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Sample records for african-american aa men

  1. African American Men in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuyjet, Michael J., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This book is a much-needed resource that includes examples of real-world programs and activities to enhance academic success in the college environment for African American men. The examples are collected from a variety of institutions across the country. With contributions from leading practitioners and scholars in the field, this book explores…

  2. Unique Genomic Alterations in Prostate Cancers in African American Men

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    analysis of DNAs and RNAs from cancer and benign tissues from African American men with prostate followed by an in depth analysis of the 4p16.3 region...Cancer Tissue Bank. Samples will be from African American (AA) men undergoing radical prostatectomy for treatment of prostate cancer and were...collected with informed consent. Prostate cancer (PCa) samples will have 80% tumor and will have a matched benign tissue available from the same patient

  3. The Persistence of African American College Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Tyson J.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the family dynamics of persistent African American college men. These students were typical Black males, not those pre-categorized as high-achieving or unprepared for college. The stories of participants revealed their strength, ambition, and intentions to successfully gain a baccalaureate degree. In general Black males are…

  4. Alternative Locales for the Health Promotion of African American Men: A Survey of African American Men in Chicago Barbershops.

    PubMed

    Murphy, A B; Moore, N J; Wright, M; Gipson, J; Keeter, M; Cornelious, T; Reed, D; Russell, J; Watson, K S; Murray, M

    2017-02-01

    African American men (AA) carry unequal burdens of several conditions including cancer, diabetes, hypertension, and HIV. Engagement of diverse populations including AA men in research and health promotion practice is vital to examining the health disparities that continue to plague many racially and ethnically diverse communities. To date, there is little research on best practices that indicate locations, community areas and settings to engage AA men in research and health promotion. Traditionally, the AA church has been a key area to engage AA men and women. However, changing tides in attendance of AA parishioners require additional information to identify areas where AAs, particularly, AA men congregate. The AA barbershop has been identified as a place of social cohesion, cultural immersion and solidarity for AA men but specific sub-populations of AA men may be underrepresented. To further investigate additional locales where AA men congregate, this study engaged AA barbers and clients in several urban community barbershops in Chicago, Illinois. 127 AA men over age 18y/o receiving grooming services in 25 Chicago area barbershops across 14 predominantly AA communities were consented and recruited for a quantitative survey study. The self-administered surveys were completed in ~15 min and $10 compensation was provided to men. Descriptive statistics were reported for demographic variables and for frequency of responses for locations to find AA men of specific age ranges for health promotion and screening activities. Outside of the traditionally used churches or barbershops, the top recommended recruitment sites by age were: 18-29y/o- city park or a recreational center; 30-39y/o- gym, bars or the street; 40-49y/o- various stores, especially home improvement stores, and the mall; and 50y/o+- fast food restaurants in the mornings, such as McDonalds, and individual's homes. The study participants also reported that locations where AA men congregate vary by age

  5. Correlates of African American Men's Sexual Schemas

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Dawn A.; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; St. Lawrence, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Sexual schemas are cognitive representations of oneself as a sexual being and aid in the processing of sexually relevant information. We examined the relationship between sociosexuality (attitudes about casual sex), masculine ideology (attitudes toward traditional men and male roles), and cultural centrality (strength of identity with racial group) as significant psychosocial and sociocultural predictors in shaping young, heterosexual African American men's sexual schemas. A community sample (n=133) of men in a southeastern city of the United States completed quantitative self-report measures examining their attitudes and behavior related to casual sex, beliefs about masculinity, racial and cultural identity, and self-views of various sexual aspects of themselves. Results indicated that masculine ideology and cultural centrality were both positively related to men's sexual schemas. Cultural centrality explained 12 % of the variance in level of sexual schema, and had the strongest correlation of the predictor variables with sexual schema (r=.36). The need for more attention to the bidirectional relationships between masculinity, racial/cultural identity, and sexual schemas in prevention, intervention, and public health efforts for African American men is discussed. PMID:24031118

  6. Black and Blue: Depression and African American Men.

    PubMed

    Plowden, Keith O; Thompson Adams, Linda; Wiley, Dana

    2016-10-01

    Depression is a common mental disorder affecting individuals. Although many strides have been made in the area of depression, little is known about depression in special populations, especially African American men. African American men often differ in their presentation of depression and are often misdiagnosed. African American men are at greater risk for depression, but they are less likely to participate in mental health care. This article explores depression in African American by looking at environmental factors, sigma, role, and other unique to this populations, such as John Henryism. Interventions to encourage early screening and participation in care are also discussed.

  7. Discrimination, Mastery, and Depressive Symptoms among African American Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Daphne C.; Hudson, Darrell L.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Siefert, Kristine; Jackson, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the influence of discrimination and mastery on depressive symptoms for African American men at young (18-34), middle (35-54), and late (55+) adulthood. Method: Analyses are based on responses from 1,271 African American men from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Results: Discrimination was significantly…

  8. Factors influencing prostate cancer screening in African American men.

    PubMed

    Lehto, Rebecca H; Song, Lixin; Stein, Karen F; Coleman-Burns, Patricia

    2010-10-01

    African American men have the highest prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates worldwide, but have lower screening rates compared with Caucasian men. The purpose of the study was to identify social ecological factors that affect screening behaviors in African American men, knowledge that could be integral to the design of culturally appropriate interventions. The exploratory study included 60 African American males recruited from the greater Detroit metropolitan area. Social ecological variables examined included age, marital status, presence of health insurance, education, health values and behaviors, physician trust, and perceived stress coping (John Henryism). Analyses included descriptives, chi-square tests, one-way ANOVAs, and logistic regression. Findings concluded that a parsimonious model consisting of two variables (age and health values) was predictive. African American males, > or =50 years, with higher positive health values were more likely to obtain screening. Findings imply the importance of health values and targeted educational and screening interventions for younger African American men.

  9. African American men's perceptions of power in intimate relationships.

    PubMed

    Senn, Theresa E; Carey, Michael P; Vanable, Peter A; Seward, Derek X

    2009-12-01

    Power in intimate relationships is an important predictor of sexual risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to better understand African American men's perceptions of interpersonal power. A total of 20 African American men participated in focus groups to elicit their perceptions of power in intimate relationships; their responses were analyzed using grounded theory. From this analysis, a conceptual framework was developed that, among African American men, power in relationships was largely determined by the contribution of financial resources, and/or withholding sex. These findings were then considered in light of existing social-psychological theories of power in relationships. Future research should consider how to incorporate this understanding of interpersonal power into current theories of sexual risk behavior in order to develop more effective HIV risk reduction programs.

  10. African American men, prostate cancer screening and informed decision making.

    PubMed Central

    Sellers, Denethia B.; Ross, Louie E.

    2003-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in African American men. African Americans are at increased risk over other groups and have higher mortality. Since prostate cancer is highly variable among men, medical organizations are not in agreement whether men should be screened or the appropriate ages to screen. Many of these organizations recommend discussion with patients about the benefits and limitations of screening. Some of these groups support informed decision-making (IDM). Through IDM, the patient obtains all of the information about prostate cancer including risk, to make an informed choice regarding screening. Due to several factors including lowered engagement of African American men in the healthcare system, disparities in treatment, increased risk in developing and dying from the disease, as well as other cultural and structural constraints, IDM is examined and proposed as an appropriate tool for African American men. The use of IDM is discussed, along with several challenges and cautions. We conclude with recommendations and suggestions to the provider and patient to facilitate discussions regarding prostate cancer. PMID:12911259

  11. Men on the Move: A Pilot Program to Increase Physical Activity among African American Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Derek M.; Allen, Julie Ober; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki; Langford, Aisha

    2014-01-01

    Despite the important contribution increasing physical activity levels may play in reducing chronic disease morbidity and mortality, there is a paucity of interventions and research indicating how to improve physical activity levels in African American men. "Men on the Move" was a pilot study to increase African American men's levels of…

  12. Substance Abuse: Implications for Counseling African American Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Jay C.

    1994-01-01

    Examines factors--such as unemployment, economic deprivation, racism, issues pertaining to gender roles--and their contribution to substance abuse in African American men. Specifically reviews the use of alcohol, opiates, crack, and cocaine. Argues that a biopsychosocial model offers the best framework in conceptualizing substance abuse and…

  13. African American Men, Inequality and Family Structure: A Research Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuberi, Tukufu

    Research into the social history of African American men in deteriorating socioeconomic conditions has enhanced the understanding of the family. This research helps to understand the different experiences of diverse groups within the society and different group reactions to social change. Yet, social scientists and policymakers have shown a…

  14. Social and Cultural Factors Influence African American Men's Medical Help Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Derek M.; Allen, Julie Ober; Gunter, Katie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the factors that influenced African American men's medical help seeking. Method: Thematic analysis of 14 focus groups with 105 older, urban African American men. Results: African American men described normative expectations that they did not go to the doctor and that they were afraid to go, with little explanation. When they…

  15. A Survey of African American Men in Chicago Barbershops: Implications for the Effectiveness of the Barbershop Model in the Health Promotion of African American Men.

    PubMed

    Moore, Nataka; Wright, Matara; Gipson, Jessica; Jordan, Greg; Harsh, Mohit; Reed, Daniel; Murray, Marcus; Keeter, Mary Kate; Murphy, Adam

    2016-08-01

    The barbershop has been used to target African American (AA) men across age groups for health screenings, health interventions, and for research. However, few studies explore the sociodemographic characteristics of barbers and their clients. Additionally, few have evaluated the client's relative comfort with receiving health information and screenings in barbershops and other non-clinical settings. Lastly, it is unknown whether barbers feel capable of influencing health-decision making of AA men. AA male clients and barbers completed a self-administered survey in barbershops in predominantly AA neighborhoods throughout Chicago, Illinois. We assessed sociodemographic characteristics and attitudes towards receiving physical and mental health education and screenings in barbershops and other settings. Barbers were also surveyed regarding their most and least common clients by age group and their perceived ability to influence the decision-making of AA males by age group. AAs surveyed in barbershops have similar rates of high school completion, poverty and unemployment as the AA residents of their neighborhood. AA males prefer to receive health education and screening in clinician offices followed by barbershops and churches. Barbers reported serving males age 18-39 years of age most frequently while men 50 years and older were the least served group. Overall, barbers did not believe they could influence the decision-making of AA men and in the best case scenario, only 33 % felt they could influence young men 18-29 years old. Barbershops reach AA men that are representative of the demographics of the neighborhood where the barbershop is located. Barbers reach a small population of men over age 49 and feel incapable of influencing the decisions of AAs over age 39. Further studies are needed to assess other locales for accessing older AA men and to evaluate the feasibility of mental health interventions and screenings within the barbershop.

  16. Obesity differences between African-American men and women.

    PubMed

    Shankar, S; Nanda, J P; Bonney, G; Kofie, V

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the socio-demographic and behavioral differences related to obesity between African-American men and women. Obesity was defined as a body mass index of greater than 27.3 kg/m2 for women and 27.8 kg/m2 for men. Data were collected from 661 African-Americans, 418 women and 243 men, residing in wards 7 and 8 in Washington, DC through telephone interviews. Obesity was prevalent among 38.3% of the women and 20.1% of the men (p < 0.01). For women age 55 or older, annual income over $20K, having less than a high school education, and alcohol and tobacco consumption were associated with being overweight in the initial bivariate analysis (p < 0.05). For men, being 35 years or older and unemployment were significant factors associated with obesity. Our final analysis, when known dietary risk factors were adjusted, revealed that in women, obesity was associated with age, hard liquor consumption and non use of tobacco. For men, older age was a primary association. We concluded that gender, with increasing age, plays a significant role in predicting obesity, as defined by concurrent national standards. African American men 55 years of age or older are the most likely group to be overweight even after predisposing and behavioral risk factors are considered.

  17. An intersectional approach to social determinants of stress for African American men: men's and women's perspectives.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Derek M; Ellis, Katrina R; Allen, Julie Ober

    2013-07-01

    Stress is a key factor that helps explain racial and gender differences in health, but few studies have examined gendered stressors that affect men. This study uses an intersectional approach to examine the sources of stress in African American men's lives from the perspectives of African American men and important women in their lives. Phenomenological analysis was used to examine data from 18 exploratory focus groups with 150 African American men, ages 30 years and older, and eight groups with 77 African American women. The two primary sources of stress identified were seeking to fulfill socially and culturally important gender roles and being an African American man in a racially stratified society. A central focus of African American men's daily lives was trying to navigate chronic stressors at home and at work and a lack of time to fulfill roles and responsibilities in different life domains that are traditionally the responsibility of men. Health was rarely mentioned by men as a source of stress, though women noted that men's aging and weathering bodies were a source of stress for men. Because of the intersection of racism and economic and social stressors, men and women reported that the stress that African American men experienced was shaped by the intersection of race, ethnicity, age, marital status, and other factors that combined in unique ways. The intersection of these identities and characteristics led to stressors that were perceived to be of greater quantity and qualitatively different than the stress experienced by men of other races.

  18. African American and Latino Men's Recommendations for an Improved Campus Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerezo, Alison; Lyda, James; Enriquez, Alma; Beristianos, Matthew; Connor, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to share findings from semistructured qualitative interviews with 9 African American and 12 Latino men about their ideas on how university personnel could better support their needs. Stressing the need for African American men to learn self-reliance to counter microaggressions, African American participants offered…

  19. Aspects of the Student Engagement of African American Men in Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romney, Paulette B.

    2012-01-01

    High attrition rates of African American college students' is a continuing concern of higher education administrators. This is particularly true of African American men attending community college. African American men consistently experience low levels of scholastic achievement as a result of entering college underprepared, with academic deficits…

  20. Understanding older men and their male friendships: a comparison of african american and white men.

    PubMed

    Greif, Geoffrey L

    2009-01-01

    Friendships can lead to longer and healthier lives. Yet little is known about how older men, particularly African American men, define and carry out their friendships with other men. This article presents the findings from qualitative interviews with 23 African American and 23 White older men who were part of a larger study. The subjects were asked whether friendships are important; if they have enough male friends; how they define, carry out, and maintain their friendships; and the nature of their fathers' friendships. Comparisons are drawn between the African American and White men. Implications for social work practice are included.

  1. Are podcasts effective at educating African American men about diabetes?

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jarrett; Ross, Levi; Iwanenko, Walter; Schiffert, Judith; Sen, Arup

    2012-09-01

    Education is a critical component of the National Blueprint to eliminate racial disparities in diabetes. Research indicates that traditional methods of diabetes education has had limited effectiveness with minority populations and suggests that different educational approaches be explored. The purpose of the research was to explore the effectiveness of an emergent technology (podcast) for use in educating inner-city, African American men about diabetes prevention. Thirty African American men participated in self-administered, pretest-posttest surveys in August 2009. Surveys collected information on demographic characteristics, perceptions of diabetes, and diabetes knowledge. Paired samples t test was computed to evaluate pretest-posttest changes in overall knowledge. McNemar or binomial tests were computed to evaluate pretest-posttest knowledge changes on each of the 15 individual knowledge items. Diabetes knowledge scores for the sample increased from 8.27 at pretest to 10.47 at posttest (p = .001). Posttest knowledge scores increased for 77% of men, stayed the same for 13%, and decreased for 10%. Men who listened to the podcast correctly answered 40% more knowledge questions on their posttest assessments. Results from this exploratory study suggest that podcasts are useful for helping inner-city, African American men recall diabetes prevention information. Additional research is recommended with larger randomly selected samples using more rigorous research designs.

  2. Recommendations for the Use of Online Social Support for African American Men

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Daphne C.; Jefferson, S. Olivia

    2014-01-01

    African American men face greater psychosocial stressors than African American women and men of other racial and ethnic groups, which place them at higher risk for psychological distress. Yet, research suggests that African Americans are less likely to utilize professional mental health services because of their mistrust of the health care system and their need for more specialized and innovative services. Supplemental resources aimed at positive coping and social support for African American men may reduce the likelihood that they experience psychological distress, which could lead to more severe mental disorders. This article proposes the use of online social support for African American men who are in early, nonsevere stages of psychological distress. We examine the unique experiences of African American men, discuss distress among this underserved group, and finally, offer recommendations for achieving an online community for African American men. PMID:22924797

  3. Playing spades: The rich resources of African American young men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schademan, Alfred R.

    Research has shown that African American young men as a demographic group occupy the lowest levels of academic performance in both science and mathematics. In spite of this educational problem, little research has been conducted on the knowledge related to these disciplines that these young men learn and develop through everyday cultural practices. Such knowledge is needed in order to: (1) combat the deficit views that many teachers currently hold of African American young men, and (2) inform teachers interested in implementing pedagogies in their classrooms that draw upon the knowledge of African American young men. To add to our knowledge in this field, this study examines the resources that African American young men learn, use, and develop through a card game called Spades. Specifically, the study identifies and analyzes the models and model-based reasoning that the players use in order to win games. The study focuses upon modeling as it is central to both science and mathematics. To imbed player models and reasoning in context, the study employs a syncretic theoretical framework that examines how Spades has changed over time and how it is currently played in a high school setting. The qualitative study uses ethnographic methods combined with play-by-play analyses to reconstruct games and examine player strategies and reasoning that guide their decisions. The study found that the players operate from a number of different models while playing the game. Specifically, the players consider multiple variables and factors, as well as their mathematical relationships, to predict future occurrences and then play cards accordingly. Further, the players use a number of resources to win games including changing the game to maintain a competitive edge, counting cards, selectively memorizing cards played, assessing risk, bluffing, reading partners as well as opponents, reneging, estimating probabilities, and predicting outcomes. The player models and resources bear

  4. The Ball Curve: Calculated Racism and the Stereotype of African American Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Ronald E.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the impact of racial stereotyping on the performance of African American and European American athletes, providing an alternative to race-based intelligence differentials. Focuses on stereotypes of African American men; the Bell Curve; the high proportion of African Americans in U.S. athletics; and masculinity and the stereotype of the…

  5. Understanding the Meaning African-American Men Give to Their Student Leadership Involvement and Engagement Activities in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Karl A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to explore and gain a deeper understanding of the lived experiences and perceptions of African-American (A-A) men who are persisting in college and who demonstrate participation in co-curricular activities defined as student leadership involvement and engagement activities (SLIEA). The…

  6. Recruiting African American men for cancer screening studies: applying a culturally based model.

    PubMed

    Abernethy, Alexis D; Magat, Maricar M; Houston, Tina R; Arnold, Harold L; Bjorck, Jeffrey P; Gorsuch, Richard L

    2005-08-01

    In a study of psychosocial factors related to prostate cancer screening (PCS) of African American men, researchers achieved significant success in recruitment. Key strategies included addressing specific barriers to PCS for African American men and placing recruitment efforts in a conceptual framework that addressed cultural issues (PEN-3 model). To conduct cancer prevention research in the African American community, to engage in health promotion in collaboration with churches, and to recruit African American men, a culturally competent approach that incorporates the values of the community is essential. Implications for addressing specific barriers to recruitment and building partnerships in health promotion research are discussed.

  7. Recruiting African American Men for Cancer Screening Studies: Applying a Culturally Based Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abernethy, Alexis D.; Magat, Maricar M.; Houston, Tina R.; Arnold, Harold L., Jr.; Bjorck, Jeffrey P.; Gorsuch, Richard L.

    2005-01-01

    In a study of psychosocial factors related to prostate cancer screening (PCS) of African American men, researchers achieved significant success in recruitment. Key strategies included addressing specific barriers to PCS for African American men and placing recruitment efforts in a conceptual framework that addressed cultural issues (PEN-3 model).…

  8. An Examination of the Lived Experiences of Successful African American Men Attending a Historically Black University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Clark R.

    2013-01-01

    This phenomenological research explored the lived experiences of successful African American men attending a Historically Black College and University (HBCU) in the Midwest. The guiding questions for the study were (a) What positive characteristics do successful African American men demonstrate at HBCUs that offset major problems, concerns, and…

  9. Male Gender Role Strain as a Barrier to African American Men's Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Derek M.; Gunter, Katie; Allen, Julie Ober

    2011-01-01

    Despite the potential health consequences, African American men tend to treat their roles as providers, fathers, spouses, and community members as more important than engaging in health behaviors such as physical activity. We conducted 14 exploratory focus groups with 105 urban, middle-aged African American men from the Midwest to examine factors…

  10. EPEC-O - Plenary AA - Cancer & the African American Experience

    Cancer.gov

    The first plenary of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the many factors that lead to inequalities in cancer care outcomes for African Americans.

  11. EPEC-O for African Americans - Module 16 AA - Spirituality

    Cancer.gov

    The sixteenth module of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the importance of spirituality in the lived experience of most African Americans, and how they utilize spirituality and religion to cope with serious stressors such as life-threatening illness.

  12. Barriers and Motivators to Participating in mHealth Research Among African American Men.

    PubMed

    James, Delores C S; Harville, Cedric

    2015-12-03

    Most African American (AA) men own a smartphone, which positions them to be targeted for a variety of programs, services, and health interventions using mobile devices (mHealth). The goal of this study was to assess AA men's use of technology and the barriers and motivators to participating in mHealth research. A self-administered survey was completed by 311 men. Multinomial logistic regression examined associations between three age groups (18-29 years, 30-50 years, and 51+ years), technology access, and motivators and barriers to participating in mHealth research. Sixty-five percent of men owned a smartphone and a laptop. Men aged 18 to 29 years were more likely willing to use a health app and smartwatch/wristband monitor than older men (p < .01). Men aged 18 to 29 years were also more likely than older men to be motivated to participate for a free cell phone/upgraded data plan and contribution to the greater good (p < .05). Older men were more likely than younger ones to be motivated to become more educated about the topic (p < .05). Younger men were more likely than older ones to report lack of interest in the topic as a barrier to participating (p < .01), while older men were more likely than younger ones to cite lack of research targeted to minority communities as a barrier (p < .05). This study suggests that culturally tailored mHealth research using smartphones may be of interest to AA men interested in risk reduction and chronic disease self-management. Opportunities also exist to educate AA men about the topic at hand and why minority men are being targeted for the programs and interventions.

  13. The Social Construction of Ethnicity and Masculinity of African American College Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jonathan Lee

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how African American college men construct masculine and ethnic notions of their identities, despite disproportionate social obstacles and hegemonic stereotypes. The primary research question of this study was, "how might African American undergraduate males understand and develop healthy concepts…

  14. Role of Mitochondrial Inheritance on Prostate Cancer Outcome in African American Men

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0737 TITLE: Role of Mitochondrial Inheritance on...AND SUBTITLE Role of Mitochondrial Inheritance on Prostate Cancer Outcome in African American Men 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER... mitochondrial inheritance plays a significant role in aggressiveness of prostate cancer in African Americans. In the first year of the project we

  15. Social support, psychological vulnerability, and HIV risk among African American men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Lena D.; Chambers, Christopher S.; Operario, Don

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has suggested a need to understand the social-psychological factors contributing to HIV risk among African American men who have sex with men (MSM). We conducted individual in-depth interviews with 34 adult African American MSM to examine their personal experiences about: (i) sources of social support, (ii) psychological responses to the presence or absence of social support, and (iii) influences of social support on sexual behaviors. The majority of participants described limited positive encouragement and lack of emotional support from family, as well as few meaningful personal relationships. Feelings of isolation and mistrust about personal relationships led many participants to avoid emotional intimacy and seek physical intimacy through sexual encounters. Findings highlight a need for multi-level interventions that enhance social support networks and address the social-psychological, emotional, and interpersonal factors that contribute to HIV risk among African American MSM. PMID:26588945

  16. Social support, psychological vulnerability, and HIV risk among African American men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Lena D; van den Berg, Jacob J; Chambers, Christopher S; Operario, Don

    2016-05-01

    Previous research has suggested a need to understand the social-psychological factors contributing to HIV risk among African American men who have sex with men (MSM). We conducted individual in-depth interviews with 34 adult African American MSM to examine their personal experiences about: (i) sources of social support, (ii) psychological responses to the presence or absence of social support and (iii) influences of social support on sexual behaviours. The majority of participants described limited positive encouragement and lack of emotional support from family, as well as few meaningful personal relationships. Feelings of isolation and mistrust about personal relationships led many participants to avoid emotional intimacy and seek physical intimacy through sexual encounters. Findings highlight a need for multilevel interventions that enhance social support networks and address the social-psychological, emotional and interpersonal factors that contribute to HIV risk among African American MSM.

  17. Recruitment approaches to identifying newly diagnosed HIV infection among African American men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Ellen, J M; McCree, D H; Muvva, R; Chung, S-E; Miazad, R M; Arrington-Sanders, R; Jones, K; Burnett, P; Fichtenberg, C

    2013-05-01

    To determine effectiveness of alternate venue testing (AVT), social network strategy (SNS) and provider referral (PR) for identifying previously undiagnosed HIV-infected 18-64-year-old African American men who have sex with men (AA MSM) by a health department. For AVT, staff used a mobile clinic to conduct HIV testing. For PR, staff solicited contact information from HIV-infected AA MSM, located contacts and offered HIV testing. For SNS, HIV-positive AA MSM recruited network associates for HIV testing. Two hundred and eighteen self-identified AA MSM were tested through AVT (25.2% HIV positivity) of whom 20 were newly identified HIV-positive. Fourteen HIV-positive men participated in SNS; 22 AA MSM contacts were recruited through SNS, eight (36.4%) were HIV positive and none were new positives. Two HIV-infected men participated in the PR strategy, yielding two AA MSM sex partners (one previously positive). The results suggest the need for health departments to consider using several complimentary strategies for identifying previously undiagnosed HIV infections in AA MSM in urban environments such as Baltimore.

  18. Men Do Matter: Ethnographic Insights on the Socially Supportive Role of the African American Uncle in the Lives of Inner-City African American Male Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Joseph B., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the role of the African American uncle as a vital yet overlooked form of social support and social capital in the lives of adolescent African American male sons living in single-female-headed households. Research rarely examines the affective roles and functions of men in Black families; moreover, poor urban Black male youth…

  19. Boys into Men: Raising Our African American Teenage Sons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd-Franklin, Nancy; Franklin, A. J.

    This guide to rearing African American boys offers simple and effective strategies for problem-solving, improving communication, and instilling a positive racial identity. The book draws on strong African American family values and cultural and spiritual strengths. The chapters are: (1) "You Must Act As If It Is Impossible To Fail: Challenges…

  20. Disparities in health-related Internet use among African American men, 2010.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jamie A; Thompson, Hayley S; Watkins, Daphne C; Shires, Deirdre; Modlin, Charles S

    2014-03-20

    Given the benefits of health-related Internet use, we examined whether sociodemographic, medical, and access-related factors predicted this outcome among African American men, a population burdened with health disparities. African American men (n = 329) completed an anonymous survey at a community health fair in 2010; logistic regression was used to identify predictors. Only education (having attended some college or more) predicted health-related Internet use (P < .001). African American men may vary in how they prefer to receive health information; those with less education may need support to engage effectively with health-related Internet use.

  1. The Effect of Suffering on Generativity: Accounts of Elderly African American Men

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Background This article focuses on attitudes to and behaviors of generativity in 6 older African American (AA) men. Methods Data on generativity emerged from in-depth qualitative research that explored experiences of suffering in community-dwelling persons aged 80 years and over. Results For these AA men, experiences of racism were salient in stories of suffering, and suffering was intricately related to attitudes and behaviors of generativity. We placed men's narratives, showing the link between suffering and generativity, in 3 categories: Generativity is rooted in (a) suffering and in empathy for suffering others, (b) experiences of redemption from suffering, and (c) religious belief that assuages suffering. Conclusions These AA men's generative behaviors were shaped by unique life experiences, including experiences of suffering. Bequeathing a legacy to succeeding generations was tied to suffering experiences, to the personal and communal identities that emerged from suffering, to the importance of inter- and intragenerational community, and to what men believed others needed from them. PMID:19182225

  2. Treatment Disparities among African American Men with Depression: Implications for Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Hankerson, Sidney H.; Suite, Derek; Bailey, Rahn K.

    2015-01-01

    A decade has passed since the National Institute of Mental Health initiated its landmark Real Men Real Depression public education campaign. Despite increased awareness, depressed African American men continue to underutilize mental health treatment and have the highest all-cause mortality rates of any racial/ethnic group in the United States. We review a complex array of socio-cultural factors, including racism and discrimination, cultural mistrust, misdiagnosis and clinician bias, and informal support networks that contribute to treatment disparities. We identify clinical and community entry points to engage African American men. We provide specific recommendations for frontline mental health workers to increase depression treatment utilization for African American men. Providers who present treatment options within a frame of holistic health promotion may enhance treatment adherence. We encourage the use of multidisciplinary, community-based participatory research approaches to test our hypotheses and engage African American men in clinical research. PMID:25702724

  3. Treatment disparities among African American men with depression: implications for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Hankerson, Sidney H; Suite, Derek; Bailey, Rahn K

    2015-02-01

    A decade has passed since the National Institute of Mental Health initiated its landmark Real Men Real Depression public education campaign. Despite increased awareness, depressed African American men continue to underutilize mental health treatment and have the highest all-cause mortality rates of any racial/ethnic group in the United States. We review a complex array of socio-cultural factors, including racism and discrimination, cultural mistrust, misdiagnosis and clinician bias, and informal support networks that contribute to treatment disparities. We identify clinical and community entry points to engage African American men. We provide specific recommendations for frontline mental health workers to increase depression treatment utilization for African American men. Providers who present treatment options within a frame of holistic health promotion may enhance treatment adherence. We encourage the use of multidisciplinary, community-based participatory research approaches to test our hypotheses and engage African American men in clinical research.

  4. Images of Male Friendships: An Investigation of How African American Undergraduate Men Develop Interpersonal Relationships with Other Men at a Predominantly White Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Brian Lamont

    2013-01-01

    African American men enter postsecondary institutions having been socialized to adopt stereotypical notions of masculinity. These traditional expectations of masculinity play a role in how African American men negotiate relationships with their male counterparts on the campus. African American men cultivate close relationships with other men to…

  5. Genomic Basis of Prostate Cancer Health Disparity Among African-American Men

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    Cancer Health Disparity Among African-American Men PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Harry Ostrer, M.D. RECIPIENT: Albert Einstein College of...ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Albert Einstein College of Medicine Of Yeshiva University Bronx, NY 10461 9. SPONSORING

  6. A Randomized Controlled Exercise Training Trial on Insulin Sensitivity in African American Men: The ARTIIS study

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Robert L.; Johnson, William D.; Hendrick, Chelsea; Harris, Melissa; Andrews, Emanuel; Johannsen, Neil; Rodarte, Ruben Q.; Hsia, Daniel S.; Church, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lack of regular physical activity at prescribed intensity levels is a modifiable risk factor for insulin resistance and the development of diabetes. African American men are at increased risk for developing diabetes and most African American men are not meeting the current recommended levels of physical activity. The primary objective of the Aerobic Plus Resistance Training and Insulin Resistance in African American Men (ARTIIS) study is to determine the effectiveness of an exercise training intervention aimed at reducing diabetes risk factors in African American men at risk for developing diabetes. Methods Insufficiently active 35–70 year old African American men with a family history of diabetes were eligible for the study. The 5-month randomized controlled trial assigns 116 men to an exercise training or healthy living control arm. The exercise training arm combines aerobic and resistance training according to the current national physical activity recommendations and is conducted in community (YMCA) facilities. The healthy living arm receives information promoting healthy lifestyle changes. Outcomes Insulin response to an oral glucose load is the primary outcome measure, and changes in physiological parameters, cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, body composition, and psychological well-being comprise the secondary outcomes. Conclusions The ARTIIS study is one of the first adequately powered, rigorously designed studies to investigate the effects of an aerobic plus resistance exercise training program and to assess adherence to exercise training in community facilities, in African American men. PMID:25979318

  7. Predictors of Risky Sexual Behavior Among Young African American Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Trevor; Peterson, John L.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and correlates of unprotected anal intercourse among 758 young African American men who have sex with men. A quarter of the sample reported unprotected anal intercourse in the past 3 months; nonsupportive peer norms and not carrying condoms predicted risky sexual behavior. Effective interventions are needed that promote the use of condoms by changing peer norms and encouraging carrying condoms. PMID:15226130

  8. Prostatic compensation of the vitamin D axis in African American men

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Zachary; Batai, Ken; Farhat, Rachael; Shah, Ebony; Makowski, Andrew; Gann, Peter H.; Kittles, Rick

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND. African American (AA) men are disproportionately affected by both prostate cancer (PCa) and vitamin D deficiency compared with European American (EA) men. Vitamin D deficiency is linked to increased PCa aggressiveness and mortality. Therefore, it has been hypothesized that vitamin D deficiency may contribute to the PCa disparity between AA and EA men. METHODS. We studied a cross sectional group of 60 PCa patients (AA, n = 31; EA, n = 29) who underwent radical prostatectomy. Vitamin D metabolites 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) were measured in the serum and tissue by uHPLC-MS-MS. Tissue was laser capture microdissected, and gene expression was quantified by microarray. DNA isolated from whole blood was genotyped for West African ancestry markers and vitamin D–related SNPs. RESULTS. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D were lower in AAs, but concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D in the prostate tissue were higher compared with EAs. Expression of the vitamin D receptor was higher in prostate tissue from AAs. Expression of the extracellular receptor of vitamin D binding protein, LRP2, was positively associated with West African ancestry and inversely associated with tissue 25(OH)D concentrations in AAs. CONCLUSIONS. The relationships between vitamin D binding protein LRP2 and vitamin D metabolites suggest that the prohormone is actively transported into the prostate, followed by intraprostatic conversion to the active hormone, rather than passive diffusion. These findings support the presence of a compensatory response in prostate tissue to vitamin D deficiency in AAs and reveal a previously unknown complexity involving tissue distribution of vitamin D metabolites. FUNDING. Department of Defense Prostate Cancer Research Program Idea Award for Disparities Research PC121923 (LN and RK) and the NIH 1R01MD007105 (RK). PMID:28138564

  9. A novel genomic alteration of LSAMP associates with aggressive prostate cancer in African American men

    PubMed Central

    Petrovics, Gyorgy; Li, Hua; Stümpel, Tanja; Tan, Shyh-Han; Young, Denise; Katta, Shilpa; Li, Qiyuan; Ying, Kai; Klocke, Bernward; Ravindranath, Lakshmi; Kohaar, Indu; Chen, Yongmei; Ribli, Dezső; Grote, Korbinian; Zou, Hua; Cheng, Joseph; Dalgard, Clifton L.; Zhang, Shimin; Csabai, István; Kagan, Jacob; Takeda, David; Loda, Massimo; Srivastava, Sudhir; Scherf, Matthias; Seifert, Martin; Gaiser, Timo; McLeod, David G.; Szallasi, Zoltan; Ebner, Reinhard; Werner, Thomas; Sesterhenn, Isabell A.; Freedman, Matthew; Dobi, Albert; Srivastava, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of cancer genomes in global context is of great interest in light of changing ethnic distribution of the world population. We focused our study on men of African ancestry because of their disproportionately higher rate of prostate cancer (CaP) incidence and mortality. We present a systematic whole genome analyses, revealing alterations that differentiate African American (AA) and Caucasian American (CA) CaP genomes. We discovered a recurrent deletion on chromosome 3q13.31 centering on the LSAMP locus that was prevalent in tumors from AA men (cumulative analyses of 435 patients: whole genome sequence, 14; FISH evaluations, 101; and SNP array, 320 patients). Notably, carriers of this deletion experienced more rapid disease progression. In contrast, PTEN and ERG common driver alterations in CaP were significantly lower in AA prostate tumors compared to prostate tumors from CA. Moreover, the frequency of inter-chromosomal rearrangements was significantly higher in AA than CA tumors. These findings reveal differentially distributed somatic mutations in CaP across ancestral groups, which have implications for precision medicine strategies. PMID:26844274

  10. Differences in African American and White Women’s Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Wilson; Peterson, John L.; Parrott, Dominic J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine racial differences in women’s attitudes toward lesbians and gay men and to offer an understanding of these differences. Participants were 224 18–30 year old heterosexual African American (64%) and White (36%) female undergraduates from a large urban university in the southeastern United States. Participants completed measures of social demographics, sexual orientation, and sexual prejudice. Results showed that African American, relative to White, women endorsed more negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Also, unlike White women, African American women reported more negative attitudes toward gay men than lesbians. Implications are discussed regarding differences in cultural contexts that exist between African American and White women. PMID:20161368

  11. The interdependence of African American men's definitions of manhood and health

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Derek M; Brinkley-Rubinstein, Lauren; Bruce, Marino A; Thorpe, Roland J; Metzl, Jonathan M

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we explore themes that cut across how 24-77 year old African American men define manhood and health. Utilizing a thematic approach, we analyzed data from nine focus groups (N=73). We found that manhood and health were relational constructs that are interrelated in men's minds and experiences. Manhood and health were defined by the characteristics men embody, the behaviors men engage in and the goals and values men had to positively influence their families and communities. Thus, manhood and health are interdependent constructs and their interrelationship should be considered in efforts to promote African American men's health. PMID:26291189

  12. Interpersonal- and community-level predictors of intimate partner violence perpetration among African American men.

    PubMed

    Raiford, Jerris Laverne; Seth, Puja; Braxton, Nikia D; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2013-08-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been associated with adverse physical, psychoemotional, and sexual health, and African American women are at higher risk for experiencing IPV. Considering African American women predominantly have African American male partners, it is essential to identify factors associated with IPV perpetration among African American men. The present study examined attitudes toward IPV, ineffective couple conflict resolution, exposure to neighborhood violence, and the interplay of these factors as predictors of IPV perpetration. A community sample of 80 single, heterosexual, African American men between 18 and 29 years completed measures assessing sociodemographics, attitudes towards IPV, perceived ineffective couple conflict resolution, exposure to neighborhood violence, and IPV perpetration during the past 3 months. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses, with age, education, and public assistance as covariates, were conducted on 65 men who reported being in a main relationship. Couple conflict resolution and exposure to neighborhood violence moderated the relation between attitudes supporting IPV and IPV perpetration. Among men who reported high ineffective couple conflict resolution and high exposure to neighborhood violence, IPV perpetration increased as attitudes supporting IPV increased. The findings indicated that interpersonal- and community-level factors interact with individual level factors to increase the risk of recent IPV perpetration among African American men. While IPV prevention should include individual-level interventions that focus on skills building, these findings also highlight the importance of couple-, community-, and structural-level interventions.

  13. Increased Incidence of Pathologically Nonorgan Confined Prostate Cancer in African-American Men Eligible for Active Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Yun-Sok; Salmasi, Amirali; Karellas, Michael; Singer, Eric A.; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Han, Misop; Partin, Alan W.; Kim, Wun-Jae; Lee, Dong Hyeon; Kim, Isaac Yi

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the clinicopathologic findings of African-American (AA) and White-American (WA) men with prostate cancer (PCa) who were candidates for active surveillance (AS) and underwent radical prostatectomy (RP). METHODS Prospectively maintained database of men who underwent RP from 2 academic centers were analyzed retrospectively. Postoperative pathologic characteristics of patients who met the AS inclusion criteria of the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) and National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) were evaluated. After RP, the rate of pathological upstaging and Gleason upgrading were compared between AA and WA men. RESULTS In the AA cohort, 196 and 124 men met the UCSF and NCCN criteria for AS, respectively. With respect to WA patients, 191 and 148 fulfilled the AS criteria for UCSF and NCCN, respectively. AA men had a higher percentage of maximum biopsy core than WA men (15.3%–20.4% vs 11.5%–15.0%, P <.05, respectively) in both cohorts. In addition, a greater proportion of AA men had multiple positive biopsy cores compared to WA men (45.2% vs 33.1%, P = .046) under the NCCN criteria. A higher proportion of AA men were upstaged (≥pT3) compared to WA men (19.4% vs 10.1%, P = .037). A multivariate regression test revealed that age, preoperative PSA, and number of positive cores were independent predictors of more advanced disease (upstaging and/or upgrading) in AA men. CONCLUSION AA men who were candidates for AS criteria had worse clinicopathological features on final surgical pathology thanWA men. These results suggest that a more stringent AS criteria should be considered in AA men with prostate cancer. PMID:23465143

  14. Physician-patient discussions with african american men about prostate cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Ross, Louie E; Powe, Barbara D; Taylor, Yhenneko J; Howard, Daniel L

    2008-06-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cancer killer in men. Men in general and African American men in particular face crucial decisions regarding prostate cancer screening and perhaps treatment for this disease. Major health organizations agree that men should discuss prostate cancer screening with their physicians or other health care professionals. The purpose of the study was to examine sociodemographic and other correlates of physician-patient discussions regarding the advantages and disadvantages of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test among African American men aged 40 or older. A majority of African American men reported having discussed the advantages and disadvantages of prostate cancer screening and/or testing with their physicians before ordering it, and physician-patient discussions about the PSA test were associated with increased screening in African American men. Inasmuch as African American men have greater prostate cancer incidence and mortality over other groups, future attempts should be made to find meaningful correlates of PSA screening and test use to help reduce the burden of this disease.

  15. "If you do nothing about stress, the next thing you know, you're shattered": Perspectives on African American men's stress, coping and health from African American men and key women in their lives.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Katrina R; Griffith, Derek M; Allen, Julie Ober; Thorpe, Roland J; Bruce, Marino A

    2015-08-01

    Stress has been implicated as a key contributor to poor health outcomes; however, few studies have examined how African American men and women explicitly describe the relationships among stress, coping, and African American men's health. In this paper, we explore strategies men use to cope with stress, and beliefs about the consequences of stress for African American men's health behaviors, morbidity and mortality from the perspectives of African American men and women. A phenomenological analytic approach was used to examine focus group data collected from 154 African American men (18 focus groups) and 77 African American women (8 focus groups). Women's perspectives were captured because women often observe men under stress and can provide support to men during stressful times. Our findings indicate that African American men in this study responded to stress by engaging in often identified coping behaviors (i.e., consumption of calorie dense food, exercise, spiritually-related activities). Men in our study, however, did not always view their responses to stress as explicit coping mechanisms. There was also some discordance between men's and women's perceptions of men's coping behaviors as there were occasions where they seemed to interpret the same behavior differently (e.g., resting vs. avoidance). Men and women believed that stress helped to explain why African American men had worse health than other groups. They identified mental, physical and social consequences of stress. We conclude by detailing implications for conceptualizing and measuring coping and we outline key considerations for interventions and further research about stress, coping and health.

  16. Narrating the 1980s and 1990s: Voices of Poor and Working-Class White and African American Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Lois; Fine, Michelle

    1996-01-01

    The divergent views of poor and working-class African-American and White men regarding the causes of their current condition are presented. Different "biographies of race" encourage African-American men to blame the economy and racism but White men to blame Black males for the economic plight of White men. The ways in which the two…

  17. Understanding "masculinity" and the challenges of managing type-2 diabetes among African-American men.

    PubMed Central

    Liburd, Leandris C.; Namageyo-Funa, Apophia; Jack, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    African-American men bear a greater burden of type-2 diabetes and its associated complications. The purpose of this analysis was to explore in greater depth themes that emerged in illness narratives of a small sample of African-American men living with type-2 diabetes. The primary theme that is the focus of this article is the lived experience of black manhood and masculinity and its intersection with the challenges of diabetes self-management. In-depth interviews with 16 African-American men who had established type-2 diabetes yielded thematic analyses of four questions: (1) What do you fear most about having diabetes? (2) In what ways have people in your life treated you differently after learning you have diabetes? (3) In what ways has knowing you have diabetes affected the way you see yourself? and (4) What are some reactions when you tell people you have diabetes? This preliminary study suggests that the requirements of diabetes self-management often run counter to the traditional sex roles and learned behaviors of African-American men, and this can contribute to nonadherence to medications and poor glycemic control. Gender identity is a key cultural factor that influences health-related behaviors, including how men with type-2 diabetes engage with the healthcare system and manage their diabetes. Understanding African-American men's gender identity is an important component of cultural competency for physicians and can be consequential in patient outcomes. PMID:17534013

  18. Understanding "masculinity" and the challenges of managing type-2 diabetes among African-American men.

    PubMed

    Liburd, Leandris C; Namageyo-Funa, Apophia; Jack, Leonard

    2007-05-01

    African-American men bear a greater burden of type-2 diabetes and its associated complications. The purpose of this analysis was to explore in greater depth themes that emerged in illness narratives of a small sample of African-American men living with type-2 diabetes. The primary theme that is the focus of this article is the lived experience of black manhood and masculinity and its intersection with the challenges of diabetes self-management. In-depth interviews with 16 African-American men who had established type-2 diabetes yielded thematic analyses of four questions: (1) What do you fear most about having diabetes? (2) In what ways have people in your life treated you differently after learning you have diabetes? (3) In what ways has knowing you have diabetes affected the way you see yourself? and (4) What are some reactions when you tell people you have diabetes? This preliminary study suggests that the requirements of diabetes self-management often run counter to the traditional sex roles and learned behaviors of African-American men, and this can contribute to nonadherence to medications and poor glycemic control. Gender identity is a key cultural factor that influences health-related behaviors, including how men with type-2 diabetes engage with the healthcare system and manage their diabetes. Understanding African-American men's gender identity is an important component of cultural competency for physicians and can be consequential in patient outcomes.

  19. Results from a prostate cancer admixture mapping study in African-American men.

    PubMed

    Bock, Cathryn Hufford; Schwartz, Ann G; Ruterbusch, Julie J; Levin, Albert M; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Land, Susan J; Wenzlaff, Angela S; Reich, David; McKeigue, Paul; Chen, Wei; Heath, Elisabeth I; Powell, Isaac J; Kittles, Rick A; Rybicki, Benjamin A

    2009-11-01

    There are considerable racial disparities in prostate cancer risk, with a 60% higher incidence rate among African-American (AA) men compared with European-American (EA) men, and a 2.4-fold higher mortality rate in AA men than in EA men. Recently, studies have implicated several African-ancestry associated prostate cancer susceptibility loci on chromosome 8q24. In the current study, we performed admixture mapping in AA men from two independent case-control studies of prostate cancer to confirm the 8q24 ancestry association and also identify other genomic regions that may harbor prostate cancer susceptibility genes. A total of 482 cases and 261 controls were genotyped for 1,509 ancestry informative markers across the genome. The mean estimated individual admixture proportions were 20% European and 80% African. The most significant observed increase in European ancestry occurred at rs2141360 on chromosome 7q31 in both the case-only (P = 0.0000035) and case-control analyses. The most significant observed increase in African ancestry across the genome occurred at a locus on chromosome 5q35 identified by SNPs rs7729084 (case-only analysis P = 0.002), and rs12474977 (case-control analysis P = 0.004), which are separated by 646 kb and were adjacent to one another on the panel. On chromosome 8, rs4367565 was associated with the greatest excess African ancestry in both the case-only and case-control analyses (case-only and case-control P = 0.02), confirming previously reported African-ancestry associations with chromosome 8q24. In conclusion, we confirmed ancestry associations on 8q24, and identified additional ancestry-associated regions potentially harboring prostate cancer susceptibility loci.

  20. Marriage promotion and missing men: African American women in a demographic double bind.

    PubMed

    Lane, Sandra D; Keefe, Robert H; Rubinstein, Robert A; Levandowski, Brooke A; Freedman, Michael; Rosenthal, Alan; Cibula, Donald A; Czerwinski, Maria

    2004-12-01

    Since 1996, state legislators, members of the U.S. Congress, and more recently President George W. Bush, have called for the protection of monogamous, heterosexual marriage and the promotion of marriage among poor women. The thrust of this policy making is directed at African American families, among which female headship doubled between 1965 and 1990. This doubling is temporally associated with enacting the legislation directed toward the War on Drugs, which resulted in a tripling of the African American prison population. In Syracuse, New York, the swelling African American population behind bars has resulted in a skewed sex ratio, in which women significantly outnumber men. The authors use national, state, and local epidemiological, environmental, and ethnographic data to argue that the proliferation of marriage-promotion policies is heterosexist and blames African American women for demographic realities over which they have little control.

  1. Discrimination, mental health, and leukocyte telomere length among African American men.

    PubMed

    Chae, David H; Epel, Elissa S; Nuru-Jeter, Amani M; Lincoln, Karen D; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth H; Thomas, Stephen B

    2016-01-01

    African American men in the US experience disparities across multiple health outcomes. A common mechanism underlying premature declines in health may be accelerated biological aging, as reflected by leukocyte telomere length (LTL). Racial discrimination, a qualitatively unique source of social stress reported by African American men, in tandem with poor mental health, may negatively impact LTL in this population. The current study examined cross-sectional associations between LTL, self-reported racial discrimination, and symptoms of depression and anxiety among 92 African American men 30-50 years of age. LTL was measured in kilobase pairs using quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay. Controlling for sociodemographic factors, greater anxiety symptoms were associated with shorter LTL (b=-0.029, standard error [SE]=0.014; p<0.05). There were no main effects of racial discrimination or depressive symptoms on LTL, but we found evidence for a significant interaction between the two (b=0.011, SE=0.005; p<0.05). Racial discrimination was associated with shorter LTL among those with lower levels of depressive symptoms. Findings from this study highlight the role of social stressors and individual-level psychological factors for physiologic deterioration among African American men. Consistent with research on other populations, greater anxiety may reflect elevated stress associated with shorter LTL. Racial discrimination may represent an additional source of social stress among African American men that has detrimental consequences for cellular aging among those with lower levels of depression.

  2. Understanding African American men's perceptions of racism, male gender socialization, and social capital through photovoice.

    PubMed

    Ornelas, India J; Amell, Jim; Tran, Anh N; Royster, Michael; Armstrong-Brown, Janelle; Eng, Eugenia

    2009-04-01

    In this study we used a participatory qualitative research approach--photovoice--to collect information about African American men's perceptions of the factors that influenced their own health and the health of their communities. Photovoice was conducted as part of the "Men as Navigators (MAN) for Health" project, an evaluation of a male lay health advisor (LHA) intervention in central North Carolina. Twelve African American men living in both urban and rural communities took photographs and discussed the photos in six photo discussion sessions. Analysis involved identifying recurring themes from the photos and transcriptions of photo discussions. The results suggest that race and racism, male gender socialization, and social networks and social capital all have important influences on African American men's health. The implications for further research and public health practice are discussed.

  3. Do men hold African-American and Caucasian women to different standards of beauty?

    PubMed

    Freedman, Rachel E K; Carter, Michele M; Sbrocco, Tracy; Gray, James J

    2007-08-01

    Racial differences in men's preferences for African-American and Caucasian women's body size and shape were examined. As expected, there was a trend for African-American men to choose ideal figures with a lower waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), which is associated with a more curvaceous figure. Contrary to expectations, however, African-American men did not choose heavier female figures as ideal. In fact, both groups chose underweight and normal weight figures as ideal. The results from this study suggest that while preferences for WHR may continue to be associated with cultural factors, African-American and Caucasian men may have become more similar than different in their preferences for female weight. Also, the results suggest that within the African-American sample, there were two subsamples with regard to WHR preferences, with one subgroup endorsing the same ideal WHR as their Caucasian counterparts. The results are discussed in terms of possible changes to cultural values that may be reflected in a change in what is considered attractive.

  4. Comparison of strategies to increase HIV testing among African-American gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men in Washington, DC.

    PubMed

    Baytop, Chanza; Royal, Scott; Hubbard McCree, Donna; Simmons, Ron; Tregerman, Rebecca; Robinson, Carolyn; Johnson, Wayne D; McLaughlin, Mike; Price, Cristofer

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents results from a study conducted to compare the relative effectiveness of three strategies - alternate venue testing (AVT), the social network strategy (SNS), and partner counseling and referral services (PCRS; standard care) - for reaching and motivating previously undiagnosed, African-American men who have sex with men (AA MSM) to be tested for HIV. Data were collected between June 2008 and February 2010 at a gay-identified, community-based organization (CBO) serving AA MSM in Washington, DC. Men were eligible to participate if they were 18-64 years old, self-identified as black or African-American, were biologically male, and self-reported oral or anal sex with a man in the past six months. Fisher's exact test of independence was used to assess differences in demographics, testing history, HIV status and sexual behaviors across the three strategies. The final sample included 470 men who met all eligibility requirements. There were no statistically significant differences in HIV positivity rates across the three strategies. However, relative to standard care, the SNS, and (to a lesser degree) the AVT strategies were more successful in recruiting men that had never been tested. Additionally, the results indicate that each strategy recruited different subgroups of men. Specifically, heterosexually identified men and men who reported engaging in unprotected sex were most likely to be recruited via SNS. Bisexually identified men and older men were most likely to be recruited via AVT or SNS, while standard care tended to reach greater proportions of young men and homosexually identified men. These findings suggest that a combination of strategies may be the best approach for engaging African-American MSM in HIV testing.

