Science.gov

Sample records for african-american breast cancer

  1. Advancing breast cancer survivorship among African-American women.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Steven S; Yoo, Wonsuk; Whitehead, Mary S; Smith, Selina A

    2015-09-01

    Advances have occurred in breast cancer survivorship but, for many African-American women, challenges and gaps in relevant information remain. This article identifies opportunities to address disparities in breast cancer survival and quality of life, and thereby to increase breast cancer survivorship among African-American women. For breast cancer survivors, common side effects, lasting for long periods after cancer treatment, include fatigue, loss of strength, difficulty sleeping, and sexual dysfunction. For addressing physical and mental health concerns, a variety of interventions have been evaluated, including exercise and weight training, dietary interventions, yoga and mindfulness-based stress reduction, and support groups or group therapy. Obesity has been associated with breast cancer recurrence and poorer survival. Relative to white survivors, African-American breast cancer survivors are more likely to be obese and less likely to engage in physical activity, although exercise improves overall quality of life and cancer-related fatigue. Considerable information exists about the effectiveness of such interventions for alleviating distress and improving quality of life among breast cancer survivors, but few studies have focused specifically on African-American women with a breast cancer diagnosis. Studies have identified a number of personal factors that are associated with resilience, increased quality of life, and positive adaptation to a breast cancer diagnosis. There is a need for a better understanding of breast cancer survivorship among African-American women. Additional evaluations of interventions for improving the quality of life and survival of African-American breast cancer survivors are desirable. PMID:26303657

  2. African American women's breast memories, cancer beliefs, and screening behaviors.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Eileen C

    2004-01-01

    African American women experience higher breast cancer mortality and lower survival rates compared with white women of comparable age and cancer stage. The literature is lacking in studies that address the influence of past events on current health behaviors among women of diverse cultural groups. This qualitative exploratory study used participant narratives to examine associations between women's memories and feelings concerning their breasts and current breast cancer screening behaviors. Twelve professional African American women, aged 42 to 64 years, shared stories about memories and feelings regarding their breasts. Codes grouped together with related patterns and recurrences revealed categories that encompassed the language and culture of the participants. The categories identified were Seasons of Breast Awareness, Womanhood, Self-Portraits, Breast Cancer and Cancer Beliefs, Breast Cancer Screening Experiences, and Participants' Advice for Change. These categories provide direction for further exploration of barriers to health promotion practices among African American women and women in general.

  3. The role of spirituality in the breast cancer experiences of African American women.

    PubMed

    Tate, Johnetta D

    2011-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer type among African American women. African American women often use spirituality to overcome the physical, psychological, and emotional burdens that accompany a breast cancer diagnosis. Spirituality has been used over the years by African American women to bring hope when dealing with hardships. This integrative review seeks to explore the importance of spirituality to African American women throughout the breast cancer experience. Thirteen qualitative and quantitative studies that discussed how spirituality was used to cope with breast cancer from initial diagnosis to survivorship were reviewed. Spirituality was found to be the main coping mechanism used during all phases of the cancer experience. To provide holistic nursing care, nurses must understand that spirituality is an important coping strategy used by most African American women with breast cancer. The implications for nursing that were identified include the incorporation of spiritual interventions and the utilization of culturally appropriate assessment tools.

  4. Ring of Silence: African American Women's Experiences Related to Their Breasts and Breast Cancer Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Eileen

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore women's memories and feelings concerning their breasts and breast cancer screening experiences in relation to their current breast cancer screening behaviors. Twelve African American women shared stories that were generated in written narratives and individual interviews. Two core themes emerged from the…

  5. Health Behaviors and Breast Cancer: Experiences of Urban African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolley, Melinda R.; Sharp, Lisa K.; Wells, Anita M.; Simon, Nolanna; Schiffer, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Breast-cancer survival rates are lower among African American women compared to White women. Obesity may contribute to this disparity. More than 77% of African American women are overweight or obese. Adopting health behaviors that promote a healthy weight status may be beneficial because obesity increases risk for recurrence. Studies among White…

  6. Cancer Support Needs for African American Breast Cancer Survivors and Caregivers.

    PubMed

    Haynes-Maslow, Lindsey; Allicock, Marlyn; Johnson, La-Shell

    2016-03-01

    Improved cancer screening and treatment advances have led to higher cancer survival rates in the United States. However, racial disparities in breast cancer survival persist for African American women who experience lower survival rates than white women. These disparities suggest that unmet needs related to survivorship still exist. This study focuses on the challenges that both African American cancer survivors and caregivers face across the cancer continuum. Five African American focus groups examined cancer survivor and caregiver support needs. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed, and uploaded into Atlas.ti. Thematic content analysis was applied to the text during the coding process. Themes were identified and emphasized based on the research team's integrated and unified final codes. Forty-one African Americans participated in five focus groups: 22 cancer survivors and 19 caregivers. Participants discussed five themes: (1) a culture that discourages the discussion of cancer; (2) lack of support services for African American cancer survivors; (3) lack of support services for cancer caregivers; (4) need for culturally appropriate cancer resources, including resources targeted at African American women; and (5) aspects that were helpful to cancer survivors and caregivers, including connecting with other survivors and caregivers, and having strong social support networks. We gained new insight into the unmet support needs for survivors and caregivers, especially when coping with the cancer experience continuum. While some cancer and caregiver support services exist, our study reveals a great need for services that incorporate the cultural differences that exist across races. PMID:25869580

  7. Cancer Support Needs for African American Breast Cancer Survivors and Caregivers.

    PubMed

    Haynes-Maslow, Lindsey; Allicock, Marlyn; Johnson, La-Shell

    2016-03-01

    Improved cancer screening and treatment advances have led to higher cancer survival rates in the United States. However, racial disparities in breast cancer survival persist for African American women who experience lower survival rates than white women. These disparities suggest that unmet needs related to survivorship still exist. This study focuses on the challenges that both African American cancer survivors and caregivers face across the cancer continuum. Five African American focus groups examined cancer survivor and caregiver support needs. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed, and uploaded into Atlas.ti. Thematic content analysis was applied to the text during the coding process. Themes were identified and emphasized based on the research team's integrated and unified final codes. Forty-one African Americans participated in five focus groups: 22 cancer survivors and 19 caregivers. Participants discussed five themes: (1) a culture that discourages the discussion of cancer; (2) lack of support services for African American cancer survivors; (3) lack of support services for cancer caregivers; (4) need for culturally appropriate cancer resources, including resources targeted at African American women; and (5) aspects that were helpful to cancer survivors and caregivers, including connecting with other survivors and caregivers, and having strong social support networks. We gained new insight into the unmet support needs for survivors and caregivers, especially when coping with the cancer experience continuum. While some cancer and caregiver support services exist, our study reveals a great need for services that incorporate the cultural differences that exist across races.

  8. The African American Women and Mass Media Campaign: A CDC Breast Cancer Screening Project

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Ingrid J.; Rim, Sun Hee; Johnson-Turbes, C. Ashani; Vanderpool, Robin; Kamalu, Ngozi N.

    2015-01-01

    For decades, black radio has reached African American communities with relevant, culturally appropriate information, and it continues to be an ideal communication channel to use for contemporary health promotion. In an effort to combat excess breast cancer mortality rates and help eliminate cancer disparities among low-income African American women, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Division of Cancer Prevention and Control designed, implemented, and evaluated the African American Women and Mass Media (AAMM) pilot campaign. The AAMM campaign uses black radio, radio stations with broad African American listenership, as a platform for targeted, culturally competent health promotion and outreach to low-income, African American women. The AAMM campaign uses radio advertisements and print materials disseminated in predominantly African American neighborhoods to promote awareness of breast cancer, early detection, and the CDC’s National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP). Evaluation of the AAMM campaign found that the campaign successfully reached its target audience of low-income, African American women and increased women’s awareness of breast cancer screening services through the Breast and Cervical Cancer Program in Savannah and Macon, Georgia. PMID:23072329

  9. Breast Cancer Screening Use by African Americans and Whites in an HMO

    PubMed Central

    Reisch, Lisa M; Barton, Mary B; Fletcher, Suzanne W; Kreuter, William; Elmore, Joann G

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine racial differences in breast cancer screening in an HMO that provides screening at no cost. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study of breast cancer screening among African-American and white women. Breast cancer screening information was extracted from computerized medical records. SETTING A large HMO in New England. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS White and African-American women (N =2,072) enrolled for at least 10 years in the HMO. MAIN RESULTS Primary care clinicians documented recommending a screening mammogram significantly more often for African Americans than whites (70% vs 64%; P <.001). During the 10-year period, on average, white women obtained more mammograms (4.49 vs 3.93; P <.0001) and clinical breast examinations (5.35 vs 4.92; P <.01) than African-American women. However, a woman's race was no longer a statistically significant predictor of breast cancer screening after adjustment for differences in age, estimated household income, estrogen use, and body mass index (adjusted number of mammograms, 4.47 vs 4.25, P =.17; and adjusted number of clinical breast examinations, 5.35 vs 5.31, P =.87). CONCLUSIONS In this HMO, African-American and white women obtained breast cancer screening at similar rates. Comparisons with national data showed much higher screening rates in this HMO for both white and African-American women. PMID:10759997

  10. Breast cancer and racial disparity between Caucasian and African American women, part 1 (BRCA-1).

    PubMed

    Tariq, Khurram; Latif, Naeem; Zaiden, Robert; Jasani, Nick; Rana, Fauzia

    2013-08-01

    Breast cancer is a commonly diagnosed malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer-related death among American women today. Despite the lower incidence of breast cancer among African American women, they are more likely to die from the disease each year than their white counterparts. We present a retrospective cohort study of the tumor registry data from electronic medical records of patients diagnosed with breast cancer at the University of Florida Health, Jacksonville from 2000 to 2005. A total of 907 patients were diagnosed with breast cancer; 445 patients with invasive breast cancer had complete medical records and were selected for this review. Much like previously published research, we found that African American patients presented with a more advanced stage and aggressive subtype of breast cancer than white patients, and were less likely to have health insurance. However, we have yet to determine if universal health care insurance can lead to improved health care access, better breast cancer awareness, and an enhanced attitude toward breast cancer screenings. Such factors would ultimately lead to an earlier diagnosis and better outcomes in both African American and white patients. We plan to investigate this critical issue in a follow-up study (BRCA-2; Breast Cancer and Racial Disparity Between Caucasian and African American Women, Part 2), which will begin a few years after the complete implementation of the universal health care law enacted by President Obama in 2010. The higher frequency of aggressive tumor subtypes in African American women warrants more attention. We suggest further research to determine whether decreasing the initial age for screening or increasing the frequency of mammograms in African American women would improve breast cancer outcomes. This study underscores the importance of identifying and preventing obstacles in routine breast cancer screening, as well as increasing breast cancer awareness.

