of 433 bp of the control region and 1,140 bp of cytochrome b sequences revealed the existence of two mtDNA clades. Control region haplotypes were much more divergent (d=3.39%) between the two clades than within each clade. The divergence of these clades may reflect differences at the subspecies or geographical population level in African penguins. These findings suggest that at least two distinct maternal lineages exist in the wild populations of the African penguin. PMID:24317269

  4. Two distinct mtDNA lineages among captive African penguins in Japan.

    PubMed

    Murata, Michiko; Murakami, Masaru

    2014-04-01

    The African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) is one of the world's most endangered seabirds. In Japan, although the number of African penguins in captivity continues to increase, genetic data have not been collected for either wild or captive populations. To reveal genetic diversity and characterization in captive African penguins, we analyzed the nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from a sample of 236 African penguins. Analysis of 433 bp of the control region and 1,140 bp of cytochrome b sequences revealed the existence of two mtDNA clades. Control region haplotypes were much more divergent (d=3.39%) between the two clades than within each clade. The divergence of these clades may reflect differences at the subspecies or geographical population level in African penguins. These findings suggest that at least two distinct maternal lineages exist in the wild populations of the African penguin.

  5. Unavailability of wild relatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The unavailability of crop wild relatives may come in many forms, including limited possibilities of gene flow with related species due to clonality, differing ploidy levels, or other crossing barriers between species. Alternatively, it may simply mean that we lack information about the wild relativ...

  6. Project Wild (Project Tame).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegenthaler, David

    For 37 states in the United States, Project Wild has become an officially sanctioned, distributed and funded "environemtnal and conservation education program." For those who are striving to implement focused, sequential, learning programs, as well as those who wish to promote harmony through a non-anthropocentric world view, Project Wild may…

  7. Computational modeling of the structure and the ionic conductivity of the solid electrolyte materials Li3AsS4 and its Ge substitutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Qawasmeh, Ahmad; Holzwarth, N. A. W.

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (G. Sahu et al.) reported that the substitution of Ge into Li3AsS4 leads to the composition Li3.334Ge0.334As0.666S4 with impressively high ionic conductivity . We use ab initio calculations to examine the structural relationships and the ionic conductivity mechanisms for pure Li3AsS4, Li3.334Ge0.334As0.666S4, and other compositions of these electrolytes. Supported by NSF Grant DMR-1105485 and 1507942 and WFU's DEAC cluster.

  8. Call of the wild.

    PubMed

    Berman, Emanuel

    2007-09-01

    Freud described "wild analysis" as an undisciplined version of psychoanalysis; but the new Penguin series of Freud's writings collects many of his papers under the title Wild Analysis, challenging the differentiation. This paper traces wild elements at the core of psychoanalytic thought, crediting Groddeck, Ferenczi, and Winnicott for bringing them to the open. The image of the wild analyst can serve us as the image of the deeply involved, personally motivated analyst, whose work is intense and emotionally risky. This is the opposite of the "civilized" analyst who uses well-defined existing paths, takes no personal risks, and therefore stays at an emotional distance from his/her patients. Every analyst's capacity to develop a unique analytic self, based on his/her genuine life experience and worldview, is endangered if stepping out of line is slandered as "wild analysis" or as insanity. The relevance of these issues for contemporary psychoanalytic thought and education is demonstrated.

  9. Race Still Matters: How Race Influences Success and Satisfaction for African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Santiba D.

    2010-01-01

    Research by the American Council on Education (Wilds, 2000) has shown that while graduation rates for African Americans have increased, they are still below that of Whites. This difference may be explained by race. It is probable that African American students are facing more experiences with racial discrimination or other factors that make their…

  10. Effect of impurities and growth parameters on the quality of Tl3AsSe3 optical crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, N. B.; Su, Ching-Hua; Arnold, Bradley; Choa, Fow-Sen; Nagaradona, Teja

    2016-10-01

    Thallium arsenic selenide (Tl3AsSe3) stoichiometric source materials suitable for crystal growth was synthesized in a horizontal furnace using purified parent components Tl, As and Se. Single crystal was grown using a two zone vertical Bridgman furnace using capillary for nucleation. A thermal gradient 18-20 K/cm and growth speed of 1 cm/day was used in vertical Bridgman furnace during crystal growth. Crystals were free from micro cracks and precipitates and demonstrated good fabricability. Results indicated that lower gradient and low growth rate are key to reduce thermal stresses in this ternary Tl-As-Se material system. Measured dielectric values in the range of 10 Hz to 100 KHz were almost constant indicating its suitability for applications in a range of frequency where constant dielectric is required.

  11. Isoabsorption and spectrometric studies of optical absorption edge in Cu6AsS5I superionic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studenyak, I. P.; Kayla, M. I.; Kranjčec, M.; Kokhan, O. P.; Minets, Yu. V.

    2011-12-01

    Cu6AsS5I single crystals were grown using chemical vapour transport method. Two low-temperature phase transitions (PT) are observed from isoabsorption studies: a first-order PT at ТІ=153±1 K and a second-order PT in the temperature interval TІI=260-280 K. At low temperatures and high absorption levels an excitonic absorption band was revealed in the range of direct optical transitions. At Т>ТІ, the absorption edge has an exponential shape and a characteristic Urbach bundle is observed. The influence of the cationic P→As substitution on the parameters of the Urbach absorption edge, parameters of exciton-phonon interaction, and phase transitions temperatures are studied.

  12. Wild chimpanzees are infected by Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Jirků, Milan; Votýpka, Jan; Petrželková, Klára J.; Jirků-Pomajbíková, Kateřina; Kriegová, Eva; Vodička, Roman; Lankester, Felix; Leendertz, Siv Aina J.; Wittig, Roman M.; Boesch, Christophe; Modrý, David; Ayala, Francisco J.; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Lukeš, Julius

    2015-01-01

    Although wild chimpanzees and other African great apes live in regions endemic for African sleeping sickness, very little is known about their trypanosome infections, mainly due to major difficulties in obtaining their blood samples. In present work, we established a diagnostic ITS1-based PCR assay that allows detection of the DNA of all four Trypanosoma brucei subspecies (Trypanosoma bruceibrucei, Trypanosoma bruceirhodesiense, Trypanosoma bruceigambiense, and Trypanosoma bruceievansi) in feces of experimentally infected mice. Next, using this assay we revealed the presence of trypanosomes in the fecal samples of wild chimpanzees and this finding was further supported by results obtained using a set of primate tissue samples. Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS1 region showed that the majority of obtained sequences fell into the robust T. brucei group, providing strong evidence that these infections were caused by T. b. rhodesiense and/or T. b. gambiense. The optimized technique of trypanosome detection in feces will improve our knowledge about the epidemiology of trypanosomes in primates and possibly also other endangered mammals, from which blood and tissue samples cannot be obtained. Finally, we demonstrated that the mandrill serum was able to efficiently lyse T. b. brucei and T. b. rhodesiense, and to some extent T. b. gambiense, while the chimpanzee serum failed to lyse any of these subspecies. PMID:26110113

  13. Wild boar attacks.

    PubMed

    Gunduz, Abdulkadir; Turedi, Suleyman; Nuhoglu, Irfan; Kalkan, Asim; Turkmen, Suha

    2007-01-01

    Attacks on humans by wild boar (Sus scrofa) are occasionally reported in rural areas of Turkey. While fatalities are rare, individuals may sustain significant soft tissue trauma. Lower extremity lacerations of up to 10 cm in length and 4 cm deep were seen in the 3 cases reviewed. Injuries to the upper abdomen and chest occurred in one case. Attacks frequently occur in forested areas covered by dense brushwood, and their incidence is increased during the rutting season. In contrast to other large, feral animal attacks, injuries sustained from wild boar typically are limited to the lower extremities. This case series examines 3 attacks by wild boar in rural Turkey.

  14. Fragmentation of the habitat of wild ungulates by anthropogenic barriers in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takehiko Y; Lhagvasuren, Badamjav; Tsunekawa, Atsushi; Shinoda, Masato; Takatsuki, Seiki; Buuveibaatar, Bayarbaatar; Chimeddorj, Buyanaa

    2013-01-01

    Habitat loss and habitat fragmentation caused by anthropogenic activities are the main factors that constrain long-distance movement of ungulates. Mongolian gazelles (Procapra gutturosa) and Asiatic wild asses (Equus hemionus) in Mongolia are facing habitat fragmentation and loss. To better understand how their movements respond to potential anthropogenic and natural barriers, we tracked 24 Mongolian gazelles and 12 wild asses near the Ulaanbaatar-Beijing Railroad and the fenced international border between Mongolia and China between 2002 and 2012. None of the tracked gazelles crossed the railroad, even though gazelles were captured on both sides of the tracks at the start of the study. Similarly, we did not observe cross-border movements between Mongolia and China for either species, even though some animals used areas adjacent to the border. The both species used close areas to the anthropogenic barriers more frequently during winter than summer. These results suggest strong impacts by the artificial barriers. The construction of new railroads and roads to permit mining and other resource development therefore creates the threat of further habitat fragmentation, because the planned routes will divide the remaining non-fragmented habitats of the ungulates into smaller pieces. To conserve long-distance movement of the ungulates in this area, it will be necessary to remove or mitigate the barrier effects of the existing and planned roads and railroads and to adopt a landscape-level approach to allow access by ungulates to wide ranges throughout their distribution. PMID:23437291

  15. Temperature behaviour of optical parameters in (Ag3AsS3)0.3(As2S3)0.7 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutsyk, Mykhailo M.; Ráti, Yosyp Y.; Izai, Vitalii Y.; Makauz, Ivan I.; Studenyak, Ihor P.; Kökényesi, Sandor; Komada, Paweł; Zhailaubayev, Yerkin; Smailov, Nurzhigit

    2015-12-01

    (Ag3AsS3)0.3(As2S3)0.7 thin films were deposited onto a quartz substrate by rapid thermal evaporation. The optical transmission spectra of thin films were measured in the temperature range 77-300 K. It is shown that the absorption edge spectra are described by the Urbach rule. The temperature behaviour of absorption spectra was studied, the temperature dependences of energy position of absorption edge and Urbach energy were investigated. The influence of transition from three-dimensional glass to the two-dimensional thin film as well as influence of Ag3AsS3 introduction into As2S3 on the optical parameters of (Ag3AsS3)0.3(As2S3)0.7 were analysed. The spectral and temperature behaviour or refractive index for (Ag3AsS3)0.3(As2S3)0.7 thin film were studied.

  16. Structural and electrical investigation of (Ag3AsS3) x (As2S3)1- x superionic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studenyak, Ihor; Neimet, Yuriy; Cserháti, Csaba; Kökényesi, Sándor; Kazakevičius, Edvardas; Šalkus, Tomas; Kežionis, Algimantas; Orliukas, Antanas

    2012-02-01

    Structural studies of (Ag3AsS3) x (As2S3)1- x chalcogenide superionic glasses in the compositional range x = 0.3-0.9 were performed by scanning electron microscopy. Temperature and compositional dependences of transmission coefficient, electrical conductivity, and activation energy were investigated

  17. Karyotypic relationships in Asiatic asses (kulan and kiang) as defined using horse chromosome arm-specific and region-specific probes.

    PubMed

    Musilova, Petra; Kubickova, Svatava; Horin, Petr; Vodicka, Roman; Rubes, Jiri

    2009-01-01

    Cross-species chromosome painting has been applied to most of the species making up the numerically small family Equidae. However, comparative mapping data were still lacking in Asiatic asses kulan (Equus hemionus kulan) and kiang (E. kiang). The set of horse arm-specific probes generated by laser microdissection was hybridized onto kulan (E. hemionus kulan) and kiang (E. kiang) chromosomes in order to establish a genome-wide chromosomal correspondence between these Asiatic asses and the horse. Moreover, region-specific probes were generated to determine fusion configuration and orientation of conserved syntenic blocks. The kulan karyotype (2n = 54) was ascertained to be almost identical to the previously investigated karyotype of onager E. h. onager (2n = 56). The only difference is in fusion/fission of chromosomes homologous to horse 2q/3q, which are involved in chromosome number polymorphism in many Equidae species. E. kiang karyotype differs from the karyotype of E. hemionus by two additional fusions 8q/15 and 7/25. Chromosomes equivalent to 2q and 3q are not fused in kiang individuals with 2n = 52. Several discrepancies in centromere positions among kulan, kiang and horse chromosomes have been described. Most of the chromosome fusions in Asiatic asses are of centromere-centromere type. Comparative chromosome painting in kiang completed the efforts to establish chromosomal homologies in all representatives of the family Equidae. Application of region-specific probes allows refinement comparative maps of Asiatic asses.

  18. The Wild Bunch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Bibi; Brook, Richard; Tisdale, Mary; Wooster, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes the history of wild horses in North America and explains the social structure of horses. Discusses issues related to wildlife management. Presents activities for classroom use and includes a list of references and resources. (YDS)

  19. The African Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2012-01-01

    From student and faculty exchanges to joint research projects, U.S. universities maintain a broad spectrum of collaborative relationships with African universities. It's unclear how many U.S. colleges and universities have partnerships with African universities. The African Studies Association, an organization of scholars, doesn't keep that kind…

  20. Linguistic Imperialism: African Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Responds to an article on aspects of African language policy and discusses the following issues: multilingualism and monolingualism, proposed changes in language policy from the Organization for African Unity and South African initiatives, the language of literature, bilingual education, and whose interests English-language teaching is serving.…

  1. Synthesis, structure and characterization of two new copper(І)-thioarsenates (ІІІ) constructed by the [AsS3]3- and CuSx units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Hua-Gang; Ji, Min; Ji, Shou-Hua; An, Yong-Lin

    2013-02-01

    Two new copper(І)-thioarsenates(ІІІ), CsCu2AsS3(1) and KCu4AsS4(2), have been synthesized solvothermally in the presence of copper powder. Compound 1 is built up of trigonal AsS3 pyramid, tetrahedral CuAsS3 and CuS3 moieties forming 4-membered, 5-membered and 6-membered rings. The fusion of these rings produces layered anions [Cu2AsS3]-, and cesium cations are located between metal-sulfide layers. The structure of 2 consists of infinite [Cu2S2]2- chain and layered [Cu6As2S6] linked to form a three-dimensional anionic framework, [Cu4AsS4]-, and containing channels in which the potassium cations reside.

  2. Prognostic factors in a cohort of antisynthetase syndrome (ASS): serologic profile is associated with mortality in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD).

    PubMed

    Rojas-Serrano, Jorge; Herrera-Bringas, Denisse; Mejía, Mayra; Rivero, Hermes; Mateos-Toledo, Heidegger; Figueroa, José E

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of the present study were to compare the survival function of antisynthetase syndrome (ASS) Jo1-positive patients with ASS non-Jo1 patients, all with interstitial lung disease (ILD), and to evaluate other factors such as the extension of pulmonary disease and the time between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis and its association to survival in a cohort of ASS patients. Patients with ASS, all with ILD, were included. At the baseline, pulmonary function tests were realized and a high-resolution chest tomography was obtained; lung inflammation and fibrosis were measured with the Goh score and the Kazerooni index. The following autoantibodies were measured: Jo1, Ej, Oj, PL7, and PL12. Patients had to be positive for one of them in order to be included in the study. The survival function was estimated and compared with the log rank test, and the hazard ratio (HR) was estimated using Cox regression procedure. Forty-three patients were included, of which six patients died (14 %). Patients who died were different in comparison with survivors as regards the frequency of anti-Jo1 positivity: Survivors had anti-Jo1 autoantibodies more frequently (86 %) than patients who died (50 %). The univariate Cox regression analysis identified four variables associated with survival: Jo1 status, arthritis, extent of ground glass, and consolidation (inflammation) in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and baseline forced vital capacity. The serological status of patients (Jo1-positive vs non-Jo1), the extent of lung inflammation in the HRCT scan, a low forced vital capacity, and arthritis are associated with survival in ASS patients.

  3. Molecular epidemiology of paramyxoviruses in Zambian wild rodents and shrews.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Michihito; Muleya, Walter; Ishii, Akihiro; Orba, Yasuko; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Moonga, Ladslav; Thomas, Yuka; Kimura, Takashi; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2014-02-01

    Rodents and shrews are known to harbour various viruses. Paramyxoviruses have been isolated from Asian and Australian rodents, but little is known about them in African rodents. Recently, previously unknown paramyxovirus sequences were found in South African rodents. To date, there have been no reports related to the presence and prevalence of paramyxoviruses in shrews. We found a high prevalence of paramyxoviruses in wild rodents and shrews from Zambia. Semi-nested reverse transcription-PCR assays were used to detect paramyxovirus RNA in 21 % (96/462) of specimens analysed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these viruses were novel paramyxoviruses and could be classified as morbillivirus- and henipavirus-related viruses, and previously identified rodent paramyxovirus-related viruses. Our findings suggest the circulation of previously unknown paramyxoviruses in African rodents and shrews, and provide new information regarding the geographical distribution and genetic diversity of paramyxoviruses. PMID:24189618

  4. Evidence for Chlamydia in wild mammals of the Serengeti.

    PubMed

    Pospischil, Andreas; Kaiser, Carmen; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans; Hilbe, Monika; Vaughan, Lloyd; Borel, Nicole

    2012-10-01

    Only limited information is available on the presence of Chlamydiaceae in wildlife, a deficit that is particularly acute concerning mammalian wildlife in Africa. In a retrospective analysis of organ material from an earlier study on wild mammals from the Seregenti National Park, 521 samples from 54 animals of 14 mammalian species were investigated. The presence of Chlamydiaceae was analyzed using molecular methods and immunohistochemistry. Chlamydial DNA was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues from large ruminants (African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, n=4) and a large predator (spotted hyena, Crocuta crocuta, n=1). Microarray results revealed Chlamydia abortus in all cases, confirmed by sequencing of selected samples, and a mixed infection with Chlamydia abortus and Chlamydia pneumoniae in an African buffalo. This is the first report of Chlamydiaceae in African wildlife of the Serengeti area.

  5. Pestiviruses in wild animals.

    PubMed

    Vilcek, S; Nettleton, P F

    2006-08-25

    Pestiviruses are not strictly host-species specific and can infect not only domestic but also wild animals. The most important pestivirus, CSFV, infects domestic pigs and wild boars, which may cause a major problem for successful CSFV eradication programmes. Mainly BVDV specific antibodies have been reported in captive and free-living animals. Virus has been isolated from some of these animal species, but since BVDV can contaminate cell cultures and foetal calf serum, early reports of BVDV isolation have to be considered with caution. Genetic typing of early pestivirus isolates from wild species revealed that the majority were BVDV-1. Of the pestiviruses identified so far three species (CSFV, BVDV-1, giraffe pestivirus) and three genotypes (BDV-2, BDV-4, pronghorn) appear to circulate in wildlife animal populations. The potential for pestiviruses to spread between farm animals and free-living animals is discussed as are epidemiological and technical problems, and the future direction of research. PMID:16839713

  6. African Swine Fever Epidemic, Poland, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Śmietanka, Krzysztof; Woźniakowski, Grzegorz; Kozak, Edyta; Niemczuk, Krzysztof; Frączyk, Magdalena; Bocian, Łukasz; Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2016-07-01

    In Poland, African swine fever (ASF) emerged in February 2014; by August 2015, the virus had been detected in >130 wild boar and in pigs in 3 backyard holdings. We evaluated ASF spread in Poland during these 18 months. Phylogenetic analysis indicated repeated incursions of genetically distinct ASF viruses of genotype II; the number of cases positively correlated wild boar density; and disease spread was very slow. More cases were reported during summer than autumn. The 18-month prevalence of ASF in areas under various animal movement restrictions was 18.6% among wild boar found dead or killed by vehicles and only 0.2% in hunted wild boar. Repeated introductions of the virus into the country, the primary role of wild boar in virus maintenance, and the slow spread of the disease indicate a need for enhanced biosecurity at pig holdings and continuous and intensive surveillance for fast detection of ASF. PMID:27314611

  7. African Swine Fever Epidemic, Poland, 2014–2015

    PubMed Central

    Woźniakowski, Grzegorz; Kozak, Edyta; Niemczuk, Krzysztof; Frączyk, Magdalena; Bocian, Łukasz; Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2016-01-01

    In Poland, African swine fever (ASF) emerged in February 2014; by August 2015, the virus had been detected in >130 wild boar and in pigs in 3 backyard holdings. We evaluated ASF spread in Poland during these 18 months. Phylogenetic analysis indicated repeated incursions of genetically distinct ASF viruses of genotype II; the number of cases positively correlated wild boar density; and disease spread was very slow. More cases were reported during summer than autumn. The 18-month prevalence of ASF in areas under various animal movement restrictions was 18.6% among wild boar found dead or killed by vehicles and only 0.2% in hunted wild boar. Repeated introductions of the virus into the country, the primary role of wild boar in virus maintenance, and the slow spread of the disease indicate a need for enhanced biosecurity at pig holdings and continuous and intensive surveillance for fast detection of ASF. PMID:27314611

  8. Ecotoxicology of wild mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Shore, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    An international group of 32 scientists has critically reviewed the scientific literature on exposure and effects of environmental contaminants in wild mammals. Although the absolute number of toxicological studies in domesticated and wild mammals eclipses that for birds, a detailed examination of scientific publications and databases reveal that information for 'wild' birds is actually greater than that for 'wild' mammals. Of the various taxa of mammals, ecotoxicological data is most noticeably lacking for marsupials and monotremes. In contrast, rodents (comprising 43% of all mammal species) have been studied extensively, despite evidence of their tolerance to some organochlorine compounds, rodenticides, and even radionuclides. Mammalian species at greatest risk of exposure include those that consume a high percentage of their body weight on a daily basis (e.g., shrews, moles and bats). Aquatic mammals tend to bioaccumulate tremendous burdens of lipophilic contaminants, although storage in their fat depots may actually limit toxicity. Carnivores appear to be more sensitive to adverse effects of environmental contaminants than herbivores. Remarkably few of the thousands of compounds manufactured worldwide have been toxicologically evaluated in wild mammals, and concentrations of even fewer have been monitored in tissues. Overarching research needs include: development of new exposure/effects models and better methods for estimation of species sensitivities; generation of comparative data on contaminant bioavailability, sublethal responses and detoxication mechanisms; enhanced understanding of pesticide, industrial contaminant and metal interactions; identification of endocrine disruptive contaminants and their overall ecological significance; and finally, estimating the relative contribution of environmental contamination as a factor affecting wild mammal populations.

  9. Domestication of the donkey: Timing, processes, and indicators

    PubMed Central

    Rossel, Stine; Marshall, Fiona; Peters, Joris; Pilgram, Tom; Adams, Matthew D.; O'Connor, David

    2008-01-01

    Domestication of the donkey from the African wild ass transformed ancient transport systems in Africa and Asia and the organization of early cities and pastoral societies. Genetic research suggests an African origin for the donkey, but pinpointing the timing and location of domestication has been challenging because donkeys are uncommon in the archaeological record and markers for early phases of animal domestication are hard to determine. We present previously undescribed evidence for the earliest transport use of the donkey and new paleopathological indicators for early phases of donkey domestication. Findings are based on skeletal data from 10 ≈5,000-year-old ass skeletons recently discovered entombed in an early pharaonic mortuary complex at Abydos, Middle Egypt, and a concurrent study of 53 modern donkey and African wild ass skeletons. Morphometric studies showed that Abydos metacarpals were similar in overall proportions to those of wild ass, but individual measurements varied. Midshaft breadths resembled wild ass, but midshaft depths and distal breadths were intermediate between wild ass and domestic donkey. Despite this, all of the Abydos skeletons exhibited a range of osteopathologies consistent with load carrying. Morphological similarities to wild ass show that, despite their use as beasts of burden, donkeys were still undergoing considerable phenotypic change during the early Dynastic period in Egypt. This pattern is consistent with recent studies of other domestic animals that suggest that the process of domestication is slower and less linear than previously thought. PMID:18332433

  10. The oxidative dissolution of arsenopyrite (FeAsS) and enargite (Cu 3AsS 4) by Leptospirillum ferrooxidans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corkhill, C. L.; Wincott, P. L.; Lloyd, J. R.; Vaughan, D. J.

    2008-12-01

    Arsenopyrite (FeAsS) and enargite (Cu 3AsS 4) fractured in a nitrogen atmosphere were characterised after acidic (pH 1.8), oxidative dissolution in both the presence and absence of the acidophilic microorganism Leptospirillum ferrooxidans. Dissolution was monitored through analysis of the coexisting aqueous solution using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy and coupled ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and chemical changes at the mineral surface observed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Biologically mediated oxidation of arsenopyrite and enargite (2.5 g in 25 ml) was seen to proceed to a greater extent than abiotic oxidation, although arsenopyrite oxidation was significantly greater than enargite oxidation. These dissolution reactions were associated with the release of ˜917 and ˜180 ppm of arsenic into solution. The formation of Fe(III)-oxyhydroxides, ferric sulphate and arsenate was observed for arsenopyrite, thiosulphate and an unknown arsenic oxide for enargite. ESEM revealed an extensive coating of an extracellular polymeric substance associated with the L. ferrooxidans cells on the arsenopyrite surface and bacterial leach pits suggest a direct biological oxidation mechanism, although a combination of indirect and direct bioleaching cannot be ruled out. Although the relative oxidation rates of enargite were greater in the presence of L. ferrooxidans, cells were not in contact with the surface suggesting an indirect biological oxidation mechanism. Cells of L. ferrooxidans appear able to withstand several hundreds of ppm of As(III) and As(V).

  11. A High-Conduction Ge Substituted Li3AsS4 Solid Electrolyte with Exceptional Low Activation Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Sahu, Gayatri; Rangasamy, Ezhiylmurugan; Li, Juchuan; Chen, Yan; An, Ke; Dudney, Nancy J; Liang, Chengdu

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-ion conducting solid electrolytes show potential to enable high-energy-density secondary batteries and offer distinctive safety features as an advantage over traditional liquid electrolytes. Achieving the combination of high ionic conductivity, low activation energy, and outstanding electrochemical stability in crystalline solid electrolytes is a challenge for the synthesis of novel solid electrolytes. Herein we report an exceptionally low activation energy (Ea) and high room temperature superionic conductivity via facile aliovalent substitution of Li3AsS4 by Ge, which increased the conductivity by two orders of magnitude as compared to the parent compound. The composition Li3.334Ge0.334As0.666S4 has a high ionic conductivity of 1.12 mScm-1 at 27oC. Local Li+ hopping in this material is accompanied by distinctive low activation energy Ea of 0.17 eV being the lowest of Li+ solid conductors. Furthermore, this study demonstrates the efficacy of surface passivation of solid electrolyte to achieve compatibility with metallic lithium electrodes.

  12. Endangered Species: Wild & Rare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Endangered Species: Wild and Rare." Contents are organized into the following…

  13. Marc Chagall: "Wild Poppies."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Carolyn

    1987-01-01

    Based on a full-color reproduction of Marc Chagall's painting, "Wild Poppies," the goals of this lesson plan are to introduce students to artist's use of dreams and memories in making art, to communicate the idea that artists include their visual memories of people and things they love in their artwork, and to introduce the concepts of line and…

  14. Taming the Wild Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allyn, Pam

    2012-01-01

    As a well-known advocate for promoting wider reading and reading engagement among all children--and founder of a reading program for foster children--Pam Allyn knows that struggling readers often face any printed text with fear and confusion, like Max in the book Where the Wild Things Are. She argues that teachers need to actively create a…

  15. The African superswell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyblade, Andrew A.; Robinson, Scott W.

    1994-01-01

    Maps of residual bathymetry in the ocean basins around the African continent reveal a broad bathymetric swell in the southeastern Atlantic Ocean with an amplitude of about 500 m. We propose that this region of anomalously shallow bathymetry, together with the contiguous eastern and southern African plateaus, form a superswell which we refer to as the African superswell. The origin of the African superswell is uncertain. However, rifting and volcanism in eastern Africa, as well as heat flow measurements in southern Africa and the southeastern Atlantic Ocean, suggest that the superswell may be attributed, at least in part, to heating of the lithosphere.

  16. ASS and SULT2A1 are Novel and Sensitive Biomarkers of Acute Hepatic Injury-A Comparative Study in Animal Models.

    PubMed

    Prima, Victor; Cao, Mengde; Svetlov, Stanislav I

    2013-01-10

    Liver and kidney damage associated with polytrauma, endotoxic shock/sepsis, and organ transplantation, are among the leading causes of the multiple organ failure. Development of novel sensitive biomarkers that detect early stages of liver and kidney injury is vital for the effective diagnostics and treatment of these life-threatening conditions. Previously, we identified several hepatic proteins, including Argininosuccinate Synthase (ASS) and sulfotransferases which were degraded in the liver and rapidly released into circulation during Ischemia/Reperfusion (I/R) injury. Here we compared sensitivity and specificity of the newly developed sandwich ELISA assays for ASS and the sulfotransferase isoform SULT2A1 with the standard clinical liver and kidney tests Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) and Aspartate Transaminase (AST) in various pre-clinical models of acute injury. Our data suggest that ASS and SULT2A1 have superior characteristics for liver and kidney health assessment in endotoxemia, Ischemia/Reperfusion (I/R), chemical and drug-induced liver injury and may be of high potential value for clinical applications.

  17. Wild Duck Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    On April 7, 2005, the Deep Impact spacecraft's Impactor Target Sensor camera recorded this image of M11, the Wild Duck cluster, a galactic open cluster located 6 thousand light years away. The camera is located on the impactor spacecraft, which will image comet Tempel 1 beginning 22 hours before impact until about 2 seconds before impact. Impact with comet Tempel 1 is planned for July 4, 2005.

  18. 16 Extraordinary African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    This collection for children tells the stories of 16 African Americans who helped make America what it is today. African Americans can take pride in the heritage of these contributors to society. Biographies are given for the following: (1) Sojourner Truth, preacher and abolitionist; (2) Frederick Douglass, abolitionist; (3) Harriet Tubman, leader…

  19. African Studies Computer Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    African studies computer resources that are readily available in the United States with linkages to Africa are described, highlighting those most directly corresponding to African content. Africanists can use the following four fundamental computer systems: (1) Internet/Bitnet; (2) Fidonet; (3) Usenet; and (4) dial-up bulletin board services. The…

  20. Understanding African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward Earl

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the socialization skills, self-esteem, and academic readiness of African American males in a school environment. Discussions with students and the School Perceptions Questionnaire provided data for this investigation. The intended targets for this investigation were African American students; however, there…

  1. Africans Away from Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, John Henrik

    Africans who were brought across the Atlantic as slaves never fully adjusted to slavery or accepted its inevitability. Resistance began on board the slave ships, where many jumped overboard or committed suicide. African slaves in South America led the first revolts against tyranny in the New World. The first slave revolt in the Caribbean occurred…

  2. Keeping African Masks Real

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddington, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Art is a good place to learn about our multicultural planet, and African masks are prized throughout the world as powerfully expressive artistic images. Unfortunately, multicultural education, especially for young children, can perpetuate stereotypes. Masks taken out of context lose their meaning and the term "African masks" suggests that there is…

  3. Educating African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American…

  4. African horse sickness and African carnivores.

    PubMed

    Alexander, K A; Kat, P W; House, J; House, C; O'Brien, S J; Laurenson, M K; McNutt, J W; Osburn, B I

    1995-11-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a disease that affects equids, and is principally transmitted by Culicoides spp. that are biological vectors of AHS viruses (AHSV). The repeated spread of AHSV from sub-Saharan Africa to the Middle East, northern Africa and the Iberian peninsula indicate that a better understanding of AHS epizootiology is needed. African horse sickness has long been known to infect and cause mortality among domestic dogs that ingest virus contaminated meat, but it is uncertain what role carnivores play in transmission of the virus. We present evidence of widespread natural AHS infection among a diversity of African carnivore species. We hypothesize that such infection resulted from ingestion of meat and organs from AHS-infected prey species. The effect of AHS on the carnivores is unknown, as is their role in the maintenance cycle of the disease.