  5. Weight status and high blood pressure among low-income African American men.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Marino A; Beech, Bettina M; Edwards, Christopher L; Sims, Mario; Scarinci, Isabel; Whitfield, Keith E; Gilbert, Keon; Crook, Errol D

    2011-05-01

    Obesity is a biological risk factor or comorbidity that has not received much attention from scientists studying hypertension among African American men. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between weight status and high blood pressure among African American men with few economic resources. The authors used surveillance data collected from low-income adults attending community- and faith-based primary care clinics in West Tennessee to estimate pooled and group-specific regression models of high blood pressure. The results from group-specific logistic regression models indicate that the factors associated with hypertension varied considerably by weight status. This study provides a glimpse into the complex relationship between weight status and high blood pressure status among African American men. Additional research is needed to identify mechanisms through which excess weight affects the development and progression of high blood pressure.

  6. Does change in readiness influence retention among African American women and men in substance abuse treatment?

    PubMed

    Montgomery, LaTrice; Burlew, A Kathleen; Korte, Jeffrey E

    2017-04-03

    African Americans are less likely than other racial groups to engage in and complete outpatient substance abuse treatment. The current study, conducted as a secondary analysis of a multisite randomized clinical trial, examined whether readiness to change (RTC) over time influences retention and whether gender moderates the relationship between changes in RTC and retention among 194 African American women and men. Participants completed the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment at baseline and at the end of the 16-week study. Findings revealed a significant relationship between RTC over time and retention. Specifically, the more RTC increased throughout the 16-week study, the longer participants remained in treatment. In addition, gender moderated the relationship between changes in RTC and retention, with a stronger association between changes in RTC and retention among men relative to women. One approach to improving substance abuse treatment retention rates is to focus on increasing RTC during treatment, especially among African American men.

  7. Interpersonal Relationships: Exploring Race and Relationship Decisions among African American College Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Brian L.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores how race influenced African American men's interpersonal relationships with other men at a predominantly White institution. The use of both semi-structured and photo-elicitation interview formats provided participants an opportunity to reflect on their precollege experiences, identity, and relationships. Two categories emerged…

  8. Legacy Denied: African American Gay Men, AIDS, and the Black Church

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Robert L., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the religious development and spiritual formation of African American gay men living with AIDS. In response to an in-depth interviewing approach, 10 men described their experiences of church participation. The participants' data reveal their religious initiation and participation as well as their need to extinguish…

  9. Prostate-specific antigen test use and digital rectal examinations among African-American men, 2002-2006.

    PubMed

    Ross, Louie E; Meade, Shelly-Ann; Powe, Barbara D; Howard, Daniel L

    2009-07-01

    African-American men experience greater incidence and mortality from prostate cancer compared to White men as well as men from other groups. Few studies have examined prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and digital rectal examination (DRE) use in African-American men. This study examined use of the PSA test and DRE among African-American men over time and identified correlates associated with the use of these procedures. Overall trends for years 2002-2006 showed a significant decrease in recent PSA test use and DRE among African-American men in 2004 and 2006 compared to year 2002. Recent PSA test use and DRE were associated with several factors including older ages, being married, higher levels of education and income, and overweight and obese body mass index (BMI). PSA test use and DRE among African-American men should be monitored over time to find out if this pattern continues.

  10. Do men hold African-American and Caucasian women to different standards of beauty?✩

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Rachel E.K.; Carter, Michele M.; Sbrocco, Tracy; Gray, James J.

    2011-01-01

    Racial differences in men’s preferences for African-American and Caucasian women’s body size and shape were examined. As expected, there was a trend for African-American men to choose ideal figures with a lower waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), which is associated with a more curvaceous figure. Contrary to expectations, however, African-American men did not choose heavier female figures as ideal. In fact, both groups chose underweight and normal weight figures as ideal. The results from this study suggest that while preferences for WHR may continue to be associated with cultural factors, African-American and Caucasian men may have become more similar than different in their preferences for female weight. Also, the results suggest that within the African-American sample, there were two subsamples with regard to WHR preferences, with one subgroup endorsing the same ideal WHR as their Caucasian counterparts. The results are discussed in terms of possible changes to cultural values that may be reflected in a change in what is considered attractive. PMID:17606230

  11. Factors Associated with Colorectal Cancer Screening among Younger African American Men: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Goodson, Patricia; Foster, Margaret J.

    2015-01-01

    Of cancers affecting both men and women, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cancer killer among African Americans in the U.S. Compared to White men, African American men have incidence and mortality rates 25% and 50% higher from CRC. Despite the benefits of early detection and the availability of effective screening, most adults over age 50 have not undergone testing, and disparities in colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) persist. Owing to CRC’s high incidence and younger age at presentation among African American men, CRCS is warranted at age 45 rather than 50. However, the factors influencing young adult (i.e., age < 50) African American men’s intention to screen and/or their CRCS behaviors has not been systematically assessed. To assess whether the factors influencing young adult African American men’s screening intentions and behaviors are changeable through structured health education interventions, we conducted a systematic review, with the two-fold purpose of: (1) synthesizing studies examining African American men's knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors regarding CRCS; and (2) assessing these studies’ methodological quality. Utilizing Garrard’s Matrix Method, a total of 28 manuscripts met our inclusion/exclusion criteria: 20 studies followed a non-experimental research design, 4 comprised a quasi-experimental design, and 4, an experimental design. Studies were published between 2002 and 2012; the majority, between 2007 and 2011. The factors most frequently assessed were behaviors (79%), beliefs (68%), and knowledge (61%) of CRC and CRCS. Six factors associated with CRC and CRCS emerged: previous CRCS, CRC test preference, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, CRC/CRCS knowledge, and physician support/recommendation. Studies were assigned a methodological quality score (MQS – ranging from 0 to 21). The mean MQS of 10.9 indicated these studies were, overall, of medium quality and suffered from specific flaws. Alongside a call for more

  12. African American men's perspectives on promoting physical activity: "We're not that difficult to figure out!".

    PubMed

    Friedman, Daniela B; Hooker, Steven P; Wilcox, Sara; Burroughs, Ericka L; Rheaume, Carol E

    2012-01-01

    African American men report poorer health than do White men and have significantly greater odds for developing chronic diseases partly because of limited physical activity. Understanding how to encourage healthy behaviors among African American men will be critical in the development of effective physical activity messages and programs. Guided by principles of cultural sensitivity and social marketing, this research examined middle-aged and older African American men's recommended strategies for promoting physical activity to African American men of their age. The authors report results from 49 interviews conducted with middle-aged (45-64 years) and older (65-84 years) African American men in South Carolina. Four groups of African American men were recruited: middle-aged active men (n = 17), middle-aged inactive men (n = 12), older active men (n = 10), older inactive men (n = 10). Themes related to marketing and recruitment strategies, message content, and spokesperson characteristics emerged and differed by age and physical activity level. Recommended marketing strategies included word of mouth; use of mass media; partnering with churches, businesses, and fraternities; strategic placement of messages; culturally appropriate message framing; and careful attention to selection of program spokespersons. Findings will help in the marketing, design, implementation, and evaluation of culturally appropriate interventions to encourage physical activity among middle-aged and older African American men in the South.

  13. Identity, Physical Space, and Stigma Among African American Men Living with HIV in Chicago and Seattle.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Judith L; Raunig, Manuela; Brunsteter, Halley; Desmond, Michelle; Rao, Deepa

    2015-12-01

    African American men have the highest rates of HIV in the USA, and research has shown that stigma, mistrust of health care, and other psychosocial factors interfere with optimal engagement in care with this population. In order to further understand reducing stigma and other psychosocial issues among African American men, we conducted qualitative interviews and focus groups with African American men in two metropolitan areas in the USA: Chicago and Seattle. We examined transcripts for relationships across variables of stigma, anonymity, self-identity, and space within the context of HIV. Our analysis pointed to similarities between experiences of stigma across the two cities and illustrated the relationships between space, isolation, and preferred anonymity related to living with HIV. The men in our study often preferred that their HIV-linked identities remain invisible and anonymous, associated with perceived and created isolation from physical community spaces. This article suggests that our health care and housing institutions may influence preferences for anonymity. We make recommendations in key areas to create safer spaces for African American men living with HIV and reduce feelings of stigma and isolation.

  14. Identity, Physical Space, and Stigma Among African American Men Living with HIV in Chicago and Seattle

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, Judith L.; Raunig, Manuela; Brunsteter, Halley; Desmond, Michelle; Rao, Deepa

    2015-01-01

    African American men have the highest rates of HIV in the United States, and research has shown that stigma, mistrust of healthcare, and other psychosocial factors interfere with optimal engagement in care with this population. In order to further understand reducing stigma and other psychosocial issues among African American men, we conducted qualitative interviews and focus groups with African American men in two metropolitan areas in the United States: Chicago and Seattle. We examined transcripts for relationships across variables of stigma, anonymity, self-identity, and space within the context of HIV. Our analysis pointed to similarities between experiences of stigma across the two cities, and illustrated the relationships between space, isolation and preferred anonymity related to living with HIV. The men in our study often preferred their HIV-linked identities remain invisible and anonymous, associated with perceived and created isolation from physical community spaces. This article suggests that our healthcare and housing institutions may influence preferences for anonymity. We make recommendations in key areas to create safer spaces for African American men living with HIV and reduce feelings of stigma and isolation. PMID:26863561

  15. Condom use and concurrent partnering among heterosexually active, African American men: a qualitative report.

    PubMed

    Frye, Victoria; Williams, Kim; Bond, Keosha T; Henny, Kirk; Cupid, Malik; Weiss, Linda; Lucy, Debbie; Koblin, Beryl A

    2013-10-01

    African Americans are overrepresented among heterosexual cases of HIV/AIDS in the USA. Inconsistent condom use and concurrent partnering are two sexual behaviors driving the heterosexual HIV epidemic in the African American community. To inform the development of an HIV prevention behavioral intervention to decrease concurrent partnering and increase condom use among African American heterosexual men, we conducted formative research, including 61 structured interviews, 5 focus groups with 25 men, and 30 in-depth qualitative interviews between July and December 2009. We used a grounded theoretical approach and categorizing strategies to code and analyze the qualitative data. Results around condom use confirmed earlier findings among heterosexual men in general: condoms diminish pleasure, interfere with erection, and symbolize infidelity. Although valued by some as a form of disease prevention and pregnancy prevention, condoms are often used only with specific types of female partners, such as new or casual partners, or due to visual risk assessment. Sex partner concurrency was described as normative and ascribed to men's "natural" desire to engage in a variety of sexual activities or their high sex drive, with little recognition of the role it plays in the heterosexual HIV epidemic. Fatherhood emerged among many men as a crucial life event and compelling motivation for reducing sexual risk behavior. Based on these results, we conclude that existing HIV prevention efforts to improve attitudes towards and motivate use of condoms either have not reached or have not been successful with African American heterosexual men. In designing behavioral interventions to decrease concurrent partnering and increase condom use, addressing negative attitudes towards condoms and partner risk assessment is critical, as is integrating novel motivational approaches related to identity as fathers and men in the African American community.

  16. High-Risk Sexual Behavior and Condom Use among Gay and Bisexual African-American Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, John L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examines the frequency and correlates of unprotected anal intercourse among 250 gay and bisexual African-American men in the San Francisco (California) Bay area. More than 50 percent reported having unprotected anal intercourse in the past six months. Findings demonstrate the need for risk reduction programs targeting this population. (SLD)

  17. Cardiovascular Risk Reduction for African-American Men through Health Empowerment and Anger Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Torrance; Braithwaite, Harold; Johnson, Larry; Harris, Catrell; Katkowsky, Steven; Troutman, Adewale

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine impact of CVD risk reduction intervention for African-American men in the Atlanta Empowerment Zone (AEZ) designed to target anger management. Design: Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test was employed as a non-parametric alternative to the t-test for independent samples. This test was employed because the data used in this analysis…

  18. Two Worlds: African American Men's Negotiation of Predominantly White Educational and Occupational Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diemer, Matthew A.

    2007-01-01

    Negotiating 2 worlds, a predominantly White opportunity structure and one's community of origin, often produces distress among persons of color. In this qualitative study, the author examines the perspectives and competencies of African American men who negotiate 2 worlds and suggests that bicultural competence may facilitate participation in the…

  19. Enhancing Adherence among Older African American Men Enrolled in a Longitudinal Cancer Screening Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Marvella E.; Havstad, Suzanne; Vernon, Sally W.; Davis, Shawna D.; Kroll, David; Lamerato, Lois; Swanson, G. Marie

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to enhance adherence among older (aged 55 years and older) African American men enrolled in a cancer screening trial for prostate, lung, and colorectal cancer. For this study, we defined "adherence" as completing the trial screenings. Design and Methods: We used a randomized trial design. Case managers…

  20. How High-Achieving African American Undergraduate Men Negotiate Cultural Challenges at a Predominantly White Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Elva Elaine

    2010-01-01

    In this study I examine the manner in which high-achieving African American undergraduate men negotiate cultural challenges in a predominantly White institution (PWI). Cultural theory underpins the conceptual framework of this case study. Basing the study in cultural theory provided a lens through which to view the lived experiences of the twenty…

  1. Masculinity, Racism, Social Support, and Colorectal Cancer Screening Uptake Among African American Men: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Charles R; Mitchell, Jamie A; Franta, Gabriel J; Foster, Margaret J; Shires, Deirdre

    2015-10-18

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is highly preventable when CRC screening is utilized, yet CRC screening completion among African American men is relatively low and their mortality rates remain 50% higher juxtaposed to their White counterparts. Since a growing body of literature indicates masculinity, racism, and social support each have strong influences on CRC screening uptake, this systematic review examined the connections between these three sociocultural factors and CRC screening uptake among African American men. Potential studies were retrieved from MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and PsycINFO. Cited reference searching for the final sample was employed to identify and assess additional studies for inclusion using Scopus. The methodological quality of the reviewed evidence was also evaluated. Nineteen studies met inclusion/exclusion criteria. Thirteen studies employed nonexperimental research designs; a quasi-experimental design was present in four, and two utilized experimental designs. Studies were published between 2000 and 2014; the majority between 2009 and 2013. Social support was most frequently addressed (84%) while masculinity and racism were equally studied with paucity (11%) for their influence on CRC screening. After evaluating conceptual and methodological characteristics of the studies, 42% fell below average in quality and rigor. The need for increased attention to the sociocultural correlates of CRC screening for African American men are highlighted in this systematic review, and important recommendations for research and practice are provided. Alongside a call for more rigorous research, further research examining the influence of masculinity and racism on CRC screening completion among African American men is warranted.

  2. Financial Hardship, Unmet Medical Need, and Health Self-Efficacy among African American Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker-Seeley, Reginald D.; Mitchell, Jamie A.; Shires, Deirdre A.; Modlin, Charles S., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health self-efficacy (the confidence to take care of one's health) is a key component in ensuring that individuals are active partners in their health and health care. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between financial hardship and health self-efficacy among African American men and to determine if unmet…

  3. Are You at Risk for Oral Cancer? What African American Men Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... describes the steps of an oral cancer examination. Poster (8.5" x 11") This 8.5x11 poster is designed to raise African American men's awareness ... actual information. External Web Site Policy This graphic notice ( ) means that you are leaving the NIH website. ...

  4. African American women's perspectives on 'down low/DL' men: implications for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Goparaju, Lakshmi; Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari

    2012-01-01

    African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV. Some research has explored if non-disclosing men who have sex with men and women contribute to women's HIV risk. Popular media discourse tends to refer to these men as 'down low' or 'DL'. Six focus groups were conducted with 36 African American women in Washington, DC, to examine their knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviours regarding DL men. Three of the focus groups were composed of HIV-positive women and three groups were composed of HIV-negative women. Data analysis reveals six central subcategories related to women's perspectives on the DL: awareness, suspicion, coping with partner infidelity (male versus female), sexual health communication, empathy and religion. No major differences were identified between the HIV-positive and HIV-negative focus groups. Findings from this study provide insight into African American women's perceptions of African American male sexuality and how these perceptions serve to influence interpersonal relationship factors and women's exposure to HIV risk.

  5. Genetic and Hormonal Risk Factors for Cancer in African American Men

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    genotype was positively associated with prostate cancer diagnosis and lower grade and stage of prostate cancer in African-American men. INS PstI...genotype was not associated with later age of diagnosis . • Allele -8 of the microsatellite DG8S737 was associated with prostate cancer in both European...

  6. Social Risk and Protective Factors for Suicide Attempts in Low Income African American Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaslow, Nadine J.; Sherry, Alissa; Bethea, Kafi; Wyckoff, Sarah; Compton, Michael T.; Grall, Marnette Bender; Scholl, Larry; Price, Ann Webb; Kellermann, Arthur; Thompson, Nancy; Parker, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted to examine a broad array of potential social risk and protective factors for suicide attempt among 200 African American men and women receiving care at a large, public, urban hospital. Specifically, we examined the effect of the following potential risk factors for suicide attempt: life hassles, partner abuse,…

  7. Multiple Identity Considerations among African American Christian Men Experiencing Same-Sex Attraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarhouse, Mark A.; Nowacki-Butzen, Stephanie; Brooks, D. Fredrica

    2009-01-01

    The authors explored the experiences of African American men who identified as Christian and experienced same-sex attraction. Participants completed an online questionnaire addressing experiences of same-sex attraction; meaning attributed to their attractions; the sharing of their experiences with others; and perceptions regarding the intersection…

  8. Correlates of Psychological Distress and Major Depressive Disorder among African American Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Karen D.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Watkins, Daphne C.; Chatters, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the demographic correlates of depressive symptoms, serious psychological distress (SPD), and major depressive disorder (MDD; 12-month and lifetime prevalence) among a national sample of African American men. Analysis of the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) data set provides first-time substantiation of important…

  9. Male gender role strain as a barrier to African American men's physical activity.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Derek M; Gunter, Katie; Allen, Julie Ober

    2011-10-01

    Despite the potential health consequences, African American men tend to treat their roles as providers, fathers, spouses, and community members as more important than engaging in health behaviors such as physical activity. We conducted 14 exploratory focus groups with 105 urban, middle-aged African American men from the Midwest to examine factors that influence their health behaviors. Thematic content analysis revealed three interrelated barriers to physical activity: (a) work, family, and community commitments and priorities limited time and motivation for engaging in physical activity; (b) physical activity was not a normative individual or social activity and contributed to men prioritizing work and family responsibilities over physical activity; and (c) the effort men exerted in seeking to fulfill the provider role limited their motivation and energy to engage in physical activity. These findings highlight the need for physical activity interventions that consider how health fits in the overall context of men's lives.

  10. Am I My Brother's Keeper? African American Men's Health Within the Context of Equity and Policy.

    PubMed

    Enyia, Okechuku Kelechi; Watkins, Yashika J; Williams, Quintin

    2016-01-01

    African American men's health has at times been regarded as irrelevant to the health and well-being of the communities where they are born, grow, live, work, and age. The uniqueness of being male and of African descent calls for a critical examination and deeper understanding of the psycho-socio-historical context in which African American men have lived. There is a critical need for scholarship that better contextualizes African American Male Theory and cultural humility in terms of public health. Furthermore, the focus of much of the social determinants of health and health equity policy literature has been on advocacy, but few researchers have examined why health-related public policies have not been adopted and implemented from a political and theoretical policy analysis perspective. The purpose of this article will be to examine African American men's health within the context of social determinants of health status, health behavior, and health inequalities-elucidating policy implications for system change and providing recommendations from the vantage point of health equity.

  11. What Does Playing Cards Have to Do with Science? A Resource-Rich View of African American Young Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schademan, Alfred R.

    2011-01-01

    The study examines the resources related to science that African American young men learn and develop by playing a card game called Spades, a common cultural practice in African American communities that dates back to the Civil War Era. The qualitative study examines what the Spades players at a local high school consider when making decisions…

  12. Faith Among Low-Income, African American/Black Men Treated for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Maliski, Sally L.; Connor, RN Sarah E.; Williams, Lindsay; Litwin, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding how low-income, uninsured African American/black men use faith to cope with prostate cancer provides a foundation for the design of culturally appropriate interventions to assist underserved men cope with the disease and its treatment. Previous studies have shown spirituality to be a factor related to health and quality of life, but the process by which faith, as a promoter of action, supports coping merits exploration. Objective Our purpose was to describe the use of faith by low-income, uninsured African American/black men in coping with prostate cancer and its treatment and adverse effects. Methods We analyzed data from a qualitative study that used in-depth individual interviews involving 18 African American men ranging in ages from 53 to 81 years. Our analysis used grounded theory techniques. Results Faith was used by African American men to overcome fear and shock engendered by their initial perceptions of cancer. Faith was placed in God, health care providers, self, and family. Men came to see their prostate cancer experience a new beginning that was achieved through purposeful acceptance or resignation. Conclusions Faith was a motivator of and source for action. Faith empowered men to be active participants in their treatment and incorporate treatment outcomes into their lives meaningfully. Implication By understanding faith as a source of empowerment for active participation in care, oncology nurses can use men's faith to facilitate reframing of cancer perceptions and to acknowledge the role of men's higher being as part of the team. Studies are needed to determine if this model is relevant across various beliefs and cultures. PMID:20555257

  13. Health Information-Seeking Practices of African American Young Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, India D.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Spencer, S. Melinda; Annang, Lucy; Lindley, Lisa L.

    2016-01-01

    The current study used a qualitative, phenomenological approach to investigate the health information-seeking practices of African American young men who have sex with men (AAYMSM). Forty-two self-identified AAYMSM, aged 18 to 21, residing in a Southeastern U.S. city participated in a qualitative focus group or face-to-face interview to examine…

  14. Comparing knowledge of colorectal and prostate cancer among African American and Hispanic men.

    PubMed

    Powe, Barbara D; Cooper, Dexter L; Harmond, Lokie; Ross, Louie; Mercado, Flavia E; Faulkenberry, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    African American and Hispanic men are less likely to participate in prostate and colorectal cancer screening and have poorer outcomes from these diseases. Guided by the Patient/Provider/System Theoretical Model for Cancer Screening, this study compares the relationships among knowledge of prostate and colorectal cancer, perceptions of cancer fatalism, common sources of cancer information, and awareness of cancer resources screening between African American (n = 72) and Hispanic (n = 47) men who attend federally qualified health centers and a hospital-based primary care clinic in a southern state. African American men were older, had higher levels of education, and were more knowledgeable about cancer than Hispanic men were. However, Hispanic men were more fatalistic about cancer. Most men in both groups were more likely to get cancer information from the television and/or radio, with few accessing the Internet for this information. The men were not aware of many of the leading cancer-related organizations and programs. Nurses continue to play a critical role in patient education and enhancing screening rates. These findings suggest that culturally and educationally appropriate intervention strategies are needed to enhance knowledge and that the television/radio may be an effective medium for delivering these strategies.

  15. Depression Over the Adult Life Course for African American Men: Toward a Framework for Research and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Daphne C.

    2014-01-01

    Rarely are within-group differences among African American men explored in the context of mental health and well-being. Though current conceptual and empirical studies on depression among African American men exists, these studies do not offer a framework that considers how this disorder manifests over the adult life course for African American men. The purpose of this article is to examine the use of an adult life course perspective in understanding the complexity of depression for African American men. The proposed framework underscores six social determinants of depression (socioeconomic status, stressors, racial and masculine identity, kinship and social support, self-esteem and mastery, and access to quality health care) to initiate dialogue about the risk and protective factors that initiate, prolong, and exacerbate depression for African American men. The framework presented here is meant to stimulate discussion about the social determinants that influence depression for African American men to and through adulthood. Implications for the utility and applicability of the framework for researchers and health professionals who work with African American men are discussed. PMID:22105067

  16. The Role of Marital Status in Physical Activity Among African American and White Men.

    PubMed

    Porch, Tichelle C; Bell, Caryn N; Bowie, Janice V; Usher, Therri; Kelly, Elizabeth A; LaVeist, Thomas A; Thorpe, Roland J

    2016-11-01

    Racial differences in physical activity among men are well documented; however, little is known about the impact of marital status on this relationship. Data from the National Health and Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2006 was used to determine whether the association of race and physical activity among men varied by marital status. Marital status was divided into two categories: married and unmarried. Physical activity was determined by the number of minutes per week a respondent engaged in household/yard work, moderate and vigorous activity, or transportation (bicycling and walking) over the past 30 days. The sample included 7,131 African American (29%) and White(71%) men aged 18 years and older. All models were estimated using logistic regression. Because the interaction term of race and marital status was statistically significant (p < .001), the relationship between race, physical activity, and marital status was examined using a variable that reflects the different levels of the interaction term. After adjusting for age, income, education, weight status, smoking status, and self-rated health, African American married men had lower odds (odds ratio = 0.53, 95% confidence interval = [0.46-0.61], p < .001) of meeting federal physical activity guidelines compared with White married men. Possible dissimilarities in financial and social responsibilities may contribute to the racial differences observed in physical activity among African American and White married men.

  17. Marketing a Healthy Mind, Body, and Soul: An Analysis of How African American Men View the Church as a Social Marketer and Health Promoter of Colorectal Cancer Risk and Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y.; Vanchy, Priya; Baker, Tamara A.; Daley, Christine; Ndikum-Moffer, Florence; Greiner, K. Allen

    2016-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ranks colorectal cancer (CRC) as the third most commonly diagnosed cancer among men in the United States; African American (AA) men are at even greater risk. The present study was from a larger study that investigates the church's role as a social marketer of CRC risk and prevention messages, and…

  18. Stigma and Sexual Health Risk in HIV-Positive African American Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Doty, Nathan; Hawkins, Linda A.; Gaskins, Clare S.; Beidas, Rinad; Rudy, Bret J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Understanding the multiple forms of stigma experienced by young HIV-positive African American men who have sex with men and how they relate to sexual risk behaviors is essential to design effective HIV prevention programs. This study of 40 African American young MSM found that 90% of those surveyed experienced sexual minority stigma, 88% experienced HIV stigma, and 78% experienced dual stigma. Sexual minority stigma was characterized by experiences of social avoidance, and HIV stigma, by shame. Individuals with high HIV stigma were significantly more likely to engage in unprotected sex while high or intoxicated. Associations between stigma and sexual practices were examined; youth endorsing higher levels of sexual minority stigma engaged in less insertive anal intercourse. Individuals endorsing more HIV stigma reported more receptive anal intercourse. These findings support the development of stigma-informed secondary prevention interventions for African American HIV-positive young MSM. PMID:20673080

  19. Are Podcasts Effective at Educating African-American Men about Diabetes?

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Levi; Iwanenko, Walter; Schiffert, Judith; Sen, Arup

    2013-01-01

    Education is a critical component of the National Blueprint to eliminate racial disparities in diabetes. Research indicates that traditional methods of diabetes education has had limited effectiveness with minority populations and suggest that different educational approaches be explored. The purpose of the research was to explore the effectiveness of an emergent technology (podcast) for use in educating inner-city, African-American men about diabetes prevention. Thirty African-American men participated in self-administered, pretest-posttest surveys in August 2009. Surveys collected information on demographic characteristics, perceptions of diabetes and diabetes knowledge. Paired samples t-test was computed to evaluate pretest-posttest changes in overall knowledge. McNemar or binomial tests were computed to evaluate pretest-posttest knowledge changes on each of the 15 individual knowledge items. Diabetes knowledge scores for the sample increased from 8.27 at pretest to 10.47 at posttest (p = .001). Posttest knowledge scores increased for 77% of men, stayed the same for 13%, and decreased for 10%. Men who listened to the podcast correctly answered 40% more knowledge questions on their posttest assessments. Results from this exploratory study suggest that podcasts are useful for helping inner-city, African-American men recall diabetes prevention information. Additional research is recommended with larger randomly selected samples using more rigorous research designs. PMID:22516566

  20. Buried Hatchets, Marked Locations: Forgiveness, Everyday Racial Discrimination, and African American Men's Depressive Symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Powell, Wizdom; Banks, Kira Hudson; Mattis, Jacqueline S

    2016-10-27

    Everyday racial discrimination (ERD) is linked to pronounced depressive symptomatology among African American men. Yet, many African American men do not experience depressive symptoms following ERD exposure often because they use positive coping strategies that offset its effects. Granting forgiveness is 1 coping strategy associated with less depression. However, extant findings about the mental health benefits of forgiveness are somewhat mixed and pay scarce attention to offenses which are fleeting, historically rooted, and committed outside of close personal relationships. Evidence further suggest age-related differences in forgiveness, ERD exposure, and depressive symptoms. We explore the extent to which 3 strategies of granting forgiveness of ERD-letting go of negative emotion (negative release), embracing positive emotion (positive embrace), or combining both (combined)-are associated with less depressive symptomatology in 674 African American men (ages 18 through 79). Building on past findings, we also test whether these forgiveness strategies moderate the ERD-depressive symptoms relationship for men in different age groups (18 through 25, 26 through 39, and 40). Higher combined and negative release forgiveness were directly related to lower depressive symptoms among 18 through 25 year olds. We also detected a less pronounced positive relationship between ERD and depressive symptoms among men reporting high levels of combined (18 through 25 and 26 through 39 groups) and negative release (26 through 39 and 40+ groups) forgiveness. We observed a more pronounced positive ERD-depressive symptoms relationship among 18 through 25 and 26 through 39 year olds reporting lower forgiveness. When faced with frequent ERD, younger African American men may have the most difficult time burying hatchets without marking their location but experience more positive mental health benefits when they do. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Trends in the HIV Epidemic Among African American Men Who Have Sex with Men, San Francisco, 2004-2011.

    PubMed

    Fuqua, V; Scott, H; Scheer, S; Hecht, J; Snowden, J M; Raymond, H Fisher

    2015-12-01

    African American men who have sex with men have been disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic in the United States and remain to this day one of the groups with highest HIV prevalence and incidence. Our goal was to clarify the current state of HIV risk, sexual behaviors, and structural/network-network level factors that affect black MSM's population risk of HIV, enabling the formulation of targeted and up-to-date public health messages/campaigns directed at this vulnerable population. Our approach maximized the use of local data through a process of synthesis and triangulation of multiple independent and overlapping sources of information that are sometimes separately published and often not examined side-by-side. Among African American MSM, we observed stable HIV incidence despite increases in reported individual risk behavior and STDs. An increasing proportion of African American MSM are reporting HIV testing in the past 6 months and seroadaptive behaviors, which may play a role in this observed decline in HIV among MSM in San Francisco, California. Our analysis suggests that currently the HIV epidemic is stable among African American MSM in San Francisco. However, we suggest that the observed stability is due to factors prohibiting expansion of new infections rather than decreasing risks for HIV infection among African American MSM.

  2. Have African American men become less committed to marriage? Explaining the twentieth century racial cross-over in men's marriage timing.

    PubMed

    Koball, H

    1998-05-01

    Prior to World War II, the median age at marriage for white men was later than that for African American men. Since World War II, African American men have, on average, married later than white men. A discrete-time hazard model using data from the National Survey of Families and Households was analyzed to explain this racial cross-over in men's timing of marriage. Dramatic increases in the educational attainment of African American parents and the large movement of African Americans out of the South brought about the racial cross-over in the timing of marriage. Increased enrollment in higher education among African American men also contributed to the racial cross-over in the timing of marriage. Although lack of full-time employment and military service delayed marriage, these factors did not contribute to the racial cross-over.

  3. Short-Term Exercise and Prostate Cancer Prevention in African American Men

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    significantly lower than whites of similar age. It has been suggested that a high fat diet and sedentary lifestyle may possibly cause the increased...The exact cause for the increased incidence of prostate cancer in African-American is unknown. However, a diet high in fat and/or a sedentary ... lifestyle may predispose African-African men to prostate cancer by affecting levels of serum factors that potentate the growth of the cancer cells such as

  4. Role of Mitochondrial Inheritance on Prostate Cancer Outcome in African-American Men

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    genes has begun and the initial data is presented here. After months of testing, we determined that the ethidium bromide methodology for generating...susceptibility. Several nuclear genes and chromosomal regions have been linked to prostate cancer; however, many studies have not included African American men...1,000 samples and determine whether particular mitochondrial variants, genes or haplogroups are associated with markers of aggressive disease (age

  5. Participant Retention in a Longitudinal National Telephone Survey of African American Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Cheryl L.; Le, Daisy; Calvanelli, Joe; Huang, Jin; Clark, Eddie M.; Roth, David L.; Williams, Beverly; Schulz, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this article is to describe participant demographic factors related to retention, and to report on retention strategies in a national study of African Americans re-contacted 2.5 years after an initial baseline telephone interview. Design & Setting The Religion and Health in African Americans (RHIAA) study was originally developed as a cross-sectional telephone survey to examine relationships between religious involvement and health-related factors in a national sample of African Americans. The cohort was re-contacted on average of 2.5 years later for a follow-up interview. Participants RHIAA participants were 2,803 African American men (1,202) and women (1,601). Interventions RHIAA used retention strategies consistent with recommendations from Hunt and White.1 Participants also received a lay summary of project findings. Main outcome measures Retention at the follow-up interview. Results Retention rates ranged from 39%–41%. Retained participants tended to be older and female. In age- and sex-adjusted analyses, retained participants were more educated, single, and in better health status than those not retained. There was no difference in religious involvement in adjusted analyses. Conclusions Although overall retention rates are lower than comparable longitudinal studies, RHIAA was not originally designed as a longitudinal study and so lacked a number of structures associated with long-term studies. However, this project illustrates the feasibility of conducting lengthy cold call telephone interviews with an African American population and helps to identify some participant factors related to retention and study strategies that may aid in retention. PMID:26118147

  6. Depression in African American Men: A Review of What We Know and Where We Need to Go From Here

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Earlise; Mengesha, Maigenete

    2014-01-01

    Depression is one of the most common mental disorders in the United States and affects an estimated 17 million people each year. Projections about depression have generated concern on both the domestic and global levels because of its impact on health outcomes and quality of life. We examined and summarized published research focusing on depression among African American men with the goal of identifying prevalence of depression, risk factors, treatment-seeking behaviors, and treatment-seeking barriers. In the use of a systematic review, inclusion criteria were studies focused on depression among African American or Black men, separated analysis by race and gender, and conducted in the United States. Each study was critically reviewed to identify depression prevalence, risk factors, treatment-seeking behaviors, and barriers. Only 19 empirical studies focusing on depression among African American men were identified in a 25-year time span. Findings suggest the prevalence of depression among African American men ranges from 5% to 10%, they face a number of risk factors, yet evidence low use of mental health services. Consequently, depression among African American men needs to be at the forefront of our research, practice, and outreach agendas. A focus on this group has the potential to reduce mental health disparities experienced by African American men. PMID:23889029

  7. Social geographies of African American men who have sex with men (MSM): a qualitative exploration of the social, spatial and temporal context of HIV risk in Baltimore, Maryland.

    PubMed

    Tobin, K E; Cutchin, M; Latkin, C A; Takahashi, L M

    2013-07-01

    This qualitative study utilized a time-geography framework to explore the daily routines and daily paths of African American men who have sex with men (AA MSM) and how these shape HIV risk. Twenty AA MSM aged 18 years and older completed an in-depth interview. Findings revealed (1) paths and routines were differentiated by indicators of socio-economic status, namely employment and addiction, and (2) risk was situated within social and spatial processes that included dimensions of MSM disclosure and substance use. This study highlights the critical need for future research and interventions that incorporate the social and spatial dimensions of behavior to advance our ability to explain racial disparities in HIV and develop effective public health responses.

  8. Father Involvement and Young, Rural African American Men's Engagement in Substance Misuse and Multiple Sexual Partnerships.

    PubMed

    Barton, Allen W; Kogan, Steven M; Cho, Junhan; Brown, Geoffrey L

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to examine the associations of biological father and social father involvement during childhood with African American young men's development and engagement in risk behaviors. With a sample of 505 young men living in the rural South of the United States, a dual mediation model was tested in which retrospective reports of involvement from biological fathers and social fathers were linked to young men's substance misuse and multiple sexual partnerships through men's relational schemas and future expectations. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that levels of involvement from biological fathers and social fathers predicted young men's relational schemas; only biological fathers' involvement predicted future expectations. In turn, future expectations predicted levels of substance misuse, and negative relational schemas predicted multiple sexual partnerships. Biological fathers' involvement evinced significant indirect associations with young men's substance misuse and multiple sexual partnerships through both schemas and expectations; social fathers' involvement exhibited an indirect association with multiple sexual partnerships through relational schemas. Findings highlight the unique influences of biological fathers and social fathers on multiple domains of African American young men's psychosocial development that subsequently render young men more or less likely to engage in risk behaviors.

  9. Father Involvement and Young, Rural African American Men's Engagement in Substance Misuse and Multiple Sexual Partnerships

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Allen W.; Kogan, Steven M.; Cho, Junhan; Brown, Geoffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the associations of biological father and social father involvement during childhood with African American young men's development and engagement in risk behaviors. With a sample of 505 young men living in the rural South, a dual mediation model was tested in which retrospective reports of involvement from biological fathers and social fathers were linked to young men's substance misuse and multiple sexual partnerships through men's relational schemas and future expectations. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that levels of involvement from biological fathers and social fathers predicted young men's relational schemas; only biological fathers' involvement predicted future expectations. In turn, future expectations predicted levels of substance misuse, and negative relational schemas predicted multiple sexual partnerships. Biological fathers' involvement evinced significant indirect associations with young men's substance misuse and multiple sexual partnerships through both schemas and expectations; social fathers' involvement exhibited an indirect association with multiple sexual partnerships through relational schemas. Findings highlight the unique influences of biological fathers and social fathers on multiple domains of African American young men's psychosocial development that subsequently render young men more or less likely to engage in risk behaviors. PMID:26362297

  10. Understanding Masculinity in Undergraduate African American Men: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Mincey, Krista; Alfonso, Moya; Hackney, Amy; Luque, John

    2014-09-01

    This study reports findings on views of masculinity with undergraduate Black men, which included interviews and focus groups (N = 46) with participants ranging in age from 18 to 22 years. Specifically, this study explored how Black men define being a man and being a Black man. Undergraduate Black males at a historically Black college and university (N = 25) and a predominately White institution (N = 21) in the Southeastern United States were recruited to participate in this study. Through the use of thematic analysis, findings indicated that three levels of masculinity exist for Black men: what it means to be a man, what it means to be a Black man, and who influences male development. Implications and recommendations for future research and practice are discussed.

  11. Meal patterns and food choices of young African-American men: understanding eating within the context of daily life.

    PubMed

    Savoca, Margaret R; Martine, Tara L; Morton, Tiffany B; Johnson, Lakeisha T; Bell, Nancy M; Aronson, Robert E; Wallace, Debra C

    2011-09-01

    Although young African-American men are at particularly high risk of developing hypertension at an early age, dietary interventions that have successfully reduced blood pressure among African-American adults have not been translated into programs for this group. Life contexts such as school enrollment, participation in competitive athletics, and employment influence the daily activities and meal patterns of African-American men. This study explored the activities of young African-American men to identify opportunities to increase healthful food choices. A purposive sample was recruited that included five groups of African-American men aged 15 to 22 years (N=106): high school athletes and nonathletes, college athletes and nonathletes, and nonstudents. A structured interview guided participants through a description of their activities, meal patterns, and food choices during the course of a typical weekday. Common elements emerged that provided a contextual view of the participant meal patterns and food choices. These elements were sports team participation, college employment, school as a food source, nonstudent status, and eating dinner at home. These findings suggest opportunities for the design of dietary interventions for young African-American men that take into consideration how school, athletics, and employment may influence opportunities to eat regular meals that include healthful foods.

  12. Unity in Diversity: Results of a randomized clinical culturally tailored pilot HIV prevention intervention trial for African American men who have sex with men; Baltimore, Maryland

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, K; Kuramoto, SJ; German, D; Fields, E; Spikes, PS; Patterson, J; Latkin, C

    2013-01-01

    Unity in Diversity was a randomized controlled trial of a culturally tailored HIV prevention intervention for African American men who have sex with men (AA MSM). The intervention condition was six group-based sessions and one individual session. The control condition was a single-session HIV prevention review. Participants were aged 18 years or older, identified as African American/black race, reported having at least two sex partners in the prior 90 days (at least one of whom must be a male partner), unprotected anal sex with male partner in the prior 90 days and willing to test for HIV. Retention exceeded 95% at 3 month follow-up. Results of multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for baseline risk, HIV status and health insurance indicate intervention efficacy in decreasing the number of male sex partners and marginal effects on condom use with male partners and HIV negative/unknown partners. Specifically, intervention condition was associated with increased odds of zero male sex partners (AOR=3.03, 95%CI=1.26–7.28), condom use with male partners (AOR=2.64, 95%CI=0.95–7.36) and HIV negative/unknown status partners (AOR=3.19, 95%CI=0.98–10.38) at follow-up. These results contribute to the limited number of culturally appropriate models of HIV prevention intervention that are urgently needed for African American men who have sex with men to address their persistently high rates of HIV. PMID:22984216

  13. The production of disability culture among young African-American men.

    PubMed

    Devlieger, Patrick J; Albrecht, Gary L; Hertz, Miram

    2007-05-01

    During the past two decades, debate about disability definitions, concepts, models and policies has been led primarily by Western white middle class disability activists and scholars. This paper contributes to the discussion by examining how disability is conceived and disability culture is developed in a poor, African-American community. The recognition of disability as a defining identity and disability culture as a cohesive force is unusual in the African-American community, and we ask what conditions are necessary for such an identity and culture to develop. To address this question, in 1998 we began a 5 year ethnographic research project concerning young African-American men in the spinal cord injury unit of an inner city rehabilitation hospital in Chicago USA. Based on this research, we argue that there are three necessary conditions for a disability culture to emerge in a group of African-Americans who acquired their disability violently. First, is the perception of social alienation from family and fellow gang members. Second, is immersion in a supportive physical and social environment where disability meanings are produced, reinforced and passed on across generations. Third, is the development of personal narratives and metaphors that give meaning to disability, anchor behavioral changes and help to reconcile value conflicts. Our analysis allows us to understand a change in identity among these young men and the emergence of a shared disability culture represented through signs, symbols, language, rules and ceremonies. This analytical framework also permits us to re-examine disability culture in white society and in specific disability cultures such as deaf culture and to suggest that while there are similarities across groups, disability culture is not monolithic.

  14. Correlates of Sexual HIV Risk Among African American Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    St Lawrence, Janet S.; Tarima, Sergey S.; DiFranceisco, Wayne J.; Amirkhanian, Yuri A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We examined correlates of condomless anal intercourse with nonmain sexual partners among African American men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods. We recruited social networks composed of 445 Black MSM from 2012 to 2014 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Cleveland, Ohio; and Miami Beach, Florida. Participants reported past-3-month sexual behavior, substance use, and background, psychosocial, and HIV-related characteristics. Results. Condomless anal intercourse outside main concordant partnerships, reported by 34.4% of MSM, was less likely in the case of no alcohol and marijuana use in the past 30 days, and higher risk-reduction behavioral intentions. High frequency of condomless anal intercourse acts with nonmain partners was associated with high gay community participation, weak risk-reduction intentions, safer sex not being perceived as a peer norm, low condom-use self-efficacy, and longer time since most recent HIV testing. Conclusions. Condomless anal intercourse with nonmain partners among Black MSM was primarily associated with gay community participation, alcohol and marijuana use, and risk-reduction behavioral intentions. PMID:26562130

  15. Religiousness and prostate cancer screening in African American men.

    PubMed

    Abernethy, Alexis D; Houston, Tina R; Bjorck, Jeffrey P; Gorsuch, Richard L; Arnold, Harold L

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the relationship between religiousness (organized, nonorganized, and intrinsic) and religious problem solving (collaborative, deferring, and self-directing) in prostate cancer screening (PCS) attitudes and behavior. Men (N = 481) of African descent between the ages of 40 and 70 participated. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that religiousness and self-directed problem solving were associated with PCS attitudes. Intrinsic religiousness was associated with PCS attitudes after controlling for health and organized religiousness. Religiousness was not associated with PCS behavior. Intrinsic religiousness may be an important dimension of religiousness to be considered in tailoring cancer interventions for individuals from faith-based communities.

  16. It takes two to talk about prostate cancer: a qualitative assessment of African American men's and women's cancer communication practices and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Daniela B; Thomas, Tracey L; Owens, Otis L; Hébert, James R

    2012-11-01

    Prostate cancer (PrCA) is the most commonly diagnosed nonskin cancer among men. African American (AA) men in South Carolina have a PrCA death rate 150% higher than that of European American (EA) men. This in-depth qualitative research explored AA men's and women's current practices, barriers, and recommended strategies for PrCA communication. A purposive sample of 43 AA men and 38 AA spouses/female relatives participated in focus groups (11 male groups; 11 female groups). A 19-item discussion guide was developed. Coding and analyses were driven by the data; recurrent themes within and across groups were examined. Findings revealed AA men and women agreed on key barriers to discussing PrCA; however, they had differing perspectives on which of these were most important. Findings indicate that including AA women in PrCA research and education is needed to address barriers preventing AA men from effectively communicating about PrCA risk and screening with family and health care providers.

  17. HIV treatment optimism and sexual risk behaviors among HIV positive African American men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Peterson, John L; Miner, Michael H; Brennan, David J; Rosser, B R Simon

    2012-04-01

    The association between HIV treatment optimism--beliefs about susceptibility to transmit HIV, motivation to use condoms, and severity of HIV--and sexual risk behavior was examined among HIV-positive African American men who have sex with men (MSM). Participants were 174 men recruited in four major metropolitan areas of the United States to participate in a weekend HIV risk reduction intervention. Baseline results revealed that beliefs in less susceptibility to transmit HIV and less motivation to use condoms were significantly associated with more unprotected anal intercourse among serodiscordant casual partners. Less motivation to use condoms also predicted more unprotected insertive and receptive anal sex and was more important than susceptibility beliefs in predicting these behaviors. Suggestions are offered of ways to better inform HIV-positive African American MSM about their misperceptions about HIV treatment and how their level of optimism about HIV treatment may diminish or encourage condom use.

  18. From Fathers to Sons: The Intergenerational Transmission of Parenting Behavior among African American Young Men.

    PubMed

    Brown, Geoffrey L; Kogan, Steven M; Kim, Jihyoung

    2017-02-13

    This study examined the intergenerational transmission of fathering among young, African American fathers in rural communities. A sample of 132 African American young men living in the rural South reported on the quality of their relationship with their biological and social fathers in the family of origin, their own involvement with their young children, and relational schemas of close, intimate relationships. Results of path analyses supported the hypothesized mediational model, such that a better relationship with one's biological (but not social) father predicted increased father involvement in the next generation, and this association was partially mediated through positive relational schema after controlling for a range of covariates. Tests of moderated mediation indicated that the link between relational schema and father involvement was significantly stronger among fathers of girls than fathers of boys. Findings highlight the unique influence of close, nurturing father-child relationships for downstream father involvement, and the role of relational schemas as a mechanism for intergenerational transmission among young, rural, African American fathers of girls.

  19. Chill, Be Cool Man: African American Men, Identity, Coping, and Aggressive Ideation

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Alvin; Hammond, Wizdom Powell; Kohn-Wood, Laura P.

    2016-01-01

    Aggression is an important correlate of violence, depression, coping, and suicide among emerging young African American males. Yet most researchers treat aggression deterministically, fail to address cultural factors, or consider the potential for individual characteristics to exert an intersectional influence on this psychosocial outcome. Addressing this gap, we consider the moderating effect of coping on the relationship between masculine and racial identity and aggressive ideation among African American males (N = 128) drawn from 2 large Midwestern universities. Using the phenomenological variant of ecological systems theory and person-centered methodology as a guide, hierarchical cluster analysis grouped participants into profile groups based on their responses to both a measure of racial identity and a measure of masculine identity. Results from the cluster analysis revealed 3 distinct identity clusters: Identity Ambivalent, Identity Appraising, and Identity Consolidated. Although these cluster groups did not differ with regard to coping, significant differences were observed between cluster groups in relation to aggressive ideation. Further, a full model with identity profile clusters, coping, and aggressive ideation indicates that cluster membership significantly moderates the relationship between coping and aggressive ideation. The implications of these data for intersecting identities of African American men, and the association of identity and outcomes related to risk for mental health and violence, are discussed. PMID:25090145

  20. Factors influencing behavioral intention regarding prostate cancer screening among older African-American men.

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Marvella E.; Vernon, Sally W.; Havstad, Suzanne L.; Thomas, Shirley A.; Davis, Shawna D.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess factors associated with perceptions of prostate cancer screening among African-American men aged > or = 55 years based upon items developed using the Preventive Health model (PHM). RESEARCH APPROACH: Focus group research and thematic coding using content analysis. SETTING: A large midwestern, private, nonprofit health system. PARTICIPANTS: African-American men aged > or = 55 years. Focus group 1 included 10 men who ranged in age from 55-87 years, with a mean age of 73.4 years. The 11 participants in focus group 2 ranged in age from 55-81 years, with a mean age of 68.7 years. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH: Focus group questions were developed based on the conceptual framework of the PHM. African-American men aged > or = 55 years were randomly selected from the patient population of the healthcare system to participate in one of two focus groups. Content analysis was used to code the focus group transcripts. MAIN RESEARCH VARIABLES: Self-reported perceptions of prostate cancer screening. FINDINGS: Major themes emerging from the focus groups related to prostate cancer screening include: lack of knowledge regarding cancer, fear of cancer, confusion between prostate cancer screening and prostate cancer diagnostic tests, encouragement by others as motivation for cancer screening, intergenerational transfer of health information, lack of health insurance coverage as a barrier to prostate cancer screening and treatment, and limited availability of screening clinic hours during nonworking hours. INTERPRETATION: The information gained from this study could be used to develop interventions promoting informed and shared decision-making by patients and their providers regarding prostate cancer screening. PMID:16623062

  1. The Social Environmental Elements of Resilience among Vulnerable African American/Black Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Buttram, Mance E.

    2016-01-01

    Resilience theory has been suggested as a strong framework for research on HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM). Among this population, literature indicates that African American/Black MSM are particularly vulnerable to health and social disparities associated with HIV transmission risk. Conceptualizing resilience as a part of one’s social environment, this qualitative study investigates the specific elements of resilience, and the associated contexts and relationships, among a sample of 21 substance-using African American/Black MSM. Data indicate that: 1) elements contributing to resilience are multiple and co-occurring, including inner strengths, social relationships, diversity of experience, religion/spirituality, altruism, and creativity; 2) as an element of resilience, social support was experienced differently among men who did and did not have supportive relationships with other gay and bisexual men, which has implications for social service provision and intervention approaches; and 3) diversity of experiences and relationships is an important influencing factor on expressions of resilience. Social services or interventions that facilitate the development of these elements of resilience will likely be especially beneficial for vulnerable African American/Black MSM. PMID:26839495

  2. African American Men With Very Low–Risk Prostate Cancer Exhibit Adverse Oncologic Outcomes After Radical Prostatectomy: Should Active Surveillance Still Be an Option for Them?

    PubMed Central

    Sundi, Debasish; Ross, Ashley E.; Humphreys, Elizabeth B.; Han, Misop; Partin, Alan W.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Schaeffer, Edward M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Active surveillance (AS) is a treatment option for men with very low–risk prostate cancer (PCa); however, favorable outcomes achieved for men in AS are based on cohorts that under-represent African American (AA) men. To explore whether race-based health disparities exist among men with very low–risk PCa, we evaluated oncologic outcomes of AA men with very low–risk PCa who were candidates for AS but elected to undergo radical prostatectomy (RP). Patients and Methods We studied 1,801 men (256 AA, 1,473 white men, and 72 others) who met National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria for very low–risk PCa and underwent RP. Presenting characteristics, pathologic data, and cancer recurrence were compared among the groups. Multivariable modeling was performed to assess the association of race with upgrading and adverse pathologic features. Results AA men with very low–risk PCa had more adverse pathologic features at RP and poorer oncologic outcomes. AA men were more likely to experience disease upgrading at prostatectomy (27.3% v 14.4%; P < .001), positive surgical margins (9.8% v 5.9%; P = .02), and higher Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment Post-Surgical scoring system (CAPRA-S) scores. On multivariable analysis, AA race was an independent predictor of adverse pathologic features (odds ratio, [OR], 3.23; P = .03) and pathologic upgrading (OR, 2.26; P = .03). Conclusion AA men with very low–risk PCa who meet criteria for AS but undergo immediate surgery experience significantly higher rates of upgrading and adverse pathology than do white men and men of other races. AA men with very low–risk PCa should be counseled about increased oncologic risk when deciding among their disease management options. PMID:23775960

  3. Association between Serum 25-Hydroxy-Vitamin D and Aggressive Prostate Cancer in African American Men

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Shakira M.; Batai, Ken; Ahaghotu, Chiledum; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Kittles, Rick A.