  11. Intervention Approaches for Addressing Breast Cancer Disparities among African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S

    2014-01-01

    African American women in the U.S. have a higher mortality rate from breast cancer than white women. Black-white differences in survival persist even after accounting for disease stage and tumor characteristics suggesting that the higher rates of breast cancer mortality are due to social factors. Several factors may account for racial differences in breast cancer mortality including socioeconomic factors, access to screening mammography and timely treatment, and biological factors. Efforts to prevent deaths from breast cancer and to address breast cancer disparities have focused on early detection through routine mammography and timely referral for treatment. There is a need for culturally appropriate, tailored health messages for African American women to increase their knowledge and awareness of health behaviors for the early detection of breast cancer. Several promising intervention approaches are reviewed in this article including: 1) the use of cell phone text messaging and smart phone apps to increase breast cancer screening; 2) the use of radio stations that target African American audiences (“black radio”) for health promotion activities; and 3) church-based behavioral interventions to promote breast cancer screening among African American women. PMID:25568890

  12. Factors influencing Breast Cancer Screening in Low-Income African Americans in Tennessee

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kushal; Kanu, Mohamed; Liu, Jianguo; Bond, Brea; Brown, Elizabeth; Williams, Elizabeth; Theriot, Rosemary; Bailey, Stephanie; Sanderson, Maureen; Hargreaves, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    This study examined demographic and lifestyle factors that influenced decisions and obstacles to being screened for breast cancer in low-income African Americans in three urban Tennessee cities. As part of the Meharry Community Networks Program (CNP) needs assessment, a 123-item community survey was administered to assess demographic characteristics, health care access and utilization, and screening practices for various cancers in low-income African Americans. For this study, only African American women 40 years and older (n=334) were selected from the Meharry CNP community survey database. There were several predictors of breast cancer screening such as marital status and having health insurance (P< .05). Additionally, there were associations between obstacles to screening and geographic region such as transportation and not having enough information about screenings (P< .05). Educational interventions aimed at improving breast cancer knowledge and screening rates should incorporate information about obstacles and predictors to screening. PMID:24554393

  13. African American Women’s Limited Knowledge and Experiences with Genetic Counseling for Hereditary Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, Vanessa B.; Graves, Kristi D.; Christopher, Juleen; Hurtado-de-Mendoza, Alejandra; Talley, Costellia; Williams, Karen Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Genetic counseling and testing for hereditary breast cancer have the potential benefit of early detection and early interventions in African American women. However, African American women have low use of these services compared to White women. We conducted two focus groups with African American women diagnosed with breast cancer (affected group, n=13) and women with at least one first-degree relative with breast/ovarian cancer (unaffected group, n= 8). A content analysis approach was employed to analyze interview data. Breast cancer survivors had more knowledge about genetic counseling and testing than participants who were unaffected with cancer. However, knowledge about genetic counseling was limited in both groups. Barriers to pursuing genetic counseling and testing included poor understanding of the genetic counseling and testing process, fear of carrying the mutation, concerns about discrimination, and cost. Motivators to participate in genetic counseling and testing included desire to help family members, insurance coverage, and potential of benefiting the larger African American community. Education efforts are needed to increase genetic counseling and testing awareness in the African American community. PMID:24186304

  14. African American women's limited knowledge and experiences with genetic counseling for hereditary breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Vanessa B; Graves, Kristi D; Christopher, Juleen; Hurtado-de-Mendoza, Alejandra; Talley, Costellia; Williams, Karen Patricia

    2014-06-01

    Genetic counseling and testing for hereditary breast cancer have the potential benefit of early detection and early interventions in African American women. However, African American women have low use of these services compared to White women. We conducted two focus groups with African American women diagnosed with breast cancer (affected group, n = 13) and women with at least one first-degree relative with breast/ovarian cancer (unaffected group, n = 8). A content analysis approach was employed to analyze interview data. Breast cancer survivors had more knowledge about genetic counseling and testing than participants who were unaffected with cancer. However, knowledge about genetic counseling was limited in both groups. Barriers to pursuing genetic counseling and testing included poor understanding of the genetic counseling and testing process, fear of carrying the mutation, concerns about discrimination, and cost. Motivators to participate in genetic counseling and testing included desire to help family members, insurance coverage, and potential of benefiting the larger African American community. Education efforts are needed to increase genetic counseling and testing awareness in the African American community.

  15. The Impact of STORY on Depression and Fatigue in African-American Women with Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Heiney, Sue P; Reavis, Karen; Tavakoli, Abbas S; Adams, Swann Arp; Hayne, Pearman D; Weinrich, Sally P

    2015-07-01

    The intervention Sisters Tell Others and Revive Yourself (STORY) is a teleconference intervention for African-American women with breast cancer that was studied with a randomized, non-blinded, intention-to-treat trial between 2006 and 2010 in the southeastern United States. This secondary data analysis research measured the impact of STORY on depression and fatigue in African-American women (N = 168) with breast cancer. The were no significant differences in depression or fatigue found between the intervention and control groups based on the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Further research is needed to develop effective interventions aimed at decreasing depression and fatigue in African-American women with breast cancer.

  16. Beliefs and Behaviors about Breast Cancer Recurrence Risk Reduction among African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Ansa, Benjamin; Yoo, Wonsuk; Whitehead, Mary; Coughlin, Steven; Smith, Selina

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that breast cancer recurrence risk is linked to lifestyle behaviors. This study examined correlations between breast cancer recurrence, risk reduction beliefs, and related behaviors among African American breast cancer survivors (AA BCSs). Study participants included 191 AA BCSs, mean age = 56.3 years, who completed a lifestyle assessment tool. Most respondents believed that being overweight (52.7%), lack of physical activity (48.7%), and a high fat diet (63.2%) are associated with breast cancer recurrence. Over 65% considered themselves overweight; one third (33.5%) agreed that losing weight could prevent recurrence, 33.0% disagreed, while the remaining 33.5% did not know; and nearly half (47.9%) believed that recurrence could be prevented by increasing physical activity. Almost 90% survivors with BMI < 25 Kg/M2 reported no recurrence compared to 75.7% with BMI ≥ 25 Kg/M2 (p = 0.06); nearly all of the women (99.2%) answered “yes” to seeking professional help to lose weight, 79.7% of which were recurrence-free (p = 0.05). These results provide information about AA BCSs’ beliefs and behaviors protective against breast cancer recurrence. Additional research is warranted to determine the effectiveness of educational interventions for AA BCSs that promote consumption of a healthy diet and engaging in regular physical activity. PMID:26703650

  17. Beliefs and Behaviors about Breast Cancer Recurrence Risk Reduction among African American Breast Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Ansa, Benjamin; Yoo, Wonsuk; Whitehead, Mary; Coughlin, Steven; Smith, Selina

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that breast cancer recurrence risk is linked to lifestyle behaviors. This study examined correlations between breast cancer recurrence, risk reduction beliefs, and related behaviors among African American breast cancer survivors (AA BCSs). Study participants included 191 AA BCSs, mean age = 56.3 years, who completed a lifestyle assessment tool. Most respondents believed that being overweight (52.7%), lack of physical activity (48.7%), and a high fat diet (63.2%) are associated with breast cancer recurrence. Over 65% considered themselves overweight; one third (33.5%) agreed that losing weight could prevent recurrence, 33.0% disagreed, while the remaining 33.5% did not know; and nearly half (47.9%) believed that recurrence could be prevented by increasing physical activity. Almost 90% survivors with BMI < 25 Kg/M² reported no recurrence compared to 75.7% with BMI ≥ 25 Kg/M² (p = 0.06); nearly all of the women (99.2%) answered "yes" to seeking professional help to lose weight, 79.7% of which were recurrence-free (p = 0.05). These results provide information about AA BCSs' beliefs and behaviors protective against breast cancer recurrence. Additional research is warranted to determine the effectiveness of educational interventions for AA BCSs that promote consumption of a healthy diet and engaging in regular physical activity. PMID:26703650

  18. Breast cancer incidence and mortality in a Caribbean population: comparisons with African-Americans.

    PubMed

    Hennis, Anselm J; Hambleton, Ian R; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Leske, Maria Cristina; Nemesure, Barbara

    2009-01-15

    We describe breast cancer incidence and mortality in the predominantly African-origin population of Barbados, which shares an ancestral origin with African-Americans. Age-standardized incidence rates were calculated from histologically confirmed breast cancer cases identified during a 45-month period (July 2002-March 2006). Mortality rates were estimated from death registrations over 10-years starting January 1995. There were 396 incident cases of breast cancer for an incidence rate of 78.1 (95% confidence interval (CI) 70.5-86.3), standardized to the US population. Breast cancer incidence in African-Americans between 2000 and 2004 was 143.7 (142.0-145.5) per 100,000. Incidence peaked at 226.6 (174.5-289.4) per 100,000 among Barbadian women aged 50-54 years, and declined thereafter, a pattern in marked contrast to trends in African-American women, whose rates continued to increase to a peak of 483.5 per 100,000 in those aged 75-79 years. Incidence rate ratios comparing Barbadian and African-American women showed no statistically significant differences among women aged>or=55 years (pbreast cancer incidence between Barbadian and African-American women may suggest a greater contribution from genetic factors in younger women, and from environmental factors in older women. Studies in intermediate risk populations, such as Barbados, may assist the understanding of racial disparities in breast cancer.

  19. A community-based collaborative approach to improve breast cancer screening in underserved African American women.

    PubMed

    Karcher, Rachel; Fitzpatrick, Dawn C; Leonard, Dawn J; Weber, Scott

    2014-09-01

    Although African American women in the United States have a lower incidence of breast cancer compared with white women, those younger than 40 years actually have a higher incidence rate; additionally, African American women are more likely to die from breast cancer at every age compared with white women. Racial disparities in breast cancer mortality rates are especially significant in Maryland, which ranks fifth in the nation for breast cancer mortality, and in Baltimore City, which has the second highest annual death rate for African American women in Maryland. To address this disparity in care, Med-IQ, an accredited provider of CME, collaborated with Sisters Network Baltimore Metropolitan, Affiliate Chapter of Sisters Network® Inc., the only national African American breast cancer survivorship organization, to sponsor their community-based educational outreach initiative. The collaborative mission was to engage at-risk African American women, their families, local organizations, healthcare professionals, and clinics, with the goals of increasing awareness, addressing fears that affect timely care and diagnosis, and encouraging women to obtain regular mammograms. Intervention strategies included (1) a "Survivor Stories" video, (2) patient outreach consisting of neighborhood walks and an educational luncheon, and (3) a community outreach utilizing direct mailings to local businesses, community groups, and healthcare professionals. Trusted and well-known community resources were presented as mediums to promote the initiative, yielding achievement of broader and more effective outcomes. As a result of this patient-friendly initiative, two (2) of the women who sought screening were diagnosed with breast cancer and underwent treatment.