  5. Diabetes in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, M

    2005-01-01

    African Americans have a high risk for type 2 diabetes. Genetic traits, the prevalence of obesity, and insulin resistance all contribute to the risk of diabetes in the African American community. African Americans have a high rate of diabetic complications, because of poor glycaemic control and racial disparities in health care in the USA. African Americans with diabetes may have an atypical presentation that simulates type 1 diabetes, but then their subsequent clinical course is typical of type 2 diabetes. Culturally sensitive strategies, structured disease management protocols, and the assistance of nurses, diabetic educators, and other health care professionals are effective in improving the outcome of diabetes in the African American community. PMID:16344294

  6. Ecotoxicology of Wild Mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2001-01-01

    An international group of 32 scientists has critically reviewed the scientific literature on exposure and effects of environmental contaminants in wild mammals. The underlying theme of this text is encompassed by the following four questions: What exactly do we know about environmental contaminants in mammals? What are the commonalities and differences between mammal orders/species in the effects that contaminants have? How and to what degree of accuracy can we predict the adverse effects of environmental contaminants on mammalian wildlife? How significant are contaminant insults compared with other density-independent and -dependent factors such as habitat loss, climatic factors and disease? The book is organized three topical sections including introductory chapters that provide a background on environmental contaminants and the mammalian orders, eight taxonomic chapters discussing all aspects of the exposure to and effects of contaminants in mammalian orders, and four thematic chapters that review and discuss generic issues including biomarkers, prediction and extrapolation of exposure and effects, hazard and risk assessment, and the relative significance of contaminants on mammals compared with other commonly encountered stressors. A final a summary chapter identifies phylogenetic trends, critical data gaps, and overarching research needs. Although the absolute number of toxicological studies in domesticated and wild mammals eclipses that wildlife species, a detailed examination of our knowledge base reveals that information for 'wild' birds is actually greater than that for 'wild' mammals. Of the various mammalian taxa, ecotoxicological data is most noticeably lacking for marsupials and monotremes. In contrast, rodents (comprising 43% of all mammal species) have been studied extensively, despite evidence of their tolerance to some organochlorine compounds, rodenticides, and even radionuclides. Mammalian species at greatest risk of exposure include those that

  7. African bees to control African elephants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollrath, Fritz; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2002-11-01

    Numbers of elephants have declined in Africa and Asia over the past 30 years while numbers of humans have increased, both substantially. Friction between these two keystone species is reaching levels which are worryingly high from an ecological as well as a political viewpoint. Ways and means must be found to keep the two apart, at least in areas sensitive to each species' survival. The aggressive African bee might be one such method. Here we demonstrate that African bees deter elephants from damaging the vegetation and trees which house their hives. We argue that bees can be employed profitably to protect not only selected trees, but also selected areas, from elephant damage.

  8. Coronavirus genotype diversity and prevalence of infection in wild carnivores in the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Goller, Katja V; Fickel, Jörns; Hofer, Heribert; Beier, Sandra; East, Marion L

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge of coronaviruses in wild carnivores is limited. This report describes coronavirus genetic diversity, species specificity and infection prevalence in three wild African carnivores. Coronavirus RNA was recovered from fresh feces from spotted hyena and silver-backed jackal, but not bat-eared fox. Analysis of sequences of membrane (M) and spike (S) gene fragments revealed strains in the genus Alphacoronavirus, including three distinct strains in hyenas and one distinct strain in a jackal. Coronavirus RNA prevalence was higher in feces from younger (17 %) than older (3 %) hyenas, highlighting the importance of young animals for coronavirus transmission in wild carnivores. PMID:23212740

  9. Coronavirus genotype diversity and prevalence of infection in wild carnivores in the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Goller, Katja V; Fickel, Jörns; Hofer, Heribert; Beier, Sandra; East, Marion L

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge of coronaviruses in wild carnivores is limited. This report describes coronavirus genetic diversity, species specificity and infection prevalence in three wild African carnivores. Coronavirus RNA was recovered from fresh feces from spotted hyena and silver-backed jackal, but not bat-eared fox. Analysis of sequences of membrane (M) and spike (S) gene fragments revealed strains in the genus Alphacoronavirus, including three distinct strains in hyenas and one distinct strain in a jackal. Coronavirus RNA prevalence was higher in feces from younger (17 %) than older (3 %) hyenas, highlighting the importance of young animals for coronavirus transmission in wild carnivores.

  10. Antibiotic resistance in wild birds

    PubMed Central

    Bonnedahl, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Wild birds have been postulated as sentinels, reservoirs, and potential spreaders of antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have been isolated from a multitude of wild bird species. Several studies strongly indicate transmission of resistant bacteria from human rest products to wild birds. There is evidence suggesting that wild birds can spread resistant bacteria through migration and that resistant bacteria can be transmitted from birds to humans and vice versa. Through further studies of the spatial and temporal distribution of resistant bacteria in wild birds, we can better assess their role and thereby help to mitigate the increasing global problem of antibiotic resistance. PMID:24697355

  11. Antibiotic resistance in wild birds.

    PubMed

    Bonnedahl, Jonas; Järhult, Josef D

    2014-05-01

    Wild birds have been postulated as sentinels, reservoirs, and potential spreaders of antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have been isolated from a multitude of wild bird species. Several studies strongly indicate transmission of resistant bacteria from human rest products to wild birds. There is evidence suggesting that wild birds can spread resistant bacteria through migration and that resistant bacteria can be transmitted from birds to humans and vice versa. Through further studies of the spatial and temporal distribution of resistant bacteria in wild birds, we can better assess their role and thereby help to mitigate the increasing global problem of antibiotic resistance. PMID:24697355

  12. Teaching in wild meerkats.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Alex; McAuliffe, Katherine

    2006-07-14

    Despite the obvious benefits of directed mechanisms that facilitate the efficient transfer of skills, there is little critical evidence for teaching in nonhuman animals. Using observational and experimental data, we show that wild meerkats (Suricata suricatta) teach pups prey-handling skills by providing them with opportunities to interact with live prey. In response to changing pup begging calls, helpers alter their prey-provisioning methods as pups grow older, thus accelerating learning without the use of complex cognition. The lack of evidence for teaching in species other than humans may reflect problems in producing unequivocal support for the occurrence of teaching, rather than the absence of teaching.

  13. Teaching in wild meerkats.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Alex; McAuliffe, Katherine

    2006-07-14

    Despite the obvious benefits of directed mechanisms that facilitate the efficient transfer of skills, there is little critical evidence for teaching in nonhuman animals. Using observational and experimental data, we show that wild meerkats (Suricata suricatta) teach pups prey-handling skills by providing them with opportunities to interact with live prey. In response to changing pup begging calls, helpers alter their prey-provisioning methods as pups grow older, thus accelerating learning without the use of complex cognition. The lack of evidence for teaching in species other than humans may reflect problems in producing unequivocal support for the occurrence of teaching, rather than the absence of teaching. PMID:16840701

  14. Solving the Traveling Salesman's Problem Using the African Buffalo Optimization.

    PubMed

    Odili, Julius Beneoluchi; Mohmad Kahar, Mohd Nizam

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes the African Buffalo Optimization (ABO) which is a new metaheuristic algorithm that is derived from careful observation of the African buffalos, a species of wild cows, in the African forests and savannahs. This animal displays uncommon intelligence, strategic organizational skills, and exceptional navigational ingenuity in its traversal of the African landscape in search for food. The African Buffalo Optimization builds a mathematical model from the behavior of this animal and uses the model to solve 33 benchmark symmetric Traveling Salesman's Problem and six difficult asymmetric instances from the TSPLIB. This study shows that buffalos are able to ensure excellent exploration and exploitation of the search space through regular communication, cooperation, and good memory of its previous personal exploits as well as tapping from the herd's collective exploits. The results obtained by using the ABO to solve these TSP cases were benchmarked against the results obtained by using other popular algorithms. The results obtained using the African Buffalo Optimization algorithm are very competitive. PMID:26880872

  15. Solving the Traveling Salesman's Problem Using the African Buffalo Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Odili, Julius Beneoluchi; Mohmad Kahar, Mohd Nizam

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes the African Buffalo Optimization (ABO) which is a new metaheuristic algorithm that is derived from careful observation of the African buffalos, a species of wild cows, in the African forests and savannahs. This animal displays uncommon intelligence, strategic organizational skills, and exceptional navigational ingenuity in its traversal of the African landscape in search for food. The African Buffalo Optimization builds a mathematical model from the behavior of this animal and uses the model to solve 33 benchmark symmetric Traveling Salesman's Problem and six difficult asymmetric instances from the TSPLIB. This study shows that buffalos are able to ensure excellent exploration and exploitation of the search space through regular communication, cooperation, and good memory of its previous personal exploits as well as tapping from the herd's collective exploits. The results obtained by using the ABO to solve these TSP cases were benchmarked against the results obtained by using other popular algorithms. The results obtained using the African Buffalo Optimization algorithm are very competitive. PMID:26880872

  16. Astronomy for African development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govender, Kevindran

    2011-06-01

    In recent years there have been a number of efforts across Africa to develop the field of astronomy as well as to reap benefit from astronomy for African people. This presentation will discuss the case of the SALT (Southern African Large Telescope) Collateral Benefits Programme (SCBP) which was set up to ensure societal benefit from astronomy. With African society as the target, the SCBP has embarked on various projects from school level education to public understanding of science to socio-economic development, the latter mainly being felt in the rural communities surrounding the South African Astronomical Observatory (home to SALT). A development plan for ``Astronomy in Africa'' will also be discussed. This plan has been drawn up with input from all over Africa and themed ``Astronomy for Education''. The Africa case stands as a good example for the IYA cornerstone project ``Developing Astronomy Globally'' which focuses on developing regions.

  17. African American Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... specific health concerns. Differences in the health of groups can result from Genetics Environmental factors Access to care Cultural factors On this page, you'll find links to health issues that affect African Americans.

  18. African American Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... accounted for 83.8% of Caucasian elderly suicides. • Firearms were the predominant method of suicide among African ... per 100,000 annually. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Vital Statistics System. Mortality Data. ...

  19. Vocal communication in African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Soltis, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Research on vocal communication in African elephants has increased in recent years, both in the wild and in captivity, providing an opportunity to present a comprehensive review of research related to their vocal behavior. Current data indicate that the vocal repertoire consists of perhaps nine acoustically distinct call types, "rumbles" being the most common and acoustically variable. Large vocal production anatomy is responsible for the low-frequency nature of rumbles, with fundamental frequencies in the infrasonic range. Additionally, resonant frequencies of rumbles implicate the trunk in addition to the oral cavity in shaping the acoustic structure of rumbles. Long-distance communication is thought possible because low-frequency sounds propagate more faithfully than high-frequency sounds, and elephants respond to rumbles at distances of up to 2.5 km. Elephant ear anatomy appears designed for detecting low frequencies, and experiments demonstrate that elephants can detect infrasonic tones and discriminate small frequency differences. Two vocal communication functions in the African elephant now have reasonable empirical support. First, closely bonded but spatially separated females engage in rumble exchanges, or "contact calls," that function to coordinate movement or reunite animals. Second, both males and females produce "mate attraction" rumbles that may advertise reproductive states to the opposite sex. Additionally, there is evidence that the structural variation in rumbles reflects the individual identity, reproductive state, and emotional state of callers. Growth in knowledge about the communication system of the African elephant has occurred from a rich combination of research on wild elephants in national parks and captive elephants in zoological parks.

  20. Ocular melanoma and mammary mucinous carcinoma in an African lion

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Reports of neoplasms in Panthera species are increasing, but they are still an uncommon cause of disease and death in captive wild felids. The presence of two or more primary tumor in large felids is rarely reported, and there are no documented cases of ocular melanoma and mammary mucinous carcinoma in African lions. Case presentation An ocular melanoma and a mammary mucinous carcinoma are described in an African lion (Panthera leo). The first tumour was histologically characterized by the presence of epithelioid and fusiform melanocytes, while the latter was composed of mucus-producing cells with an epithelial phenotype that contained periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and Alcian blue staining mucins. Metastases of both tumor were identified in various organs and indirect immunohistochemistry was used to characterize them. Peribiliary cysts were observed in the liver. Conclusions This is the first description of these tumor in African lions. PMID:23009723

  1. Mobility-based management of livestock to improve biodiversity conservation in African savannahs: A conceptual basis for wildlife-livestock co-existence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African savannas are complex socio-ecological systems with diverse wild and domestic herbivore assemblages, which utilize functional heterogeneity of habitats to adapt to intra- and inter-annual variation in forage quantity and quality, predation and disease risks. As African savannas become increas...

  2. Characterisation of a detergent-stable alkaline protease from a novel thermophilic strain Paenibacillus tezpurensis sp. nov. AS-S24-II.

    PubMed

    Rai, Sudhir K; Roy, Jetendra K; Mukherjee, Ashis K

    2010-02-01

    An alkaline-protease-producing bacterial strain (AS-S24-II) isolated from a soil sample in Assam is a Gram-stain-positive, catalase-positive, endospore-forming rod and grows at temperatures ranging from 30 degrees C to 60 degrees C and salinity ranging from 0% to 7% (w/v) NaCl. Phenotypic characterisation, chemotaxonomic properties, presence of Paenibacillus-specific signature sequences, and ribotyping data suggested that the strain AS-S24-II represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus tezpurensis sp. nov. (MTCC 8959) is proposed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that P. lentimorbus strain DNG-14 and P. lentimorbus strain DNG-16 represent the closest phylogenetic neighbour of this novel strain. Alkaline protease production (598 x 10(3) U l(-1)) by P. tezpurensis sp. nov. in SmF was optimised by response surface method. A laundry-detergent-stable, Ca(2+)-independent, 43-kDa molecular weight alkaline serine protease from this strain was purified with a 1.7-fold increase in specific activity. The purified protease displayed optimum activity at pH 9.5 and 45-50 degrees C temperature range and exhibited a significant stability and compatibility with surfactants and most of the tested commercial laundry detergents at room temperature. Further, the protease improved the wash performance of detergents, thus demonstrating its feasibility for inclusion in laundry detergent formulations.

  3. Characterization and application of a detergent-stable alkaline α-amylase from Bacillus subtilis strain AS-S01a.

    PubMed

    Roy, Jetendra K; Rai, Sudhir K; Mukherjee, Ashis K

    2012-01-01

    A strain AS-S01a, capable of producing high-titer alkaline α-amylase, was isolated from a soil sample of Assam, India and was taxonomically identified as Bacillus subtilis strain AS-S01a. Optimized α-amylase yield by response surface method (RSM) was obtained as 799.0 U with a specific activity of 201.0 U/mg in a process control bioreactor. A 21.0 kDa alkaline α-amylase purified from this strain showed optimum activity at 55°C and pH 9.0, and it produced high molecular weight oligosaccharides including small amount of glucose from starch as the end product. The K(m) and V(max) values for this enzyme towards starch were determined as 1.9 mg/ml and 198.21 μmol/min/mg, respectively. The purified α-amylase retained its activity in presence of oxidant, surfactants, EDTA and various commercial laundry detergents, thus advocating its suitability for various industrial applications.

  4. First wild XXY house mice.

    PubMed

    Hauffe, Heidi C; Giménez, Mabel D; Garagna, Silvia; Searle, Jeremy B

    2010-07-01

    Laboratory house mice (Mus musculus) with the XXY condition can be generated with ease and have been used as a biomedical model. However, although the XXY constitution has been described in humans and many domestic and wild mammal species, and a very large number of wild house mice have been karyotyped previously, no wild individuals of M. musculus with an XXY karyotype have ever been reported. Therefore, it is rather extraordinary that two wild XXY house mice were caught by us on two different farms in northern Italy in 2008. Except for the extra X chromosome, one male had a standard karyotype (2n = 40) and the other, the karyotype of the Cremona metacentric population (2n = 22). In this paper, the phenotype of these two individuals is described. Observations for both of these wild males agree with those of laboratory XXY mice, i.e., they had a normal body mass and appearance, but significantly smaller testes than normal, and no visible germ cells. The incidence of the XXY chromosome anomaly in wild mice (two among 5,123 wild mice surveyed by us and our colleagues, i.e., approximately 0.08% among wild-caught males) is intermediate between that found in male laboratory mice (approximately 0.04%) and that found in male humans (0.2%).

  5. The Wilde analyst.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joel

    2013-03-01

    Oscar Wilde (1854-1900) took on the challenge of teaching us how to live artfully. From the dynamic successes and tragedies of his own life Oscar knew that everything worthy of existence is worthy of art, including its ugliness and suffering. Oscar observed much about human nature, especially his own, in an era when convention was not challenged, knowledge was taught and appearances were everything. For him, "The supreme vice is shallowness."(1) Society and psychoanalysis can still be honored and shaken by his words. The paradoxical and complex nature of Oscar's insights was as good as any coming from a thoughtful psychoanalyst. After the first two attempts to write about Oscar fell flat, it became clear that I must engage with him and try to match the unsparing commitment to explore his unconscious and interior life. In the process of creating the array of sketches of my psychoanalytic encounters with Oscar, I also found the words to describe what drew me to the field some 20 years ago-the art of psychoanalysis.

  6. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  7. English as an African Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desai, Gaurav

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the role of the English language in postcolonial African literature, focusing on the politics of language, "Africanized" English, and the social languages used in Chinua Achebe's novels and concludes that English today is as much an African language as a British or American one. (Contains 37 references.) (MDM)

  8. The Struggles over African Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maseko, Pam; Vale, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this interview, African Language expert Pam Maseko speaks of her own background and her first encounter with culture outside of her mother tongue, isiXhosa. A statistical breakdown of South African languages is provided as background. She discusses Western (originally missionary) codification of African languages and suggests that this approach…

  9. Construction and validation of the South African version of the Fear Survey Schedule for Children: an exploratory factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Käthe; Loxton, Helene; Kagee, Ashraf; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2012-09-01

    The Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised (Ollendick, 1983) is an 80-item self-report instrument that has been used internationally to asses the number of fears and general level of fearfulness among children. Despite its widespread use, this instrument has not been adapted to the South African context. The present study addressed this gap by means of a 2-phase investigation aimed at developing a South African version of the instrument. In Phase 1, semistructured interviews were conducted with 40 children (7 to 13 years of age). Qualitative data obtained from these interviews were used to construct additional items for inclusion in the South African Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised. The modified scale, consisting of 97 items, was then administered to a sample of 646 children between the ages of 7 and 13 years. Further psychometric considerations resulted in the final version of the scale consisting of 74 items with high internal consistency (α=.97). The factor structure was explored by means of principal component analysis with varimax rotation and a 5-factor solution was found to provide the best conceptual fit. The factors identified were as follows: Fear of Death and Danger; Fear of the Unknown; Fear of Small Animals and Minor Threats to Self; Large Animal Fears; and Situational Fears. Differences between the South African version and the original Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised are noted and implications for the study of fear in South Africa and other countries are discussed.

  10. The Genetic Structure and History of Africans and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Tishkoff, Sarah A.; Reed, Floyd A.; Friedlaender, Françoise R.; Ehret, Christopher; Ranciaro, Alessia; Froment, Alain; Hirbo, Jibril B.; Awomoyi, Agnes A.; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Juma, Abdalla T.; Kotze, Maritha J.; Lema, Godfrey; Moore, Jason H.; Mortensen, Holly; Nyambo, Thomas B.; Omar, Sabah A.; Powell, Kweli; Pretorius, Gideon S.; Smith, Michael W.; Thera, Mahamadou A.; Wambebe, Charles; Weber, James L.; Williams, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    Africa is the source of all modern humans, but characterization of genetic variation and of relationships among populations across the continent has been enigmatic. We studied 121 African populations, four African American populations, and 60 non-African populations for patterns of variation at 1327 nuclear microsatellite and insertion/deletion markers. We identified 14 ancestral population clusters in Africa that correlate with self-described ethnicity and shared cultural and/or linguistic properties. We observed high levels of mixed ancestry in most populations, reflecting historical migration events across the continent. Our data also provide evidence for shared ancestry among geographically diverse hunter-gatherer populations (Khoesan speakers and Pygmies). The ancestry of African Americans is predominantly from Niger-Kordofanian (~71%), European (~13%), and other African (~8%) populations, although admixture levels varied considerably among individuals. This study helps tease apart the complex evolutionary history of Africans and African Americans, aiding both anthropological and genetic epidemiologic studies. PMID:19407144

  11. Wild bootstrap for quantile regression.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xingdong; He, Xuming; Hu, Jianhua

    2011-12-01

    The existing theory of the wild bootstrap has focused on linear estimators. In this note, we broaden its validity by providing a class of weight distributions that is asymptotically valid for quantile regression estimators. As most weight distributions in the literature lead to biased variance estimates for nonlinear estimators of linear regression, we propose a modification of the wild bootstrap that admits a broader class of weight distributions for quantile regression. A simulation study on median regression is carried out to compare various bootstrap methods. With a simple finite-sample correction, the wild bootstrap is shown to account for general forms of heteroscedasticity in a regression model with fixed design points.

  12. The Other African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matory, J. Lorand

    Black North America is ethnically and culturally diverse. It contains many groups who do not call themselves or have not always called themselves "Negro,""Black,""African-American," and so forth, such as Louisiana Creoles of color and many of the Indian tribes east of the Mississippi. There are also numerous North American ethnic groups of African…

  13. African Oral Tradition Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Doris

    1985-01-01

    Presents the basic principles of two systems for notating African music and dance: Labanotation (created to record and analyze movements) and Greenotation (created to notate musical instruments of Africa and to parallel Labanotation whereby both music and dance are incorporated into one integrated score). (KH)

  14. Elective: African Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Kenneth V.

    The make-up of a course in African literature for high school students is discussed. It is pointed out that the course can be constructed on already familiar lines. High school students will be able to describe clearly, for example, the relationship between environment and character or the dilemma of characters caught between traditional values…

  15. Organophosphate toxicity in wild turkeys.

    PubMed

    Nettles, V F

    1976-10-01

    An accidental poisoning of wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) by O,O-Diethyl O-[p-(methylsulfinyl) phenyl] phosphorothioate is reported. Diagnosis was achieved by history, clinical observations, postmortem lesions, diagnostic therapy and pesticide analysis.

  16. Freezing African Elephant Semen as a New Population Management Tool

    PubMed Central

    Hermes, Robert; Saragusty, Joseph; Göritz, Frank; Bartels, Paul; Potier, Romain; Baker, Barbara; Streich, W. Jürgen; Hildebrandt, Thomas B.

    2013-01-01

    Background The captive elephant population is not self-sustaining and with a limited number of breeding bulls, its genetic diversity is in decline. One way to overcome this is to import young and healthy animals from the wild. We introduce here a more sustainable alternative method - importation of semen from wild bulls without removing them from their natural habitat. Due to the logistics involved, the only practical option would be to transport cryopreserved sperm. Despite some early reports on African elephant semen cryopreservation, the utility of this new population management tool has not been evaluated. Methodology/Principal Findings Semen was collected by electroejaculation from 14 wild African savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana) bulls and cryopreserved using the directional freezing technique. Sperm treatments evaluated included the need for centrifugation, the use of hen or quail yolk, the concentration of glycerol (3%, 5% or 7%) in the extender, and maintenance of motility over time after thawing. Our results suggest that dilution in an extender containing hen yolk and 7% glycerol after centrifugation best preserved post-thaw sperm motility when compared to all other treatments (P≤0.012 for all). Using this approach we were able to achieve after thawing (mean ± SD) 54.6±3.9% motility, 85.3±2.4% acrosome integrity, and 86.8±4.6% normal morphology with no decrease in motility over 1 h incubation at 37°C. Sperm cryopreserved during this study has already lead to a pregnancy of a captive female elephant following artificial insemination. Conclusions/Significance With working techniques for artificial insemination and sperm cryopreservation of both African and Asian elephants in hand, population managers can now enrich captive or isolated wild elephant populations without removing valuable individuals from their natural habitat. PMID:23483917

  17. Structural and optical properties of annealed and illuminated (Ag3AsS3)0.6(As2S3)0.4 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studenyak, I. P.; Neimet, Yu. Yu.; Rati, Y. Y.; Stanko, D.; Kranjčec, M.; Kökényesi, S.; Daróci, L.; Bohdan, R.

    2014-11-01

    (Ag3AsS3)0.6(As2S3)0.4 thin films were deposited upon a quartz substrate by rapid thermal evaporation. Structural studies of the as-deposited, annealed and illuminated films were performed using XRD, scanning electron and atomic force microscopies. Surfaces of all the films were found to be covered with Ag-rich crystalline micrometer sized cones. Thermal annealing leads to mechanical deformation of part of the cones and their detachment from the base film surface while the laser illumination leads to the new formations appearance on the surface of thin films. The spectroscopic studies of optical transmission spectra for as-deposited, annealed and illuminated thin films were carried out. The optical absorption spectra in the region of its exponential behaviour were analysed, the dispersion dependences of refractive index as well as their variation after annealing and illumination were investigated.

  18. Wild Western Lowland Gorillas Signal Selectively Using Odor

    PubMed Central

    Klailova, Michelle; Lee, Phyllis C.

    2014-01-01

    Mammals communicate socially through visual, auditory and chemical signals. The chemical sense is the oldest sense and is shared by all organisms including bacteria. Despite mounting evidence for social chemo-signaling in humans, the extent to which it modulates behavior is debated and can benefit from comparative models of closely related hominoids. The use of odor cues in wild ape social communication has been only rarely explored. Apart from one study on wild chimpanzee sniffing, our understanding is limited to anecdotes. We present the first study of wild gorilla chemo-communication and the first analysis of olfactory signaling in relation to arousal levels and odor strength in wild apes. If gorilla scent is used as a signaling mechanism instead of only a sign of arousal or stress, odor emission should be context specific and capable of variation as a function of the relationships between the emitter and perceiver(s). Measured through a human pungency scale, we determined the factors that predicted extreme levels of silverback odor for one wild western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) group silverback. Extreme silverback odor was predicted by the presence and intensity of inter-unit interactions, silverback anger, distress and long-calling auditory rates, and the absence of close proximity between the silverback and mother of the youngest infant. Odor strength also varied according to the focal silverback's strategic responses during high intensity inter-unit interactions. Silverbacks appear to use odor as a modifiable form of communication; where odor acts as a highly flexible, context dependent signaling mechanism to group members and extra-group units. The importance of olfaction to ape social communication may be especially pertinent in Central African forests where limited visibility may necessitate increased reliance on other senses. PMID:25006973

  19. Wild western lowland gorillas signal selectively using odor.

    PubMed

    Klailova, Michelle; Lee, Phyllis C

    2014-01-01

    Mammals communicate socially through visual, auditory and chemical signals. The chemical sense is the oldest sense and is shared by all organisms including bacteria. Despite mounting evidence for social chemo-signaling in humans, the extent to which it modulates behavior is debated and can benefit from comparative models of closely related hominoids. The use of odor cues in wild ape social communication has been only rarely explored. Apart from one study on wild chimpanzee sniffing, our understanding is limited to anecdotes. We present the first study of wild gorilla chemo-communication and the first analysis of olfactory signaling in relation to arousal levels and odor strength in wild apes. If gorilla scent is used as a signaling mechanism instead of only a sign of arousal or stress, odor emission should be context specific and capable of variation as a function of the relationships between the emitter and perceiver(s). Measured through a human pungency scale, we determined the factors that predicted extreme levels of silverback odor for one wild western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) group silverback. Extreme silverback odor was predicted by the presence and intensity of inter-unit interactions, silverback anger, distress and long-calling auditory rates, and the absence of close proximity between the silverback and mother of the youngest infant. Odor strength also varied according to the focal silverback's strategic responses during high intensity inter-unit interactions. Silverbacks appear to use odor as a modifiable form of communication; where odor acts as a highly flexible, context dependent signaling mechanism to group members and extra-group units. The importance of olfaction to ape social communication may be especially pertinent in Central African forests where limited visibility may necessitate increased reliance on other senses.

  20. Subclinical lumbar polyradiculopathy, polyneuritis and ganglionitis in aged wild and exotic mammalians.

    PubMed

    Anderson, W I; Cummings, J F; Steinberg, H; deLahunta, A; King, J M

    1993-07-01

    Subclinical lumbar polyradiculopathy was present in the intradural dorsal and ventral nerve rootlets of 19 aged individuals of the following wild and exotic mammalian species: woodrat, raccoon, mink, lynx, reindeer, red deer, musk ox, scimitar-horned oryx, Arabian oryx, hybrid waterbuck, Persian onager, Przewalski's wild horse, Malayan sun bear, Asian elephant, East African river hippopotamus, vervet monkey and rhesus monkey. It was characterized by mild to severe multifocal ballooning of myelin sheaths. Occasionally, ballooned myelin sheaths contained thin strands of myelin and macrophages surrounding distorted axons. Additionally, a mild incidental lymphocytic polyneuritis was present in intradural nerve rootlets of the Malayan sun bear, and a moderate lymphocytic spinal ganglionitis in the East African river hippopotamus. PMID:8408784

  1. Subclinical lumbar polyradiculopathy, polyneuritis and ganglionitis in aged wild and exotic mammalians.

    PubMed

    Anderson, W I; Cummings, J F; Steinberg, H; deLahunta, A; King, J M

    1993-07-01

    Subclinical lumbar polyradiculopathy was present in the intradural dorsal and ventral nerve rootlets of 19 aged individuals of the following wild and exotic mammalian species: woodrat, raccoon, mink, lynx, reindeer, red deer, musk ox, scimitar-horned oryx, Arabian oryx, hybrid waterbuck, Persian onager, Przewalski's wild horse, Malayan sun bear, Asian elephant, East African river hippopotamus, vervet monkey and rhesus monkey. It was characterized by mild to severe multifocal ballooning of myelin sheaths. Occasionally, ballooned myelin sheaths contained thin strands of myelin and macrophages surrounding distorted axons. Additionally, a mild incidental lymphocytic polyneuritis was present in intradural nerve rootlets of the Malayan sun bear, and a moderate lymphocytic spinal ganglionitis in the East African river hippopotamus.

  2. Phylogenomic evidence for recombination of adenoviruses in wild gorillas.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Eileen; Pauly, Maude; Robbins, Martha; Gray, Maryke; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Nishuli, Radar; Boji Mungu-Akonkwa, Dieu-Donné; Leendertz, Fabian H; Ehlers, Bernhard

    2015-10-01

    Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) of species Human mastadenovirus B (HAdV-B) are genetically highly diverse and comprise several pathogenic types. AdVs closely related to members of HAdV-B infect African great apes and the evolutionary origin of HAdV-B has recently been determined in ancient gorillas. Genetic evidence for intra- and inter-species recombination has been obtained for AdVs of humans and captive great apes, but evidence from wild great apes is lacking. In this study, potential HAdV-B members of wild Eastern gorillas were analysed for evidence of recombination. One near-complete genome was amplified from primary sample material and sequenced, and from another six individuals genome fragments were obtained. In phylogenomic analysis, their penton base, pVII-pVI, hexon and fiber genes were compared with those of all publicly available HAdV-B full-genome sequences of humans and captive great apes. Evidence for intra-species recombination between different HAdV-B members of wild gorillas as well as between HAdV-B members of chimpanzees and gorillas was obtained. Since zoonotic AdVs have been reported to cause respiratory outbreaks in both humans and monkeys, and humans in West and Central Africa frequently hunt and butcher primates thereby increasing the chance of zoonotic transmission, such HAdV-B recombinants might widen the pool of potential human pathogens. PMID:26219820

  3. Understanding traditional African healing

    PubMed Central

    MOKGOBI, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of traditional healers as well as the role of traditional healers in their communities are discussed. In conclusion, the services of traditional healers go far beyond the uses of herbs for physical illnesses. Traditional healers serve many roles which include but not limited to custodians of the traditional African religion and customs, educators about culture, counselors, social workers and psychologists. PMID:26594664

  4. 29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... horticultural commodities.” Transplanted branches which were cut from plants growing wild in the field or forest... harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild... in “the production, cultivation, growing, and harvesting of agricultural or horticultural...