    2016-01-01

    African American men have higher incidence rates of aggressive prostate cancer, where high levels of calcium and serum vitamin D deficient levels play a role in the racial differences in incidence. In this study, we examined associations of serum vitamin D with aggressive prostate cancer to improve our understanding of higher susceptibility of aggressive disease in this racial cohort. From Howard University Hospital, 155 African American men with clinically-identified prostate cancer were identified; 46 aggressive cases, and 58 non-aggressive cases. Serum vitamin D was assessed from fasting blood samples, and total calcium intake was assessed using the Block Food Frequency Questionnaire. Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms from three different loci were genotyped; rs731236, rs1544410, and rs11568820. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) comparing aggressive to non-aggressive prostate cancer. Vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL) significantly increased risk of aggressive disease (OR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.03–9.57, p-value = 0.04). Stratification by total calcium showed high calcium levels (≥800 mg/day) modified this association (OR: 7.3, 95% CI: 2.15–47.68, p-interaction = 0.03). Genetic variant rs11568820 appeared to increase the magnitude of association between deficient serum vitamin D and aggressive prostate cancer (OR: 3.64, 95% CI: 1.12–11.75, p-value = 0.05). These findings suggest that high incidence of aggressive prostate cancer risk in African American men may be due in-part to deficient levels of serum vitamin D. Other factors, including genetics, should be considered for future studies. PMID:28036013

  4. Correlates of Concurrent Sexual Partnerships Among Young, Rural African American Men

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Junhan; Barnum, Stacey C.; Brown, Geoffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We investigated the social, behavioral, and psychological factors associated with concurrent (i.e., overlapping in time) sexual partnerships among rural African American young men with a primary female partner. Methods We recruited 505 men in rural areas of southern Georgia from January 2012 to August 2013 using respondent-driven sampling; 361 reported having a primary female partner and participating only in heterosexual sexual activity. Men provided data on their demographic characteristics and HIV-related risk behaviors, as well as social, behavioral, and psychological risk factors. Results Of the 361 men with a primary female partner, 164 (45.4%) reported concurrent sexual partners during the past three months. Among the 164 men with a concurrent sexual partner, 144 (92.9%) reported inconsistent condom use with their primary partners, and 68 (41.5%) reported using condoms inconsistently with their concurrent partners. Having concurrent sexual partnerships was associated with inconsistent condom use, substance use before sex, and self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Bivariate correlates of concurrent sexual partnerships included incarceration, substance use, early onset of sexual activity, impulsive decision-making, and masculinity attitudes (i.e., men's adherence to culturally defined standards for male behavior). In a multivariate model, both masculinity ideology and impulsive decision-making independently predicted concurrent sexual partnerships independent of other risk factors. Conclusion Masculinity attitudes and impulsive decision-making are independent predictors of concurrent sexual partnerships among rural African American men and, consequently, the spread of HIV and other STIs. Developing programs that target masculinity attitudes and self-regulatory skills may help to reduce concurrent sexual partnerships. PMID:26345725

  5. Persistence of African American Men in Science: Exploring the Influence of Scientist Identity, Mentoring, and Campus Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, Breonte Stephan

    The scant literature on persistence of African American males in science typically takes a deficits-based approach to encapsulate the myriad reasons this population is so often underrepresented. Scientist Identity, Mentoring, and Campus Climate have, individually, been found to be related to the persistence of African American students. However, the unified impact of these three variables on the persistence of African American students with science interests has not been evaluated, and the relationship between the variables, the students' gender, and markers of academic achievement have not been previously investigated. The current study takes a strengths-based approach to evaluating the relationship between Scientist Identity, Mentoring, and Campus climate with a population of African American students with science interests who were studying at six Minority Serving Institutions and Predominantly White Institutions in the Southern United States. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine the impact of Scientist Identity, Mentoring, and Campus Climate on Intention to Persist of African American males. The results indicate that Scientist Identity predicts Intention to Persist, and that gender, academic performance, and institution type moderate the relationship between Scientist Identity and Intention to Persist. These results lend credence to the emerging notion that, for African American men studying science, generating a greater depth and breadth of understanding of the factors that lead to persistence will aid in the development of best practices for supporting persistence among this perpetually underrepresented population.

  6. Aging out: a qualitative exploration of ageism and heterosexism among aging African American lesbians and gay men.

    PubMed

    Woody, Imani

    2014-01-01

    African Americans elders, like their non-African American counterparts, are not a homogeneous group; however an early characteristic placed on all African Americans is in their shared history in the United States. As members of multiple minority groups, older lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people of African descent have survived racism, heterosexism, homophobia, and now ageism. This article describes a qualitative study grounded in Black feminist and minority stress theories that explored the issues of perceived social discrimination and alienation of 15 older African American lesbians and gay males whose lived experiences were captured using in-depth, face-to-face interviews. Several themes were identified in the study, including (a) Sense of Alienation in the African American Community, (b) Deliberate Concealment of Sexual Identity and Orientation, (c) Aversion to LGBT Labels, (d) Perceived Discrimination and Alienation From Organized Religion, (e) Feelings of Grief and Loss Related to Aging, (f) Isolation, and (g) Fear of Financial and Physical Dependence. The implication of the findings suggests that the ethos and needs of older African American lesbian women and gay men need to be addressed to eliminate potential barriers to successful aging for this cohort.

  7. “If you do nothing about stress, the next thing you know, you’re shattered”: Perspectives on African American men’s stress, coping and health from African American men and key women in their lives

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Katrina; Griffith, Derek M.; Allen, Julie Ober; Thorpe, Roland J.; Bruce, Marino A.

    2015-01-01

    Stress has been implicated as a key contributor to poor health outcomes; however, few studies have examined how African American men and women explicitly specify the relationships among stress, coping, and African American men’s health. In this paper, we explore strategies men use to cope with stress, and beliefs about the consequences of stress for African American men’s health behaviors, morbidity and mortality from the perspectives of African American men and women. A phenomenological analytic approach was used to examine focus group data collected from 154 African American men (18 focus groups) and 77 women (8 focus groups). Women’s perspectives were captured because women often observe men under stress and can provide support to men during stressful times. Our findings indicate that African American men in this study responded to stress by engaging in often identified coping behaviors (i.e., consumption of calorie dense food, exercise, spiritually-related activities). Men in our study, however, did not always view their responses to stress as explicit coping mechanisms. There was also some discordance between men’s and women’s perceptions of men’s coping behaviors as there were occasions where they seemed to interpret the same behavior differently (e.g., resting vs. avoidance). Men and women believed that stress helped to explain why African American men had worse health than other groups. They identified mental, physical and social consequences of stress. We conclude by detailing implications for conceptualizing and measuring coping and we outline key considerations for interventions and further research about stress, coping and health. PMID:26183018

  8. What does playing cards have to do with science? A resource-rich view of African American young men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schademan, Alfred R.

    2011-06-01

    The study examines the resources related to science that African American young men learn and develop by playing a card game called Spades, a common cultural practice in African American communities that dates back to the Civil War Era. The qualitative study examines what the Spades players at a local high school consider when making decisions about what cards to play. A significant finding is that the players use, learn and develop resources such as the ability to make observations, draw inferences, and use empirical data to inform future actions and decisions. Such reasoning bears a resemblance to central practices of science and challenges long held deficit views of African American young men. Implications of the research findings are discussed.

  9. Can self-reported behavioral factors predict incident sexually transmitted diseases in high-risk African-American men?

    PubMed Central

    Slavinsky, J.; Rosenberg, D. M.; DiCarlo, R. P.; Kissinger, P.

    2000-01-01

    The known link between sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), coupled with the increasing prevalence of HIV in African-American men, makes understanding STD transmission trends in this group important for directing future preventive measures. The goal of this study was to determine if self-reported behavioral factors are predictive of incident sexually transmitted diseases in a group of high risk, HIV-negative African-American men. Five hundred and sixty-two "high risk" (defined as having four or more partners in the last year or having been diagnosed with an STD in the last year) HIV-negative African-American men were administered a baseline behavioral survey and followed to detect an incident STD. Overall, 19% (n = 108) of the patients acquired an incident STD during the study period. In multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis, the only factor associated with an incident STD was age < or = 19 (hazard ratio, 2.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 4.54). No other risk factors were statistically significant. In conclusion, self-reported behavioral factors, such as substance use and sexual practices, do not seem to be a good measure of STD risk among a group of high risk, HIV-negative, African-American men. PMID:10946531

  10. The Internet as an emerging patient education tool among African American men with prostate cancer: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Wallington, Sherrie Flynt

    2008-06-01

    The lives of African American men with prostate cancer are greatly influenced by the information available to them, some of which is accessed on the Internet. Research indicates that the Internet can enhance consumer health knowledge but has not reached socioeconomic groups at highest risk for health disparities, such as African American men with prostate cancer. In this study, focus groups were used to explore the perceptions and uses of the Internet as a patient education tool among 39 African American men aged 39 years and older with diverse socioeconomic backgrounds. Nineteen (49%) participants reported using the Internet, 15 (38%) reported no use but indicated it was used on their behalf, and 5 (13%) reported no use and no use on their behalf. The findings revealed varying degrees of Internet use for information and social support. Prostate cancer diagnosis, poor patient-doctor communications, and accessibility influenced Internet use. Accessibility related more to lack of ease and familiarity with Internet use than lack of computer access. With training and awareness, the Internet has potential as a patient education tool among African American men with prostate cancer.

  11. Understanding the Role of Spirituality in African American Undergraduate Men's Responses to Stereotype Threat at Predominately White Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroud, George H.

    2014-01-01

    Some African American undergraduate men attending Predominately White Institutions (PWIs) are adversely affected by perception of institutional barriers, such as negative stereotypes, that may exist on campus. The awareness of the possibility of being stereotyped can have a negative impact on a student's academic performance. This phenomenon is…

  12. Sex-Role Egalitarian Attitudes and Gender Role Socialization Experiences of African American Men and Women: A Mixed Methods Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heard, Courtney Christian Charisse

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the sex-role egalitarian attitudes and gender role socialization experiences of African American men and women. A sequential mixed-methods design was employed to research this phenomenon. The Sex-Role Egalitarianism Scale-Short Form BB (SRES-BB) was utilized to assess sex-role egalitarian attitudes (King…

  13. Cellblocks or Classrooms?: The Funding of Higher Education and Corrections and Its Impact on African American Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiraldi, Vincent; Ziedenberg, Jason

    The impact of state funding of higher education and corrections on African American men was studied by analyzing the National Association of State Budget Officers' annual state expenditure reports for the 15-year period from 1985 to 2000. To ensure proper scale, all 1985 figures were converted to 2000-year dollars by using the Bureau of Labor…

  14. African American women’s perspectives on “Down Low/DL” men: Implications for HIV Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Goparaju, Lakshmi; Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari

    2012-01-01

    African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV. Some research has explored if non-disclosing men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) contribute to women’s HIV risk. Popular media discourse tends to refer to these men as “Down Low” or “DL”. Six focus groups were conducted with 36 African American women in Washington D.C. to examine their knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours regarding “Down Low/DL” men. Three of the focus groups were composed of HIV positive women and three groups were composed of HIV negative women. Data analysis reveals six central subcategories related to women’s perspectives on the “DL”: awareness; suspicion; coping with partner infidelity: male vs. female; sexual health communication; empathy; and religion. No major differences were identified between the HIV positive and HIV negative focus groups. Findings from this study provide insight into African American women’s perceptions of African American male sexuality and how these perceptions serve to influence interpersonal relationship factors and women’s exposure to HIV risk. PMID:22804686

  15. Examining the Impact of Historical/Developmental, Sociodemographic, and Psychological Factors on Passive Suicide among African-American Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Tameka M.

    2009-01-01

    Nationally published reports on death rates for substance abuse (drug-alcohol related), violence (homicide), and risky sexual behaviors (HIV/AIDS) among African-American men are deeply concerning. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between historical/developmental factors (masculine identity, racial identity, racism),…

  16. Perspectives on Identity, Disclosure, and the Campus Environment among African American Gay and Bisexual Men at One Historically Black College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Lori D.

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study examined how 6 African American men at one historically Black college made meaning of their gay or bisexual identity, made decisions about to whom they disclosed this identity, and how their sexual identity experiences were mediated given the context of the campus environment. The findings suggest although this particular…

  17. EPEC-O for African Americans - Module 7 AA - Communicating Effectively

    Cancer.gov

    The seventh module of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores communication issues pertinent to African Americans with cancer and their health care providers, discusses strategies for culturally sensitive communication, and presents the SPIKES protocol, a practical framework for effective communication.

  18. The Genetic Contribution of West-African Ancestry to Protection against Central Obesity in African-American Men but Not Women: Results from the ARIC and MESA Studies

    PubMed Central

    Klimentidis, Yann C.; Arora, Amit; Zhou, Jin; Kittles, Rick; Allison, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Over 80% of African-American (AA) women are overweight or obese. A large racial disparity between AA and European-Americans (EA) in obesity rates exists among women, but curiously not among men. Although socio-economic and/or cultural factors may partly account for this race-by-sex interaction, the potential involvement of genetic factors has not yet been investigated. Among 2814 self-identified AA in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, we estimated each individual's degree of West-African genetic ancestry using 3437 ancestry informative markers. We then tested whether sex modifies the association between West-African genetic ancestry and body mass index (BMI), waist-circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), adjusting for income and education levels, and examined associations of ancestry with the phenotypes separately in males and females. We replicated our findings in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (n = 1611 AA). In both studies, we find that West-African ancestry is negatively associated with obesity, especially central obesity, among AA men, but not among AA women (pinteraction = 4.14 × 10−5 in pooled analysis of WHR). In conclusion, our results suggest that the combination of male gender and West-African genetic ancestry is associated with protection against central adiposity, and suggest that the large racial disparity that exists among women, but not men, may be at least partly attributed to genetic factors. PMID:27313598

  19. Influences on HIV Testing among Young African-American Men Who Have Sex with Men and the Moderating Effect of the Geographic Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashburn, Andrew J.; Peterson, John L.; Bakeman, Roger; Miller, Robin L.; Clark, Leslie F.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the influence of demographic characteristics, risk behaviors, knowledge, and psychosocial variables on HIV testing among a sample (n = 551) of young African-American men who have sex with men (MSM) from three cities--Atlanta (n = 241), Birmingham (n = 174), and Chicago (n = 136). Among the entire sample of young men, age,…

  20. Perceptions of cancer clinical research among African American men in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Trantham, Laurel C.; Carpenter, William R; DiMartino, Lisa D.; White, Brandolyn; Green, Melissa; Teal, Randall; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Godley, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The problem of cancer health disparities is substantial. Clinical trials are widely advocated as a means of reducing disparities and bringing state-of-the-art care to the broader community, where most cancer care is delivered. This study sought to develop a better understanding of why disproportionately few African American men enroll in clinical trials given their substantial cancer burden. Design This study applied community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods to design and conduct four focus groups of African American male cancer survivors and their caregivers in North Carolina. Results Among major themes, participants expressed confusion about the relationship between clinical trials, treatment, and research, signifying patient confusion and misinterpretation of common clinical trial terminology. Social norms including gender barriers and generational differences remain problematic; participants often reported that men do not talk about health issues, are unwilling to go to the doctor, and exhibit misapprehension and distrust regarding trials. Participants perceived this as detrimental to community health and expressed the need for more clarity in clinical trials information and a more fundamental social openness and communication about cancer detection and treatment. Conclusion Findings indicate the importance of clinical trials education in both traditional provider referral to trials and also in general patient navigation. To dispel pervasive misapprehension regarding placebos, clinical trials information should emphasize the role of standard care in modern cancer treatment trials. Many participants described willingness to participate in a trial upon physician recommendation, suggesting merit in improving patient-physician communication through culturally competent terminology and trial referral systems. PMID:26113749

  1. HIV Prevention Research: Are We Meeting the Needs of African American Men Who Have Sex With Men?1

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Vickie M.; Cochran, Susan D.; Zamudio, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Two decades of HIV prevention efforts with men who have sex with men (MSM) have not eliminated the risk of new HIV infections in this vulnerable population. Indeed, current incidence rates in African American MSM are similar to those usually only seen in developing countries. A review of the existing literature suggests that the prevention research agenda for Black MSM could benefit from reframing conceptualization of risk as a function of individual properties to a broad consideration of social and interpersonal determinants. Studies that investigate dyadic and social-level influences on African American MSM’s relationships are needed. This includes research explicating the diversity existing within the categorizations of Black MSM with respect to perceived identity (gay, bisexual, “men on the down low,” “homo thugz”), constructions of masculinity, sexual scripts, sources of social support, and perceived norms and expectations. Recommendations are proposed for a research agenda focusing on linkages between interpersonal and social-structural determinants of HIV risk. PMID:20041036

  2. Using the PRECEDE Planning Approach to Develop a Physical Activity Intervention for African American Men Who Visit Barbershops: Results From the FITShop Study.

    PubMed

    Hood, Sula; Linnan, Laura; Jolly, David; Muqueeth, Sadiya; Hall, Marla B; Dixon, Carrissa; Robinson, Seronda

    2015-07-01

    African American (AA) men have a higher prevalence of many chronic disease risk behaviors compared to Caucasian men, including physical inactivity. Innovative ways to reach AA men with interventions to increase physical activity (PA) and decrease other key risk factors are needed to reduce health disparities in this population. The barbershop is a natural but underutilized setting for reaching AA men. In the Fitness in the Shop (FITShop) study, shop owners, barbers, and customers were recruited from four local barbershops to complete structured interviews and customer focus groups. We assessed knowledge, perceived barriers, and interests/concerns about PA, as well as explored how to best intervene in the barbershop. Barbers and customers endorsed the idea of receiving health and PA information in the barbershop. These formative research results generated information and strategies for developing a multilevel barbershop-based health intervention to promote PA in the barbershop. This article describes the formative research results and how PRECEDE was used to develop a culturally and contextually appropriate, multilevel barbershop-based intervention designed to promote PA and to reduce chronic disease disparities among AA men.

  3. A Comparison of African-American versus Caucasian Men Screened for an Alcohol Administration Laboratory Study: Recruitment and Representation Implications

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Nora E.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Ogle, Richard L.; Johnson, James D.; Jackson, Lee A.; Sims, Calvin M.

    2011-01-01

    African-Americans are under-represented in alcohol research, especially alcohol administration laboratory studies. Specific recruitment of African-Americans into laboratory studies, however, may also inadvertently affect the generalizability of the findings. In the current study, we compared all African-American young adult men (n = 53) who volunteered and met criteria for an alcohol administration study to a sample (n = 50) of Caucasian men recruited for the same study. Groups were compared on variables including demographics, quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption and other substance use, consequences of use and psychopathology. Compared to their Caucasian counterparts, African-American men reported less drinking frequency and quantity, less use of other substances and fewer negative consequences, but their alcohol and drug use was more likely to be associated with various measures of psychopathology. Results suggest that even when recruiting participants using criteria that should minimize differences (i.e. all participants were “social drinkers”), differences on key variables were evident. These differences may have important implications for alcohol research. PMID:21277094

  4. Engaging African American men in empirically based marriage enrichment programs: lessons from two focus groups on the ProSAAM project.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Tera R; Beach, Steven R H; Stokes, LaTrena A; Bush, Perdeta L; Sheats, Kameron J; Robinson, Shayla G

    2012-07-01

    To better meet the needs of eligible African American men who were reluctant to enroll in a 5-year study called the Program for Strong African American Marriages (ProSAAM), we employed two focus groups to listen to the voices of a sample of the population being recruited and to explore their feedback about taking part in such a marriage enrichment program and how best to recruit other African American men. We explain our application of the focus group results to our recruitment of African American married couples for ProSAAM. The positive outcomes from the implementation of these results can provide potential ideas for those seeking innovative means to improve recruitment of African American men to programs that strengthen marital relationships.

  5. Making decisions: the process of HIV disclosure for rural African American men.

    PubMed

    Gaskins, Susan W; Payne Foster, Pamela; Sowell, Richard L; Lewis, Timothy L; Gardner, Antonio; Parton, Jason M

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the process of HIV disclosure for rural African American men-a population disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. Forty men were interviewed about their experience of making an HIV disclosure. Grounded theory methodology guided data collection and analysis. The core category or variable that emerged from the data was a process-Making Decisions: The Process of HIV Disclosure. Five categories accounted for variations in disclosures: (a) beliefs and knowledge about HIV/AIDS, (b) influencing factors, (c) disclosure decisions, (d) disclosure efficacy, and (e) outcomes of disclosure. Most of the men had disclosed to others; however, the disclosures were selective, and the decisions were iterative. The majority of the men did not disclose their diagnosis for several months to several years. The findings provide a framework of the many factors related to HIV disclosure that can guide health care providers in counseling persons living with HIV/AIDS in making disclosure decisions.

  6. Increasing Early Detection of Prostate Cancer in African American Men through a Culturally Targeted Print Intervention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    4. “Social Influence and AA Men’s Prostate Cancer Screening Intentions : Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior”: This was a presentation made...men’s prostate cancer screening intentions in the context of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). As prior work suggests that social influence may...important role in guiding AA men’s intention to participate in both prostate cancer screening modalities. These results suggest that AA men are highly

  7. EPEC-O for African Americans - Module 13 AA - Advance Care Planning

    Cancer.gov

    The thirteenth module of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the attitudes and practices of African Americans related to completion of advance directives, and recommends effective strategies to improve decision-making in the setting of serious, life-threatening illness, in ways that augment patient autonomy and support patient-centered goal-setting and decision-making among African American patients and their families.

  8. Associations between drug and alcohol use patterns and sexual risk in a sample of African American men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Cui; King, Kelly; Latkin, Carl A.; Curriero, Frank C.

    2015-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are the largest risk group in the US HIV epidemic and African American MSM (AA MSM) are disproportionately affected. Substance-abusing sexual minorities warrant attention as they are at elevated risk for HIV, yet are not a homogeneous risk group. The purpose of this study was to use latent class analysis to identify patterns of drug and alcohol use in a sample of 359 AA MSM and examine associations with sexual risk. Three classes were identified: Individuals who used multiple substances (Poly-users) (18%), Alcohol/marijuana users (33%) and individuals who had low probability of reporting drug or problematic alcohol use (50%). Results from multivariate analysis indicate that Poly-users were older and more likely to report sex exchange and recent sexually transmitted infection compared to the other classes. Alcohol and Poly-users were more likely to report sex under the influence. Identifying and defining substance use patterns can improve specification of risk groups and allocation of prevention resources. PMID:26558629

  9. How do African American men rate their health care? An analysis of the consumer assessment of health plans 2003-2006.

    PubMed

    Elder, Keith; Meret-Hanke, Louise; Dean, Caress; Wiltshire, Jacqueline; Gilbert, Keon L; Wang, Jing; Shacham, Enbal; Barnidge, Ellen; Baker, Elizabeth; Wray, Ricardo; Rice, Shahida; Johns, Marquisha; Moore, Tondra

    2015-05-01

    African American (AA) men remain one of the most disconnected groups from health care. This study examines the association between AA men's rating of health care and rating of their personal physician. The sample included 12,074 AA men aged 18 years or older from the 2003 to 2006 waves of the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems Adult Commercial Health Plan Survey. Multilevel models were used to obtain adjusted means rating of health care systems and personal physician, and the relationship of ratings with the rating of personal physician. The adjusted means were 80 (on a 100-point scale) for most health ratings and composite health care scores: personal physician (83.9), specialist (83.66), health care (82.34), getting needed care (89.57), physician communication (83.17), medical staff courtesy (86.58), and customer service helpfulness (88.37). Physician communication was the strongest predictor for physician rating. AA men's health is understudied, and additional research is warranted to improve how they interface with the health care system.

  10. A computer-tailored intervention to promote informed decision making for prostate cancer screening among African-American men

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Jennifer D.; Mohllajee, Anshu P.; Shelton, Rachel C.; Drake, Bettina F.; Mars, Dana R.

    2010-01-01

    African-American men experience a disproportionate burden of prostate cancer (CaP) morbidity and mortality. National screening guidelines advise men to make individualized screening decisions through a process termed “informed decision making” (IDM). In this pilot study, a computer-tailored decision-aid designed to promote IDM was evaluated using a pre/post test design. African-American men aged 40+ recruited from a variety of community settings (n=108). At pre-test, 43% of men reported having made a screening decision; at post-test 47% reported this to be the case (p=0.39). Significant improvements were observed on scores (0–100%) of knowledge (54% vs 72%; p<0.001), decision self-efficacy (87% vs 89%; p<0.01), and decisional conflict (21% vs 13%; p<0.001). Men were also more likely to want an active role in decision-making after using the tool (67% vs 75%; p=0.03). These results suggest that use of a computer-tailored decision-aid is a promising strategy to promote IDM for CaP screening among African-American men. PMID:19477736

  11. Straight Talk: HIV Prevention for African-American Heterosexual Men--Theoretical Bases and Intervention Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Victoria; Bonner, Sebastian; Williams, Kim; Henny, Kirk; Bond, Keosha; Lucy, Debbie; Cupid, Malik; Smith, Stephen; Koblin, Beryl A.

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, racial disparities in HIV/AIDS are stark. Although African Americans comprise an estimated 14% of the U.S. population, they made up 52% of new HIV cases among adults and adolescents diagnosed in 2009. Heterosexual transmission is now the second leading cause of HIV in the United States. African Americans made up a full…

  12. Looking Back and Looking Forward: The Perspectives of African American Men on Success in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witherspoon Favors, Ann E.

    2011-01-01

    Recruiting and retaining African American students is an ongoing challenge for many post-secondary institutions. This dissertation examined the contributing factors to this increasing dilemma and review strategies that may be helpful in the retention of African American male college students. This study also examined the instructional leadership…

  13. The Process of Adaptation of a Community-Level, Evidence-Based Intervention for HIV-Positive African American Men Who Have Sex with Men in Two Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Beatrice E.; Galbraith, Jennifer S.; Lund, Sharon M.; Hamilton, Autumn R.; Shankle, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the process of adapting a community-level, evidence-based behavioral intervention (EBI), Community PROMISE, for HIV-positive African American men who have sex with men (AAMSM). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Map of the Adaptation Process (MAP) guided the adaptation process for this new target population by two…

  14. Unity in Diversity: Results of a Randomized Clinical Culturally Tailored Pilot HIV Prevention Intervention Trial in Baltimore, Maryland, for African American Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Karin; Kuramoto, Satoko J.; German, Danielle; Fields, Errol; Spikes, Pilgrim S.; Patterson, Jocelyn; Latkin, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Unity in Diversity was a randomized controlled trial of a culturally tailored HIV prevention intervention for African American men who have sex with men. The intervention condition was six group-based sessions and one individual session. The control condition was a single-session HIV prevention review. Participants were aged 18 years or older,…

  15. Different Dimensions: Internalized Homonegativity Among African American Men Who Have Sex With Men in the Deep South.

    PubMed

    Smallwood, Stacy W; Spencer, S Melinda; Ingram, Lucy Annang; Thrasher, Jim F; Thompson-Robinson, Melva V

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Internalized Homonegativity Inventory (IHNI) among African American men who have sex with men (AAMSM) in the southeastern United States. Data from 261 AAMSM were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis. Results showed evidence of a two-factor solution: personal and moral homonegativity and gay affirmation. Internal consistencies were greater than .80, and correlations with other variables (e.g., sociodemographics, religiosity, masculinity) provided evidence of validity. Findings suggesting a two-factor instead of a three-factor solution may indicate that the IHNI manifests differently for AAMSM in the Deep South than for predominantly White MSM. Further research should examine how incorporating new conceptions of internalized homonegativity into culturally specific health-promotion interventions for AAMSM might enhance effectiveness.

  16. Assessing Collectivism in Latino, Asian/Pacific Islander, and African American Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Psychometric Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sauceda, John A; Paul, Jay P; Gregorich, Steven E; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2016-02-01

    The study of collectivism has implications for HIV prevention research, especially in studies that use a social networking or community mobilization approach. However, research on collectivism in race/ethnicity and sexual minority groups is limited. We psychometrically evaluated a brief version of the Individualism-Collectivism Interpersonal Assessment Inventory (ICIAI) in a chain-referral sample of 400 Latino, 393 Asian/Pacific Islander, and 403 African American men who have sex with men (MSM). Data were collected via a one-time survey on demographics, the ICIAI, acculturation, and ethnicity identity. We conducted a multiple groups confirmatory factor analysis to assess for measurement invariance across the three groups of MSM, as well as tested its reliability and validity. The ICIAI evidenced good psychometric properties and was invariant across all groups. We highlight implications for how this measure of collectivism can be applied toward the study of HIV prevention and in lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender communities.

  17. Perceptions Towards Condom Use, Sexual Activity, and HIV Disclosure among HIV-Positive African American Men Who Have Sex with Men: Implications for Heterosexual Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Harawa, Nina T.; Ramamurthi, Hema Codathi; Bingham, Trista A.

    2006-01-01

    Disproportionately high HIV/AIDS rates and frequent non-gay identification (NGI) among African American men who have sex with men or with both men and women (MSM/W) highlight the importance of understanding how HIV-positive African American MSM/W perceive safer sex, experience living with HIV, and decide to disclose their HIV status. Thirty predominately seropositive and non-gay identifying African American MSM/W in Los Angeles participated in three semi-structured focus group interviews, and a constant comparison method was used to analyze responses regarding condom use, sexual activity after an HIV diagnosis, and HIV serostatus disclosure. Condom use themes included its protective role against disease and pregnancy, acceptability concerns pertaining to aesthetic factors and effectiveness, and situational influences such as exchange sex, substance use, and suspicions from female partners. Themes regarding the impact of HIV on sexual activity included rejection, decreased partner seeking, and isolation. Serostatus disclosure themes included disclosure to selective partners and personal responsibility. Comprehensive HIV risk-reduction strategies that build social support networks, condom self-efficacy, communication skills, and a sense of collective responsibility among NGI African American MSM/W while addressing HIV stigma in the African American community as a whole are suggested. PMID:16736115

  18. Interactions Between Monoamine Oxidase A and Punitive Discipline in African American and Caucasian Men's Antisocial Behavior.

    PubMed

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Shaw, Daniel S; Hyde, Luke W; Forbes, Erika E

    2014-09-01

    Although previous studies have shown that interactions between monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotype and childhood maltreatment predict Caucasian boys' antisocial behavior, the generalizability of this gene-environment interaction to more diverse populations and more common parenting behaviors, such as punitive discipline in early childhood, is not clearly understood. Among 189 low-income men (44% African American, 56% Caucasian) who underwent rigorous assessments of family behavior and social context longitudinally across 20 years, those men with the low activity MAOA allele who experienced more punitive discipline at ages 1.5, 2, and 5 years showed more antisocial behavior from ages 15 through 20 years. Effects of punitive discipline on antisocial behavior differed by caregiver and age at which it occurred, suggesting sensitive periods throughout early childhood in which low MAOA activity elevated boys' vulnerability to harsh parenting and risk for antisocial behavior. This genetic vulnerability to punitive discipline-and not just extreme, maltreatment experiences-may generalize to other male populations at risk for antisocial behavior.

  19. Reactions of heterosexual African American men to women's condom negotiation strategies.

    PubMed

    Otto-Salaj, Laura L; Traxel, Nicole; Brondino, Michael J; Reed, Barbara; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Kelly, Jeffrey A; Stevenson, L Yvonne

    2010-11-01

    This study describes responses of 172 single heterosexual African American men, ages 18 to 35, to condom negotiation attempts. Strategies used included reward, coercive, legitimate, expert, referent, and informational strategies, based on Raven's (1992) influence model. The purpose was (a) to identify strategies influencing participant acquiescence to request and (b) to identify predictors of participant compliance/refusal to comply with negotiation attempts. Participants viewed six videotape segments showing an actress, portrayed in silhouette, speaking to the viewer as a "steady partner." After each segment, participants completed measures of request compliance, positive and negative affect, and attributions concerning the model and themselves. No significant differences were found in men's ratings across all vignettes. However, differences in response existed across subgroups of individuals, suggesting that, although the strategy used had little impact on participant response, the act of suggesting condom use produced responses that differed across participant subgroups. Subgroups differed on levels of AIDS risk knowledge, sexually transmitted disease history, and experience with sexual coercion. Also, the "least willing to use" subgroup was highest in anger-rejection and least likely to make attributions of caring for partner. Effective negotiation of condom use with a male sexual partner may not be determined as much by specific strategy used as by partner characteristics.

  20. The Subjective Experience of Social Class and Upward Mobility Among African American Men in Graduate School

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Francisco J.; Liu, William Ming; Leathers, Leslie; Goins, Joyce; Vilain, Eric

    2011-01-01

    We used Consensual Qualitative Research Methodology to analyze responses from 14 African American men (MdnAge = 25 years-old) in graduate school at a predominantly-White university in the Midwestern region of the United Sates regarding how they acquired awareness of their social-class status; how social class was related to their sense of masculinity; how social class was related to race and skin tone; and the role that education and a romantic partner could play in upward mobility. School peers were the main source for their early awareness of social class. Many believed that discrimination maintains social class stratification that disadvantages racial minorities and that one's race will always trump any personal characteristics—including having light-complected skin and an advanced degree. Finally many overcame several obstacles during their educational career, and most believed that a romantic relationship with a woman from a privileged background could facilitate upward mobility. Psychological scientists and practitioners are encouraged to consider the role that social class plays when examining men's well-being. PMID:22058659

  1. Men of the Cloth: African-American Clergy's Knowledge and Experience in Providing Pastoral Care to African-American Elders with Late-Life Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansbury, Kim L.

    2011-01-01

    African-American clergy's ability to recognize late-life depression and their capacity to provide support with this illness have been neglected in the literature. Using a mental health literacy framework, the purpose of this research was to explore African-American clergy's knowledge of and treatments for late-life depression. In-depth interviews…

  2. A mixed methods study of health and social disparities among substance-using African American/Black men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Buttram, Mance E; Kurtz, Steven P

    2015-03-01

    African American/Black men who have sex with men (MSM) in the U.S. experience health and social disparities at greater rates than MSM of other races/ethnicities, including HIV infection and substance use. This mixed methods paper presents: 1) a quantitative examination of health and social disparities among a sample of substance-using African American/Black MSM (N=108), compared to Caucasian/White MSM (N=250), and 2) in-depth qualitative data from a subsample of African American/Black MSM (N=21) in order to contextualize the quantitative data. Findings indicate that compared to Caucasian/White MSM, African American/Black MSM experienced a wide range of health and social disparities including: substance use and dependence; buying, trading or selling sex; educational attainment; employment; homelessness; identifying as gay; HIV status; arrest history; social support; and satisfaction with one's living situation. Qualitative data suggests that structural interventions that address homophobia and the social environment would be likely to mitigate many of the health and social disparities experienced by African American/Black MSM.

  3. A mixed methods study of health and social disparities among substance-using African American/Black men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Buttram, Mance E.; Kurtz, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    African American/Black men who have sex with men (MSM) in the U.S. experience health and social disparities at greater rates than MSM of other races/ethnicities, including HIV infection and substance use. This mixed methods paper presents: 1) a quantitative examination of health and social disparities among a sample of substance-using African American/Black MSM (N=108), compared to Caucasian/White MSM (N=250), and 2) in-depth qualitative data from a subsample of African American/Black MSM (N=21) in order to contextualize the quantitative data. Findings indicate that compared to Caucasian/White MSM, African American/Black MSM experienced a wide range of health and social disparities including: substance use and dependence; buying, trading or selling sex; educational attainment; employment; homelessness; identifying as gay; HIV status; arrest history; social support; and satisfaction with one's living situation. Qualitative data suggests that structural interventions that address homophobia and the social environment would be likely to mitigate many of the health and social disparities experienced by African American/Black MSM. PMID:25960944

  4. Genetic Alterations in Prostate Cancers among African-American Men and Comparisons with Cancers from European and Asian Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0303 TITLE: Genetic Alterations in Prostate Cancers among African-American Men and Comparisons with Cancers from...REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 29 Sep 2014 – 28 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Genetic Alterations in Prostate Cancers... genetics 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON USAMRMC a. REPORT U b

  5. Reactions of Heterosexual African-American Men to Women’s Condom Negotiation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Otto-Salaj, Laura L.; Traxel, Nicole; Brondino, Michael J.; Reed, Barbara; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Stevenson, L. Yvonne

    2009-01-01

    This study describes responses of 172 single heterosexual African American men, ages 18–35, to condom negotiation attempts. Strategies used included reward, coercive, legitimate, expert, referent, and informational strategies, based on Raven’s (1992) influence model. The purpose was: 1) to identify strategies influencing participant acquiescence to request, and 2) to identify predictors of participant compliance/refusal to comply with negotiation attempts. Participants viewed six videotape segments showing an actress, portrayed in silhouette, speaking to the viewer as a ‘steady partner’. After each segment, participants completed measures of: request compliance, positive and negative affect, and attributions concerning the model and themselves. No significant differences were found in men’s ratings across all vignettes. However, differences in response existed across subgroups of individuals, suggesting that while the strategy used had little impact on participant response, the act of suggesting condom use produced responses that differed across participant subgroups. Subgroups differed on levels of AIDS risk knowledge, STD history, and experience with sexual coercion. Also, the “least-willing-to-use” subgroup was highest in anger/rejection and least likely to make attributions of caring for partner. Effective negotiation of condom use with a male sexual partner may not be determined as much by specific strategy used as by partner characteristics. PMID:19760529

  6. Innovative and Community-Guided Evaluation and Dissemination of a Prostate Cancer Education Program for African-American Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Dawnyea D.; Owens, Otis L.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Dubose-Morris, Ragan

    2014-01-01

    African Americans (AA) are more likely to develop and die from cancer than any other racial or ethnic group. The aims of this research were to: (1) evaluate current education materials being implemented in a community-based prostate cancer education program for AA communities; (2) refine materials based on findings from Aim 1; (3) share updated materials with participants from Aim 1 for additional improvements; and (4) disseminate and evaluate the improved education program through a statewide videoconference with AA men and women. AA individuals evaluated the current education program through a mail survey (n=32) and community forum (n=38). Participants reported that the existing prostate cancer education program content could be understood by lay persons, but recommendations for improvement were identified. They included: defining unknown and/or scientific terminology, increasing readability by increasing font size and enlarging images, and including more recent and relevant statistics. Following refinement of the education materials based on survey and forum feedback, a statewide videoconference was implemented. Following the videoconference, participants (25 men; 3 women) reported that they would encourage others to learn more about prostate cancer, talk to their doctor about whether or not to get screened for prostate cancer, and would recommend the conference to others. There is great potential for using this type of iterative approach to education program development with community and clinical partners for others conducting similar work. PMID:25510370

  7. Innovative and Community-Guided Evaluation and Dissemination of a Prostate Cancer Education Program for African-American Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Dawnyea D; Owens, Otis L; Friedman, Daniela B; Dubose-Morris, Ragan

    2015-12-01

    African Americans (AA) are more likely to develop and die from cancer than any other racial or ethnic group. The aims of this research were to (1) evaluate current education materials being implemented in a community-based prostate cancer education program for AA communities, (2) refine materials based on findings from aim 1, (3) share updated materials with participants from aim 1 for additional improvements, and (4) disseminate and evaluate the improved education program through a statewide videoconference with AA men and women. AA individuals evaluated the current education program through a mail survey (n=32) and community forum (n=38). Participants reported that the existing prostate cancer education program content could be understood by lay persons, but recommendations for improvement were identified. They included the following: defining unknown and/or scientific terminology, increasing readability by increasing font size and enlarging images, and including more recent and relevant statistics. Following refinement of the education materials based on survey and forum feedback, a statewide videoconference was implemented. Following the videoconference, participants (25 men; 3 women) reported that they would encourage others to learn more about prostate cancer, talk to their doctor about whether or not to get screened for prostate cancer, and recommend the conference to others. There is great potential for using this type of iterative approach to education program development with community and clinical partners for others conducting similar work.

  8. "We as Black Men Have to Encourage Each other:" Facilitators and Barriers Associated with HIV Testing among Black/African American Men in Rural Florida.

    PubMed

    Murray, Ashley; Toledo, Lauren; Brown, Emma Ej; Sutton, Madeline Y

    2017-01-01

    HIV testing for some African American men remains a challenge, and effective interventions are lacking. We explored facilitators and barriers associated with HIV testing among heterosexual African American men in rural Florida. We conducted focus group interviews with 67 African American men who were low-income, and HIV-uninfected based on prior testing or had unknown HIV status. Using computer-assisted thematic analyses, we examined transcribed focus group responses for main themes. Thematic analyses revealed three main themes regarding facilitators of HIV testing: 1) using preferred HIV testing community locations (park, library, gym); 2) receiving incentives (food or money); and 3) the importance of peer-led messaging for free, rapid HIV testing. Barriers included HIV testing at the local health department, and perceived social and emotional consequences to testing and the possibility of receiving a positive result. Effective HIV testing interventions for heterosexual African American men in rural Florida may need to incorporate suggested facilitators and reduce perceived barriers in order to improve HIV testing strategies.

  9. Some African American Males' Perspectives on the Black Woman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrow, Rufus, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Presents views of Frederick Douglass, W. E. B. Du Bois, Malcolm X, and James Hal Cone (African-American male leaders) toward African-American women in the United States. Discusses the role of African-American men in addressing and eradicating sexism in African-American churches and the African-American community. (SLD)

  10. EPEC-O for African Americans - Plenary 2 AA - Models of Comprehensive Care

    Cancer.gov

    The second plenary of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans reviews the various models for integration of hospice and palliative care into traditional cancer care that have been shown to improve outcomes.

  11. Sexual Behavior, Sexual Identity, and Substance Abuse Among Low-Income Bisexual and Non-Gay-Identifying African American Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Harawa, Nina T.; Williams, John K.; Ramamurthi, Hema C.; Manago, Cleo; Avina, Sergio; Jones, Marvin

    2008-01-01

    We examined the role of drug use and addiction in same-sex sexuality among non-gay-identifying African American men who have sex with men or with both men and women (MSM/MSMW). Between July 2005 and February 2006, we conducted seven focus groups with 46 predominately low socioeconomic status African American MSM/MSMW. A total of 29 men self-identified as HIV-infected and 17 self-identified as uninfected. Focus group transcripts were analyzed using consensual qualitative research techniques. Alcohol, crack cocaine, and crystal methamphetamine were the primary drugs mentioned by participants. Drug use was identified as playing a central role in same-sex sexuality for many African American MSM/MSMW. Participants described alcohol use and drug transactions, use, and addiction as motivating sex with men, allowing and rationalizing same-sex activity and unprotected sex, and facilitating access to male sex partners. Some of those in treatment for substance abuse indicated that a readiness to admit their same-sex activity and come to terms with their homosexuality/bisexuality was necessary for recovery. Because successful engagement of non-gay-identifying African American MSM/MSMW is essential to the reduction of HIV transmission and substance abuse in Black communities, findings call for drug treatment approaches that acknowledge and accept diverse sexuality in clients. Service providers and policy-makers may be guided by these findings toward building cultural competency among direct service staff. Future research should examine interrelated dynamics of sexual activity, identity, and drug use as they evolve within individual African American MSM/MSMW and compare the frequency with which sex, condom use, and substance use co-occur with male versus female partners. PMID:18546069

  12. African American men's and women's perceptions of clinical trials research: focusing on prostate cancer among a high-risk population in the South.

    PubMed

    Owens, Otis L; Jackson, Dawnyéa D; Thomas, Tracey L; Friedman, Daniela B; Hébert, James R

    2013-11-01

    While African Americans are at a significantly higher risk for developing certain cancers, they also have low rates of participation in cancer research, particularly clinical trials. This study assessed both African American men's and African American women's (1) knowledge of and participation in cancer-related clinical research and (2) barriers to and motivations for participating in clinical research. Data were collected from a total of 81 participants. Phase I of this research consisted of qualitative focus groups (all 81 participants). Phase II included quantitative pre/post survey data from an education program (56 participants). Findings from the study revealed that African American men and women had poor knowledge about clinical trials and the informed consent process, limited experience in participating in clinical trials, and they feared and mistrusted cancer research. Participants identified incentives, assurance of safety, knowledge and awareness, and benefiting others as motivators to participate in clinical trials research.

  13. Image versus Health: The Role of Perceptions of Masculinity on Sexual Risk Behaviors among HIV-Positive African American Men who have Sex with Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Kisler, Kimberly A.; Williams, John K.

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV prevention has rarely explored the impact of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) across health domains among African American men who have sex with men and women (MSMW). Early sexual experiences may influence perceptions of gender roles, sexual identity, and risks for HIV/AIDS. The attribute of masculinity is commonly associated with strength and success. However, a legacy of racism and oppression may pose challenges for African American men in achieving gender-based milestones. Instead, proxies for success may include masculinity constructs with hypersexual posturing and prowess that contradict sexual health messages. Methods Two groups, each meeting twice for 90-minutes, of HIV-positive African American MSMW participated in discussions focusing on masculinity and sexual experiences. Participants were bisexual HIV-positive African American men who engaged in unprotected sex and had histories of CSA. Discussions were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using consensual qualitative research and a constant comparison qualitative method. Results Participant mean age was 40.5 years (n=16). Majority had a high school education (69%), half were unemployed, and almost two-thirds earned less than $20,000 annually. Three themes, each with two subthemes, emerged that described the sociocultural context for engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors, and included: 1) the importance of inhabiting a “traditional” masculine gender role with: a) general and b) sexual masculine traits; 2) the influence of conceptions of masculinity on sexual identity with the associations: a) between being gay and being effeminate and b) between being gay and being HIV-positive, and; 3) CSA experiences with: a) appraisal of CSA and b) early sexual experiences as rites of passage. Conclusion Attempts to be masculine may contribute to high-risk sexual behaviors. Research needs to explore how early sexual experiences shape perceptions of masculinity and masculinity's influence on receiving

  14. GWAS SNP Replication among African American and European American Men in the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zongli; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Smith, Gary J.; Mohler, James L.; Taylor, Jack A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous common SNPs associated with prostate cancer (CaP) risk in men of European descent. This study evaluates GWAS SNPs associated with CaP in African Americans (AA) and European Americans (EA). Methods 800 SNPs were genotyped, including 32 from European-based GWAS and 35 flanking SNPs, in 417 AA and 455 EA cases from the NC-LA Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP) and compared to 925 AA and 1,687 EA controls from Illumina's iControlDB. The 32 GWAS SNPs were evaluated for their predictive power to discriminate between cases and controls using ROC curves. Results Of the 32 GWAS SNPs, 13 were significant at P < 0.05 in EA and 4 in AA (rs6983267, rs7017300, rs1859962, rs6501455). Three of 35 flanking SNPs, all from chromosome 8q, reached study-wide significance (p < 3.5×10−5); two in AA (rs10505476 rs6985504) and one in EA (rs16901970). Among the remaining 656 SNPs, two were associated with CaP (p < 3.5×10−5): rs1472606 (OR: 1.43 in EA) and rs9351265 (OR: 1.48 in AA) both in intergenic regions. For the 32 GWAS SNPs, ROC plots yielded AUC estimates too low for clinical use (EA AUC= 0.60 and AA AUC= 0.56). Conclusions This study confirms a large proportion of CaP associated regions implicated by European-based GWAS and provides evidence that some regions may be important in AA CaP risk. Despite the identification of a large panel of GWAS replicated SNPs for CaP, this panel is not appropriate for clinical screening. PMID:21456070

  15. Photovoice as a Tool to Adapt an HIV Prevention Intervention for African American Young Men who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Kubicek, Katrina; Beyer, William; Weiss, George; Kipke, Michele D.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives HIV rates for African American young men who have sex with men (AAYMSM) have reached as much as 14.7%, compared to 2.5% and 3.5% among Caucasian and Latino YMSM. However, there remains a lack HIV prevention interventions for this population. This study describes the use of Photovoice in the adaptation process of an evidence-based intervention (Adult Identity Mentoring) to make it developmentally and culturally appropriate for AAYMSM. Methods Thirty-six AAYMSM (ages 18–24) participated in weekly working group sessions to conduct a community, youth and data-driven adaptation process. Photovoice was used as a technique to facilitate guided discussions on topics that were identified for the new curriculum. Results Through Photovoice discussions, we identified a new focus for the adapted intervention, Young Men’s Adult Identity Mentoring (YM-AIM): development and maintenance of healthy intimate relationships. This new focus and resulting curriculum are rooted in the voices and perceptions of the target population. Conclusions Including youth was integral to the adaptation process and the use of techniques such as Photovoice helped ensure that the resulting adaptation was relevant to the target population. PMID:21460254

  16. Clues to the Blues: Predictors of Self-Reported Mental and Emotional Health Among Older African American Men.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jamie A; Watkins, Daphne C; Shires, Deirdre; Chapman, Robert A; Burnett, Janice

    2015-09-07

    The mental health needs of aging African American men have been overlooked and few studies have distinguished between more severe clinically diagnosable mental health challenges and less severe emotional states for this population. African American men may not identify with or internalize the terminology of "depression" despite exhibiting the symptom criteria. This exploratory cross-sectional study examined correlates of "downheartedness" as an alternative indicator of emotional health. The authors examined the self-reported responses of 1,666 older African American men on a baseline questionnaire from a larger longitudinal study. Demographic, physical, mental and emotional health, and health system factors were examined as possible correlates of downheartedness. The mean age of participants was 73.6 years and 74.8% of men described themselves as "downhearted and blue" most or all of the time while only 18.5% of them reported feeling moderate to severe anxiety or depression. When other factors were controlled, mobility problems (odds ratio [OR] = 2.36), problems getting health care (OR = 2.69), having a doctor who never listens (OR = 2.18), physical or mental problems that interfere with social activities (OR = 1.34), accomplishing less due to physical health (OR = 1.35), and accomplishing less due to mental/emotional health (OR = 1.57) were all associated with greater odds of being downhearted. The current findings indicate that this sample more closely identified with language accurately describing their emotional health state (i.e., downhearted) and not with clinical mental health terminology (i.e., depression) that may be culturally stigmatized.

  17. Increasing Early Detection of Prostate Cancer in African American Men Through a Culturally Targeted Print Intervention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    participation in a sample of 410 AA men through a randomized controlled trial, and 2) to investigate the mediational pathways (i.e., mechanisms) through...a family history in a population-based sample . Cancer, Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 2003; 12:314-320. (2) Stanford JL, Stephenson...cancer, your urologist will discuss the option of a biopsy. A biopsy is the surgical removal of a small sample of tissue. Biopsies are usually performed

  18. Masculinity and the body: how African American and White men experience cancer screening exams involving the rectum.

    PubMed

    Winterich, Julie A; Quandt, Sara A; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Clark, Peter E; Miller, David P; Acuña, Joshua; Arcury, Thomas A

    2009-12-01

    Past research on prostate and colorectal cancer disparities finds that barriers to screening, such as embarrassment and offensiveness, are often reported. Yet none of this literature investigates why. This study uses masculinity and health theory to examine how men experience two common screenings: digital rectal exams (DREs) and colonoscopies. In-depth interviews were conducted with 64 African American and White men from diverse backgrounds, aged 40 to 64, from North Carolina. Regardless of race or education, men experienced DREs more negatively than colonoscopies because penetration with a finger was associated with a gay sexual act. Some men disliked colonoscopies, however, because they associated any penetration as an affront to their masculinity. Because beliefs did not differ by race, future research should focus on structural issues to examine why disparities persist with prostate and colorectal cancer. Recommendations are provided for educational programs and physicians to improve men's experiences with exams that involve the rectum.

  19. Digital Solutions for Informed Decision Making: An Academic-Community Partnership for the Development of a Prostate Cancer Decision Aid for African-American Men

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Otis L.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Brandt, Heather M.; Bernhardt, Jay M.; Hébert, James R.

    2014-01-01

    African-American (AA) men are significantly more likely to die of prostate cancer (PrCA) than other racial groups, and there is a critical need to identify strategies for providing information about PrCA screening and the importance of informed decision making (IDM). To assess whether a computer-based IDM intervention for PrCA screening would be appropriate for AA men, this formative evaluation study examined their (1) PrCA risk and screening knowledge, (2) decision-making processes for PrCA screening, (3) usage of, attitudes toward, and access to interactive communication technologies (ICTs), and (4) perceptions regarding a future novel computer-based PrCA education intervention. A purposive convenience sample of 39 AA men aged 37–66 years in the Southeastern United States were recruited through faith-based organizations to participate in one of six 90-minute focus groups and complete a 45-item descriptive survey. Participants were generally knowledgeable about PrCA; however, few engaged in IDM with their doctor and few were informed about the associated risks and uncertainties of PrCA screening. Most participants used ICTs on a daily basis for various purposes including health information seeking. Most participants were open to a novel computer-based intervention if the system was easy to use and its animated avatars were culturally appropriate. Because study participants had low exposure to IDM for PrCA, but frequently used ICTs, IDM interventions using ICTs (e.g, computers) hold promise for AA men and should be explored for feasibility and effectiveness. These interventions should aim to increase PrCA screening knowledge and stress the importance of participating in IDM with their doctor. PMID:25563381

  20. Short-Term Exercise and Prostate Cancer Prevention in African-American Men

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    of Physical Activity on an Exaggerated Blood Pressure Response to Exercise in Normotensive Young Adult African- American Women Presented at the 2004...medical history questionnaire 3) Completion of psychosocial questionnaires 4) Completion of a physical activity questionnaire 5) Treadmill exercise ...genetic factors. The environmental factor of concern and the primary focus of this research is physical activity . Currently, no other research has

  1. Pros and cons of prostate cancer screening: associations with screening knowledge and attitudes among urban African American men.