  20. A review of hair product use on breast cancer risk in African American women.

    PubMed

    Stiel, Laura; Adkins-Jackson, Paris B; Clark, Phyllis; Mitchell, Eudora; Montgomery, Susanne

    2016-03-01

    The incidence rate of breast cancer for African American women has recently converged with that of non-Hispanic White women in the United States, although African Americans have a higher mortality rate due to this disease. Although most research exploring health disparities associated with this phenomenon has focused on differences between women based on biology and behavior, both the academic and lay communities have begun to explore the potential role of environmental exposure to estrogen and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). This study reviews the current state of the science associating one such means of exposure, hair products containing EDCs, with breast cancer risk in African American women. We found a growing body of evidence linking: (1) environmental estrogen and EDC exposures to breast cancer risk, (2) the presence of such chemicals in personal care products, including hair products, and (3) the use of certain hair products with potential breast cancer risk in African Americans. At the same time, there is also increasing concern in the lay community about this risk. These results indicate the need for additional research, and the opportunity to benefit from strategic partnerships in community-collaborative approaches in order to better understand the potential "cost of beauty."

  1. The Lived Experiences of African American Women with Breast Cancer: Implications for Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, LaTasha K.

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative phenomenological methodology was used to explore the lived experiences of African American women diagnosed with breast cancer. Phenomenology focuses on the meaning of the lived experiences of individuals experiencing a concept, structure, or phenomenon (Creswell, 2007). The purpose of phenomenological research is to identify phenomena…

  2. Breast cancer treatment among African American women in north St. Louis, Missouri.

    PubMed

    Connors, Shahnjayla K; Goodman, Melody S; Noel, Lailea; Chavakula, Neeraja N; Butler, Dwayne; Kenkel, Sandi; Oliver, Cheryl; McCullough, Isaac; Gehlert, Sarah

    2015-02-01

    Similar to disparities seen at the national and state levels, African American women in St. Louis, Missouri have higher breast cancer mortality rates than their Caucasian counterparts. We examined breast cancer treatment (regimens and timing) in a sample of African American breast cancer patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2008 while residing in a North St. Louis cluster (eight zip codes) of late stage at diagnosis. Data were obtained from medical record extractions of women participating in a mixed-method study of breast cancer treatment experiences. The median time between diagnosis and initiation of treatment was 27 days; 12.2% of the women had treatment delay over 60 days. These findings suggest that treatment delay and regimens are unlikely contributors to excess mortality rates for African American women diagnosed in early stages. Conflicting research findings on treatment delay may result from the inconsistent definitions of treatment delay and variations among study populations. Breast cancer treatment delay may reduce breast cancer survival; additional research is needed to better understand the points at which delays are most likely to occur and develop policies, programs, and interventions to address disparities in treatment delay. There may also be differences in treatment-related survivorship quality of life; approximately 54% of the women in this sample treated with mastectomies received breast reconstruction surgery. Despite the high reconstruction rates, most women did not receive definitive completion. African American women have higher reconstruction complication rates than Caucasian women; these data provide additional evidence to suggest a disparity in breast reconstruction outcomes by race.

  3. African American Race is an Independent Risk Factor in Survival from Initially Diagnosed Localized Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wieder, Robert; Shafiq, Basit; Adam, Nabil

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: African American race negatively impacts survival from localized breast cancer but co-variable factors confound the impact. METHODS: Data sets were analyzed from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) directories from 1973 to 2011 consisting of patients with designated diagnosis of breast adenocarcinoma, race as White or Caucasian, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian or Alaskan Native, Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, age, stage I, II or III, grade 1, 2 or 3, estrogen receptor or progesterone receptor positive or negative, marital status as single, married, separated, divorced or widowed and laterality as right or left. The Cox Proportional Hazards Regression model was used to determine hazard ratios for survival. Chi square test was applied to determine the interdependence of variables found significant in the multivariable Cox Proportional Hazards Regression analysis. Cells with stratified data of patients with identical characteristics except African American or Caucasian race were compared. RESULTS: Age, stage, grade, ER and PR status and marital status significantly co-varied with race and with each other. Stratifications by single co-variables demonstrated worse hazard ratios for survival for African Americans. Stratification by three and four co-variables demonstrated worse hazard ratios for survival for African Americans in most subgroupings with sufficient numbers of values. Differences in some subgroupings containing poor prognostic co-variables did not reach significance, suggesting that race effects may be partly overcome by additional poor prognostic indicators. CONCLUSIONS: African American race is a poor prognostic indicator for survival from breast cancer independent of 6 associated co-variables with prognostic significance.

  4. African American Race is an Independent Risk Factor in Survival from Initially Diagnosed Localized Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wieder, Robert; Shafiq, Basit; Adam, Nabil

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: African American race negatively impacts survival from localized breast cancer but co-variable factors confound the impact. METHODS: Data sets were analyzed from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) directories from 1973 to 2011 consisting of patients with designated diagnosis of breast adenocarcinoma, race as White or Caucasian, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian or Alaskan Native, Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, age, stage I, II or III, grade 1, 2 or 3, estrogen receptor or progesterone receptor positive or negative, marital status as single, married, separated, divorced or widowed and laterality as right or left. The Cox Proportional Hazards Regression model was used to determine hazard ratios for survival. Chi square test was applied to determine the interdependence of variables found significant in the multivariable Cox Proportional Hazards Regression analysis. Cells with stratified data of patients with identical characteristics except African American or Caucasian race were compared. RESULTS: Age, stage, grade, ER and PR status and marital status significantly co-varied with race and with each other. Stratifications by single co-variables demonstrated worse hazard ratios for survival for African Americans. Stratification by three and four co-variables demonstrated worse hazard ratios for survival for African Americans in most subgroupings with sufficient numbers of values. Differences in some subgroupings containing poor prognostic co-variables did not reach significance, suggesting that race effects may be partly overcome by additional poor prognostic indicators. CONCLUSIONS: African American race is a poor prognostic indicator for survival from breast cancer independent of 6 associated co-variables with prognostic significance. PMID:27698895

  5. Psychosocial Influences on Suboptimal Adjuvant Breast Cancer Treatment Adherence among African American Women: Implications for Education and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magai, Carol; Consedine, Nathan S.; Adjei, Brenda A.; Hershman, Dawn; Neugut, Alfred

    2008-01-01

    Despite lower incidence, African American women are at increased risk of dying from breast cancer relative to their European American counterparts. Although there are key differences in both screening behavior and tumor characteristics, an additional part of this mortality difference may lie in the fact that African American women receive…

  6. A four-phase program to recruit African American women into breast cancer promotion programs.

    PubMed

    Gibson, L M

    2000-01-01

    The author discusses a successful, nurse-coordinated collaborative community-based breast health program that targeted older African American women from the state of South Carolina. Over 16 community organizations and health care partners supported the four-phase program that was funded by the South Carolina Breast and Cervical Risk Reduction Program and the South Carolina Chapter of the American Cancer Society. PMID:11760311

  7. Addressing multiple breast cancer risk factors in African-American women.

    PubMed Central

    Stolley, Melinda R.; Fitzgibbon, Marian L.; Wells, Anita; Martinovich, Zoran

    2004-01-01

    This pilot study explored the acceptability and feasibility of and estimated the effectiveness of a weight loss/breast health intervention designed to reduce breast cancer risk in African-American women ages 35-65. The study had a one-group repeated-measures design and took place in a community setting. Forty-four African-American women were recruited, 35 completed the program, and 30 returned for the one-year follow-up. The pilot intervention was three weeks in duration and included twice-weekly exercise classes and weekly active learning seminars that addressed weight loss, breast health, healthy eating, and leading an active life. Measures included those of behavior related to diet, physical activity, and breast health. Satisfaction questionnaires and focus groups were also used to assess acceptability and cultural competency. Statistical analyses included Paired t-tests and Wilcoxon signed ranks tests. Significant results postintervention showed improved physical activity, dietary, and breast health behaviors. Results suggest the acceptability, feasibility, and effectiveness of this comprehensive weight/loss breast health program in reducing multiple breast cancer risk factors among African-American women. PMID:14746356

  8. Perceptions about breast cancer among African American women: do selected educational materials challenge them?

    PubMed

    Powe, Barbara D; Daniels, Elvan C; Finnie, Ramona; Thompson, Angela

    2005-02-01

    Despite the availability of factual information about breast cancer, there continues to be an abundance of misperceptions about the disease. This study, guided by the Patient/Provider/System Model for cancer screening, describes perceptions about breast cancer among African American women (N = 179) at primary care centers. Data were collected using the Breast Cancer Perceptions and Knowledge Survey and a demographic questionnaire. Breast cancer pamphlets available at the centers were evaluated (readability, extent they challenged misperceptions). The average age of the women was 34 years with an average educational level of 12 years. A number of misperceptions were prevalent. The majority viewed breast self-examination as a form of early detection and some viewed pain as an indicator of cancer. Pamphlets did not explicitly challenge the misperceptions and the SMOG reading level was high. Intervention studies are needed to identify the effective methods to challenge and correct misperceptions about breast cancer for these women. PMID:15653249

  9. African American Women: Surviving Breast Cancer Mortality against the Highest Odds.

    PubMed

    White-Means, Shelley; Rice, Muriel; Dapremont, Jill; Davis, Barbara; Martin, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Among the country's 25 largest cities, the breast cancer mortality disparity is highest in Memphis, Tennessee, where African American women are twice as likely to die from breast cancer as White women. This qualitative study of African-American breast cancer survivors explores experiences during and post treatment that contributed to their beating the high odds of mortality. Using a semi-structured interview guide, a focus group session was held in 2012 with 10 breast cancer survivors. Thematic analysis and a deductive a priori template of codes were used to analyze the data. Five main themes were identified: family history, breast/body awareness and preparedness to manage a breast cancer event, diagnosis experience and reaction to the diagnosis, family reactions, and impact on life. Prayer and family support were central to coping, and survivors voiced a cultural acceptance of racial disparities in health outcomes. They reported lack of provider sensitivity regarding pain, financial difficulties, negative responses from family/friends, and resiliency strategies for coping with physical and mental limitations. Our research suggested that a patient-centered approach of demystifying breast cancer (both in patient-provider communication and in community settings) would impact how women cope with breast cancer and respond to information about its diagnosis. PMID:26703655

  10. African American Women: Surviving Breast Cancer Mortality against the Highest Odds.

    PubMed

    White-Means, Shelley; Rice, Muriel; Dapremont, Jill; Davis, Barbara; Martin, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Among the country's 25 largest cities, the breast cancer mortality disparity is highest in Memphis, Tennessee, where African American women are twice as likely to die from breast cancer as White women. This qualitative study of African-American breast cancer survivors explores experiences during and post treatment that contributed to their beating the high odds of mortality. Using a semi-structured interview guide, a focus group session was held in 2012 with 10 breast cancer survivors. Thematic analysis and a deductive a priori template of codes were used to analyze the data. Five main themes were identified: family history, breast/body awareness and preparedness to manage a breast cancer event, diagnosis experience and reaction to the diagnosis, family reactions, and impact on life. Prayer and family support were central to coping, and survivors voiced a cultural acceptance of racial disparities in health outcomes. They reported lack of provider sensitivity regarding pain, financial difficulties, negative responses from family/friends, and resiliency strategies for coping with physical and mental limitations. Our research suggested that a patient-centered approach of demystifying breast cancer (both in patient-provider communication and in community settings) would impact how women cope with breast cancer and respond to information about its diagnosis.