  5. 29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... horticultural commodities.” Transplanted branches which were cut from plants growing wild in the field or forest... harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild... in “the production, cultivation, growing, and harvesting of agricultural or horticultural...

  6. 29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... horticultural commodities.” Transplanted branches which were cut from plants growing wild in the field or forest... harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild... in “the production, cultivation, growing, and harvesting of agricultural or horticultural...

  7. 29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... horticultural commodities.” Transplanted branches which were cut from plants growing wild in the field or forest... harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild... in “the production, cultivation, growing, and harvesting of agricultural or horticultural...

  8. 29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... horticultural commodities.” Transplanted branches which were cut from plants growing wild in the field or forest... harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild... in “the production, cultivation, growing, and harvesting of agricultural or horticultural...

  9. Human African trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Lejon, Veerle; Bentivoglio, Marina; Franco, José Ramon

    2013-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness is a neglected tropical disease that affects populations in sub-Saharan Africa. The disease is caused by infection with the gambiense and rhodesiense subspecies of the extracellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei, and is transmitted to humans by bites of infected tsetse flies. The disease evolves in two stages, the hemolymphatic and meningoencephalitic stages, the latter being defined by central nervous system infection after trypanosomal traversal of the blood-brain barrier. African trypanosomiasis, which leads to severe neuroinflammation, is fatal without treatment, but the available drugs are toxic and complicated to administer. The choice of medication is determined by the infecting parasite subspecies and disease stage. Clinical features include a constellation of nonspecific symptoms and signs with evolving neurological and psychiatric alterations and characteristic sleep-wake disturbances. Because of the clinical profile variability and insidiously progressive central nervous system involvement, disease staging is currently based on cerebrospinal fluid examination, which is usually performed after the finding of trypanosomes in blood or other body fluids. No vaccine being available, control of human African trypanosomiasis relies on diagnosis and treatment of infected patients, assisted by vector control. Better diagnostic tools and safer, easy to use drugs are needed to facilitate elimination of the disease.

  10. Diversity among African Pygmies

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez Rozzi, Fernando V.; Sardi, Marina L.

    2010-01-01

    Although dissimilarities in cranial and post-cranial morphology among African pygmies groups have been recognized, comparative studies on skull morphology usually pull all pygmies together assuming that morphological characters are similar among them and different with respect to other populations. The main aim of this study is to compare cranial morphology between African pygmies and non-pygmies populations from Equatorial Africa derived from both the Eastern and the Western regions in order to test if the greatest morphological difference is obtained in the comparison between pygmies and non-pygmies. Thirty three-dimensional (3D) landmarks registered with Microscribe in four cranial samples (Western and Eastern pygmies and non-pygmies) were obtained. Multivariate analysis (generalized Procrustes analysis, Mahalanobis distances, multivariate regression) and complementary dimensions of size were evaluated with ANOVA and post hoc LSD. Results suggest that important cranial shape differentiation does occur between pygmies and non-pygmies but also between Eastern and Western populations and that size changes and allometries do not affect similarly Eastern and Western pygmies. Therefore, our findings raise serious doubt about the fact to consider African pygmies as a homogenous group in studies on skull morphology. Differences in cranial morphology among pygmies would suggest differentiation after divergence. Although not directly related to skull differentiation, the diversity among pygmies would probably suggest that the process responsible for reduced stature occurred after the split of the ancestors of modern Eastern and Western pygmies. PMID:21049030

  11. African horse sickness.

    PubMed

    Zientara, S; Weyer, C T; Lecollinet, S

    2015-08-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a devastating disease of equids caused by an arthropod-borne virus belonging to the Reoviridae family, genus Orbivirus. It is considered a major health threat for horses in endemic areas in sub-Saharan Africa. African horse sickness virus (AHSV) repeatedly caused large epizootics in the Mediterranean region (North Africa and southern Europe in particular) as a result of trade in infected equids. The unexpected emergence of a closely related virus, the bluetongue virus, in northern Europe in 2006 has raised fears about AHSV introduction into Europe, and more specifically into AHSV-free regions that have reported the presence of AHSV vectors, e.g. Culicoides midges. North African and European countries should be prepared to face AHSV incursions in the future, especially since two AHSV serotypes (serotypes 2 and 7) have recently spread northwards to western (e.g. Senegal, Nigeria, Gambia) and eastern Africa (Ethiopia), where historically only serotype 9 had been isolated. The authors review key elements of AHS epidemiology, surveillance and prophylaxis. PMID:26601437

  12. East African Rift Valley, Kenya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This rare, cloud free view of the East African Rift Valley, Kenya (1.5N, 35.5E) shows a clear view of the Turkwell River Valley, an offshoot of the African REift System. The East African Rift is part of a vast plate fracture which extends from southern Turkey, through the Red Sea, East Africa and into Mozambique. Dark green patches of forests are seen along the rift margin and tea plantations occupy the cooler higher ground.

  13. Wild bootstrap for quantile regression.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xingdong; He, Xuming; Hu, Jianhua

    2011-12-01

    The existing theory of the wild bootstrap has focused on linear estimators. In this note, we broaden its validity by providing a class of weight distributions that is asymptotically valid for quantile regression estimators. As most weight distributions in the literature lead to biased variance estimates for nonlinear estimators of linear regression, we propose a modification of the wild bootstrap that admits a broader class of weight distributions for quantile regression. A simulation study on median regression is carried out to compare various bootstrap methods. With a simple finite-sample correction, the wild bootstrap is shown to account for general forms of heteroscedasticity in a regression model with fixed design points. PMID:23049133

  14. Wild, scenic, and transcendental rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    “A more lovely stream than this has never flowed on Earth,” 19th century American author Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote about the confluence of the Assabet and Concord Rivers, streams that meander about 40 km west of Boston, Massachusetts.Segments of these streams as well as the Assabet River became the newest additions to the U.S. National Wild and Scenic Rivers System, when President Bill Clinton signed into law the “Sudbury, Assabet, and Concord Wild and Scenic River Act” on April 9.

  15. Constructions of provider role identity among African American men: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Diemer, Matthew A

    2002-02-01

    This exploratory study examined the identity constructions of African American men using a qualitative research methodology. Seven African American men, ranging in age from 20 to 47 years and whose education levels ranged from a 1st-year university student to a PhD, were interviewed for this study. Central to how all of these men defined themselves was the breadwinner or provider role. Participants emphasized education as "insurance" against discrimination and an awareness of educational and occupational opportunities. For these participants, education was a means of ensuring opportunity, which afforded fulfillment of the provider role. This study supports the work of N. Cazenave (1979, 1981), who demonstrated the salience of the provider role among African American men. The implications of the provider role among African American men for research are also discussed. The data also suggested diversity within the African American male experience. As 1 participant described African American men. "We come like flowers, you know. Some in bouquets, and some wild." By providing constructions of identity that diverge from existing negative stereotypes of African American men, this study attempted to deconstruct those stereotypes. Finally, this study provided a voice to an underrepresented group in the research literature.

  16. A Teacher's Guide to African Narratives. Studies in African Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Sara Talis

    This guide is designed to help secondary school teachers include African literature in their classes. It furnishes English and social studies teachers with a foundation for teaching African literature by offering critical commentary on the texts themselves. A synthesis of anthropological and historical material is presented to help both teachers…

  17. Bee-Wild about Pollinators!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bonnie; Kil, Jenny; Evans, Elaine; Koomen, Michele Hollingsworth

    2014-01-01

    With their sunny stripes and fuzzy bodies, bees are beloved--but unfortunately, they are in trouble. Bee decline, of both wild bees as well as managed bees like honey bees, has been in the news for the last several years. Habitat loss, diseases, pests, and pesticides have made it difficult for bees to survive in many parts of our world (Walsh…

  18. Laboratory Animal Management: Wild Birds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Inst. of Lab. Animal Resources.

    This is a report on the care and use of wild birds in captivity as research animals. Chapters are presented on procurement and identification, housing, nutrition, health of birds and personnel, reproduction in confinement, and surgical procedures. Also included are addresses of federal, state, and provencial regulatory agencies concerned with wild…

  19. Capillariasis in penned wild turkeys.

    PubMed

    Hurst, G A; Turner, L W; Tucker, F S

    1979-07-01

    Capillariasis caused by Capillaria annulata was associated with dilated crops, emaciation and mortality of 23 juvenile wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) in a captive flock. Gross lesions in the crops ranged from slithtly-thickened lining folds to a thick necrotic diphtheritic membrane covering the entire inside surface. The parasites were in the squamous epithelium. Hygromycin controlled the outbreak.

  20. African American Administrators and Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Dianne; Taylor, Janice D.; Burrell, Charlotte; Stewart, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the issues of African American participation in the administrative ranks of the academy. The authors find that African Americans tend to hold positions that are marginal in academic organizations, lacking power and influence, and that not much has changed over recent decades. Forces influencing this condition are explored,…

  1. African-American Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Lucinda

    This paper examines the history of African American children's literature, the present-day status of it, and ventures predictions about its future. The paper also considers the historic and social factors of the debate about whether an author who is not African American can write a book that will/should be accepted in this category of children's…

  2. African-American Sacred Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, A. Peter

    1991-01-01

    The history of African-American sacred music is traced from the time of slavery to the present interest in gospel music. The religious music of African Americans is geared toward liberation themes. It is important that this music does not dilute its power through cross-over with other music forms. (SLD)

  3. Africanization in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, M. Alice; Rubink, William L.; Patton, John C.; Coulson, Robert N.; Johnston, J. Spencer

    2005-01-01

    The expansion of Africanized honeybees from South America to the southwestern United States in <50 years is considered one of the most spectacular biological invasions yet documented. In the American tropics, it has been shown that during their expansion Africanized honeybees have low levels of introgressed alleles from resident European populations. In the United States, it has been speculated, but not shown, that Africanized honeybees would hybridize extensively with European honeybees. Here we report a continuous 11-year study investigating temporal changes in the genetic structure of a feral population from the southern United States undergoing Africanization. Our microsatellite data showed that (1) the process of Africanization involved both maternal and paternal bidirectional gene flow between European and Africanized honeybees and (2) the panmitic European population was replaced by panmitic mixtures of A. m. scutellata and European genes within 5 years after Africanization. The post-Africanization gene pool (1998–2001) was composed of a diverse array of recombinant classes with a substantial European genetic contribution (mean 25–37%). Therefore, the resulting feral honeybee population of south Texas was best viewed as a hybrid swarm. PMID:15937139

  4. Genetic structure and mating system of wild cowpea populations in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cowpea is a highly inbred crop. It is part of a crop-weed complex, whose origin and dynamics is unknown, which is distributed across the African continent. This study examined outcrossing rates and genetic structures in 35 wild cowpea (Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata var. spontanea) populations from West Africa, using 21 isozyme loci, 9 of them showing polymorphism. Results Outcrossing rates ranged from 1% to 9.5% (mean 3.4%), which classifies the wild cowpea breeding system as primarily selfing, though rare outcrossing events were detected in each population studied. Furthermore, the analyses of both the genetic structure of populations and the relationships between the wild and domesticated groups suggest possibilities of gene flow that are corroborated by field observations. Conclusions As expected in a predominantly inbred breeding system, wild cowpea shows high levels of genetic differentiation and low levels of genetic diversity within populations. Gene flow from domesticated to wild cowpea does occur, although the lack of strong genetic swamping and modified seed morphology in the wild populations suggest that these introgressions should be rare. PMID:22827925

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of the haemagglutinin gene of current wild-type canine distemper viruses from South Africa: lineage Africa.

    PubMed

    Woma, Timothy Y; van Vuuren, Moritz; Bosman, Ana-Mari; Quan, Melvyn; Oosthuizen, Marinda

    2010-07-14

    There are no reports of CDV isolations in southern Africa, and although CDV is said to have geographically distinct lineages, molecular information of African strains has not yet been documented. Viruses isolated in cell cultures were subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and the complete H gene was sequenced and phylogenetically analysed with other strains from GenBank. Phylogenetic comparisons of the complete H gene of CDV isolates from different parts of the world (available in GenBank) with wild-type South African isolates revealed nine clades. All South African isolates form a separate African clade of their own and thus are clearly separated from the American, European, Asian, Arctic and vaccine virus clades. It is likely that only the 'African lineage' of CDV may be circulating in South Africa currently, and the viruses isolated from dogs vaccinated against CDV are not the result of reversion to virulence of vaccine strains, but infection with wild-type strains.

  6. The history of African trypanosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Steverding, Dietmar

    2008-01-01

    The prehistory of African trypanosomiasis indicates that the disease may have been an important selective factor in the evolution of hominids. Ancient history and medieval history reveal that African trypanosomiasis affected the lives of people living in sub-Saharan African at all times. Modern history of African trypanosomiasis revolves around the identification of the causative agents and the mode of transmission of the infection, and the development of drugs for treatment and methods for control of the disease. From the recent history of sleeping sickness we can learn that the disease can be controlled but probably not be eradicated. Current history of human African trypanosomiasis has shown that the production of anti-sleeping sickness drugs is not always guaranteed, and therefore, new, better and cheaper drugs are urgently required. PMID:18275594

  7. Accurate predictions of spectroscopic and molecular properties of 27 Λ-S and 73 Ω states of AsS radical.

    PubMed

    Shi, Deheng; Song, Ziyue; Niu, Xianghong; Sun, Jinfeng; Zhu, Zunlue

    2016-01-15

    The PECs are calculated for the 27 Λ-S states and their corresponding 73 Ω states of AsS radical. Of these Λ-S states, only the 2(2)Δ and 5(4)Π states are replulsive. The 1(2)Σ(+), 2(2)Σ(+), 4(2)Π, 3(4)Δ, 3(4)Σ(+), and 4(4)Π states possess double wells. The 3(2)Σ(+) state possesses three wells. The A(2)Π, 3(2)Π, 1(2)Φ, 2(4)Π, 3(4)Π, 2(4)Δ, 3(4)Δ, 1(6)Σ(+), and 1(6)Π states are inverted with the SO coupling effect included. The 1(4)Σ(+), 2(4)Σ(+), 2(4)Σ(-), 2(4)Δ, 1(4)Φ, 1(6)Σ(+), and 1(6)Π states, the second wells of 1(2)Σ(+), 3(4)Σ(+), 4(2)Π, 4(4)Π, and 3(4)Δ states, and the third well of 3(2)Σ(+) state are very weakly-bound states. The PECs are extrapolated to the CBS limit. The effect of SO coupling on the PECs is discussed. The spectroscopic parameters are evaluated, and compared with available measurements and other theoretical ones. The vibrational properties of several weakly-bound states are determined. The spectroscopic properties reported here can be expected to be reliably predicted ones.

  8. Accurate predictions of spectroscopic and molecular properties of 27 Λ-S and 73 Ω states of AsS radical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Deheng; Song, Ziyue; Niu, Xianghong; Sun, Jinfeng; Zhu, Zunlue

    2016-01-01

    The PECs are calculated for the 27 Λ-S states and their corresponding 73 Ω states of AsS radical. Of these Λ-S states, only the 22Δ and 54Π states are replulsive. The 12Σ+, 22Σ+, 42Π, 34Δ, 34Σ+, and 44Π states possess double wells. The 32Σ+ state possesses three wells. The A2Π, 32Π, 12Φ, 24Π, 34Π, 24Δ, 34Δ, 16Σ+, and 16Π states are inverted with the SO coupling effect included. The 14Σ+, 24Σ+, 24Σ-, 24Δ, 14Φ, 16Σ+, and 16Π states, the second wells of 12Σ+, 34Σ+, 42Π, 44Π, and 34Δ states, and the third well of 32Σ+ state are very weakly-bound states. The PECs are extrapolated to the CBS limit. The effect of SO coupling on the PECs is discussed. The spectroscopic parameters are evaluated, and compared with available measurements and other theoretical ones. The vibrational properties of several weakly-bound states are determined. The spectroscopic properties reported here can be expected to be reliably predicted ones.

  9. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Xu, Dong-Ping; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-08-04

    Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits.

  10. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ya; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Xu, Dong-Ping; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits. PMID:27527154

  11. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Xu, Dong-Ping; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits. PMID:27527154

  12. The role of wild mammals in the maintenance of Rift Valley fever virus.

    PubMed

    Olive, Marie-Marie; Goodman, Steven M; Reynes, Jean-Marc

    2012-04-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a zoonotic arbovirus affecting primarily domestic ruminants and humans. Numerous vector species are known or implicated in the transmission of RVFV. The role of mammals in the maintenance of RVFV, and the existence of a wild mammal reservoir in the epidemiologic cycle of RVFV, remain largely unknown. Our objective is to present a detailed review of studies undertaken on RVFV, often associated with wild mammals, with the aim of focusing future research on potential reservoirs of the virus. Natural and experimental infections related to RVFV in several mammalian orders, including Artiodactyla, Chiroptera, Rodentia, Primata (nonhuman), Perissodactyla, Carnivora, Proboscidea, Erinaceomorpha, and Lagomorpha, are reviewed; the first four orders have received the greatest attention. The possible role of wild ruminants, especially African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), is also discussed. Conflicting results have been published concerning rodents but, based on the literature, the likely candidate species include the African genera Arvicanthis and Micaelamys and the widely introduced roof rat (Rattus rattus). Members of the orders Chiroptera and Rodentia should receive greater attention associated with new research programs. For the other orders mentioned above, few data are available. We are unaware of any investigation concerning the orders Afrosoricida and Soricomorpha, which are represented in the geographic area of RVFV and can be abundant. As a first step to resolve the question of wild mammals as a reservoir of RVFV, serologic and virologic surveys should be promoted during epizootic periods to document infected wild animals and, in the case of positive results, extended to interepidemic periods to explore the role of wild animals as possible reservoirs.

  13. Antibodies to Neospora caninum in wild animals from Kenya, East Africa.

    PubMed

    Ferroglio, E; Wambwa, E; Castiello, M; Trisciuoglio, A; Prouteau, A; Pradere, E; Ndungu, S; De Meneghi, D

    2003-12-01

    The prevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum was examined in six wild Artiodactyla species, and in five wild Carnivora species from Kenya. Blood sera (104 wild ungulates from Marula Estates (MEs), and 31 wild carnivores from Masai-Mara reserve and from other wildlife areas in northern and Southern Kenya), were screened using a Neospora agglutination test (NAT), with a twofold dilution (1:40-1:320 titres). Presence of NAT antibodies to N. caninun is reported here for the first time in zebra (Equus burchelli), eland (Taurotragus oryx), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), Thompson gazelle (Gazella thompsoni), impala (Aepyceros melampus), warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) and in free-ranging cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). At 1:80 dilution, prevalence was 61.5% in eland, 58.5% in zebra, 19.2% in Thompson gazelle, 33.3% in warthog, 50% in African buffalo, 30% in lion (Panthera leo), 20% in cheetah, and 33.3% in spotted hyena. Antibodies up to 1:320 titre were detected in eland (38.4%), zebra (19.5%), Thompson gazelle (3.8%) and lion (5%). Amongst herbivores, sero-prevalence was significantly (P<0.05) higher, at all dilutions, in "grazer/digger" species (e.g. eland and zebra) than in non-"grazer/digger" species (e.g. impala and Thompson gazelle). No antibodies to N. caninum were found in two leopards (Panthera pardus) and one serval (Felis serval). Our results indicates a steady presence of N. caninum in wild mammals from Kenya. The hypothesis of a sylvatic cycle of N. caninum could be suggested, but more data are needed to verify the hypothesis, as to evaluate the role of N. caninum infection on the dynamics of wild animals population in the study area. PMID:14651874

  14. Cancer statistics for African Americans.

    PubMed

    Ghafoor, Asma; Jemal, Ahmedin; Cokkinides, Vilma; Cardinez, Cheryll; Murray, Taylor; Samuels, Alicia; Thun, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    The American Cancer Society provides estimates on the number of new cancer cases and deaths, and compiles health statistics on African Americans in a biennial publication, Cancer Facts and Figures for African Americans. The compiled statistics include cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and lifestyle behaviors using the most recent data on incidence and survival from the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program, mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), and behavioral information from the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), and National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). It is estimated that 132,700 new cases of cancer and 63,100 deaths will occur among African Americans in the year 2003. Although African Americans have experienced higher incidence and mortality rates of cancer than whites for many years, incidence rates have declined by 2.7 percent per year in African-American males since 1992, while stabilizing in African-American females. During the same period, death rates declined by 2.1 percent and 0.4 percent per year among African-American males and females, respectively. The decrease in both incidence and death rates from cancer among African-American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. Nonetheless, African Americans still carry the highest cancer burden among US racial and ethnic groups. Most cancers detectable by screening are diagnosed at a later stage and survival rates are lower within each stage of disease in African Americans than in whites. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors is an active area of research.

  15. Bioenergy and African transformation.

    PubMed

    Lynd, Lee R; Sow, Mariam; Chimphango, Annie Fa; Cortez, Luis Ab; Brito Cruz, Carlos H; Elmissiry, Mosad; Laser, Mark; Mayaki, Ibrahim A; Moraes, Marcia Afd; Nogueira, Luiz Ah; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem H

    2015-01-01

    Among the world's continents, Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern bioenergy production in Africa. Here we consider bioenergy as an enabler for development, and provide an overview of modern bioenergy technologies with a comment on application in an Africa context. Experience with bioenergy in Africa offers evidence of social benefits and also some important lessons. In Brazil, social development, agricultural development and food security, and bioenergy development have been synergistic rather than antagonistic. Realizing similar success in African countries will require clear vision, good governance, and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, and business models to myriad local circumstances. Strategies for integrated production of food crops, livestock, and bioenergy are potentially attractive and offer an alternative to an agricultural model featuring specialized land use. If done thoughtfully, there is considerable evidence that food security and economic development in Africa can be addressed more effectively with modern bioenergy than without it. Modern bioenergy can be an agent of African transformation, with potential social benefits accruing to multiple sectors and extending well beyond energy supply per se. Potential negative impacts also cut across sectors. Thus, institutionally inclusive multi-sector legislative structures will be more effective at maximizing the social benefits of bioenergy compared to institutionally exclusive, single-sector structures. PMID:25709714

  16. African oil plays

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, A.J. )

    1989-09-01

    The vast continent of Africa hosts over eight sedimentary basins, covering approximately half its total area. Of these basins, only 82% have entered a mature exploration phase, 9% have had little or no exploration at all. Since oil was first discovered in Africa during the mid-1950s, old play concepts continue to bear fruit, for example in Egypt and Nigeria, while new play concepts promise to become more important, such as in Algeria, Angola, Chad, Egypt, Gabon, and Sudan. The most exciting developments of recent years in African oil exploration are: (1) the Gamba/Dentale play, onshore Gabon; (2) the Pinda play, offshore Angola; (3) the Lucula/Toca play, offshore Cabinda; (4) the Metlaoui play, offshore Libya/Tunisia; (5) the mid-Cretaceous sand play, Chad/Sudan; and (6) the TAG-I/F6 play, onshore Algeria. Examples of these plays are illustrated along with some of the more traditional oil plays. Where are the future oil plays likely to develop No doubt, the Saharan basins of Algeria and Libya will feature strongly, also the presalt of Equatorial West Africa, the Central African Rift System and, more speculatively, offshore Ethiopia and Namibia, and onshore Madagascar, Mozambique, and Tanzania.

  17. Bioenergy and African transformation.

    PubMed

    Lynd, Lee R; Sow, Mariam; Chimphango, Annie Fa; Cortez, Luis Ab; Brito Cruz, Carlos H; Elmissiry, Mosad; Laser, Mark; Mayaki, Ibrahim A; Moraes, Marcia Afd; Nogueira, Luiz Ah; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem H

    2015-01-01

    Among the world's continents, Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern bioenergy production in Africa. Here we consider bioenergy as an enabler for development, and provide an overview of modern bioenergy technologies with a comment on application in an Africa context. Experience with bioenergy in Africa offers evidence of social benefits and also some important lessons. In Brazil, social development, agricultural development and food security, and bioenergy development have been synergistic rather than antagonistic. Realizing similar success in African countries will require clear vision, good governance, and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, and business models to myriad local circumstances. Strategies for integrated production of food crops, livestock, and bioenergy are potentially attractive and offer an alternative to an agricultural model featuring specialized land use. If done thoughtfully, there is considerable evidence that food security and economic development in Africa can be addressed more effectively with modern bioenergy than without it. Modern bioenergy can be an agent of African transformation, with potential social benefits accruing to multiple sectors and extending well beyond energy supply per se. Potential negative impacts also cut across sectors. Thus, institutionally inclusive multi-sector legislative structures will be more effective at maximizing the social benefits of bioenergy compared to institutionally exclusive, single-sector structures.

  18. WILD PIG ATTACKS ON HUMANS

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, J.

    2013-04-12

    Attacks on humans by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have been documented since ancient times. However, studies characterizing these incidents are lacking. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, information was collected from 412 wild pig attacks on humans. Similar to studies of large predator attacks on humans, data came from a variety of sources. The various attacks compiled occurred in seven zoogeographic realms. Most attacks occurred within the species native range, and specifically in rural areas. The occurrence was highest during the winter months and daylight hours. Most happened under non-hunting circumstances and appeared to be unprovoked. Wounded animals were the chief cause of these attacks in hunting situations. The animals involved were typically solitary, male and large in size. The fate of the wild pigs involved in these attacks varied depending upon the circumstances, however, most escaped uninjured. Most human victims were adult males traveling on foot and alone. The most frequent outcome for these victims was physical contact/mauling. The severity of resulting injuries ranged from minor to fatal. Most of the mauled victims had injuries to only one part of their bodies, with legs/feet being the most frequent body part injured. Injuries were primarily in the form of lacerations and punctures. Fatalities were typically due to blood loss. In some cases, serious infections or toxemia resulted from the injuries. Other species (i.e., pets and livestock) were also accompanying some of the humans during these attacks. The fates of these animals varied from escaping uninjured to being killed. Frequency data on both non-hunting and hunting incidents of wild pig attacks on humans at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, showed quantitatively that such incidents are rare.

  19. Successfully Educating Our African-American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moncree-Moffett, Kareem

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this empirical study was to explore the lived experiences of African American retired female teachers who have prior experience with educating urban African American students in public schools. Also explored are the experiences of active African American female teachers of urban African American students and comparisons are…

  20. Wheel running in the wild.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Johanna H; Robbers, Yuri

    2014-07-01

    The importance of exercise for health and neurogenesis is becoming increasingly clear. Wheel running is often used in the laboratory for triggering enhanced activity levels, despite the common objection that this behaviour is an artefact of captivity and merely signifies neurosis or stereotypy. If wheel running is indeed caused by captive housing, wild mice are not expected to use a running wheel in nature. This however, to our knowledge, has never been tested. Here, we show that when running wheels are placed in nature, they are frequently used by wild mice, also when no extrinsic reward is provided. Bout lengths of running wheel behaviour in the wild match those for captive mice. This finding falsifies one criterion for stereotypic behaviour, and suggests that running wheel activity is an elective behaviour. In a time when lifestyle in general and lack of exercise in particular are a major cause of disease in the modern world, research into physical activity is of utmost importance. Our findings may help alleviate the main concern regarding the use of running wheels in research on exercise.

  1. Negro, Black, Black African, African Caribbean, African American or what? Labelling African origin populations in the health arena in the 21st century

    PubMed Central

    Agyemang, C.; Bhopal, R.; Bruijnzeels, M.

    2005-01-01

    Broad terms such as Black, African, or Black African are entrenched in scientific writings although there is considerable diversity within African descent populations and such terms may be both offensive and inaccurate. This paper outlines the heterogeneity within African populations, and discusses the strengths and limitations of the term Black and related labels from epidemiological and public health perspectives in Europe and the USA. This paper calls for debate on appropriate terminologies for African descent populations and concludes with the proposals that (1) describing the population under consideration is of paramount importance (2) the word African origin or simply African is an appropriate and necessary prefix for an ethnic label, for example, African Caribbean or African Kenyan or African Surinamese (3) documents should define the ethnic labels (4) the label Black should be phased out except when used in political contexts. PMID:16286485

  2. Negro, Black, Black African, African Caribbean, African American or what? Labelling African origin populations in the health arena in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Agyemang, Charles; Bhopal, Raj; Bruijnzeels, Marc

    2005-12-01

    Broad terms such as Black, African, or Black African are entrenched in scientific writings although there is considerable diversity within African descent populations and such terms may be both offensive and inaccurate. This paper outlines the heterogeneity within African populations, and discusses the strengths and limitations of the term Black and related labels from epidemiological and public health perspectives in Europe and the USA. This paper calls for debate on appropriate terminologies for African descent populations and concludes with the proposals that (1) describing the population under consideration is of paramount importance (2) the word African origin or simply African is an appropriate and necessary prefix for an ethnic label, for example, African Caribbean or African Kenyan or African Surinamese (3) documents should define the ethnic labels (4) the label Black should be phased out except when used in political contexts. PMID:16286485

  3. African and African Caribbean users' perceptions of inpatient services.

    PubMed

    Secker, J; Harding, C

    2002-04-01

    It has been suggested that well-documented differences in African and African Caribbean people's contact with mental health services may stem from the organization, processes and practices of services themselves. This article presents the findings of a qualitative study which explored the inpatient experiences of a sample of African and African Caribbean people. Although some positive experiences were described, in the main, participants' accounts revolved around a sense of loss of control and around experiences of overt and implicit racism. Underpinning these experiences were relationships with staff that were perceived to be unhelpful. On the basis of both the positive and negative experiences described, we draw conclusions about the changes required to ensure that inpatient services more effectively meet the needs of this group.

  4. Developmental milestones among African elephant calves on their first day of life.

    PubMed

    Bercovitch, Fred B; Andrews, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    A recurrent issue confronted by zoos is the extent to which animals living ex situ have life history profiles representative of those living in situ. The lengthy lifespan of African elephants hinders collecting proper comparative data, but enough information has been published to conduct preliminary analyses comparing the developmental profile of zoo and wild African elephants on their first day of life. We show that calves born in a zoo stand and walk on their own for the first time at the same age as those born in the wild. Calves born in the zoo take a little longer until first successful nursing, but the difference in age between wild and zoo is not statistically significant. Male and female calves born in zoos develop at the same pace, with data insufficient to compare with wild-born calves. We conclude maternal parity has an effect on the age of first nursing, but not on first standing or walking, because the initiation of suckling requires coordination between two animals. We suggest that available evidence indicates that calves born in the wild and in zoos develop at comparable rates.

  5. Enriching the captive elephant population genetic pool through artificial insemination with frozen-thawed semen collected in the wild.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, T B; Hermes, R; Saragusty, J; Potier, R; Schwammer, H M; Balfanz, F; Vielgrader, H; Baker, B; Bartels, P; Göritz, F

    2012-10-01

    The first successful AI in an elephant was reported in 1998, using fresh semen. Since then almost 40 calves have been produced through AI in both Asian and African elephants worldwide. Following these successes, with the objective of enriching the captive population with genetic material from the wild, we evaluated the possibility of using frozen-thawed semen collected from wild bulls for AI in captivity. Semen, collected from a 36-yr-old wild African savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana) in South Africa was frozen using the directional freezing technique. This frozen-thawed semen was used for four inseminations over two consecutive days, two before and two after ovulation, in a 26-yr-old female African savanna elephant in Austria. Insemination dose of 1200 × 10(6) cells per AI with 61% motility resulted in pregnancy, which was confirmed through ultrasound examination 75, 110 and 141 days after the AI procedure. This represents the first successful AI using wild bull frozen-thawed semen in elephants. The incorporation of AI with frozen-thawed semen into the assisted reproduction toolbox opens the way to preserve and transport semen between distant individuals in captivity or, as was done in this study, between wild and captive populations, without the need to transport stressed or potentially disease-carrying animals or to remove animals from the wild. In addition, cryopreserved spermatozoa, in combination with AI, are useful methods to extend the reproductive lifespan of individuals beyond their biological lifespan and an important tool for genetic diversity management and phenotype selection in these endangered mammals.