    PubMed

    Davis, Stacy N; Diefenbach, Michael A; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis; Chen, Tianle; Hall, Simon J; Thompson, Hayley S

    2010-03-01

    Discussion of the pros and cons of prostate cancer screening tests, rather than routine screening, is recommended to support informed screening decisions, particularly among African American men. This study explored physician explanation of pros and cons of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and digital rectal exam (DRE) and its association with knowledge and screening attitudes. Two hundred-one African American men were asked if a physician had ever provided a comprehensive explanation of pros and cons of the PSA test and DRE. All men completed a 10-item prostate cancer knowledge scale and a subset completed a 26-item attitudes measure. Only 13% of the sample reported receiving a comprehensive explanation. Also, prostate cancer knowledge in the sample was low (mean = 43% correct). Multivariate analyses revealed that total prostate cancer knowledge was associated with men receiving a comprehensive explanation (p = .05), as well as past prostate cancer screening (p = .02) and younger age (p = .009). Although comprehensive explanation of prostate cancer screening was related to total prostate cancer knowledge, it was unrelated to a subset of items that may be central to fully informed screening decisions. Furthermore, comprehensive explanation of prostate cancer screening (p = .02), along with DRE recommendation (p = .009) and older age (p = .02), were related to fewer negative screening attitudes. Findings suggest that continued focus on patient education and physician communication is warranted.

  2. Elder Abuse among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauriac, Jesse J.; Scruggs, Natoschia

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of extreme, moderate, and mild forms of elder abuse among African-American women (n=25) and men (n=10) were examined. African-American respondents emphasized physical abuse when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Along with physical abuse, verbal abuse was the most frequently identified form of abuse, and was significantly…

  3. Affecting African American men's prostate cancer screening decision-making through a mobile tablet-mediated intervention.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Dawood H; Rivers, Brian M; Osongo, Ben O; Wilson, Danyell S; Schenck, April; Carvajal, Rodrigo; Rivers, Desiree; Roetzheim, Richard; Green, B Lee

    2014-08-01

    African American men experience a 60% higher incidence of prostate cancer and are more than twice as likely to die from it than White men. Evidence is insufficient to conclude that definitively screening for prostate cancer reduces the likelihood of morbidity or death. Patients are encouraged to discuss screening alternatives with health care providers for informed decision-making (IDM). The extent of IDM in clinical or community setting is not known. This study uses data from a community-based, computer-mediated, IDM intervention that targeted 152 African American aged 40 to 70. Pretest-posttest differences in means for prostate cancer knowledge, screening decisional conflict, and screening decisional self-efficacy were examined by two-tailed t-tests. Overall, the intervention significantly improved respondents' prostate cancer knowledge (p<.0001), significantly improved decisional self-efficacy (p<.0001) and significantly reduced decisional conflict (p<.0001). Specifically, the intervention significantly promoted IDM among men who reported more education, being married, having financial resources, and younger age.

  4. Cross-Sectional Predictors of Sexual Assault Perpetration in a Community Sample of Single African American and Caucasian Men

    PubMed Central

    Abbey, Antonia; Parkhill, Michele R.; BeShears, Renee; Clinton-Sherrod, A. Monique; Zawacki, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Computer-assisted self-interviews were completed with a random sample of 163 unmarried Caucasian and African American men in a large metropolitan area. Almost a quarter (24.5%) of these men acknowledged committing an act since the age of 14 that met standard legal definitions of attempted or completed rape; an additional 39% had committed another type of sexual assault involving forced sexual contact or verbal coercion. An expanded version of the Malamuth et al. [1991] confluence model was examined using path analysis. The number of sexual assaults perpetrated by participants was associated with the direct or indirect effects of childhood sexual abuse, adolescent delinquency, alcohol problems, sexual dominance, positive attitudes about casual sexual relationships, and pressure from peers to engage in sexual relationships. Additionally, empathy buffered the relationship between sexual dominance and perpetration. The pattern of results was highly similar for African American and Caucasian men. The implications of these findings for sexual assault measurement are discussed and suggestions are made for alternative treatment programs. PMID:26435555

  5. Unity in diversity: results of a randomized clinical culturally tailored pilot HIV prevention intervention trial in Baltimore, Maryland, for African American men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Karin; Kuramoto, Satoko J; German, Danielle; Fields, Errol; Spikes, Pilgrim S; Patterson, Jocelyn; Latkin, Carl

    2013-06-01

    Unity in Diversity was a randomized controlled trial of a culturally tailored HIV prevention intervention for African American men who have sex with men. The intervention condition was six group-based sessions and one individual session. The control condition was a single-session HIV prevention review. Participants were aged 18 years or older, identified as African American/Black race, reported having at least two sex partners in the prior 90 days (at least one of whom must be a male partner), unprotected anal sex with male partner in the prior 90 days, and willing to test for HIV. Retention exceeded 95% at 3-month follow-up. Results of multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for baseline risk, HIV status, and health insurance indicate intervention efficacy in decreasing the number of male sex partners and marginal effects on condom use with male partners and HIV-negative/unknown partners. Specifically, intervention condition was associated with increased odds of zero male sex partners (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.26-7.28), condom use with male partners (AOR = 2.64, 95% CI = 0.95-7.36), and HIV-negative/unknown status partners (AOR = 3.19, 95% CI = 0.98-10.38) at follow-up. These results contribute to the limited number of culturally appropriate models of HIV prevention intervention that are urgently needed for African American men who have sex with men to address their persistently high rates of HIV.

  6. A Phenomenological Study of African American Men Who Were Mentored While Pursuing Their Bachelor's Degree at Historically White Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Davin Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    African American men pursuing bachelor's degrees at historically White colleges and universities (HWCU) are not graduating at the same rates as Caucasian men. With a continued rapid decline in degree completion, establishing a framework of success for these students is becoming increasingly difficult. While research concerning graduation…

  7. Differences in Perceptions of the Food Environment between African American Men Who Did and Did Not Consume Recommended Levels of Fruits and Vegetables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Derek M.; Cornish, Emily K.; McKissic, Sydika A.; Dean, Donnatesa A. L.

    2016-01-01

    African American men have high rates of chronic disease morbidity and mortality associated with their low rates of fruit and vegetable consumption. In an effort to inform tailored behavioral interventions for this demographic, we sought to assess if men with healthier eating practices viewed their environment differently than those who ate less…

  8. A Cancer Center’s Approach to Engaging African American Men About Cancer: The Men’s Fellowship Breakfast, Southeastern Michigan, 2008–2014

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Derek M.; Beasley, Derrick D.; Braxton, Effat Id-Deen

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite disproportionate rates of cancer morbidity and mortality among African American men, few community-based efforts have been developed and sustained to educate African American men about cancer. The University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center implemented a series of breakfasts to improve cancer awareness, screening, and education among African American men. This article describes the rationale for and history of the community intervention. Community Context The 21 breakfasts were held from 2008 through mid-2014 in Ypsilanti and Ann Arbor, Michigan. Ypsilanti ranks below Michigan and the nation on most socioeconomic indicators, although most residents are high school graduates (88% in Ypsilanti and 96.5% in Ann Arbor). African American men in Ypsilanti have higher death rates for diseases associated with poor diet and inadequate physical activity compared with Ypsilanti whites and general populations in Michigan and the nation. Methods We conducted a multicomponent qualitative process evaluation including staff meetings, conversations with participants, and focus groups. We collected 425 post-event surveys to evaluate the breakfasts quantitatively. Outcomes Participants were African American (85%), were aged 51 to 70 years (54%), had health insurance (89%), and had some college education (38%). Fifty-three percent of participants reported interest in the breakfast topics including nutrition; 46%, prostate cancer; 34%, colorectal cancer, and 32%, pain management; 62% reported willingness to participate in a clinical trial. Interpretation African American men are interested in learning about health and are willing to attend a health-focused breakfast series. The Men’s Fellowship Breakfast is a promising strategy for bringing men together to discuss cancer screening and risk reduction. PMID:25254982

  9. Marketing a Healthy Mind, Body, and Soul: An Analysis of How African American Men View the Church as a Social Marketer and Health Promoter of Colorectal Cancer Risk and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Vanchy, Priya; Baker, Tamara A; Daley, Christine; Ndikum-Moffer, Florence; Greiner, K Allen

    2016-08-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ranks colorectal cancer (CRC) as the third most commonly diagnosed cancer among men in the United States; African American (AA) men are at even greater risk. The present study was from a larger study that investigates the church's role as a social marketer of CRC risk and prevention messages, and whether religiously targeted and tailored health promotion materials will influence screening outcome. We used an integrated theoretical approach to explore participants' perceptions of CRC risk and prevention and how promotion messages should be developed and socially marketed by the church. Six focus groups were conducted with men from predominately AA churches in the Midwest. Themes from focus group discussions showed participants lacked knowledge about CRC, feared cancer diagnosis, and feared the procedure for screening. Roles of masculinity and the mistrust of physicians were also emergent themes. Participants did perceive the church as a trusted marketer of CRC but believed that promotional materials should be cosponsored and codeveloped by reputable health organizations. Employing the church as a social marketer of CRC screening promotion materials may be useful in guiding health promotions and addressing barriers that are distinct among African American men.

  10. The Academic Self-Concept of African American and Latina(o) Men and Women in STEM Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa, Lorelle L.

    If we are to respond to the call for equity in the representation of minority men and women in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) disciplines, we must be concerned with those college experiences that impact students' sense of self. This study addresses the 4-year development of academic self-concept for African American and Latina(o) students graduating with STEM degrees, with an emphasis placed on gender differences. Ordinary Least Squares regression was utilized to explore predictors of academic self-concept for male and female students. Findings emphasize the paramount role of the college environment as compared to background and precollege characteristics. Significant predictors exclusive to women include having positive academic self-expectations and valuing group work in a classroom setting. Significant predictors for men include being given the opportunity to work on a professor's research project and finding satisfaction with science and math coursework.

  11. Imprisoned by Empathy: Familial Incarceration and Psychological Distress among African American Men in the National Survey of American Life.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tony N; Bell, Mary Laske; Patterson, Evelyn J

    2016-06-01

    The stress process model predicts that current incarceration of a family member should damage the health status of the inmate's relatives. We address this prediction with data from the National Survey of American Life, focusing exclusively on African American men (n = 1,168). In survey-adjusted generalized linear models, we find that familial incarceration increases psychological distress, but its effect attenuates ostensibly after controlling for other chronic strains. Familial incarceration remains statistically insignificant with the introduction of mastery and family emotional support and their respective interactions with familial incarceration. However, a statistical interaction between familial incarceration and former incarceration reveals that levels of psychological distress are significantly higher among never-incarcerated respondents whose family members are incarcerated but significantly lower among formerly incarcerated respondents whose family members are incarcerated. We conclude that familial incarceration's influence on black men's mental health status may be more complex than extant theory predicts.

  12. Atlas of prostate cancer heritability in European and African-American men pinpoints tissue-specific regulation

    PubMed Central

    Gusev, Alexander; Shi, Huwenbo; Kichaev, Gleb; Pomerantz, Mark; Li, Fugen; Long, Henry W.; Ingles, Sue A.; Kittles, Rick A.; Strom, Sara S.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Nemesure, Barbara; Isaacs, William B.; Zheng, Wei; Pettaway, Curtis A.; Yeboah, Edward D.; Tettey, Yao; Biritwum, Richard B.; Adjei, Andrew A.; Tay, Evelyn; Truelove, Ann; Niwa, Shelley; Chokkalingam, Anand P.; John, Esther M.; Murphy, Adam B.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Carpten, John; Leske, M. Cristina; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Hennis, Anslem J. M.; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Hsing, Ann W.; Chu, Lisa; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Klein, Eric A.; Witte, John S.; Casey, Graham; Kaggwa, Sam; Cook, Michael B.; Stram, Daniel O.; Blot, William J.; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Easton, Douglas; Kote-Jarai, ZSofia; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Benlloch, Sara; Muir, Kenneth; Giles, Graham G.; Southey, Melissa C.; Fitzgerald, Liesel M.; Gronberg, Henrik; Wiklund, Fredrik; Aly, Markus; Henderson, Brian E.; Schleutker, Johanna; Wahlfors, Tiina; Tammela, Teuvo L. J.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Key, Tim J.; Travis, Ruth C.; Neal, David E.; Donovan, Jenny L.; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Pharoah, Paul; Pashayan, Nora; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Stanford, Janet L.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; McDonnell, Shannon K.; Schaid, Daniel J.; Maier, Christiane; Vogel, Walther; Luedeke, Manuel; Herkommer, Kathleen; Kibel, Adam S.; Cybulski, Cezary; Wokolorczyk, Dominika; Kluzniak, Wojciech; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Teerlink, Craig; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida K.; Arndt, Volker; Park, Jong Y.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Slavov, Chavdar; Kaneva, Radka; Mitev, Vanio; Batra, Jyotsna; Spurdle, Amanda; Clements, Judith A.; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Pandha, Hardev; Michael, Agnieszka; Paulo, Paula; Maia, Sofia; Kierzek, Andrzej; Cook, Margaret; Guy, Michelle; Govindasami, Koveela; Leongamornlert, Daniel; Sawyer, Emma J.; Wilkinson, Rosemary; Saunders, Edward J.; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Dadaev, Tokhir; Morgan, Angela; Fisher, Cyril; Hazel, Steve; Livni, Naomi; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Pedersen, John; Hopper, John L.; Adolfson, Jan; Stattin, Paer; Johansson, Jan-Erik; Cavalli-Bjoerkman, Carin; Karlsson, Ami; Broms, Michael; Auvinen, Anssi; Kujala, Paula; Maeaettaenen, Liisa; Murtola, Teemu; Taari, Kimmo; Weischer, Maren; Nielsen, Sune F.; Klarskov, Peter; Roder, Andreas; Iversen, Peter; Wallinder, Hans; Gustafsson, Sven; Cox, Angela; Brown, Paul; George, Anne; Marsden, Gemma; Lane, Athene; Davis, Michael; Zheng, Wei; Signorello, Lisa B.; Blot, William J.; Tillmans, Lori; Riska, Shaun; Wang, Liang; Rinckleb, Antje; Lubiski, Jan; Stegmaier, Christa; Pow-Sang, Julio; Park, Hyun; Radlein, Selina; Rincon, Maria; Haley, James; Zachariah, Babu; Kachakova, Darina; Popov, Elenko; Mitkova, Atanaska; Vlahova, Aleksandrina; Dikov, Tihomir; Christova, Svetlana; Heathcote, Peter; Wood, Glenn; Malone, Greg; Saunders, Pamela; Eckert, Allison; Yeadon, Trina; Kerr, Kris; Collins, Angus; Turner, Megan; Srinivasan, Srilakshmi; Kedda, Mary-Anne; Alexander, Kimberly; Omara, Tracy; Wu, Huihai; Henrique, Rui; Pinto, Pedro; Santos, Joana; Barros-Silva, Joao; Conti, David V.; Albanes, Demetrius; Berg, Christine; Berndt, Sonja I.; Campa, Daniele; Crawford, E. David; Diver, W. Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giovannucci, Edward; Hoover, Robert; Hunter, David J.; Johansson, Mattias; Kraft, Peter; Le Marchand, Loic; Lindström, Sara; Navarro, Carmen; Overvad, Kim; Riboli, Elio; Siddiq, Afshan; Stevens, Victoria L.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Vineis, Paolo; Yeager, Meredith; Trynka, Gosia; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Schumacher, Frederick R.; Price, Alkes L.; Freedman, Matthew L.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Pasaniuc, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    Although genome-wide association studies have identified over 100 risk loci that explain ∼33% of familial risk for prostate cancer (PrCa), their functional effects on risk remain largely unknown. Here we use genotype data from 59,089 men of European and African American ancestries combined with cell-type-specific epigenetic data to build a genomic atlas of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) heritability in PrCa. We find significant differences in heritability between variants in prostate-relevant epigenetic marks defined in normal versus tumour tissue as well as between tissue and cell lines. The majority of SNP heritability lies in regions marked by H3k27 acetylation in prostate adenoc7arcinoma cell line (LNCaP) or by DNaseI hypersensitive sites in cancer cell lines. We find a high degree of similarity between European and African American ancestries suggesting a similar genetic architecture from common variation underlying PrCa risk. Our findings showcase the power of integrating functional annotation with genetic data to understand the genetic basis of PrCa. PMID:27052111

  13. Atlas of prostate cancer heritability in European and African-American men pinpoints tissue-specific regulation.

    PubMed

    Gusev, Alexander; Shi, Huwenbo; Kichaev, Gleb; Pomerantz, Mark; Li, Fugen; Long, Henry W; Ingles, Sue A; Kittles, Rick A; Strom, Sara S; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Nemesure, Barbara; Isaacs, William B; Zheng, Wei; Pettaway, Curtis A; Yeboah, Edward D; Tettey, Yao; Biritwum, Richard B; Adjei, Andrew A; Tay, Evelyn; Truelove, Ann; Niwa, Shelley; Chokkalingam, Anand P; John, Esther M; Murphy, Adam B; Signorello, Lisa B; Carpten, John; Leske, M Cristina; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Hennis, Anslem J M; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Hsing, Ann W; Chu, Lisa; Goodman, Phyllis J; Klein, Eric A; Witte, John S; Casey, Graham; Kaggwa, Sam; Cook, Michael B; Stram, Daniel O; Blot, William J; Eeles, Rosalind A; Easton, Douglas; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Benlloch, Sara; Muir, Kenneth; Giles, Graham G; Southey, Melissa C; Fitzgerald, Liesel M; Gronberg, Henrik; Wiklund, Fredrik; Aly, Markus; Henderson, Brian E; Schleutker, Johanna; Wahlfors, Tiina; Tammela, Teuvo L J; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Key, Tim J; Travis, Ruth C; Neal, David E; Donovan, Jenny L; Hamdy, Freddie C; Pharoah, Paul; Pashayan, Nora; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Stanford, Janet L; Thibodeau, Stephen N; McDonnell, Shannon K; Schaid, Daniel J; Maier, Christiane; Vogel, Walther; Luedeke, Manuel; Herkommer, Kathleen; Kibel, Adam S; Cybulski, Cezary; Wokolorczyk, Dominika; Kluzniak, Wojciech; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Teerlink, Craig; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida K; Arndt, Volker; Park, Jong Y; Sellers, Thomas A; Lin, Hui-Yi; Slavov, Chavdar; Kaneva, Radka; Mitev, Vanio; Batra, Jyotsna; Spurdle, Amanda; Clements, Judith A; Teixeira, Manuel R; Pandha, Hardev; Michael, Agnieszka; Paulo, Paula; Maia, Sofia; Kierzek, Andrzej; Conti, David V; Albanes, Demetrius; Berg, Christine; Berndt, Sonja I; Campa, Daniele; Crawford, E David; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaziano, J Michael; Giovannucci, Edward; Hoover, Robert; Hunter, David J; Johansson, Mattias; Kraft, Peter; Le Marchand, Loic; Lindström, Sara; Navarro, Carmen; Overvad, Kim; Riboli, Elio; Siddiq, Afshan; Stevens, Victoria L; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Vineis, Paolo; Yeager, Meredith; Trynka, Gosia; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Schumacher, Frederick R; Price, Alkes L; Freedman, Matthew L; Haiman, Christopher A; Pasaniuc, Bogdan

    2016-04-07

    Although genome-wide association studies have identified over 100 risk loci that explain ∼33% of familial risk for prostate cancer (PrCa), their functional effects on risk remain largely unknown. Here we use genotype data from 59,089 men of European and African American ancestries combined with cell-type-specific epigenetic data to build a genomic atlas of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) heritability in PrCa. We find significant differences in heritability between variants in prostate-relevant epigenetic marks defined in normal versus tumour tissue as well as between tissue and cell lines. The majority of SNP heritability lies in regions marked by H3k27 acetylation in prostate adenoc7arcinoma cell line (LNCaP) or by DNaseI hypersensitive sites in cancer cell lines. We find a high degree of similarity between European and African American ancestries suggesting a similar genetic architecture from common variation underlying PrCa risk. Our findings showcase the power of integrating functional annotation with genetic data to understand the genetic basis of PrCa.

  14. HIV/AIDS stigma among a sample of primarily African-American and Latino men who have sex with men social media users.

    PubMed

    Garett, Renee; Smith, Justin; Chiu, Jason; Young, Sean D

    2016-01-01

    The recent increase in social media use allows these technologies to rapidly reach communities with higher HIV prevalence, such as African-American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). However, no studies have looked at HIV/AIDS stigma among social media users from African-American and Latino MSM communities, or the association between stigma and social media use among these groups. This study sought to assess the level of HIV/AIDS stigma among a sample of social media-using African-American and Latino MSM from Los Angeles. A total of 112 (primarily African-American and Latino, n = 98, 88%) MSM Facebook users completed a survey on demographics, online social network use, and HIV/AIDS stigma. A composite stigma score was created by taking the cumulative score from a 15-item stigma questionnaire. Cumulative logistic models were used to assess the association between HIV/AIDS stigma and online social network use. In general, participants reported a low level of HIV/AIDS stigma (mean = 22.2/75, SD = 5.74). HIV/AIDS stigma composite score was significantly associated with increased time spent on online social networks each day (Adjusted odds ratios (AOR): 1.07, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.15). Among this diverse sample of MSM online social network users, findings suggest that HIV/AIDS stigma is associated with usage of social media. We discuss the implications of this work for future HIV prevention.

  15. 'It's my inner strength': spirituality, religion and HIV in the lives of young African American men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Foster, Michael L; Arnold, Emily; Rebchook, Gregory; Kegeles, Susan M

    2011-10-01

    Young black men who have sex with men account for 48% of 13-29-year-old HIV-positive men who have sex with men in the USA. It is important to develop an effective HIV prevention approach that is grounded in the context of young men's lives. Towards this goal, we conducted 31 interviews with 18-30-year-old men who have sex with men in the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Area. This paper examines the roles of religion and spirituality in men who have sex with men's lives, which is central in the lives of many African Americans. Six prominent themes emerged: (1) childhood participation in formal religious institutions, (2) the continued importance of spirituality among men who have sex with men, (3) homophobia and stigmatisation in traditional black churches, (4) tension between being a man who has sex with men and being a Christian, (5) religion and spirituality's impact on men's sense of personal empowerment and coping abilities and (6) treatment of others and building compassion. Findings suggest that integrating spiritual practice into HIV prevention may help programmes be more culturally grounded, thereby attracting more men and resonating with their experiences and values. In addition, faith-based HIV/AIDS ministries that support HIV-positive men who have sex with men may be particularly helpful. Finally, targeting pastors and other church leaders through anti-stigma curricula is crucial.

  16. Methodology of AA CRASH: a prospective observational study evaluating the incidence and pathogenesis of adverse post-traumatic sequelae in African-Americans experiencing motor vehicle collision

    PubMed Central

    Linnstaedt, Sarah D; Hu, JunMei; Liu, Andrea Y; Soward, April C; Bollen, Kenneth A; Wang, Henry E; Hendry, Phyllis L; Zimny, Erin; Lewandowski, Christopher; Velilla, Marc-Anthony; Damiron, Kathia; Pearson, Claire; Domeier, Robert; Kaushik, Sangeeta; Feldman, James; Rosenberg, Mark; Jones, Jeffrey; Swor, Robert; Rathlev, Niels; McLean, Samuel A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A motor vehicle collision (MVC) is one of the most common life-threatening events experienced by individuals living in the USA. While most individuals recover following MVC, a significant proportion of individuals develop adverse post-traumatic sequelae such as post-traumatic stress disorder or persistent musculoskeletal pain. Adverse post-traumatic sequelae are common, morbid and costly public health problems in the USA and other industrialised countries. The pathogenesis of these disorders following MVC remains poorly understood. In the USA, available data suggest that African-Americans experience an increased burden of adverse post-traumatic sequelae after MVC compared to European Americans, but to date no studies examining the pathogenesis of these disorders among African-Americans experiencing MVC have been performed. Methods and analysis The African-American CRASH (AA CRASH) study is an NIH-funded, multicentre, prospective study that enrols African-Americans (n=900) who present to the emergency department (ED) within 24 hours of MVC. Participants are enrolled at 13 ED sites in the USA. Individuals who are admitted to the hospital or who report a fracture or tissue injury are excluded. Participants complete a detailed ED interview that includes an assessment of crash history, current post-traumatic symptoms and health status prior to the MVC. Blood samples are also collected in the ED using PAXgene DNA and PAXgene RNA tubes. Serial mixed-mode assessments 6 weeks, 6 months and 1 year after MVC include an assessment of adverse sequelae, general health status and health service utilisation. The results from this study will provide insights into the incidence and pathogenesis of persistent pain and other post-traumatic sequelae in African-Americans experiencing MVC. Ethics and dissemination AA CRASH has ethics approval in the USA, and the results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. PMID:27601501

  17. Barriers and Facilitators toward HIV Testing and Health Perceptions among African-American Men Who Have Sex with Women at a South Side Chicago Community Health Center: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Ian J; Jeremiah, Rohan D; Moore, Nataka J; Watson, Karriem; Dixon, Michael A; Jordan, Gregory L; Murray, Marcus; Keeter, Mary K; Hollowell, Courtney M P; Murphy, Adam B

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, African-Americans' (AAs) HIV infection rates are higher than any other racial group, and AA men who have sex with women (MSW) are a significant proportion of new cases. There is little research into AA MSW HIV/AIDS knowledge, barriers, and facilitators of HIV testing in Chicago. We enrolled a convenience sample of AA MSW from a community health clinic who completed self-administered surveys assessing HIV knowledge and testing-related barriers and facilitators. The survey was a combination of questions from several validated instruments, and additional questions were written based on key informant interviews with social scientists to tailor the questionnaire for AA men living on the South Side of Chicago. We recruited 20 AA MSW (mean age 47.4 years). Sixty-five percent had incomes <$10,000/year, 30% were insured, and 50% had post-secondary education. Despite low socioeconomic status, their HIV literacy was relatively high. The identified major barriers to testing were low perceived HIV risk, concerns over privacy, and external stigma at testing sites. Future efforts should focus on educating AA MSW on actual risk for HIV and address issues of privacy and stigma at testing sites.

  18. Development of a Spiritually Based Educational Intervention to Increase Informed Decision Making for Prostate Cancer Screening Among Church-Attending African American Men

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Cheryl L.; Wynn, Theresa A.; Southward, Penny; Litaker, Mark s.; Jeames, Sanford; Schulz, Emily

    2010-01-01

    One way of developing culturally relevant health communication in the African American church setting is to develop spiritually based interventions, in which the health message is framed by relevant spiritual themes and scripture. In this article we describe the development of a community health advisor (CHA)-led intervention aimed at increasing informed decision making (IDM) for prostate cancer screening among church-attending African American men. Full-color print educational booklets were developed and pilot tested with extensive community participation of church-attending African American men age-eligible for screening. The intervention development phase consisted of ideas solicited from an advisory panel of African American men (N = 10), who identified core content and developed the spiritual themes. In the intervention pilot testing phase, prototypes of the intervention materials were pilot tested for graphic appeal in two focus groups (N = 16), and content was tested for acceptability and comprehension using individual cognitive response interviews (N = 10). Recommendations were made for project branding and logo and for use of graphics of real people in the educational materials. Significant feedback was obtained from the focus groups, on the graphics, colors, fonts, continuity, titles, and booklet size/shape. The importance of working closely with the community when developing interventions is discussed, as well as the importance of pilot testing of educational materials. PMID:19731129

  19. Development of a spiritually based educational intervention to increase informed decision making for prostate cancer screening among church-attending African American men.

    PubMed

    Holt, Cheryl L; Wynn, Theresa A; Southward, Penny; Litaker, Mark S; Jeames, Sanford; Schulz, Emily

    2009-09-01

    One way of developing culturally relevant health communication in the African American church setting is to develop spiritually based interventions, in which the health message is framed by relevant spiritual themes and scripture. In this article we describe the development of a community health advisor(CHA)-led intervention aimed at increasing informed decision making (IDM) for prostate cancer screening among church-attending African American men. Full-color print educational booklets were developed and pilot tested with extensive community participation of church-attending African American men age-eligible for screening. The intervention development phase consisted of ideas solicited from an advisory panel of African American men (N = 10), who identified core content and developed the spiritual themes. In the intervention pilot testing phase, prototypes of the intervention materials were pilot tested for graphic appeal in two focus groups (N = 16), and content was tested for acceptability and comprehension using individual cognitive response interviews (N = 10). Recommendations were made for project branding and logo and for use of graphics of real people in the educational materials. Significant feedback was obtained from the focus groups, on the graphics, colors, fonts, continuity, titles, and booklet size/shape. The importance of working closely with the community when developing interventions is discussed, as well as the importance of pilot testing of educational materials.

  20. Attitudes Toward HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) Among African American Men Who Have Sex with Men: Concerns Underlying Reluctance to Test

    PubMed Central

    St. Lawrence, Janet S.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Owczarzak, Jill; Amirkhanian, Yuri A.; Sitzler, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary antiretroviral therapy (ART) can produce viral suppression of HIV, maintain health, and prevent onward HIV transmission from infected persons to their sexual partners, giving rise to the concept of treatment as prevention. Successful implementation of test-and-treat strategies rests on the early detection of HIV infection through voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) followed by entry and retention in care, ART initiation and adherence, and subsequent viral suppression. In the United States, African American men who have sex with men (MSM) bear a disproportionate burden of HIV and have high rates of undetected and untreated HIV infection. However, little research has examined racial minority MSM’s views about HIV testing. In this study, in-depth interviews were conducted with 96 key informants knowledgeable about racial minority MSM as well as 100 African American MSM community members in Milwaukee, Cleveland, and Miami. Most men in the sample were aware of the availability of testing and knew testing locations, but many voiced great personal ambivalence about being tested, feared knowing their HIV status, expressed concern about stigma and loss of confidentiality, and held beliefs indicative of medical mistrust. Participants did not spontaneously cite benefits of being tested, risk reduction behavior changes made as a consequence of testing, nor the benefits of testing to get early medical care for HIV infection. There is a gap between the public health field’s perception of testing benefits and the beliefs about testing held by racial minority MSM in this sample. To increase the desired outcomes from VCT for minority MSM, VCT promotion should address the concerns of African American MSM and underscore the benefits of early entry into medical care. PMID:26010312

  1. Feasibility and Acceptability of Smartphone-Based Ecological Momentary Assessment of Alcohol Use Among African American Men Who Have Sex With Men in Baltimore

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Gregory; Bollinger, Robert; Chang, Larry; Chander, Geetanjali; Siconolfi, Daniel; Braxton, Sharif; Rudolph, Abby; Latkin, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol use is a risk factor for the acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among African American men who have sex with men (MSM). Mobile phone-based ecological momentary assessments (EMA) could minimize bias due to retrospective recall and thus provide a better understanding of the social and structural context of alcohol use and its relationship with HIV-related risk behaviors in this population as well as other highly stigmatized populations. Objective We describe the study design and the implementation, feasibility, reactivity, and acceptability of an EMA study of alcohol use and HIV-related behaviors among African American MSM in Baltimore. Methods Participants were recruited through flyers and word-of-mouth in Baltimore from September 2013 to November 2014. Each participant was loaned an Android smartphone and instructed to respond to multiple prompts from the mobile app for 4 weeks. Data were collected through (1) random prompts delivered three times daily assessing participants’ location, activity, mood, and social context, (2) daily prompts capturing drinking and sex events occurring in the past 24 hours, and (3) event-contingent responses collecting participants’ self-reported episodes of drinking. Results A total of 16 participants enrolled in the study. The current analyses focused on 15 participants who completed at least 24 days of follow-up (mean follow-up time 29 days; range 24-35 days). Study participants (N=15) were a median 38 years of age (range 27-62 years) with low levels of income and educational attainment. Ten individuals self-reported living with HIV/AIDS, over half reported drinking alcohol at least 2-3 times a week, and a third reported binge drinking (ie, 6 or more drinks on one occasion) on a weekly basis. Based on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score, nearly half were classified as hazardous drinkers (score 8-15) and a fifth were likely dependent (score ≥16). A total of 140

  2. Condom use: exploring verbal and non-verbal communication strategies among Latino and African American men and women.

    PubMed

    Zukoski, Ann P; Harvey, S Marie; Branch, Meredith

    2009-08-01

    A growing body of literature provides evidence of a link between communication with sexual partners and safer sexual practices, including condom use. More research is needed that explores the dynamics of condom communication including gender differences in initiation, and types of communication strategies. The overall objective of this study was to explore condom use and the dynamics surrounding condom communication in two distinct community-based samples of African American and Latino heterosexual couples at increased risk for HIV. Based on 122 in-depth interviews, 80% of women and 74% of men reported ever using a condom with their primary partner. Of those who reported ever using a condom with their current partner, the majority indicated that condom use was initiated jointly by men and women. In addition, about one-third of the participants reported that the female partner took the lead and let her male partner know she wanted to use a condom. A sixth of the sample reported that men initiated use. Although over half of the respondents used bilateral verbal strategies (reminding, asking and persuading) to initiate condom use, one-fourth used unilateral verbal strategies (commanding and threatening to withhold sex). A smaller number reported using non-verbal strategies involving condoms themselves (e.g. putting a condom on or getting condoms). The results suggest that interventions designed to improve condom use may need to include both members of a sexual dyad and focus on improving verbal and non-verbal communication skills of individuals and couples.

  3. Discrimination and Hate Crimes in the Context of Neighborhood Poverty and Stressors Among HIV-Positive African-American Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    PubMed

    Dale, Sannisha K; Bogart, Laura M; Galvan, Frank H; Wagner, Glenn J; Pantalone, David W; Klein, David J

    2016-06-01

    In a sample of HIV-positive African-American men who have sex with men (MSM), we examined neighborhood factors that may contextualize perceived discrimination from three intersecting stigmatized characteristics: race, HIV status, and sexual orientation. HIV-positive African-American MSM (N = 162, mean age = 44, SD = 8) provided information on neighborhood-related stressors and discrimination experiences related to being Black, HIV-positive, or perceived as gay. Residential ZIP codes and US Census data were used to determine neighborhood poverty rates. Regressions, controlling for socio-demographics, indicated that (1) higher neighborhood poverty was significantly related to more frequent experiences with hate crimes (Gay-related: b = 1.15, SE = .43, p < .008); and (2) higher neighborhood-related stressors were significantly related to more frequent discrimination (Black-related: b = .91, SE = .28, p = .001; gay-related: b = .71, SE = .29, p = .01; and HIV-related: b = .65, SE = .28, p = .02) and hate crimes (Gay-related: b = .48, SE = .13, p = .001; and Black-related: b = .28, SE = .14, p = .04). For HIV-positive African-American MSM, higher neighborhood poverty and related stressors are associated with experiencing more discrimination and hate crimes. Interventions for this group should promote individual- and neighborhood-level socioeconomic empowerment and stigma reduction.

  4. Knowledge, Beliefs and Behaviours Related to STD Risk, Prevention, and Screening among a Sample of African American Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhrig, Jennifer D.; Friedman, Allison; Poehlman, Jon; Scales, Monica; Forsythe, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Current data on sexually transmitted disease (STD) among African Americans show significant racial/ethnic disparities. The purpose of this study was to explore knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours related to STD risk, prevention, and testing among African American adults to help inform the development of a health communication…

  5. HIV-Related Sexual Risk among African American Men Preceding Incarceration: Associations with Support from Significant Others, Family, and Friends.

    PubMed

    Coatsworth, Ashley M; Scheidell, Joy D; Wohl, David A; Whitehead, Nicole E; Golin, Carol E; Judon-Monk, Selena; Khan, Maria R

    2017-02-01

    We evaluated the association between social support received from significant others, family, and friends and HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among African American men involved in the criminal justice system. Project DISRUPT is a cohort study among African American men released from prison in North Carolina (N = 189). During the baseline (in-prison) survey, we assessed the amount of support men perceived they had received from significant others, family, and friends. We measured associations between low support from each source (

  6. Mediators of the relationship between racial identity and life satisfaction in a community sample of African American women and men.

    PubMed

    Yap, Stevie C Y; Settles, Isis H; Pratt-Hyatt, Jennifer S

    2011-01-01

    Few empirical studies have explored the mechanisms through which racial identity, the importance of racial group membership, affects well-being for racial/ethnic minorities. Using a community sample of 161 African American adults, the present study examined whether the association between racial identity (centrality, public regard, and private regard) and life satisfaction is mediated by two identity functions, belongingness and discrimination. Our results indicated that the relationships of centrality and private regard with life satisfaction were mediated by perceptions of belongingness. Furthermore, gender moderated the strength of each of these mediating effects, such that belongingness mediated these relationships for women but not for men. Our results also indicated that the relationship between public regard and life satisfaction was mediated by perceptions of discrimination. Furthermore, higher public regard was related to lower perceptions of discrimination for women but not men. However, a combined model for public regard and life satisfaction as mediated by discrimination failed to show moderated mediation. We discuss these results in relation to research and theory on racial identity and intersectionality.

  7. Male Role Norms, Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perceptions of Colorectal Cancer Screening among Young Adult African American Men

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Charles R.; Goodson, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Racial disparities in health among African American men (AAM) in the United States are extensive. In contrast to their White counterparts, AAM have more illnesses and die younger. AAM have colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates 25% and 50% higher, respectively, than White men. Due to CRC’s younger age at presentation and high incidence among AAM, CRC screening (CRCS) is warranted at the age of 45 rather than 50, but little is known about younger AAM’s views of CRCS. Employing survey design, the purpose of the study was to describe the male role norms (MRN), knowledge, attitudes, perceived subjective norms, and perceived barriers associated with screening for CRC among a non-random sample of 157 young adult AAM (ages 19–45). Sixty-seven percent of the study sample received a passing knowledge score (85% or better), yet no significant differences were found among the three educational levels (i.e., low, medium, high). More negative attitudes toward CRCS correlated with the participants’ strong perceptions of barriers, but no extremely negative or positive MRN and perceived subjective norms were found. The factors significantly associated with attitudes were family history of cancer (unsure), work status, and perceived barriers. Findings from this study provide a solid basis for developing structured health education interventions that address the salient factors shaping young adult AAM’s view of CRC and early detection screening behaviors. PMID:25506049

  8. The Committed Intimate Partnerships of Incarcerated African-American Men: Implications for Sexual HIV Transmission Risk and Prevention Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Khan, Maria R; El-Bassel, Nabila; Golin, Carol E; Scheidell, Joy D; Adimora, Adaora A; Coatsworth, Ashley M; Hu, Hui; Judon-Monk, Selena; Medina, Katie P; Wohl, David A

    2017-03-22

    Incarceration is thought to influence HIV transmission by disrupting partnerships that provide support and protect against sex risk-taking. Current correctional facility-based family-strengthening programs focus on marital partnerships, a minority of inmates' partnerships. Research on the sex partnerships of incarcerated African-American men and the types of partnerships most likely to protect against HIV-related sex risk is limited. Improved understanding can inform expansion of correctional facility-based family-strengthening programs to a greater proportion of protective partnerships and HIV risk reduction programs to partnerships vulnerable to sex risk. Project DISRUPT is a cohort study of African-American men being released from prison in North Carolina who were in committed heterosexual partnerships at prison entry. Using baseline survey data (N = 189), we conducted latent class analysis (LCA) to identify subgroups of participants with distinct relationship profiles and measured associations between relationship characteristics and multiple partnerships of inmates and their partners in the six months before incarceration. LCA indicated a two-class solution, with relationships distinguished by satisfaction/stability (satisfied/stable class: 58.0%; dissatisfied/unstable class: 42.0%); each class had comparable relationship length and levels of marriage and cohabitation. Dissatisfied/unstable relationships were associated with multiple partnerships among participants (AOR 2.93, 95% CI 1.50, 5.72) and partners (AOR 4.95, 95% CI 1.68, 14.58). Satisfaction indicators-versus length, marriage, or cohabitation-were the strongest independent correlates of inmates' and partners' multiple partnerships. Pre-incarceration economic deprivation, mental disorder symptoms, substance use, and violence in relationships were associated with dissatisfaction/instability. Prison-based programs designed to maintain healthy partnerships, strengthen relationship skills, and reduce

  9. Preparing African-American men in community primary care practices to decide whether or not to have prostate cancer screening.

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Ronald E.; Daskalakis, Constantine; Cocroft, James; Kunkel, Elisabeth J. S.; Delmoor, Ernestine; Liberatore, Matthew; Nydick, Robert L.; Brown, Earl R.; Gay, Roy N.; Powell, Thomas; Powell, Roberta Lee

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was a randomized trial to test the impact of an informed decision-making intervention on prostate cancer screening use. METHODS: The study population included 242 African-American men from three primary care practices who were 40-69 years of age and had no history of prostate cancer. Participants completed a baseline survey questionnaire and were randomly assigned either to a Standard Intervention (SI) group (N=121) or an Enhanced Intervention (EI) group (N=121). An informational booklet was mailed to both groups. EI group men were also offered a screening decision education session. Two outcomes were considered: (1) complete screening (i.e., having a digital rectal exam (DRE) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing), and (2) complete or partial screening (i.e., having a PSA test with or without DRE). An endpoint chart audit was performed six months after initial intervention contact. The data were analyzed via exact logistic regression. RESULTS: Overall, screening use was low among study participants. EI group men had a screening frequency two times greater than that of SI group men, but the difference was not statistically significant: 8% vs. 4 % (OR = 1.94) fo rcomplete screening, and 19% vs. 10% (OR = 2.08) for complete or partial screening. Multivariable analyses showed that being in the EI group and primary care practice were significant predictors of complete or partial screening (OR = 3.9 and OR = 5.64, respectively). CONCLUSION: Prostate cancer screening use may be influenced by exposure to decision education and the influence of screening-related primary care practice factors. PMID:16173330

  10. Beyond the Ball: Implications for HIV risk and prevention among the constructed families of African American Men who have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Owczarzak, Jill; Lawrence, Janet St.; Sitzler, Cheryl; Quinn, Katherine; Pearson, Broderick; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Amirkhanian, Yuri A.

    2014-01-01

    African American men who have sex with men (AAMSM) are disproportionately burdened by new and existing HIV infections. In spite of this, few HIV prevention interventions have been developed that meet the specific needs of AAMSM and that are culturally appropriate and build on strengths and resources. In this paper, we examine constructed families, including those who belong to houses and those who do not, from a three city sample of 196 AAMSM. Results show that the majority of AAMSM who belong to constructed families do not participate in houses or balls. Both house and non-house affiliated constructed families are important sources of social support among AAMSM. Participants reported limited success in spreading HIV messages at ball events, but talk about HIV within their constructed families. Social network approaches to HIV prevention may capitalize on existing social ties within constructed families to promote safer sexual behaviors. PMID:24980248

  11. Racial Differences in Retention in Residential Substance Abuse Treatment: The Impact on African American Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, R. Lyle; MacMaster, Samuel; Rasch, Randolph

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study employed a static group comparison design with 106 men in residential treatment to examine the relationship of race to treatment retention. Methods: A retrospective analysis of retention, by race, including survival analysis, was undertaken. Results: Findings from the study indicated that (a) Caucasian men complete treatment…

  12. What's In an Identity Label? Correlates of Sociodemographics, Psychosocial Characteristics, and Sexual Behavior Among African American Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    PubMed

    Rutledge, Scott Edward; Jemmott, John B; O'Leary, Ann; Icard, Larry D

    2016-07-22

    African American men who have sex with men (AAMSM) are vastly overrepresented among people with HIV/AIDS. Using data from 595 AAMSM in Philadelphia, we explored differences in sociodemographics, psychosocial characteristics related to beliefs about ethnicity, sexuality and masculinity, and sexual behavior with men and women by self-reported sexual identity (gay, bisexual, down low, straight). Roughly equivalent numbers identified as gay (40.6 %) and bisexual (41.3 %), while fewer identified as straight (7.6 %) or down low (10.5 %), with significant differences in age, income, history of incarceration, HIV status, alcohol and drug problems, childhood sexual abuse, and connection to the gay community evident among these groups. Analysis of psychosocial characteristics theorized to be related to identity and sexual behavior indicated significant differences in masculinity, homophobia, and outness as MSM. Gay and straight men appeared to be poles on a continuum of frequency of sexual behavior, with bisexual and down low men being sometimes more similar to gay men and sometimes more similar to straight men. The percentage of men having total intercourse of any kind was highest among down low and lowest among gay men. Gay men had less intercourse with women, but more receptive anal intercourse with men than the other identities. There were no significant differences by identity in frequency of condomless insertive anal intercourse with men, but gay men had significantly more condomless receptive anal intercourse. There were significant differences by identity for condomless vaginal and anal intercourse with women. This study demonstrates the importance of exploring differences in types of sex behavior for AAMSM by considering sexual identity.

  13. Genetic Variations in Mitochondria and Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness and Progression in Caucasian and African American Men

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    SUBJECT TERMS Mitochondrial DNAs prostate cancer 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 6 19a. NAME OF...6 4 Introduction The mitochondrial genome is highly polymorphic among individuals and exhibits significant... mitochondrial DNA sequencing to identify novel genetic variants in AA and CA prostate cancer patients. A subset of the study population from PCaP

  14. Relationship of childhood adversity and neighborhood violence to a proinflammatory phenotype in emerging adult African American men: An epigenetic link.

    PubMed

    Janusek, Linda Witek; Tell, Dina; Gaylord-Harden, Noni; Mathews, Herbert L

    2017-02-01

    African American men (AAM) who are exposed to trauma and adversity during their early life are at greater risk for poor health over their lifespan. Exposure to adversity during critical developmental windows may embed an epigenetic signature that alters expression of genes that regulate stress response systems, including those genes that regulate the inflammatory response to stress. Such an epigenetic signature may increase risk for diseases exacerbated by inflammation, and may contribute to health disparity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent to which exposure to early life adversity influences the psychological, cortisol, and proinflammatory response to acute stress (Trier Social Stress Test - TSST) in emerging adult AAM, ages 18-25years (N=34). Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine the cortisol and IL-6 pattern of response to the TSST with respect to childhood adversity factors and DNA methylation of the IL-6 promoter. Findings revealed that in response to the TSST, greater levels of childhood trauma and indirect exposure to neighborhood violence were associated with a greater TSST-induced IL-6 response, and a blunted cortisol response. Reduced methylation of the IL6 promoter was related to increased exposure to childhood trauma and greater TSST-induced IL-6 levels. These results support the concept that exposure to childhood adversity amplifies the adult proinflammatory response to stress, which is related to epigenetic signature.

  15. Exercise training favourably affects autonomic and blood pressure responses during mental and physical stressors in African-American men.

    PubMed

    Bond, V; Bartels, M N; Sloan, R P; Millis, R M; Zion, A S; Andrews, N; De Meersman, R E

    2009-04-01

    Aerobic exercise is a powerful mechanism by which cardiovascular and autonomic parameters may be improved. We sought to quantify the extent of benefit that could be achieved by a short-term monitored exercise regimen on several autonomic parameters during recognized mental and physical stressors in young normotensive African-American men matched for a family history of hypertension, a group at high risk for the development of hypertension. Autonomic modulations were derived using spectral decomposition of the electrocardiogram and beat-to-beat blood pressures (BPs). Arterial compliance was obtained using contour analysis of the radial artery pulse wave. The analysis of variance revealed that compared with a matched sedentary control group, aerobic capacity of the trained group significantly increased by 16%. Autonomic modulations, arterial compliance and BP responses significantly improved during some of the stressors, whereas no such improvements were seen in the control group. Attenuated responses, mediated through a favourable shift in sympathovagal balance and enhanced arterial compliance, provide mechanistic evidence of how certain variables may be improved due to aerobic conditioning in a population at high risk for the development of hypertension.

  16. African-American Biography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ron

    1995-01-01

    Suggests sources of information for African American History Month for library media specialists who work with students in grades four through eight. Gale Research's "African-American Reference Library," which includes "African-America Biography,""African-American Chronology," and "African-American Almanac,"…

  17. African American Men and Prostate Cancer: Be Your Own Advocate and Understand Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... the benefits of prostate cancer screening outweigh the harms. Some doctors screen some men for prostate cancer ... find prostate cancers that never would have caused harm in a man’s lifetime. In either case, screening ...

  18. Ethical issues in a study of bipolar disorder and HIV risk among African-American men who have sex with men: case study in the ethics of mental health research.

    PubMed

    Loue, Sana

    2012-03-01

    African-American men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increased risk of HIV infection, as are individuals with severe mental illness. This study was conducted at the behest of members of the African-American MSM community in Cleveland, Ohio, to assess the co-occurrence of HIV risk and bipolar disorder among African-American MSM. A sample of 125 participants was recruited via flyers and word of mouth at venues used by members of this community. Individuals were assessed for HIV risk and severe mental illness. Various ethical issues were presented, including participant capacity and voluntariness and the risk-benefit ratio. Divergent perspectives of the local institutional review board and the community advisory group with respect to the risks and benefits of participation required reconciliation before the study could proceed. Solutions for the resolution of such conflicts are discussed.

  19. Racial Pride and Condom Use in Post-Incarcerated African-American Men Who Have Sex With Men and Women: Test of a Conceptual Model for the Men in Life Environments Intervention.

    PubMed

    Li, Michael J; Frank, Heather Guentzel; Harawa, Nina T; Williams, John K; Chou, Chih-Ping; Bluthenthal, Ricky N

    2016-04-26

    African-American men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) are among those most heavily impacted by HIV in the United States, and those who have histories of incarceration are at further risk of infection. The Men in Life Environments (MILE) HIV prevention intervention was developed to provide culturally appropriate skills-based education and support for African-American MSMW with recent histories of incarceration. The MILE's conceptual framework was informed by three theories: Theory of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior, Critical Thinking and Cultural Affirmation Model, and Empowerment Theory. The theory-based framework posits that improving racial pride is crucial in building self-efficacy and intentions that in turn promote health-protective behaviors. Therefore, our study aimed to assess whether baseline associations between racial pride and condom use self-efficacy, intentions, and behaviors among African-American MSMW with histories of incarceration align with our conceptual model. We report data on 212 participants recruited from Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department Men's Central Jail and the local community. Using structural equation modeling, we tested two separate models: one with female sexual partners and one with male sexual partners, while stratifying by participant's HIV status. Only among HIV-negative participants was greater racial pride associated with less condomless intercourse with men. In this group, greater self-efficacy and intentions-but not racial pride-predicted less condomless intercourse with women. Our findings suggest that racial pride is an important factor to address in HIV prevention interventions for post-incarcerated African-American MSMW.

  20. Short-Term Exercise and Prostate Cancer Prevention in African American Men

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    sedentary lifestyle may predispose African-African men to prostate cancer by affecting levels of serum factors that potentate the growth of the...whites of similar age. It has been suggested that a high fat diet and sedentary lifestyle may possibly cause the increased incidence of prostate

  1. ‘It’s my inner strength’: Spirituality, religion and HIV in the lives of young African American men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Michael L.; Arnold, Emily; Rebchook, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) account for 48% of 13–29 year old HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in the USA. It is important to develop an effective HIV prevention approach that is grounded in the context of young men’s lives. Towards this goal, we conducted 31 interviews with 18–30 year old YBMSM in the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Area. This paper examines the roles of religion and spirituality in YBMSM’s lives, which is central in the lives of many African Americans. Six prominent themes emerged: (1) childhood participation in formal religious institutions; (2) the continued importance of spirituality among YBMSM; (3) homophobia and stigmatisation in traditional black churches; (4) tension between being an MSM and Christian; (5) religion and spirituality’s impact on men’s sense of personal empowerment and coping abilities; and (6) treatment of others and building compassion. Findings suggest that integrating spiritual practice into HIV prevention may help programmes be more culturally grounded, thereby attracting more men and resonating with their experiences and values. In addition, faith-based HIV/AIDS ministries that support HIV-positive YBMSM may be particularly helpful. Finally, targeting pastors and other church leaders through anti-stigma curricula is crucial. PMID:21824017

  2. Sexual risk taking in relation to sexual identification, age, and education in a diverse sample of African American men who have sex with men (MSM) in New York City.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Melvin C; Halkitis, Perry N; Storholm, Erik D; Kupprat, Sandra A; Siconolfi, Daniel E; Jones, Donovan; Steen, Jeff T; Gillen, Sara; McCree, Donna Hubbard

    2013-03-01

    HIV disproportionately affects African American men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. To inform this epidemiological pattern, we examined cross-sectional sexual behavior data in 509 African American MSM. Bivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the extent to which age, education,and sexual identity explain the likelihood of engaging in sex with a partner of a specific gender and the likelihood of engaging in unprotected sexual behaviors based on partner gender. Across all partner gender types,unprotected sexual behaviors were more likely to be reported by men with lower education. Younger, non-gay identified men were more likely to engage in unprotected sexual behaviors with transgender partners, while older, non-gay identified men were more likely to engage in unprotected sexual behaviors with women. African American MSM do not represent a monolithic group in their sexual behaviors, highlighting the need to target HIV prevention efforts to different subsets of African American MSM communities as appropriate.