  11. African American Women: Surviving Breast Cancer Mortality against the Highest Odds

    PubMed Central

    White-Means, Shelley; Rice, Muriel; Dapremont, Jill; Davis, Barbara; Martin, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Among the country’s 25 largest cities, the breast cancer mortality disparity is highest in Memphis, Tennessee, where African American women are twice as likely to die from breast cancer as White women. This qualitative study of African-American breast cancer survivors explores experiences during and post treatment that contributed to their beating the high odds of mortality. Using a semi-structured interview guide, a focus group session was held in 2012 with 10 breast cancer survivors. Thematic analysis and a deductive a priori template of codes were used to analyze the data. Five main themes were identified: family history, breast/body awareness and preparedness to manage a breast cancer event, diagnosis experience and reaction to the diagnosis, family reactions, and impact on life. Prayer and family support were central to coping, and survivors voiced a cultural acceptance of racial disparities in health outcomes. They reported lack of provider sensitivity regarding pain, financial difficulties, negative responses from family/friends, and resiliency strategies for coping with physical and mental limitations. Our research suggested that a patient-centered approach of demystifying breast cancer (both in patient-provider communication and in community settings) would impact how women cope with breast cancer and respond to information about its diagnosis. PMID:26703655

  12. Developing spiritually framed breast cancer screening messages in consultation with African American women.

    PubMed

    Best, Alicia L; Spencer, Mindi; Hall, Ingrid J; Friedman, Daniela B; Billings, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Despite efforts to increase breast cancer screening (BCS) among African American women, disparities in breast cancer mortality persist. Culturally framed health communication may provide a useful strategy to address this issue. Spirituality not only represents an integral aspect of African American culture, but it has also been identified as a potential barrier to BCS among this population. Rather than continuing to focus on spirituality as a barrier, there is an opportunity to develop promotional messages that tap into the protective properties of spirituality among this population. The goals of this study were to engage a group of African American women to identify important spiritual elements to be included in health communication materials, and to subsequently develop a spiritually framed BCS message in response to their feedback. Three nominal group sessions were conducted with 15 African American women. Results revealed three important spiritual elements that can be incorporated into BCS health messages: (a) the body as a temple; (b) going to the doctor does not make you faithless; and (c) God did not give us the spirit of fear. These elements were used to draft a spiritually framed BCS message. Next, 20 face-to-face semistructured interviews were conducted to help finalize the spiritually framed BCS message for use in a future study on culturally framed health communication.

  13. Developing spiritually framed breast cancer screening messages in consultation with African American women.

    PubMed

    Best, Alicia L; Spencer, Mindi; Hall, Ingrid J; Friedman, Daniela B; Billings, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Despite efforts to increase breast cancer screening (BCS) among African American women, disparities in breast cancer mortality persist. Culturally framed health communication may provide a useful strategy to address this issue. Spirituality not only represents an integral aspect of African American culture, but it has also been identified as a potential barrier to BCS among this population. Rather than continuing to focus on spirituality as a barrier, there is an opportunity to develop promotional messages that tap into the protective properties of spirituality among this population. The goals of this study were to engage a group of African American women to identify important spiritual elements to be included in health communication materials, and to subsequently develop a spiritually framed BCS message in response to their feedback. Three nominal group sessions were conducted with 15 African American women. Results revealed three important spiritual elements that can be incorporated into BCS health messages: (a) the body as a temple; (b) going to the doctor does not make you faithless; and (c) God did not give us the spirit of fear. These elements were used to draft a spiritually framed BCS message. Next, 20 face-to-face semistructured interviews were conducted to help finalize the spiritually framed BCS message for use in a future study on culturally framed health communication. PMID:24837069

  14. Impact of Age and Comorbidity on Cervical and Breast Cancer Literacy of African Americans, Latina, and Arab Women.

    PubMed

    Talley, Costellia H; Williams, Karen Patricia

    2015-09-01

    This study examines the relationship between age, comorbidity, and breast and cervical cancer literacy in a sample of African American, Latina, and Arab women (N = 371) from Detroit, Michigan. The Age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index (ACC) was used characterize the impact of age and comorbidity on breast and cervical cancer literacy. The relationship between ACC and breast and cervical cancer screening, and group differences, were assessed. There was a statistically significant difference between breast cancer literacy scores. ACC had a greater impact on breast cancer literacy for African Americans.

  15. Identifying Risk Factors for Disparities in Breast Cancer Mortality among African-American and Hispanic Women

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Nancy; Goovaerts, Pierre; Zhan, F. Benjamin; Chow, T. Edwin; Wilson, J. Gaines

    2015-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the risk factors associated with racial disparities in female breast cancer mortality for African-American and Hispanic women at the census tract level in Texas from 1995 to 2005. Methods Data on female breast cancer cases were obtained from the Texas Cancer Registry. Socioeconomic and demographic data were collected from Census 2000. Network distance and driving times to mammography facilities were estimated using Geographic Information System techniques. Demographic, poverty and spatial accessibility factors were constructed using principal component analysis. Logistic regression models were developed to predict the census tracts with significant racial disparities in breast cancer mortality based on racial disparities in late-stage diagnosis and structured factors from the principal component analysis. Results Late-stage diagnosis, poverty factors, and demographic factors were found to be significant predictors of a census tract showing significant racial disparities in breast cancer mortality. Census tracts with higher poverty status were more likely to display significant racial disparities in breast cancer mortality for both African Americans (odds ratio [OR], 2.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.95–3.04) and Hispanics (OR, 5.30; 95% CI, 4.26–6.59). Spatial accessibility was not a consistent predictor of racial disparities in breast cancer mortality for African-American and Hispanic women. Conclusion Physical access to mammography facilities does not necessarily reflect a greater utilization of mammogram screening, possibly owing to financial constraints. Therefore, a metric measuring access to health care facilities is needed to capture all aspects of access to preventive care. Despite easier physical access to mammography facilities in metropolitan areas, great resources and efforts should also be devoted to these areas where racial disparities in breast cancer mortality are often found. PMID:22265181

  16. Replication of breast cancer susceptibility loci in whites and African Americans using a Bayesian approach.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Katie M; Cole, Stephen R; Poole, Charles; Bensen, Jeannette T; Herring, Amy H; Engel, Lawrence S; Millikan, Robert C

    2014-02-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and candidate gene analyses have led to the discovery of several dozen genetic polymorphisms associated with breast cancer susceptibility, many of which are considered well-established risk factors for the disease. Despite attempts to replicate these same variant-disease associations in African Americans, the evaluable populations are often too small to produce precise or consistent results. We estimated the associations between 83 previously identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and breast cancer among Carolina Breast Cancer Study (1993-2001) participants using maximum likelihood, Bayesian, and hierarchical methods. The selected SNPs were previous GWAS hits (n = 22), near-hits (n = 19), otherwise well-established risk loci (n = 5), or located in the same genes as selected variants (n = 37). We successfully replicated 18 GWAS-identified SNPs in whites (n = 2,352) and 10 in African Americans (n = 1,447). SNPs in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 gene (FGFR2) and the TOC high mobility group box family member 3 gene (TOX3) were strongly associated with breast cancer in both races. SNPs in the mitochondrial ribosomal protein S30 gene (MRPS30), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 gene (MAP3K1), zinc finger, MIZ-type containing 1 gene (ZMIZ1), and H19, imprinted maternally expressed transcript gene (H19) were associated with breast cancer in whites, and SNPs in the estrogen receptor 1 gene (ESR1) and H19 gene were associated with breast cancer in African Americans. We provide precise and well-informed race-stratified odds ratios for key breast cancer-related SNPs. Our results demonstrate the utility of Bayesian methods in genetic epidemiology and provide support for their application in small, etiologically driven investigations.

  17. Replication of Breast Cancer Susceptibility Loci in Whites and African Americans Using a Bayesian Approach

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Katie M.; Cole, Stephen R.; Poole, Charles; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Herring, Amy H.; Engel, Lawrence S.; Millikan, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and candidate gene analyses have led to the discovery of several dozen genetic polymorphisms associated with breast cancer susceptibility, many of which are considered well-established risk factors for the disease. Despite attempts to replicate these same variant-disease associations in African Americans, the evaluable populations are often too small to produce precise or consistent results. We estimated the associations between 83 previously identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and breast cancer among Carolina Breast Cancer Study (1993–2001) participants using maximum likelihood, Bayesian, and hierarchical methods. The selected SNPs were previous GWAS hits (n = 22), near-hits (n = 19), otherwise well-established risk loci (n = 5), or located in the same genes as selected variants (n = 37). We successfully replicated 18 GWAS-identified SNPs in whites (n = 2,352) and 10 in African Americans (n = 1,447). SNPs in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 gene (FGFR2) and the TOC high mobility group box family member 3 gene (TOX3) were strongly associated with breast cancer in both races. SNPs in the mitochondrial ribosomal protein S30 gene (MRPS30), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 gene (MAP3K1), zinc finger, MIZ-type containing 1 gene (ZMIZ1), and H19, imprinted maternally expressed transcript gene (H19) were associated with breast cancer in whites, and SNPs in the estrogen receptor 1 gene (ESR1) and H19 gene were associated with breast cancer in African Americans. We provide precise and well-informed race-stratified odds ratios for key breast cancer–related SNPs. Our results demonstrate the utility of Bayesian methods in genetic epidemiology and provide support for their application in small, etiologically driven investigations. PMID:24218030

  18. Surgical Treatment Differences Among Latina and African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Campesino, Maureen; Koithan, Mary; Ruiz, Ester; Glover, Johanna Uriri; Juarez, Gloria; Choi, Myunghan; Krouse, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To describe breast cancer treatment choices from the perspectives of Latina and African American breast cancer survivors. Design An interdisciplinary team conducted a mixed-methods study of women treated for stages I–IV breast cancer. Setting Participants’ homes in metropolitan areas. Sample 39 participants in three groups: monolingual Spanish-speaking Latinas (n = 15), English-speaking Latinas (n = 15), and African American women (n = 9). Methods Individual participant interviews were conducted by racially and linguistically matched nurse researchers, and sociodemographic data were collected. Content and matrix analysis methods were used. Main Research Variables Perceptions of breast cancer care. Findings High rates of mastectomy were noted for early-stage treatment (stage I or II). Among the participants diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer, the majority of English-speaking Latinas (n = 9) and African American women (n = 4) received a mastectomy. However, the majority of the Spanish-speaking Latina group (n = 5) received breast-conserving surgery. Four factors influenced the choice of mastectomy over lumpectomy across the three groups: clinical indicators, fear of recurrence, avoidance of adjuvant side effects, and perceived favorable survival outcomes. Spanish-speaking Latinas were more likely to rely on physician treatment recommendations, and the other two groups used a shared decision-making style. Conclusions Additional study is needed to understand how women select and integrate treatment information with the recommendations they receive from healthcare providers. Among the Spanish-speaking Latina group, limited English proficiency, the use of translators in explaining treatment options, and a lack of available educational materials in Spanish are factors that influenced reliance on physician recommendations. Implications for Nursing Oncology nurses were notably absent in supporting the women’s treatment decision making