  6. Lead and cadmium in wild birds in southeastern Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Fernandez, A.J.; Sanchez-Garcia, J.A.; Luna, A.; Jimenez-Montalban, P.

    1995-12-01

    The main purpose of this study was to monitor exposure to lead and cadmium in wild birds in Murcia, a southeastern region of Spain on the Mediterranean coast. This region lies on one of the African-European flyways. Samples of liver, kidney, brain, bone, and whole blood from several species of wild birds were obtained during 1993. The authors found a clear relationship between cadmium and lead concentrations in birds and their feedings habits. Vultures (Gyps fulvus) had the highest concentrations of lead (mean 40 {micro}g/dl in blood), and seagulls (Larus argentatus and Larus ridibundus) the highest concentrations of cadmium (mean 4.43 {micro}g/g in kidney). Insectivores had high concentrations of both metals, and diurnal and nocturnal raptors showed the lowest tissue concentrations. The findings that tissue and blood concentrations were generally not elevated suggests environmental (rather than acute) exposure. Birds from more industrialized areas of the region studied here had higher concentrations of both lead and cadmium.

  7. The African Millennium Villages

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Pedro; Palm, Cheryl; Sachs, Jeffrey; Denning, Glenn; Flor, Rafael; Harawa, Rebbie; Jama, Bashir; Kiflemariam, Tsegazeab; Konecky, Bronwen; Kozar, Raffaela; Lelerai, Eliud; Malik, Alia; Modi, Vijay; Mutuo, Patrick; Niang, Amadou; Okoth, Herine; Place, Frank; Sachs, Sonia Ehrlich; Said, Amir; Siriri, David; Teklehaimanot, Awash; Wang, Karen; Wangila, Justine; Zamba, Colleen

    2007-01-01

    We describe the concept, strategy, and initial results of the Millennium Villages Project and implications regarding sustainability and scalability. Our underlying hypothesis is that the interacting crises of agriculture, health, and infrastructure in rural Africa can be overcome through targeted public-sector investments to raise rural productivity and, thereby, to increased private-sector saving and investments. This is carried out by empowering impoverished communities with science-based interventions. Seventy-eight Millennium Villages have been initiated in 12 sites in 10 African countries, each representing a major agroecological zone. In early results, the research villages in Kenya, Ethiopia, and Malawi have reduced malaria prevalence, met caloric requirements, generated crop surpluses, enabled school feeding programs, and provided cash earnings for farm families. PMID:17942701

  8. Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    1989-11-01

    The Central African Republic contains 242,000 square miles, which rolling terrain almost 2000 feet above sea level. The climate is tropical, and it has a population of 2.8 million people with a 2.5% growth rate. There are more than 80 ethnic groups including Baya 34%, Banda 28%, Sara 10%, Mandja 9%, Mboum 9%, and M'Baka 7%. The religions are traditional African 35%, protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, and Muslim 15%, and the languages are French and Sangho. The infant mortality rate is 143/1000, with expectancy at 49 years and a 40% literacy rate. The work force of 1 million is 70% agricultural, industry 6% and commerce and service 6% and government 3%. The government consists of a president assisted by cabinet ministers and a single party. Natural resources include diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, and oil, and major industries are beverages, textiles, and soap. Agricultural products feature coffee, cotton, peanuts, tobacco, food crops and livestock. Most of the population live in rural areas and most of the 80 ethnic groups have their own language. This is one of the world's least developed countries, with a per capita income of $375/year. The main problems with development are the poor transportation infrastructure, and the weak internal and international marketing systems. The US and various international organizations have aided in agriculture development, health programs, and family planning. US investment is mainly in diamond and gold mining, and although oil drilling has been successful it is not economically feasible at current prices.

  9. Trichinella britovi from domestic to wild animals of Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Bandino, E; Goddi, L; Mulas, M; Murgia, M C; Soddu, M; Marucci, G; Pezzotti, P; Cabras, P A; Pozio, E

    2015-09-15

    The zoonotic nematode Trichinella britovi has been documented in animals and/or humans of the Mediterranean islands of Corsica and Sardinia since 2004. From 2005 to 2007 in the Sardinia island, several surveys had shown that T. britovi was circulating among backyard and free-ranging pigs reared in the Orgosolo municipality but all attempts had failed to detect this parasite in wild susceptible animals. The aim of the present work was to investigate the circulation of T. britovi in pigs and wildlife of the Orgosolo municipality, and of surrounding municipalities and provinces in the 2010-2014 slaughtering/hunting seasons. The results show that the T. britovi circulation was still restricted to the Orgosolo municipality with a prevalence of 2.6% in free-ranging pigs and 0.2% in backyard pigs but, for the first time, this parasite was detected also in 0.4% of wild boar, and 27.6% of red foxes. No infection was detected in backyard pigs, wild boar, and red foxes of the other municipalities and provinces. Since 1978, African swine fever is endemic in Sardinia and foci of this virus are still active in the investigated areas favoring cannibalism and, consequently, the T. britovi transmission, due to the high mortality rate caused by this virus. This is the first documented report on the transmission of T. britovi between the domestic and the sylvatic cycle. The health authority of the island must provide a service to dispose animal carcasses and offal, stamping out illegal free-ranging pigs, and train hunters and pig owners to manage waste and by-products according to the EU regulations. PMID:26264251

  10. Trichinella britovi from domestic to wild animals of Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Bandino, E; Goddi, L; Mulas, M; Murgia, M C; Soddu, M; Marucci, G; Pezzotti, P; Cabras, P A; Pozio, E

    2015-09-15

    The zoonotic nematode Trichinella britovi has been documented in animals and/or humans of the Mediterranean islands of Corsica and Sardinia since 2004. From 2005 to 2007 in the Sardinia island, several surveys had shown that T. britovi was circulating among backyard and free-ranging pigs reared in the Orgosolo municipality but all attempts had failed to detect this parasite in wild susceptible animals. The aim of the present work was to investigate the circulation of T. britovi in pigs and wildlife of the Orgosolo municipality, and of surrounding municipalities and provinces in the 2010-2014 slaughtering/hunting seasons. The results show that the T. britovi circulation was still restricted to the Orgosolo municipality with a prevalence of 2.6% in free-ranging pigs and 0.2% in backyard pigs but, for the first time, this parasite was detected also in 0.4% of wild boar, and 27.6% of red foxes. No infection was detected in backyard pigs, wild boar, and red foxes of the other municipalities and provinces. Since 1978, African swine fever is endemic in Sardinia and foci of this virus are still active in the investigated areas favoring cannibalism and, consequently, the T. britovi transmission, due to the high mortality rate caused by this virus. This is the first documented report on the transmission of T. britovi between the domestic and the sylvatic cycle. The health authority of the island must provide a service to dispose animal carcasses and offal, stamping out illegal free-ranging pigs, and train hunters and pig owners to manage waste and by-products according to the EU regulations.

  11. Early African Hominids: Pedagogic Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, James L.

    1984-01-01

    By studying early African hominids, students can learn about the interactive testing and creative aspects of scientific thinking and sharpen their geographical skills. It is impossible to study this topic without giving prominence to space and time. (RM)

  12. Tulbaghia--A Southern African Phytomedicine.

    PubMed

    Styger, Gustav; Aboyade, Oluwaseyi M; Gibson, Diana; Hughes, Gail

    2016-04-01

    The phytomedicine Tulbaghia consists of the fresh or dried subterranean organs of various Tulbaghia species. The genus is endemic to Southern Africa and includes about 20 species, of which only T. alliacea and T. capensis are naturally found in the winter rainfall climate area (the Western Cape). The genus forms part of the Alliaceae family and is a geophyte (plants with an underground perennation organ and leaves that die back annually). Their habitat can range from semi-desert to wet and boggy terrain. Wild garlic is most commonly prepared as an infusion or boiled in water and taken orally. Externally, as a medicated bath, wild garlic is used to treat paralysis and rheumatism and to reduce the temperature in a feverish patient. Internally, rhizome or bulb preparations are taken orally to treat fever; as a remedy for colds and influenza, asthma, tuberculosis, and stomach problems; as an antihypertensive; or to expel intestinal worms. It is also used as a prophylactic against winter infections. Rhizome pieces are often placed in castor oil to make eardrops. For fever and high blood pressure, a tea is made from the bulbs or rhizomes and a small cup taken three times daily. The leaves of the plant are used to treat esophageal cancer and may also be eaten as a vegetable. The demand for Tulbaghia in both formal and informal markets has grown exponentially. Sustainable harvesting focuses on only harvesting enough of the plant so that it still has the capacity for self-renewal. However, because both the above-ground and underground parts of Tulbaghia are commonly used in African traditional medicine, destructive harvesting of the whole plant is inevitable, thus necessitating the large-scale organized propagation of these plants. It is therefore important to establish a new strategy for the sustainable harvesting of these plants as commercial crops. PMID:27008423

  13. Assessing European wild fire vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oehler, F.; Oliveira, S.; Barredo, J. I.; Camia, A.; Ayanz, J. San Miguel; Pettenella, D.; Mavsar, R.

    2012-04-01

    Wild fire vulnerability is a measure of potential socio-economic damage caused by a fire in a specific area. As such it is an important component of long-term fire risk management, helping policy-makers take informed decisions about adequate expenditures for fire prevention and suppression, and to target those regions at highest risk. This paper presents a first approach to assess wild fire vulnerability at the European level. A conservative approach was chosen that assesses the cost of restoring the previous land cover after a potential fire. Based on the CORINE Land Cover, a restoration cost was established for each land cover class at country level, and an average restoration time was assigned according to the recovery capacity of the land cover. The damage caused by fire was then assessed by discounting the cost of restoring the previous land cover over the restoration period. Three different vulnerability scenarios were considered assuming low, medium and high fire severity causing different levels of damage. Over Europe, the potential damage of wild land fires ranges from 10 - 13, 732 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for low fire severity, 32 - 45,772 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for medium fire severity and 54 - 77,812 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for high fire severity. The least vulnerable are natural grasslands, moors and heathland and sclerophyllous vegetation, while the highest cost occurs for restoring broad-leaved forest. Preliminary validation comparing these estimates with official damage assessments for past fires shows reasonable results. The restoration cost approach allows for a straightforward, data extensive assessment of fire vulnerability at European level. A disadvantage is the inherent simplification of the evaluation procedure with the underestimation of non-markets goods and services. Thus, a second approach has been developed, valuing individual wild land goods and services and assessing their annual flow which is lost for a certain period of time in case of a fire event. However

  14. Hepatitis C in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Saab, Sammy; Jackson, Christian; Nieto, Jose; Francois, Fritz

    2014-10-01

    The care of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in African Americans represents an opportunity to address a major health disparity in medicine. In all facets of HCV infection, African Americans are inexplicably affected, including in the prevalence of the virus, which is higher among them compared with most of the racial and ethnic groups. Ironically, although fibrosis rates may be slow, hepatocellular carcinoma and mortality rates appear to be higher among African Americans. Sustained viral response (SVR) rates have historically significantly trailed behind Caucasians. The reasons for this gap in SVR are related to both viral and host factors. Moreover, low enrollment rates in clinical trials hamper the study of the efficacy of anti-viral therapy. Nevertheless, the gap in SVR between African Americans and Caucasians may be narrowing with the use of direct-acting agents. Gastroenterologists, hepatologists, primary care physicians, and other health-care providers need to address modifiable risk factors that affect the natural history, as well as treatment outcomes, for HCV among African Americans. Efforts need to be made to improve awareness among health-care providers to address the differences in screening and referral patterns for African Americans.

  15. Relationships of wild and domesticated rices (Oryza AA genome species) based upon whole chloroplast genome sequences

    PubMed Central

    Wambugu, Peterson W.; Brozynska, Marta; Furtado, Agnelo; Waters, Daniel L.; Henry, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Rice is the most important crop in the world, acting as the staple food for over half of the world’s population. The evolutionary relationships of cultivated rice and its wild relatives have remained contentious and inconclusive. Here we report on the use of whole chloroplast sequences to elucidate the evolutionary and phylogenetic relationships in the AA genome Oryza species, representing the primary gene pool of rice. This is the first study that has produced a well resolved and strongly supported phylogeny of the AA genome species. The pan tropical distribution of these rice relatives was found to be explained by long distance dispersal within the last million years. The analysis resulted in a clustering pattern that showed strong geographical differentiation. The species were defined in two primary clades with a South American/African clade with two species, O glumaepatula and O longistaminata, distinguished from all other species. The largest clade was comprised of an Australian clade including newly identified taxa and the African and Asian clades. This refined knowledge of the relationships between cultivated rice and the related wild species provides a strong foundation for more targeted use of wild genetic resources in rice improvement and efforts to ensure their conservation. PMID:26355750

  16. Echolocation signals of wild dolphins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au, W. W. L.

    2004-07-01

    Most of our understanding of dolphin echolocation has come from studies of captive dolphins performing various echolocation tasks. Recently, measurements of echolocation signals in the wild have expanded our understanding of the characteristics of these signals in a natural setting. Measuring undistorted dolphin echolocation signals with free swimming dolphins in the field can be a challenging task. A four hydrophone array arranged in a symmetrical star pattern was used to measure the echolocation signals of four species of dolphins in the wild. Echolocation signals of the following dolphins have been measured with the symmetrical star array: white-beaked dolphins in Iceland, Atlantic spotted dolphins in the Bahamas, killer whales in British Columbia, and dusky dolphins in New Zealand. There are many common features in the echolocation signals of the different species. Most of the signals had spectra that were bimodal: two peaks, one at low frequencies and another about an octave higher in frequency. The source level of the sonar transmission varies as a function of 20log R, suggesting a form of time-varying gain but on the transmitting end of the sonar process rather than the receiving end. The results of the field work call into question the issue of whether the signals used by captive dolphins may be shaped by the task they are required to perform rather than what they would do more naturally.

  17. Echolocation in wild toothed whales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyack, Peter L.; Johnson, Mark; Madsen, Peter Teglberg; Zimmer, Walter M. X.

    2001-05-01

    Don Griffin showed more than 50 years ago that bats echolocate for orientation and to capture prey. Experiments also demonstrated that captive dolphins can echolocate; more recent work parallels Griffin's work with bats in the wild. Digital acoustic recording tags were attached to sperm and beaked whales, Ziphius cavirostris and Mesoplodon densirostris, to record outgoing clicks and incoming echoes. The sperm whale data show echoes from the sea surface and seafloor, which are probably used for orientation and obstacle avoidance. When diving, sperm whales adjust their interclick interval as they change their pitch angle, consistent with the hypothesis that they are echolocating on a horizontal layer at the depth at which they will feed. This suggests that they may be listening for volume reverberation to select a prey patch. The beam pattern of sperm whales includes a narrow, forward-directed high-frequency beam probably used for prey detection, and a broader, backward-directed lower-frequency beam probably used for orientation. Beaked whales produce directional clicks with peak frequencies in the 25-40-kHz region. Echoes from individual prey items have been detected from clicks of beaked whales. This opens a new window into the study of how animals use echolocation to forage in the wild.

  18. Antibodies to some pathogenic agents in free-living wild species in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Hamblin, C; Anderson, E C; Jago, M; Mlengeya, T; Hipji, K

    1990-12-01

    A total of 535 sera from eight species of wildlife were collected from different game areas in Tanzania between 1987 and 1989. These sera were tested for antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease, bovine herpes virus types 1 and 2, lumpy skin disease, bovine viral diarrhoea, Akabane, bovine ephemeral fever, bluetongue, enzootic bovine leucosis, African horse sickness and African swine fever viruses and Brucella abortus based on the expected species susceptibility. Sera from buffalo Syncerus caffer, wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus and topi Damaliscus korrigum contained antibodies against the majority of the pathogens tested. Antibodies to fewer pathogens were detected in sera from the other species. No antibodies to lumpy skin disease virus were detected in any of the sera examined. African horse sickness antibodies were detected in sera from Zebra and African swine fever antibodies were detected in wart hog. The occurrence of antibodies to these agents suggests that wild species act as reservoirs of infection for some of these pathogens. However, until the susceptibility of individual species is proven by isolation of the aetiological agents their role must remain speculative. PMID:2123458

  19. Hand-rearing, release and survival of African penguin chicks abandoned before independence by moulting parents.

    PubMed

    Sherley, Richard B; Waller, Lauren J; Strauss, Venessa; Geldenhuys, Deon; Underhill, Les G; Parsons, Nola J

    2014-01-01

    The African penguin Spheniscus demersus has an 'Endangered' conservation status and a decreasing population. Following abandonment, 841 African penguin chicks in 2006 and 481 in 2007 were admitted to SANCCOB (Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds) for hand-rearing from colonies in the Western Cape, South Africa, after large numbers of breeding adults commenced moult with chicks still in the nest. Of those admitted, 91% and 73% respectively were released into the wild. There were veterinary concerns about avian malaria, airsacculitis and pneumonia, feather-loss and pododermatitis (bumblefoot). Post-release juvenile (0.32, s.e.  = 0.08) and adult (0.76, s.e.  = 0.10) survival rates were similar to African penguin chicks reared after oil spills and to recent survival rates recorded for naturally-reared birds. By December 2012, 12 birds had bred, six at their colony of origin, and the apparent recruitment rate was 0.11 (s.e.  = 0.03). Hand-rearing of abandoned penguin chicks is recommended as a conservation tool to limit mortality and to bolster the population at specific colonies. The feasibility of conservation translocations for the creation of new colonies for this species using hand-reared chicks warrants investigation. Any such programme would be predicated on adequate disease surveillance programmes established to minimise the risk of disease introduction to wild birds. PMID:25337698

  20. Hand-Rearing, Release and Survival of African Penguin Chicks Abandoned Before Independence by Moulting Parents

    PubMed Central

    Sherley, Richard B.; Waller, Lauren J.; Strauss, Venessa; Geldenhuys, Deon; Underhill, Les G.; Parsons, Nola J.

    2014-01-01

    The African penguin Spheniscus demersus has an ‘Endangered’ conservation status and a decreasing population. Following abandonment, 841 African penguin chicks in 2006 and 481 in 2007 were admitted to SANCCOB (Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds) for hand-rearing from colonies in the Western Cape, South Africa, after large numbers of breeding adults commenced moult with chicks still in the nest. Of those admitted, 91% and 73% respectively were released into the wild. There were veterinary concerns about avian malaria, airsacculitis and pneumonia, feather-loss and pododermatitis (bumblefoot). Post-release juvenile (0.32, s.e.  = 0.08) and adult (0.76, s.e.  = 0.10) survival rates were similar to African penguin chicks reared after oil spills and to recent survival rates recorded for naturally-reared birds. By December 2012, 12 birds had bred, six at their colony of origin, and the apparent recruitment rate was 0.11 (s.e.  = 0.03). Hand-rearing of abandoned penguin chicks is recommended as a conservation tool to limit mortality and to bolster the population at specific colonies. The feasibility of conservation translocations for the creation of new colonies for this species using hand-reared chicks warrants investigation. Any such programme would be predicated on adequate disease surveillance programmes established to minimise the risk of disease introduction to wild birds. PMID:25337698

  1. Hand-rearing, release and survival of African penguin chicks abandoned before independence by moulting parents.

    PubMed

    Sherley, Richard B; Waller, Lauren J; Strauss, Venessa; Geldenhuys, Deon; Underhill, Les G; Parsons, Nola J

    2014-01-01

    The African penguin Spheniscus demersus has an 'Endangered' conservation status and a decreasing population. Following abandonment, 841 African penguin chicks in 2006 and 481 in 2007 were admitted to SANCCOB (Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds) for hand-rearing from colonies in the Western Cape, South Africa, after large numbers of breeding adults commenced moult with chicks still in the nest. Of those admitted, 91% and 73% respectively were released into the wild. There were veterinary concerns about avian malaria, airsacculitis and pneumonia, feather-loss and pododermatitis (bumblefoot). Post-release juvenile (0.32, s.e.  = 0.08) and adult (0.76, s.e.  = 0.10) survival rates were similar to African penguin chicks reared after oil spills and to recent survival rates recorded for naturally-reared birds. By December 2012, 12 birds had bred, six at their colony of origin, and the apparent recruitment rate was 0.11 (s.e.  = 0.03). Hand-rearing of abandoned penguin chicks is recommended as a conservation tool to limit mortality and to bolster the population at specific colonies. The feasibility of conservation translocations for the creation of new colonies for this species using hand-reared chicks warrants investigation. Any such programme would be predicated on adequate disease surveillance programmes established to minimise the risk of disease introduction to wild birds.

  2. The African Pediatric Fellowship Program: Training in Africa for Africans.

    PubMed

    Wilmshurst, Jo M; Morrow, Brenda; du Preez, Avril; Githanga, David; Kennedy, Neil; Zar, Heather J

    2016-01-01

    Africa has a significant burden of childhood disease, with relatively few skilled health care professionals. The African Paediatric Fellowship Programme was developed by the Department of Pediatrics and Child Health at the University of Cape Town to provide relevant training for African child health professionals, by Africans, within Africa. Trainees identified by partner academic institutions spend 6 months to 2 years training in the Department of Pediatrics and allied disciplines. They then return to their home institution to build practice, training, research, and advocacy. From 2008 to 2015, 73 physicians have completed or are completing training in general pediatrics or a pediatric subspecialty. At 1 year posttraining, 98% to 100% are practicing back in their home institution. The impact of the returning fellows is evident from their practice interventions, research collaborations, and positions as stakeholders who can change health care policies. Thirty-three centers in 13 African countries are partners with the program, and the program template is now followed by other partner sites in Africa. Increasing and retaining the skills pool of African child health specialists is building a network of motivated, highly skilled clinicians who are equipped to advance child health in Africa. PMID:26659458

  3. The African Pediatric Fellowship Program: Training in Africa for Africans.

    PubMed

    Wilmshurst, Jo M; Morrow, Brenda; du Preez, Avril; Githanga, David; Kennedy, Neil; Zar, Heather J

    2016-01-01

    Africa has a significant burden of childhood disease, with relatively few skilled health care professionals. The African Paediatric Fellowship Programme was developed by the Department of Pediatrics and Child Health at the University of Cape Town to provide relevant training for African child health professionals, by Africans, within Africa. Trainees identified by partner academic institutions spend 6 months to 2 years training in the Department of Pediatrics and allied disciplines. They then return to their home institution to build practice, training, research, and advocacy. From 2008 to 2015, 73 physicians have completed or are completing training in general pediatrics or a pediatric subspecialty. At 1 year posttraining, 98% to 100% are practicing back in their home institution. The impact of the returning fellows is evident from their practice interventions, research collaborations, and positions as stakeholders who can change health care policies. Thirty-three centers in 13 African countries are partners with the program, and the program template is now followed by other partner sites in Africa. Increasing and retaining the skills pool of African child health specialists is building a network of motivated, highly skilled clinicians who are equipped to advance child health in Africa.

  4. East African Rift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Places where the earth's crust has formed deep fissures and the plates have begun to move apart develop rift structures in which elongate blocks have subsided relative to the blocks on either side. The East African Rift is a world-famous example of such rifting. It is characterized by 1) topographic deep valleys in the rift zone, 2) sheer escarpments along the faulted walls of the rift zone, 3) a chain of lakes within the rift, most of the lakes highly saline due to evaporation in the hot temperatures characteristic of climates near the equator, 4) voluminous amounts of volcanic rocks that have flowed from faults along the sides of the rift, and 5) volcanic cones where magma flow was most intense. This example in Kenya displays most of these features near Lake Begoria.

    The image was acquired December 18, 2002, covers an area of 40.5 x 32 km, and is located at 0.1 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  5. An African ethic for nursing?

    PubMed

    Haegert, S

    2000-11-01

    This article derives from a doctoral thesis in which a particular discourse was used as a 'paradigm case'. From this discourse an ethic set within a South African culture arose. Using many cultural 'voices' to aid the understanding of this narrative, the ethic shows that one can build on both a 'justice' and a 'care' ethic. With further development based on African culture one can take the ethic of care deeper and reveal 'layers of understanding'. Care, together with compassion, forms the foundation of morality. Nursing ethics has followed particular western moral philosophers. Often nursing ethics has been taught along the lines of Kohlberg's theory of morality, with its emphasis on rules, rights, duties and general obligations. These principles were universalistic, masculine and noncontextual. However, there is a new ethical movement among Thomist philosophers along the lines to be expounded in this article. Nurses such as Benner, Bevis, Dunlop, Fry and Gadow--to name but a few--have welcomed the concept of an 'ethic of care'. Gilligan's work gave a feminist view and situated ethics in the everyday aspects of responsiveness, responsibility, context and concern. Shutte's search for a 'philosophy for Africa' has resulted in finding similarities in Setiloane and in Senghor with those of Thomist philosophers. Using this African philosophy and a research participant's narrative, an African ethic evolves out of the African proverb: 'A person is a person through other persons', or its alternative rendering: 'I am because we are: we are because I am.' This hermeneutic narrative reveals 'the way affect imbues activity with ethical meaning' within the context of a black nursing sister in a rural South African hospital. It expands upon the above proverb and incorporates the South African constitutional idea of 'Ubuntu' (compassion and justice or humanness).

  6. Geographic variation of stable isotopes in African elephant ivory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, S.; Merker, S.; Jacob, D.

    2012-04-01

    In 1989, the international community listed the African elephant in Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) thus prohibiting commercial ivory trade. Recent surveillance data show that the illegal trade in ivory has been growing worldwide. Long-term preservation of many of the African elephant populations can be supported with a control mechanism that helps with the implementation of remedial conservation action. Therefore, setting up a reference database that predicts the origin of ivory specimens can assist in determining smuggling routes and the provenance of illegal ivory. Our research builds on earlier work to seek an appropriate method for determining the area of origin for individual tusks. Several researchers have shown that the provenance of elephant ivory can be traced by its isotopic composition, but this is the first attempt to produce an integrated isotopic reference database of elephant ivory provenance. We applied a combination of various routine geochemical analyses to measure the stable isotope ratios of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulphur. Up to now, we analysed 606 ivory samples of known geographical origin from African range states, museums and private collections, comprising 22 African elephant range states. The isotopic measurements were superimposed with data layers from vegetation, geology and climate. A regression function for the isotope composition of the water isotopes in precipitation and collagen in ivory was developed to overcome the problem of imprecise origin of some of the sampled material. Multivariate statistics, such as nearest neighborhood and discriminate analysis were applied to eventually allow a statistical determination of the provenance for ivory of unknown origin. Our results suggest that the combination of isotopic parameters have the potential to provide predictable and complementary markers for estimating the origin of seized elephant ivory.

  7. Influenza infection in wild raccoons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, J.S.; Bentler, K.T.; Landolt, G.; Elmore, S.A.; Minnis, R.B.; Campbell, T.A.; Barras, S.C.; Root, J.J.; Pilon, J.; Pabilonia, K.; Driscoll, C.; Slate, D.; Sullivan, H.; McLean, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are common, widely distributed animals that frequently come into contact with wild waterfowl, agricultural operations, and humans. Serosurveys showed that raccoons are exposed to avian influenza virus. We found antibodies to a variety of influenza virus subtypes (H10N7, H4N6, H4N2, H3, and H1) with wide geographic variation in seroprevalence. Experimental infection studies showed that raccoons become infected with avian and human influenza A viruses, shed and transmit virus to virus-free animals, and seroconvert. Analyses of cellular receptors showed that raccoons have avian and human type receptors with a similar distribution as found in human respiratory tracts. The potential exists for co-infection of multiple subtypes of influenza virus with genetic reassortment and creation of novel strains of influenza virus. Experimental and field data indicate that raccoons may play an important role in influenza disease ecology and pose risks to agriculture and human health.

  8. Vocal communication of wild parrots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradbury, Jack

    2001-05-01

    Field studies of four sympatric parrot species in Costa Rica are revealing several possible functions for the well-known ability of parrots to mimic new sounds throughout life. Despite earlier suggestions that this might facilitate exchanges of environmental information, all data so far suggest that vocal mimicry in the wild is associated with mediation of the fission/fusion of groups of parrots and/or of conflicts between mated pairs. Recent results using array recording and interactive playback will be summarized, and several technical problems created by the mechanisms of parrot vocal signal production discussed. [Research supported by NSF Grant IBN-022927 and by continued encouragement and logistics provided by the staff of the Area Conservacion Guanacaste (Costa Rica).

  9. Use of leaves to inspect ectoparasites in wild chimpanzees: a third cultural variant?

    PubMed

    Assersohn, Clea; Whiten, Andrew; Kiwede, Zephyr T; Tinka, John; Karamagi, Joseph

    2004-10-01

    We report 26 cases of using leaves as tools with which wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Sonso community, Budongo Forest, Uganda, appeared to inspect objects removed during grooming. Careful removal of potential ectoparasites and delicate lip or manual placement on leaves followed by intense visual examination characterised this behaviour. It appears to be done to judge whether either ingestion or discarding is most appropriate, the former occurring in most cases. This behaviour may represent a third variant of ectoparasite handling, different from those described at Tai and Gombe, yet sharing features with the latter. These two East African techniques may thus have evolved from leaf grooming.

  10. African American Males. A Critical Link in the African American Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dionne J., Ed.

    African Americans are experiencing extreme stress in the United States, and African-American males appear to suffer the most. The chapters in this volume examine some of the issues confronting African-American men today. They include: (1) "Introduction" (Dionne J. Jones); (2) "Reaffirming Young African American Males: Mentoring and Community…

  11. African American Preschoolers' Language, Emergent Literacy Skills, and Use of African American English: A Complex Relation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Craig, Holly K.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relation between African American preschoolers' use of African American English (AAE) and their language and emergent literacy skills in an effort to better understand the perplexing and persistent difficulties many African American children experience learning to read proficiently. Method: African American…

  12. African horse sickness.

    PubMed

    Mellor, Philip Scott; Hamblin, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    African horse sickness virus (AHSV) causes a non-contagious, infectious insect-borne disease of equids and is endemic in many areas of sub-Saharan Africa and possibly Yemen in the Arabian Peninsula. However, periodically the virus makes excursions beyond its endemic areas and has at times extended as far as India and Pakistan in the east and Spain and Portugal in the west. The vectors are certain species of Culicoides biting midge the most important of which is the Afro-Asiatic species C. imicola. This paper describes the effects that AHSV has on its equid hosts, aspects of its epidemiology, and present and future prospects for control. The distribution of AHSV seems to be governed by a number of factors including the efficiency of control measures, the presence or absence of a long term vertebrate reservoir and, most importantly, the prevalence and seasonal incidence of the major vector which is controlled by climate. However, with the advent of climate-change the major vector, C. imicola, has now significantly extended its range northwards to include much of Portugal, Spain, Italy and Greece and has even been recorded from southern Switzerland. Furthermore, in many of these new locations the insect is present and active throughout the entire year. With the related bluetongue virus, which utilises the same vector species of Culicoides this has, since 1998, precipitated the worst outbreaks of bluetongue disease ever recorded with the virus extending further north in Europe than ever before and apparently becoming endemic in that continent. The prospects for similar changes in the epidemiology and distribution of AHSV are discussed.