  3. Adipose Stem Cell-Based Therapeutic Targeting of Residual Androgens in African Americans With Bone-Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    ABSTRACT The disproportionate incidence and mortality of prostate cancer (CaP) among African Americans ( AA ) in comparison to Caucasian American (CA...are not well understood. It is believed that high circulating androgens reported in AA men may account for such racial disparities. It has been...mass-index (BMI), which is significantly higher in AA -men, and the risk for aggressive CaP. Active steroidogenic pathways are active in adipocytes

  4. Residential Segregation, Housing Status, and Prostate Cancer in African American and White Men

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    diet (total calories, total fat calories, total carbohydrates, selenium, and lycopene ), minutes of leisure activity and work, gene polymorphisms. b...PhIP exposure, namely, consumption of grilled and overcooked meats. Materials and Methods Study Sample The study population consisted of men who were...the phone, and the second part was done in person) and donate a blood sample for DNA analysis. Race was self- reported by participants. All study

  5. Novel Nomogram That Predicts Aggressive Disease and Treatment Failure Among African-American Men with Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    and Caucasian (CS) men with low-grade prostate cancer and similar cancer of the prostate risk assessment—postsurgery ( CAPRA -S) features following...grade disease and similar CAPRA -S scores. Results: With a median follow-up time of 27 months, the overall 7-year FFbF rate was 86% vs. 79% in CS and AA...0.35) or CAPRA -S score (P ¼ 0.28). In the subset analysis of patients with low-grade disease, AA race was associated with worse FFbF outcomes (P

  6. EFFECT OF HIGH-DOSE VITAMIN D REPLETION ON GLYCEMIC CONTROL IN AFRICAN AMERICAN MEN WITH PREDIABETES AND HYPOVITAMINOSIS D

    PubMed Central

    Barengolts, Elena; Manickam, Buvana; Eisenberg, Yuval; Akbar, Arfana; Kukreja, Subhash; Ciubotaru, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Objective This double blind, randomized, controlled trial evaluated 12 months high dose vitamin D2 supplementation for improving insulin sensitivity, secretion and glycemic status. Methods African American men with prediabetes (A1C 5.7 – 6.4%), hypovitaminosis D (25OHD 5 – 29 ng/ml), and prevalent medical problems were supplemented with vitamin D3 (400 IU/day) and then randomized to weekly placebo or vitamin D2 (50,000 IU). The primary outcome was the change in oral glucose insulin sensitivity (OGIS, from oral glucose tolerance test) after 12 months of treatment. Secondary outcomes included other glycemic indices, A1C and incident diabetes. Results Baseline characteristics were similar in vitamin D-supplemented (n = 87) and placebo (n = 86) subjects completing the trial with average concentrations 14.4 ng/ml, 362 and 6.1% for 25OHD, OGIS and A1C, respectively. After 12 months vitamin D-supplemented group had a change in serum 25OHD +35 vs +6 ng/ml for placebo, p<0.001; OGIS +7.8 vs −16.0 for placebo, p = 0.026; and A1C −0.01 vs +0.01% for placebo, p = 0.66; while 10% in both groups progressed to diabetes. A post hoc analysis of participants with baseline impaired fasting glucose showed that more subjects in the vitamin D subgroup (31.6%) than placebo (8.3%) returned to normal glucose tolerance, but the difference did not reach significance (p=0.13). Conclusion The trial does not provide evidence that 12 months of high-dose D2 repletion improves clinically relevant glycemic outcomes in subjects with prediabetes and hypovitaminosis D (NCT01375660). PMID:25716637

  7. Fatalistic Cancer Beliefs and Information Seeking in Formerly Incarcerated African-American and Hispanic Men: Implications for Cancer Health Communication and Research.

    PubMed

    Valera, Pamela; Lian, Zi; Brotzman, Laura; Reid, Andrea

    2017-03-03

    African-American and Hispanic men are disproportionately affected by cancer experiencing higher rates of cancer-related morbidity and mortality for many cancers (but not all). These challenges may be magnified for a subpopulation of African-American and Hispanic men who have been incarcerated. A survey assessing demographics, incarceration experience, psychosocial, behavioral, and cancer health information seeking was administered to 230 previously incarcerated men aged 35 years and older. Data analysis was performed to assess the association between fatalism, perceived susceptibility, and health information seeking in this population. This study revealed the following: the majority of the participants (68.7%) held the fatalistic belief: "When I think of cancer, I automatically think of death." Second, the fatalistic belief, "There's not much you can do to lower your chances of getting cancer," is more prevalent among those who perceived a higher risk of developing cancer. Third, older participants (those between 55 and 70 years old) and widowed are less likely to think of death when they think of cancer. In addition, those who use the Internet to look for health or medical information (i.e., engaging in health information seeking) are less likely to agree with the fatalistic belief: "It seems like everything causes cancer." Given the high incidence of certain cancers among African-American and Hispanic men and the vulnerability of those involved in the criminal justice system, our findings highlight the importance of understanding perceived susceptibility to cancer, fatalistic beliefs about cancer, and information seeking in formerly incarcerated men.

  8. Exploring How African American Faculty Cope with Classroom Racial Stressors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Chavella T.

    2010-01-01

    This study was an examination of how African American faculty discussed their coping with racially stressful classrooms. Despite aims for racial equality in higher education, the classroom has been a significant site of racial stressors for African American facility. Analysis of interviews with 16 (8 women, 8 men) African American faculty at a…

  9. African-American Males' Health Perceptions and Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeal, CoSandra; Perkins, Isaac; Lyons, Shenia

    2006-01-01

    Research on African American men's health is limited. Perception and knowledge of health may have a significant effect on health seeking behavior and self care. This study was designed to examine factors that may influence health perception and knowledge among African American males. This is a cross-sectional study of 343 African American males…

  10. African American Males in Counseling: Who's Pulling the Trigger Now?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethea-Whitfield, Patricia

    African American males face numerous challenges to their physical and psychological well-being. This project is a survey of the literature and trends relative to African American males from 1987 to the present. In reviewing the fifteen years since Parham and McDavis published their now famous article on African American men as an endangered…

  11. STI/HIV Sexual Risk Behavior and Prevalent STI among Incarcerated African American Men in Committed Intimate Partnerships: The Significance of Poverty, Mood Disorders, and Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Khan, MR; Golin, CE; Friedman, SR; Scheidell, JD; Adimora, AA; Judon-Monk, S; Hobbs, MM; Dockery, G; Griffin, S; Oza, KK; Myers, D; Hu, H; Medina, KP; Wohl, DA

    2015-01-01

    African Americans face disproportionate sexually transmitted infection including HIV (STI/HIV), with those passing through a correctional facility at heightened risk. There is a need to identify modifiable STI/HIV risk factors among incarcerated African Americans. Project DISRUPT is a cohort study of incarcerated African American men recruited from September 2011 through January 2014 from prisons in North Carolina who were in committed partnerships with women at prison entry (N=207). During the baseline (in-prison) study visit, participants responded to a risk behavior survey and provided a urine specimen, which was tested for STIs. Substantial proportions reported multiple partnerships (42%), concurrent partnerships (33%), and buying sex (11%) in the six months before incarceration, and 9% tested positive for an STI at baseline (chlamydia: 5.3%, gonorrhea: 0.5%, trichomoniasis: 4.9%). Poverty and depression appeared to be strongly associated with sexual risk behaviors. Substance use was linked to prevalent STI, with binge drinking the strongest independent risk factor (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 3.79, 95% CI: 1.19–12.04). There is a continued need for improved prison-based STI testing, treatment, and prevention education as well as mental health and substance use diagnosis. PMID:25863467

  12. STI/HIV Sexual Risk Behavior and Prevalent STI Among Incarcerated African American Men in Committed Partnerships: The Significance of Poverty, Mood Disorders, and Substance Use.

    PubMed

    Khan, M R; Golin, C E; Friedman, S R; Scheidell, J D; Adimora, A A; Judon-Monk, S; Hobbs, M M; Dockery, G; Griffin, S; Oza, K K; Myers, D; Hu, H; Medina, K P; Wohl, D A

    2015-08-01

    African Americans face disproportionate sexually transmitted infection including HIV (STI/HIV), with those passing through a correctional facility at heightened risk. There is a need to identify modifiable STI/HIV risk factors among incarcerated African Americans. Project DISRUPT is a cohort study of incarcerated African American men recruited from September 2011 through January 2014 from prisons in North Carolina who were in committed partnerships with women at prison entry (N = 207). During the baseline (in-prison) study visit, participants responded to a risk behavior survey and provided a urine specimen, which was tested for STIs. Substantial proportions reported multiple partnerships (42 %), concurrent partnerships (33 %), and buying sex (11 %) in the 6 months before incarceration, and 9 % tested positive for an STI at baseline (chlamydia: 5.3 %, gonorrhea: 0.5 %, trichomoniasis: 4.9 %). Poverty and depression appeared to be strongly associated with sexual risk behaviors. Substance use was linked to prevalent STI, with binge drinking the strongest independent risk factor (adjusted odds ratio: 3.79, 95 % CI 1.19-12.04). There is a continued need for improved prison-based STI testing, treatment, and prevention education as well as mental health and substance use diagnosis.

  13. Effects of gender-matching and racial self-labeling on paranoia in African-American men with severe mental illness.

    PubMed Central

    Whaley, Arthur L.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the effects of gender-matching and racial self-labeling on the paranoid symptoms of African-American men with severe mental illness. It was hypothesized that gender matching would: 1) reduce self-reports of both interpersonal and cultural paranoia in these male participants with severe mental illness, and 2) the gender effect would be strongest among those patients who racially self-label as African-American. METHOD: One-hundred-twenty-four African-American male psychiatric patients were interviewed by a male or female black psychologist. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted with the Fenigstein Paranoia Scale (FPS) and Cultural Mistrust Inventory (CMI) as dependent variables, and the male gender-matched group (0=no, 1=yes) and racial self-labeling as the independent variables controlling for age; education; never married (0=no, 1=yes); diagnosis of schizophrenia (0=no, 1=yes); need for approval; self-esteem; and the scales of Distrust, Perceived Hostility of Others, and False Beliefs and Perceptions from the Psychiatric Epidemiology Research Interview. RESULTS: There was a significant main effect for male gender-matching on the FPS. Participants in the male gender-matched group scored lower than the other group on the FPS. For the CMI, there was a significant interaction of male gender match by racial self-labeling effect. Participants who were male gender-matched and self-labeled as African-American reported the highest scores on the CMI. CONCLUSION: The findings provide partial support for the hypotheses. Both gender-matching and racial identity together may be important considerations for black males needing mental health services. PMID:16623068

  14. Novel Nomogram That Predicts Aggressive Disease and Treatment Failure Among African-American Men with Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    distribution of prostate tumor biomarkers between AA and EA men (Yamoah, et al. JCO 2015). The study, which included 154 AAM and 243 EAM samples pulled from...243 EAM samples pulled from the GRID, evaluated 20 validated biomarkers reported to be associated with PCa initiation and progression. Of 20...robotic-assisted radical RP and bilateral pelvic lymph node sampling . All pathology slides were prepared as per stand- ard institutional protocol. The RP

  15. African Americans and Glaucoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to a ... glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in African Americans. Half of those with glaucoma don't know ...

  16. Opening the "Black Box": Nonresidential African American Fathers on Black Men's Educational Outcomes: During the Period of Three Federal Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Stephanie A.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the education phenomenon of nonresidential African American fathers as boys across educational policy. These fathers give narratives of their lived education experiences as children through various education reforms. Described in the research are restrictive learning environments, education socialization, and the…

  17. Experiences of racial discrimination and relation to sexual risk for HIV among a sample of urban black and African American men.

    PubMed

    Reed, E; Santana, M C; Bowleg, L; Welles, S L; Horsburgh, C R; Raj, A

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to examine racial discrimination and relation to sexual risk for HIV among a sample of urban black and African American men. Participants of this cross-sectional study were black and African American men (N = 703) between the ages of 18 and 65 years, recruited from four urban clinical sites in the northeast. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze the relation of reported racial discrimination to the following: (1) sex trade involvement, (2) recent unprotected sex, and (3) reporting a number of sex partners in the past 12 months greater than the sample average. The majority of the sample (96%) reported racial discrimination. In adjusted analyses, men reporting high levels of discrimination were significantly more likely to report recent sex trade involvement (buying and/or selling) (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) range = 1.7-2.3), having recent unprotected vaginal sex with a female partner (AOR = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1-2.0), and reporting more than four sex partners in the past year (AOR = 1.4, 95% CI, 1.1-1.9). Findings highlight the link between experiences of racial discrimination and men's sexual risk for HIV.

  18. Differences in Perceptions of the Food Environment Between African American Men Who Did and Did Not Consume Recommended Levels of Fruits and Vegetables.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Derek M; Cornish, Emily K; McKissic, Sydika A; Dean, Donnatesa A L

    2016-12-01

    African American men have high rates of chronic disease morbidity and mortality associated with their low rates of fruit and vegetable consumption. In an effort to inform tailored behavioral interventions for this demographic, we sought to assess if men with healthier eating practices viewed their environment differently than those who ate less healthy. We segmented participants into high/low healthy eating categories based on the daily fruit and vegetable serving recommendations from the U.S. Department of Agriculture to determine if differences among environmental and social barriers were associated with different healthy eating patterns. We found key differences between men who consumed the recommended amount of fruits and vegetables (five or more servings/day, high healthy eating) and men who did not (low healthy eating). Men who consumed recommended levels of fruits and vegetables found eating healthy to be easy, and they described how they were able to overcome barriers such as the cost of healthy food, their limited knowledge of nutrition guidelines, and their lack of willpower to make healthier food choices. Men with healthier eating practices also identified individuals, plans, and resources they used or could use to help them have healthier eating practices. Conversely, men who were not eating recommended levels of fruits and vegetables also found eating healthy to be easy; however, they identified barriers limiting their access and did not articulate strategies to overcome these perceived barriers. Many of these men also indicated that they did not have social support to help them engage in healthier eating practices. These findings highlight the need to understand how African American men's conceptualization of environmental resources and social supports relate to their eating practices.

  19. Genetic variants in one-carbon metabolism genes and breast cancer risk in European American (EA) and African American (AA) women

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Zhihong; Yao, Song; Zirpoli, Gary; Cheng, Ting-Yuan David; Roberts, Michelle; Khoury, Thaer; Ciupak, Gregory; Davis, Warren; Pawlish, Karen; Jandorf, Lina; Bovbjerg, Dana H.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Ambrosone, Christine B.

    2015-01-01

    Folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism plays critical roles in DNA synthesis, repair, and DNA methylation. The impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in folate-metabolizing enzymes has been investigated in risk of breast cancer among European or Asian populations, but not among women of African ancestry. We conducted a comprehensive analysis of SNPs in eleven genes involved in one-carbon metabolism and risk of breast cancer in 1,275 European-American (EA) and 1,299 African-American (AA) women who participated in the Women’s Circle of Health Study. Allele frequencies varied significantly between EA and AA populations. A number of these SNPs, specifically in genes including MTR, MTRR, SHMT1, TYMS, and SLC19A1, were associated with overall breast cancer risk, as well as risk by estrogen receptor (ER) status, in either EA or AA women. Associations appeared to be modified by dietary folate intake. Although single-SNP associations were not statistically significant after correcting for multiple comparisons, polygenetic score analyses revealed significant associations with breast cancer risk. Per unit increase of the risk score was associated with a modest 19% to 50% increase in risk of breast cancer overall, ER positive or ER negative cancer (all P<0.0005) in EAs or AAs. In summary, our data suggest that one-carbon metabolizing gene polymorphisms could play a role in breast cancer and that may differ between EA and AA women. PMID:25598430

  20. Optimism and Education Buffer the Effects of Syndemic Conditions on HIV Status among African American Men who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    O’Leary, Ann; Jemmott, John B.; Stevens, Robin; Rutledge, Scott Edward; Icard, Larry D.

    2014-01-01

    The present study sought to replicate effects of the number of syndemic psychosocial health conditions on sexual risk behavior and HIV infection among a sample of high-risk African American men who have sex with men (MSM) and to identify resilience factors that may buffer these effects. We used baseline data from an HIV risk-reduction trial to examine whether a higher number of syndemic conditions was associated with higher rates of self-reported sexual risk behavior and HIV infection. Using logistic regression models, we tested for interactions between number of syndemic conditions and several potential resilience factors to identify buffering effects. Replicating previous studies, we found significant associations between numbers of syndemic conditions and higher rates of sexual risk behavior and HIV infection. Surprisingly, we also replicated a previous finding (Stall et al., 2003) that the effects of syndemic burden on HIV status fell off at the highest levels of syndemic conditions. Among a variety of potential resilience factors, two--optimism and education--buffered the syndemic effect on HIV prevalence. This is, to our knowledge, the first paper to identify resilience factors buffering against syndemic effects among MSM. It also constitutes a significant contribution to the literature regarding prevention among black MSM. These results point to the need to identify HIV-positive black MSM and provide effective treatment for them and to develop interventions addressing both syndemic and resilience factors. PMID:24705710

  1. Social networks and social support among ball-attending African American men who have sex with men and transgender women are associated with HIV-related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Emily A; Sterrett-Hong, Emma; Jonas, Adam; Pollack, Lance M

    2016-05-11

    The House Ball Community (HBC) is an understudied network of African American men who have sex with men and transgender women, who join family-like houses that compete in elaborate balls in cities across the United States. From 2011 to 2012, we surveyed 274 recent attendees of balls in the San Francisco Bay Area, focusing on social networks, social support, and HIV-related behaviours. Participants with a high percentage of alters who were supportive of HIV testing were significantly more likely to have tested in the past six months (p = .02), and less likely to have engaged in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in the past three months (p = .003). Multivariate regression analyses of social network characteristics, and social support, revealed that testing in the past six months was significantly associated with social support for safer sex, instrumental social support, and age. Similarly, UAI in the past three months was significantly associated with social support for safer sex, homophily based on sexual identity and HIV status. HIV-related social support provided through the HBC networks was correlated with recent HIV testing and reduced UAI. Approaches utilising networks within alternative kinship systems, may increase HIV-related social support and improve HIV-related outcomes.

  2. Optimism and education buffer the effects of syndemic conditions on HIV status among African American men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Ann; Jemmott, John B; Stevens, Robin; Rutledge, Scott Edward; Icard, Larry D

    2014-11-01

    The present study sought to replicate effects of the number of syndemic psychosocial health conditions on sexual risk behavior and HIV infection among a sample of high-risk African American men who have sex with men (MSM) and to identify resilience factors that may buffer these effects. We used baseline data from an HIV risk-reduction trial to examine whether a higher number of syndemic conditions was associated with higher rates of self-reported sexual risk behavior and HIV infection. Using logistic regression models, we tested for interactions between number of syndemic conditions and several potential resilience factors to identify buffering effects. Replicating previous studies, we found significant associations between numbers of syndemic conditions and higher rates of sexual risk behavior and HIV infection. Surprisingly, we also replicated a previous finding (Stall et al., Am J Public Health, 93(6):939-942, 2003) that the effects of syndemic burden on HIV status fell off at the highest levels of syndemic conditions. Among a variety of potential resilience factors, two-optimism and education-buffered the syndemic effect on HIV prevalence. This is, to our knowledge, the first paper to identify resilience factors buffering against syndemic effects among MSM. It also constitutes a significant contribution to the literature regarding prevention among black MSM. These results point to the need to identify HIV-positive black MSM and provide effective treatment for them and to develop interventions addressing both syndemic and resilience factors.

  3. Rationale, Design and Methods of the Ecological Study of Sexual Behaviors and HIV/STI among African American Men Who Have Sex with Men in the Southeastern United States (The MARI Study)

    PubMed Central

    Hickson, DeMarc A.; Truong, Nhan L.; Smith-Bankhead, Neena; Sturdevant, Nikendrick; Duncan, Dustin T.; Schnorr, Jordan; Gipson, June A.; Mena, Leandro A.

    2015-01-01

    Background This paper describes the rationale, design, and methodology of the Ecological Study of Sexual Behaviors and HIV/STI among African American Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in the Southeastern United States (U.S.; known locally simply as the MARI Study). Methods Participants are African American MSM aged 18 years and older residing in the deep South. Results Between 2013 and 2015, 800 African American MSM recruited from two study sites (Jackson, MS and Atlanta, GA) will undergo a 1.5-hour examination to obtain anthropometric and blood pressure measures as well as to undergo testing for sexually transmitted infections (STI), including HIV. Intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental factors are assessed by audio computer-assisted self-interview survey. Primary outcomes include sexual risk behaviors (e.g., condomless anal sex) and prevalent STIs (HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and Chlamydia). Conclusion The MARI Study will typify the HIV environmental 'riskscape' and provide empirical evidence into novel ecological correlates of HIV risk among African American MSM in the deep South, a population most heavily impacted by HIV. The study's anticipated findings will be of interest to a broad audience and lead to more informed prevention efforts, including effective policies and interventions, that achieve the goals of the updated 2020 U.S. National HIV/AIDS Strategy. PMID:26700018

  4. Preventing HIV among Latino and African American Gay and Bisexual Men in a Context of HIV-Related Stigma, Discrimination, and Homophobia: Perspectives of Providers

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Ronald A.; Etzel, Mark A.; Hinojos, Ernesto; Henry, Charles L.; Perez, Mario

    2005-01-01

    HIV-related stigma, discrimination, and homophobia impede community based efforts to combat HIV disease among Latino and African American gay and bisexual men. This commentary highlights ways to address these social biases in communities of color in Los Angeles from the perspectives of staff from HIV prevention programs. Information was collected from HIV prevention program staff participating in a two-day symposium. The outcomes from the symposium offer strategies for developing and implementing HIV prevention services for Latino and African American gay and bisexual men, which include: 1) addressing social biases present in a community that can hinder, and even prohibit, utilization of effective HIV prevention programs; 2) recasting HIV prevention messages in a broader social or health context; 3) developing culturally appropriate HIV prevention messages; 4) exploring new modalities and venues for delivering HIV prevention messages that are appropriate for gay and bisexual men of color and the communities in which they live; and 5) broadening the target of HIV prevention services to include service providers, local institutions and agencies, and the community at-large. These strategies underscore the need to consider the social and contextual factors of a community when designing and implementing HIV prevention programs. PMID:16283834

  5. Carotenoid Intake and Adipose Tissue Carotenoid Levels in Relation to Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness among African-American and European-American Men in the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP)

    PubMed Central

    Antwi, Samuel O.; Steck, Susan E.; Su, L. Joseph; Hebert, James R.; Zhang, Hongmei; Craft, Neal E.; Fontham, Elizabeth T. H.; Smith, Gary J.; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Mohler, James L.; Arab, Lenore

    2016-01-01

    Background Associations between carotenoid intake and prostate cancer (CaP) incidence have varied across studies. This may be due to combining indolent with aggressive disease in most studies. This study examined whether carotenoid intake and adipose tissue carotenoid levels were inversely associated with CaP aggressiveness. Methods Data on African-American (AA, n=1,023) and European-American (EA, n=1,079) men with incident CaP from North Carolina and Louisiana were analyzed. Dietary carotenoid intake was assessed using a detailed food frequency questionnaire, and abdominal adipose tissue samples were analyzed for carotenoid concentrations using high-performance liquid chromatography. Multivariable logistic regression was used in race-stratified analysis to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) comparing high aggressive CaP with low/intermediate aggressive CaP. Results Carotenoid intake differed significantly between AAs and EAs, which included higher intake of lycopene among EAs and higher β–cryptoxanthin intake among AAs. Comparing the highest and lowest tertiles, dietary lycopene was associated inversely with high aggressive CaP among EAs (OR=0.55, 95%CI: 0.34–0.89, Ptrend=0.02), while an inverse association was observed between dietary β–cryptoxanthin intake and high aggressive CaP among AAs (OR=0.56, 95%CI: 0.36–0.87, Ptrend=0.01). Adipose tissue α–carotene and lycopene (cis + trans) concentrations were higher among EAs than AAs, and marginally significant inverse linear trends were observed for adipose α–carotene (Ptrend=0.07) and lycopene (Ptrend=0.11), and CaP aggressiveness among EAs only. Conclusions These results suggest that diets high in lycopene and β–cryptoxanthin may protect against aggressive CaP among EAs and AAs, respectively. Differences in dietary behaviors may explain the racial differences in associations. PMID:27271547

  6. Development of a spiritually based educational program to increase colorectal cancer screening among African American men and women.

    PubMed

    Holt, Cheryl L; Roberts, Chastity; Scarinci, Isabel; Wiley, Shereta R; Eloubeidi, Mohamad; Crowther, Martha; Bolland, John; Litaker, Mark S; Southward, Vivian; Coughlin, Steven S

    2009-07-01

    This study describes the development of a spiritually based intervention to increase colorectal cancer screening through African American churches by framing the health message with spiritual themes and scripture. The intervention development phase consisted of ideas from an advisory panel and core content identified in focus groups. In the pilot-testing phase, prototypes of the intervention materials were tested for graphic appeal in additional focus groups, and content was tested for acceptability and comprehension in cognitive interviews. Participants preferred materials showing a variety of African Americans in real settings, bright color schemes, and an uplifting message emphasizing prevention and early detection. Spiritual themes such as stewardship over the body, being well to serve God, and using faith to overcome fear, were well received. The materials were then finalized for implementation and will be used by community health advisors to encourage screening.

  7. Correlates of requesting home HIV self-testing kits on online social networks among African-American and Latino men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Chiu, ChingChe J; Young, Sean D

    2016-01-01

    High levels of HIV stigma are one of the main difficulties in engaging African-American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) in HIV testing. The availability of home HIV test and the possibility of self-testing in private may improve uptake and counteract stigma. This paper sought to determine the correlates of requesting home HIV test kits among a sample of MSM social media users. The odds of participants requesting a test kit were significantly associated with using social networks to seek sexual partners (aOR: 2.47, 95% CI: 1.07-6.06) and thinking it is easier to use social networks for seeking sexual partners (1.87, 1.2-3.12), uncertain HIV status (4.29, 1.37-14.4), and having sex under the influence of alcohol (2.46, 1.06-5.77). Participants who had not been tested for more than 6 months were more likely to request a test kit than those who were tested in the past 6 months (2.53, 1.02-6.37). Participants who frequently talked to others about having sex with men online were less likely to request a test kit (0.73, 0.56-0.92). By reaching people over social media and offering them access to test kits, we were able to reach at-risk individuals who were uncertain about their HIV status and had not been regularly tested. The findings of the study will help to inform future HIV testing interventions.

  8. Men on the Move-Nashville: Feasibility and Acceptability of a Technology-Enhanced Physical Activity Pilot Intervention for Overweight and Obese Middle and Older Age African American Men.

    PubMed

    Dean, Donnatesa A L; Griffith, Derek M; McKissic, Sydika A; Cornish, Emily K; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki

    2016-04-19

    Men on the Move-Nashvillewas a quasi-experimental, 10-week pilot physical activity intervention. A total of 40 overweight or obese African American men ages 30 to 70 (mean age = 47) enrolled in the intervention. Participants attended 8 weekly, 90-minute small group sessions with a certified personal trainer. Each session consisted of discussions aimed to educate and motivate men to be more physically active, and an exercise component aimed to increase endurance, strength, and flexibility. Throughout each week, men used wearable activity trackers to promote self-monitoring and received informational and motivational SMS text messages. Of the 40 enrolled men, 85% completed the intervention, and 80% attended four or more small group sessions. Additionally, 70% of participants successfully used the activity tracker, but only 30% of men utilized their gym memberships. Participants benefited from both the small group discussions and activities through increasing social connection and guidance from their trainer and group members. These African American men reported being motivated to engage in physical activity through each of these technologies. Men reported that the activity trackers provided an important extension to their social network of physically active people. The intervention resulted in significant increases in men's self-reported levels of light, moderate, vigorous, and sports-related physical activities, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and significant decreases in weight and body fat percentage with small, moderate and large effects shown. Including technology and didactic components in small group-based interventions holds promise in motivating African American men to increase their physical activity.

  9. Prevalence of Stuttering in African American Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Adele; Yairi, Ehud; Duff, Melissa C.; Zhang, Jie

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors sought to determine the prevalence of stuttering in African American (AA) 2- to 5-year-olds as compared with same-age European Americans (EAs). Method: A total of 3,164 children participated: 2,223 AAs and 941 EAs. Data were collected using a 3-pronged approach that included investigators' individual…

  10. Stress and coping with racism and their role in sexual risk for HIV among African American, Asian/Pacific Islander, and Latino men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Han, Chong-suk; Ayala, George; Paul, Jay P; Boylan, Ross; Gregorich, Steven E; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2015-02-01

    The deleterious effects of racism on a wide range of health outcomes, including HIV risk, are well documented among racial/ethnic minority groups in the United States. However, little is known about how men of color who have sex with men (MSM) cope with stress from racism and whether the coping strategies they employ buffer against the impact of racism on sexual risk for HIV transmission. We examined associations of stress and coping with racism with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in a sample of African American (N = 403), Asian/Pacific Islander (N = 393), and Latino (N = 400) MSM recruited in Los Angeles County, CA during 2008-2009. Almost two-thirds (65 %) of the sample reported being stressed as a consequence of racism experienced within the gay community. Overall, 51 % of the sample reported having UAI in the prior 6 months. After controlling for race/ethnicity, age, nativity, marital status, sexual orientation, education, HIV serostatus, and lifetime history of incarceration, the multivariate analysis found statistically significant main effects of stress from racism and avoidance coping on UAI; no statistically significant main effects of dismissal, education/confrontation, and social-support seeking were observed. None of the interactions of stress with the four coping measures were statistically significant. Although stress from racism within the gay community increased the likelihood of engaging in UAI among MSM of color, we found little evidence that coping responses to racism buffered stress from racism. Instead, avoidance coping appears to suggest an increase in UAI.

  11. “Boys Must be Men, and Men Must Have Sex with Women”: A Qualitative CBPR Study to Explore Sexual Risk among African American, Latino, and White Gay Men and MSM

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Scott D.; Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Vissman, Aaron T.; Stowers, Jason; Davis, A. Bernard; Hannah, Anthony; Alonzo, Jorge; Marsiglia, Flavio F.

    2012-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be disproportionately impacted by HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STD). This study was designed to explore sexual risk among MSM using community-based participatory research (CBPR). An academic-community partnership conducted nine focus groups with 88 MSM. Participants self-identified as African American/Black (n=28), Hispanic/Latino (n=33), white (n=21), and bi-racial/ethnic (n=6). Mean age was 27 (range 18–60) years. Grounded theory was used. Twelve themes related to HIV risk emerged, including low HIV and STD knowledge particularly among Latino MSM and MSM who use the Internet for sexual networking; stereotyping of African American MSM as sexually “dominant” and Latino MSM as less likely to be HIV infected; and the eroticization of “barebacking.” Twelve intervention approaches also were identified, including developing culturally congruent programming using community-identified assets; harnessing social media used by informal networks of MSM; and promoting protection within the context of intimate relationships. A community forum was held to develop recommendations and move these themes to action. PMID:20413391

  12. Understanding African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward Earl

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the socialization skills, self-esteem, and academic readiness of African American males in a school environment. Discussions with students and the School Perceptions Questionnaire provided data for this investigation. The intended targets for this investigation were African American students; however, there…

  13. 16 Extraordinary African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    This collection for children tells the stories of 16 African Americans who helped make America what it is today. African Americans can take pride in the heritage of these contributors to society. Biographies are given for the following: (1) Sojourner Truth, preacher and abolitionist; (2) Frederick Douglass, abolitionist; (3) Harriet Tubman, leader…

  14. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Coombs, Catherine C; Falchi, Lorenzo; Weinberg, J Brice; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Lanasa, Mark C

    2012-11-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most prevalent leukemia in the United States with almost 4390 attributable deaths per year. Epidemiologic data compiled by the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program identifies important differences in incidence and survival for African Americans with CLL. Although the incidence of CLL is lower among African Americans than among Caucasians (4.6 and 6.2 per 100 000 men, respectively), age-adjusted survival is inferior. African American patients with CLL are almost twice as likely to die from a CLL-related complication in the first 5 years after diagnosis as are Caucasian patients with CLL. The biologic basis for these observations is almost entirely unexplored, and a comprehensive clinical analysis of African American patients with CLL is lacking. This is the subject of the present review.

  15. Physiologic and Endocrine Correlates of Overweight and Obesity in African Americans and Caucasians

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    metabolic syndrome , African Americans, Caucasians, exercise, meal feeding 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF...prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome than CA women. Our preliminary data indicate that obese men and women have several characteristics consistent with poor...next two years we will continue to examine differences between CA and AA in terms of potential underlying causes of the metabolic syndrome and how

  16. Critical social theory and the domination of African American Women.

    PubMed

    Davis, S P

    1995-01-01

    This historical reconstruction of the experiences of African American women in America from slavery to the present exposes the prevailing and enduring system of White male domination. From White men having control of their reproductive choices, to conspiracy to withhold the right to vote, African American women were victims of both sexism and racism. Later, as a result of the myth conceived by White sociologists of the super African American woman, further divisiveness became apparent in the African American home. As African American women took advantage of educational opportunities only to find that there was a dearth of similarly educated African American males to marry, increasing numbers of African American men were reported as parties to violent acts, drugs or illness. All of these variables are conjectured as impacting on the African American woman's experience. Lastly, data were presented depicting the increasing trend of African American women marrying White men, and the emergence of a more diverse workforce. It was concluded that economics serve as a catalyst for this change in human relations.

  17. Genome Wide Association Study to Identify Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) Associated with the Development of Erectile Dysfunction in African-American Men Following Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kerns, Sarah L.; Ostrer, Harry; Stock, Richard; Li, William; Moore, Julian; Pearlman, Alexander; Campbell, Christopher; Shao, Yongzhao; Stone, Nelson; Kusnetz, Lynda; Rosenstein, Barry S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with erectile dysfunction (ED) among African American prostate cancer patients treated with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials A cohort of African American prostate cancer patients treated with EBRT was followed for development of ED using the five-item Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) questionnaire. Final analysis included 27 cases (post-treatment SHIM score ≤ 7) and 52 controls (post-treatment SHIM score ≥ 16). A genome-wide association study was performed using ∼909,000 SNPs genotyped on Affymetrix 6.0 arrays. Results We identified SNP rs2268363, located in the follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) gene, as significantly associated with ED after correcting for multiple comparisons (unadjusted p-value = 5.46×10−8; Bonferroni p-value = 0.028). We identified four additional SNPs that tended toward significant association with unadjusted p-value < 10−06. Inference of population substructure revealed that cases had a higher proportion of African ancestry compared to controls (77% compared to 60%, p=0.005). A multivariate logistic regression model that incorporated estimated ancestry and four of the top-ranked SNPs was a more accurate classifier of ED than a model that included only clinical variables. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first genome wide association study to identify SNPs associated with adverse effects resulting from radiotherapy. It is important to note that the SNP that proved significantly associated with ED is located within a gene whose encoded product plays a role in male gonad development and function. Another key finding of this project is that the four SNPs most strongly associated with ED were specific to people of African ancestry and would therefore not have been identified had a cohort of European ancestry been screened. This study demonstrates the feasibility of a genome-wide approach to investigate

  18. Black-white unions: West Indians and African Americans compared.

    PubMed

    Model, S; Fisher, G

    2001-05-01

    In this research we use 1990 PUMS data to compare the propensity for unions between African Americans and native whites with the propensity for unions between British West Indians and native whites. In addition, we distinguish women and men. Descriptive statistics indicate that West Indians, with the exception of men who arrived as adults, are more likely than African Americans to have white partners. After the introduction of controls for several correlates of intermarriage, however, West Indian men of any generation have lower exogamy rates than African American men, while exogamy rates are higher among West Indian women who arrived as children or who were born in the United States than among African American women. Thus we find no consistent evidence of greater exogamy for British West Indians than for African Americans.

  19. Adherence to Traditionally Masculine Norms and Condom-Related Beliefs: Emphasis on African American and Hispanic Men

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Wilson; Gordon, Derrick M.; Campbell, Christina; Ward, Nadia L.; Albritton, Tashuna; Kershaw, Trace

    2015-01-01

    Although studies have shown that adherence to traditional masculine norms (i.e., Status, Toughness, Antifemininity) affect men’s attitudes toward sexual health, there is little research on how men’s adherence to these norms affect them in the context of heterosexual, dyadic relationships. Among 296 young pregnant couples, we investigated the extent to which adherence to traditional masculine norms affected male and female partners’ own condom-related beliefs (i.e., condom self-efficacy, positive condom attitudes) and that of their partners. We tested an interdependence model using a dyadic-analytic approach to path analysis. We also tested for differences across gender and race-ethnicity (i.e., African American, Hispanic). Results showed that adherence to the Antifemininity and Toughness masculine norms predicted negative condom-related beliefs, whereas, overall, adherence to the Status norm predicted positive condom-related beliefs. Men’s and women’s adherence to traditional norms about masculinity were associated with their partner’s condom self-efficacy, and moderated associations based on gender and race-ethnicity were detected. In contrast, each dyad member’s traditional masculine norms were not associated with his or her partner’s positive condom attitudes. Taken together, findings indicated that the roles of traditional masculinity and condom-related beliefs in sexual health should be addressed within the context of relationships and associations between masculine norms and condom-related beliefs are not uniformly negative. PMID:26957949

  20. "I Don't Think Black Men Teach Because How They Get Treated as Students": High-Achieving African American Boys' Perceptions of Teaching as a Career Option

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Anthony; Erwin, Kimberly D.

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological investigation examines the perceptions of the teaching profession as a viable career option by high-achieving high school-aged African American boys. Researchers used random sampling to identify high schools in one large urban school district and criterion sampling to examine the perceptions of 63 African American 11th-grade…

  1. Obesity and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Management System Report to Congress Knowledge Center Capacity Building Information Services Events Calendar Resource Guide Justice ... Workforce Diversity Grants Youth Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Black/African American ...

  2. A community-based rapid assessment of HIV behavioural risk disparities within a large sample of gay men in southeastern USA: a comparison of African American, Latino and white men.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, S D; Yee, L J; Hergenrather, K C

    2006-11-01

    Because the southeastern USA is experiencing a disproportionate HIV infection rate compared to other regions of the country, we explored HIV behavioural risk disparities by race/ethnicity among self-identifying gay men. Conceived and implemented as a community-based participatory research (CBPR) study, this rapid assessment collected demographic and HIV risk-behaviour data from men in five gay bars in the northwestern part of the state of North Carolina, using an assessment available in English and Spanish. Of 719 participants, 34.8% reported inconsistent condom use during anal intercourse in the past three months, 11.4% reported ever having had a sexually transmitted disease (STD), 3.6% reported being HIV-seropositive and 26% reported illicit drug use during the past 30 days. Compared to white participants, African American/black and Hispanic/Latino participants were more likely to report inconsistent condom use during anal intercourse with multiple partners during the past three months. African American/black participants were more likely to report illicit drug use during the past 30 days. Hispanic/Latino participants were more likely to have never been tested for HIV. Rates of HIV risk behaviours among gay men remain high and racial/ethnic differences indicate the need for targeted and tailored prevention strategies.

  3. Feasibility of Ecological Momentary Assessment of Daily Sexting and Substance Use Among Young Adult African American Gay and Bisexual Men: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Elmasry, Hoda; Webb Hooper, Monica; Niaura, Raymond S; Hamilton, Alison B; Milburn, Norweeta G

    2017-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that sexualized text communication (“sexting”) is associated with substance use and sexual risk behaviors among young adults, yet little is known about this relationship among young adult African American gay and bisexual men, a population disproportionately impacted by HIV in the United States. Rapid advances in mobile phone technology indicate a clear need for research using mobile health (mHealth) methods such as ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to serve as a viable counterpart to retrospective evaluation methods by using real-time data collection to assess sexting and substance use among this population. Objective The objective of this pilot study was to (1) describe the EMA study design and protocol, (2) characterize the study population, and (3) assess the feasibility of a random prompt text message-based thrice-daily EMA over 14 days, as a means of prospectively studying sexting, marijuana, and alcohol use among a sample of young adult African American gay and bisexual men ages 21 to 25. Methods Participants were recruited through flyers and snowball sampling during spring and summer 2015 at a community-based HIV/AIDS prevention, care, and support organization in Washington, DC. Eligible participants were enrolled in a one-time in-person study visit that consisted of informed written consent to participate in the study, a self-administered survey, a semi-structured interview, and enrollment and training in EMA data collection. Commencing the day after the study visit, a random prompt survey was texted to participants on their personal mobile phones 3 times a day over a 14-day data collection period assessing mood, texts sent, texts received, sexts sent, sexts received, marijuana want, marijuana use, and alcohol use. Results EMA feasibility was tested with 25 self-identified African American gay (n=16) and bisexual (n=9) men (mean age of 23.48 years, SD 1.5). Each random prompt survey had 8 questions with responses

  4. African American Male Achievement: Using a Tenet of Critical Theory to Explain the African American Male Achievement Disparity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Robert T.; Maramba, Dina C.

    2011-01-01

    Although African Americans continue to demonstrate a desire for education, Black male enrollment and completion rates in higher education are dismal when compared to other ethnic groups. Researchers and scholars have noted various theories and philosophies responsible for the academic disengagement of African American men in higher education. This…

  5. Epidemiology of STD disparities in African American communities.

    PubMed

    Newman, Lori M; Berman, Stuart M

    2008-12-01

    This article reviews the epidemiology of sexually transmitted disease (STD) disparities for African American communities in the United States. Data are reviewed from a variety of sources such as national case reporting and population-based studies. Data clearly show a disproportionately higher burden of STDs in African American communities compared with white communities. Although disparities exist for both viral and bacterial STDs, disparities are greatest for bacterial STDs such as gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis. Gonorrhea rates among African Americans are highest for adolescents and young adults, and disparities are greatest for adolescent men. Although disparities for men who have sex with men (MSM) are not as great as for heterosexual populations, STD rates for both white and African American MSM populations are high, so efforts to address disparities must also include African American MSM. Individual risk behavior and sociodemographic characteristics of African Americans do not seem to account fully for increased STD rates for African Americans. Population-level determinants such as sexual networks seem to play an important role in STD disparities. An understanding of the epidemiology of STD disparities is critical for identifying appropriate strategies and tailoring strategies for African American communities. Active efforts are needed to reduce not only the physical consequences of STDs, such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic pain, newborn disease, and increased risk of HIV infection, but also the social consequences of STDs such as economic burden, shame, and stigma.

  6. The Influence of Racism and Sexism in the Career Development of African American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Kathy M.; Herr, Edwin L.

    1991-01-01

    Combined effects of racism and sexism in the workplace subject African-American woman to more discrimination than either Black men or White women. Examines racism and sexism in employment practices and in the career development and aspirations of African-American women. Identifies coping system of African-American women who avoid career fields in…

  7. Race, Class, Gender and Community College Persistence among African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walpole, MaryBeth; Chambers, Crystal Renee; Goss, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    This inquiry is an exploration of the educational trajectories of African American women community college students. We compare the persistence of African American women to African American men and to all women college students using the 1996/2001 Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Survey and the 1993/2003 Baccalaureate and Beyond…

  8. An Examination of African American Female College Presidents' Professional Ascendancy and Mentoring Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Ligon, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    There is a large disparity in the number of African American women leaders in higher education, specifically in the presidency. Much of the literature negates the experiences of the African American woman, often fusing their experiences with those of all women, or those of African American men, which often disregards the challenges and successes…

  9. Stroke Risk Factor Profiles in African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Worrall, Bradford B.; Johnston, Karen C.; Kongable, Gail; Hung, Elena; Richardson, DeJuran; Gorelick, Philip B.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose If sex differences in stroke risk factor profiles exist among African Americans in the United States, prevention strategies will need to reflect those differences. African Americans and women have been underrepresented in stroke prevention studies. The purpose of this study was to determine whether medical and lifestyle factors differ among women and men who have enrolled in the African-American Antiplatelet Stroke Prevention Study (AAASPS). Methods We performed a planned exploratory analysis of differences in baseline characteristics and risk factors between women and men enrolled in AAASPS, a double-blind, randomized, multicenter, controlled trial. Frequencies of vascular risk factors and related conditions, medical therapies, stroke subtypes, and vascular territories were compared between women and men by 1-way ANOVA and Fisher’s exact test where appropriate. Results A total of 1087 African American patients (574 women, 513 men) enrolled between December 1995 and June 1999. Women had higher rates of hypertension, diabetes, family history of stroke, and no reported leisure exercise. Men had higher rates of smoking and heavy alcohol use. Few differences were noted in proportions of stroke subtype or proportions receiving preventive therapy. Conclusions AAASPS represents the largest enrollment of African American women in a recurrent stroke prevention study. Our data suggest that African American women in a clinical trial differ from men in the frequency of key vascular risk factors. Although limited, these data provide an important first characterization of sex differences in African Americans with stroke. PMID:11935036

  10. Patient Satisfaction Influenced by interpersonal treatment and communication for African American men: the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP).

    PubMed

    Moore, Angelo D; Hamilton, Jill B; Knafl, George J; Godley, P A; Carpenter, William R; Bensen, Jeannette T; Mohler, James L; Mishel, Merle

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a particular set of health behaviors of health care providers and African American men (AAM) influence patient satisfaction from the AAM's perspective. This descriptive, correlational study consisted of 505 AAM in North Carolina diagnosed with prostate cancer and enrolled in the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP). Analyses consisted of bivariate analyses and multiple regression. Patient-to-provider communication, interpersonal treatment, and provider-to-patient communication accounted for 45% (p ≤ .0001) of the variability in patient satisfaction. Interpersonal treatment (provider focusing on the patient) explained the greatest amount (F = 313.53, R² = .39) of patient satisfaction. Since interpersonal treatment focuses on the patient and demonstrated to be the strongest predictor in patient satisfaction, it is noteworthy to consider the emphasis that should be placed on patient-centered care. In addition, knowing important variables positively affecting patient satisfaction provides useful information for developing appropriate interventions to improve AAM health care experiences.

  11. Genome-Wide Association Study to Identify Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) Associated With the Development of Erectile Dysfunction in African-American Men After Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kerns, Sarah L.; Ostrer, Harry; Stock, Richard; Li, William; Pearlman, Alexander; Campbell, Christopher; Shao Yongzhao; Stone, Nelson; Kusnetz, Lynda; Rosenstein, Barry S.

    2010-12-01

    Purpose: To identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with erectile dysfunction (ED) among African-American prostate cancer patients treated with external beam radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A cohort of African-American prostate cancer patients treated with external beam radiation therapy was observed for the development of ED by use of the five-item Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) questionnaire. Final analysis included 27 cases (post-treatment SHIM score {<=}7) and 52 control subjects (post-treatment SHIM score {>=}16). A genome-wide association study was performed using approximately 909,000 SNPs genotyped on Affymetrix 6.0 arrays (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA). Results: We identified SNP rs2268363, located in the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) gene, as significantly associated with ED after correcting for multiple comparisons (unadjusted p = 5.46 x 10{sup -8}, Bonferroni p = 0.028). We identified four additional SNPs that tended toward a significant association with an unadjusted p value < 10{sup -6}. Inference of population substructure showed that cases had a higher proportion of African ancestry than control subjects (77% vs. 60%, p = 0.005). A multivariate logistic regression model that incorporated estimated ancestry and four of the top-ranked SNPs was a more accurate classifier of ED than a model that included only clinical variables. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first genome-wide association study to identify SNPs associated with adverse effects resulting from radiotherapy. It is important to note that the SNP that proved to be significantly associated with ED is located within a gene whose encoded product plays a role in male gonad development and function. Another key finding of this project is that the four SNPs most strongly associated with ED were specific to persons of African ancestry and would therefore not have been identified had a cohort of European ancestry been screened. This study

  12. Physiologic and Endocrine Correlates of Overweight and Obesity in African Americans and Caucasians

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    O’Neal W Jr; African-American Lipid and Cardiovascular Council. The Metabolic Syndrome in African Americans: a review . Ethn Dis. 2003;13(4):414-28. 6...sensitivity, glucocorticoids, metabolic syndrome , African Americans, Caucasians, exercise, meal feeding 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...between men and women. Men have a greater maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) (Men: 44.6 ± 1.2 vs. Women 36.1 ± 1.4 ml/kg/min), waist circumference (Men

  13. Mental Health and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  14. Narcolepsy in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Makoto; O'Hara, Ruth; Einen, Mali; Lin, Ling; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Although narcolepsy affects 0.02–0.05% of individuals in various ethnic groups, clinical presentation in different ethnicities has never been fully characterized. Our goal was to study phenotypic expression across ethnicities in the United States. Design/Setting: Cases of narcolepsy from 1992 to 2013 were identified from searches of the Stanford Center for Narcolepsy Research database. International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition diagnosis criteria for type 1 and type 2 narcolepsy were used for inclusion, but subjects were separated as with and without cataplexy for the purpose of data presentation. Information extracted included demographics, ethnicity and clinical data, HLA-DQB1*06:02, polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) data, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1 level. Patients: 182 African-Americans, 839 Caucasians, 35 Asians, and 41 Latinos with narcolepsy. Results: Sex ratio, PSG, and MSLT findings did not differ across ethnicities. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score was higher and age of onset of sleepiness earlier in African Americans compared with other ethnicities. HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity was higher in African Americans (91.0%) versus others (76.6% in Caucasians, 80.0% in Asians, and 65.0% in Latinos). CSF hypocretin-1 level, obtained in 222 patients, was more frequently low (≤ 110 pg/ml) in African Americans (93.9%) versus Caucasians (61.5%), Asians (85.7%) and Latinos (75.0%). In subjects with low CSF hypocretin-1, African Americans (28.3%) were 4.5 fold more likely to be without cataplexy when compared with Caucasians (8.1%). Conclusions: Narcolepsy in African Americans is characterized by earlier symptom onset, higher Epworth Sleepiness Scale score, higher HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity, and low cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 level in the absence of cataplexy. In African Americans, more subjects without cataplexy have type 1 narcolepsy. Citation: Kawai M, O'Hara R, Einen M, Lin L

  15. Whole blood lead levels are associated with biomarkers of joint tissue metabolism in African American and White men and women: The Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Amanda E.; Chaudhary, Sanjay; Kraus, Virginia B.; Fang, Fang; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Schwartz, Todd A.; Shi, Xiaoyan A.; Renner, Jordan B.; Stabler, Thomas V.; Helmick, Charles G.; Caldwell, Kathleen; Poole, A. Robin; Jordan, Joanne M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To examine associations between biomarkers of joint tissue metabolism and whole blood lead (Pb), separately for men and women in an African American and Caucasian population, which may reflect an underlying pathology. Methods Participants in the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project Metals Exposure Sub-study (329 men and 342 women) underwent assessment of whole blood Pb and biochemical biomarkers of joint tissue metabolism. Urinary cross-linked N telopeptide of type I collagen (uNTX-I) and C-telopeptide fragments of type II collagen (uCTX-II), and serum cleavage neoepitope of type II collagen (C2C), serum type II procollagen synthesis C-propeptide (CPII), and serum hyaluronic acid (HA) were measured using commercially available kits; the ratio of [C2C:CPII] was calculated. Serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) was measured by an in-house assay. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine associations between continuous blood Pb and biomarker outcomes, adjusted for age, race, current smoking status, and body mass index. Results are reported as estimated change in biomarker level for a 5-unit change in Pb level. Results The median Pb level among men and women was 2.2 and 1.9 µg/dL, respectively. Correlations were noted between Pb levels and the biomarkers uNTX-I, uCTX-II, and COMP in women, and between Pb and uCTX-II, COMP, CPII, and the ratio [C2C:CPII] in men. In adjusted models among women, a 5-unit increase in blood Pb level was associated with a 28% increase in uCTX-II and a 45% increase in uNTX-I levels (uCTX-II: 1.28 [95%CI: 1.04–1.58], uNTX-I: 1.45 [95%CI:1.21–1.74]). Among men, levels of Pb and COMP showed a borderline positive association (8% increase in COMP for a 5-unit change in Pb: 1.08 [95% CI: 1.00–1.18])); no other associations were significant after adjustment. Conclusions Based upon known biomarker origins, the novel associations between blood Pb and biomarkers appear to be primarily reflective of relationships

  16. Educating African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American…

  17. African Americans and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Joan

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the opportunities available in the field of agriculture for African American students and notes efforts of the 136 colleges of agriculture to publicize their offerings and recruit students. Profiles six black leaders in agriculture, highlighting their achievements in research and aid to developing countries. A table provides data on annual…

  18. Takotsubo Syndrome in African American vs. Non-African American Women

    PubMed Central

    QaQa, Ashraf; Daoko, Joseph; Jallad, Nesreen; Aburomeh, Omar; Goldfarb, Irvin; Shamoon, Fayez

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is a reversible cause of heart failure rarely described in African-American patients. This study aimed to compare and contrast the clinical characteristics of TTS in African-American (AA) and non-African-American (NAA) patients. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of eight patients (four AA and four NAA) diagnosed with TTS, between June 2006 and August 2008, in four different teaching hospitals: St Michael’s Medical Center, St Joseph’s Medical Center, Trinitas hospital and St Louis’ University Hospital. We compared the patients with regard to presenting symptoms, precipitating stressors, electrocardiographic findings, troponin levels, ejection fraction and in-hospital course. Results: All patients were females (mean age 64 for AA and 67 for NAA). All patients experienced chest pain and had elevated troponin levels. Two AA and three NAA patients had associated shortness of breath and one NAA had syncope. All AA and three NAA had T-wave inversions. Three NAA and one AA had ST segment elevation. Three patients in both groups developed prolongation of the QT interval. Coronary angiograms did not reveal any significant obstructive coronary artery disease. Three patients, all NAA, needed hemodynamic support during their hospital stay but none died. Conclusion: AA and NAA women with TTS have similar presenting symptoms but may differ in the electrocardiographic findings and in-hospital course of the disease. PMID:21691531

  19. The Influence of Metabolic Syndrome on Prostate Cancer Progression and Risk of Recurrence in African American and European American Men

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    MetSyn: 1) abdominal obesity ( waist circumference of> 102cm in men or> 88 em in women); 2) hypertriglyceridemia (<: 150mg/dl); 3)1ow high-density...possess at least three of the following five features are classified as having metabolic syndrome: l) abdominal obesity ( waist circumference of> 102...measured through the use of measured waist circumference was more prevalent in white patients (62%) compared to black patients ( 48% ). Approximately

  20. Cancer statistics for African Americans, 2013.

    PubMed

    DeSantis, Carol; Naishadham, Deepa; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2013-05-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society estimates the number of new cancer cases and deaths for African Americans and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and screening prevalence based upon incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. It is estimated that 176,620 new cases of cancer and 64,880 deaths will occur among African Americans in 2013. From 2000 to 2009, the overall cancer death rate among males declined faster among African Americans than whites (2.4% vs 1.7% per year), but among females, the rate of decline was similar (1.5% vs 1.4% per year, respectively). The decrease in cancer death rates among African American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. The reduction in overall cancer death rates since 1990 in men and 1991 in women translates to the avoidance of nearly 200,000 deaths from cancer among African Americans. Five-year relative survival is lower for African Americans than whites for most cancers at each stage of diagnosis. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors remains an active area of research. Overall, progress in reducing cancer death rates has been made, although more can and should be done to accelerate this progress through ensuring equitable access to cancer prevention, early detection, and state-of-the-art treatments.