  19. Fine-mapping of breast cancer susceptibility loci characterizes genetic risk in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fang; Chen, Gary K.; Millikan, Robert C.; John, Esther M.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Bernstein, Leslie; Zheng, Wei; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Deming, Sandra L.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Nyante, Sarah; Palmer, Julie R.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Ingles, Sue A.; Press, Michael F.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Le Marchand, Loïc; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Henderson, Brian E.; Stram, Daniel O.; Haiman, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed 19 common genetic variants that are associated with breast cancer risk. Testing of the index signals found through GWAS and fine-mapping of each locus in diverse populations will be necessary for characterizing the role of these risk regions in contributing to inherited susceptibility. In this large study of breast cancer in African-American women (3016 cases and 2745 controls), we tested the 19 known risk variants identified by GWAS and replicated associations (P < 0.05) with only 4 variants. Through fine-mapping, we identified markers in four regions that better capture the association with breast cancer risk in African Americans as defined by the index signal (2q35, 5q11, 10q26 and 19p13). We also identified statistically significant associations with markers in four separate regions (8q24, 10q22, 11q13 and 16q12) that are independent of the index signals and may represent putative novel risk variants. In aggregate, the more informative markers found in the study enhance the association of these risk regions with breast cancer in African Americans [per allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.18, P = 2.8 × 10−24 versus OR = 1.04, P = 6.1 × 10−5]. In this detailed analysis of the known breast cancer risk loci, we have validated and improved upon markers of risk that better characterize their association with breast cancer in women of African ancestry. PMID:21852243

  20. A comprehensive examination of breast cancer risk loci in African American women.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ye; Stram, Daniel O; Rhie, Suhn Kyong; Millikan, Robert C; Ambrosone, Christine B; John, Esther M; Bernstein, Leslie; Zheng, Wei; Olshan, Andrew F; Hu, Jennifer J; Ziegler, Regina G; Nyante, Sarah; Bandera, Elisa V; Ingles, Sue A; Press, Michael F; Deming, Sandra L; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Palmer, Julie R; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Huo, Dezheng; Adebamowo, Clement A; Ogundiran, Temidayo; Chen, Gary K; Stram, Alex; Park, Karen; Rand, Kristin A; Chanock, Stephen J; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N; Conti, David V; Easton, Douglas; Henderson, Brian E; Haiman, Christopher A

    2014-10-15

    Genome-wide association studies have identified 73 breast cancer risk variants mainly in European populations. Given considerable differences in linkage disequilibrium structure between populations of European and African ancestry, the known risk variants may not be informative for risk in African ancestry populations. In a previous fine-mapping investigation of 19 breast cancer loci, we were able to identify SNPs in four regions that better captured risk associations in African American women. In this study of breast cancer in African American women (3016 cases, 2745 controls), we tested an additional 54 novel breast cancer risk variants. Thirty-eight variants (70%) were found to have an association with breast cancer in the same direction as previously reported, with eight (15%) replicating at P < 0.05. Through fine-mapping, in three regions (1q32, 3p24, 10q25), we identified variants that better captured associations with overall breast cancer or estrogen receptor positive disease. We also observed suggestive associations with variants (at P < 5 × 10(-6)) in three separate regions (6q25, 14q13, 22q12) that may represent novel risk variants. Directional consistency of association observed for ∼65-70% of currently known genetic variants for breast cancer in women of African ancestry implies a shared functional common variant at most loci. To validate and enhance the spectrum of alleles that define associations at the known breast cancer risk loci, as well as genome-wide, will require even larger collaborative efforts in women of African ancestry.

  1. A comprehensive examination of breast cancer risk loci in African American women

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ye; Stram, Daniel O.; Rhie, Suhn Kyong; Millikan, Robert C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; John, Esther M.; Bernstein, Leslie; Zheng, Wei; Olshan, Andrew F.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Nyante, Sarah; Bandera, Elisa V.; Ingles, Sue A.; Press, Michael F.; Deming, Sandra L.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Palmer, Julie R.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Huo, Dezheng; Adebamowo, Clement A.; Ogundiran, Temidayo; Chen, Gary K.; Stram, Alex; Park, Karen; Rand, Kristin A.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Conti, David V.; Easton, Douglas; Henderson, Brian E.; Haiman, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified 73 breast cancer risk variants mainly in European populations. Given considerable differences in linkage disequilibrium structure between populations of European and African ancestry, the known risk variants may not be informative for risk in African ancestry populations. In a previous fine-mapping investigation of 19 breast cancer loci, we were able to identify SNPs in four regions that better captured risk associations in African American women. In this study of breast cancer in African American women (3016 cases, 2745 controls), we tested an additional 54 novel breast cancer risk variants. Thirty-eight variants (70%) were found to have an association with breast cancer in the same direction as previously reported, with eight (15%) replicating at P < 0.05. Through fine-mapping, in three regions (1q32, 3p24, 10q25), we identified variants that better captured associations with overall breast cancer or estrogen receptor positive disease. We also observed suggestive associations with variants (at P < 5 × 10−6) in three separate regions (6q25, 14q13, 22q12) that may represent novel risk variants. Directional consistency of association observed for ∼65–70% of currently known genetic variants for breast cancer in women of African ancestry implies a shared functional common variant at most loci. To validate and enhance the spectrum of alleles that define associations at the known breast cancer risk loci, as well as genome-wide, will require even larger collaborative efforts in women of African ancestry. PMID:24852375

  2. Patients' cultural beliefs in patient-provider communication with African American women and Latinas diagnosed with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mott-Coles, Susan

    2014-08-01

    African American women and Latinas often experience suboptimal breast cancer care. This article describes providers' self-rated skills in communication practices when working with African American women and Latinas diagnosed with breast cancer. Current literature reveals how providers are lacking in the ability to communicate with these patients and often fail to incorporate cultural beliefs into breast cancer care and treatment. This poor communication and failure to acknowledge cultural beliefs can be correlated with poor patient outcomes. In a study of providers' perceptions of how they address the cultural beliefs of African American women and Latinas diagnosed with breast cancer, interviews with physicians, inpatient nurses, cancer clinic nurses, mammography technicians, and ultrasound technicians showed that they used the same approach for all patients, regardless of race, ethnicity, or culture but felt they practiced culturally sensitive care. Increased and improved cultural competence education is recommended for providers at all levels as a first step toward increasing culturally competent communications.

  3. Incremental impact of breast cancer SNP panel on risk classification in a screening population of white and African American women

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Anne Marie; Armstrong, Katrina; Handorf, Elizabeth; Jones, Marisa; Chen, Jinbo; Demeter, Mirar Bristol; McGuire, Erin; Conant, Emily F; Domchek, Susan M

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer risk prediction remains imperfect, particularly among non-white populations. This study examines the impact of including single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles in risk prediction for white and African American women undergoing screening mammogram. Using a prospective cohort study, standard risk information and buccal swabs were collected at the time of screening mammography. A 12 SNP panel was performed by deCODE Genetics. Five-year and lifetime risks incorporating SNPs were calculated by multiplying estimated Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT) risk by the total genetic risk ratio. Concordance between the BCRAT and the Combined Model (BCRAT + SNPs) in identifying high-risk women was measured using the kappa statistic. SNP data were available for 813 women (39% African American, 55% white). The mean BCRAT 5-year risk was 1.70% for whites and 1.19% for African Americans. Mean genetic risk ratios were 1.10 in whites and 1.29 in African Americans. Among whites, three SNPs had higher frequencies, and among African Americans, seven SNPs had higher and four had lower high-risk allele frequencies than previously reported. Agreement between the BCRAT and the Combined Model was relatively low for identifying high-risk women (5-year κ=0.53, lifetime κ=0.37). Addition of SNPs had the greatest effect among African Americans, with 13% identified as having high 5-year risk by BCRAT, but 33% by the Combined Model. A greater proportion of African Americans were reclassified as having high 5-year risk than whites using the Combined Model (21% vs. 10%). The addition of SNPs to the BCRAT reclassifies the high-risk status of some women undergoing screening mammography, particularly African Americans. Further research is needed to determine the clinical validity and utility of the SNP panel for use in breast cancer risk prediction, particularly among African Americans for whom these risk alleles have generally not been validated. PMID:23474973

  4. SNPs and breast cancer risk prediction for African American and Hispanic women.

    PubMed

    Allman, Richard; Dite, Gillian S; Hopper, John L; Gordon, Ora; Starlard-Davenport, Athena; Chlebowski, Rowan; Kooperberg, Charles

    2015-12-01

    For African American or Hispanic women, the extent to which clinical breast cancer risk prediction models are improved by including information on susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is unknown, even though these women comprise increasing proportions of the US population and represent a large proportion of the world's population. We studied 7539 African American and 3363 Hispanic women from the Women's Health Initiative. The age-adjusted 5-year risks from the BCRAT and IBIS risk prediction models were measured and combined with a risk score based on >70 independent susceptibility SNPs. Logistic regression, adjusting for age group, was used to estimate risk associations with log-transformed age-adjusted 5-year risks. Discrimination was measured by the odds ratio (OR) per standard deviation (SD) and the area under the receiver operator curve (AUC). When considered alone, the ORs for African American women were 1.28 for BCRAT, and 1.04 for IBIS. When combined with the SNP risk score (OR 1.23), the corresponding ORs were 1.39 and 1.22. For Hispanic women the corresponding ORs were 1.25 for BCRAT, and 1.15 for IBIS. When combined with the SNP risk score (OR 1.39), the corresponding ORs were 1.48 and 1.42. There was no evidence that any of the combined models were not well calibrated. Including information on known breast cancer susceptibility loci provides approximately 10 and 19% improvement in risk prediction using BCRAT for African Americans and Hispanics, respectively. The corresponding figures for IBIS are approximately 18 and 26%, respectively.