  13. African N Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekunda, M.; Galford, G. L.; Hickman, J. E.; Palm, C.

    2011-12-01

    Africa's smallholder agricultural systems face unique challenges in planning for reducing poverty, concurrent with adaptation and mitigation to climate change. At continental level, policy seeks to promote a uniquely African Green Revolution to increase crop yields and food production, and improve local livelihoods. However, the consequences on the environment and climate are not clear; these pro-economic development measures should be linked to climate change adaptation and mitigation measures, and research is required to help achieve these policy proposals by identifying options, and testing impacts. In particular, increased nitrogen (N) inputs are essential for increasing food production in Africa, but are accompanied by inevitable increases in losses to the environment. These losses appear to be low at input levels promoted in agricultural development programs, while the increased N inputs both increase current food production and appear to reduce the vulnerability of food production to changes in climate. We present field and remote sensing evidence from Malawi that subsidizing improved seed and fertilizers increases resilience to drought without adding excess N to the environment. In Kenya, field research identified thresholds in N2O losses, where emissions are very low at fertilization rates of less than 200 kg ha-1. Village-scale models have identified potential inefficiencies in the food production process where the largest losses of reactive N occur, and which could be targeted to reduce the amount of N released to the environment. We further review some on-going research activities and progress in Africa that compare different methods of managing resources that target resilience in food production and adaptation to climate change, using nutrient N as an indicator, while evaluating the effects of these resource management practices on ecosystems and the environment.

  14. Molecular epidemiology of Giardia duodenalis in an endangered carnivore--the African painted dog.

    PubMed

    Ash, A; Lymbery, A; Lemon, J; Vitali, S; Thompson, R C A

    2010-12-15

    The African painted dog (Lycaon pictus) is an endangered carnivore of sub-Saharan Africa. To assist in conservation efforts a parasitological survey was conducted on wild and captive populations. Faecal samples were collected and examined for the presence of parasites using traditional microscopy techniques. The protozoan Giardia duodenalis was identified at a prevalence of approximately 26% in the wild populations and 62% in the captive population. Molecular characterisation of these isolates using three loci, 18S rRNA, β-giardin and the glutamate dehydrogenase gene revealed the zoonotic assemblages A and B existed in high proportions in both populations. The dog assemblages C and D were rarely observed. The identification of the zoonotic genotype suggests this species has the potential to act as a reservoir for human infections. Zoonotic transmission may be possible in captive populations due to the close interaction with humans however, in wild populations anthropozoonotic transmission seems more likely. This study is the first to observe G. duodenalis in the African painted dog and to identify a possible emerging disease in this wild carnivore.

  15. African Perceptions of Female Attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Coetzee, Vinet; Faerber, Stella J.; Greeff, Jaco M.; Lefevre, Carmen E.; Re, Daniel E.; Perrett, David I.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about mate choice preferences outside Western, educated, industrialised, rich and democratic societies, even though these Western populations may be particularly unrepresentative of human populations. To our knowledge, this is the first study to test which facial cues contribute to African perceptions of African female attractiveness and also the first study to test the combined role of facial adiposity, skin colour (lightness, yellowness and redness), skin homogeneity and youthfulness in the facial attractiveness preferences of any population. Results show that youthfulness, skin colour, skin homogeneity and facial adiposity significantly and independently predict attractiveness in female African faces. Younger, thinner women with a lighter, yellower skin colour and a more homogenous skin tone are considered more attractive. These findings provide a more global perspective on human mate choice and point to a universal role for these four facial cues in female facial attractiveness. PMID:23144734

  16. Plio-pleistocene African climate

    SciTech Connect

    deMenocal, P.B.

    1995-10-06

    Marine records of African climate variability document a shift toward more arid conditions after 2.8 million years ago (Ma), evidently resulting from remote forcing by cold North Atlantic sea-surface temperatures associated with the onset of Northern Hemisphere glacial cycles. African climate before 2.8 Ma was regulated by low-latitude insolation forcing of monsoonal climate due to Earth orbital precession. Major steps in the evolution of African hominids and other vertebrates are coincident with shifts to more arid, open conditions near 2.8 Ma, 1.7 Ma, and 1.0 Ma, suggesting that some Pliocene (Plio)-Pleistocene speciation events may have been climatically mediated. 65 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Plio-Pleistocene African Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demenocal, Peter B.

    1995-10-01

    Marine records of African climate variability document a shift toward more arid conditions after 2.8 million years ago (Ma), evidently resulting from remote forcing by cold North Atlantic sea-surface temperatures associated with the onset of Northern Hemisphere glacial cycles. African climate before 2.8 Ma was regulated by low-latitude insolation forcing of monsoonal climate due to Earth orbital precession. Major steps in the evolution of African hominids and other vertebrates are coincident with shifts to more arid, open conditions near 2.8 Ma, 1.7 Ma, and 1.0 Ma, suggesting that some Pliocene (Plio)-Pleistocene speciation events may have been climatically mediated.

  18. West African crude production diversifies

    SciTech Connect

    Aalund, L.

    1983-06-01

    Nigeria, with its seven crude-oil export streams, dominated West African production and accounted for over 70% of the depressed 1.8 million b/d output from the region last year. However, during the 1970s a flurry of new producing fields, primarily off the African coast, diversified production among a number of countries and touched off a wave of oil activity. The Journal takes a close look at the quality of West African oil in this installment of assays on world export crudes. This issue covers, in alphabetical order, Bonny Light (Nigeria) to Espoir (Ivory Coast). A following issue will wrap up West Africa by presenting assays on crudes from Forcados Blend (Nigeria) to Zaire Crude (Zaire).

  19. The African Cultural Astronomy Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urama, Johnson O.; Holbrook, Jarita C.

    2011-06-01

    Indigenous, endogenous, traditional, or cultural astronomy focuses on the many ways that people and cultures interact with celestial bodies. In most parts of Africa, there is very little or no awareness about modern astronomy. However, like ancient people everywhere, Africans wondered at the sky and struggled to make sense of it. The African Cultural Astronomy Project aims to unearth the body of traditional knowledge of astronomy possessed by peoples of the different ethnic groups in Africa and to consider scientific interpretations when appropriate for cosmogonies and ancient astronomical practices. Regardless of scientific validity, every scientist can relate to the process of making observations and creating theoretical mechanisms for explaining what is observed. Through linking the traditional and the scientific, it is believed that this would be used to create awareness and interest in astronomy in most parts of Africa. This paper discusses the vision, challenges and prospects of the African Cultural Astronomy Project in her quest to popularize astronomy in Africa.

  20. The African American Image in American Cinema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourne, St. Clair

    1990-01-01

    Political conditions have influenced the screen images of U.S. cinema, and the images of African Americans have reflected prevailing social stereotypes. The history of African-American representation in films is traced, and it is noted that the tendency to portray African Americans stereotypically has not changed. (SLD)

  1. Towards a Norm in South African Englishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Walt, Johann L.; van Rooy, Bertus

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the perception and application of the norm in South African English with specific reference to Black South African English. Hypothesizes that South African English is in the hibernation and expansion phase. Three sets of data are presented and analyzed. (Author/VWL)

  2. African Centered Knowledge: A British Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Considers the impact of African centered knowledge within the United Kingdom. Recent development of African Diaspora studies has forged links between various black Atlantic communities. The United Kingdom has experienced positive grassroots community response to the work of noted African centered scholars, yet within the British academy,…

  3. Freedom Road: Adult Education of African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Elizabeth A., Ed.

    This book contains six chapters by various authors about the history of African Americans' contributions and participation in adult education. The book reports on how some African American leaders saw the connection between education and the eventual freedom or uplift of the African American people. Following a foreword (Phyllis M. Cunningham) and…

  4. An Introduction to West African Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taiwo, Oladele

    Intended to provide help for those interested in studying West African literature, this book is divided into three parts. Part One provides background information: the various African oral traditions are discussed, related to the way of life of the people, and examined for the extent to which they form the basis of present West African literary…

  5. Engaging African Americans in Smoking Cessation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…

  6. African American Teaching and the Matriarchal Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffries, Rhonda Baynes

    This paper discusses the role of matriarchs in African-American culture, explaining that traditionally, African-American matriarchs arise from a combination of African norms and American social positions that naturally forces them to assume leadership conditions. The roles these women assume are a response to the desire to survive in a society…

  7. The Economic Question and the African Novel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okonkwo, J. I.

    1989-01-01

    Presents examples of how African novelists express their ideas on the restructuring of African economic orders and the social and political implications that emanate from them. Discusses the present state of the African economy reflected in the visions of these writers, and their visions of future socio-economic health of Africa. (JS)

  8. Content-based Instruction for African Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moshi, Lioba

    2001-01-01

    Examines content-based instruction for African languages and considers Schleicher's (2000) expatiation of goal-based instruction for African languages. Focuses on the parameters for content-based instruction, the profile of a content-based instructional program, the nature of content-based instruction, the first steps for African languages, and…

  9. Complex Syntax Production of African American Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Sandra C.; Roberts, Joanne E.

    2001-01-01

    This study examined changes in the complex syntax production of 85 African American preschoolers and the role of child (gender, age, African American English) and family (home environment) factors. Age, gender, and home environment effects were found for the amount of complex language used. African American English was not related to amount of…

  10. Heart failure in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Yancy, Clyde W

    2005-10-10

    The demographics of the United States are changing, and in the next few decades there will no longer be a racial/ethnic majority population. Increased awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in special populations is warranted as these populations increase. Heart failure carries a substantial burden on those affected, particularly African Americans, who have a disproportionate burden of heart disease. Current treatments for heart failure include angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers, angiotensin II-receptor antagonists, and vasodilating agents. This review discusses the unique characteristics of CVD in African Americans and addresses the need for targeted treatments to reduce the excess burden found in this population.

  11. Cheetahs and wild dogs show contrasting patterns of suppression by lions.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Alexandra; Caro, Tim; Davies-Mostert, Harriet; Mills, Michael G L; Macdonald, David W; Borner, Markus; Masenga, Emmanuel; Packer, Craig

    2014-11-01

    Top predators can dramatically suppress populations of smaller predators, with cascading effects throughout communities, and this pressure is often unquestioningly accepted as a constraint on mesopredator populations. In this study, we reassess whether African lions suppress populations of cheetahs and African wild dogs and examine possible mechanisms for coexistence between these species. Using long-term records from Serengeti National Park, we tested 30 years of population data for evidence of mesopredator suppression, and we examined six years of concurrent radio-telemetry data for evidence of large-scale spatial displacement. The Serengeti lion population nearly tripled between 1966 and 1998; during this time, wild dogs declined but cheetah numbers remained largely unchanged. Prior to their local extinction, wild dogs primarily occupied low lion density areas and apparently abandoned the long-term study area as the lion population 'saturated' the region. In contrast, cheetahs mostly utilized areas of high lion density, and the stability of the cheetah population indicates that neither high levels of lion-inflicted mortality nor behavioural avoidance inflict sufficient demographic consequences to translate into population-level effects. Population data from fenced reserves in southern Africa revealed a similar contrast between wild dogs and cheetahs in their ability to coexist with lions. These findings demonstrate differential responses of subordinate species within the same guild and challenge a widespread perception that lions undermine cheetah conservation efforts. Paired with several recent studies that document fine-scale lion-avoidance by cheetahs, this study further highlights fine-scale spatial avoidance as a possible mechanism for mitigating mesopredator suppression.

  12. Cheetahs and wild dogs show contrasting patterns of suppression by lions.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Alexandra; Caro, Tim; Davies-Mostert, Harriet; Mills, Michael G L; Macdonald, David W; Borner, Markus; Masenga, Emmanuel; Packer, Craig

    2014-11-01

    Top predators can dramatically suppress populations of smaller predators, with cascading effects throughout communities, and this pressure is often unquestioningly accepted as a constraint on mesopredator populations. In this study, we reassess whether African lions suppress populations of cheetahs and African wild dogs and examine possible mechanisms for coexistence between these species. Using long-term records from Serengeti National Park, we tested 30 years of population data for evidence of mesopredator suppression, and we examined six years of concurrent radio-telemetry data for evidence of large-scale spatial displacement. The Serengeti lion population nearly tripled between 1966 and 1998; during this time, wild dogs declined but cheetah numbers remained largely unchanged. Prior to their local extinction, wild dogs primarily occupied low lion density areas and apparently abandoned the long-term study area as the lion population 'saturated' the region. In contrast, cheetahs mostly utilized areas of high lion density, and the stability of the cheetah population indicates that neither high levels of lion-inflicted mortality nor behavioural avoidance inflict sufficient demographic consequences to translate into population-level effects. Population data from fenced reserves in southern Africa revealed a similar contrast between wild dogs and cheetahs in their ability to coexist with lions. These findings demonstrate differential responses of subordinate species within the same guild and challenge a widespread perception that lions undermine cheetah conservation efforts. Paired with several recent studies that document fine-scale lion-avoidance by cheetahs, this study further highlights fine-scale spatial avoidance as a possible mechanism for mitigating mesopredator suppression. PMID:24724917

  13. The demography of wild carrot in Wisconsin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild carrot was likely introduced to North America as a weed from Europe. It has spread since its introduction, now occurs in every state and has been declared invasive. Because wild carrot can easily hybridize with cultivated carrots, is an outcrosser and is pollinated by various insects, the intro...

  14. Ecology of Avian Influenza Virus in Wild Birds in Tropical Africa.

    PubMed

    Gaidet, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    Several ecologic factors have been proposed to describe the mechanisms whereby host ecology and the environment influence the transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in wild birds, including bird's foraging behavior, migratory pattern, seasonal congregation, the rate of recruitment of juvenile birds, and abiotic factors. However, these ecologic factors are derived from studies that have been conducted in temperate or boreal regions of the Northern Hemisphere. These factors cannot be directly translated to tropical regions, where differences in host ecology and seasonality may produce different ecologic interactions between wild birds and AIV. An extensive dataset of AIV detection in wildfowl and shorebirds sampled across tropical Africa was used to analyze how the distinctive ecologic features of Afrotropical regions may influence the dynamics of AIV transmission in wild birds. The strong seasonality of rainfall and surface area of wetlands allows testing of how the seasonality of wildfowl ecology (reproduction phenology and congregation) is related to AIV seasonal dynamics. The diversity of the African wildfowl community provides the opportunity to investigate the respective influence of migratory behavior, foraging behavior, and phylogeny on species variation in infection rate. Large aggregation sites of shorebirds in Africa allow testing for the existence of AIV infection hot spots. We found that the processes whereby host ecology influence AIV transmission in wild birds in the Afrotropical context operate through ecologic factors (seasonal drying of wetlands and extended and nonsynchronized breeding periods) that are different than the one described in temperate regions, hence, resulting in different patterns of AIV infection dynamics. PMID:27309070

  15. Ecology of Avian Influenza Virus in Wild Birds in Tropical Africa.

    PubMed

    Gaidet, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    Several ecologic factors have been proposed to describe the mechanisms whereby host ecology and the environment influence the transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in wild birds, including bird's foraging behavior, migratory pattern, seasonal congregation, the rate of recruitment of juvenile birds, and abiotic factors. However, these ecologic factors are derived from studies that have been conducted in temperate or boreal regions of the Northern Hemisphere. These factors cannot be directly translated to tropical regions, where differences in host ecology and seasonality may produce different ecologic interactions between wild birds and AIV. An extensive dataset of AIV detection in wildfowl and shorebirds sampled across tropical Africa was used to analyze how the distinctive ecologic features of Afrotropical regions may influence the dynamics of AIV transmission in wild birds. The strong seasonality of rainfall and surface area of wetlands allows testing of how the seasonality of wildfowl ecology (reproduction phenology and congregation) is related to AIV seasonal dynamics. The diversity of the African wildfowl community provides the opportunity to investigate the respective influence of migratory behavior, foraging behavior, and phylogeny on species variation in infection rate. Large aggregation sites of shorebirds in Africa allow testing for the existence of AIV infection hot spots. We found that the processes whereby host ecology influence AIV transmission in wild birds in the Afrotropical context operate through ecologic factors (seasonal drying of wetlands and extended and nonsynchronized breeding periods) that are different than the one described in temperate regions, hence, resulting in different patterns of AIV infection dynamics.

  16. Oscar Wilde and the brain cell.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Elisha

    2013-01-01

    This chapter considers Oscar Wilde's interest in the brain cell as an aesthetic object. Offering an account of Wilde's career that analyzes his early interest in physiology and philosophy, this chapter argues that Wilde's uniquely aesthetic take on the brain suggests that he rejects an account of the self as autonomous or self-determining. For many late Victorians brain science threatened both the freedom of human action and the legitimacy of beauty because it had the potential to invalidate conscious experience. But writers whose work Wilde knew, like John Ruskin, W. K. Clifford, and John Tyndall, avoided the despair of materialism by using aesthetic terms in their own discussions of life's invisible materials. Wilde's art collaborates with the contemporary sciences. His depictions of the cell direct the senses to a new field of being that emphasizes the molecular life all humans have in common, in which individual responsibility and activity matter less than the necessity of beauty.

  17. Oscar Wilde and the brain cell.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Elisha

    2013-01-01

    This chapter considers Oscar Wilde's interest in the brain cell as an aesthetic object. Offering an account of Wilde's career that analyzes his early interest in physiology and philosophy, this chapter argues that Wilde's uniquely aesthetic take on the brain suggests that he rejects an account of the self as autonomous or self-determining. For many late Victorians brain science threatened both the freedom of human action and the legitimacy of beauty because it had the potential to invalidate conscious experience. But writers whose work Wilde knew, like John Ruskin, W. K. Clifford, and John Tyndall, avoided the despair of materialism by using aesthetic terms in their own discussions of life's invisible materials. Wilde's art collaborates with the contemporary sciences. His depictions of the cell direct the senses to a new field of being that emphasizes the molecular life all humans have in common, in which individual responsibility and activity matter less than the necessity of beauty. PMID:24290258

  18. Lead Poisoning in Wild Birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lahner, Lesanna L.; Franson, J. Christian

    2009-01-01

    Lead in its various forms has been used for thousands of years, originally in cooking utensils and glazes and more recently in many industrial and commercial applications. However, lead is a potent, potentially deadly toxin that damages many organs in the body and can affect all animals, including humans. By the mid 1990s, lead had been removed from many products in the United States, such as paint and fuel, but it is still commonly used in ammunition for hunting upland game birds, small mammals, and large game animals, as well as in fishing tackle. Wild birds, such as mourning doves, bald eagles, California condors, and loons, can die from the ingestion of one lead shot, bullet fragment, or sinker. According to a recent study on loon mortality, nearly half of adult loons found sick or dead during the breeding season in New England were diagnosed with confirmed or suspected lead poisoning from ingestion of lead fishing weights. Recent regulations in some states have restricted the use of lead ammunition on certain upland game hunting areas, as well as lead fishing tackle in areas frequented by common loons and trumpeter swans. A variety of alternatives to lead are available for use in hunting, shooting sports, and fishing activities.

  19. Wild female African elephants (Loxodonta africana) exhibit personality traits of leadership and social integration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Phyllis C; Moss, Cynthia J

    2012-08-01

    Animal personalities have been demonstrated for almost 200 species, with stable dimensions of responses (aggressive to fearful; shy to bold) across contexts and with a heritable basis to these traits. As a long-lived and highly social species, elephants (Loxodonta africana) were expected to demonstrate complex dimensions to individual characteristics or personalities, which would be obvious to human observers and validated by behavioral observations. We used principal-components analysis of ratings on 26 behavioral adjectives applied to one social unit, coded as the EB family, which has been observed for 38 years. Eleven adult females were rated by four observers and found to have individually variable traits on four dimensions described by principal-components analysis. The first component was associated with effective and confident family leadership. Component 2 was age-related, and defined by playfulness, exploration and high levels of activity, suggesting both an experience and an age-related element to its structure. Component 3 represented gentleness and at its other extreme, aggression, and Component 4 was related to constancy (predictability and popularity), with both of these latter components reflecting social integration. Leadership among elephant females represents the successful negotiation among individual interests, and our components were related to a capacity to affect the behavior of others in the absence of aggressive dominance. The family matriarch, Echo, was high on elements associated with leadership. The importance of the matriarch in this family's success suggests that elements of personality may underlie interfamilial variation in long-term survival and reproduction.

  20. Discovery and Characterization of Distinct Simian Pegiviruses in Three Wild African Old World Monkey Species

    PubMed Central

    Sibley, Samuel D.; Lauck, Michael; Bailey, Adam L.; Hyeroba, David; Tumukunde, Alex; Weny, Geoffrey; Chapman, Colin A.; O’Connor, David H.; Goldberg, Tony L.; Friedrich, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Within the Flaviviridae, the recently designated genus Pegivirus has expanded greatly due to new discoveries in bats, horses, and rodents. Here we report the discovery and characterization of three simian pegiviruses (SPgV) that resemble human pegivirus (HPgV) and infect red colobus monkeys (Procolobus tephrosceles), red-tailed guenons (Cercopithecus ascanius) and an olive baboon (Papio anubis). We have designated these viruses SPgVkrc, SPgVkrtg and SPgVkbab, reflecting their host species’ common names, which include reference to their location of origin in Kibale National Park, Uganda. SPgVkrc and SPgVkrtg were detected in 47% (28/60) of red colobus and 42% (5/12) red-tailed guenons, respectively, while SPgVkbab infection was observed in 1 of 23 olive baboons tested. Infections were not associated with any apparent disease, despite the generally high viral loads observed for each variant. These viruses were monophyletic and equally divergent from HPgV and pegiviruses previously identified in chimpanzees (SPgVcpz). Overall, the high degree of conservation of genetic features among the novel SPgVs, HPgV and SPgVcpz suggests conservation of function among these closely related viruses. Our study describes the first primate pegiviruses detected in Old World monkeys, expanding the known genetic diversity and host range of pegiviruses and providing insight into the natural history of this genus. PMID:24918769

  1. Classic African American Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNair, Jonda C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to assert that there are classic African American children's books and to identify a sampling of them. The author presents multiple definitions of the term classic based on the responses of children's literature experts and relevant scholarship. Next, the manner in which data were collected and analyzed in regard to…

  2. Wellness among African American Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day-Vines, Norma L.; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    Although there are various definitions of wellness, few conceptual definitions have addressed the contextual dimensions of wellness relative to African American counselors. The authors present an overview of generic models of wellness, discuss factors that both inhibit and promote wellness, offer some culture-specific models of wellness, and…

  3. Liberia: America's Closest African Ally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Samuel; Mowell, Barry

    1997-01-01

    Profiles Liberia, the West African nation patterned after the United States and colonized with freed U.S. slaves in the early 19th century. Reviews the country's history and its eruption into civil strife in 1990, showing how tensions have often characterized relationships between Liberians of different ethnic identities. (MJP)

  4. Improvisation in West African Musics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, David

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is music of the sub-Sahara. Vocal, instrumental, and dance drumming from the Sudan Desert, the North Coast, East Horn, Central and West Africa, and contrapuntal yodeling of Pygmies is described. For African musicians, the ability to improvise, and creativity, are gifts from God. Includes selected readings and recordings. (KC)

  5. African American Men in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuyjet, Michael J., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This book is a much-needed resource that includes examples of real-world programs and activities to enhance academic success in the college environment for African American men. The examples are collected from a variety of institutions across the country. With contributions from leading practitioners and scholars in the field, this book explores…

  6. Consequences of Non-Intervention for Infectious Disease in African Great Apes

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Sadie J.; Walsh, Peter D.

    2011-01-01

    Infectious disease has recently joined poaching and habitat loss as a major threat to African apes. Both “naturally” occurring pathogens, such as Ebola and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV), and respiratory pathogens transmitted from humans, have been confirmed as important sources of mortality in wild gorillas and chimpanzees. While awareness of the threat has increased, interventions such as vaccination and treatment remain controversial. Here we explore both the risk of disease to African apes, and the status of potential responses. Through synthesis of published data, we summarize prior disease impact on African apes. We then use a simple demographic model to illustrate the resilience of a well-known gorilla population to disease, modeled on prior documented outbreaks. We found that the predicted recovery time for this specific gorilla population from a single outbreak ranged from 5 years for a low mortality (4%) respiratory outbreak, to 131 years for an Ebola outbreak that killed 96% of the population. This shows that mortality rates comparable to those recently reported for disease outbreaks in wild populations are not sustainable. This is particularly troubling given the rising pathogen risk created by increasing habituation of wild apes for tourism, and the growth of human populations surrounding protected areas. We assess potential future disease spillover risk in terms of vaccination rates amongst humans that may come into contact with wild apes, and the availability of vaccines against potentially threatening diseases. We discuss and evaluate non-interventionist responses such as limiting tourist access to apes, community health programs, and safety, logistic, and cost issues that constrain the potential of vaccination. PMID:22216162

  7. Consequences of non-intervention for infectious disease in African great apes.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Sadie J; Walsh, Peter D

    2011-01-01

    Infectious disease has recently joined poaching and habitat loss as a major threat to African apes. Both "naturally" occurring pathogens, such as Ebola and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV), and respiratory pathogens transmitted from humans, have been confirmed as important sources of mortality in wild gorillas and chimpanzees. While awareness of the threat has increased, interventions such as vaccination and treatment remain controversial. Here we explore both the risk of disease to African apes, and the status of potential responses. Through synthesis of published data, we summarize prior disease impact on African apes. We then use a simple demographic model to illustrate the resilience of a well-known gorilla population to disease, modeled on prior documented outbreaks. We found that the predicted recovery time for this specific gorilla population from a single outbreak ranged from 5 years for a low mortality (4%) respiratory outbreak, to 131 years for an Ebola outbreak that killed 96% of the population. This shows that mortality rates comparable to those recently reported for disease outbreaks in wild populations are not sustainable. This is particularly troubling given the rising pathogen risk created by increasing habituation of wild apes for tourism, and the growth of human populations surrounding protected areas. We assess potential future disease spillover risk in terms of vaccination rates amongst humans that may come into contact with wild apes, and the availability of vaccines against potentially threatening diseases. We discuss and evaluate non-interventionist responses such as limiting tourist access to apes, community health programs, and safety, logistic, and cost issues that constrain the potential of vaccination.

  8. Developing anatomical terms in an African language.

    PubMed

    Madzimbamuto, Farai Daniel

    2012-03-01

    Clinical and technical information imparted in most African languages involves inexact terminology and code switching, so it lacks the explanatory power characterised by the English language. African languages are absent in the tertiary science education environment and forums where African scientists could present scientific material in the medium of African languages. This limits the development of African languages in the scientific domain. There has recently been a trend in several African languages to develop and intellectualise them, especially in the field of medical sciences. The ChiShona language is used to explore the ability of an African language to develop new terminology, to name the vertebral skeleton and describe it scientifically. It uses word compounding to demonstrate terminology development. ChiShona has similarities with several hundred other Bantu languages in East, Central and Southern Africa. Advancing this language can promote similar developments in others, making them more explanatory for the lay public and health professionals. PMID:22380900

  9. Linkage Disequilibrium in Wild Mice

    PubMed Central

    Laurie, Cathy C; Nickerson, Deborah A; Anderson, Amy D; Weir, Bruce S; Livingston, Robert J; Dean, Matthew D; Smith, Kimberly L; Schadt, Eric E; Nachman, Michael W

    2007-01-01

    Crosses between laboratory strains of mice provide a powerful way of detecting quantitative trait loci for complex traits related to human disease. Hundreds of these loci have been detected, but only a small number of the underlying causative genes have been identified. The main difficulty is the extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD) in intercross progeny and the slow process of fine-scale mapping by traditional methods. Recently, new approaches have been introduced, such as association studies with inbred lines and multigenerational crosses. These approaches are very useful for interval reduction, but generally do not provide single-gene resolution because of strong LD extending over one to several megabases. Here, we investigate the genetic structure of a natural population of mice in Arizona to determine its suitability for fine-scale LD mapping and association studies. There are three main findings: (1) Arizona mice have a high level of genetic variation, which includes a large fraction of the sequence variation present in classical strains of laboratory mice; (2) they show clear evidence of local inbreeding but appear to lack stable population structure across the study area; and (3) LD decays with distance at a rate similar to human populations, which is considerably more rapid than in laboratory populations of mice. Strong associations in Arizona mice are limited primarily to markers less than 100 kb apart, which provides the possibility of fine-scale association mapping at the level of one or a few genes. Although other considerations, such as sample size requirements and marker discovery, are serious issues in the implementation of association studies, the genetic variation and LD results indicate that wild mice could provide a useful tool for identifying genes that cause variation in complex traits. PMID:17722986

  10. African origin of the malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weimin; Li, Yingying; Shaw, Katharina S; Learn, Gerald H; Plenderleith, Lindsey J; Malenke, Jordan A; Sundararaman, Sesh A; Ramirez, Miguel A; Crystal, Patricia A; Smith, Andrew G; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Locatelli, Sabrina; Esteban, Amandine; Mouacha, Fatima; Guichet, Emilande; Butel, Christelle; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Inogwabini, Bila-Isia; Ndjango, Jean-Bosco N; Speede, Sheri; Sanz, Crickette M; Morgan, David B; Gonder, Mary K; Kranzusch, Philip J; Walsh, Peter D; Georgiev, Alexander V; Muller, Martin N; Piel, Alex K; Stewart, Fiona A; Wilson, Michael L; Pusey, Anne E; Cui, Liwang; Wang, Zenglei; Färnert, Anna; Sutherland, Colin J; Nolder, Debbie; Hart, John A; Hart, Terese B; Bertolani, Paco; Gillis, Amethyst; LeBreton, Matthew; Tafon, Babila; Kiyang, John; Djoko, Cyrille F; Schneider, Bradley S; Wolfe, Nathan D; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Delaporte, Eric; Carter, Richard; Culleton, Richard L; Shaw, George M; Rayner, Julian C; Peeters, Martine; Hahn, Beatrice H; Sharp, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the leading cause of human malaria in Asia and Latin America but is absent from most of central Africa due to the near fixation of a mutation that inhibits the expression of its receptor, the Duffy antigen, on human erythrocytes. The emergence of this protective allele is not understood because P. vivax is believed to have originated in Asia. Here we show, using a non-invasive approach, that wild chimpanzees and gorillas throughout central Africa are endemically infected with parasites that are closely related to human P. vivax. Sequence analyses reveal that ape parasites lack host specificity and are much more diverse than human parasites, which form a monophyletic lineage within the ape parasite radiation. These findings indicate that human P. vivax is of African origin and likely selected for the Duffy-negative mutation. All extant human P. vivax parasites are derived from a single ancestor that escaped out of Africa.