  1. Double-Jeopardy: The Joint Impact of Neighborhood Disadvantage and Low Social Cohesion on Cumulative Risk of Disease Among African American Men and Women in the Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Sharrelle; Hickson, DeMarc A.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S.V.; Earls, Felton

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Few studies have examined the joint impact of neighborhood disadvantage and low social cohesion on health. Moreover, no study has considered the joint impact of these factors on a cumulative disease risk profile among a large sample of African American adults. Using data from the Jackson Heart Study, we examined the extent to which social cohesion modifies the relationship between neighborhood disadvantage and cumulative biological risk (CBR)—a measure of accumulated risk across multiple physiological systems. Methods Our analysis included 4,408 African American women and men ages 21–85 residing in the Jackson, MS Metropolitan Area. We measured neighborhood disadvantage using a composite score of socioeconomic indicators from the 2000 US Census and social cohesion was assessed using a 5-item validated scale. Standardized z-scores of biomarkers representing cardiovascular, metabolic, inflammatory, and neuroendocrine systems were combined to create a CBR score. We used two-level linear regression models with random intercepts adjusting for socio-demographic and behavioral covariates in the analysis. A three-way interaction term was included to examine whether the relationship between neighborhood disadvantage and CBR differed by levels of social cohesion and gender. Results The interaction between neighborhood disadvantage, social cohesion and gender was statistically significant (p=0.05) such that the association between living in a disadvantaged neighborhood and CBR was strongest for men living in neighborhoods with low levels of social cohesion (B=0.63, SE: 0.32). In gender-specific models, we found a statistically significant interaction between neighborhood disadvantage and social cohesion for men (p=0.05) but not for women (p=0.50). Conclusion Neighborhoods characterized by high levels of economic disadvantage and low levels of social cohesion contribute to higher cumulative risk of disease among African American men. This suggests that they may

  2. Coccidioidomycosis in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Ruddy, Barbara E.; Mayer, Anita P.; Ko, Marcia G.; Labonte, Helene R.; Borovansky, Jill A.; Boroff, Erika S.; Blair, Janis E.

    2011-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is caused by Coccidioides species, a fungus endemic to the desert regions of the southwestern United States, and is of particular concern for African Americans. We performed a PubMed search of the English-language medical literature on coccidioidomycosis in African Americans and summarized the pertinent literature. Search terms were coccidioidomycosis, Coccidioides, race, ethnicity, African, black, and Negro. The proceedings of the national and international coccidioidomycosis symposia were searched. All relevant articles and their cited references were reviewed; those with epidemiological, immunologic, clinical, and therapeutic data pertaining to coccidioidomycosis in African Americans were included in the review. Numerous studies documented an increased predilection for severe coccidioidal infections, coccidioidomycosis-related hospitalizations, and extrapulmonary dissemination in persons of African descent; however, most of the published studies are variably problematic. The immunologic mechanism for this predilection is unclear. The clinical features and treatment recommendations are summarized. Medical practitioners need to be alert to the possibility of coccidioidomycosis in persons with recent travel to or residence in an area where the disease is endemic. PMID:21193657

  3. Marital Status, Hypertension, Coronary Heart Disease, Diabetes, and Death among African American Women and Men: Incidence and Prevalence in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwandt, Hilary M.; Coresh, Josef; Hindin, Michelle J.

    2010-01-01

    Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States, and African Americans disproportionately experience more cardiovascular disease, including coronary heart disease (CHD), hypertension, and diabetes. The literature documents a complex relationship between marital status and health, which varies by gender. We prospectively examine…

  4. Equipping African American Clergy to Recognize Depression.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Jean Spann; Morris, Edith; Collins, Charles W; Watson, Albert; Williams, Jennifer E; Ferguson, Bʼnai; Ruhlman, Deborah L

    2016-01-01

    Many African Americans (AAs) use clergy as their primary source of help for depression, with few being referred to mental health providers. This study used face-to-face workshops to train AA clergy to recognize the symptoms and levels of severity of depression. A pretest/posttest format was used to test knowledge (N = 42) about depression symptoms. Results showed that the participation improved the clergy's ability to recognize depression symptoms. Faith community nurses can develop workshops for clergy to improve recognition and treatment of depression.

  5. Effectiveness of Diabetes Prevention Program translations among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Samuel-Hodge, C D; Johnson, C M; Braxton, D F; Lackey, M

    2014-10-01

    The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) demonstrated risk reduction for incident diabetes through weight loss among all participants, including African Americans. Several DPP translations have been conducted in less controlled settings, including primary care practices and communities; however, there is no detailed compilation of how effective these translations have been for African Americans. This systematic literature review evaluated DPP translations from 2003 to 2012. Eligible records were retrieved using a search strategy of relevant databases and gray literature. Retrieved records (n=1,272) were screened using a priori criteria, which resulted in 21 full-text studies for review. Seventeen studies were included in the full-text qualitative synthesis. Seven studies had 100% African American samples and 10 studies had mixed samples with African American subgroups. African American participants' average weight loss was roughly half of that achieved in the DPP intervention. However, with few higher-quality studies, small sample sizes and differences in intervention designs and implementation, comparisons across interventions were difficult. The suboptimal effectiveness of DPP translations among African American adults, particularly women, signals the need for enhancements to existing evidence-based interventions and more high-quality research that includes other at-risk African American subgroups such as men and younger adults of lower socioeconomic status.

  6. Do African American Patients Treated with Radical Cystectomy for Bladder Cancer have Worse Overall Survival? Accounting for Pathologic Staging and Patient Demographics Beyond Race Makes a Difference

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, Deborah R.; Canner, Joseph K.; Kates, Max; Schoenberg, Mark P.; Bivalacqua, Trinity J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is estimated that 74,000 men and women in the United States will be diagnosed with bladder cancer and 16,000 will die from the disease in 2015. The incidence of bladder cancer in Caucasian males is double that of African American males, but African American men and women have worse survival. Although factors contributing to this disparity have been analyzed, there is still great uncertainty as to why this disparity exists. Objective: To evaluate whether the disparities in bladder cancer survival after radical cystectomy for transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder amongst African American (AA) and Caucasian patients is attributable to patient demographics, year of diagnosis, and/or tumor characteristics. Methods: Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER) data from 1973–2011, African American and Caucasian patients treated with a radical cystectomy for TCC of the bladder were identified. Primary outcomes were all-cause and cancer-specific mortality. Differences in survival between African Americans and Caucasian patients were assessed using chi-square tests for categorical variables and Student’s t-tests for continuous variables. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to measure the hazard ratio for African Americans compared to Caucasians for all-cause and cancer-specific mortality. In addition, coarsened matching techniques within narrow ranges, were used to match African American and Caucasian patients on the basis of age, sex, and cancer stage. Following matching, differences in all-cause and cancer-specific mortality were again assessed using a stratified Cox proportional hazards model, using the matching strata for the regression strata. Results: The study cohort consisted of 21,406 African American and Caucasian patients treated with radical cystectomy for bladder urothelial cancer, with 6.2% being African American and 73.9% male. African American patients had worse all-cause and cancer

  7. Our men are grinding out: a qualitative examination of sex ratio imbalances, relationship power, and low-income African American women's health.

    PubMed

    Bontempi, Jean M Breny; Eng, Eugenia; Quinn, Sandra Crouse

    2008-01-01

    In the United States, the number of HIV/AIDS cases among women of color is increasing, with African American women now comprising 60% of all female AIDS cases. Scholars have attributed this imbalance to social factors. The aim of this study was to explore the impact that relationship power has on heterosexual women's ability to practice safer sex. Five focus groups were conducted with 24 African American women, aged 18-57 years, residing in public housing in rural North Carolina over a six-month period in 2000. Findings suggest that women maintain their independence, despite inequities in relationship power and remain strong to make a better life for their families. Recommendations are made to promote and build upon this social identity that women have in order to help them practice healthier behaviors.

  8. African American Administrators and Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Dianne; Taylor, Janice D.; Burrell, Charlotte; Stewart, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the issues of African American participation in the administrative ranks of the academy. The authors find that African Americans tend to hold positions that are marginal in academic organizations, lacking power and influence, and that not much has changed over recent decades. Forces influencing this condition are explored,…

  9. African-Americans and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigmon, Scott B.

    To better serve people in a counseling relationship, it is useful to understand them not only culturally, but demographically as well. This paper traces historical, religious, demographic aspects and treatment of alcohol abuse in African Americans. Historically, alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence have varied for African Americans. During the…

  10. First-Generation African American Male College Students: Implications for Career Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Delila; Lacey, Krim; Rawls, Glinda; Holbert-Quince, JoAnne

    2010-01-01

    The path to upward mobility or economic success for African American men is often filled with obstacles and roadblocks. Many first-generation African American men entering colleges and universities face limited resources and opportunities to aid in their career development and efforts to meet their career objectives. This article explores the…

  11. Immunohistological analysis of ABCD3 expression in Caucasian and African American prostate tumors.

    PubMed

    Reams, R Renee; Jones-Triche, Jacqueline; Chan, Owen T M; Hernandez, Brenda Y; Soliman, Karam F A; Yates, Clayton

    2015-01-01

    In a previously published study, we showed that expression of the ABCD3 gene increased with increasing metastatic potential in a panel of prostate cancer cell lines derived from African American and Caucasian American men. Given importance of identifying biomarker(s) that can distinguish indolent versus aggressive prostate tumors, we conducted an immunohistochemical analysis of ABCD3 expression Caucasian and African American prostate tumors. ABCD3 expression in each patient population was compared with clinicopathologic characteristics, Gleason score, and age. ABCD3 expression increased with increasing Gleason score (P = 0.0094), age (P = 0.0014), and pathology grade (P = 0.0007) in Caucasian patients. Interestingly, in the AA patients, ABCD3 expression highly increased to the same degree in both low and high Gleason score tumors. Similarly, ABCD3 expression was elevated to the same degree in BPH derived from AA. Our findings demonstrate that increased ABCD3 expression correlates with Gleason Score in CA prostate tumors. However, in AA prostate tumors, ABCD3 expression was higher and was sustained in both low Gleason and high Gleason AA tumors. While the functional role of ABCD3 in prostate cancer is not completely elucidated, this gene warrants further study as a potential biomarker for aggressive prostate.

  12. Cancer statistics for African Americans.

    PubMed

    Ghafoor, Asma; Jemal, Ahmedin; Cokkinides, Vilma; Cardinez, Cheryll; Murray, Taylor; Samuels, Alicia; Thun, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    The American Cancer Society provides estimates on the number of new cancer cases and deaths, and compiles health statistics on African Americans in a biennial publication, Cancer Facts and Figures for African Americans. The compiled statistics include cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and lifestyle behaviors using the most recent data on incidence and survival from the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program, mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), and behavioral information from the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), and National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). It is estimated that 132,700 new cases of cancer and 63,100 deaths will occur among African Americans in the year 2003. Although African Americans have experienced higher incidence and mortality rates of cancer than whites for many years, incidence rates have declined by 2.7 percent per year in African-American males since 1992, while stabilizing in African-American females. During the same period, death rates declined by 2.1 percent and 0.4 percent per year among African-American males and females, respectively. The decrease in both incidence and death rates from cancer among African-American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. Nonetheless, African Americans still carry the highest cancer burden among US racial and ethnic groups. Most cancers detectable by screening are diagnosed at a later stage and survival rates are lower within each stage of disease in African Americans than in whites. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors is an active area of research.

  13. Older African Americans' Beliefs about Pain, Biomedicine, and Spiritual Medicine.

    PubMed

    Booker, Staja Q

    2015-01-01

    Persistent (chronic) pain prompts older African Americans (AAs) to utilize a combination of biomedicine (BM) and spiritual medicine (SM)for pain management. Because less is known about how older AAs use these pain management interventions, healthcare providers are unable to provide holistic care and optimal pain management. Using a Christian and Afrocentric perspective, this article reviews older AAs use of BM and SM, offering reconmendations on how to integrate BM and SM for pain management.

  14. Differences in prognostic factors and outcomes in African Americans and whites with acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Sekeres, Mikkael A; Peterson, Bercedis; Dodge, Richard K; Mayer, Robert J; Moore, Joseph O; Lee, Edward J; Kolitz, Jonathan; Baer, Maria R; Schiffer, Charles A; Carroll, Andrew J; Vardiman, James W; Davey, Frederick R; Bloomfield, Clara D; Larson, Richard A; Stone, Richard M

    2004-06-01

    Whites have a more favorable prognosis than African Americans for a number of cancers. The relationship between race and outcome is less clear in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Using data from 7 Cancer and Leukemia Group B studies initiated from 1985 to 1997, we conducted a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of 2570 patients (270 African American and 2300 white) with de novo AML who received induction chemotherapy. African Americans were younger than whites (48 versus 54 years, P <.001). African Americans also had different cytogenetic risk group distributions than whites (P <.001): they were more commonly classified in the favorable (23% versus 14%) and unfavorable (31% versus 23%) groups, and less commonly classified in the intermediate group (47% versus 63%). African American men had a lower complete remission (CR) rate (54%, compared with 64% for white men, 65% for white women, and 70% for African American women, P =.001) and a worse overall survival compared with all other patients (P =.004), when known risk factors are taken into account. African Americans and whites with AML differ with respect to important prognostic factors. African American men have worse CR rates and overall survival than whites and African American women, and should be considered a poor-risk group.

  15. The African American Student Network: An Intervention for Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grier-Reed, Tabitha; Arcinue, Ferdinand; Inman, Evetta

    2016-01-01

    Comparing retention rates for 91 Black women and 56 Black men who participated in the African American Student Network with 68 women and 36 men who were randomly selected from the population of Black undergraduates at a Midwestern university, we included an analysis of covariance to control for ACT score and first-term grade point average. Results…

  16. A Survey of the Knowledge of African-American Women About Prostate Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Eastland, Taryn Y

    2017-04-08

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer diagnosed in men. Its incident and mortality rates are generally higher in populations of African descent. The scientific community recommends that men should be informed of the benefits, risks, and limitations of screening in order to make an informed decision regarding participation in prostate cancer screening. Women are known to act as the healthcare gatekeeper for the family. As such, African-American (AA) women could facilitate the informed decision-making process by providing prostate cancer and screening information to AA men. However, little is known about AA women's knowledge regarding prostate cancer and screening. This report describes the findings of a non-experimental cross-sectional study conducted using a convenience sample of 200 AA women. Data was collected using the knowledge subscale of the Eastland prostate cancer survey. Data was analyzed using JMP 13 statistical software developed by Statistical Analysis Systems (SAS) Institute. The overall mean knowledge score was 6.59 (47.1%). Knowledge was significantly associated with personal or family history of cancer (p = .02), family history of prostate cancer (p = .002), and the age of the respondents (p = .004) with those of older age (51 years and above) scoring higher on the knowledge scale. The results indicated that the AA women had a low knowledge of prostate cancer and screening. The findings indicate the need to develop and implement prostate cancer educational programs that include AA women.

  17. African American Child-Women: Nutrition Theory Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talpade, Medha

    2006-01-01

    Past research indicates a significantly higher prevalence of early sexual maturation in African American (AA) girls, which is associated with a number of psychological and behavioral problems as well as with health problems such as childhood obesity and diabetes. Both nutrition and body image perceptions have never before been empirically…

  18. Hispanic versus African American Girls: Body Image, Nutrition, and Puberty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talpade, Medha

    2008-01-01

    Public health research has been dominated by the biomedical model, which does not appear to be appropriate for studying public health variables across different populations. For example, when comparing the Hispanic American (HA) and African American (AA) population in the U.S., there are similarities on several demographic and public health…

  19. Gender Ratio Imbalance Effects on HIV Risk Behaviors in African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Newsome, Valerie; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O.

    2015-01-01

    Although literature suggests that African American women are no more likely to engage in risky sex than their White counterparts, they are more likely to have sex partners with higher HIV risk. Thus, it is not solely an individual’s behavior that determines their risk, but also the behavior of their partner and their position within a sexual network. For this reason, it is important to consider the dynamics of heterosexual relationships in the African American community. An important area of concern regarding African American heterosexual relationships is that of partner availability. A shortage of available African American men for potential partnerships exists and is reportedly due to poorer health and higher mortality rates. Some have argued that gender-ratio imbalance may be responsible for increased HIV vulnerability for African American women. This article reviews the literature on gender ratio imbalance and HIV risk in the African American community, and presents implications and suggestions for future research and intervention. PMID:23041754

  20. Toward improved interpretation and theory building of African American male sexualities.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Linwood J; Kertzner, Robert M

    2003-11-01

    This paper examined five challenges to clear understanding of African American male sexualities: incorrect assumptions of African American homogeneity; an underemphasis on developmental change, the contexts and the meanings of sexual behaviors; and a lack of compelling theoretical grounding for African American sexualities. Critical elements for effective theorizing and research about African American sexualities (i.e. multiple levels of analysis, examination of phenomenological meaning of sexuality, measurement of dynamic/developmental change) were outlined and candidate theories within sexual science (social exchange theories, symbolic interactionism, sexual scripting theory) were analyzed in light of these elements. It is suggested that a re-orientation of sex research about African American men using these elements will result in improved understanding of African American sexualities in multiple contexts.

  1. Acculturation and acculturative stress as indicators for suicide risk among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rheeda L

    2007-07-01

    The literature on African American suicide and the acculturation literature were examined to derive a possible explanation for increases in suicide deaths for African American men and apparent resilience for African American women. Historically, African Americans were believed to be unaffected by suicide because of protective factors (e.g., strong religious values and cohesive familial support systems) embedded in the culture. However, minority mental health investigators have found that acculturation sometimes leads to negative consequences for individuals from ethnic minority backgrounds. Accordingly, acculturation and acculturative phenomena are proposed as a model to shed light on African American male suicide as African Americans increasingly engage mainstream values, beliefs, and practices in the absence of traditional protective factors.

  2. A Multilevel Understanding of HIV/AIDS Disease Burden among African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Brawner, Bridgette M.

    2016-01-01

    Disproportionate HIV/AIDS rates among African American women have been examined extensively—primarily from an individually-centered focus. Beyond individual behaviors, factors such as the hyper-incarceration of African American men and geographically concentrated disadvantage may better explain inequitable disease burden. This paper proposes a conceptual model of individual, social, and structural factors that influence HIV transmission among African American women. The model can be used to develop comprehensive assessments and guide prevention programs in African American communities. PMID:25139057

  3. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    MedlinePlus

    ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of Alzheimer's, ... two times more likely to develop late-onset Alzheimer's disease than whites and less likely to have a ...

  4. House/ball culture and adolescent African-American transgender persons and men who have sex with men: a synthesis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Gregory; Peterson, James; Binson, Diane; Hidalgo, Julia; Magnus, Manya

    2011-04-01

    Transgender persons and young men of color who have sex with men (YMSM of color) have been severely affected by HIV in the USA. Houses and balls in the USA have historically been a primary meeting ground for YMSM of color and transgender people, offering an opportunity for HIV prevention activities. Houses provide a familial structure for YMSM of color and transgender people, while balls provide them with events at which they can congregate for social support and entertainment. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using Scopus and PubMed, Internet websites, and HIV prevention and care resources for YMSM of color associated with a multisite evaluation. Houses and balls have been responsive to the HIV/AIDS epidemic and have developing networks that are critical in providing a social and familiar context for often-disenfranchised youth. The organizations have embraced the need for HIV prevention, and their methodology may be transferable to other prevention contexts. Future studies are needed to identify culturally appropriate and effective methods of integration of house/ball methods into HIV prevention services aimed at transgender persons and YMSM of color.

  5. Hepatitis C in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Saab, Sammy; Jackson, Christian; Nieto, Jose; Francois, Fritz

    2014-10-01

    The care of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in African Americans represents an opportunity to address a major health disparity in medicine. In all facets of HCV infection, African Americans are inexplicably affected, including in the prevalence of the virus, which is higher among them compared with most of the racial and ethnic groups. Ironically, although fibrosis rates may be slow, hepatocellular carcinoma and mortality rates appear to be higher among African Americans. Sustained viral response (SVR) rates have historically significantly trailed behind Caucasians. The reasons for this gap in SVR are related to both viral and host factors. Moreover, low enrollment rates in clinical trials hamper the study of the efficacy of anti-viral therapy. Nevertheless, the gap in SVR between African Americans and Caucasians may be narrowing with the use of direct-acting agents. Gastroenterologists, hepatologists, primary care physicians, and other health-care providers need to address modifiable risk factors that affect the natural history, as well as treatment outcomes, for HCV among African Americans. Efforts need to be made to improve awareness among health-care providers to address the differences in screening and referral patterns for African Americans.

  6. Diabetic indicators are the strongest predictors for cardiovascular disease risk in African American adults

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Ashley N; Ralston, Penny A; Young-Clark, Iris; Ilich, Jasminka Z

    2016-01-01

    African Americans have higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to other racial groups. Modifiable and non-modifiable factors play a role in the development of both diseases. This study assessed diabetes indicators in relation to other CVD risk factors taking into account confounders, among African American adults. This was a cross-sectional study in mid-life and older African Americans (≥45 years) who were recruited from the local churches. Fasting blood was collected and serum analyzed for diabetes indicators, apolipoproteins, adipokines, and lipid profile. CVD risk scores were determined using the American Heart Association and Framingham Risk Score assessments. Homeostasis Model Assessments (HOMAs) were calculated using glucose and insulin concentrations. Confounding variables were assessed by questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 21, and p<0.05 was deemed significant. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze continuous variables. Frequencies and percentages were used to examine categorical variables. T-tests compared different groups while Pearson correlations provided preliminary relationships and determined variables for multiple regression analyses. A total of n=79 participants were evaluated (69% women), 59.3±9.2 years, BMI=34.7±8.3 (mean ± SD). As expected, AA men had higher fasting blood glucose than women (123.6±54.9 mg/dL versus 99.0±21.8 mg/dL), and AA women had higher insulin (11.8±13.1 mg/dL versus 7.6±6.0 mg/dL). Our study confirmed that it is likely for AA men to have significantly lower adiponectin concentrations in comparison to AA women. Based on the CVD risk assessments, men had a significantly higher risk of developing CVD than women, which has been shown previously. Apolipoproteins, adipokines, and lipid profile also negatively influenced the cardiovascular health outcomes in men. Dietary intake, probably by influencing participants’ weight

  7. Gender Distrust and Intimate Unions among Low-Income Hispanic and African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estacion, Angela; Cherlin, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates levels of generalized distrust of men among low-income non-Hispanic African American, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Dominican and non-Hispanic White women in a three-city survey. The results reveal substantial variation. Hispanics' overall levels of distrust are found to be higher than levels for either African Americans or…

  8. A Phenomenological Study of African American Males Persisting in Community College Health and Public Safety Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills-Byrd, Love

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study examined the lived experiences of persisting as described by ten African American men in persisting in a community college program. The primary research question was: "How do African American males describe their lived experiences of persisting in community college health and public programs?" African…

  9. Race-Related Stress, Quality of Life Indicators, and Life Satisfaction among Elderly African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utsey, Shawn O.; Payne, Yasser A.; Jackson, Ebonique S.; Jones, Antoine M.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the relationships among race-related stress, quality of life indicators, and life satisfaction among elderly African Americans. Results indicated that elderly African American men and women differed significantly with regard to institutional and collective racism-related stress. In addition, institutional racism-related stress was a…

  10. Marital Satisfaction among African Americans and Black Caribbeans: Findings from the National Survey of American Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Chalandra M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Lincoln, Karen D.; Chatters, Linda M.; Jackson, James S.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the correlates of marital satisfaction using data from a national probability sample of African Americans (N = 962) and Black Caribbeans (N = 560). Findings reveal differences between African Americans and Black Caribbeans, and men and women within those groups, in the predictors of marital satisfaction. Black Caribbean women…

  11. HIV risk behaviors among Black/African American and Hispanic/Latina Female partners of men who have sex with men and women.

    PubMed

    Harawa, Nina T; McCuller, William J; Chavers, Constance; Janson, Mike

    2013-03-01

    We examined the frequencies of HIV-related risk factors among women reporting and not reporting sex with a man who has sex with men and women (MSMW).We used data from 15,625 visits of Black and Hispanic/Latina females, ages 15–64 years, to Los Angeles County HIV testing sites (2007–2008). The following risk factors were associated with reporting an MSMW partner: number of sex partners, use of party drugs, anal sex, and sexual partners with other risk factors. Overall, females who reported an MSMW partner differed little in their likelihood of testing HIV positive (0.93%) compared to those who did not (0.58%, p value = 0.19). Among females reporting one male sex partner, having an MSMW partner was strongly associated with HIV (2.8 vs. 0.63%, p = 0.03). Interventions targeting women who report other risky behaviors may reach many who have been with MSMW. Women with one partner are an important focus of such efforts.

  12. HIV Risk Behaviors Among Black/African American and Hispanic/Latina Female Partners of Men Who Have Sex With Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    McCuller, William J.; Chavers, Constance

    2013-01-01

    We examined the frequencies of HIV-related risk factors among women reporting and not reporting sex with a man who has sex with men and women (MSMW). We used data from 15,625 visits of Black and Hispanic/Latina females, ages 15–64 years, to Los Angeles County HIV testing sites (2007–2008). The following risk factors were associated with reporting an MSMW partner: number of sex partners, use of party drugs, anal sex, and sexual partners with other risk factors. Overall, females who reported an MSMW partner differed little in their likelihood of testing HIV positive (0.93%) compared to those who did not (0.58%, p value =0.19). Among females reporting one male sex partner, having an MSMW partner was strongly associated with HIV (2.8 vs. 0.63%, p = 0.03). Interventions targeting women who report other risky behaviors may reach many who have been with MSMW. Women with one partner are an important focus of such efforts. PMID:22290608

  13. Screening for Depression in African American Churches

    PubMed Central

    Hankerson, Sidney H.; Lee, Young A; Brawley, David K.; Braswell, Kenneth; Wickramaratne, Priya J.; Weissman, Myrna M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Substantial racial/ethnic disparities exist in the identification and management of major depression.1 Faith-Based Health Promotion interventions reduce disparities in health screenings for numerous medical conditions.2 However, the feasibility of systematically screening for depression in faith-based settings has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of using a validated instrument to screen for depression in African American churches. Methods Participants were recruited between October and November 2012 at three predominantly African American churches in New York City. A participatory research approach was used to determine screening days. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was administered to 122 participants. Positive depression screen was defined as a PHQ-9 score ≥10. Descriptive statistics were used to report sample characteristics, prevalence of participants who screened positive, and history of help seeking. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the association of positive depression screen and sociodemographic characteristics. Initial analyses were conducted in 2013, with additional analyses in 2014. Results The prevalence estimate for positive depression screen was 19.7%. More men (22.5%) screened positive than women (17.7%). Total household income was inversely related to positive depression screen. A similar percentage of respondents had previously sought help from primary care providers as from clergy. Conclusions It was feasible to screen for depression with the PHQ-9 in African American churches. The prevalence of positive depression screen was high, especially among black men. Churches may be an important setting in which to identify depressive symptoms in this underserved population. PMID:26232907

  14. Sweet Words So Brave: The Story of African American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, James Michael; Curry, Barbara K.

    This illustrated book introduces readers to African American literature by telling the story of the men and women who contributed to this body of work. The book begins by recounting the Africans' journey into slavery and how they kept their stories alive by telling them to one another, and by handing them down from generation to generation.…

  15. Social Support, Traumatic Events, and Depressive Symptoms among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Karen D.; Chatters, Linda M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph

    2005-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationships among stress, social support, negative interaction, and mental health in a sample of African American men and women between ages 18 and 54 (N = 591) from the National Comorbidity Study. The study findings indicated that social support decreased the number of depressive symptoms,…

  16. Early Academic Experiences of Recently Incarcerated African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffers, Adam R.

    2010-01-01

    This project examines the early educational experiences of 6 young African American males (ages 18-25) who attended urban schools in San Diego, California. All 6 men were incarcerated for at least 1-year before participating in a pre-release program. The participants were part of a pre-release program in San Diego, California, which was selected…

  17. Allostatic Load and Health Status of African Americans and Whites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deuster, Patricia A.; Kim-Dorner, Su Jong; Remaley, Alan T.; Poth, Merrily

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare health risks in 84 healthy African American and 45 white men and women after calculating allostatic load (AL) from biologic, psychosocial, and behavioral measures. Methods: Participants (18-45 years) ranging in weight from normal to obese and without hypertension or diabetes. Fitness, body fat, CRP, mood, social support,…

  18. Marriage and romantic involvement among aged African Americans.

    PubMed

    Tucker, M B; Taylor, R J; Mitchell-Kernan, C

    1993-05-01

    This study examined the extent and structural correlates of marriage, romantic involvement, and preference for romantic involvement among older adults in a national sample of African Americans. Multivariate analyses indicated that gender, age, education, income, and urban residence were important predictors of marriage and romantic involvement. In particular, men and younger respondents were more likely than women and older respondents to be married, have a romantic involvement, or be desirous of a romantic involvement. The effects of the decreased probability of marriage for future cohorts of older African American women on their supportive networks, living arrangements, and income adequacy are discussed.

  19. Technical Consulting: The African-American Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Tracy N.

    2010-01-01

    The qualitative research study explored the organizational characteristics necessary in addressing the low concentration of African American technical consultants employed in the information technology industry. Using research participants' professional experience, participants responded to a developed questionnaire. African American technical…

  20. Heart failure in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Yancy, Clyde W

    2005-10-10

    The demographics of the United States are changing, and in the next few decades there will no longer be a racial/ethnic majority population. Increased awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in special populations is warranted as these populations increase. Heart failure carries a substantial burden on those affected, particularly African Americans, who have a disproportionate burden of heart disease. Current treatments for heart failure include angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers, angiotensin II-receptor antagonists, and vasodilating agents. This review discusses the unique characteristics of CVD in African Americans and addresses the need for targeted treatments to reduce the excess burden found in this population.

  1. "Too blessed to be stressed": a rural faith community's views of African-American males and depression.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Keneshia; Haynes, Tiffany; Greer-Williams, Nancy; Hartwig, Mary S

    2014-06-01

    Among African-Americans, the faith community has a long history of providing support to its members. Because African-American men tend to delay and decline traditional depression treatment, the faith community may be an effective source of support. The aim of this study was to determine how a rural African-American faith community describes and perceives experiences of depression among African-American males. A convenience sample of 24 men and women participated in focus groups and interview. Four themes were identified: defining depression, etiology of depression, denial of depression, and effect of masculine roles on depression experience.

  2. Identification of Novel Inherited Genetic Markers for Aggressive PCa in European and African Americans Using Whole Genome Sequencing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    PCa and to better understand the racial disparity of PCa that exists between Europen Americans (EA) and African Americans ( AA ). In this DOD proposal...Another dilemma is a large difference in PCa risk, especially aggressive PCa, between races. African Americans ( AAs ) have the world’s highest...between races may contribute to higher incidence of and mortality from aggressive PCa in AA . In this DOD proposal, we proposed: 1) To discover novel

  3. Freedom Road: Adult Education of African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Elizabeth A., Ed.

    This book contains six chapters by various authors about the history of African Americans' contributions and participation in adult education. The book reports on how some African American leaders saw the connection between education and the eventual freedom or uplift of the African American people. Following a foreword (Phyllis M. Cunningham) and…

  4. Engaging African Americans in Smoking Cessation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…

  5. Increasing Reading Engagement in African American Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husband, Terry

    2014-01-01

    Much has been written concerning the challenges many teachers face in engaging African American males in reading practices. While much of this extant scholarship focuses on African American males at the pre-adolescent stage of development and beyond, little has been written regarding increasing reading engagement in African American boys in P-5…

  6. Factors Associated with African-American Freshmen and Non-African-American Freshmen Retention and Graduation at a Predominantly White, Regional University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Robert L., II

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine further, the factors at a Predominantly White College or University (PWCU) that may affect the first-year retention and six-year graduation of African-American (AA) and non-AA students. Biographical and descriptive data was obtained for each student entering Tennessee Technological University (TTU) from the…

  7. Wellness among African American Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day-Vines, Norma L.; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    Although there are various definitions of wellness, few conceptual definitions have addressed the contextual dimensions of wellness relative to African American counselors. The authors present an overview of generic models of wellness, discuss factors that both inhibit and promote wellness, offer some culture-specific models of wellness, and…

  8. African-American spirituality: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Newlin, Kelley; Knafl, Kathleen; Melkus, Gail D'Eramo

    2002-12-01

    Culturally competent care for African Americans requires sensitivity to spirituality as a component of the cultural context. To foster understanding, measurement, and delivery of the spiritual component of culturally competent care, this article presents an evolutionary concept analysis of African-American spirituality. The analysis is based on a sample of multidisciplinary research studies reflecting spirituality of African Americans. Findings indicate that African-American spirituality involves quintessential, internal, external, consoling, and transformative attributive dimensions. Findings are considered in relation to previous conceptual analyses of spirituality and suggest that defining attributes of African-American spirituality are both global and culturally prominent. Implications for practice and research are discussed.

  9. African American Participation in Oncology Clinical Trials--Focus on Prostate Cancer: Implications, Barriers, and Potential Solutions.

    PubMed

    Ahaghotu, Chiledum; Tyler, Robert; Sartor, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    In the United States, the incidence and mortality rates of many cancers, especially prostate cancer, are disproportionately high among African American men compared with Caucasian men. Recently, mortality rates for prostate cancer have declined more rapidly in African American versus Caucasian men, but prostate cancer is still the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in African American men in the United States. Compared with Caucasian men, prostate cancer occurs at younger ages, has a higher stage at diagnosis, and is more likely to progress after definitive treatments in African American men. Reasons for racial discrepancies in cancer are multifactorial and potentially include socioeconomic, cultural, nutritional, and biologic elements. In addition to improving access to novel therapies, clinical trial participation is essential to adequately establish the risks and benefits of treatments in African American populations. Considering the disproportionately high mortality rates noted in these groups, our understanding of the natural history and responses to therapies is limited. This review will explore African American underrepresentation in clinical trials with a focus on prostate cancer, and potentially effective strategies to engage African American communities in prostate cancer research. Solutions targeting physicians, investigators, the community, and health care systems are identified. Improvement of African American participation in prostate cancer clinical trials will benefit all stakeholders.

  10. Bone and mineral metabolism in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Bell, N H

    1997-08-01

    Important differences exist in the metabolism of bone and mineral and the vitamin D endocrine system between whites and African Americans and include rate o f skeletal remodeling, bone mass, and vitamin D metabolism. A higher bone mineral density (BMD) in African Americans is associated with a diminished incidence o f osteoporosis and fractures. Serum 17beta-estradiol and the rate of GH secretion are higher in black than in white men, but there is no racial difference in women in this regard. The mechanisms for reduced rate o f skeletal remodeling and for greater BMD in blacks are not known, but diminished rate of skeletal remodeling could be a contributing factor for greater bone mass. Reduction in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in blacks is attributed to increased skin pigment and to diminished dermal production of vitamin D(3) and consequent decreased hepatic synthesis o f the metabolite. There is no evidence that alteration of the vitamin D endocrine system contributes to or is responsible for racial differences in skeletal remodeling and bone mass. Black infants, however, are at risk for developing vitamin D-deficient rickets, particularly when breast-fed.

  11. Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance among African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    predictors of surveillance and follow-up care is Baldwin’s Afrocentric model for describing AA women’s participation in breast and cervical cancer screening...African American women’s participation in breast and cervical cancer early detection and screening. Adv Nurs Sci. 1996;19(2):27Y42. 28. Marin G. Subjective...AD_________________ Award Number: DAMD17-03-1-0454 TITLE: Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance

  12. Ideological schisms about HIV/AIDS helping systems in the African American community, with an emphasis on women.

    PubMed

    Fairfax, Colita Nichols

    2010-10-01

    This article is an initial exploration about the impact of ideological beliefs on helping services in the African American community. Newly infected HIV/AIDS cases place African Americans at 45% of such new cases, with African American women becoming infected at a rate 18 times that of Whites. Yet, helping services that are organic to African American women should be stronger through a discussion of cultural beliefs held in the community, where the genesis of helping services exists. Values and beliefs should be at the center of community partnerships, public media strategies, generalist-practice curricula in macro-level systems, and creating more space for relationship dialogue between African American men and women, which includes gender and racial distortions. Given the exponentially high numbers of HIV/AIDS cases in the African American community, a more earnest examination of values and beliefs is warranted.

  13. Barriers and Facilitators toward HIV Testing and Health Perceptions among African-American Men Who Have Sex with Women at a South Side Chicago Community Health Center: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Ian J.; Jeremiah, Rohan D.; Moore, Nataka J.; Watson, Karriem; Dixon, Michael A.; Jordan, Gregory L.; Murray, Marcus; Keeter, Mary K.; Hollowell, Courtney M. P.; Murphy, Adam B.

    2017-01-01

    In the United States, African-Americans’ (AAs) HIV infection rates are higher than any other racial group, and AA men who have sex with women (MSW) are a significant proportion of new cases. There is little research into AA MSW HIV/AIDS knowledge, barriers, and facilitators of HIV testing in Chicago. We enrolled a convenience sample of AA MSW from a community health clinic who completed self-administered surveys assessing HIV knowledge and testing-related barriers and facilitators. The survey was a combination of questions from several validated instruments, and additional questions were written based on key informant interviews with social scientists to tailor the questionnaire for AA men living on the South Side of Chicago. We recruited 20 AA MSW (mean age 47.4 years). Sixty-five percent had incomes <$10,000/year, 30% were insured, and 50% had post-secondary education. Despite low socioeconomic status, their HIV literacy was relatively high. The identified major barriers to testing were low perceived HIV risk, concerns over privacy, and external stigma at testing sites. Future efforts should focus on educating AA MSW on actual risk for HIV and address issues of privacy and stigma at testing sites. PMID:28097120

  14. The Contribution of Community and Family Contexts to African American Young Adults' Romantic Relationship Health: A Prospective Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Steven M.; Lei, Man-Kit; Grange, Christina R.; Simons, Ronald L.; Brody, Gene H.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Chen, Yi-fu

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that African American men and women experience unique challenges in developing and maintaining stable, satisfying romantic relationships. Extant studies have linked relationship quality among African American couples to contemporaneous risk factors such as economic hardship and racial discrimination. Little research,…

  15. Evaluating Career Success of African American Males: It's What You Know and Who You Are that Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, C. Douglas; Eby, Lillian T.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to identify the factors related to career success of college educated, African American men and to explore the relative importance of human capital, social capital, individual differences, and demographic attributes in predicting career success. Using a sample of 247 African American males, we found some…

  16. Suicide and homicide bereavement among African Americans: implications for survivor research and practice.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Tanya L; Joe, Sean; Taylor, Katie C

    Suicide and homicide are among the leading causes of death for young African-American men; however, little is known about how family members cope with these types of deaths. This exploratory phenomenological study examines the traumatic loss and coping experiences of a purposive convenience sample of 12 immediate African-American surviving family members with a combined experience of 13 deaths, 8 suicides and 5 homicides. Novel aspects of suicide and homicide survivor phenomenon were identified, including Survivor Responses and Reactions, Coping Strategies, and Survivor Service Needs. The implications for research and for those providing services to surviving African-American families are discussed.

  17. History Matters: What Happens When African Americans Confront Their Difficult Past.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Phillip

    2016-05-01

    History and Reconstruction is an interdisciplinary project to assess the impact of African American history education for black men. Under the theory of trauma recovery, leading scholars of African American history worked with a group of ten ex-offenders, supported by the services of a psychologist and an African American cultural expert and storyteller. Results based on psychological testing and qualitative feedback showed that history can be a catalyst for personal development and transformation. It also demonstrated that difficult history can be taught and assimilated for audience benefit. History and Reconstruction was supported by the Pew Center for Arts and Heritage.

  18. Eating Behaviors among Early Adolescent African American Girls and Their Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Monique; Dancy, Barbara; Holm, Karyn; Wilbur, JoEllen; Fogg, Louis

    2013-01-01

    African American (AA) girls aged 10-12 living in urban communities designated as food deserts have a significantly greater prevalence of overweight and obesity than girls that age in the general population. The purpose of our study was (a) to examine the agreement in nutritional intake between AA girls aged 10-12 and their mothers and (b) to…

  19. Body Image and Quality of Life in a Group of African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Tiffany L.; Zunker, Christie; Wingo, Brooks; Thomas, Dana-Marie; Ard, Jamy D.

    2010-01-01

    African American (AA) women's preference for a larger body size and underestimation of their body weight may affect the relationship between their body weight and weight-related quality of life (QOL). We wanted to examine the relationship between weight-related QOL and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of overweight AA women. Thirty-three…

  20. End of an era? Managerial losses of African American and Latinos in the public sector.

    PubMed

    Wilson, George; Roscigno, Vincent

    2015-11-01

    In this article, we examine whether "new governance" reforms in public sector work over the last two decades have generated managerial wage losses for African Americans and Latinos. Findings from Integrated Public Use Micro-Series data across three time points indicate that the new "business logic" encompassing, most notably, increased employer discretion has progressively disadvantaged African American and Latino men and women relative to their White and gender counterparts. Indeed, for both African Americans and Latinos in the managerial ranks, relative parity in wages that were witnessed in the public sector progressively eroded between 2000 and 2010. Qualifications to these findings indicate that levels of inequality become pronounced for African Americans, and more so among men than women. We discuss the historical niche status of public sector work for racial and ethnic minorities in the U.S. and the importance of conducting further analyses of the public sector because of its fluid nature as a locus of racial stratification.

  1. African American girls and the challenges ahead.

    PubMed

    Rozie-Battle, Judith L

    2002-01-01

    The research on the psychosocial development of African American girls is limited. Information that is available focuses on teen pregnancy and health issues such as nutrition and physical activity. African American girls are facing challenges, including poverty, crime, poor self-esteem, and peer pressure. Despite some of the negative characteristics attributed to African American girls, many are achieving some success. Policy makers and service providers need to recognize the resiliency and unique needs of African American girls and develop services that ensure their needs are being fully met.

  2. Rhinoplasty in the African-American patient.

    PubMed

    Rohrich, Rod J; Muzaffar, Arshad R

    2003-03-01

    Because of the increasing popularity of rhinoplasty in the African-American patient, we delineate how a rhinoplasty surgeon can perform this challenging technique to obtain uniform and consistent results. First, we address how one can appreciate and analyze the various aesthetic concepts of beauty and the unique anatomic characteristics of the African-American nose. Second, we present a pragmatic, systematic analysis of the African-American nose. Last, we describe the techniques consistently used to modify the African-American nose while achieving or maintaining facial harmony using the open approach to rhinoplasty. Specific case analyses are presented to demonstrate utilization of the technique.

  3. African American Preschoolers' Language, Emergent Literacy Skills, and Use of African American English: A Complex Relation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Craig, Holly K.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relation between African American preschoolers' use of African American English (AAE) and their language and emergent literacy skills in an effort to better understand the perplexing and persistent difficulties many African American children experience learning to read proficiently. Method: African American…

  4. Investigating Instructional Practices of an African American Male Mathematics Teacher with Underachieving African American Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammad, Rhonda K.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the instructional practices of an experienced African American mathematics teacher to determine his perceived capabilities in augmenting academic proficiency for his African American male students. Provided in this descriptive case study are the lived experiences of an African American male teacher working to move…

  5. Less drinking, yet more problems: understanding African American drinking and related problems.

    PubMed

    Zapolski, Tamika C B; Pedersen, Sarah L; McCarthy, Denis M; Smith, Gregory T

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have found that, compared to European Americans, African Americans report later initiation of drinking, lower rates of use, and lower levels of use across almost all age groups. Nevertheless, African Americans also have higher levels of alcohol problems than European Americans. After reviewing current data regarding these trends, we provide a theory to understand this apparent paradox as well as to understand variability in risk among African Americans. Certain factors appear to operate as both protective factors against heavy use and risk factors for negative consequences from use. For example, African American culture is characterized by norms against heavy alcohol use or intoxication, which protects against heavy use but also provides within-group social disapproval when use does occur. African Americans are more likely to encounter legal problems from drinking than European Americans, even at the same levels of consumption, perhaps thus resulting in reduced consumption but more problems from consumption. There appears to be one particular group of African Americans, low-income African American men, who are at the highest risk for alcoholism and related problems. We theorize that this effect is due to the complex interaction of residential discrimination, racism, age of drinking, and lack of available standard life reinforcers (e.g., stable employment and financial stability). Further empirical research will be needed to test our theories and otherwise move this important field forward. A focus on within-group variation in drinking patterns and problems is necessary. We suggest several new avenues of inquiry.

  6. Less Drinking, Yet More Problems: Understanding African American Drinking and Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Zapolski, Tamika C. B.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; McCarthy, Denis M.; Smith, Gregory T.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have found that, compared to European Americans, African Americans report later initiation of drinking, lower rates of use, and lower levels of use across almost all age groups. Nevertheless, African Americans also have higher levels of alcohol problems than European Americans. After reviewing current data regarding these trends, we provide a theory to understand this apparent paradox as well as to understand variability in risk among African Americans. Certain factors appear to operate as both protective factors against heavy use and risk factors for negative consequences from use. For example, African American culture is characterized by norms against heavy alcohol use or intoxication, which protects against heavy use but which also provides within group social disapproval when use does occur. African Americans are more likely to encounter legal problems from drinking than European Americans, even at the same levels of consumption, perhaps thus resulting in reduced consumption but more problems from consumption. There appears to be one particular group of African Americans, low-income African American men, who are at the highest risk for alcoholism and related problems. We theorize that this effect is due to the complex interaction of residential discrimination, racism, age of drinking, and lack of available standard life reinforcers (e.g., stable employment and financial stability). Further empirical research will be needed to test our theories and otherwise move this important field forward. A focus on within group variation in drinking patterns and problems is necessary. We suggest several new avenues of inquiry. PMID:23477449

  7. A Census Tract–Level Examination of Social Determinants of Health among Black/African American Men with Diagnosed HIV Infection, 2005–2009—17 US Areas

    PubMed Central

    Gant, Zanetta; Gant, Larry; Song, Ruiguang; Willis, Leigh; Johnson, Anna Satcher

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV disproportionately affects black men in the United States: most diagnoses are for black gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (collectively referred to as MSM). A better understanding of the social conditions in which black men live and work may better explain why HIV incidence and diagnosis rates are higher than expected in this population. Methods Using data from the National HIV Surveillance System and the US Census Bureau's American Community Survey, we examined the relationships of HIV diagnosis rates and 5 census tract–level social determinants of health variables for 21,948 black MSM and non-MSM aged ≥15 years residing in 17 areas in the United States. We examined federal poverty status, marital status, education level, employment status, and vacancy status and computed rate ratios (RRs) and prevalence odds ratios (PORs), using logistic regression with zero-inflated negative binomial modeling. Results Among black MSM, HIV diagnosis rates decreased as poverty increased (RR: 0.54). At the time of HIV diagnosis, black MSM were less likely than black non-MSM to live in census tracts with a higher proportion below the poverty level (POR: 0.81) and with a higher proportion of vacant houses (POR: 0.86). In comparison, housing vacancy was positively associated with HIV diagnosis rates among black non-MSM (RR: 1.65). HIV diagnosis rates were higher for black MSM (RR: 2.75) and non-MSM (RR: 4.90) whose educational level was low. Rates were significantly lower for black MSM (RR: 0.06) and non-MSM (RR: 0.26) as the proportion unemployed and the proportion married increased. Conclusions This exploratory study found differences in the patterns of HIV diagnosis rates for black MSM and non-MSM and provides insight into the transmission of HIV infection in areas that reflect substantial disadvantage in education, housing, employment, and income. PMID:25268831

  8. Parenting Needs of Urban, African American Fathers.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tyler K; Tandon, S Darius; Bair-Merritt, Megan H; Hanson, Janice L

    2015-07-01

    Fathers play a critical role in children's development; similarly, fatherhood positively affects men's health. Among the larger population of fathers relatively little is known about the parenting knowledge of urban, African American fathers. Focusing on urban, African American fathers, the objectives of this study were to (1) understand the primary sources from which fathers learn about parenting, (2) determine where and how fathers prefer to receive future parenting education, and (3) explore the information perceived as most valuable to fathers and how this compares with the recommended anticipatory guidance (Bright Futures-based) delivered during well visits. Five focus groups, with a total of 21 participants, were conducted with urban fathers at a community-based organization. Study eligibility included being more than 18 years old, English speaking, and having at least one child 0 to 5 years old. During the focus groups, fathers were asked where they received parenting information, how and where they preferred to receive parenting information, and what they thought about Bright Futures parenting guidelines. Fathers most commonly described receiving parenting information from their own relatives rather than from their child's health care provider. Most fathers preferred to learn parenting from a person rather than a technology-based source and expressed interest in learning more about parenting at community-based locations. Although fathers viewed health care providers' role as primarily teaching about physical health, they valued Bright Futures anticipatory guidance about parenting. Fathers valued learning about child rearing, health, and development. Augmenting physician counseling about Bright Futures with community-based parenting education may be beneficial for fathers.