  5. SNPs and breast cancer risk prediction for African American and Hispanic women.

    PubMed

    Allman, Richard; Dite, Gillian S; Hopper, John L; Gordon, Ora; Starlard-Davenport, Athena; Chlebowski, Rowan; Kooperberg, Charles

    2015-12-01

    For African American or Hispanic women, the extent to which clinical breast cancer risk prediction models are improved by including information on susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is unknown, even though these women comprise increasing proportions of the US population and represent a large proportion of the world's population. We studied 7539 African American and 3363 Hispanic women from the Women's Health Initiative. The age-adjusted 5-year risks from the BCRAT and IBIS risk prediction models were measured and combined with a risk score based on >70 independent susceptibility SNPs. Logistic regression, adjusting for age group, was used to estimate risk associations with log-transformed age-adjusted 5-year risks. Discrimination was measured by the odds ratio (OR) per standard deviation (SD) and the area under the receiver operator curve (AUC). When considered alone, the ORs for African American women were 1.28 for BCRAT, and 1.04 for IBIS. When combined with the SNP risk score (OR 1.23), the corresponding ORs were 1.39 and 1.22. For Hispanic women the corresponding ORs were 1.25 for BCRAT, and 1.15 for IBIS. When combined with the SNP risk score (OR 1.39), the corresponding ORs were 1.48 and 1.42. There was no evidence that any of the combined models were not well calibrated. Including information on known breast cancer susceptibility loci provides approximately 10 and 19% improvement in risk prediction using BCRAT for African Americans and Hispanics, respectively. The corresponding figures for IBIS are approximately 18 and 26%, respectively. PMID:26589314

  6. Determinants of breast cancer treatment delay differ for African American and White women

    PubMed Central

    McGee, Sasha A.; Durham, Danielle D.; Tse, Chiu-Kit; Millikan, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Timeliness of care may contribute to racial disparities in breast cancer mortality. African American women experience greater treatment delay than White women in most, but not all studies. Understanding these disparities is challenging since many studies lack patient-reported data and use administrative data sources that collect limited types of information. We used interview and medical record data from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (CBCS) to identify determinants of delay and assess whether disparities exist between White and African American women (n=601). Methods The CBCS is a population-based study of North Carolina women. We investigated the association of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, healthcare access, clinical factors, and measures of emotional and functional well-being with treatment delay. The association of race and selected characteristics with delays of >30 days were assessed using logistic regression. Results Household size, losing a job due to one’s diagnosis, and immediate reconstruction were associated with delay in the overall population and among White women. Immediate reconstruction and treatment type were associated with delay among African American women. Racial disparities in treatment delay were not evident in the overall population. In the adjusted models, African American women experienced greater delay than White women for younger age groups: odds ratio (OR), 3.34; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07–10.38 for ages 20–39, and OR, 3.40; 95% CI, 1.76–6.54 for ages 40–49. Conclusions Determinants of treatment delay vary by race. Racial disparities in treatment delay exist among women <50 years old. Impact Specific populations need to be targeted when identifying and addressing determinants of treatment delay. PMID:23825306

  7. African American Women’s Perspectives on Breast Cancer: Implications for Communicating Risk of Basal-like Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Allicock, Marlyn; Graves, Neasha; Gray, Kathleen; Troester, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    African American women suffer a higher burden of basal-like breast cancer, an aggressive subtype that has no targeted therapy. While epidemiologic research has identified key prevention strategies, little is known about how best to communicate risk to this population. This study explored women’s knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes about breast cancer to learn about risk perceptions. Six focus groups with 57 women (ages 18–49) women were conducted in North Carolina. Findings revealed that age, race (especially perceptions of cancer as a “White disease”), and lack of family history of breast cancer contributed to women’s perceptions of low breastcancer susceptibility. Perceptions of low risk were also attributed to conflicting risk information from family, media, and health providers. Women had little knowledge about breast cancer subtypes, but emphasized that health communications should be personally relevant, culturally appropriate, and convenient. These study findings will assist in developing health communication tools that encourage prevention. PMID:23728042

  8. Differentially Expressed Transcripts and Dysregulated Signaling Pathways and Networks in African American Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Paul A.; Luks, Jennifer; Roycik, Mark D.; Sang, Qing-Xiang Amy; Zhang, Jinfeng

    2013-01-01

    African Americans (AAs) have higher mortality rate from breast cancer than that of Caucasian Americans (CAs) even when socioeconomic factors are accounted for. To better understand the driving biological factors of this health disparity, we performed a comprehensive differential gene expression analysis, including subtype- and stage-specific analysis, using the breast cancer data in the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). In total, 674 unique genes and other transcripts were found differentially expressed between these two populations. The numbers of differentially expressed genes between AA and CA patients increased in each stage of tumor progression: there were 26 in stage I, 161 in stage II, and 223 in stage III. Resistin, a gene that is linked to obesity, insulin resistance, and breast cancer, was expressed more than four times higher in AA tumors. An uncharacterized, long, non-coding RNA, LOC90784, was down-regulated in AA tumors, and its expression was inversely related to cancer stage and was the lowest in triple negative AA breast tumors. Network analysis showed increased expression of a majority of components in p53 and BRCA1 subnetworks in AA breast tumor samples, and members of the aurora B and polo-like kinase signaling pathways were also highly expressed. Higher gene expression diversity was observed in more advanced stage breast tumors suggesting increased genomic instability during tumor progression. Amplified resistin expression may indicate insulin-resistant type II diabetes and obesity are associated with AA breast cancer. Expression of LOC90784 may have a protective effect on breast cancer patients, and its loss, particularly in triple negative breast cancer, could be having detrimental effects. This work helps elucidate molecular mechanisms of breast cancer health disparity and identifies putative biomarkers and therapeutic targets such as resistin, and the aurora B and polo-like kinase signaling pathways for treating AA breast cancer patients. PMID

  9. The stage-specific role of spirituality among African American Christian women throughout the breast cancer experience.

    PubMed

    Simon, Cassandra E; Crowther, Martha; Higgerson, Hyoun-Kyoung

    2007-01-01

    This study presents the results of semistructured interviews conducted with 18 African American Christian women regarding the role of spirituality throughout their breast cancer experiences. The spiritual themes relevant for phases of the breast cancer experience are identified. Analysis resulted in the identification of 11 codes and 5 subcodes that corresponded to the diagnosis, treatment, and posttreatment phases of the breast cancer experience. Most of the survivors indicated that their spirituality and faith assisted them throughout the breast cancer experience. Discussion focuses on the spiritual resources used by the participants at the different stages in the breast cancer experience. Attention is given to implications for how professionals can use these resources to assist African American women coping with breast cancer.

  10. Breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors among African American women: the Black cosmetologists promoting health program

    PubMed Central

    Sadler, Georgia R; Ko, Celine M; Cohn, Jennifer A; White, Monique; Weldon, Rai-nesha; Wu, Phillis

    2007-01-01

    Background African American women have higher rates of breast cancer mortality than their white counterparts. Studies have suggested that this is partly caused by discovery of cancer at a later stage, highlighting the importance of encouraging early detection of breast cancer in this population. To guide the creation of a breast cancer education intervention and help focus other health educators' and clinicians' health promotion efforts, this study explored whether a cohort of African American women living in San Diego would demonstrate the possession of adequate baseline knowledge about breast cancer screening and adherence to widely recommended screening guidelines. Methods African American women (N = 1,055) from San Diego, California participated in a beauty salon-based survey about breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening practices. Women's ages ranged from 20 to 94 years, with average age of 42.20 (SD = 13.53) years. Thirty-four percent reported completing college and/or some graduate school training, and 52% reported having some college or post high school formal training. Seventy-five percent of the sample reported working outside their home. Participating cosmetologists and their salons were recruited to the study through word-of-mouth referral by highly respected African American community leaders. Results Salon clients reported low rates of adherence to recommended breast cancer screening guidelines. Of the 1,055 participants, 31% reporting performing breast self-exam every month. Of those participants 40 and older, 57% reported having had a clinical breast exam and 43% reported having had a mammogram in the past year. Knowledge of breast cancer was associated with adherence to screening guidelines. While women recognized the serious health threat that breast cancer poses and that early detection of breast cancer is important, only 30% of women reported feeling well informed about the disease. Many participants demonstrated a lack of basic

  11. A case-control analysis of smoking and breast cancer in African American women: findings from the AMBER Consortium.

    PubMed

    Park, Song-Yi; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn; Haiman, Christopher A; Bandera, Elisa V; Bethea, Traci N; Troester, Melissa A; Viscidi, Emma; Kolonel, Laurence N; Olshan, Andrew F; Ambrosone, Christine B

    2016-06-01

    Recent population studies suggest a role of smoking in the etiology of breast cancer, but few have been conducted among African American women. In a collaborative project of four large studies, we examined associations between smoking measures and breast cancer risk by menopause and hormone receptor status [estrogen receptor-positive (ER+), ER-negative (ER-) and triple-negative (ER-, PR-, HER2-)]. The study included 5791 African American women with breast cancer and 17376 African American controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated in multivariable logistic regression analysis with adjustment for study and risk factors. Results differed by menopausal status. Among postmenopausal women, positive associations were observed for long duration and greater pack-years of smoking: relative to never smoking, fully adjusted ORs were 1.14 (95% CI: 1.03-1.26) for duration ≥20 years and 1.16 (95% CI: 1.01-1.33) for ≥20 pack-years. By contrast, inverse associations were observed among premenopausal women, with ORs of 0.80 (95% CI: 0.68-95) for current smoking and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.69-0.96) for former smoking, without trends by duration. Associations among postmenopausal women were somewhat stronger for ER+ breast cancer. The findings suggest that the relation of cigarette smoking to breast cancer risk in African American women may vary by menopausal status and breast cancer subtype. PMID:27207658

  12. Virtual Weight Loss Program in Maintaining Weight in African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-01

    Cancer Survivor; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  13. Elevated Resistin Gene Expression in African American Estrogen and Progesterone Receptor Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vallega, Karin A.; Liu, NingNing; Myers, Jennifer S.; Yu, Kaixian; Sang, Qing-Xiang Amy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction African American (AA) women diagnosed with breast cancer are more likely to have aggressive subtypes. Investigating differentially expressed genes between patient populations may help explain racial health disparities. Resistin, one such gene, is linked to inflammation, obesity, and breast cancer risk. Previous studies indicated that resistin expression is higher in serum and tissue of AA breast cancer patients compared to Caucasian American (CA) patients. However, resistin expression levels have not been compared between AA and CA patients in a stage- and subtype-specific context. Breast cancer prognosis and treatments vary by subtype. This work investigates differential resistin gene expression in human breast cancer tissues of specific stages, receptor subtypes, and menopause statuses in AA and CA women. Methods Differential gene expression analysis was performed using human breast cancer gene expression data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. We performed inter-race resistin gene expression level comparisons looking at receptor status and stage-specific data between AA and CA samples. DESeq was run to test for differentially expressed resistin values. Results Resistin RNA was higher in AA women overall, with highest values in receptor negative subtypes. Estrogen-, progesterone-, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2- negative groups showed statistically significant elevated resistin levels in Stage I and II AA women compared to CA women. In inter-racial comparisons, AA women had significantly higher levels of resistin regardless of menopause status. In whole population comparisons, resistin expression was higher among Stage I and III estrogen receptor negative cases. In comparisons of molecular subtypes, resistin levels were significant higher in triple negative than in luminal A breast cancer. Conclusion Resistin gene expression levels were significantly higher in receptor negative subtypes, especially estrogen receptor negative cases in AA

  14. A pilot trial of spirituality counseling for weight loss maintenance in African American breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Djuric, Zora; Mirasolo, Josephine; Kimbrough, LaVern; Brown, Diane R; Heilbrun, Lance K; Canar, Lisa; Venkatranamamoorthy, Raghu; Simon, Michael S

    2009-06-01

    A continuing challenge in weight loss treatment is attaining maintenance of weight loss. The goal of this study was to develop a counseling method that would assist African American breast cancer survivors with weight loss maintenance. In this pilot study, 31 obese breast cancer survivors were recruited. Individualized, dietitian-led counseling by telephone and free Weight Watchers coupons were provided to all participants for 18 months. At the 6-month time point, women were randomized to receive spirituality counseling or not in addition to the standard program. The spirituality counseling was delivered via telephone using an 8-step framework. Subjects were asked to utilize daily meditation or prayer, daily readings, and the recording of thoughts in a journal. Mean weight loss from baseline to 6 months was a modest 2.0% of baseline weight. From 6 to 18 months, there was no further weight change in the spirituality arm and a gain of 0.7% in the dietitian-only arm. Despite little effect on weight loss, it did appear that spirituality counseling positively affected spiritual well-being (FACIT-Sp) scores and dietary quality. The spirituality counseling framework therefore may be further refined and useful for other health promotion studies with African American populations.