  11. African origin of the malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weimin; Li, Yingying; Shaw, Katharina S.; Learn, Gerald H.; Plenderleith, Lindsey J.; Malenke, Jordan A.; Sundararaman, Sesh A.; Ramirez, Miguel A.; Crystal, Patricia A.; Smith, Andrew G.; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Locatelli, Sabrina; Esteban, Amandine; Mouacha, Fatima; Guichet, Emilande; Butel, Christelle; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Inogwabini, Bila-Isia; Ndjango, Jean-Bosco N.; Speede, Sheri; Sanz, Crickette M.; Morgan, David B.; Gonder, Mary K.; Kranzusch, Philip J.; Walsh, Peter D.; Georgiev, Alexander V.; Muller, Martin N.; Piel, Alex K.; Stewart, Fiona A.; Wilson, Michael L.; Pusey, Anne E.; Cui, Liwang; Wang, Zenglei; Färnert, Anna; Sutherland, Colin J.; Nolder, Debbie; Hart, John A.; Hart, Terese B.; Bertolani, Paco; Gillis, Amethyst; LeBreton, Matthew; Tafon, Babila; Kiyang, John; Djoko, Cyrille F.; Schneider, Bradley S.; Wolfe, Nathan D.; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Delaporte, Eric; Carter, Richard; Culleton, Richard L.; Shaw, George M.; Rayner, Julian C.; Peeters, Martine; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Sharp, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the leading cause of human malaria in Asia and Latin America but is absent from most of central Africa due to the near fixation of a mutation that inhibits the expression of its receptor, the Duffy antigen, on human erythrocytes. The emergence of this protective allele is not understood because P. vivax is believed to have originated in Asia. Here we show, using a non-invasive approach, that wild chimpanzees and gorillas throughout central Africa are endemically infected with parasites that are closely related to human P. vivax. Sequence analyses reveal that ape parasites lack host specificity and are much more diverse than human parasites, which form a monophyletic lineage within the ape parasite radiation. These findings indicate that human P. vivax is of African origin and likely selected for the Duffy-negative mutation. All extant human P. vivax parasites are derived from a single ancestor that escaped out of Africa. PMID:24557500

  12. Fatal pentastomiasis in captive African dwarf crocodile hatchlings (Osteolaemus tetraspis).

    PubMed

    Adams, L; Isaza, R; Greiner, E

    2001-12-01

    Six eggs from a captive African dwarf crocodile (Osteolaemus tetraspis) nest were artificially incubated. Two abnormal hatchlings with incomplete absorption of their yolk sacs died within 48 hr of hatching. No parasites were detected grossly or histologically in either hatchling. The remaining four apparently healthy hatchlings died without clinical signs at 3 wk of age, 1 wk after being fed live wild-caught fish and commercially raised goldfish. Necropsy revealed multiple white small wormlike organisms within the lungs, liver, and gastrointestinal tract of all four hatchlings. Histopathologic cross sections suggested that pentastomiasis was the cause of death, and whole parasites were identified as Sebekia mississippiensis. This infection was probably contracted by ingestion of live fish intermediate hosts infected with nymphal parasites. Avoiding the use of infected live fish or untreated fish products can prevent mortality of hatchling crocodilians caused by S. mississippiensis within zoological collections.

  13. Matriarchs as repositories of social knowledge in African elephants.

    PubMed

    McComb, K; Moss, C; Durant, S M; Baker, L; Sayialel, S

    2001-04-20

    Despite widespread interest in the evolution of social intelligence, little is known about how wild animals acquire and store information about social companions or whether individuals possessing enhanced social knowledge derive biological fitness benefits. Using playback experiments on African elephants (Loxodonta africana), we demonstrated that the possession of enhanced discriminatory abilities by the oldest individual in a group can influence the social knowledge of the group as a whole. These superior abilities for social discrimination may result in higher per capita reproductive success for female groups led by older individuals. Our findings imply that the removal of older, more experienced individuals, which are often targets for hunters because of their large size, could have serious consequences for endangered populations of advanced social mammals such as elephants and whales.

  14. Tools to tipple: ethanol ingestion by wild chimpanzees using leaf-sponges

    PubMed Central

    Hockings, Kimberley J.; Bryson-Morrison, Nicola; Carvalho, Susana; Fujisawa, Michiko; Humle, Tatyana; McGrew, William C.; Nakamura, Miho; Ohashi, Gaku; Yamanashi, Yumi; Yamakoshi, Gen; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2015-01-01

    African apes and humans share a genetic mutation that enables them to effectively metabolize ethanol. However, voluntary ethanol consumption in this evolutionary radiation is documented only in modern humans. Here, we report evidence of the long-term and recurrent ingestion of ethanol from the raffia palm (Raphia hookeri, Arecaceae) by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Bossou in Guinea, West Africa, from 1995 to 2012. Chimpanzees at Bossou ingest this alcoholic beverage, often in large quantities, despite an average presence of ethanol of 3.1% alcohol by volume (ABV) and up to 6.9% ABV. Local people tap raffia palms and the sap collects in plastic containers, and chimpanzees use elementary technology—a leafy tool—to obtain this fermenting sap. These data show that ethanol does not act as a deterrent to feeding in this community of wild apes, supporting the idea that the last common ancestor of living African apes and modern humans was not averse to ingesting foods containing ethanol. PMID:26543588

  15. Tools to tipple: ethanol ingestion by wild chimpanzees using leaf-sponges.

    PubMed

    Hockings, Kimberley J; Bryson-Morrison, Nicola; Carvalho, Susana; Fujisawa, Michiko; Humle, Tatyana; McGrew, William C; Nakamura, Miho; Ohashi, Gaku; Yamanashi, Yumi; Yamakoshi, Gen; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2015-06-01

    African apes and humans share a genetic mutation that enables them to effectively metabolize ethanol. However, voluntary ethanol consumption in this evolutionary radiation is documented only in modern humans. Here, we report evidence of the long-term and recurrent ingestion of ethanol from the raffia palm (Raphia hookeri, Arecaceae) by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Bossou in Guinea, West Africa, from 1995 to 2012. Chimpanzees at Bossou ingest this alcoholic beverage, often in large quantities, despite an average presence of ethanol of 3.1% alcohol by volume (ABV) and up to 6.9% ABV. Local people tap raffia palms and the sap collects in plastic containers, and chimpanzees use elementary technology-a leafy tool-to obtain this fermenting sap. These data show that ethanol does not act as a deterrent to feeding in this community of wild apes, supporting the idea that the last common ancestor of living African apes and modern humans was not averse to ingesting foods containing ethanol. PMID:26543588

  16. Molecular characterization of canine kobuvirus in wild carnivores and the domestic dog in Africa.

    PubMed

    Olarte-Castillo, Ximena A; Heeger, Felix; Mazzoni, Camila J; Greenwood, Alex D; Fyumagwa, Robert; Moehlman, Patricia D; Hofer, Heribert; East, Marion L

    2015-03-01

    Knowledge of Kobuvirus (Family Picornaviridae) infection in carnivores is limited and has not been described in domestic or wild carnivores in Africa. To fill this gap in knowledge we used RT-PCR to screen fresh feces from several African carnivores. We detected kobuvirus RNA in samples from domestic dog, golden jackal, side-striped jackal and spotted hyena. Using next generation sequencing we obtained one complete Kobuvirus genome sequence from each of these species. Our phylogenetic analyses revealed canine kobuvirus (CaKV) infection in all four species and placed CaKVs from Africa together and separately from CaKVs from elsewhere. Wild carnivore strains were more closely related to each other than to those from domestic dogs. We found that the secondary structure model of the IRES was similar to the Aichivirus-like IRES subclass and was conserved among African strains. We describe the first CaKVs from Africa and extend the known host range of CaKV. PMID:25667111

  17. Molecular characterization of canine kobuvirus in wild carnivores and the domestic dog in Africa.

    PubMed

    Olarte-Castillo, Ximena A; Heeger, Felix; Mazzoni, Camila J; Greenwood, Alex D; Fyumagwa, Robert; Moehlman, Patricia D; Hofer, Heribert; East, Marion L

    2015-03-01

    Knowledge of Kobuvirus (Family Picornaviridae) infection in carnivores is limited and has not been described in domestic or wild carnivores in Africa. To fill this gap in knowledge we used RT-PCR to screen fresh feces from several African carnivores. We detected kobuvirus RNA in samples from domestic dog, golden jackal, side-striped jackal and spotted hyena. Using next generation sequencing we obtained one complete Kobuvirus genome sequence from each of these species. Our phylogenetic analyses revealed canine kobuvirus (CaKV) infection in all four species and placed CaKVs from Africa together and separately from CaKVs from elsewhere. Wild carnivore strains were more closely related to each other than to those from domestic dogs. We found that the secondary structure model of the IRES was similar to the Aichivirus-like IRES subclass and was conserved among African strains. We describe the first CaKVs from Africa and extend the known host range of CaKV.

  18. Wild Steelhead Studies, 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Holubetz, Terry B.

    1995-11-01

    Significant progress was attained in implementing the complex and challenging studies of wild steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss production in Idaho. Study sites were selected and techniques were developed to collect the needed data in remote wilderness locations. Cursory examination of existing data provides indication that most wild steelhead stocks are under escaped, especially the Group B stocks. Abundance of wild steelhead is generally declining in recent years. The portable weir concept and electronic fish counting developed through this project have been well received by land owners and reviewing governmental agencies with less impact to the land, stream, and fishery resources than conventional permanent weirs.

  19. Mycoplasma gallopavonis in eastern wild turkeys.

    PubMed

    Luttrell, M P; Eleazer, T H; Kleven, S H

    1992-04-01

    Serum samples and tracheal cultures were collected from eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris) trapped for relocation in South Carolina (USA) during 1985 to 1990. Sera were tested for Mycoplasma gallisepticum and M. synoviae by the rapid plate agglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests and were found to be negative. Tracheal cultures were negative for all pathogenic Mycoplasma spp., including M. gallisepticum, M. synoviae, M. meleagridis, and M. iowae. However, M. gallopavonis was isolated from every group of wild turkeys tested in 1986 to 1990. These data suggest that M. gallopavonis, which is generally considered nonpathogenic, may be a common microorganism in eastern wild turkeys.

  20. Wild chimpanzees plan their breakfast time, type, and location.

    PubMed

    Janmaat, Karline R L; Polansky, Leo; Ban, Simone Dagui; Boesch, Christophe

    2014-11-18

    Not all tropical fruits are equally desired by rainforest foragers and some fruit trees get depleted more quickly and carry fruit for shorter periods than others. We investigated whether a ripe-fruit specialist, the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus), arrived earlier at breakfast sites with very ephemeral and highly sought-after fruit, like figs, than sites with less ephemeral fruit that can be more predictably obtained throughout the entire day. We recorded when and where five adult female chimpanzees spent the night and acquired food for a total of 275 full days during three fruit-scarce periods in a West African tropical rainforest. We found that chimpanzees left their sleeping nests earlier (often before sunrise when the forest is still dark) when breakfasting on very ephemeral fruits, especially when they were farther away. Moreover, the females positioned their sleeping nests more in the direction of the next day's breakfast sites with ephemeral fruit compared with breakfast sites with other fruit. By analyzing departure times and nest positioning as a function of fruit type and location, while controlling for more parsimonious explanations, such as temperature, we found evidence that wild chimpanzees flexibly plan their breakfast time, type, and location after weighing multiple disparate pieces of information. Our study reveals a cognitive mechanism by which large-brained primates can buffer the effects of seasonal declines in food availability and increased interspecific competition to facilitate first access to nutritious food. We discuss the implications for theories on hominoid brain-size evolution. PMID:25349399

  1. Wild chimpanzees plan their breakfast time, type, and location

    PubMed Central

    Janmaat, Karline R. L.; Polansky, Leo; Ban, Simone Dagui; Boesch, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Not all tropical fruits are equally desired by rainforest foragers and some fruit trees get depleted more quickly and carry fruit for shorter periods than others. We investigated whether a ripe-fruit specialist, the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus), arrived earlier at breakfast sites with very ephemeral and highly sought-after fruit, like figs, than sites with less ephemeral fruit that can be more predictably obtained throughout the entire day. We recorded when and where five adult female chimpanzees spent the night and acquired food for a total of 275 full days during three fruit-scarce periods in a West African tropical rainforest. We found that chimpanzees left their sleeping nests earlier (often before sunrise when the forest is still dark) when breakfasting on very ephemeral fruits, especially when they were farther away. Moreover, the females positioned their sleeping nests more in the direction of the next day’s breakfast sites with ephemeral fruit compared with breakfast sites with other fruit. By analyzing departure times and nest positioning as a function of fruit type and location, while controlling for more parsimonious explanations, such as temperature, we found evidence that wild chimpanzees flexibly plan their breakfast time, type, and location after weighing multiple disparate pieces of information. Our study reveals a cognitive mechanism by which large-brained primates can buffer the effects of seasonal declines in food availability and increased interspecific competition to facilitate first access to nutritious food. We discuss the implications for theories on hominoid brain-size evolution. PMID:25349399

  2. Geographic range of vector-borne infections and their vectors: the role of African wildlife.

    PubMed

    van Vuuren, M; Penzhorn, B L

    2015-04-01

    The role of African wildlife in the occurrence of vector-borne infections in domestic animals has gained renewed interest as emerging and re-emerging infections occur worldwide at an increasing rate. In Africa, biodiversity conservation and the expansion of livestock production have increased the risk of transmitting vector-borne infections between wildlife and livestock. The indigenous African pathogens with transboundary potential, such as Rift Valley fever virus, African horse sickness virus, bluetongue virus, lumpy skin disease virus, African swine fever virus, and blood-borne parasites have received the most attention. There is no evidence for persistent vector-borne viral infections in African wildlife. For some viral infections, wildlife may act as a reservoir through the inter-epidemic circulation of viruses with mild or subclinical manifestations. Wildlife may also act as introductory or transporting hosts when moved to new regions, e.g. for lumpy skin disease virus, Rift Valley fever virus and West Nile virus. Wildlife may also act as amplifying hosts when exposed to viruses in the early part of the warm season when vectors are active, with spillover to domestic animals later in the season, e.g. with bluetongue and African horse sickness. Some tick species found on domestic animals are more abundant on wildlife hosts; some depend on wildlife hosts to complete their life cycle. Since the endemic stability of a disease depends on a sufficiently large tick population to ensure that domestic animals become infected at an early age, the presence of wildlife hosts that augment tick numbers may be beneficial. Many wild ungulate species are reservoirs of Anaplasma spp., while the role of wildlife in the epidemiology of heartwater (Ehrlichia ruminantium infection) has not been elucidated. Wild ungulates are not usually reservoirs of piroplasms that affect livestock; however, there are two exceptions: zebra, which are reservoirs of Babesia caballi and Theileria

  3. Geographic range of vector-borne infections and their vectors: the role of African wildlife.

    PubMed

    van Vuuren, M; Penzhorn, B L

    2015-04-01

    The role of African wildlife in the occurrence of vector-borne infections in domestic animals has gained renewed interest as emerging and re-emerging infections occur worldwide at an increasing rate. In Africa, biodiversity conservation and the expansion of livestock production have increased the risk of transmitting vector-borne infections between wildlife and livestock. The indigenous African pathogens with transboundary potential, such as Rift Valley fever virus, African horse sickness virus, bluetongue virus, lumpy skin disease virus, African swine fever virus, and blood-borne parasites have received the most attention. There is no evidence for persistent vector-borne viral infections in African wildlife. For some viral infections, wildlife may act as a reservoir through the inter-epidemic circulation of viruses with mild or subclinical manifestations. Wildlife may also act as introductory or transporting hosts when moved to new regions, e.g. for lumpy skin disease virus, Rift Valley fever virus and West Nile virus. Wildlife may also act as amplifying hosts when exposed to viruses in the early part of the warm season when vectors are active, with spillover to domestic animals later in the season, e.g. with bluetongue and African horse sickness. Some tick species found on domestic animals are more abundant on wildlife hosts; some depend on wildlife hosts to complete their life cycle. Since the endemic stability of a disease depends on a sufficiently large tick population to ensure that domestic animals become infected at an early age, the presence of wildlife hosts that augment tick numbers may be beneficial. Many wild ungulate species are reservoirs of Anaplasma spp., while the role of wildlife in the epidemiology of heartwater (Ehrlichia ruminantium infection) has not been elucidated. Wild ungulates are not usually reservoirs of piroplasms that affect livestock; however, there are two exceptions: zebra, which are reservoirs of Babesia caballi and Theileria

  4. Herpesvirus-like respiratory infection in African penguins Spheniscus demersus admitted to a rehabilitation centre.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Nola J; Gous, Tertius A; van Wilpe, Erna; Strauss, Venessa; Vanstreels, Ralph Eric

    2015-10-16

    Rehabilitation is an important strategy for the conservation of the Endangered African penguin Spheniscus demersus, and disease has been raised as a concern in the management of the species, both in the wild and in rehabilitation centres. We report 8 cases of herpesvirus-like respiratory infection in African penguin chicks undergoing rehabilitation between 2010 and 2013 at a facility in Cape Town, South Africa. Infection was confirmed through the identification of viral inclusions in the tracheal epithelium and demonstration of particles consistent with herpesvirus by electron microscopy, whereas virus isolation in eggs, serology and PCR testing failed to detect the virus. Only penguin chicks were affected; they were in poor body condition, and in 2 cases infection occurred prior to admission to the rehabilitation centre. The role played by the herpesvirus-like infection in the overall respiratory disease syndrome is uncertain, due to identification of lesions in only a small proportion of the chicks as well as to the occurrence of other concurrent pathological processes. Further studies are advised to characterise the specific virus involved through the development of sensitive diagnostic methods and to clarify the epidemiology and significance of these infections in wild African penguins. PMID:26480918

  5. Herpesvirus-like respiratory infection in African penguins Spheniscus demersus admitted to a rehabilitation centre.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Nola J; Gous, Tertius A; van Wilpe, Erna; Strauss, Venessa; Vanstreels, Ralph Eric

    2015-10-16

    Rehabilitation is an important strategy for the conservation of the Endangered African penguin Spheniscus demersus, and disease has been raised as a concern in the management of the species, both in the wild and in rehabilitation centres. We report 8 cases of herpesvirus-like respiratory infection in African penguin chicks undergoing rehabilitation between 2010 and 2013 at a facility in Cape Town, South Africa. Infection was confirmed through the identification of viral inclusions in the tracheal epithelium and demonstration of particles consistent with herpesvirus by electron microscopy, whereas virus isolation in eggs, serology and PCR testing failed to detect the virus. Only penguin chicks were affected; they were in poor body condition, and in 2 cases infection occurred prior to admission to the rehabilitation centre. The role played by the herpesvirus-like infection in the overall respiratory disease syndrome is uncertain, due to identification of lesions in only a small proportion of the chicks as well as to the occurrence of other concurrent pathological processes. Further studies are advised to characterise the specific virus involved through the development of sensitive diagnostic methods and to clarify the epidemiology and significance of these infections in wild African penguins.

  6. Illegal killing for ivory drives global decline in African elephants

    PubMed Central

    Wittemyer, George; Northrup, Joseph M.; Blanc, Julian; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Omondi, Patrick; Burnham, Kenneth P.

    2014-01-01

    Illegal wildlife trade has reached alarming levels globally, extirpating populations of commercially valuable species. As a driver of biodiversity loss, quantifying illegal harvest is essential for conservation and sociopolitical affairs but notoriously difficult. Here we combine field-based carcass monitoring with fine-scale demographic data from an intensively studied wild African elephant population in Samburu, Kenya, to partition mortality into natural and illegal causes. We then expand our analytical framework to model illegal killing rates and population trends of elephants at regional and continental scales using carcass data collected by a Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species program. At the intensively monitored site, illegal killing increased markedly after 2008 and was correlated strongly with the local black market ivory price and increased seizures of ivory destined for China. More broadly, results from application to continental data indicated illegal killing levels were unsustainable for the species between 2010 and 2012, peaking to ∼8% in 2011 which extrapolates to ∼40,000 elephants illegally killed and a probable species reduction of ∼3% that year. Preliminary data from 2013 indicate overharvesting continued. In contrast to the rest of Africa, our analysis corroborates that Central African forest elephants experienced decline throughout the last decade. These results provide the most comprehensive assessment of illegal ivory harvest to date and confirm that current ivory consumption is not sustainable. Further, our approach provides a powerful basis to determine cryptic mortality and gain understanding of the demography of at-risk species. PMID:25136107

  7. Illegal killing for ivory drives global decline in African elephants.

    PubMed

    Wittemyer, George; Northrup, Joseph M; Blanc, Julian; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Omondi, Patrick; Burnham, Kenneth P

    2014-09-01

    Illegal wildlife trade has reached alarming levels globally, extirpating populations of commercially valuable species. As a driver of biodiversity loss, quantifying illegal harvest is essential for conservation and sociopolitical affairs but notoriously difficult. Here we combine field-based carcass monitoring with fine-scale demographic data from an intensively studied wild African elephant population in Samburu, Kenya, to partition mortality into natural and illegal causes. We then expand our analytical framework to model illegal killing rates and population trends of elephants at regional and continental scales using carcass data collected by a Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species program. At the intensively monitored site, illegal killing increased markedly after 2008 and was correlated strongly with the local black market ivory price and increased seizures of ivory destined for China. More broadly, results from application to continental data indicated illegal killing levels were unsustainable for the species between 2010 and 2012, peaking to ∼ 8% in 2011 which extrapolates to ∼ 40,000 elephants illegally killed and a probable species reduction of ∼ 3% that year. Preliminary data from 2013 indicate overharvesting continued. In contrast to the rest of Africa, our analysis corroborates that Central African forest elephants experienced decline throughout the last decade. These results provide the most comprehensive assessment of illegal ivory harvest to date and confirm that current ivory consumption is not sustainable. Further, our approach provides a powerful basis to determine cryptic mortality and gain understanding of the demography of at-risk species.

  8. Cooperative problem solving in African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus).

    PubMed

    Péron, F; Rat-Fischer, L; Lalot, M; Nagle, L; Bovet, D

    2011-07-01

    One of the main characteristics of human societies is the extensive degree of cooperation among individuals. Cooperation is an elaborate phenomenon, also found in non-human primates during laboratory studies and field observations of animal hunting behaviour, among other things. Some authors suggest that the pressures assumed to have favoured the emergence of social intelligence in primates are similar to those that may have permitted the emergence of complex cognitive abilities in some bird species such as corvids and psittacids. In the wild, parrots show cooperative behaviours such as bi-parental care and mobbing. In this study, we tested cooperative problem solving in African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus). Our birds were tested using several experimental setups to explore the different levels of behavioural organisation between participants, differing in temporal and spatial complexity. In our experiments, African grey parrots were able to act simultaneously but mostly failed during the delay task, maybe because of a lack of inhibitory motor response. Confronted with the possibility to adapt their behaviour to the presence or absence of a partner, they showed that they were able to coordinate their actions. They also collaborated, acting complementarily in order to solve tasks, but they were not able to place themselves in the partner's role.

  9. Illegal killing for ivory drives global decline in African elephants.

    PubMed

    Wittemyer, George; Northrup, Joseph M; Blanc, Julian; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Omondi, Patrick; Burnham, Kenneth P

    2014-09-01

    Illegal wildlife trade has reached alarming levels globally, extirpating populations of commercially valuable species. As a driver of biodiversity loss, quantifying illegal harvest is essential for conservation and sociopolitical affairs but notoriously difficult. Here we combine field-based carcass monitoring with fine-scale demographic data from an intensively studied wild African elephant population in Samburu, Kenya, to partition mortality into natural and illegal causes. We then expand our analytical framework to model illegal killing rates and population trends of elephants at regional and continental scales using carcass data collected by a Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species program. At the intensively monitored site, illegal killing increased markedly after 2008 and was correlated strongly with the local black market ivory price and increased seizures of ivory destined for China. More broadly, results from application to continental data indicated illegal killing levels were unsustainable for the species between 2010 and 2012, peaking to ∼ 8% in 2011 which extrapolates to ∼ 40,000 elephants illegally killed and a probable species reduction of ∼ 3% that year. Preliminary data from 2013 indicate overharvesting continued. In contrast to the rest of Africa, our analysis corroborates that Central African forest elephants experienced decline throughout the last decade. These results provide the most comprehensive assessment of illegal ivory harvest to date and confirm that current ivory consumption is not sustainable. Further, our approach provides a powerful basis to determine cryptic mortality and gain understanding of the demography of at-risk species. PMID:25136107

  10. Mitochondrial diversity and the origins of African and European cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, D G; MacHugh, D E; Cunningham, P; Loftus, R T

    1996-01-01

    The nature of domestic cattle origins in Africa are unclear as archaeological data are relatively sparse. The earliest domesticates were humpless, or Bos taurus, in morphology and may have shared a common origin with the ancestors of European cattle in the Near East. Alternatively, local strains of the wild ox, the aurochs, may have been adopted by peoples in either continent either before or after cultural influence from the Levant. This study examines mitochondrial DNA displacement loop sequence variation in 90 extant bovines drawn from Africa, Europe, and India. Phylogeny estimation and analysis of molecular variance verify that sequences cluster significantly into continental groups. The Indian Bos indicus samples are most markedly distinct from the others, which is indicative of a B. taurus nature for both European and African ancestors. When a calibration of sequence divergence is performed using comparisons with bison sequences and an estimate of 1 Myr since the Bison/Bos Leptobos common ancestor, estimates of 117-275,000 B.P. and 22-26,000 B.P. are obtained for the separation between Indians and others and between African and European ancestors, respectively. As cattle domestication is thought to have occurred approximately 10,000 B.P., these estimates suggest the domestication of genetically discrete aurochsen strains as the origins of each continental population. Additionally, patterns of variation that are indicative of population expansions (probably associated with the domestication process) are discernible in Africa and Europe. Notably, the genetic signatures of these expansions are clearly younger than the corresponding signature of African/European divergence. Images Fig. 2 PMID:8643540

  11. Coming of Age: African American Male Rites-of-Passage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Paul, Jr.

    An overview is provided of issues confronting the African American male, along with a strategy to nurture a new generation of African American males. Chapters 1 and 2 focus on the social status and new demographics of the African American male and the external threats that are devastating to the African American male and the African American…

  12. Africa's wild C4 plant foods and possible early hominid diets.

    PubMed

    Peters, Charles R; Vogel, John C

    2005-03-01

    A small minority of Africa's wild plant foods are C4. These are primarily the seeds of some of the C4 grasses, the rootstocks and stem/leaf bases of some of the C4 sedges (especially papyrus), and the leaves of some of the C4 herbaceous dicots (forbs). These wild food plants are commonly found in disturbed ground and wetlands (particularly the grasses and sedges). Multiple lines of evidence indicate that C4 grasses were present in Africa by at least the late Miocene. It is a reasonable hypothesis that the prehistory of the C4 sedges parallels that of the C4 grasses, but the C4 forbs may not have become common until the late Pleistocene. CAM plants may have a more ancient history, but offer few opportunities for an additional C4-like dietary signal. The environmental reconstructions available for the early South African hominid sites do not indicate the presence of large wetlands, and therefore probably the absence of a strong potential for a C4 plant food diet. However, carbon isotope analyses of tooth enamel from three species of early South African hominids have shown that there was a significant but not dominant contribution of C4 biomass in their diets. Since it appears unlikely that this C4 component could have come predominantly from C4 plant foods, a broad range of potential animal contributors is briefly considered, namely invertebrates, reptiles, birds, and small mammals. It is concluded that the similar average C4 dietary intake seen in the three South African hominid species could have been acquired by differing contributions from the various sources, without the need to assume scavenging or hunting of medium to large grazing ungulates. Effectively similar dominantly dryland paleo-environments may also be part of the explanation. Theoretically, elsewhere in southern and eastern Africa, large wetlands would have offered early hominids greater opportunities for a C4 plant diet.

  13. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XXII. Ixodid ticks on domestic dogs and on wild carnivores.

    PubMed

    Horak, I G; Guillarmod, A J; Moolman, L C; de Vos, V

    1987-12-01

    Ixodid ticks were collected from 4 dogs on smallholdings near Grahamstown, eastern Cape Province, on 1 or more occasions each week for periods ranging from 9-36 months. Fourteen tick species were recovered and the seasonal abundance of adult Haemaphysalis leachi and adult Rhipicephalus simus was determined. Complete collections of ticks were made from 50 caracals (Felis caracal) in the Cradock, Graaff-Reinet and Southwell regions in the eastern Cape Province. The animals from Cradock and Graaff-Reinet harboured 13 ixodid tick species. The caracals from Southwell were infested with 11 tick species and the seasonal abundance of Ixodes pilosus on these animals was determined. A small-spotted genet (Genetta genetta), 1 bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis), 1 aardwolf (Proteles cristatus) and 6 black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas) from various localities in the eastern Cape Province were examined for ticks and 9 species were collected. Complete tick collections were made from a side-striped jackal (Canis adustus), 2 wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), a spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta), a several (Felis serval), 2 African civets (Civettictis civetta), 2 leopards (Panthera pardus) and a lion (Panthera leo) in the Kruger National Park in the north-eastern Transvaal. Twelve ixodid tick specis were recovered from these animals.

  14. Vaccinating captive chimpanzees to save wild chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Warfield, Kelly L; Goetzmann, Jason E; Biggins, Julia E; Kasda, Mary Beth; Unfer, Robert C; Vu, Hong; Aman, M Javad; Olinger, Gene Gerrard; Walsh, Peter D

    2014-06-17

    Infectious disease has only recently been recognized as a major threat to the survival of Endangered chimpanzees and Critically Endangered gorillas in the wild. One potentially powerful tool, vaccination, has not been deployed in fighting this disease threat, in good part because of fears about vaccine safety. Here we report on what is, to our knowledge, the first trial in which captive chimpanzees were used to test a vaccine intended for use on wild apes rather than humans. We tested a virus-like particle vaccine against Ebola virus, a leading source of death in wild gorillas and chimpanzees. The vaccine was safe and immunogenic. Captive trials of other vaccines and of methods for vaccine delivery hold great potential as weapons in the fight against wild ape extinction.

  15. Wild Plants Used by the Native Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nature Study, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Describes 10 wild plants used by Native Americans. They include: rose hips; the common milkweed; cattails; elderberries; cactus fruits; lamb's quarters pigweeds (Chenopodium sp.); persimmons; mints (Monardo sp.); the yucca; and the hawthorn. Illustrations of each plant are included. (JN)

  16. Learning to Walk on the Wild Side

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faught, Jon

    1977-01-01

    A program at Moorpark Community College, in Moorpark, California, offers a two-and-a-half-year major in Exotic Animal Training and Management. Emphasis is on the practical, everyday handling and training of wild animals. (LBH)

  17. THE CHALLENGE OF RESTORING WILD SALMON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many experts have concluded that wild salmon recovery efforts in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as they currently are, do not appear likely to sustain biologic...

  18. Histomoniasis in wild turkeys in Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Hurst, G A

    1980-07-01

    Blackhead (histomoniasis, enterohepatitis) was diagnosed as the cause of death for three wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) found in widely separated areas in Mississippi. The turkeys came from areas with high turkey population densities and supplemental feeding programs. Finding three sick and/or dead wild turkeys in a year's period suggests that the disease is more prevalent than generally believed. Recommendations for management programs are presented.

  19. The UCAR Africa Initiative: Enabling African Solutions to African Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, R.; Bruintjes, R.; Foote, B.; Heck, S.; Hermann, S.; Hoswell, L.; Konate, M.; Kucera, P.; Laing, A.; Lamptey, B.; Moncrieff, M.; Ramamurthy, M.; Roberts, R.; Spangler, T.; Traoré, A.; Yoksas, T.; Warner, T.