  9. Conducting Precision Medicine Research with African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Halbert, Chanita Hughes; McDonald, Jasmine; Vadaparampil, Susan; Rice, LaShanta; Jefferson, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Importance Precision medicine is an approach to detecting, treating, and managing disease that is based on individual variation in genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Precision medicine is expected to reduce health disparities, but this will be possible only if studies have adequate representation of racial minorities. Objective It is critical to anticipate the rates at which individuals from diverse populations are likely to participate in precision medicine studies as research initiatives are being developed. We evaluated the likelihood of participating in a clinical study for precision medicine. Design, Setting, Participants Observational study conducted between October 2010 and February 2011 in a national sample of African Americans. Main Outcome Measure Intentions to participate in a government sponsored study that involves providing a biospecimen and generates data that could be shared with other researchers to conduct future studies. Results One third of respondents would participate in a clinical study for precision medicine. Only gender had a significant independent association with participation intentions. Men had a 1.86 (95% CI = 1.11, 3.12, p = 0.02) increased likelihood of participating in a precision medicine study compared to women in the model that included overall barriers and facilitators. In the model with specific participation barriers, distrust was associated with a reduced likelihood of participating in the research described in the vignette (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.34, 0.96, p = 0.04). Conclusion and Relevance African Americans may have low enrollment in PMI research. As PMI research is implemented, extensive efforts will be needed to ensure adequate representation. Additional research is needed to identify optimal ways of ethically describing precision medicine studies to ensure sufficient recruitment of racial minorities. PMID:27441706

  10. African American Teaching and the Matriarchal Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffries, Rhonda Baynes

    This paper discusses the role of matriarchs in African-American culture, explaining that traditionally, African-American matriarchs arise from a combination of African norms and American social positions that naturally forces them to assume leadership conditions. The roles these women assume are a response to the desire to survive in a society…

  11. Multicultural Curriculum: African American Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Violet J.

    1991-01-01

    Traces and analyzes the history of African American children's literature defined as "culturally conscious," an authentic body of literature written about and for African American children. Discusses the current status of this literature and indicates a change in focus in the last century. Authors' perspectives, and the implications for…

  12. African American Undergraduates and the Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmire, Ethelene

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the academic library experiences of African American undergraduates attending a research university in the Midwest. Data collection techniques included questionnaires and ethnographic observations. The results indicated that African American undergraduates are using the academic library primarily to read and to study with their…

  13. Smoking Cessation in African-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    1996-01-01

    Because the smoking behavior of African Americans differs considerably from that of other groups, researchers examined differences between African Americans who did and did not use the nicotine patch as an adjunct to counseling and education for smoking cessation. Results indicated the nicotine patch significantly improved six-month cessation…

  14. Cultural Expressions of the African American Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akbar, Na'im

    Interpretations of the differences between the African American child and the Caucasian child in North America follow two major trends. In one the differences in the African American child are viewed as deviance from the Euro-American norm and therefore inferior or pathological. In the other, the differences are viewed as deviant but adaptive…

  15. A Mirror Image African American Student Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon Dawson, Candice

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a narrative inquiry research project that focuses on the collegiate experiences of African American students at both historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly white institutions (PWIs). I look at how African American college students who engage in race or culturally specific activities, the degree…

  16. Experiences of African American College Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Aundria Chephan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the reasons that African-American alumni from a historically Black university (HBCU) and a predominantly White university (PWI) chose to attend, remain in, and graduate from college. The central research question was how do African Americans describe their college experiences? The secondary research…

  17. Hidden Education among African Americans during Slavery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundaker, Grey

    2007-01-01

    Background/Context: Historical studies examine aspects of African American education in and out of school in detail (Woodson 1915, 1933, Bullock 1970, Anderson 1988, Morris 1982, Rachal 1986, Rose 1964, Webber 1978, Williams 2005). Scholars of African American literacy have noted ways that education intersects other arenas such as religion and…

  18. African Americans in the Early Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Gary B.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses five topics on African Americans that are essential to studying United States History in the years between 1760 and 1830: (1) African Americans in the Revolutionary War ; (2) the rise of free black communities; (3) early abolitionism; (4) the spread of slavery; and (5) black resistance to slavery. (CMK)

  19. Depression, Sociocultural Factors, and African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunn, Vanessa Lynn; Craig, Carlton David

    2009-01-01

    The authors discuss depression in African American women from a sociocultural perspective, including aspects of oppression and racism that affect symptom manifestation. The authors highlight John Henryism as a coping mechanism, the history and continuing role of the African American church as a safe haven, and strategies for culturally competent…

  20. Prostate Cancer Genetics in African Americans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-11-1-0566 TITLE: Prostate Cancer Genetics in African Americans PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Henry T. Lynch, MD CONTRACTING...W81XWH-11-1-0566 November 2015 Final 15Aug2011 - 14Aug2015 Prostate Cancer Genetics in African Americans Henry T. Lynch Nothing listed 36

  1. Improving African American Achievement in Geometry Honors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mims, Adrian B.

    2010-01-01

    This case study evaluated the significance of implementing an enrichment mathematics course during the summer to rising African American ninth graders entitled, "Geometry Honors Preview." In the past, 60 to 70 percent of African American students in this school district had withdrawn from Geometry Honors by the second academic quarter. This study…

  2. African Americans and World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersten, Andrew E.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the experience of African Americans during World War II on the homefront and in the armed forces. States that African Americans not only fought fascism overseas but also apartheid in the United States, also known as the "Double V." (CMK)

  3. The Relationship Between Online Social Network Use, Sexual Risk Behaviors, and HIV Sero-Status Among a Sample of Predominately African American and Latino Men Who have Sex with Men (MSM) Social Media Users.

    PubMed

    Chiu, ChingChe J; Young, Sean D

    2015-06-01

    Social networking technologies have emerged as potential platforms to reach HIV(+) MSM in HIV interventions. This study sought to compare use of online social networking sites (SNSs) and sexual risk behaviors between HIV(+) and HIV(-) individuals among a sample of predominately African American and Latino SNS-using MSM. A total of 112 MSM Facebook users were recruited online and offline and completed an online survey. We performed regression models to assess the association between HIV status, SNS use, and sexual risk behaviors. After adjusting for age, race, and employment status, being HIV positive was significantly associated with a greater number of sexual partners (ARR = 2.84, p = 0.0017) and lower comfort levels of discussing HIV/STI status on SNSs (AOR: 0.23, p = 0.011). Findings suggest that HIV status is associated with sexual risk behaviors and SNS use among SNS-using MSM. We discuss the implications for online HIV prevention.

  4. Intimate partner violence in African American women.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Doris Williams; Sharps, Phyllis W; Gary, Faye A; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Lopez, Loretta M

    2002-01-01

    Violence against African American women, specifically intimate partner abuse, has a significant impact on their health and well being. Intimate partner femicide and near fatal intimate partner femicide are the major causes of premature death and disabling injuries for African American women. Yet, despite this, there is a paucity of research and interventions specific and culturally relevant for these women. This article focuses on issues relevant to intimate partner violence and abuse against African American women by examining existing empirical studies of prevalence and health outcomes of intimate partner violence against women in general, plus what limited research there is about African American women, specifically. It includes a discussion of specific recommendations for research, practice, education, and policy to reduce and prevent intimate partner violence against African American women.

  5. African Americans and the medical establishment.

    PubMed

    Smith, C

    1999-09-01

    The African American community's response to the AIDS epidemic has reflected the profound mistrust of the medical establishment which many African Americans feel. Among African Americans, the belief that the epidemic originated in a genocidal plot is widespread. It is thought that organized medicine has been significantly involved in this plot. If we look at African Americans' historical relationship to the medical establishment from the era of slavery to the recent past, the suspicious attitudes which make such beliefs possible can be seen as an intelligible response to a new disease which disproportionately affects African Americans. Successful medical and public health responses to the epidemic have depended and will continue to depend upon overcoming the historical legacy of suspicion and gaining the trust of the community.

  6. Racial influences associated with weight-related beliefs in African American and Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Malpede, Christie Z; Greene, Lori E; Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L; Jefferson, Wendy K; Shewchuk, Richard M; Baskin, Monica L; Ard, Jamy D

    2007-01-01

    This study examines African American and Caucasian women's perception of how race affects their weight. Structured focus groups that used the nominal group technique (NGT) were conducted with four groups of African American women (n = 30) and four groups of Caucasian women (n = 30). Participants generated responses to the question, "How does being a Black/White woman affect your weight?" The African American groups generated 48 unique ideas, including unhealthy food preparation, poor food selection habits, lack of exercise, stress, increased risk of chronic diseases, and associated medical costs; the Caucasian groups produced 32 responses, including distorted expectations of perfect body type, success depended on thinness and beauty, social pressures, media, and men's preferences. Results suggest that the African American women focused on food choices and health consequences while the Caucasian women emphasized body size and aesthetics. The observed differences support a need for culturally specific interventions that promote good eating patterns and healthy body shapes.

  7. Marriage and Health in the Transition to Adulthood: Evidence for African Americans in Add Health.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Lee, Hedwig; Deleone, Felicia Yang

    2010-08-01

    This paper examines the relationship between early marriage (before age 26), cohabitation, and health for African Americans and whites during the transition to adulthood using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). We examine three categories of health outcomes relevant to young adulthood: physical health, mental health, and health risk behaviors. Lagged dependent variable models are used to examine the health effects of early marriage and cohabitation accounting for potential health selection into unions. Our results indicate that early marriage by young adults does not have protective effects for African Americans, and finds more negative effects for African American men than women. There are mixed results for whites with some protective effects of marriage for binge drinking. Early marriage for both African Americans and whites is associated with increased Body Mass Index (BMI). Cohabitation is uniformly associated with negative health outcomes for all race and sex groups.

  8. HIV Risk Behaviors among African American Women with at-Risk Male Partners

    PubMed Central

    Paxton, Keisha C.; Williams, John K.; Bolden, Sherica; Guzman, Yesenia; Harawa, Nina T.

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV continues to impact African American women at alarming rates. Yet, few researchers have examined the relationship factors promoting unprotected sex within African American communities, especially instances in which women are aware that their male partners are engaging in high risk behaviors. This qualitative study explored the sexual behaviors, relationship characteristics, and HIV prevention strategies utilized by African American women in relationships with African American men at-risk for HIV. Method To understand the issues that should be addressed in a sexual risk-reduction intervention, data were collected from three, two-hour focus group discussions (n=24) comprised primarily of low-income African American women with histories of at-risk male sex partners. At-risk partners included specifically men who had sex with other men or with transgender individuals, used crack cocaine or injection drugs, had lengthy incarceration periods, or an unknown sexual history. Discussion questions examined external factors affecting sexual risk behaviors such as societal pressures, peer norms, and financial vulnerability. Discussions were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using a consensual qualitative research approach. Results Five themes, including self-esteem, social influences on behavior, relationship fidelity, sexual risk behavior, and partners' sexual behaviors, were identified as placing women at increased risk for HIV. Reasons for inconsistent condom use included concern for maintaining the relationship and substance use before and during sex. African American women also believed that men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) were dishonest about their sexuality due to stigma towards homosexuality/bisexuality. Despite these challenges, participants indicated that African American women have a strong sense of pride that can positively impact behaviors in relationships. Conclusion The findings of this study support that social and contextual factor

  9. HMO employment and African-American physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Briscoe, Forrest; Konrad, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the level and determinants of African-American physicians' employment in health maintenance organizations (HMOs), particularly early in their careers. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 1991 and 1996 Young Physicians Surveys to assess racial differences in the likelihood of HMO employment (n = 3,705). Using multinomial logistic regression, we evaluated four explanations for an observed relationship between African-American physicians and HMO employment: human capital stratification among organizations, race-based affinity between physicians and patients, financial constraints due to debt burden, and different organizational hiring practices. Using binomial logistic regression, we also evaluated differences in the odds of being turned down for a prior practice position, of subsequently leaving the current practice organization and of later having career doubts. RESULTS: Without any controls, African-American physicians were 4.52 times more likely to practice in HMOs than Caucasian physicians. After controlling for human capital stratification, racial concordance and financial constraints, African-American physicians remained 2.48 times more likely to practice in HMOs than Caucasian physicians. In addition, 19.2% of African-American physicians in HMOs reported being turned down for another job, far more than any other racial/ethnic group in the HMO setting and any racial/ethnic group, including African-American physicians in the non-HMO setting (including all other practice locations). Five years later, those same African-American physicians from HMOs also reported significantly more turnover (7.50 times more likely than non-HMO African-American physicians to leave their current practice) and doubt about their careers (2.17 times more likely than non-HMO African-American physicians to express serious career doubts). CONCLUSIONS: African-American physicians were disproportionately hired into HMO settings, impacting their subsequent careers. PMID

  10. Expecting the Unexpected: a Comparative Study of African-American Women's Experiences in Science during the High School Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Sandra L.; Johnson, Elizabeth Palmer

    Data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS) for the years 1988 to 1992 are used to explore the science experiences of young African-American women during the high school years. The comparison groups we use in trying to understand these experiences involve White women (for a race contrast) and African-American men (for a gender contrast). Within the context of a critical feminist perspective, it is argued that gender is constructed in a different way in White and African-American communities. Instead of expecting a disadvantage for young African-American women because of their gender and minority statuses, it is suggested that unique gender ideologies and work-family arrangements in the African-American community give these young women the resources and agency that allow them to compete with their White female counterparts and their African-American male counterparts in the science domain. Results from our analyses of the NELS data confirm these expectations. We find that on a majority of science measures, African-American women do as well as - and sometimes better than - White women and African-American men. For example, there are no differences between African-American women and men on attitudes toward science. And when compared with White women, African-American women tend to have more positive attitudes. When disadvantages appear for these young African-American women, they are more likely to be race effects then gender effects. The minimal gender effects in the science experiences of young African-Americans is in contrast to the more frequent male advantage in the White sample. A careful examination of family and individual resources shows that African-American families compensate for disadvantages on some resources (e.g., family socioeconomic status) by providing young women with an excess of other resources (e.g., unique gender ideologies, work expectations, and maternal expectations and involvement). And, unlike White parents, they sometimes

  11. Aerobic Exercise Training and Arterial Changes in African-Americans versus Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Ranadive, Sushant M.; Yan, Huimin; Lane, Abbi D.; Kappus, Rebecca M.; Cook, Marc D.; Sun, Peng; Harvey, Idethia; Ploutz-Synder, Robert; Woods, Jeffrey A.; Wilund, Kenneth R.; Fernhall, Bo

    2015-01-01

    African-Americans (AA) have increased carotid artery intima-media thickness and decreased vascular function compared to their Caucasian (CA) peers. Aerobic exercise prevents and potentially reverses arterial dysfunction. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 8 weeks of moderate-high intensity aerobic training in young healthy sedentary AA and CA men and women. Methods Sixty-four healthy volunteers (men = 28, women = 36) with mean age = 24 underwent measures of arterial structure, function and blood pressure variables at baseline, post-4 week control period and 8 weeks post-training. Results There was a significant increase in VO2peak amongst both groups post exercise training. Brachial systolic blood pressure decreased significantly following control period in both groups but not following exercise training. Carotid pulse pressure decreased significantly in both groups post exercise training as compared to baseline. There was no change in any of the other blood pressure variables. AAs had a higher intima-media thickness at baseline and post-control period, but significantly decreased following exercise training compared to CAs. AAs had significantly lower baseline forearm blood flow and RH compared to CAs, but exercise training had no effect on these variables. There was no significant difference in arterial stiffness (cPWV) and wave-reflection (AIx) between the two groups at any time point. Conclusions This is the first study to show that, 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training causes significant improvement in the arterial structure in young, healthy AAs, making it comparable to the CAs and with minimal effects on blood pressure variables. PMID:26225767

  12. African American Men’s Perspectives on Promoting Physical Activity: “We’re Not That Difficult to Figure out!”

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Daniela B.; Hooker, Steven P.; Wilcox, Sara; Burroughs, Ericka L.; Rheaume, Carol E.

    2012-01-01

    African American men report poorer health than do White men and have significantly greater odds for developing chronic diseases partly because of limited physical activity. Understanding how to encourage healthy behaviors among African American men will be critical in the development of effective physical activity messages and programs. Guided by principles of cultural sensitivity and social marketing, this research examined middle-aged and older African American men’s recommended strategies for promoting physical activity to African American men of their age. The authors report results from. 49 interviews conducted with middle-aged (45–64 years) and older (65–84 years) African American men in South Carolina. Four groups of African American men were recruited; middle-aged active men (n = 17), middle-aged inactive men (n = 12), older active men (n = 10), older inactive men (n = 10). Themes related to marketing and recruitment strategies, message content, and spokesperson characteristics emerged and differed by age and physical activity level. Recommended marketing strategies included word of mouth; use of mass media; partnering with churches, businesses, and fraternities; strategic placement of messages; culturally appropriate message framing; and careful attention to selection of program spokespersons. Findings will help in the marketing, design, implementation, and evaluation of culturally appropriate interventions to encourage physical activity among middle-aged and older African American men in the South. PMID:22808914

  13. African-American Men and Higher Education in Maryland. Addressing the Future. Findings and Recommendations of the Task Force To Address the Decline in Enrollment and Graduation of the Black Male from Institutions of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NAACP, Rockville, MD. Montgomery County Branch.

    Original data is presented which examines some of the factors that contribute to the low number of African-American males receiving baccalaureate degrees in Maryland. The data represents findings which resulted from research by an appointed task force; a "Town Meeting" of students, parents, and other interested adults; consultation with…

  14. African American cancer patients' pain experience.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Lim, Hyun-Ju; Clark, Maresha; Chee, Wonshik

    2008-01-01

    Although very little is known about African American cancer patients' pain experience, a few studies have indicated that their cancer pain experience is unique and somewhat different from that of other ethnic groups. The purpose of the study reported in this article was to explore African American cancer patients' pain experience using an online forum. This study was a qualitative online forum designed from a feminist perspective and conducted among 11 African American cancer patients who were recruited through both Internet and real settings. Nine online forum topics were used to administer the 6-month online forum, and the data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Four themes emerged through the data analysis process. First, participants viewed cancer as a challenge in life that they should fight against. Second, cancer pain was differentiated from ordinary pain because cancer was stigmatized in their culture. Third, participants viewed that African Americans, especially women, were culturally raised to be strong, and this African American cultural heritage inhibited cancer patients from expressing pain and seeking help for pain management. Finally, the findings indicated certain changes in perspectives among African American cancer patients during the disease process, which might make them tolerate pain through praying to God and reading the Bible. Based on the findings, we suggest further studies among diverse groups of African American cancer patients, with a focus on cultural attitudes toward cancer pain and influences of family on cancer pain experience.

  15. Association of ferroportin Q248H polymorphism with elevated levels of serum ferritin in African-Americans in the Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening (HEIRS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Rivers, Charles A.; Barton, James C.; Gordeuk, Victor R.; Acton, Ronald T.; Speechley, Mark R.; Snively, Beverly M.; Leiendecker-Foster, Catherine; Press, Richard D.; Adams, Paul C.; McLaren, Gordon D.; Dawkins, Fitzroy W.; McLaren, Christine E.; Reboussin, David M.

    2007-01-01

    The ferroportin (FPN1) Q248H polymorphism has been associated with increased serum ferritin (SF) levels in sub-Saharan Africans and in African Americans (AA). AA participants of the HEIRS Study who did not have HFE C282Y or H63D who had elevated initial screening SF (≥300 μg/L in men and ≥200 μg/L in women) (defined as cases) were frequency-matched to AA participants with normal SF (defined as controls) to investigate the association of the Q248H with elevated SF. 10.4% of cases and 6.7% of controls were Q248H heterozygotes (P = 0.257). Q248H homozygosity was observed in 0.5% of the cases and none of the controls. The frequency of Q248H was higher among men with elevated SF than among control men (P = 0.047); corresponding differences were not observed among women. This appeared to be unrelated to self-reports of a previous diagnosis of liver disease. Men with elevated SF were three times more likely than women with elevated SF to have Q248H (P = 0.012). There were no significant differences in Q248H frequencies in men and women control participants. We conclude that the frequency of the FPN1 Q248H polymorphism is greater in AA men with elevated SF than in those with normal SF. PMID:17276706

  16. Evaluating brief cognitive impairment screening instruments among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Kiddoe, Jared M; Whitfield, Keith E; Andel, Ross; Edwards, Christopher L

    2008-07-01

    This article compared and contrasted the Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status (TICS) to the racially-sensitive Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ). The empirical questions addressed was whether the TICS over-represented African American (AA) cognitive impairment (CI) relative to the SPMSQ, if there were age differences in CI prevalence between younger subjects (ages 50-64) and older ones (>64 years) and on accuracy to detect CI in individuals with higher levels of educations (> or =13 years) versus those with lower education levels (<13 years). A secondary data analysis was performed on 396 AA participants from the Carolina African American Twin Study on Aging (CAATSA). The SPMSQ measured CI prevalence at 10.3% and the TICS at 45.0%. Within the younger group, TICS and CI prevalence was 49.3 and 80% among the older group. Within the younger group SPMSQ and CI prevalence was 14.5 and 53.8% among the older group. Within the higher educated group, TICS and CI prevalence was 36.7 and 51.4% among the lower educated. Within the higher educated group, SPMSQ and CI prevalence was 7.7 and 14.5% among the lower educated. Findings are consistent with our hypotheses that the TICS would be a less accurate assessor of CI among AAs.

  17. Sexual Decision Making in the Absence of Choice: The African American Female Dating Experience

    PubMed Central

    Andrasik, Michele P.; Nguyen, Hong V.; George, William H.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2016-01-01

    Although links between low mate availability and increased HIV and STI risk for African American women have been documented in the literature, we know little about the impact of limited mate choices on the quality of relationships between Black men and women and how these relationship dynamics impact risk for young Black women. We conducted a qualitative study with African American female young adults (N=12) to explore the perceived impact of structural forces on African American female young adults’ dating and sexual behavior. Participants reported (1) perceptions of Black men as untrustworthy and manipulative, (2) the limited and often negative roles for Black men in the larger Black community, and (3) heterosexual relationships in the Black community as increasingly influenced by economics and commerce. Recommendations for HIV prevention interventions that include micro and macro level approaches are discussed. PMID:27182463

  18. Elevated rates of prolonged grief disorder in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, B; Morrison, R S; Vanderwerker, L C; Prigerson, H G

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of Prolonged Grief Disorder (PGD) in non-Whites is currently unknown. This study was performed to explore the prevalence of PGD in African Americans (AAs). Multivariable analysis of two studies of recently bereaved individuals found AAs to have significantly higher rates of PGD than Whites (21% [14 of 66] vs. 12% [55 of 471], respectively; p = 0.03). Experiencing a loved one's death as sudden or unexpected was also significantly associated with PGD over and above the effects of race/ethnicity. AAs may be at increased risk for the development of PGD. The development of effective interventions to treat PGD highlights the need to identify high-risk individuals and refer them to therapy and suggests the potential need for such therapies to adopt culturally sensitive approaches to care.

  19. Disparities in colorectal cancer in African-Americans vs Whites: before and after diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Dimou, Anastasios; Syrigos, Kostas N; Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2009-08-14

    There are differences between African-American and white patients with colorectal cancer, concerning their characteristics before and after diagnosis. Whites are more likely to adhere to screening guidelines. This is also the case among people with positive family history. Colorectal cancer is more frequent in Blacks. Studies have shown that that since 1985, colon cancer rates have dipped 20% to 25% for Whites, while rates have gone up for African-American men and stayed the same for African-American women. Overall, African-Americans are 38% to 43% more likely to die from colon cancer than are Whites. Furthermore, it seems that there is an African-American predominance in right-sited tumors. African Americans tend to be diagnosed at a later stage, to suffer from better differentiated tumors, and to have worse prognosis when compared with Whites. Moreover, less black patients receive adjuvant chemotherapy for resectable colorectal cancer or radiation therapy for rectal cancer. Caucasians seem to respond better to standard chemotherapy regimens than African-Americans. Concerning toxicity, it appears that patients of African-American descent are more likely to develop 5-FU toxicity than Whites, possibly because of their different dihydropyridine dehydrogenase status. Last but not least, screening surveillance seems to be higher among white than among black long-term colorectal cancer survivors. Socioeconomic and educational status account for most of these differences whereas little evidence exists for a genetic contribution in racial disparity. Understanding the nature of racial differences in colorectal cancer allows tailoring of screening and treatment interventions.

  20. Impact of Stress Reduction Interventions on Hostility and Ambulatory Systolic Blood Pressure in African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Lynda Brown; Gregoski, Mathew J.; Tingen, Martha S.; Barnes, Vernon A.; Treiber, Frank A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the impact of breathing awareness meditation (BAM), life skills (LS) training, and health education (HE) interventions on self-reported hostility and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) in 121 African American (AA) ninth graders at increased risk for development of essential hypertension. They were randomly assigned to BAM,…

  1. Analysis of Texas Achievement Data for Elementary African American and Latino Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larke, Patricia J.; Webb-Hasan, Gwendolyn; Jimarez, Teresa; Li, Yeping

    2014-01-01

    This study provides a critical look at achievement of African American (AA), and Latino (L) females in third and fifth grades on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) in reading, mathematics and science. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the 2007 and 2011 TAKS raw data. Data analyses indicate that AAL females had the lowest…

  2. A Systematic Review of Literature on Culturally Adapted Obesity Prevention Interventions for African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofton, Saria; Julion, Wrenetha A.; McNaughton, Diane B.; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Keim, Kathryn S.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and overweight prevalence in African American (AA) youth continues to be one of the highest of all major ethnic groups, which has led researchers to pursue culturally based approaches as a means to improve obesity prevention interventions. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate culturally adapted obesity prevention…

  3. Friendships Influence Hispanic Students' Implicit Attitudes toward White Non-Hispanics Relative to African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aberson, Christopher L.; Porter, Michael K.; Gaffney, Amber M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the role of Hispanic students' friendships with White non-Hispanics (n-Hs) and African Americans (AAs) in predicting implicit and explicit prejudices toward these groups. Participants (N = 73) completed implicit and explicit attitude measures and a friendship questionnaire. Friendships were associated with implicit attitudes…

  4. Interactive computerized fruit and vegetable preference measure for African-American and Hispanic preschoolers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to develop a computerized measure for assessing fruit, fruit juice and vegetable (FJV) preferences of African-American (AA) and Hispanic (H) preschool children. Preschool children were selected from Head Start Centers to participate in this study. Descriptive data on ...

  5. Home Remedy Use Among African American and White Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Sara A.; Sandberg, Joanne C.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Altizer, Kathryn P.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Home remedy use is an often overlooked component of health self-management, with a rich tradition, particularly among African Americans and others who have experienced limited access to medical care or discrimination by the health care system. Home remedies can potentially interfere with biomedical treatments. This study documented the use of home remedies among older rural adults, and compared use by ethnicity (African American and white) and gender. A purposeful sample of 62 community-dwelling adults ages 65+ from rural North Carolina was selected. Each completed an in-depth interview, which probed current use of home remedies, including food and non-food remedies, and the symptoms or conditions for use. Systematic, computer-assisted analysis was used to identify usage patterns. Five food and five non-food remedies were used by a large proportion of older adults. African American elders reported greater use than white elders; women reported more use for a greater number of symptoms than men. Non-food remedies included long-available, over-the-counter remedies (e.g., Epsom salts) for which “off-label” uses were reported. Use focused on alleviating common digestive, respiratory, skin, and musculoskeletal symptoms. Some were used for chronic conditions in lieu of prescription medications. Home remedy use continues to be a common feature of the health self-management of older adults, particularly among African Americans, though at lower levels than previously reported. While some use is likely helpful or benign, other use has the potential to interfere with medical management of disease. Health care providers should be aware of the use of remedies by their patients. PMID:26543255

  6. Perceived Discrimination is Associated with Health Behaviors among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study*

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Mario; Diez-Roux, Ana V.; Gebreab, Samson Y.; Brenner, Allison; Dubbert, Patricia; Wyatt, Sharon; Bruce, Marino; Hickson, DeMarc; Payne, Tom; Taylor, Herman

    2016-01-01

    Background Using Jackson Heart Study data, we examined associations of multiple measures of perceived discrimination with health behaviors among African Americans (AA). Methods The cross-sectional associations of everyday, lifetime, and burden of discrimination with odds of smoking and mean differences in physical activity, dietary fat, and sleep were examined among 4,939 35–84 year old participants after adjustment for age and socioeconomic status (SES). Results Men reported slightly higher levels of everyday and lifetime discrimination than women and similar levels of burden of discrimination as women. After adjustment for age and SES, everyday discrimination was associated with more smoking and a greater percentage of dietary fat in men and women (OR for smoking: 1.13, 95%CI 1.00,1.28 and 1.19, 95%CI 1.05,1.34; mean difference in dietary fat: 0.37, p<.05 and 0.43, p<.01, in men and women, respectively). Everyday and lifetime discrimination were associated with fewer hours of sleep in men and women (mean difference for everyday discrimination: −0.08, p<.05 and −0.18, p<.001, respectively; and mean difference for lifetime discrimination: −0.08, p<.05, and −0.24, p<.001, respectively). Burden of discrimination was associated with more smoking and fewer hours of sleep in women only. Conclusions Higher levels of perceived discrimination were associated with select health behaviors among men and women. Health behaviors offer a potential mechanism through which perceived discrimination affects health in AA. PMID:26417003

  7. HIV/AIDS among African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... person’s chance of getting or transmitting HIV. The poverty rate is higher among African Americans than other racial/ethnic groups. The socioeconomic issues associated with poverty—including limited access to high-quality health care, ...

  8. Mellonee Burnim on African American Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Patricia Shehan

    1995-01-01

    Describes the role and influence of Mellonee Burnim on U.S. music education. Discusses the origins and impact of African American gospel music. Includes a list of selected resources and two lesson plans featuring gospel music. (CFR)

  9. Perceived racism and suicide ideation: mediating role of depression but moderating role of religiosity among African American adults.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rheeda L; Salami, Temilola K; Carter, Sierra E; Flowers, Kelci

    2014-10-01

    Suicide is a public health problem for African Americans who are young and of working age. The purpose of this study was to examine mediated and moderated effects of perceived racism on suicide ideation in a community sample of 236 African American men and women. Measures of suicide ideation, depression symptoms, intrinsic/extrinsic religiosity, and perceived racism were administered. Perceived racial discrimination was directly and indirectly associated with suicide ideation. For participants who reported low levels of extrinsic religiosity, the mediated effect of perceived racism (via depression symptoms) was significant. These findings provide some insight into suicide vulnerability for specific subgroups of African Americans.

  10. Differences in radiographic features of knee osteoarthritis in African-Americans and Caucasians: the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project

    PubMed Central

    Braga, L.; Renner, J. B.; Schwartz, T. A.; Woodard, J.; Helmick, C. G.; Hochberg, M. C.; Jordan, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Objective To examine racial differences in tibiofemoral joint (TFJ) and patellofemoral joint (PFJ) radiographic osteoarthritis in African-American (AA) and Caucasian men and women. Method Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate cross-sectional associations between race and tibiofemoral osteoarthritis (TF-OA) and the presence, severity and location of individual radiographic features of tibiofemoral joint osteoarthritis [TFJ-OA] (osteophytes, joint space narrowing [JSN], sclerosis and cysts) and patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis (PFJ-OA) (osteophytes, JSN and sclerosis), using data from the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project. Proportional odds ratios (POR) assessed severity of TF-OA, TFJ and PFJ osteophytes, and JSN, adjusting for confounders. Generalized estimating equations accounted for auto-correlation of knees. Results Among 3187 participants (32.5% AAs; 62% women; mean age 62 years), 6300 TFJ and 1957 PFJ were included. Compared to Caucasians, AA men were more likely to have TF-OA (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.00–1.86); tri-compartmental TFJ and PFJ osteophytes (aOR = 3.06; 95%CI = 1.96–4.78), and TFJ and PFJ sclerosis. AA women were more likely than Caucasian to have medial TFJ and tri-compartmental osteophytes (aOR = 2.13; 1.55–2.94), and lateral TFJ sclerosis. AAs had more severe TF-OA than Caucasians (adjusted cumulative odds ratio [aPOR] = 2.08; 95% CI, 1.19–3.64 for men; aPOR = 1.56; 95% CI, 1.06–2.29 for women) and were more likely to have lateral TFJ JSN. Conclusions Compared to Caucasians, AAs were more likely to have more severe TF-OA; tri-compartmental disease; and lateral JSN. Further research to clarify the discrepancy between radiographic features in OA among races appears warranted. PMID:19735758

  11. Hookah and Cigarette Smoking among African American College Students: Implications for Campus Risk Reduction and Health Promotion Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Brittni D.; Cunningham-Williams, Renee M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify individual and institutional risks and protections for hookah and cigarette smoking among African American (AA) college students. Participants: AA college students (N = 1,402; mean age = 20, range = 18-24 years; 75% female) who completed the Fall 2012 American College Health Association--National College Health Assessment…

  12. Appearance Self-Attitudes of African American and European American Women: Media Comparisons and Internalization of Beauty Ideals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Deana L.; Stake, Jayne E.

    2009-01-01

    African American (AA) women have reported less body image disturbance than European American (EA) women, but questions remain about the nature and extent of this difference. This study examined differences in the body image of 80 AA women and 89 EA women with an improved methodology that controlled for body size, distinguished between satisfaction…

  13. Stress Management-Augmented Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention for African American Women: A Pilot, Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Tiffany L.; Krukowski, Rebecca; Love, ShaRhonda J.; Eddings, Kenya; DiCarlo, Marisha; Chang, Jason Y.; Prewitt, T. Elaine; West, Delia Smith

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between chronic stress and weight management efforts may be a concern for African American (AA) women, who have a high prevalence of obesity, high stress levels, and modest response to obesity treatment. This pilot study randomly assigned 44 overweight/obese AA women with moderate to high stress levels to either a 12-week…

  14. African Americans' and Hispanics' information needs about cancer care.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita; Ung, Danielle; Montiel-Ishino, F Alejandro; Nelson, Alison; Canales, Jorge; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2015-06-01

    Few studies have reported on African American and Hispanic (AA and H) populations' informational needs when seeking cancer care at an institution that offers clinical trials. Moffitt Cancer Center (MCC) sought to identify and examine the decision making process, the perceptions, and the preferred channels of communication about cancer care services for AA and H communities in order to develop a list of marketing recommendations. Five focus groups (N = 45) consisting of two AA and three H were conducted in four counties of the MCC catchment area in Tampa, FL. Participants were asked about their perceptions, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about cancer care and MCC. Focus groups were audio-recorded and verbatim transcripts were analyzed using content analysis. Similarities in responses were found between AA and H participants. Participants received general health and cancer information from media sources and word of mouth and preferred to hear patient testimonials. There were concerns about costs, insurance coverage, and the actual geographic location of the cancer center. In general, H participants were not opposed to participating in cancer clinical trials/research, whereas, AA participants were more hesitant. A majority of participants highly favored an institution that offered standard care and clinical trials. AA and H participants shared similar concerns and preferences in communication channels, but each group had specific informational needs. The perceptions and preferences of AA and H must be explored in order to successfully and efficiently increase cancer clinical trial participation.

  15. Calcium intake and prostate cancer among African Americans: effect modification by vitamin D receptor calcium absorption genotype.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Glovioell W; Schwartz, Gary G; John, Esther M; Ingles, Sue Ann

    2012-01-01

    High dietary intake of calcium has been classified as a probable cause of prostate cancer, although the mechanism underlying the association between dietary calcium and prostate cancer risk is unclear. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a key regulator of calcium absorption. In the small intestine, VDR expression is regulated by the CDX-2 transcription factor, which binds a polymorphic site in the VDR gene promoter. We examined VDR Cdx2 genotype and calcium intake, assessed by a food frequency questionnaire, in 533 African-American prostate cancer cases (256 with advanced stage at diagnosis, 277 with localized stage) and 250 African-American controls who participated in the California Collaborative Prostate Cancer Study. We examined the effects of genotype, calcium intake, and diet-gene interactions by conditional logistic regression. Compared with men in the lowest quartile of calcium intake, men in the highest quartile had an approximately twofold increased risk of localized and advanced prostate cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 2.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.40, 3.46), with a significant dose-response. Poor absorbers of calcium (VDR Cdx2 GG genotype) had a significantly lower risk of advanced prostate cancer (OR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.19, 0.90). The gene-calcium interaction was statistically significant (p = 0.03). Among men with calcium intake below the median (680 mg/day), carriers of the G allele had an approximately 50% decreased risk compared with men with the AA genotype. These findings suggest a link between prostate cancer risk and high intestinal absorption of calcium.

  16. Sexuality, Sexual Practices, and HIV Risk among Incarcerated African-American Women in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Farel, Claire E.; Parker, Sharon D.; Muessig, Kathryn E.; Grodensky, Catherine A.; Jones, Chaunetta; Golin, Carol E.; Fogel, Catherine I.; Wohl, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Women who have been in prison carry a greater lifetime risk of HIV for reasons that are not well understood. This effect is amplified in the Southeastern United States, where HIV incidence and prevalence is especially high among African American (AA) women. The role of consensual sexual partnerships in the context of HIV risk, especially same-sex partnerships, merits further exploration. Methods We conducted digitally recorded qualitative interviews with 29 AA women (15 HIV-positive, 14 HIV-negative) within three months after entry into the state prison system. We explored potential pre-incarceration HIV risk factors, including personal sexual practices. Two researchers thematically coded interview transcripts and a consensus committee reviewed coding. Results Women reported complex sexual risk profiles during the six months prior to incarceration, including sex with women as well as prior sexual partnerships with both men and women. Condom use with primary male partners was low and a history of transactional sex work was prevalent. These behaviors were linked to substance use, particularly among HIV-positive women. Conclusions Although women may not formally identify as bisexual or lesbian, sex with women was an important component of this cohort’s sexuality. Addressing condom use, heterogeneity of sexual practices, and partner concurrency among at-risk women should be considered for reducing HIV acquisition and preventing forward transmission in women with a history of incarceration. PMID:24183410

  17. Physiologic and Endocrine Correlates of Overweight and Obesity in African Americans and Caucasians

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    obesity. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES obesity, insulin sensitivity, glucocorticoids, metabolic syndrome , 9 African Americans, Caucasians...mortality of any ethnic group in the United States, and AA women have a higher prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome than CA women. Our preliminary data...years we will continue to examine differences between CA and AA in terms of potential underlying causes of the metabolic syndrome and how different

  18. African American Pastors' Beliefs and Actions Regarding Childhood Incest in the African American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Tesia Denis

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study sought to explore African American pastors' beliefs and actions regarding childhood incest in the African American community and their decisions to inform the proper authorities. This exploratory study was developed in order to draw both public and academic attention to the understudied phenomenon of childhood incest within…

  19. The Pedagogy of African American Parents: Learning from Educational Excellence in the African American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Audrey P.

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study of how parents teach their children to excel academically in the African American community seeks to establish the validity of the pedagogical practices of working class African American families by investigating the educational leadership of two families on Chicago's south side. The study acknowledges the significance of…

  20. The experiences of African American graduate students: A cultural transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Joretta

    of women of color have are the same factors that effect the under representation of Euro-American Women and men of color. This study takes those distinctions into account. The methodology of this study relies on extensive interview data (among other sources), to fully examine the transition process of six African-American women engaged in graduate work in mathematics or science at predominantly white institutions. I examine each participant's story as a case study, outlining moderating influences and perspectives on their acculturation to the STEM disciplines and to majority institutions.

  1. African-American students' perceptions of their majors, future professions, and the dietetics major and profession: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Felton, Teena M; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M; Serrano, Elena; Hosig, Kathy W

    2008-07-01

    African-American professionals are underrepresented in the profession of dietetics. This preliminary qualitative study identified African-American students' perceptions of their majors, future professions, and the dietetics major/profession to understand why they did or did not enter dietetics. It was hypothesized that dietetics students chose dietetics primarily for altruistic reasons, whereas students in other fields of study did not choose dietetics due to lack of awareness of dietetics. To learn students' views, African-American college students engaged in elicitation interviews or focus group discussions. Twenty-eight women and 12 men participated. Phenomenologic analysis identified common themes and meanings: African-American students selected their majors for a variety of reasons, including desire to help people, interest in the field, recommendation from an adult, and family influence. African-American students in fields of study other than dietetics believed that the dietetics major was not selected due to lack of awareness about dietetics. Both dietetics students and students in other fields of study perceived versatility, ability to work with/help people, and to have an influence as positive qualities about their future professions. Advanced degree and training requirements, lack of diversity, and low salary were identified as negative qualities about future professions. African-American students in fields of study other than dietetics had not been exposed to the dietetics major, careers, and profession. Recruitment efforts should begin early to increase the number of African-American students in dietetics.

  2. Perceptions of selected science careers by African American high school males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ijames, Erika Denise

    their students about science careers and possibly increase the number of African American men as well as other minorities currently underrepresented in some science careers.

  3. Eligibility, recruitment, and retention of African Americans with severe mental illness in community research.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Michelle DeCoux; White, Mary C; Chafetz, Linda

    2009-04-01

    Data that addresses severely mentally ill (SMI) African Americans (AAs) likelihood to participate in clinical research is limited. This study's purpose was to determine if differences exist between races regarding eligibility, recruitment, and retention in a community-based clinical trial. The sample included 293 participants. Data sources included clinical records and interviews. Logistic regression was used for analysis. AAs were as likely to participate and to complete followup interviews as Whites. In contrast to studies about non-mentally ill AAs, AAs with SMI appeared to be as willing to consent to and to remain in clinical research studies as Whites.

  4. Trichomonas vaginalis, HIV, and African-Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Sorvillo, F.; Smith, L.; Kerndt, P.; Ash, L.

    2001-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis may be emerging as one of the most important cofactors in amplifying HIV transmission, particularly in African-American communities of the United States. In a person co-infected with HIV, the pathology induced by T. vaginalis infection can increase HIV shedding. Trichomonas infection may also act to expand the portal of entry for HIV in an HIV-negative person. Studies from Africa have suggested that T. vaginalis infection may increase the rate of HIV transmission by approximately twofold. Available data indicate that T. vaginalis is highly prevalent among African-Americans in major urban centers of the United States and is often the most common sexually transmitted infection in black women. Even if T. vaginalis increases the risk of HIV transmission by a small amount, this could translate into an important amplifying effect since Trichomonas is so common. Substantial HIV transmission may be attributable to T. vaginalis in African-American communities of the United States. PMID:11747718

  5. A Community-Driven Intervention for Prostate Cancer Screening in African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Kushal; Ukoli, Flora; Liu, Jianguo; Beech, Derrick; Beard, Katina; Brown, Byron; Sanderson, Maureen; Kenerson, Donna; Cooper, Leslie; Canto, Marie; Blot, Bill; Hargreaves, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of an educational intervention on prostate cancer screening behavior and knowledge. Participants were 104 African American men, 45 years and older, who had not been screened for prostate cancer with a prostate-specific antigen and/or digital rectal exam within the past year. All participants…

  6. Gender Differences in Student Engagement among African American Undergraduates at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Shaun R.; Carini, Robert M.; Bridges, Brian K.; Hayek, John C.

    2004-01-01

    Differences in student engagement between women and men at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) are examined in this study. Data were collected from 1,167 African American undergraduate students at 12 four-year HBCUs that participated in the National Survey of Student Engagement. Controlling for several factors that might obscure…

  7. Literacy and Identity: Reflections of Six African American Males in an Adult Literacy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drayton, Brendaly Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This multiple case study explored how the literate experiences of six African American men influenced their perceptions of and engagement with a community-based adult basic education and literacy (ABEL) program in a large northeastern city. The theoretical framework included a social practices view of literacy and a constructivist view of…

  8. Racial Respect and Racial Socialization as Protective Factors for African American Male Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeGruy, Joy; Kjellstrand, Jean M.; Briggs, Harold E.; Brennan, Eileen M.

    2012-01-01

    African American adolescents must negotiate the transition to adulthood in a society that makes the achievement of positive cultural identity and self-respect difficult. Frequently, young men turn to violence in an attempt to achieve respect in their communities. This article explores factors that predict the use of violence among African American…

  9. Beyond Passion: Maximizing on Lessons Learned to Better Serve African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phalen, Earl Martin

    2013-01-01

    A passion to ensure the educational and life success of all children, particularly young African American men, has propelled my work for all of my professional life. Although following one's passion can make for a fulfilling life, passion is not enough to create a successful and sustainable nonprofit organization. Like many leaders in the…

  10. African Americans' Perceptions of Prostate-Specific Antigen Prostate Cancer Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Jaimie C.; Vines, Anissa I.; Carlisle, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Background: In 2012, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force released a hotly debated recommendation against prostate-specific antigen testing for all men. The present research examines African Americans' beliefs about their susceptibility to prostate cancer (PCa) and the effectiveness of prostate-specific antigen testing in the context of the…

  11. Becoming Custodial Dads: Exploring Parenting among Low-Income and Working-Class African American Fathers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamer, Jennifer; Marchioro, Kathleen

    2002-01-01

    Explores circumstances in which working-class and low-income custodial African American fathers (N=24) gained custody of their children and transitioned to full-time parenting. Findings suggest that these men are often reluctant to take on single, full-time parenting role. Adaptation to role seems to be enhanced by use of extended kin support…

  12. From Homer to Hoke: A Small Step for African American Mankind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Patricia A.

    1991-01-01

    Explores links between two films, "Lilies of the Field" (1962) and "Driving Miss Daisy" (1987), their portrayal of African-American men in relationships with White women, and audience and critic responses to the films. Little has changed in the Hollywood perceptions since the earlier film was made. (JB)

  13. African Americans Who Made a Difference. 15 Plays for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    These easy-to-read classroom plays are about 15 African American men and women in a variety of vocations. The plays are designed to enhance the curriculum and to make social studies come alive for the student as they bolster language-arts teaching. Each play includes a Teacher's Guide that contains some quotes from the featured person and a brief…

  14. Racial Microaggressions: The Narratives of African American Faculty at a Predominantly White University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Chavella T.

    2012-01-01

    What role does race play in the lives of fourteen African American (7 women, 7 men) faculty on a predominantly White campus? This case study focuses on their narratives which revealed that racial microaggressions were a common and negative facet of their lives on campus. Specifically, their narratives suggest interactions of microinvalidations…

  15. Word on the Street: Engaging Local Leaders in a Dialogue About Prostate Cancer Among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfeld, Elinor R.; Francis, Linda E.

    2016-01-01

    African American men face the highest rates of prostate cancer, yet with no consensus for screening and treatment, making informed health care decisions is difficult. This study aimed to identify approaches to empowering African American men as proactive participants in prostate cancer decision making using an established community–campus partnership employing elements of community-based participatory research methods. Community stakeholders with an interest in, and knowledge about, health care in two local African American communities were recruited and completed key informant interviews (N = 39). Grounded theory coding identified common themes related to prostate cancer knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and responses to them. Common barriers such as gender roles, fear, and fatalism were identified as barriers to work-up and treatment, and both communities’ inadequate and inaccurate prostate cancer information described as the key problem. To build on community strengths, participants said the change must come from inside these communities, not be imposed from the outside. To accomplish this, they suggested reaching men through women, connecting men to doctors they can trust, making men’s cancer education part of broader health education initiatives designed as fun and inexpensive family entertainment events, and having churches bring community members in to speak on their experiences with cancer. This study demonstrated the success of community engagement to identify not only barriers but also local strengths and facilitators to prostate cancer care in two suburban/rural African American communities. Building collaboratively on community strengths may improve prostate cancer care specifically and health care in general. PMID:25595017

  16. 3 CFR 8345 - Proclamation 8345 of February 2, 2009. National African American History Month, 2009

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proclamation 8345 of February 2, 2009. National... belief that those dreams might one day be realized by all of our citizens gave African American men and... pass the ideals of this great land down to their children and grandchildren. As we mark...

  17. Determining the waist circumference in african americans which best predicts insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Anne E; Sen, Sabyasachi; Ricks, Madia; Frempong, Barbara A; Sebring, Nancy G; Kushner, Harvey

    2008-04-01

    Total body size and central fat distribution are important determinants of insulin resistance. The BMI and waist circumference (WC) thresholds in African Americans that best predict insulin resistance are unknown. Our goal was to determine the BMI and WC values in African Americans, which optimally predict insulin resistance. The subjects were African Americans (68 men, 63 women), aged 35 +/- 8 years (mean +/- s.d.), with a BMI of 30.9 +/- 7.5, in the range of 18.5-54.7 kg/m(2), and with a WC of 98 +/- 18, in the range of 69-173 cm. Insulin resistance was defined by the lowest tertile of the insulin sensitivity index (S(I)). The Youden index was calculated to determine the WC and BMI thresholds that predict insulin resistance with an optimal combination of sensitivity and specificity. In men the thresholds that optimally predicted insulin resistance were a BMI > or =30 kg/m(2) or a WC > or =102 cm. For women, insulin resistance was best predicted by a BMI > or =32 kg/m(2) or a WC > or =98 cm. In African Americans, insulin resistance (in men) was best predicted by a WC > or =102 cm, and in women by a WC > or =98 cm, or by a BMI value that fell in the obese category (men: > or =30 kg/m(2), women: > or =32 kg/m(2)).

  18. Low-Income African American Fathers' Involvement in Children's Lives: Implications for Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubowitz, Howard; Lane, Wendy; Greif, Geoffrey L.; Jensen, Tina K.; Lamb, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    We were interested in how low-income African American fathers of 12-year-old children in families identified as high risk viewed their role as father. Four focus group discussions involving 19 fathers were conducted. We had four key questions: (1) what the men perceived as the children's needs, (2) how they met those needs, (3) what motivated them…

  19. Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Pi Chapter: African American Male Identity and Fraternity Culture, 1923-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Edwin T.

    2009-01-01

    Pi Chapter of the Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc. at Morgan State University made a significant contribution to the identity construction of college-educated African American men in the state of Maryland. The initiates of Pi Chapter constructed identities that allowed the members to see themselves as participants in mainstream American society as…

  20. Impressions: How First-Year, African American Students Pictured a Research University. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Katie B.

    In this study 10 first-year African American students (five men and five women) took photographs that illustrated their perceptions of the predominantly white research university they attended and discussed their pictures in subsequent individual and focus group interviews. Two theoretical frameworks provided the structure for the analysis:…

  1. On Human Kinds and Role Models: A Critical Discussion about the African American Male Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony L.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the theoretical implications around positioning the Black male teacher as the central agent of social change for Black male students. In addressing such concerns, my intention is not to discourage efforts to recruit and retain more African American men as teachers, but to trouble the commonsense assumptions embedded in such…

  2. The management of hypertension in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, Keith C; Armani, Annemarie M

    2007-06-01

    The prevalence of hypertension in blacks in the United States is among the highest in the world. Compared with whites, blacks develop hypertension at an earlier age, their average blood pressures are much higher and they experience worse disease severity. Consequently, blacks have a 1.3 times greater rate of nonfatal stroke, 1.8 times greater rate of fatal stroke, 1.5 times greater rate of heart disease death, 4.2 times greater rate of end-stage kidney disease, and a 50% higher frequency of heart failure; overall, mortality due to hypertension and its consequences is 4 to 5 times more likely in African Americans than in whites. The increased prevalence of hypertension and excessive target organ damage is due to a combination of genetic and, most likely, environmental factors. There are no clinical trial data at present to suggest that lower-than-usual BP targets should be set for high-risk demographic groups such as African Americans. The primary means of prevention and early treatment of hypertension in African Americans will be the appropriate use of lifestyle modification. The International Society of Hypertension in Blacks guidelines realize that most patients will require combination therapy, many of them first-line, to reach appropriate BP goals. Although certain classes and combinations of antihypertensive agents have been well-established to be effective, the choice of drugs for combination therapy in African American patients may be different. Within the African American group, the responsiveness to monotherapy with ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and beta blockers may be less than the responsiveness to diuretics and calcium channel blockers, but these differences are corrected when diuretics are added to the neurohormonal antagonists. Of note, African American patients with systolic BP >15 mm Hg or a diastolic BP >10 mm Hg above goal should be treated with first-line combination therapy.

  3. What about African Americans and High Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? The prevalence of high blood pressure in African Americans is among the highest in ...

  4. Blood Pressure Dipping and Urban Stressors in Young Adult African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Mellman, Thomas A.; Hall Brown, Tyish S.; Kobayashi, Ihori; Abu-Bader, Soleman H.; Lavela, Joseph; Altaee, Duaa; McLaughlin, Latesha; Randall, Otelio S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Blunted nocturnal blood pressure (BP) dipping is an early marker of cardiovascular risk that is prevalent among African Americans. Purpose We evaluated relationships of BP dipping to neighborhood and posttraumatic stress and sleep in urban residing young adult African Americans. Methods One hundred thirty six Black, predominately African American, men and women with a mean age of 22.9 (SD = 4.6) filled out surveys, were interviewed and had two, 24-hour ambulatory BP recordings. Results Thirty eight percent had BP dipping ratios < .10. Wake after sleep onset (WASO), neighborhood disorder and neighborhood poverty rates but not posttraumatic stress symptoms, and other sleep measures, correlated significantly with dipping ratios. Models with the neighborhood measures that also included WASO increased the explained variance. Conclusions Studies elucidating mechanisms underlying effects of neighborhoods on BP dipping and the role of disrupted sleep, and how they can be mitigated are important directions for future research. PMID:25623895

  5. Spirituality in African Americans with diabetes: self-management through a relationship with God.

    PubMed

    Polzer, Rebecca L; Miles, Margaret S

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical model about how the spirituality of African Americans affects their self-management of diabetes. The sample consisted of 29 African American men and women, ages 40 to 75, with type 2 diabetes. The authors used a grounded theory design and collected data using minimally structured interviews. The method of analysis was constant comparison. The core concept identified was Self-Management Through a Relationship With God. Participants fell into one of three typologies: (a) Relationship and Responsibility: God Is in Background; (b) Relationship and Responsibility: God Is in Forefront: (c) Relationship and Relinquishing of Self-Management: God Is Healer. These typologies varied according to how participants viewed their relationship with God and the impact of this relationship on their self-management. The spirituality of these African Americans was an important factor that influenced the self-management of their diabetes.