  15. Mammographic density and breast cancer risk in White and African American Women.

    PubMed

    Razzaghi, Hilda; Troester, Melissa A; Gierach, Gretchen L; Olshan, Andrew F; Yankaskas, Bonnie C; Millikan, Robert C

    2012-09-01

    Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer, but limited data are available in African American (AA) women. We examined the association between mammographic density and breast cancer risk in AA and white women. Cases (n = 491) and controls (n = 528) were from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (CBCS) who also had mammograms recorded in the Carolina Mammography Registry (CMR). Mammographic density was reported to CMR using Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories. Increasing mammographic density was associated with increased breast cancer risk among all women. After adjusting for potential confounders, a monotonically increasing risk of breast cancer was observed between the highest versus the lowest BI-RADS density categories [OR = 2.45, (95 % confidence interval: 0.99, 6.09)]. The association was stronger in whites, with ~40 % higher risk among those with extremely dense breasts compared to those with scattered fibroglandular densities [1.39, (0.75, 2.55)]. In AA women, the same comparison suggested lower risk [0.75, (0.30, 1.91)]. Because age, obesity, and exogenous hormones have strong associations with breast cancer risk, mammographic density, and race in the CBCS, effect measure modification by these factors was considered. Consistent with previous literature, density-associated risk was greatest among those with BMI > 30 and current hormone users (P value = 0.02 and 0.01, respectively). In the CBCS, mammographic density is associated with increased breast cancer risk, with some suggestion of effect measure modification by race, although results were not statistically significant. However, exposures such as BMI and hormone therapy may be important modifiers of this association and merit further investigation.

  16. Mammographic density and breast cancer risk in White and African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Troester, Melissa A.; Gierach, Gretchen L.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Yankaskas, Bonnie C.; Millikan, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer, but limited data are available in African American (AA) women. We examined the association between mammographic density and breast cancer risk in AA and white women. Cases (n = 491) and controls (n = 528) were from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (CBCS) who also had mammograms recorded in the Carolina Mammography Registry (CMR). Mammographic density was reported to CMR using Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories. Increasing mammographic density was associated with increased breast cancer risk among all women. After adjusting for potential confounders, a monotonically increasing risk of breast cancer was observed between the highest versus the lowest BI-RADS density categories [OR = 2.45, (95 % confidence interval: 0.99, 6.09)]. The association was stronger in whites, with ~40 % higher risk among those with extremely dense breasts compared to those with scattered fibroglandular densities [1.39, (0.75, 2.55)]. In AA women, the same comparison suggested lower risk [0.75, (0.30, 1.91)]. Because age, obesity, and exogenous hormones have strong associations with breast cancer risk, mammographic density, and race in the CBCS, effect measure modification by these factors was considered. Consistent with previous literature, density-associated risk was greatest among those with BMI > 30 and current hormone users (P value = 0.02 and 0.01, respectively). In the CBCS, mammographic density is associated with increased breast cancer risk, with some suggestion of effect measure modification by race, although results were not statistically significant. However, exposures such as BMI and hormone therapy may be important modifiers of this association and merit further investigation. PMID:22864770

  17. Body size in early life and breast cancer risk in African American and European American women

    PubMed Central

    Bandera, Elisa V.; Chandran, Urmila; Zirpoli, Gary; Ciupak, Gregory; Bovbjerg, Dana H.; Jandorf, Lina; Pawlish, Karen; Freudenheim, Jo L.; Ambrosone, Christine B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose There is growing evidence that body size in early life influences lifetime breast cancer risk, but little is known for African American (AA) women. Methods We evaluated body size during childhood and young adulthood and breast cancer risk among 1,751 cases [979 AA and 772 European American (EA)] and 1,673 controls (958 AA and 715 EA) in the Women’s Circle of Health Study. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using logistic regression models while adjusting for potential covariates. Results Among AA women, being shorter at 7–8 y compared to peers was associated with increased postmenopausal breast cancer risk (OR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.02–2.74), and being heavier at menarche with decreased postmenopausal breast cancer risk, although of borderline significance (OR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.20–1.02). For EA women, being shorter from childhood through adolescence, particularly at menarche, was associated with reduced premenopausal breast cancer risk (OR: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.31–0.98). After excluding hormone replacement therapy users, an inverse association with postmenopausal breast cancer was found among EA women reporting to be heavier than their peers at menarche (OR: 0.18, 95% CI: 0.04–0.79). The inverse relationship between BMI at age 20 and breast cancer risk was stronger and only statistically significant in EA women. No clear association with weight gain since age 20 was found. Conclusions Findings suggest that the impact of childhood height on breast cancer risk may differ for EA and AA women and confirm the inverse association previously reported in EA populations with adolescent body fatness, in AA women. PMID:24113797

  18. Hormone-related pathways and risk of breast cancer subtypes in African American women.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Stephen A; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A; Bensen, Jeannette T; Hong, Chi-Chen; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara E; Yao, Song; Bandera, Elisa V; Rosenberg, Lynn; Haiman, Christopher A; Troester, Melissa A; Ambrosone, Christine B; Palmer, Julie R

    2015-11-01

    We sought to investigate genetic variation in hormone pathways in relation to risk of overall and subtype-specific breast cancer in women of African ancestry (AA). Genotyping and imputation yielded data on 143,934 SNPs in 308 hormone-related genes for 3663 breast cancer cases (1098 ER-, 1983 ER+, 582 ER unknown) and 4687 controls from the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk (AMBER) Consortium. AMBER includes data from four large studies of AA women: the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, the Women's Circle of Health Study, the Black Women's Health Study, and the Multiethnic Cohort Study. Pathway- and gene-based analyses were conducted, and single-SNP tests were run for the top genes. There were no strong associations at the pathway level. The most significantly associated genes were GHRH, CALM2, CETP, and AKR1C1 for overall breast cancer (gene-based nominal p ≤ 0.01); NR0B1, IGF2R, CALM2, CYP1B1, and GRB2 for ER+ breast cancer (p ≤ 0.02); and PGR, MAPK3, MAP3K1, and LHCGR for ER- disease (p ≤ 0.02). Single-SNP tests for SNPs with pairwise linkage disequilibrium r (2) < 0.8 in the top genes identified 12 common SNPs (in CALM2, CETP, NR0B1, IGF2R, CYP1B1, PGR, MAPK3, and MAP3K1) associated with overall or subtype-specific breast cancer after gene-level correction for multiple testing. Rs11571215 in PGR (progesterone receptor) was the SNP most strongly associated with ER- disease. We identified eight genes in hormone pathways that contain common variants associated with breast cancer in AA women after gene-level correction for multiple testing. PMID:26458823

  19. Understanding the Breast Cancer Experience of Survivors: a Qualitative Study of African American Women in Rural Eastern North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Torres, Essie; Dixon, Crystal; Richman, Alice R

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to gain an in-depth understanding of African American breast cancer survivors' experiences, barriers and facilitators in accessing breast cancer treatment, and challenges in adherence to follow-up care. We conducted seven focus groups with 32 African American women with breast cancer in three rural counties in eastern North Carolina during August-November 2013. Surveys were also utilized to gather basic demographic and breast health history information. Thematic analysis was performed using the immersion crystallization approach. Several common areas of life affected by breast cancer included faith and support networks, psychosocial well-being, and quality of care issues. Faith in God was an important coping mechanism essential to all women in the study and a critical facilitator in survivorship. Support networks consisted of family, church-family, friends, and co-workers. The concept of fear included the discovery of breast cancer and fear of death, negative side effects of treatment, and social stigma of having breast cancer. Factors that influenced provider-patient relationship were age of provider, perceived lack of empathy, and providers leaving during treatment. Participants also expressed their lack of knowledge regarding a number of the side effects they were experiencing during and after their treatment. Results of this study contribute to the assessment of potential coping mechanisms used by African American breast cancer survivors (i.e., spirituality, positive attitudes, and support networks) that can potentially be effective and have a positive impact on the adjustment of life for survivors.

  20. Health behavior change models and their socio-cultural relevance for breast cancer screening in African American women.

    PubMed

    Ashing-Giwa, K

    1999-01-01

    Models of health behavior provide the conceptual bases for most of the breast cancer screening intervention studies. These models were not designed for and have not been adequately tested with African American women. The models discussed in this paper are: The Health Belief Model, the Theory of Reasoned Action/Theory of Planned Behavior, and the Transtheoretical Model. This paper will examine the socio-cultural relevance of these health behavior models, and discuss specific socio-cultural dimensions that are not accounted for by these paradigms. It is critical that researchers include socio-cultural dimensions, such as interconnectedness, health socialization, ecological factors and health care system factors into their intervention models with African American women. Comprehensive and socio-culturally based investigations are necessary to guide the scientific and policy challenge for reducing breast cancer mortality in African American women.

  1. Cancer statistics for African Americans.

    PubMed

    Ghafoor, Asma; Jemal, Ahmedin; Cokkinides, Vilma; Cardinez, Cheryll; Murray, Taylor; Samuels, Alicia; Thun, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    The American Cancer Society provides estimates on the number of new cancer cases and deaths, and compiles health statistics on African Americans in a biennial publication, Cancer Facts and Figures for African Americans. The compiled statistics include cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and lifestyle behaviors using the most recent data on incidence and survival from the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program, mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), and behavioral information from the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), and National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). It is estimated that 132,700 new cases of cancer and 63,100 deaths will occur among African Americans in the year 2003. Although African Americans have experienced higher incidence and mortality rates of cancer than whites for many years, incidence rates have declined by 2.7 percent per year in African-American males since 1992, while stabilizing in African-American females. During the same period, death rates declined by 2.1 percent and 0.4 percent per year among African-American males and females, respectively. The decrease in both incidence and death rates from cancer among African-American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. Nonetheless, African Americans still carry the highest cancer burden among US racial and ethnic groups. Most cancers detectable by screening are diagnosed at a later stage and survival rates are lower within each stage of disease in African Americans than in whites. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors is an active area of research.

  2. A Qualitative Evaluation of a Faith-Based Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Intervention for African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Alicia K.; Berrios, Nerida; Darnell, Julie S.; Calhoun, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a formative evaluation of a CDC Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) 2010 faith-based breast and cervical cancer early detection and prevention intervention for African American women living in urban communities. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of women (N = 94) recruited from each church…

  3. Parity, Lactation, and Breast Cancer Subtypes in African American Women: Results from the AMBER Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Viscidi, Emma; Troester, Melissa A.; Hong, Chi-Chen; Schedin, Pepper; Bethea, Traci N.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Borges, Virginia; McKinnon, Craig; Haiman, Christopher A.; Lunetta, Kathryn; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Rosenberg, Lynn; Olshan, Andrew F.; Ambrosone, Christine B.