    2007-12-01

    The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) Africa Initiative (AI) is a coordinated effort aimed at building sustainable partnerships between UCAR and African institutions in order to pursue research and applications for the benefit of the African people. The initiative is based on four fundamental operating principles, concisely summarized by the overall philosophy of enabling African solutions to African needs. The four principles are: • Collaborate with African institutions • Focus on institutional capacity building and research support • Explore science research themes critical to Africa and important for the world • Leverage the research infrastructure in UCAR to add value These principles are realized in a set of pilot activities, chosen for their high probability of short-term results and ability to set the stage for longer-term collaboration. The three pilot activities are listed below. 1. A modest radar network and data-distribution system in Mali and Burkina Faso, including a data-sharing MOU between the Mail and Burkina Faso Weather Services. 2. A partnership among UCAR, the Ghana Meteorological Agency, and the Ghana university community to develop an operational Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for West Africa. The output is used by researchers and operational forecasters in Africa. Model output is also part of a demonstration project that aims to allow humanitarian agencies to share geo-referenced information in Africa via a web portal. 3. A workshop in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from April 2-6, 2007, with the theme Improving Lives by Understanding Weather. The workshop, co-organized with Programme SAAGA and the Commité Permanent Inter-Etats de Lutte Contre la Sécheresse dans le Sahel (CILSS), included over 80 participants from 18 countries, and produced a set of recommendations for continued collaboration. Our presentation will provide an update of these pilot activities and point to future directions. Recognizing

  20. Schistosomes in South African penguins.

    PubMed

    Aldhoun, Jitka A; Horne, Elizabeth C

    2015-01-01

    During the years 2009-2012, faeces of African penguins (Spheniscus demersus L.) from South African rehabilitation centres were examined for helminths. In total, 46 out 555 samples (8.29 %), mostly belonging to adult birds, were found to contain oval schistosome eggs with a spine on one pole. Their dimensions were 153.21 ± 9.07 × 87.14 ± 8.67 μm. Selected DNA fragments (18S, 28S and ITS rDNA) were sequenced and compared to other schistosome isolates deposited in GenBank. The shape of the eggs suggests that they belong to the genus Gigantobilharzia; however, due to the insufficient stage of knowledge of the genus and limited number of species available for comparison, we were not able to assign the isolate unambiguously to this genus based on either the egg morphology or the results of molecular analysis. PMID:25339513

  1. Schistosomes in South African penguins.

    PubMed

    Aldhoun, Jitka A; Horne, Elizabeth C

    2015-01-01

    During the years 2009-2012, faeces of African penguins (Spheniscus demersus L.) from South African rehabilitation centres were examined for helminths. In total, 46 out 555 samples (8.29 %), mostly belonging to adult birds, were found to contain oval schistosome eggs with a spine on one pole. Their dimensions were 153.21 ± 9.07 × 87.14 ± 8.67 μm. Selected DNA fragments (18S, 28S and ITS rDNA) were sequenced and compared to other schistosome isolates deposited in GenBank. The shape of the eggs suggests that they belong to the genus Gigantobilharzia; however, due to the insufficient stage of knowledge of the genus and limited number of species available for comparison, we were not able to assign the isolate unambiguously to this genus based on either the egg morphology or the results of molecular analysis.

  2. William Wilde in the West of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Coakley, D

    2016-05-01

    It is widely believed that Sir William Wilde's forebears were in Ireland for just two or three generations. This belief stems from a number of short biographies of Wilde which were published during his lifetime. These biographies gave different versions of the origin of the Wilde family and appear to have been generated by the creative imagination of Lady Jane Wilde or, as she was better known by her nom de plume, Speranza. She was equally imaginative in creating narratives about her own family background and in one she claimed descent from the Italian poet Dante Alighieri. So it was not a great challenge for her to invent biographies of her husband which she deemed suitable for a knight living at the prestigious address of 1 Merrion Square, leading many to believe that William and his son Oscar were more English than Irish. It was also important for Speranza to distance Sir William from any connection which the Wilde family might have had with trade. In this paper published and unpublished material are used, together with a careful examination of family deeds in the Registry of Deeds office, to elucidate the real roots of the Wilde family in Dublin and in the West of Ireland.

  3. William Wilde in the West of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Coakley, D

    2016-05-01

    It is widely believed that Sir William Wilde's forebears were in Ireland for just two or three generations. This belief stems from a number of short biographies of Wilde which were published during his lifetime. These biographies gave different versions of the origin of the Wilde family and appear to have been generated by the creative imagination of Lady Jane Wilde or, as she was better known by her nom de plume, Speranza. She was equally imaginative in creating narratives about her own family background and in one she claimed descent from the Italian poet Dante Alighieri. So it was not a great challenge for her to invent biographies of her husband which she deemed suitable for a knight living at the prestigious address of 1 Merrion Square, leading many to believe that William and his son Oscar were more English than Irish. It was also important for Speranza to distance Sir William from any connection which the Wilde family might have had with trade. In this paper published and unpublished material are used, together with a careful examination of family deeds in the Registry of Deeds office, to elucidate the real roots of the Wilde family in Dublin and in the West of Ireland. PMID:27083456

  4. Mental health concerns among African immigrants.

    PubMed

    Venters, Homer; Adekugbe, Olayinka; Massaquoi, Jacob; Nadeau, Cheryl; Saul, Jack; Gany, Francesca

    2011-08-01

    African immigrants represent a rapidly expanding group of immigrants in the United States. In New York City, Africans constitute the fastest growing segment of immigrants but the needs and practices of African immigrants in the U.S. remain poorly understood. A community based organization (CBO) serving African immigrants in Staten Island, NY began a health screening program in 2008 with the goal of promoting access to primary care. Over 18 months, 296 visits were recorded at African Refuge health screenings, representing a total of 87 people who averaged just over 3 visits per person. The screenings identified mental health among the top three medical problems of clients but referral to mental health services was rare. Dedicated services are required to better screen for mental health concerns and refer African immigrants to mental health care.

  5. Rabies virus and canine distemper virus in wild and domestic carnivores in Northern Kenya: are domestic dogs the reservoir?

    PubMed

    Prager, K C; Mazet, Jonna A K; Dubovi, Edward J; Frank, Laurence G; Munson, Linda; Wagner, Aaron P; Woodroffe, Rosie

    2012-12-01

    Rabies virus (RV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) can cause significant mortality in wild carnivore populations, and RV threatens human lives. We investigated serological patterns of exposure to CDV and RV in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris), African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas), spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta), striped hyenas (Hyaena hyaena) and African lions (Panthera leo), over a 10-year period, in a Kenyan rangeland to assess the role domestic dogs may play in the transmission dynamics of these two important canid pathogens. Observed patterns of RV exposure suggested that repeated introduction, rather than maintenance, occurred in the wild carnivore species studied. However, RV appeared to have been maintained in domestic dogs: exposure was more likely in domestic dogs than in the wild carnivores; was detected consistently over time without variation among years; and was detected in juveniles (≤1-year-old) as well as adults (>1-year-old). We conclude that this domestic dog population could be a RV reservoir. By contrast, the absence of evidence of CDV exposure for each carnivore species examined in the study area, for specific years, suggested repeated introduction, rather than maintenance, and that CDV may require a larger reservoir population than RV. This reservoir could be a larger domestic dog population; another wildlife species; or a "metareservoir" consisting of multiple interconnected carnivore populations. Our findings suggest that RV risks to people and wild carnivores might be controlled by domestic dog vaccination, but that CDV control, if required, would need to target the species of concern. PMID:23459924

  6. Rabies virus and canine distemper virus in wild and domestic carnivores in Northern Kenya: are domestic dogs the reservoir?

    PubMed

    Prager, K C; Mazet, Jonna A K; Dubovi, Edward J; Frank, Laurence G; Munson, Linda; Wagner, Aaron P; Woodroffe, Rosie

    2012-12-01

    Rabies virus (RV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) can cause significant mortality in wild carnivore populations, and RV threatens human lives. We investigated serological patterns of exposure to CDV and RV in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris), African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas), spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta), striped hyenas (Hyaena hyaena) and African lions (Panthera leo), over a 10-year period, in a Kenyan rangeland to assess the role domestic dogs may play in the transmission dynamics of these two important canid pathogens. Observed patterns of RV exposure suggested that repeated introduction, rather than maintenance, occurred in the wild carnivore species studied. However, RV appeared to have been maintained in domestic dogs: exposure was more likely in domestic dogs than in the wild carnivores; was detected consistently over time without variation among years; and was detected in juveniles (≤1-year-old) as well as adults (>1-year-old). We conclude that this domestic dog population could be a RV reservoir. By contrast, the absence of evidence of CDV exposure for each carnivore species examined in the study area, for specific years, suggested repeated introduction, rather than maintenance, and that CDV may require a larger reservoir population than RV. This reservoir could be a larger domestic dog population; another wildlife species; or a "metareservoir" consisting of multiple interconnected carnivore populations. Our findings suggest that RV risks to people and wild carnivores might be controlled by domestic dog vaccination, but that CDV control, if required, would need to target the species of concern.

  7. African swine fever in the North Caucasus region and the Russian Federation in years 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    Gogin, A; Gerasimov, V; Malogolovkin, A; Kolbasov, D

    2013-04-01

    Since the introduction of the virus into the Republic of Georgia in 2007 African swine fever (ASF) has become a large-scale epidemic involving the domestic pig population but wild boars are involved as well. From 2008 to 2009 the ASF epidemic affected wild and domestic pigs in all the southern regions of the Russian Federation (RF). The driving force of the epidemic in its initial stages was direct contact between infected wild boars and between wild boars and traditionally free-ranging domestic pigs in backyard farms. Driving forces of the epidemic at the its first stages was direct contact of infected wild boars between each other and with traditionally free ranged domestic pigs in backyard farms. The next stage developed due to illegal movement of pig products contaminated by African swine fever virus (ASFV) from affected regions and swill feeding, and inefficient implementation of measures to prevent and control ASF. From 2010 through 2012, ASF spread to other, previously unaffected regions of the RF. Most of outbreaks in the southern regions (Krasnodar, Stavropol, Rostov regions) are secondary. Currently, the disease situation observed in endemic areas of the RF, including the southern Krasnodar and Volgograd regions and the central Tver' region, is very complicated. In 2012, a large number of outbreaks in domestic pigs and in wild boars were reported. The circulating ASFV is highly virulent and has maintained its virulence throughout the epidemic since its introduction in 2007. Considering the forces currently driving the ASF epidemic - circulation of ASF virus in wild boars, ineffectiveness of prevention and control measures, lack of common interest in eradicating the disease and absence of a nationally funded eradication program - continued outbreaks, including those in previously unaffected regions of the RF, can be expected.

  8. Hair care practices in African American women.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Chemene R; Quinn, Timothy M; Kelly, A Paul

    2003-10-01

    Hair care in African American women is wrought with historical and cultural issues. Dermatologists need to improve their understanding of hair and scalp disorders in their African American patient population by being informed about the styling methods commonly used by and for these patients. The styling habits described in this article are intended to encompass the hairstyles adapted by a wide range of African American women with varying hair textures.

  9. Global diversity and genetic contributions of chicken populations from African, Asian and European regions.

    PubMed

    Lyimo, C M; Weigend, A; Msoffe, P L; Eding, H; Simianer, H; Weigend, S

    2014-12-01

    Genetic diversity and population structure of 113 chicken populations from Africa, Asia and Europe were studied using 29 microsatellite markers. Among these, three populations of wild chickens and nine commercial purebreds were used as reference populations for comparison. Compared to commercial lines and chickens sampled from the European region, high mean numbers of alleles and a high degree of heterozygosity were found in Asian and African chickens as well as in Red Junglefowl. Population differentiation (FST ) was higher among European breeds and commercial lines than among African, Asian and Red Junglefowl populations. Neighbour-Net genetic clustering and structure analysis revealed two main groups of Asian and north-west European breeds, whereas African populations overlap with other breeds from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean region. Broilers and brown egg layers were situated between the Asian and north-west European clusters. structure analysis confirmed a lower degree of population stratification in African and Asian chickens than in European breeds. High genetic differentiation and low genetic contributions to global diversity have been observed for single European breeds. Populations with low genetic variability have also shown a low genetic contribution to a core set of diversity in attaining maximum genetic variation present from the total populations. This may indicate that conservation measures in Europe should pay special attention to preserving as many single chicken breeds as possible to maintain maximum genetic diversity given that higher genetic variations come from differentiation between breeds. PMID:25315897

  10. African American Therapists Working with African American Families: An Exploration of the Strengths Perspective in Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell-Tolliver, Laverne; Burgess, Ruby; Brock, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    With the exception of Hill's (1971, 1999) work, historically much of the literature on African American families has focused more on pathology than strengths. This study used interviews with 30 African American psychotherapists, self-identified as employing a strengths perspective with African American families, to investigate which strengths they…

  11. 75 FR 2844 - African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ...; ] AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting Time: Tuesday, January 26, 2010, 8:30 a.m. to 1 p.m. Place: African Development Foundation, Conference Room, 1400...

  12. 75 FR 14418 - African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ...; ] AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting Time: Tuesday, April 13, 2010, 9:30 a.m. to 1 p.m. Place: African Development Foundation, Conference Room, 1400...

  13. 75 FR 45600 - African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ...; ] AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting Time: Tuesday, August 17, 2010, 8:30 a.m. to 1 p.m. Place: African Development Foundation, Conference Room, 1400...

  14. Gentle Africanized bees on an oceanic island

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Marchand, Bert; Oskay, Devrim; Giray, Tugrul

    2012-01-01

    Oceanic islands have reduced resources and natural enemies and potentially affect life history traits of arriving organisms. Among the most spectacular invasions in the Western hemisphere is that of the Africanized honeybee. We hypothesized that in the oceanic island Puerto Rico, Africanized bees will exhibit differences from the mainland population such as for defensiveness and other linked traits. We evaluated the extent of Africanization through three typical Africanized traits: wing size, defensive behavior, and resistance to Varroa destructor mites. All sampled colonies were Africanized by maternal descent, with over 65% presence of European alleles at the S-3 nuclear locus. In two assays evaluating defense, Puerto Rican bees showed low defensiveness similar to European bees. In morphology and resistance to mites, Africanized bees from Puerto Rico are similar to other Africanized bees. In behavioral assays on mechanisms of resistance to Varroa, we directly observed that Puerto Rican Africanized bees groomed-off and bit the mites as been observed in other studies. In no other location, Africanized bees have reduced defensiveness while retaining typical traits such as wing size and mite resistance. This mosaic of traits that has resulted during the invasion of an oceanic island has implications for behavior, evolution, and agriculture. PMID:23144660

  15. Gentle Africanized bees on an oceanic island.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Marchand, Bert; Oskay, Devrim; Giray, Tugrul

    2012-11-01

    Oceanic islands have reduced resources and natural enemies and potentially affect life history traits of arriving organisms. Among the most spectacular invasions in the Western hemisphere is that of the Africanized honeybee. We hypothesized that in the oceanic island Puerto Rico, Africanized bees will exhibit differences from the mainland population such as for defensiveness and other linked traits. We evaluated the extent of Africanization through three typical Africanized traits: wing size, defensive behavior, and resistance to Varroa destructor mites. All sampled colonies were Africanized by maternal descent, with over 65% presence of European alleles at the S-3 nuclear locus. In two assays evaluating defense, Puerto Rican bees showed low defensiveness similar to European bees. In morphology and resistance to mites, Africanized bees from Puerto Rico are similar to other Africanized bees. In behavioral assays on mechanisms of resistance to Varroa, we directly observed that Puerto Rican Africanized bees groomed-off and bit the mites as been observed in other studies. In no other location, Africanized bees have reduced defensiveness while retaining typical traits such as wing size and mite resistance. This mosaic of traits that has resulted during the invasion of an oceanic island has implications for behavior, evolution, and agriculture.

  16. Race, health, and the African Diaspora.

    PubMed

    Spigner, Clarence

    Health inequalities exist throughout the African Diaspora and are viewed in this article as largely color-coded. In developed, developing, and undeveloped nations today, "racial" stratification is consistently reflected in an inability to provide adequate health regardless of national policy or ideology. For instance, African Americans experience less than adequate health care very similar to Blacks in Britain, in spite of each nations differing health systems. Latin America's Africana Negra communities experience poorer health similar to Blacks throughout the Caribbean. The African continent itself is arguably the poorest on earth. A common history of racism correlates with health disparities across the African Diaspora.

  17. Suicidal Behaviors in the African American Community

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Alex; Molock, Sherry Davis

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the risk and protective factors associated with suicidal thoughts and behaviors in the African American community. The authors provide a brief review of the history of suicide research in African American communities and critique some of the paradigms and underlying assumptions that have made it difficult to address the problem of suicidal behaviors in the African American community. The article also summarizes the articles that are presented in this special edition of the Journal of Black Psychology on suicidality in the African American community. PMID:17047727

  18. Diversity of zoonotic enterohepatic Helicobacter species and detection of a putative novel gastric Helicobacter species in wild and wild-born captive chimpanzees and western lowland gorillas.

    PubMed

    Flahou, Bram; Modrý, David; Pomajbíková, Kateřina; Petrželková, Klára J; Smet, Annemieke; Ducatelle, Richard; Pasmans, Frank; Sá, Rui M; Todd, Angelique; Hashimoto, Chie; Mulama, Martin; Kiang, John; Rossi, Mirko; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2014-11-01

    A number of Helicobacter species cause gastrointestinal or hepatic disease in humans, including H. pylori, gastric non-H. pylori helicobacters from animal origin and enterohepatic Helicobacter species. Little is known on the presence of Helicobacter species in great apes, our closest living relatives and potential reservoirs of microorganisms that might emerge in humans. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of gastric and enterohepatic Helicobacter species in African chimpanzees and gorillas. Fresh fecal samples were collected from wild endangered chimpanzees and critically endangered western lowland gorillas from different African National Parks, as well as wild-born captive animals from primate sanctuaries. Intact Helicobacter bacteria were demonstrated in feces by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Screening using a Helicobacter genus-specific PCR revealed the presence of Helicobacter DNA in the majority of animals in all groups. Cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments revealed a high homology to sequences from various zoonotic enterohepatic Helicobacter species, including H. cinaedi and H. canadensis. A number of gorillas and chimpanzees also tested positive using PCR assays designed to amplify part of the ureAB gene cluster and the hsp60 gene of gastric helicobacters. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of a putative novel zoonotic gastric Helicobacter taxon/species. For this species, we propose the name 'Candidatus Helicobacter homininae', pending isolation and further genetic characterization. The presence of several Helicobacter species not only implies a possible health threat for these endangered great apes, but also a possible zoonotic transmission of gastric and enterohepatic helicobacters from these primate reservoirs to humans.

  19. A social network analysis of social cohesion in a constructed pride: implications for ex situ reintroduction of the African lion (Panthera leo).

    PubMed

    Abell, Jackie; Kirzinger, Morgan W B; Gordon, Yvonne; Kirk, Jacqui; Kokeŝ, Rae; Lynas, Kirsty; Mandinyenya, Bob; Youldon, David

    2013-01-01

    Animal conservation practices include the grouping of captive related and unrelated individuals to form a social structure which is characteristic of that species in the wild. In response to the rapid decline of wild African lion (Panthera leo) populations, an array of conservational strategies have been adopted. Ex situ reintroduction of the African lion requires the construction of socially cohesive pride structures prior to wild release. This pilot study adopted a social network theory approach to quantitatively assess a captive pride's social structure and the relationships between individuals within them. Group composition (who is present in a group) and social interaction data (social licking, greeting, play) was observed and recorded to assess social cohesion within a released semi-wild pride. UCINET and SOCPROG software was utilised to represent and analyse these social networks. Results indicate that the pride is socially cohesive, does not exhibit random associations, and the role of socially influential keystone individuals is important for maintaining social bondedness within a lion pride. These results are potentially informative for the structure of lion prides, in captivity and in the wild, and could have implications for captive and wild-founder reintroductions.

  20. Beyond mice and men: environmental change, immunity and infections in wild ungulates.

    PubMed

    Jolles, A E; Beechler, B R; Dolan, B P

    2015-05-01

    In the face of rapid environmental change, anticipating shifts in microparasite and macroparasite dynamics, including emergence events, is an enormous challenge. We argue that immunological studies in natural populations are pivotal to meeting this challenge: many components of environmental change--shifts in biotic assemblages, altered climate patterns and reduced environmental predictability--may affect host immunity. We suggest that wild ungulates can serve as model systems aiding the discovery of immunological mechanisms that link environmental change with parasite transmission dynamics. Our review of eco-immunological studies in wild ungulates reveals progress in understanding how co-infections affect immunity and parasite transmission and how environmental and genetic factors interact to shape immunity. Changes in bioavailability of micronutrients have been linked to immunity and health in wild ungulates. Although physiological stress in response to environmental change has been assessed, downstream effects on immunity have not been studied. Moreover, the taxonomic range of ungulates studied is limited to bovids (bighorn sheep, Soay sheep, chamois, musk oxen, bison, African buffalo) and a few cervids (red deer, black-tailed deer). We discuss areas where future studies in ungulates could lead to significant contributions in understanding the patterns of immunity and infection in natural populations and across species. PMID:25354672

  1. Beyond mice and men: Environmental change, immunity and infections in wild ungulates

    PubMed Central

    Jolles, Anna E.; Beechler, Brianna R.; Dolan, Brian P.

    2014-01-01

    In the face of rapid environmental change, anticipating shifts in microparasite and macroparasite dynamics, including emergence events, is an enormous challenge. We argue that immunological studies in natural populations are pivotal to meeting this challenge: Many components of environmental change – shifts in biotic assemblages, altered climate patterns, and reduced environmental predictability – may affect host immunity. We suggest that wild ungulates can serve as model systems aiding the discovery of immunological mechanisms that link environmental change with parasite transmission dynamics. Our review of eco-immunological studies in wild ungulates reveals progress in understanding how co-infections affect immunity and parasite transmission; and how environmental and genetic factors interact to shape immunity. Changes in bioavailability of micronutrients have been linked to immunity and health in wild ungulates. Although physiological stress in response to environmental change has been assessed, downstream effects on immunity have not been studied. Moreover, the taxonomic range of ungulates studied is limited to bovids (bighorn sheep, Soay sheep, chamois, musk oxen, bison, African buffalo) and a few cervids (red deer, black-tailed deer). We discuss areas where future studies in ungulates could lead to significant contributions in understanding patterns of immunity and infection in natural populations and across species. PMID:25354672

  2. The Gut Microbiota of Wild Mice.

    PubMed

    Weldon, Laura; Abolins, Stephen; Lenzi, Luca; Bourne, Christian; Riley, Eleanor M; Viney, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota profoundly affects the biology of its host. The composition of the microbiota is dynamic and is affected by both host genetic and many environmental effects. The gut microbiota of laboratory mice has been studied extensively, which has uncovered many of the effects that the microbiota can have. This work has also shown that the environments of different research institutions can affect the mouse microbiota. There has been relatively limited study of the microbiota of wild mice, but this has shown that it typically differs from that of laboratory mice (and that maintaining wild caught mice in the laboratory can quite quickly alter the microbiota). There is also inter-individual variation in the microbiota of wild mice, with this principally explained by geographical location. In this study we have characterised the gut (both the caecum and rectum) microbiota of wild caught Mus musculus domesticus at three UK sites and have investigated how the microbiota varies depending on host location and host characteristics. We find that the microbiota of these mice are generally consistent with those described from other wild mice. The rectal and caecal microbiotas of individual mice are generally more similar to each other, than they are to the microbiota of other individuals. We found significant differences in the diversity of the microbiotas among mice from different sample sites. There were significant correlations of microbiota diversity and body weight, a measure of age, body-mass index, serum concentration of leptin, and virus, nematode and mite infection.

  3. Evolutionary ecology of the wild cereals

    SciTech Connect

    Blumler, M.A.

    1995-12-31

    The evolutionary ecology of the Near Eastern wild cereal grasses sheds light on the environmental conditions under which the Neolithic Revolution took place. Globally, as well as in the Near East, the annual habit, large seed size, and seasonal drought are associated with each other and with agricultural origins. The connection with agricultural appears to involve ease of cultivation and necessity for seasonal storage rather than hunter-gatherer preference for large seeds. The Near Eastern wild cereal species separate ecologically according to seasonality of precipitation, primarily, though there may also be minor differences in temperature and edaphic tolerances. This reflects the evolution, over the course of the Quaternary, of species with increased seed size in response to increasingly pronounced seasonal drought. Wild emmer and wild barley, the progenitors of perhaps the very first domesticates, are evolutionary monstrosities that represent the culmination of this trend. The possibly complex changes in seasonality, aridity, and atmospheric CO2 during the millenia leading up to the Neolithic should have produced equally complex, but to some extent predictable, changes in the abundance and distribution of the different wild cereal species.

  4. Molecular identification of trypanosomatids in wild animals.

    PubMed

    Tenório, M S; Oliveira e Sousa, L; Alves-Martin, M F; Paixão, M S; Rodrigues, M V; Starke-Buzetti, W A; Araújo Junior, J P; Lucheis, S B

    2014-06-16

    Diverse wild animal species can be reservoirs of zoonotic flagellate parasites, which can cause pathologic Chagas disease. The present study aimed to detect the natural occurrence of flagellate parasites through direct microscopic examination of the parasites in blood samples and through PCR of whole blood and blood culture (haemoculture) samples from 38 captive and 65 free-living wild animals in the Centre for Conservation of Wild Fauna (CCWF), an area endemic for leishmaniasis. For this study, PCR was accomplished using primers for the ribosomal region (ITS-1) of the flagellate parasites. The amplified fragments were cloned and sequenced to identify DNA of the Trypanosomatid parasite species, observed in blood cultures from 3.9% (04/103) of the animals. Through these techniques, Trypanosoma cruzi was identified in haemoculture samples of the following three free-living species: common agouti (Dasyprocta aguti), white-eared opossum (Didelphis albiventris), and nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus). Furthermore, Trypanosoma minasense was identified in whole blood samples from 01 (0.9%) captive animal (black howler monkey-Alouatta caraya). These results demonstrated the first report of T. cruzi isolation in wild species from the CCWF using blood culture, which can be applied in addition to molecular tools for epidemiological studies and to identify trypanosomatids in wild animals.

  5. The Gut Microbiota of Wild Mice

    PubMed Central

    Weldon, Laura; Abolins, Stephen; Lenzi, Luca; Bourne, Christian; Riley, Eleanor M.; Viney, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota profoundly affects the biology of its host. The composition of the microbiota is dynamic and is affected by both host genetic and many environmental effects. The gut microbiota of laboratory mice has been studied extensively, which has uncovered many of the effects that the microbiota can have. This work has also shown that the environments of different research institutions can affect the mouse microbiota. There has been relatively limited study of the microbiota of wild mice, but this has shown that it typically differs from that of laboratory mice (and that maintaining wild caught mice in the laboratory can quite quickly alter the microbiota). There is also inter-individual variation in the microbiota of wild mice, with this principally explained by geographical location. In this study we have characterised the gut (both the caecum and rectum) microbiota of wild caught Mus musculus domesticus at three UK sites and have investigated how the microbiota varies depending on host location and host characteristics. We find that the microbiota of these mice are generally consistent with those described from other wild mice. The rectal and caecal microbiotas of individual mice are generally more similar to each other, than they are to the microbiota of other individuals. We found significant differences in the diversity of the microbiotas among mice from different sample sites. There were significant correlations of microbiota diversity and body weight, a measure of age, body-mass index, serum concentration of leptin, and virus, nematode and mite infection. PMID:26258484

  6. Wild boar helminths: risks in animal translocations.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-de-Mera, Isabel G; Gortazar, Christian; Vicente, Joaquin; Höfle, Ursula; Fierro, Yolanda

    2003-08-14

    The helminth populations found in a group of wild boars collected in central Spain were compared to those in a group of animals imported from a French game farm that produces boars for restocking. Eleven helminth species, including ten nematodes and one acanthocephalan, were found. Gongylonema pulchrum and Macracanthorhynchus hirundinaceus were only detected in autochthonous wild boars, while Oesophagostomum dentatum, Ascaris suum, and Trichuris suis were detected in imported animals only. Autochthonous wild boars were more frequently and more intensely parasitised by Ascarops strongylina than the imported ones. No differences in prevalence nor intensity were found for the species Capillaria garfiai, Globocephalus urosubulatus, Metastrongylus sp., Physocephalus sexalatus and Simondsia paradoxa. To our knowledge, G. urosubulatus, G. pulchrum and S. paradoxa have not previously been described in wild boars in Spain. Our results highlight the risks of translocating wild animals, with regard to their helminth parasites. Until improved control measures are established, it would be wise to avoid long-distance translocations in order to prevent the potential introduction of foreign parasites.

  7. 7 CFR 60.133 - Wild fish and shellfish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wild fish and shellfish. 60.133 Section 60.133... FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.133 Wild fish and shellfish. Wild fish and shellfish means naturally-born or hatchery-originated fish or shellfish released in the wild, and...

  8. 7 CFR 60.133 - Wild fish and shellfish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wild fish and shellfish. 60.133 Section 60.133... FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.133 Wild fish and shellfish. Wild fish and shellfish means naturally-born or hatchery-originated fish or shellfish released in the wild, and...

  9. 7 CFR 60.133 - Wild fish and shellfish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wild fish and shellfish. 60.133 Section 60.133... FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.133 Wild fish and shellfish. Wild fish and shellfish means naturally-born or hatchery-originated fish or shellfish released in the wild, and...

  10. 7 CFR 60.133 - Wild fish and shellfish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wild fish and shellfish. 60.133 Section 60.133... FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.133 Wild fish and shellfish. Wild fish and shellfish means naturally-born or hatchery-originated fish or shellfish released in the wild, and...

  11. Maternal transfer of anti-Aspergillus spp. immunoglobulins in African black-footed penguins (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Graczyk, T K; Cranfield, M R

    1995-10-01

    Anti-Aspergillus spp. antibody (Ab) levels of seven mating pairs of captive African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) and the maternal Ab levels of their embryonated and unembryonated eggs were determined by ELISA. The egg Ab levels were significantly higher than the Ab levels of their female or male parents. Maternal Ab of unembryonated eggs and Ab of the embryos were significantly correlated with the Ab levels of their female parents. Because eggs can be sampled where adult penguins are not accessible, this technique can be applied for prediction of Aspergillus spp. Ab titers of penguin females in wild populations.

  12. Update on the status of Africanized honey bees in the western states.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, K T; Oguro, J

    1999-01-01

    The Africanized honey bee (AHB), Apis mellifera scutella--perhaps better known as the "killer bee"--has arrived in the western United States and in southern California, following a nearly 50-year north-ward migration across South and Central America. First detected near Hidalgo, Texas in October 1993, the bees continue to advance 100 to 300 miles per year by colonizing existing hives or forming new hives in the wild. Although the AHB's "killer" reputation has been greatly exaggerated, the presence of AHBs will increase the chances of people being stung. PMID:10344176

  13. Stereotypic behavior in wild marine carnivores?

    PubMed

    Miller, L J; Kuczaj, S; Herzing, D

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypic behavior is observed in many species within zoological institutions. Attempts to reduce such behavior typically involve some form of environmental enrichment that provides opportunities for species appropriate behavior or some degree of control within the environment. However, environmental enrichment has never been completely successful in eliminating stereotypic behavior for an entire group of animals within a zoological facility. In the wild, stereotypic behavior is rarely observed. Documenting the occurrence of stereotypic behavior in the wild, and circumstances in which it occurs, could help provide insight into the causes of such behavior within zoological institutions. The following commentary details the observations of wild lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris) engaging in a stereotyped swimming pattern behind a research vessel north of Grand Bahama Island, Bahamas. We consider a possible explanation for the sharks' behavior and hope to stimulate conversation as well as increase examination of animal management routines in zoological facilities.

  14. Postharmostomiasis in wild turkeys in New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pence, D B

    1994-04-01

    Postharmostomum gallinum (Trematoda: Digenea; Brachylaimidae) is reported for the second time from the wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) in North America. Seventy-six, 14 and three sexually mature specimens, respectively, were removed from the ceca of three of five wild turkeys collected in south-eastern New Mexico (USA). Local transmission of this infection was inferred since 10 immature specimens of P. gallinum also were collected from one host. In the turkey with the greatest intensity of mature trematodes, a concurrent hemorrhagic inflammation of the cecum apparently was associated with this infection. Specimens of P. gallinum from these wild turkeys were morphologically indistinguishable from, but their body and egg measurements were larger than, specimens described from the usual Eurasian galliform and columbiform hosts.