  6. Gender Distrust and Intimate Unions among Low-Income Hispanic and African-American Women.

    PubMed

    Estacion, Angela; Cherlin, Andrew

    2010-04-01

    We investigate levels of generalized distrust of men among low-income African American, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Dominican, and non-Hispanic white women in a three-city survey. The results reveal substantial variation. We find Hispanics' overall levels of distrust to be higher than levels for either African Americans or whites. Among Hispanics, however, Dominicans are the most distrusting group followed by Puerto Ricans; whereas Mexicans report levels of distrust that are comparable to African Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Married women are less distrusting than cohabiting women who, in turn, are less distrusting than non-cohabiting women. Nevertheless, distrust is not a significant predictor of a woman's total number of lifetime marital and cohabiting relationships; and distrust only marginally predicts a woman's desire to be in a steady relationship. We suggest that studies of trust in this population should focus more on attitudes displayed in specific encounters than on overall, generalized attitudes about gender distrust.

  7. Gender Distrust and Intimate Unions among Low-Income Hispanic and African-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Estacion, Angela; Cherlin, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    We investigate levels of generalized distrust of men among low-income African American, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Dominican, and non-Hispanic white women in a three-city survey. The results reveal substantial variation. We find Hispanics' overall levels of distrust to be higher than levels for either African Americans or whites. Among Hispanics, however, Dominicans are the most distrusting group followed by Puerto Ricans; whereas Mexicans report levels of distrust that are comparable to African Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Married women are less distrusting than cohabiting women who, in turn, are less distrusting than non-cohabiting women. Nevertheless, distrust is not a significant predictor of a woman's total number of lifetime marital and cohabiting relationships; and distrust only marginally predicts a woman's desire to be in a steady relationship. We suggest that studies of trust in this population should focus more on attitudes displayed in specific encounters than on overall, generalized attitudes about gender distrust. PMID:21479146

  8. Raising African American boys: an exploration of gender and racial socialization practices.

    PubMed

    Howard, Lionel C; Rose, Jason C; Barbarin, Oscar A

    2013-01-01

    Although parental socialization practices are critical to a child's social development, little is known of the details of how parental practices function to meet the specific challenges of supporting young boys' development as African American and men. Accordingly, this article offers a window onto how 15 parents of African American boys (ages 3-8) conceive and implement strategies for their sons' social and emotional development. Using ethnographic observations and structured interview data, this article explores the ways they promote emerging racial and gender identities and socioemotional well-being. Findings reveal that highly incongruous messages and expectations are communicated to young boys about race and gender. The study's findings have implications for young African American boys' emerging racial and gender identities.

  9. The African American Youth Smoking Experience: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Garrett, Bridgette E.; Gardiner, Phillip S.; Wright, La Tanisha C.; Pechacek, Terry F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Beginning in the late 1970s, a very sharp decline in cigarette smoking prevalence was observed among African American (AA) high school seniors compared with a more modest decline among whites. This historic decline resulted in a lower prevalence of cigarette smoking among AA youth that has persisted for several decades. Methods We synthesized information contained in the research literature and tobacco industry documents to provide an account of past influences on cigarette smoking behavior among AA youth to help understand the reasons for these historically lower rates of cigarette smoking. Results While a number of protective factors including cigarette price increases, religiosity, parental opposition, sports participation, body image, and negative attitudes towards cigarette smoking may have all played a role in maintaining lower rates of cigarette smoking among AA youth as compared to white youth, the efforts of the tobacco industry seem to have prevented the effectiveness of these factors from carrying over into adulthood. Conclusion Continuing public health efforts that prevent cigarette smoking initiation and maintain lower cigarette smoking rates among AA youth throughout adulthood have the potential to help reduce the negative health consequences of smoking in this population. Implications While AA youth continue to have a lower prevalence of cigarette smoking than white youth, they are still at risk of increasing their smoking behavior due to aggressive targeted marketing by the tobacco industry. Because AAs suffer disproportionately from tobacco-related disease, and have higher incidence and mortality rates from lung cancer, efforts to prevent smoking initiation and maintain lower cigarette smoking rates among AA youth have the potential to significantly lower lung cancer death rates among AA adults. PMID:26980860

  10. Treatment of hypertension among African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Harman, Jane; Walker, Evelyn R; Charbonneau, Vicki; Akylbekova, Ermeg L; Nelson, Cheryl; Wyatt, Sharon B

    2013-06-01

    Hypertension treatment regimens used by African American adults in the Jackson Heart Study were evaluated at the first two clinical examinations (2415 treated hypertensive persons at examination I [exam I], 2000-2004; 2577 at examination II [exam II], 2005-2008). Blood pressure (BP) was below 140/90 mm Hg for 66% and 70% of treated participants at exam I and exam II, respectively. The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure treatment targets were met for 56% and 61% at exam I and exam II, respectively. Persons with diabetes or chronic kidney disease were less likely to have BP at target, as were men compared with women. Thiazide diuretics were the most commonly used antihypertensive medication, and persons taking a thiazide were more likely to have their BP controlled than persons not taking them; thiazides were used significantly less among men than women. Although calcium channel blockers are often considered to be effective monotherapy for African Americans, persons using calcium channel blocker monotherapy were significantly less likely to be at target BP than persons using thiazide monotherapy.

  11. Partnership-Level Analysis of African American Women's Risky Sexual Behavior in Main and Non-Main Partnerships.

    PubMed

    Broaddus, Michelle; Owczarzak, Jill; Pacella, Maria; Pinkerton, Steven; Wright, Cassandra

    2016-12-01

    The majority of research on risky sexual behavior in African American women has examined global associations between individual-level predictors and behavior. However, this method obscures the potentially significant impact of the specific relationship or relationship partner on risky sexual behavior. To address this gap, we conducted partnership-level analysis of risky sexual behavior among 718 African American women recruited from HIV counseling, testing, and referral sites in four states. Using mixed model regressions, we tested relationships between condomless vaginal intercourse with men and variables drawn from the Theory of Planned Behavior, Theory of Gender and Power, and previous research specifically on sexual risks among African American women. Significant associations with risky sexual behavior indicate the need for continued emphasis on condom attitudes, condom negotiation behaviors, and overcoming partner resistance to condoms within both main and non-main partnerships when implementing interventions designed to address HIV and sexually transmitted infection risks among African American women.

  12. Regional, racial, and gender differences in colorectal cancer screening in middle-aged African-Americans and Whites.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Phyllis M; Suzuki, Rie

    2012-12-01

    African-Americans have higher incidence and mortality from colorectal cancer than non-African-Americans. Early detection with colorectal cancer (CRC) screening reduces untimely death because the test can detect abnormalities and precancerous polyps in the colon and rectum. However, African-Americans aged 50 and older continue to have low CRC screening adherence. A retrospective analysis was conducted on data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey to examine trends in self-reported CRC screening by geographic region, race, and gender. African-Americans, particularly men, were less likely to have been screened for colon cancer compared to all races and genders in this study. Individuals in the south were more likely to receive CRC screening than other regions. Colon cancer education and interventions are needed among low-adherent groups to promote the benefits of early detection with CRC screening.

  13. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Modality Use and Beliefs Among African American Prostate Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Randy A.; Taylor, Ann Gill; Bourguignon, Cheryl; Steeves, Richard; Fraser, Gertrude; Lippert, Marguerite; Theodorescu, Dan; Mathews, Holly; Kilbridge, Kerry Laing

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To examine the cultural beliefs and attitudes of African American prostate cancer survivors regarding the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modalities. Research Approach Mixed methods with primary emphasis on a phenomenology approach. Setting In-person interviews in participants’ homes and rural community facilities. Participants 14 African American men diagnosed with and treated for prostate cancer. Methodologic Approach Personal interviews using a semistructured interview guide. Main Research Variables Prostate cancer, CAM, African American men’s health, culture, herbs, prayer, spirituality, and trust. Findings All participants used prayer often; two men used meditation and herbal preparations. All men reported holding certain beliefs about different categories of CAM. Several men were skeptical of CAM modalities other than prayer. Four themes were revealed: importance of spiritual needs as a CAM modality to health, the value of education in relation to CAM, importance of trust in selected healthcare providers, and how men decide on what to believe about CAM modalities. Conclusions Prayer was a highly valued CAM modality among African American prostate cancer survivors as a way to cope with their disease. Medical treatment and trust in healthcare providers also were found to be important. Interpretation Most participants were skeptical of CAM modalities other than prayer. Participants expressed a strong belief in spirituality and religiosity in relationship to health and their prostate cancer. Participants’ trust in their healthcare providers was important. Healthcare providers must understand how African Americans decide what to believe about CAM modalities to improve their health. This research provided valuable information for future development of culturally sensitive communication and infrastructural improvements in the healthcare system. PMID:17573300

  14. Oral Cancer in African Americans: Addressing Health Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Virginia J.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Choi, Youjin; Tomar, Scott L.; Logan, Henrietta L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To explore factors underlying African Americans' perceptions of oral cancer and the oral cancer exam. Study findings were used to guide development of oral cancer messages designed to increase oral cancer exams among African Americans. Methods: Focus groups were conducted to understand African Americans' attitudes and expectations…

  15. African American Acculturation and Black Racial Identity: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope-Davis, Donald B.; Liu, William M.; Ledesma-Jones, Shannon; Nevitt, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    Examines the relationship between acculturation and racial identity among African Americans. One hundred eighty-seven African American students completed the Black Racial Identity Attitude Scale and the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS). Acculturation was associated with three of the five AAAS subscales: Dissonance, Immersion, and…

  16. Exposure of African-American Youth to Alcohol Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The marketing of alcohol products in African-American communities has, on occasion, stirred national controversy and met with fierce resistance from African Americans and others. Despite occasional media and community spotlights on the marketing of alcohol products in the African-American community, there has been no systematic review of the…

  17. Perceptions of Domestic Violence: A Dialogue with African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bent-Goodley, Tricia B.

    2004-01-01

    Although empirical research has accumulated over the past 20 years regarding African Americans and domestic violence, many questions remain about African American perceptions of domestic violence. This article explores African American women's perceptions about domestic violence through three focus groups held at a New York social services agency.…

  18. African American Educational Leadership in the School Superintendency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Eva C.

    2013-01-01

    African American educational leadership has long been part of American education and African American activism to resist oppression. However, the field of educational leadership has rarely included the contributions of African American leaders, particularly women leaders, into mainstream leadership theory and practices. This omission is difficult…

  19. 77 FR 5375 - National African American History Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8776 of January 31, 2012 National African American History Month, 2012 By the... for the better. During National African American History Month, we celebrate the rich legacy of... African American women are not limited to those recorded and retold in our history books. Their impact...

  20. 76 FR 6519 - National African American History Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... February 4, 2011 Part II The President Proclamation 8627--National African American History Month, 2011 #0..., 2011 National African American History Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A... breaking down barriers. During National African American History Month, we celebrate the vast...

  1. From Crisis to Empowerment: African American Women in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Marcie Ann

    2012-01-01

    Social challenges tear at the fabric of the African American family, revealing complexities that identify a de facto leader, the African American woman. She exists in a chasm of overt circumstances which heavily influences her successes. The purpose of this study is to identify factors that motivated seven female African American community college…

  2. Barriers to Hospice Use among African Americans: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Karla T.; Bickel-Swenson, Denise; Stephens, Nathan

    2008-01-01

    The present review was undertaken to explore recent evidence in the professional literature pertaining to use of hospice services by African Americans. The article addresses the research methods that have been used to study African American hospice use, obstacles to African American participation in hospice that have been identified, and…

  3. School Counseling for African American Adolescents: The Alfred Adler Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Marty

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses how Adlerian counseling can be used as a form of school counseling for African American adolescents. Moreover, school counseling for African American adolescents is discussed within the context of African American culture. Due to the strength-based nature of Adlerian approach, it can capitalize on African American…

  4. Persistence among African American Males in the Honors College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson Goins, Johnell Roxann

    2014-01-01

    Retaining African American students, specifically African American males, is an issue that plagues the American higher education system. Research shows that African American male students are the lowest represented group in the gifted studies programs (Ford, 2010). Lockie and Burke (1999); Chen and DeJardins (2010) and Bell (2010a) found that…

  5. Representing African American Women in U.S. History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schocker, Jessica B.; Woyshner, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the dearth of African American women in high school U.S. history textbooks. The authors conducted a content analysis of the images in an African American history textbook and found that black women are underrepresented. Women are found in less than 15 percent of the images in the African American history text, while they…

  6. Empowerment Groups for Urban African American Girls: A Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl C.

    2005-01-01

    Although the author wanted to read Bemak, Chung, and Siroskey-Sabdo's article in an objective sense, her response to their article is most likely influenced by her own experiences as an African American female and mother of an African American daughter. To her, the paramount issue facing African American females is the double and sometimes triple…

  7. An Exploration of African American Students' Attitudes toward Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okwumabua, Theresa M.; Walker, Kristin M.; Hu, Xiangen; Watson, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The current work presents exploratory research findings concerning African American students' attitudes toward online learning. The Online Tutoring Attitudes Scale (OTAS; Graff, 2003) was administered to 124 African American students in a positive youth development program. Findings suggest that African American students' attitudes toward…

  8. Toward Understanding Korean and African American Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Edward Taehan

    1996-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that examines the economic, cultural, and ideological factors that influence Korean and African American relations. Discusses how the two groups perceive each other and situates the role of race and class in this relationship. Includes informational handouts and discussion questions. (MJP)

  9. African-American Axioms and Maxims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zulu, Itibari M.

    1998-01-01

    Examines and describes 30 African-American centered quotation and motivational books, all but one of which were published between 1993 and 1997. The books articulate a diversity of genres and themes. Annotations are divided into: (1) general quotation; (2) daily words and meditation/motivation sources; (3) religion and theology; and (4)…

  10. Reconceptualization of African American Self-Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braithwaite, Harold, Jr.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Focuses on how African American students define self-concept, and whether there is a specific black self-concept. Questionnaires completed by 60 undergraduates at a historically black college provide insight into student self-esteem and support the existence of a specific black self-concept. (SLD)

  11. African American's Perceptions of Psychotherapy and Psychotherapists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Vetta L. Sanders; Akbar, Maysa D.; Bazile, Anita

    The attitudes and beliefs about utilization of mental health services of 201 African Americans, 18 years and older, are explored. One hundred and thirty-four females and 66 males participated in mixed sex focus groups conducted in an urban, Midwestern city. Discussion probes addressed participant perceptions of psychotherapists and psychotherapy,…

  12. Growing Up African American in Catholic Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, Jacqueline Jordan, Ed.; Foster, Michele, Ed.

    Contributors to this volume use their own stories to demonstrate success of one institution, the Catholic school system, in educating many African Americans who have gone on to make important contributions to the community. Their own experiences are the starting points for their reflections on the historical and sociological treatment of the…

  13. Colorectal Cancer in African Americans: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Renee; White, Pascale; Nieto, Jose; Vieira, Dorice; Francois, Fritz; Hamilton, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This review is an update to the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) Committee on Minority Affairs and Cultural Diversity's paper on colorectal cancer (CRC) in African Americans published in 2005. Over the past 10 years, the incidence and mortality rates of CRC in the United States has steadily declined. However, reductions have been strikingly much slower among African Americans who continue to have the highest rate of mortality and lowest survival when compared with all other racial groups. The reasons for the health disparities are multifactorial and encompass physician and patient barriers. Patient factors that contribute to disparities include poor knowledge of benefits of CRC screening, limited access to health care, insurance status along with fear and anxiety. Physician factors include lack of knowledge of screening guidelines along with disparate recommendations for screening. Earlier screening has been recommended as an effective strategy to decrease observed disparities; currently the ACG and American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopists recommend CRC screening in African Americans to begin at age 45. Despite the decline in CRC deaths in all racial and ethnic groups, there still exists a significant burden of CRC in African Americans, thus other strategies including educational outreach for health care providers and patients and the utilization of patient navigation systems emphasizing the importance of screening are necessary. These strategies have been piloted in both local communities and Statewide resulting in notable significant decreases in observed disparities. PMID:27467183

  14. African American College Women's Suicide Buffers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion, Michelle S.; Range, Lillian M.

    2003-01-01

    To examine the relationships buffers may have with suicide ideation, 300 African American female college students completed measures of suicide ideation and buffers. Three variables accounted for a significant and unique portion of the variance in suicide ideation: family support, a view that suicide is unacceptable, and a collaborative religious…

  15. African American Women Counselors, Wellness, and Spirituality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Debora; Bryant, Rhonda M.

    2011-01-01

    Given their tremendous professional responsibilities, professional counselors face daunting challenges to remaining healthy and avoiding role stress and overload. This article explores the intersection of race, gender, wellness, and spirituality in the self-care of African American women counselors. The authors give particular attention to…

  16. 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex, Dr. Julian M. Earls (left), deputy director for Operations, Glenn Research Center, receives a plaque from astronaut Joan Higginbotham (right) during the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon. Dr. Earls was guest speaker at the luncheon.

  17. 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex, the planning committee for the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon gather in the lobby. At the far left is Mack McKinney, chief, Programs Resources Management, who was chairperson for the event.

  18. 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Mack McKinney (left), chief, Programs Resources Management, and Delores Abraham (right), with the Astronaut office, flank one of the posters decorating the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex for the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon. McKinney is chairperson for the event.

  19. Violent Behaviors among African-American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Darhyl

    1995-01-01

    Explores the development of behaviors by using Erik Erikson's psychosocial developmental theory, with emphasis on adolescents. Examines factors, such as identity versus identity diffusion, that may be contributing to increasing acts of violence by African American adolescents. Other factors are examined that may contribute to increased violence.…

  20. African American Female Superintendents: Resilient School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bernadeia H.

    2012-01-01

    Six African American female superintendents who had served as superintendents in at least 2 school districts were interviewed to understand ways in which they responded to barriers and adversity in their roles, with a particular emphasis on issues related to sexism and racism. Study participants shared that they work to engage the community and…

  1. African-American Males: Education or Incarceration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Robert L.

    This paper analyzes the relationship between levels of educational attainment and outcomes for African American males, in particular the likelihood of conflict with the criminal justice system. The analysis begins with a look at society's belief system and political and economic forces, and argues that these have combined to promote failure among…

  2. Promotive Parenting Practices among African American Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among African American children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted. Multiple…

  3. Five Types of African-American Marriages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, William D.; Olson, David H.

    2001-01-01

    Developed a marital typology based on a nonrandom, national sample of 415 African American couples who took the Enriching Relationship Issues, Communication and Happiness (ENRICH) marital assessment inventory. Five marriage types were labeled as vitalized; harmonious; traditional; conflicted; and devitalized. Results were similar to findings in…

  4. African American Homeschooling Practices: Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazama, Ama

    2016-01-01

    Despite a significant increase in scholarly interest for homeschooling, some of its most critical aspects, such as instructional daily practices, remain grossly understudied. This essay thus seeks to fill that void by presenting empirical evidence regarding the homeschooling practices of a specific group, African Americans. Most specifically, the…

  5. Legacy of a Pioneer African American Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cazers, Gunars; Curtner-Smith, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to reconstruct the historical and legendary contribution of one exemplary African American physical education teacher educator who lived and worked in the Deep South prior to and immediately following the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education court case. The following questions guided data collection and analysis: To what…

  6. African American Biographies: A Collection Development Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Donna

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the lack of African American biographies for elementary school libraries and reports the results of a study that surveyed publishers from the Children's Book Council. Examines book reviews, discusses the number of sports figures included, and considers problems with a lack of appropriate materials to support the curriculum. (LRW)

  7. Language and the African American Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lisa J.

    2011-01-01

    How do children acquire African American English? How do they develop the specific language patterns of their communities? Drawing on spontaneous speech samples and data from structured elicitation tasks, this book explains the developmental trends in the children's language. It examines topics such as the development of tense/aspect marking,…

  8. Metastatic progression and gene expression between breast cancer cell lines from African American and Caucasian women

    PubMed Central

    Yancy, Haile F; Mason, Jacquline A; Peters, Sharla; Thompson, Charles E; Littleton, George K; Jett, Marti; Day, Agnes A

    2007-01-01

    African American (AA) women have a lower overall incidence of breast cancer than do Caucasian (CAU) women, but a higher overall mortality. Little is known as to why the incidence of breast cancer is lower yet mortality is higher in AA women. Many studies speculate that this is only a socio-economical problem. This investigation suggests the possibility that molecular mechanisms contribute to the increased mortality of AA women with breast cancer. This study investigates the expression of 14 genes which have been shown to play a role in cancer metastasis. Cell lines derived from AA and CAU patients were analyzed to demonstrate alterations in the transcription of genes known to be involved in cancer and the metastatic process. Total RNA was isolated from cell lines and analyzed by RT-PCR analysis. Differential expression of the 14 targeted genes between a spectrum model (6 breast cancer cell lines and 2 non-cancer breast cell lines) and a metastasis model (12 metastatic breast cancer cell lines) were demonstrated. Additionally, an in vitro comparison of the expression established differences in 5 of the 14 biomarker genes between African American and Caucasian breast cell lines. Results from this study indicates that altered expression of the genes Atp1b1, CARD 10, KLF4, Spint2, and Acly may play a role in the aggressive phenotype seen in breast cancer in African American women. PMID:17472751

  9. Perceived stress following race-based discrimination at work is associated with hypertension in African-Americans. The metro Atlanta heart disease study, 1999-2001.

    PubMed

    Din-Dzietham, Rebecca; Nembhard, Wendy N; Collins, Rakale; Davis, Sharon K

    2004-02-01

    There is increasing evidence of an association between stress related to job strain and hypertension. However little data exist on stress from racism and race-based discrimination at work (RBDW). The objective of this study was to investigate whether blood pressure (BP) outcomes are positively associated with stressful racism towards African-Americans from non-African-Americans as well as RBDW from other African-Americans. The metro Atlanta heart disease study was a population-based study which included 356 African-American men and women, aged >/=21 years, residing in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia during 1999-2001. Perceived stress was self-reported by 197 participants for racism from non-African-Americans and 95 for RBDW from other African-Americans. Sitting systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP were taken at a clinic visit and was the average of the last two of three BP measures. Hypertension was self-reported as physician-diagnosed high BP on 2 or more visits. Logistic and least-squares linear regression models were fit accordingly and separately for each type of stress, adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, and coping abilities. The likelihood of hypertension significantly increased with higher levels of perceived stress following racism from non-African-Americans, but not from RBDW from other African-Americans; adjusted odd ratios (95% CI) were 1.4 (1.0, 1.9) and 1.2 (0.8, 1.5) per unit increment of stress. The adjusted magnitude of SBP and DBP increase between low and very high level of stress, conversely, was greater when RBDW originated from African-Americans than racism from non-African-Americans. Stressful racism and RBDW encounters are associated with increased SBP and DBP and increased likelihood of hypertension in African-Americans. Future studies with a larger sample size are warranted to further explore these findings for mechanistic understanding and occupational policy consideration regarding stress risk reduction.

  10. "Brothers Gonna Work It Out:" Understanding the Pedagogic Performance of African American Male Teachers Working with African American Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony L.

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from ethnographic data, this paper explores how African American male teachers working with African American male students performed their pedagogy. This paper highlights how teachers' understanding of African American males social and educational needs shaped their pedagogical performance. Interestingly however, teachers' performance was…

  11. Are there differences in risk factor profiles and frequency of CT/MRI-based infarcts among African American stroke patients with and without hypertension? A report from the African American Antiplatelet Stroke Prevention Study (AAASPS).

    PubMed Central

    Whittley, Chandra Y.; Gorelick, Philip B.; Raman, Rema; Harris, Jeffrey; Richardson, DeJuran

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND; African Americans (AAs) have a high risk of stroke and a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. Little is known about stroke risk profiles among non-hypertensive AAs. METHODS: African American Antiplatelet Stroke Prevention Study (AAASPS) enrollees with a history of hypertension (htn) were compared to those without htn for history of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and number and distribution of CT/MRI infarcts. Estimated odds ratios are presented describing the association between selected risk factors and htn status. The estimated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: The database for this analysis included 1012 patients with htn and 74 patients without htn. When compared to those with htn, those without htn were more commonly men (59% vs. 46%; p = 0.030), current cigarette smokers (55% vs. 37%; p = 0.001), were younger (median age: 59 years vs. 62 years; p = 0.064), had higher education (11.7 +/- 2.9 vs. 11.1 +/- 3.1; p = 0.024), had a higher number of acute strokes of unknown cause (23% vs. 13%; p=0.060), and less commonly had a history of diabetes (25% vs. 41%; p = 0.007). Those without htn had a lower mean number of old infarcts on MRI (0.94 +/- 1.40 vs. 1.45 +/- 1.60; p = 0.045), and a higher number of mean recent infarcts on CT (1.30 +/- 1.15 vs. 0.93 +/- 1.01; p = 0.031). Multivariate analysis to predict those without htn showed that these patients were more likely to be current cigarette smokers (OR = 2.89; CI = 1.60,5.49) and have higher education (OR = 1.08, CI = 0.996,1.17), and were less likely to have old CT/MRI-based infarcts (OR = 0.46; CI = 0.26,0.76). CONCLUSIONS: AAs without htn may have a different cardiovascular risk factor profile and CT/MRI profile than AAs with htn. This baseline profile among AAs without htn may predict lower stroke recurrence rates in this ongoing trial. PMID:12856908

  12. Marriage Trajectories and Health Risk Behaviors Throughout Adulthood Among Urban African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Green, Kerry M.; Doherty, Elaine E.; Fothergill, Kate E.; Ensminger, Margaret E.

    2015-01-01

    Although previous studies have identified a protective effect of marriage on risky health behaviors, gaps remain in our understanding of how marriage improves health, particularly among African Americans. This study uses longitudinal data to take selection into account and examines whether marital trajectories that incorporate timing, stability, and duration of marriage affect health risk behaviors among a community cohort of urban African Americans followed for 35 years (N = 1,049). For both men and women, we find six marital trajectories. Men and women in consistently married trajectories are less likely to smoke, drink heavily (women only), and use illegal drugs than those in unmarried or previously married trajectories. Late marrying men do not fare worse in midlife than men in earlier marrying trajectories, but late marrying women show increased risk of midlife drug use. Results suggest policies supporting marriage may have an impact on health but only if stable unions are achieved. PMID:26136611

  13. Marriage Trajectories and Health Risk Behaviors Throughout Adulthood Among Urban African Americans.

    PubMed

    Green, Kerry M; Doherty, Elaine E; Fothergill, Kate E; Ensminger, Margaret E

    2012-12-01

    Although previous studies have identified a protective effect of marriage on risky health behaviors, gaps remain in our understanding of how marriage improves health, particularly among African Americans. This study uses longitudinal data to take selection into account and examines whether marital trajectories that incorporate timing, stability, and duration of marriage affect health risk behaviors among a community cohort of urban African Americans followed for 35 years (N = 1,049). For both men and women, we find six marital trajectories. Men and women in consistently married trajectories are less likely to smoke, drink heavily (women only), and use illegal drugs than those in unmarried or previously married trajectories. Late marrying men do not fare worse in midlife than men in earlier marrying trajectories, but late marrying women show increased risk of midlife drug use. Results suggest policies supporting marriage may have an impact on health but only if stable unions are achieved.

  14. African-American women and abortion: a neglected history.

    PubMed

    Ross, L J

    1992-01-01

    The history of African-American women's efforts to control their fertility is largely unknown. From slavery to the present, the growth rate of the African-American population has been cut in half. Demographers and historians frequently attribute this change to external factors such as poverty, disease, and coerced birth control, rather than the deliberate agency of African-American women. This essay assembles a brief historical record of the ways African-American women have sought to control their fertility through the use of abortion and birth control. It also examines the activism of African-American women in the establishment of family planning clinics and in defense of abortion rights.

  15. Gender differences in the association of visceral and subcutaneous adiposity with adiponectin in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adiponectin, paradoxically reduced in obesity and with lower levels in African Americans (AA), modulates several cardiometabolic risk factors. Because abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT), known to be reduced in AA, and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) compartments may confer differential metabolic risk profiles, we investigated the associations of VAT and SAT with serum adiponectin, separately by gender, with the hypothesis that VAT is more strongly inversely associated with adiponectin than SAT. Methods Participants from the Jackson Heart Study, an ongoing cohort of AA (n = 2,799; 64% women; mean age, 55 ± 11 years) underwent computer tomography assessment of SAT and VAT volumes, and had stored serum specimens analyzed for adiponectin levels. These levels were examined by gender in relation to increments of VAT and SAT. Results Compared to women, men had significantly lower mean levels of adiponectin (3.9 ± 3.0 μg/mL vs. 6.0 ± 4.4 μg/mL; p < 0.01) and mean volume of SAT (1,721 ± 803 cm3 vs. 2,668 ± 968 cm3; p < 0.01) but significantly higher mean volume of VAT (884 ± 416 cm3 vs. 801 ± 363 cm3; p < 0.01). Among women, a one standard deviation increment in VAT was inversely associated with adiponectin (β = − 0.13; p < 0.0001) after controlling for age, systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, education, pack-years of smoking and daily intake of alcohol. The statistically significant inverse association of VAT and adiponectin persisted after additionally adjusting for SAT, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), suggesting that VAT provides significant information above and beyond BMI and WC. Among men, after the same multivariable adjustment, there was a direct association of SAT and adiponectin (β = 0.18; p = 0.002) that persisted when controlling for BMI and WC, supporting a beneficial effect of

  16. Marriage and Offending among a Cohort of Disadvantaged African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Elaine Eggleston; Ensminger, Margaret E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Drawing on Sampson and Laub’s age-graded theory of informal social control, this research tests the generalizability of the marriage effect on desistance from crime. Specifically, do urban African American men and women living in the United States benefit from marriage similarly to Whites? Methods The authors use hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to analyze the relationship between marriage and official arrest counts among African American male and female first graders from Woodlawn, an inner-city community in Chicago, first assessed in 1966 and followed up at three time points (ages 16, 32, and 42). Results The authors find strong evidence of a marriage effect for the males across crime type, with a reduction in offending between 21 percent and 36 percent when in a state of marriage. The findings for females were less consistent across crime type, a 10 percent reduction in the odds of a property arrest and a 9 percent increase in the odds of a drug arrest when in a state of marriage. Conclusions Their findings provide evidence in favor of the generality of Sampson and Laub’s theory, at least for males. However, the authors were not able to evaluate the mechanisms of desistance and identify this as an area of future research. PMID:24817770

  17. Attitude of African-Americans regarding prostate cancer clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Robinson, S B; Ashley, M; Haynes, M A

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to qualitatively assess attitudes associated with the willingness of African-Americans to participate in prostate cancer clinical trials. Fifty-six African-American males, 40 years of age and older, were recruited from South Central Los Angeles. Respondents were divided into lower or middle socio-economic groups based on education and occupation. Focus group discussions were conducted to assess their knowledge about prostate cancer and willingness to participate in prostate cancer clinical trials. In addition, information was obtained to identify their incentives and barriers towards participating in prostate cancer research. Middle socio-economic respondents expressed a greater willingness to participate in prostate cancer clinical trials than did men of lower socio-economic status. Many indicated that they would be more likely to participate if they were encouraged to do so by a physician or researcher who was viewed as being competent and compassionate. Barriers to participation in prostate cancer clinical trials included concerns about drug toxicity, medical experimentation and distrust of the medical establishment. Endeavors aimed at increasing minority representation in prostate cancer clinical studies should address these issues.

  18. An ecological approach to physical activity in African American women.

    PubMed

    Walcott-McQuigg, J A; Zerwic, J J; Dan, A; Kelley, M A

    2001-12-01

    Physical activity in women has assumed increasing significance as a policy issue as a result of the release of the 1996 Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health. This report revealed that women in the United States were less likely than men to adhere to the recommended guidelines for physical activity. African American women are less likely than white women to participate in leisure time physical activity across age, occupational, and income groups. The purpose of this study was to use the Ecological Model of Health Promotion to explore policy, environmental, and individual factors influencing physical activity of middle- to older-aged African American women in a mixed income community in a large midwestern city. Focus group discussions were held with 3 groups of women -- administrators/community leaders, exercisers, and nonexercisers. Thirty-three women between the ages of 40 and 78 participated in the study. The women identified 6 themes influencing physical activity: perceptions of physical activity and exercise; perceived barriers to exercise; perceived benefits of and motivators to exercise; past and present opportunities for exercise; factors that enhance the successful delivery of an exercise program; and coalition building to deliver an exercise program to women in the community. The results of this study reveal that to successfully increase physical activity in an ethnic urban community, researchers and other concerned individuals need to collaborate at multiple ecological levels, with an initial emphasis on establishing coalitions between institutions, community groups, policy makers, and individuals.

  19. Racism-related stress, Africultural coping, and religious problem-solving among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Lewis-Coles, Ma'at E Lyris; Constantine, Madonna G

    2006-07-01

    This study explored the extent to which three types of racism-related stress (i.e., individual, institutional, and cultural) would predict the use of specific Africultural coping strategies (i.e., cognitive/emotional debriefing, spiritual-centered, collective, and ritual-centered coping) and religious problem-solving styles (i.e., self-directing, deferring, and collaborative) in a sample of 284 African American men and women. The authors found that higher institutional racism-related stress was associated with greater use of cognitive/emotional debriefing, spiritual-centered, and collective coping in African American women. Findings also indicated that higher cultural racism-related stress was predictive of lower use of self-directing religious problem-solving in African American women. Moreover, higher perceived cultural racism-related stress was related to greater use of collective coping strategies in African American men. Individual racism-related stress was not predictive of any forms of Africultural coping strategies or religious problem-solving. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  20. Psychosocial Mechanisms Linking the Social Environment to Mental Health in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Mama, Scherezade K; Li, Yisheng; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Lee, Rebecca E; Thompson, Deborah; Wetter, David W; Nguyen, Nga T; Reitzel, Lorraine R; McNeill, Lorna H

    2016-01-01

    Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African American adults. African American men and women (n = 1467) completed questionnaires on the social environment, psychosocial factors (stress, depressive symptoms, and racial discrimination), and mental health. Multiple-mediator models were used to assess direct and indirect effects of the social environment on mental health. Low social status in the community (p < .001) and U.S. (p < .001) and low social support (p < .001) were associated with poor mental health. Psychosocial factors significantly jointly mediated the relationship between the social environment and mental health in multiple-mediator models. Low social status and social support were associated with greater perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and perceived racial discrimination, which were associated with poor mental health. Results suggest the relationship between the social environment and mental health is mediated by psychosocial factors and revealed potential mechanisms through which social status and social support influence the mental health of African American men and women. Findings from this study provide insight into the differential effects of stress, depression and discrimination on mental health. Ecological approaches that aim to improve the social environment and psychosocial mediators may enhance health-related quality of life and reduce health disparities in African Americans.

  1. Psychosocial Mechanisms Linking the Social Environment to Mental Health in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Basen-Engquist, Karen; Lee, Rebecca E.; Thompson, Deborah; Wetter, David W.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.

    2016-01-01

    Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African American adults. African American men and women (n = 1467) completed questionnaires on the social environment, psychosocial factors (stress, depressive symptoms, and racial discrimination), and mental health. Multiple-mediator models were used to assess direct and indirect effects of the social environment on mental health. Low social status in the community (p < .001) and U.S. (p < .001) and low social support (p < .001) were associated with poor mental health. Psychosocial factors significantly jointly mediated the relationship between the social environment and mental health in multiple-mediator models. Low social status and social support were associated with greater perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and perceived racial discrimination, which were associated with poor mental health. Results suggest the relationship between the social environment and mental health is mediated by psychosocial factors and revealed potential mechanisms through which social status and social support influence the mental health of African American men and women. Findings from this study provide insight into the differential effects of stress, depression and discrimination on mental health. Ecological approaches that aim to improve the social environment and psychosocial mediators may enhance health-related quality of life and reduce health disparities in African Americans. PMID:27119366

  2. Loss, Survival, and Redemption: African American Male Youths' Reflections on Life without Fathers, Manhood, and Coming of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Andrea G.; Friend, Christian A.; Murphy, S. Yvette; Rollins, Alethea; Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay; Laughinghouse, Janzelean

    2006-01-01

    Using an interpretivist approach, this article explores young African American men's (n = 20) reflections on coming of age and the meanings of father loss. Based on focus groups, the authors found that it was through autobiographical narratives of loss, survival, and redemption that young men positioned themselves ideologically and constructed the…

  3. A church-based pilot study designed to improve dietary quality for rural, Lower Mississippi Delta, African American Adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To assess the feasibility of implementing a six-month, church-based, dietary, pilot intervention, called Delta Body and Soul (DBS), for African American (AA) adults in the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) region of Mississippi. Effectiveness of the intervention to improve diet quality [measured using t...

  4. Maternal Models of Risk: Links between Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior in African American Female Caregivers and Daughters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brakefield, Tiffany; Wilson, Helen; Donenberg, Geri

    2012-01-01

    African American (AA) adolescent girls are at heightened risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and thus knowledge of factors related to risky sexual behavior in this population is crucial. Using Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1977), this paper examines pathways from female caregivers' risky sexual behavior and substance use to…

  5. Evaluation of a Structural Model of Objectification Theory and Eating Disorder Symptomatology among European American and African American Undergraduate Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Karen S.; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated a structural equation model of objectification theory among European American (EA; n = 408) and African American women (AA; n = 233). Modeling results indicated a particularly strong association between thin-ideal internalization/body monitoring and eating disorder symptoms, with weaker relationships among body…

  6. Informing cancer prevention strategies for African Americans: the relationship of African American acculturation to fruit, vegetable, and fat intake.

    PubMed

    Ard, Jamy D; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Chen, Chuhe; Aickin, Mikel; Svetkey, Laura P

    2005-06-01

    Acculturation has been associated with health-related behaviors in African Americans. We sought to determine if there is a relationship between acculturation and dietary intake in African Americans. African Americans in the PREMIER trial completed the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS) and 2 nonconsecutive 24-h dietary recalls (n = 238). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and canonical correlation were used to assess relationships between acculturation and dietary intakes. Canonical correlation (p = 0.05) showed that traditional African Americans had lower intakes of fruits/vegetables and milk/dairy with higher intakes of fats, meat, and nuts. This pattern was supported by differences in the ANOVA. African American acculturation is related to dietary intake. These findings have implications for the design of cancer-related public health messages targeted to African Americans.

  7. Sexual Hookups and Alcohol Consumption Among African American and Caucasian College Students: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Thomson Ross, Lisa; Zeigler, Stephanie; Kolak, Amy M; Epstein, Dryden

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated college students' sexual hooking up and its associations with alcohol consumption for men and women; furthermore, potential differences related to ethnicity were investigated. Students at a midsized southeastern university who identified as Caucasian or African American (N = 227) completed a survey assessing sexual behavior, demographics, and alcohol consumption. Heavy drinking was associated with ever hooking up, number of hookup partners, hookup frequency, and level of sexual contact during hooking up for Caucasian students, but not for their African American peers. Among Caucasians, moderate drinking men reported more intense sexual contact during hookups than their female peers who were moderate drinkers; sexual contact levels were more similar for men and women who were either nondrinkers or heavy drinkers. Limitations and strengths are discussed, as are ideas for future studies on hooking up and for educational efforts to protect against potentially negative outcomes of hooking up.

  8. Postpartum depression among African-American women.

    PubMed

    Amankwaa, Linda Clark

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the nature of postpartum depression (PPD) among African-American women. Twelve women, who had experienced PPD within the last three years, were interviewed for approximately one hour at two intervals. Nudist-4 software and the constant comparative method were used to analyze the data. Five themes "Stressing Out," "Feeling Down," "Losing It," "Seeking Help," and "Feeling Better" represented aspects of PPD as experienced by the participants. The last theme, "Dealing with It," represented the cultural ways in which African-American mothers managed their depression. These included Keeping the Faith, Trying to Be a Strong Black Woman, Living with Myths, and Keeping Secrets. Suggestions for future directions in nursing research are included.

  9. Prostate Cancer Genetics in African Americans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    grant from the U.S. Department of Defense to study the role heredity plays in prostate cancer among African Americans. "Prostate cancer is the...visit our website at: www.creighton.edu. Creighton gets grant to study heredity -cancer link - Houston Chronicle Coogle offers Google Offers Deals on...traffic Nahan & world Politics Health News bizarre Deaths Hurncanes Creighton gets grant to study heredity -cancer link Published 04 :40a.m., Monday

  10. African American teen mothers' perceptions of parenting.

    PubMed

    Wayland, J; Rawlins, R

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the childbearing African American teens' perceptions of parenting based on their own experiences. Focus group discussions were held with 17 teens in their school setting for 50 minutes each week. Group discussions were audiotaped, tapes were transcribed, and then analyzed for common themes. The unmarried teens ranged in age from 15 to 18 years. Findings indicated that the teens depended on grandmothers to provide child care and for information about parenting. The teens identified parenting problems including crying, discipline, and conflicts dealing with grandmothers and the child's father. Teens wanted more information about breastfeeding and minor childhood diseases. The researchers identified that teens lacked information about their children's growth and development and safety issues. Findings have implications for nurses who care for childbearing teens and their children; and those involved in planning and implementing parent education programs for African American teen mothers and their families. Further research is indicated with larger samples of African American teens; and to explore the context of family relationships in which teen mothers and grandmothers share parenting for the teens' children.

  11. Neuropsychological screening tests in African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Lampley-Dallas, V. T.

    2001-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests are instruments used to diagnose a variety of cognitive conditions. This article will review a few of the brief scales commonly used in screening for dementia. It will also discuss the properties of and problems with some of the brief scales that are commonly used to screen African Americans for dementia, highlighting the various biases. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is the most widely known and utilized cognitive impairment instrument in the United States. Whether or not it is biased to race after adjusting the scores for educational attainment remains controversial. The Blessed Information-Memory-Concentration Test (BIMC), Blessed Orientation-Memory-Concentration Test (BOMC), Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ), and Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (NCSE) are other screening tests used to diagnose dementia. Some of these tests have been found to misclassify many more African Americans as demented compared to the proportion of whites that are misclassified. The Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG) is the only brief neuropsychological scale designed to actually diagnose early dementia, but it is not known if it is biased for African Americans. PMID:11560287

  12. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in older African Americans.

    PubMed

    Funnyé, Allen S; Akhtar, Abbasi J; Biamby, Gisele

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if older African Americans are disproportionately affected by acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and to review the clinical impact of AIDS and the importance of prevention and treatment efforts. A review of the literature and statistics was obtained using Medline and the AIDS Public Information Data Set offered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Twenty-seven percent of the U.S. population is above the age of 50, and the number of AIDS cases in this group is growing, with African Americans accounting for the highest proportion of cases and deaths. Testing for HIV may be delayed and symptoms attributed to other illnesses. Though 5% of new cases occur in those over 50, prevention programs, testing, and the perception of risk by providers may be insufficient. There are few research studies on HIV treatment in older patients and no specific guidelines for antiretroviral treatments available. Although death rates for AIDS has been declining, adults over 50 still have the highest mortality rate. Co-morbid conditions, such as heart disease and hypertension, may require taking multiple drugs, which may complicate treatment. Increasing heterosexual transmission rates and a lack of information on HIV reinforces the need for specific prevention programs targeted toward older African Americans.

  13. Survival Strategies for African American Astronomers and Astrophysicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, Jarita C.

    2012-08-01

    The question of how to increase the number of women and minorities in astronomy has been approached from several directions in the United States including examination of admission policies, mentoring, and hiring practices. These point to departmental efforts to improve conditions for some of the students which has the overall benefit of improving conditions for all of the students. However, women and minority astronomers have managed to obtain doctorates even within the non-welcoming environment of certain astronomy and physics departments. I present here six strategies used by African American men and women to persevere if not thrive long enough to earn their doctorate. Embedded in this analysis is the idea of `astronomy culture' and experiencing astronomy culture as a cross-cultural experience including elements of culture shock. These survival strategies are not exclusive to this small subpopulation but have been used by majority students, too.

  14. The Lived Experience of African American Caregivers Caring for Adult African American Patients With Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Heather

    2016-04-01

    Assistance from informal caregivers such as family members, friends, or neighbors is crucial to adequately managing the complex care of heart failure (HF) patients. This study examined the lived experience of African American caregivers caring for African American patients with HF. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 10 participants who were formally interviewed. The interviews, analyzed using Colaizzi's steps, revealed six themes: layers of support, realization of self-neglect, experiencing the "blues," connecting with healthcare providers, unmet financial needs, and perception of nonadherence. The information regarding the experience of African American caregivers of HF patients obtained through this research will inform the delivery of culturally competent support to caregivers, thereby improving quality of life for both the HF patients and their caregivers.

  15. Understanding African American Men’s Perceptions of Racism, Male Gender Socialization, and Social Capital Through Photovoice

    PubMed Central

    Ornelas, India J.; Amell, Jim; Tran, Anh N.; Royster, Michael; Armstrong-Brown, Janelle; Eng, Eugenia

    2009-01-01

    In this study we used a participatory qualitative research approach—photovoice—to collect information about African American men’s perceptions of the factors that influenced their own health and the health of their communities. Photovoice was conducted as part of the “Men as Navigators (MAN) for Health” project, an evaluation of a male lay health advisor (LHA) intervention in central North Carolina. Twelve African American men living in both urban and rural communities took photographs and discussed the photos in six photo discussion sessions. Analysis involved identifying recurring themes from the photos and transcriptions of photo discussions. The results suggest that race and racism, male gender socialization, and social networks and social capital all have important influences on African American men’s health. The implications for further research and public health practice are discussed. PMID:19201993

  16. Epidemiology, Determinants, and Consequences of Cigarette Smoking in African American Women: An Integrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Mickens, Lavonda; Ameringer, Katie; Brightman, Molly; Leventhal, Adam M.

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a national public health problem that has been associated with numerous adverse health effects, including increased disease and cancer rates. Previous review articles on smoking in specific demographic populations have focused on smoking in women and on smoking in African Americans, but have not considered the dual roles of ethnicity and gender in smoking behavior. African American women (AAW) are an important subgroup to study because they are distinct from non-AAW and their male African American counterparts on biosychosocial factors that are relevant to smoking behavior. The purpose of the present review paper is to integrate and summarize the current literature on the epidemiology, determinants, and consequences of cigarette smoking among AAW, by contrasting them to relevant comparison groups (non-AAW and African American men). Evidence suggests that AAW are generally more likely to be light smokers and initiate smoking later. The prevalence rates of AAW smokers have decreased over the past 25 years, yet AAW are disproportionately affected by several smoking-related illnesses when compared to their ethnic and gender comparison groups. AAW smokers are distinct from relevant comparison groups in metabolic sensitivity to nicotine, aspects of smoking topography, and several psychosocial factors that influence smoking. Although a small literature on smoking in AAW is emerging, further empirical research of AAW smokers could inform the development of tailored interventions for AAW. PMID:20061090

  17. Novel genetic predictors of venous thromboembolism risk in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Wenndy; Gamazon, Eric R.; Smithberger, Erin; O’Brien, Travis J.; Harralson, Arthur F.; Tuck, Matthew; Barbour, April; Kittles, Rick A.; Cavallari, Larisa H.

    2016-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the third most common life-threatening cardiovascular condition in the United States, with African Americans (AAs) having a 30% to 60% higher incidence compared with other ethnicities. The mechanisms underlying population differences in the risk of VTE are poorly understood. We conducted the first genome-wide association study in AAs, comprising 578 subjects, followed by replication of highly significant findings in an independent cohort of 159 AA subjects. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between genetic variants and VTE risk. Through bioinformatics analysis of the top signals, we identified expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) in whole blood and investigated the messenger RNA expression differences in VTE cases and controls. We identified and replicated single-nucleotide polymorphisms on chromosome 20 (rs2144940, rs2567617, and rs1998081) that increased risk of VTE by 2.3-fold (P < 6 × 10−7). These risk variants were found in higher frequency among populations of African descent (>20%) compared with other ethnic groups (<10%). We demonstrate that SNPs on chromosome 20 are cis-eQTLs for thrombomodulin (THBD), and the expression of THBD is lower among VTE cases compared with controls (P = 9.87 × 10−6). We have identified novel polymorphisms associated with increased risk of VTE in AAs. These polymorphisms are predominantly found among populations of African descent and are associated with THBD gene expression. Our findings provide new molecular insight into a mechanism regulating VTE susceptibility and identify common genetic variants that increase the risk of VTE in AAs, a population disproportionately affected by this disease. PMID:26888256

  18. African Genetic Ancestry is Associated with Sleep Depth in Older African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Indrani; Matthews, Karen A.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Strollo, Patrick J.; Causer, Victoria; Reis, Steven E.; Hall, Martica H.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: The mechanisms that underlie differences in sleep characteristics between European Americans (EA) and African Americans (AA) are not fully known. Although social and psychological processes that differ by race are possible mediators, the substantial heritability of sleep characteristics also suggests genetic underpinnings of race differences. We hypothesized that racial differences in sleep phenotypes would show an association with objectively measured individual genetic ancestry in AAs. Design: Cross sectional. Setting: Community-based study. Participants: Seventy AA adults (mean age 59.5 ± 6.7 y; 62% female) and 101 EAs (mean age 60.5 ± 7 y, 39% female). Measurements and Results: Multivariate tests were used to compare the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and in-home polysomnographic measures of sleep duration, sleep efficiency, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), and indices of sleep depth including percent visually scored slow wave sleep (SWS) and delta EEG power of EAs and AAs. Sleep duration, efficiency, and sleep depth differed significantly by race. Individual % African ancestry (%AF) was measured in AA subjects using a panel of 1698 ancestry informative genetic markers and ranged from 10% to 88% (mean 67%). Hierarchical linear regression showed that higher %AF was associated with lower percent SWS in AAs (β (standard error) = −4.6 (1.5); P = 0.002), and explained 11% of the variation in SWS after covariate adjustment. A similar association was observed for delta power. No association was observed for sleep duration and efficiency. Conclusion: African genetic ancestry is associated with indices of sleep depth in African Americans. Such an association suggests that part of the racial differences in slow-wave sleep may have genetic underpinnings. Citation: Halder I, Matthews KA, Buysse DJ, Strollo PJ, Causer V, Reis SE, Hall MH. African genetic ancestry is associated with sleep depth in older African Americans. SLEEP 2015;38(8):1185–1193

  19. Exploration of Depressive Symptoms in African American Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Amy Y.; Gary, Faye; Zhu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurately assessing depression in African American cancer patients is difficult because of the similarities of physical symptoms observed in cancer and depression. Aim To identify universal and distinctive depressive symptoms in African American cancer patients. Methods Seventy-four cancer patients (34 depressed and 23 nondepressed African Americans, and 17 depressed Whites) were interviewed. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted. Results Compared to nondepressed African Americans, depressed African Americans reported irritability, social isolation, insomnia, fatigue, and crying (p ≤ .05) more frequently over time. Compared to depressed Whites, they reported sadness, frustration, and intrusive thoughts less frequently (p ≤ .05), but insomnia and fatigue more frequently (p ≤ .05) during cancer treatment. There was little racial difference at the time of interview. Conclusion Depressed African American cancer patients may benefit from more culturally sensitive depression measures that consider symptoms of irritability, social isolation, and altered expressions of depressive mood. PMID:25564890

  20. Variables affecting racial-identity salience among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Thompson, V L

    1999-12-01

    The author clarified the African American racial-group identification process by addressing the issue of salience and its relationship to racial-group attitudes. A sample of 409 African American adults responded to surveys pertaining to their racial-group salience, racial-group attitudes, racial socialization, racial-group interaction, political activism, experiences of discrimination, and demographic data (e.g., sex, age, and income). The author tested 3 hypotheses: (a) Racial socialization and interaction with other African Americans are predictive of African American racial-identity salience; (b) discriminatory experiences are predictive of African American racial-identity salience; and (c) racial-identity salience is a stronger predictor of African American racial-group identification than are previously identified predictive variables (D. H. Demo & H. Hughes, 1990; V. L. Thompson Sanders, 1991, 1995). The results supported the 1st and 3rd hypotheses.