  15. Stereotypic behavior in wild marine carnivores?

    PubMed

    Miller, L J; Kuczaj, S; Herzing, D

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypic behavior is observed in many species within zoological institutions. Attempts to reduce such behavior typically involve some form of environmental enrichment that provides opportunities for species appropriate behavior or some degree of control within the environment. However, environmental enrichment has never been completely successful in eliminating stereotypic behavior for an entire group of animals within a zoological facility. In the wild, stereotypic behavior is rarely observed. Documenting the occurrence of stereotypic behavior in the wild, and circumstances in which it occurs, could help provide insight into the causes of such behavior within zoological institutions. The following commentary details the observations of wild lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris) engaging in a stereotyped swimming pattern behind a research vessel north of Grand Bahama Island, Bahamas. We consider a possible explanation for the sharks' behavior and hope to stimulate conversation as well as increase examination of animal management routines in zoological facilities. PMID:20872877

  16. Precolonial African History. AHA Pamphlets, 501.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Philip D.

    This pamphlet surveys western historiography of precolonial Africa. Prior to World War II, African history emphasized the European role in Africa, relegating African history before European colonization to minor importance. Only after the increase in university enrollments and funding in the 1960's did opportunities for innovative research and new…

  17. African Education and Globalization: Critical Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdi, Ali A., Ed.; Puplampu, Korbla P., Ed.; Dei, George J. Sefa, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Containing both theoretical discussions of globalization and specific case analyses of individual African countries, this collection of essays examines the intersections of African education and globalization with multiple analytical and geographical emphases and intentions. The 11 essays critically analyze the issues from historical, cultural,…

  18. Prostate cancer in men of African origin.

    PubMed

    McGinley, Kathleen F; Tay, Kae Jack; Moul, Judd W

    2016-02-01

    Men of African origin are disproportionately affected by prostate cancer: prostate cancer incidence is highest among men of African origin in the USA, prostate cancer mortality is highest among men of African origin in the Caribbean, and tumour stage and grade at diagnosis are highest among men in sub-Saharan Africa. Socioeconomic, educational, cultural, and genetic factors, as well as variations in care delivery and treatment selection, contribute to this cancer disparity. Emerging data on single-nucleotide-polymorphism patterns, epigenetic changes, and variations in fusion-gene products among men of African origin add to the understanding of genetic differences underlying this disease. On the diagnosis of prostate cancer, when all treatment options are available, men of African origin are more likely to choose radiation therapy or to receive no definitive treatment than white men. Among men of African origin undergoing surgery, increased rates of biochemical recurrence have been identified. Understanding differences in the cancer-survivorship experience and quality-of-life outcomes among men of African origin are critical to appropriately counsel patients and improve cultural sensitivity. Efforts to curtail prostate cancer screening will likely affect men of African origin disproportionately and widen the racial disparity of disease.

  19. Improving African American Achievement in Geometry Honors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mims, Adrian B.

    2010-01-01

    This case study evaluated the significance of implementing an enrichment mathematics course during the summer to rising African American ninth graders entitled, "Geometry Honors Preview." In the past, 60 to 70 percent of African American students in this school district had withdrawn from Geometry Honors by the second academic quarter. This study…

  20. African (Black) Psychology: Issues and Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Joseph A.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the recent attempts of Black psychologists and social scientists to formulate a conceptual-operational framework for the study of psychological phenomena as they bear on the cultural-survival conditions of Black-African people. Outlines issues and problems in the attempt to define African (Black) psychology and discusses its relation to…

  1. Kenya's Maligned African Press: A Reassessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scotton, James F.

    Kenya's dozen or more newspapers and 50 news sheets edited and published by Africans in the turbulent 1945-52 preindependence period were condemned as irresponsible, inflammatory, antiwhite, and seditious by the Kenya colonial government, and this characterization has been accepted by many scholars and journalists, including Africans. There is…

  2. Cancer and the African American Experience

    Cancer.gov

    The first plenary of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the many factors that lead to inequalities in cancer care outcomes for African Americans.

  3. African American Undergraduates and the Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmire, Ethelene

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the academic library experiences of African American undergraduates attending a research university in the Midwest. Data collection techniques included questionnaires and ethnographic observations. The results indicated that African American undergraduates are using the academic library primarily to read and to study with their…

  4. Children Ask Questions about West African Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abercrombie, Denice; Cochran, Mathilda; Mims, Margaret

    1997-01-01

    Presents a collection of questions that fifth-grade students asked about African artwork and answers provided by staff from the Museum of Fine Arts in Houston, Texas. Observes that students' interest in important visual aspects of the art creates lead-ins to more detailed discussions of West African art and culture. (DSK)

  5. Genetics Home Reference: African iron overload

    MedlinePlus

    ... of a genetic condition? Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Frequency African iron overload is common in rural areas of central and ... more about the gene associated with African iron overload SLC40A1 Related Information What is a gene? What is a gene ...

  6. An African Perspective on Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiman, David

    1992-01-01

    Presents a series of classroom activities comparing differing views of human rights in the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the African Charter on Human and People's Rights. Includes excerpts from the African Charter on Human and People's Rights and the full text of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. (CFR)

  7. Smoking Cessation in African-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    1996-01-01

    Because the smoking behavior of African Americans differs considerably from that of other groups, researchers examined differences between African Americans who did and did not use the nicotine patch as an adjunct to counseling and education for smoking cessation. Results indicated the nicotine patch significantly improved six-month cessation…

  8. New data on African health professionals abroad

    PubMed Central

    Clemens, Michael A; Pettersson, Gunilla

    2008-01-01

    Background The migration of doctors and nurses from Africa to developed countries has raised fears of an African medical brain drain. But empirical research on the causes and effects of the phenomenon has been hampered by a lack of systematic data on the extent of African health workers' international movements. Methods We use destination-country census data to estimate the number of African-born doctors and professional nurses working abroad in a developed country circa 2000, and compare this to the stocks of these workers in each country of origin. Results Approximately 65,000 African-born physicians and 70,000 African-born professional nurses were working overseas in a developed country in the year 2000. This represents about one fifth of African-born physicians in the world, and about one tenth of African-born professional nurses. The fraction of health professionals abroad varies enormously across African countries, from 1% to over 70% according to the occupation and country. Conclusion These numbers are the first standardized, systematic, occupation-specific measure of skilled professionals working in developed countries and born in a large number of developing countries. PMID:18186916

  9. The African American Woman. Runta (Truth).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Monica L.; Watson, Betty Collier, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    The African American woman has commanded widespread public attention, but popular misconceptions of her socioeconomic role and status differ sharply from her actual situation. The following basic characteristics of the contemporary African American woman, drawn from census figures, are outlined: (1) demographically, females comprise a majority of…

  10. A Mirror Image African American Student Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon Dawson, Candice

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a narrative inquiry research project that focuses on the collegiate experiences of African American students at both historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly white institutions (PWIs). I look at how African American college students who engage in race or culturally specific activities, the degree…

  11. African Higher Education: An International Reference Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teferra, Damtew, Ed.; Altbach, Philip G., Ed.

    This book is a comprehensive survey of all aspects and dimensions of higher education in Africa. It includes a historical overview of higher education, descriptions of the higher education systems in each African country, and analyses of current and timely topics in higher education. Part 1, "Themes," contains 13 essays on trends in African higher…

  12. African American Art: A Los Angeles Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Harriet

    This curriculum unit focuses on the importance of Los Angeles (California) as a center for African American art and shows how African American artists have developed their own styles and how critics and collectors have encouraged them. The unit consists of four lessons, each of which can stand alone or be used in conjunction with the others. It…

  13. British African Caribbean Women and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla; Maynard, Donna; Johnson, Phillip; Carter, Stephaney

    2009-01-01

    Depression is a common condition among women in the United Kingdom. However, little is known about the context of depression among British African Caribbean women. This article offers a preliminary discussion regarding issues and information pertaining to depression among British African Caribbean women. Characteristics and symptoms of depression…

  14. Heart Truth for African American Women

    MedlinePlus

    THE HEART TRUTH ® FOR AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN: AN ACTION PLAN When you hear the term “heart disease,” what’s your first reaction? Like many women, you may ... in four women dies of heart disease. For African American women, the risk of heart disease is especially ...

  15. Kunta Kinte's Struggle to be African

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courlander, Harold

    1986-01-01

    This article reveals the differences between the character Kunta Kinte and the historical record concerning African males in the preslavery period. Kunta's non-African behaviors include displays of blind anger and rage, prudishness, and actions unknown in his Mandinka culture. These represent the many misrepresentations and ambiguities in Alex…

  16. The African Diaspora: A Literary Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duodu, Mark W.

    1988-01-01

    Identifies historical factors crucial to the evolution of Black literature in America and the Caribbean, including the triangular trade that displaced and destroyed many Africans, the literary movements of Negritude and the Harlem Renaissance, and the literary collaboration between American and African writers. (DMM)

  17. Computer Networks and African Studies Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    The use of electronic communication in the 12 Title VI African Studies Centers is discussed, and the networks available for their use are reviewed. It is argued that the African Studies Centers should be on the cutting edge of contemporary electronic communication and that computer networks should be a fundamental aspect of their programs. An…

  18. Hidden Education among African Americans during Slavery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundaker, Grey

    2007-01-01

    Background/Context: Historical studies examine aspects of African American education in and out of school in detail (Woodson 1915, 1933, Bullock 1970, Anderson 1988, Morris 1982, Rachal 1986, Rose 1964, Webber 1978, Williams 2005). Scholars of African American literacy have noted ways that education intersects other arenas such as religion and…

  19. Traditional African Religion: A Resource Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, William E.

    This resource unit is based on research conducted by Lynn Mitchell and Ernest Valenzuela, experienced classroom teachers of African history and culture. The unit consists of an introduction by Mr. Garland and two major parts. Part I is an annotated bibliography of selected sources on various aspects of traditional African Religion useful in…

  20. South African Education Program: An Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Florence C.

    Consequences of participation in the South African Education Program, which enabled 290 South Africans to study in the United States between 1979 and 1985, were evaluated. Attention was directed to outcomes of participation and the educational experience and intellectual and social growth experienced by the students and alumni, who were Black…

  1. African American Teachers and Culturally Relevant Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Michele

    An overview is presented of research on African American teachers, addressing the large body of literature written by policy analysts, first-person narratives, and the sociological and anthropological literature. Policy research has identified the small number of African American teachers and has studied some reasons for this shortage and some of…

  2. Reading Comprehension among African American Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Mayes, Eric; Arthur, Leslie; Johnson, Joseph; Robinson, Veronica; Ashe, Shante; Elbedour, Salman; Collins, Kathleen M. T.

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the reading comprehension performance of African American graduate students. The result showed that though the African American sample attained statistically significantly higher levels of reading comprehension than a normative sample of undergraduate students, they achieved lower levels of reading comprehension…

  3. Oscar Wilde's skin disease: allergic contact dermatitis?

    PubMed

    Nater, J P

    1992-07-01

    During the last years of his life, Oscar Wilde (1856-1900) suffered from a suppurating otitis media as well as from an unidentified skin disease. The eruption was localized to his face, arms, chest and back and itched severely. A new theory is suggested, based on the fact that Wilde almost certainly used a dye to conceal his rapidly graying hair. He sensitized himself to p-phenylenediamine and developed a stubborn allergic contact dermatitis. Patch testing, the only proof of such a diagnosis, had not yet been devised.

  4. Avian influenza surveillance of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slota, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The President's National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza directs federal agencies to expand the surveillance of United States domestic livestock and wildlife to ensure early warning of hightly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in the U.S. The immediate concern is a potential introduction of HPAI H5N1 virus into the U.S. The presidential directive resulted in the U.S. Interagency Strategic Plan for Early Detection of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Wild Migratory Birds (referred to as the Wild Bird Surveillance Plan or the Plan).

  5. Detection of termites and other insects consumed by African great apes using molecular fecal analysis.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Ibrahim; Delaporte, Eric; Raoult, Didier; Bittar, Fadi

    2014-03-27

    The consumption of insects by apes has previously been reported based on direct observations and/or trail signs in feces. However, DNA-based diet analyses may have the potential to reveal trophic links for these wild species. Herein, we analyzed the insect-diet diversity of 9 feces obtained from three species of African great apes, gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and bonobo (Pan paniscus), using two mitochondrial amplifications for arthropods. A total of 1056 clones were sequenced for Cyt-b and COI gene libraries, which contained 50 and 56 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), respectively. BLAST research revealed that the OTUs belonged to 32 families from 5 orders (Diptera, Isoptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and Orthoptera). While ants were not detected by this method, the consumption of flies, beetles, moths, mosquitoes and termites was evident in these samples. Our findings indicate that molecular techniques can be used to analyze insect food items in wild animals.

  6. Detection of Termites and Other Insects Consumed by African Great Apes using Molecular Fecal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hamad, Ibrahim; Delaporte, Eric; Raoult, Didier; Bittar, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of insects by apes has previously been reported based on direct observations and/or trail signs in feces. However, DNA-based diet analyses may have the potential to reveal trophic links for these wild species. Herein, we analyzed the insect-diet diversity of 9 feces obtained from three species of African great apes, gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and bonobo (Pan paniscus), using two mitochondrial amplifications for arthropods. A total of 1056 clones were sequenced for Cyt-b and COI gene libraries, which contained 50 and 56 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), respectively. BLAST research revealed that the OTUs belonged to 32 families from 5 orders (Diptera, Isoptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and Orthoptera). While ants were not detected by this method, the consumption of flies, beetles, moths, mosquitoes and termites was evident in these samples. Our findings indicate that molecular techniques can be used to analyze insect food items in wild animals. PMID:24675424

  7. Detection of termites and other insects consumed by African great apes using molecular fecal analysis.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Ibrahim; Delaporte, Eric; Raoult, Didier; Bittar, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of insects by apes has previously been reported based on direct observations and/or trail signs in feces. However, DNA-based diet analyses may have the potential to reveal trophic links for these wild species. Herein, we analyzed the insect-diet diversity of 9 feces obtained from three species of African great apes, gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and bonobo (Pan paniscus), using two mitochondrial amplifications for arthropods. A total of 1056 clones were sequenced for Cyt-b and COI gene libraries, which contained 50 and 56 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), respectively. BLAST research revealed that the OTUs belonged to 32 families from 5 orders (Diptera, Isoptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and Orthoptera). While ants were not detected by this method, the consumption of flies, beetles, moths, mosquitoes and termites was evident in these samples. Our findings indicate that molecular techniques can be used to analyze insect food items in wild animals. PMID:24675424

  8. The TG/HDL-C ratio does not predict insulin resistance in overweight women of African descent: a study of South African, African American and West African women.

    PubMed

    Knight, Michael G; Goedecke, Julia H; Ricks, Madia; Evans, Juliet; Levitt, Naomi S; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K; Sumner, Anne E

    2011-01-01

    Women of African descent have a high prevalence of diseases caused by insulin resistance. To positively impact cardiometabolic health in Black women, effective screening tests for insulin resistance must be identified. Recently, the TG/HDL-C ratio has been recommended as a tool to predict insulin resistance in overweight people. While the ratio predicts insulin resistance in White women, it is ineffective in African American women. As there are no data for African women, we tested the ability of the TG/HDL-C ratio to predict insulin resistance in Black women from South Africa, West Africa and the United States. For comparison, the ratio was also tested in White women from South Africa. Participants were 801 women (157 Black South African, 382 African American, 119 West African, 143 White South African, age 36 +/- 9y [mean +/- SD]). Standardized scores were created from log-transformed homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance values from each population. Participants in the upper third of their population distribution were classified as insulin-resistant. To predict insulin resistance by the TC/HDL-C ratio, area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC-ROC) curve was used and criteria were: 0.50 for no discrimination and > or = 0.70 for acceptable. Seventy-one percent of the Black women were overweight vs 51% of White women (P<.01). In overweight White women, AUC-ROC curve for prediction of insulin resistance by TG/HDL-C was 0.76 +/- 0.06, but below the 0.70 threshold in each group of overweight Black women (Black South African: 0.64 +/- 0.06, African American: 0.66 +/- 0.03, and West African: 0.63 +/- 0.07). Therefore, TG/HDL-C does not predict insulin resistance in overweight African American women and this investigation extends that finding to overweight Black South African and West African women. Resources to identify effective markers of insulin resistance are needed to improve cardiometabolic health in women of African descent.

  9. African Americans and the medical establishment.

    PubMed

    Smith, C

    1999-09-01

    The African American community's response to the AIDS epidemic has reflected the profound mistrust of the medical establishment which many African Americans feel. Among African Americans, the belief that the epidemic originated in a genocidal plot is widespread. It is thought that organized medicine has been significantly involved in this plot. If we look at African Americans' historical relationship to the medical establishment from the era of slavery to the recent past, the suspicious attitudes which make such beliefs possible can be seen as an intelligible response to a new disease which disproportionately affects African Americans. Successful medical and public health responses to the epidemic have depended and will continue to depend upon overcoming the historical legacy of suspicion and gaining the trust of the community.

  10. Pharmacogenomic Genome-Wide Meta-Analysis of Blood Pressure Response to β-Blockers in Hypertensive African Americans.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yan; Wang, Zhiying; Beitelshees, Amber L; McDonough, Caitrin W; Langaee, Taimour Y; Hall, Karen; Schmidt, Siegfried O F; Curry, Robert W; Gums, John G; Bailey, Kent R; Boerwinkle, Eric; Chapman, Arlene B; Turner, Stephen T; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M; Johnson, Julie A

    2016-03-01

    African Americans suffer a higher prevalence of hypertension compared with other racial/ethnic groups. In this study, we performed a pharmacogenomic genome-wide association study of blood pressure (BP) response to β-blockers in African Americans with uncomplicated hypertension. Genome-wide meta-analysis was performed in 318 African American hypertensive participants in the 2 Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses studies: 150 treated with atenolol monotherapy and 168 treated with metoprolol monotherapy. The analysis adjusted for age, sex, baseline BP and principal components for ancestry. Genome-wide significant variants with P<5×10(-8) and suggestive variants with P<5×10(-7) were evaluated in an additional cohort of 141 African Americans treated with the addition of atenolol to hydrochlorothiazide treatment. The validated variants were then meta-analyzed in these 3 groups of African Americans. Two variants discovered in the monotherapy meta-analysis were validated in the add-on therapy. African American participants heterozygous for SLC25A31 rs201279313 deletion versus wild-type genotype had better diastolic BP response to atenolol monotherapy, metoprolol monotherapy, and atenolol add-on therapy: -9.3 versus -4.6, -9.6 versus -4.8, and -9.7 versus -6.4 mm Hg, respectively (3-group meta-analysis P=2.5×10(-8), β=-4.42 mm Hg per variant allele). Similarly, LRRC15 rs11313667 was validated for systolic BP response to β-blocker therapy with 3-group meta-analysis P=7.2×10(-8) and β=-3.65 mm Hg per variant allele. In this first pharmacogenomic genome-wide meta-analysis of BP response to β-blockers in African Americans, we identified novel variants that may provide valuable information for personalized antihypertensive treatment in this group. PMID:26729753

  11. Gestural Communication and Mating Tactics in Wild Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Anna Ilona; Roberts, Sam George Bradley

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which primates can flexibly adjust the production of gestural communication according to the presence and visual attention of the audience provides key insights into the social cognition underpinning gestural communication, such as an understanding of third party relationships. Gestures given in a mating context provide an ideal area for examining this flexibility, as frequently the interests of a male signaller, a female recipient and a rival male bystander conflict. Dominant chimpanzee males seek to monopolize matings, but subordinate males may use gestural communication flexibly to achieve matings despite their low rank. Here we show that the production of mating gestures in wild male East African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweunfurthii) was influenced by a conflict of interest with females, which in turn was influenced by the presence and visual attention of rival males. When the conflict of interest was low (the rival male was present and looking away), chimpanzees used visual/ tactile gestures over auditory gestures. However, when the conflict of interest was high (the rival male was absent, or was present and looking at the signaller) chimpanzees used auditory gestures over visual/ tactile gestures. Further, the production of mating gestures was more common when the number of oestrous and non-oestrus females in the party increased, when the female was visually perceptive and when there was no wind. Females played an active role in mating behaviour, approaching for copulations more often when the number of oestrus females in the party increased and when the rival male was absent, or was present and looking away. Examining how social and ecological factors affect mating tactics in primates may thus contribute to understanding the previously unexplained reproductive success of subordinate male chimpanzees. PMID:26536467

  12. Gestural Communication and Mating Tactics in Wild Chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Anna Ilona; Roberts, Sam George Bradley

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which primates can flexibly adjust the production of gestural communication according to the presence and visual attention of the audience provides key insights into the social cognition underpinning gestural communication, such as an understanding of third party relationships. Gestures given in a mating context provide an ideal area for examining this flexibility, as frequently the interests of a male signaller, a female recipient and a rival male bystander conflict. Dominant chimpanzee males seek to monopolize matings, but subordinate males may use gestural communication flexibly to achieve matings despite their low rank. Here we show that the production of mating gestures in wild male East African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweunfurthii) was influenced by a conflict of interest with females, which in turn was influenced by the presence and visual attention of rival males. When the conflict of interest was low (the rival male was present and looking away), chimpanzees used visual/ tactile gestures over auditory gestures. However, when the conflict of interest was high (the rival male was absent, or was present and looking at the signaller) chimpanzees used auditory gestures over visual/ tactile gestures. Further, the production of mating gestures was more common when the number of oestrous and non-oestrus females in the party increased, when the female was visually perceptive and when there was no wind. Females played an active role in mating behaviour, approaching for copulations more often when the number of oestrus females in the party increased and when the rival male was absent, or was present and looking away. Examining how social and ecological factors affect mating tactics in primates may thus contribute to understanding the previously unexplained reproductive success of subordinate male chimpanzees. PMID:26536467

  13. Gestural Communication and Mating Tactics in Wild Chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Anna Ilona; Roberts, Sam George Bradley

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which primates can flexibly adjust the production of gestural communication according to the presence and visual attention of the audience provides key insights into the social cognition underpinning gestural communication, such as an understanding of third party relationships. Gestures given in a mating context provide an ideal area for examining this flexibility, as frequently the interests of a male signaller, a female recipient and a rival male bystander conflict. Dominant chimpanzee males seek to monopolize matings, but subordinate males may use gestural communication flexibly to achieve matings despite their low rank. Here we show that the production of mating gestures in wild male East African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweunfurthii) was influenced by a conflict of interest with females, which in turn was influenced by the presence and visual attention of rival males. When the conflict of interest was low (the rival male was present and looking away), chimpanzees used visual/ tactile gestures over auditory gestures. However, when the conflict of interest was high (the rival male was absent, or was present and looking at the signaller) chimpanzees used auditory gestures over visual/ tactile gestures. Further, the production of mating gestures was more common when the number of oestrous and non-oestrus females in the party increased, when the female was visually perceptive and when there was no wind. Females played an active role in mating behaviour, approaching for copulations more often when the number of oestrus females in the party increased and when the rival male was absent, or was present and looking away. Examining how social and ecological factors affect mating tactics in primates may thus contribute to understanding the previously unexplained reproductive success of subordinate male chimpanzees.

  14. Is a wild mammal kept and reared in captivity still a wild animal?

    PubMed

    Künzl, Christine; Kaiser, Sylvia; Meier, Edda; Sachser, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    This study compared domestic guinea pigs (Cavia aperea f. porcellus; DGP) and two different populations of the wild cavy (Cavia aperea), its ancestor, to examine whether rearing of wild mammals in captivity affects their behavior and physiological stress responses. One population of wild cavies consisted of wild-trapped animals and their first laboratory-reared offspring (WGP-1). The animals of the other population were reared in captivity for about 30 generations (WGP-30). The spontaneous behavior of each of six groups of WGP-1 and WGP-30 and nine groups of DGP, each consisting of one adult male and two adult females, was analyzed quantitatively. Blood samples of the males were taken to determine cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine concentrations. In addition, the exploratory behavior of 60-day-old male WGP-1, WGP-30, and DGP was investigated in an exploration apparatus. The domesticated animals displayed significantly less aggression, but significantly more sociopositive and male courtship behavior than their wild ancestors. In addition, DGP were much less attentive to their physical environment. Surprisingly, no behavioral difference was found between WGP-1 and WGP-30. Basal cortisol concentrations did not differ between wild and domestic guinea pigs. Catecholamine concentrations, however, as well as the challenge values of cortisol, were distinctly reduced in the DGP. WGP-1 and WGP-30 did not differ with respect to their endocrine stress responses. In the exploration apparatus both forms of wild cavies were much more explorative than the domestic animals. These data suggest that the long-term breeding and rearing of wild guinea pigs in captivity do not result in significant changes in behavior and hormonal stress responses. It appears to take much longer periods of time and artificial selection by humans to bring about characters of domestication in wild animals.

  15. Molecular characterization of adipose tissue in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Emeli M; Fainberg, Hernan P; Choong, Siew S; Giles, Thomas C; Sells, James; May, Sean; Stansfield, Fiona J; Allen, William R; Emes, Richard D; Mostyn, Alison; Mongan, Nigel P; Yon, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) is a dynamic and flexible organ with regulatory roles in physiological functions including metabolism, reproduction and inflammation; secreted adipokines, including leptin, and fatty acids facilitate many of these roles. The African elephant (Loxodonta africana) is experiencing serious challenges to optimal reproduction in captivity. The physiological and molecular basis of this impaired fertility remains unknown. AT production of leptin is a crucial molecular link between nutritional status, adiposity and fertility in many species. We propose that leptin has a similar function in the African elephant. African elephant visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) was obtained from both sexes and a range of ages including females with known pregnancy status. RNA was extracted and histological sections created and analyzed by microarray, PCR and immunohistochemistry respectively. Gas-chromatography was used to determine the fatty acid composition of AT. Microarray expression profiling was used to compare gene expression profiles of AT from pre-pubertal versus reproductively competent adult African elephants. This study demonstrates, for the first time, leptin mRNA and protein expression in African elephant AT. The derived protein sequence of the elephant leptin protein was exploited to determine its relationship within the class I helical cytokine superfamily, which indicates that elephant leptin is most closely related to the leptin orthologs of Oryctolagus cuniculus (European rabbit), Lepus oiostolus (woolly hare), and members of the Ochotonidae (Pika). Immunohistological analysis identified considerable leptin staining within the cytoplasm of adipocytes. Significant differences in fatty acid profiles between pregnant and non-pregnant animals were revealed, most notably a reduction in both linoleic and α linoleic acid in pregnant animals. This report forms the basis for future studies to address the effect of nutrient composition and body

  16. Molecular Characterization of Adipose Tissue in the African Elephant (Loxodonta africana)

    PubMed Central

    Choong, Siew S.; Giles, Thomas C.; Sells, James; May, Sean; Stansfield, Fiona J.; Allen, William R.; Emes, Richard D.; Mostyn, Alison; Mongan, Nigel P.; Yon, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) is a dynamic and flexible organ with regulatory roles in physiological functions including metabolism, reproduction and inflammation; secreted adipokines, including leptin, and fatty acids facilitate many of these roles. The African elephant (Loxodonta africana) is experiencing serious challenges to optimal reproduction in captivity. The physiological and molecular basis of this impaired fertility remains unknown. AT production of leptin is a crucial molecular link between nutritional status, adiposity and fertility in many species. We propose that leptin has a similar function in the African elephant. African elephant visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) was obtained from both sexes and a range of ages including females with known pregnancy status. RNA was extracted and histological sections created and analyzed by microarray, PCR and immunohistochemistry respectively. Gas-chromatography was used to determine the fatty acid composition of AT. Microarray expression profiling was used to compare gene expression profiles of AT from pre-pubertal versus reproductively competent adult African elephants. This study demonstrates, for the first time, leptin mRNA and protein expression in African elephant AT. The derived protein sequence of the elephant leptin protein was exploited to determine its relationship within the class I helical cytokine superfamily, which indicates that elephant leptin is most closely related to the leptin orthologs of Oryctolagus cuniculus (European rabbit), Lepus oiostolus (woolly hare), and members of the Ochotonidae (Pika). Immunohistological analysis identified considerable leptin staining within the cytoplasm of adipocytes. Significant differences in fatty acid profiles between pregnant and non-pregnant animals were revealed, most notably a reduction in both linoleic and α linoleic acid in pregnant animals. This report forms the basis for future studies to address the effect of nutrient composition and body

  17. Comprehensive Serology Based on a Peptide ELISA to Assess the Prevalence of Closely Related Equine Herpesviruses in Zoo and Wild Animals

    PubMed Central

    Abdelgawad, Azza; Hermes, Robert; Damiani, Armando; Lamglait, Benjamin; Czirják, Gábor Á.; East, Marion; Aschenborn, Ortwin; Wenker, Christian; Kasem, Samy; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Greenwood, Alex D.

    2015-01-01

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) causes respiratory disorders and abortion in equids while EHV-1 regularly causes equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM), a stroke-like syndrome following endothelial cell infection in horses. Both EHV-1 and EHV-9 infections of non-definitive hosts often result in neuronal infection and high case fatality rates. Hence, EHV-1 and EHV-9 are somewhat unusual herpesviruses and lack strict host specificity, and the true extent of their host ranges have remained unclear. In order to determine the seroprevalence of EHV-1 and EHV-9, a sensitive and specific peptide-based ELISA was developed and applied to 428 sera from captive and wild animals representing 30 species in 12 families and five orders. Members of the Equidae, Rhinocerotidae and Bovidae were serologically positive for EHV-1 and EHV-9. The prevalence of EHV-1 in the sampled wild zebra populations was significantly higher than in zoos suggesting captivity may reduce exposure to EHV-1. Furthermore, the seroprevalence for EHV-1 was significantly higher than for EHV-9 in zebras. In contrast, EHV-9 antibody prevalence was high in captive and wild African rhinoceros species suggesting that they may serve as a reservoir or natural host for EHV-9. Thus, EHV-1 and EHV-9 have a broad host range favoring African herbivores and may have acquired novel natural hosts in ecosystems where wild equids are common and are in close contact with other perissodactyls. PMID:26378452

  18. Comprehensive Serology Based on a Peptide ELISA to Assess the Prevalence of Closely Related Equine Herpesviruses in Zoo and Wild Animals.

    PubMed

    Abdelgawad, Azza; Hermes, Robert; Damiani, Armando; Lamglait, Benjamin; Czirják, Gábor Á; East, Marion; Aschenborn, Ortwin; Wenker, Christian; Kasem, Samy; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Greenwood, Alex D

    2015-01-01

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) causes respiratory disorders and abortion in equids while EHV-1 regularly causes equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM), a stroke-like syndrome following endothelial cell infection in horses. Both EHV-1 and EHV-9 infections of non-definitive hosts often result in neuronal infection and high case fatality rates. Hence, EHV-1 and EHV-9 are somewhat unusual herpesviruses and lack strict host specificity, and the true extent of their host ranges have remained unclear. In order to determine the seroprevalence of EHV-1 and EHV-9, a sensitive and specific peptide-based ELISA was developed and applied to 428 sera from captive and wild animals representing 30 species in 12 families and five orders. Members of the Equidae, Rhinocerotidae and Bovidae were serologically positive for EHV-1 and EHV-9. The prevalence of EHV-1 in the sampled wild zebra populations was significantly higher than in zoos suggesting captivity may reduce exposure to EHV-1. Furthermore, the seroprevalence for EHV-1 was significantly higher than for EHV-9 in zebras. In contrast, EHV-9 antibody prevalence was high in captive and wild African rhinoceros species suggesting that they may serve as a reservoir or natural host for EHV-9. Thus, EHV-1 and EHV-9 have a broad host range favoring African herbivores and may have acquired novel natural hosts in ecosystems where wild equids are common and are in close contact with other perissodactyls.

  19. Wild Reading: This Madness to Our Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra Tarc, Aparna Rita

    2013-01-01

    My paper theorizes the possibilities of a qualitative method that engages with promiscuous aspects of human existence and difference foreclosed by established research methods and representations. I locate the not known of knowledge in the unconscious time of the maternal relation where the infant is put upon to wildly and without symbolic…

  20. Who Speaks for Wolf? Not Project WILD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwood, Bert

    Project WILD, a Canadian elementary school curriculum supplement about wildlife and the environment, is seriously flawed in that it presents a human-centered view of the world while purporting to be unbiased. This anthropocentric perspective, in which humans are alienated from the environment and in control of nature by technological means, is in…