    2014-01-01

    Background African American (AA) women have a disproportionately high incidence of estrogen receptor–negative (ER-) breast cancer, a subtype with a largely unexplained etiology. Because childbearing patterns also differ by race/ethnicity, with higher parity and a lower prevalence of lactation in AA women, we investigated the relation of parity and lactation to risk of specific breast cancer subtypes. Methods Questionnaire data from two cohort and two case-control studies of breast cancer in AA women were combined and harmonized. Case patients were classified as ER+ (n = 2446), ER- (n = 1252), or triple negative (ER-, PR-, HER2-; n = 567) based on pathology data; there were 14180 control patients. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated in polytomous logistic regression analysis with adjustment for study, age, reproductive and other risk factors. Results ORs for parity relative to nulliparity was 0.92 (95% CI = 0.81 to 1.03) for ER+, 1.33 (95% CI = 1.11 to 1.59) for ER-, and 1.37 (95% CI = 1.06 to 1.70) for triple-negative breast cancer. Lactation was associated with a reduced risk of ER- (OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.69 to 0.95) but not ER+ cancer. ER- cancer risk increased with each additional birth in women who had not breastfed, with an OR of 1.68 (95% CI = 1.15 to 2.44) for 4 or more births relative to one birth with lactation. Conclusions The findings suggest that parous women who have not breastfed are at increased risk of ER- and triple-negative breast cancer. Promotion of lactation may be an effective tool for reducing occurrence of the subtypes that contribute disproportionately to breast cancer mortality. PMID:25224496

  4. PKCα and ERβ Are Associated with Triple-Negative Breast Cancers in African American and Caucasian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tonetti, Debra A.; Gao, Weihua; Escarzaga, Diana; Walters, Kelly; Szafran, April; Coon, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Although the incidence of breast cancer in the United States is higher in Caucasian women compared with African American women, African-American patients have more aggressive disease as characterized by a higher percentage of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs), high-grade tumors, and a higher mortality rate. PKCα is a biomarker associated with endocrine resistance and poor prognosis and ERβ is emerging as a protective biomarker. Immunohistochemical analysis of ERβ and PKCα expression was performed on 198 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary infiltrating ductal carcinomas from 105 African-American and 93 Caucasian patients. PKCα is positively correlated with TNBC in patients of both races and with high tumor grade in African-American patients. Patients with TNBC express less nuclear ERβ compared with all other subtypes. We find no difference in frequency or intensity of PKCα or ERβ expression between African-American and Caucasian patients. PKCα and ERβ are discussed as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of patients with TNBC. PMID:22500240

  5. Genetic variants in the mTOR pathway and breast cancer risk in African American women.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ting-Yuan David; Ambrosone, Christine B; Hong, Chi-Chen; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Liu, Song; Hu, Qiang; Yao, Song; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara; Bandera, Elisa V; Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A; Haddad, Stephen; Troester, Melissa A; Haiman, Christopher A; Bensen, Jeannette T; Olshan, Andrew F; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-AKT-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has been implicated in breast carcinogenesis. However, there has been no large-scale investigation of genetic variants in the mTOR pathway and breast cancer risk. We examined 28847 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 61 mTOR pathway genes in the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk consortium of 3663 cases [1983 estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) and 1098 ER-negative (ER-)] and 4687 controls. Gene-level analyses were conducted using the adaptive rank truncated product (ARTP) test for 10773 SNPs that were not highly correlated (r (2) < 0.8), and SNP-level analyses were conducted with logistic regression. Among genes that were prioritized (nominal P < 0.05, ARTP tests), associations were observed for intronic SNPs TSC2 rs181088346 [odds ratio (OR) of each copy of variant allele = 0.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.65-0.88 for all breast cancer] and BRAF rs114729114 (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.24-1.91 for all breast cancer and OR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.50-2.76 for ER- tumors). For ER- tumors, intronic SNPs PGF rs11542848 (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.15-1.66) and rs61759375 (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.14-1.57) and MAPK3 rs78564187 (OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.11-1.43) were associated with increased risk. These SNPs were significant at a gene-wide level (Bonferroni-corrected P < 0.05). The variant allele of RPS6KB2 rs35363135, a synonymous coding SNP, was more likely to be observed in ER- than ER+ tumors (OR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.05-1.31, gene-wide Bonferroni-corrected P = 0.06). In conclusion, specific mTOR pathway genes are potentially important to breast cancer risk and to the ER negativity in African American women. PMID:26577839

  6. Vigorous physical activity and risk of breast cancer in the African American breast cancer epidemiology and risk consortium.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhihong; Hong, Chi-Chen; Bandera, Elisa V; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L; Troester, Melissa A; Park, Song-Yi; McInerney, Kathryn A; Zirpoli, Gary; Olshan, Andrew F; Palmer, Julie R; Ambrosone, Christine B; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2016-09-01

    The relationship between physical activity and breast cancer risk has been extensively studied among women of European descent, with most studies reporting inverse associations. However, data on American women of African ancestry (AA) and by tumor subtypes are sparse. Thus, we examined associations of vigorous exercise and breast cancer risk overall, and by estrogen receptor (ER) status, in the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk Consortium. We pooled data from four large studies on 2482 ER+ cases, 1374 ER- cases, and 16,959 controls. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the risk of breast cancer overall, and polytomous logistic regression was used to model the risk of ER+ and ER- cancer. Recent vigorous exercise was associated with a statistically significant, modestly decreased risk for breast cancer overall (OR 0.88, 95 % CI 0.81-0.96) and for ER+ cancer (OR 0.88, 95 % CI 0.80-0.98), but not for ER- cancer (OR 0.93, 95 % CI 0.82-1.06). Overall, there was no strong evidence of effect modification by age, menopausal status, body mass index, and parity. However, our data were suggestive of modification by family history, such that an inverse association was present among women without a family history but not among those with a relative affected by breast cancer. Results from this large pooled analysis provide evidence that vigorous physical activity is associated with a modestly reduced risk of breast cancer in AA women, specifically ER+ cancer. PMID:27514396

  7. Impact of Age and Comorbidity on Cervical and Breast Cancer Literacy of African Americans, Latina, and Arab women

    PubMed Central

    Talley, Costellia H.; Williams, Karen Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Background Appropriate and timely screening can significantly reduce breast and cervical cancer morbidity and mortality. Racial/ethnic minorities and immigrant populations have lower screening rates and delays in follow-up after abnormal tests. Purpose In this study, we examined the relationship between age, comorbidity, breast and cervical cancer literacy in a sample of African American, Latina, and Arab women (N=371) from Detroit, Michigan. Methods Age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index (ACC) was used characterize the impact of age and comorbidity has on breast and cervical cancer literacy; Breast Cancer Literacy Assessment Tool was used to assess breast cancer literacy; Cervical Cancer Literacy Assessment Tool was used to assess cervical cancer literacy. ANOVA was used to assess the relationship between ACC, breast and cervical cancer screening and group differences. Results There was a statistically significant difference between breast cancer literacy (Breast-CLAT total scores) scores (F(2,367)= 17.31, p= < 0.01). ACC had a greater impact on breast cancer literacy for African American F(2,214) =11, p = <0.01. PMID:26333609

  8. A Case-Control Study of Body Mass Index and Breast Cancer Risk in White and African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Berstad, Paula; Coates, Ralph J.; Bernstein, Leslie; Folger, Suzanne G.; Malone, Kathleen E.; Marchbanks, Polly A.; Weiss, Linda K.; Liff, Jonathan M.; McDonald, Jill A.; Strom, Brian L.; Simon, Michael S.; Deapen, Dennis; Press, Michael F.; Burkman, Ronald T.; Spirtas, Robert; Ursin, Giske

    2010-01-01

    Objective Large body size has been associated with decreased risk of breast cancer in premenopausal, but with increased risk in postmenopausal women. Limited information is available about African American women and differences by estrogen- and progesterone-receptor (ERPR) status. Methods We analyzed data from the Women's Contraceptive and Reproductive Experiences (CARE) Study among 3,997 white and African American breast cancer case patients diagnosed in 1994-98 and 4,041 control participants aged 35 to 64. We calculated multivariate odds ratios (ORs) as measures of relative risk of breast cancer associated with self-reported body mass index (BMI) at age 18 and 5 years before diagnosis (recent BMI). Results Risk tended to decrease with increasing BMI at age 18 in all women (ORBMI≥25 kg/m2 vs <20kg/m2=0.76, 95% CI:0.63–0.90, Ptrend=0.005) and with recent BMI in premenopausal women (ORBMI ≥35 kg/m2 vs <25kg/m2=0.81, 95% CI:0.61–1.06, Ptrend=0.05), unmodified by race. Among postmenopausal white but not African American women, there was an inverse relation between recent BMI and risk. High recent BMI was associated with increased risk of ERPR positive tumors among postmenopausal African American women (ORBMI ≥35 kg/m2 vs <25kg/m2=1.83, 95% CI:1.08–3.09, Ptrend=0.03). Conclusion Among women at age 35-64, BMI at age 18 is inversely associated with risk of breast cancer, but association with recent BMI varies by menopause status, race and hormone receptor status. Impact Our findings indicate that studies of BMI and breast cancer should consider breast cancer subtypes. PMID:20501755

  9. Formative research to develop a lifestyle application (app) for African American breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Selina A.; Whitehead, Mary S.; Sheats, Joyce Q.; Fontenot, Brittney; Alema-Mensah, Ernest; Ansa, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a proliferation of lifestyle-oriented mobile technologies; however, few have targeted users. Through intervention mapping, investigators and community partners completed Steps 1–3 (needs assessment, formulation of change objectives, and selection of theory-based methods) of a process to develop a mobile cancer prevention application (app) for cancer prevention. The aim of this qualitative study was to complete Step 4 (intervention development) by eliciting input from African American (AA) breast cancer survivors (BCSs) to guide app development. Methods Four focus group discussions (n=60) and three individual semi-structured interviews (n=36) were conducted with AA BCSs (40–72 years of age) to assess barriers and strategies for lifestyle change. All focus groups and interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed with NVivo qualitative data analysis software version 10, allowing categories, themes, and patterns to emerge. Results Three categories and related themes emerged from the analysis: 1) perceptions about modifiable risk factors; 2) strategies related to adherence to cancer prevention guidelines; and 3) app components to address barriers to adherence. Participant perceptions, strategies, and recommended components guided development of the app. Conclusions For development of a mobile cancer prevention app, these findings will assist investigators in targeting features that are usable, acceptable, and accessible for AA BCSs. PMID:27583307

  10. A Genome-Wide Scan for Breast Cancer Risk Haplotypes among African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chi; Chen, Gary K.; Millikan, Robert C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; John, Esther M.; Bernstein, Leslie; Zheng, Wei; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Nyante, Sarah; Bandera, Elisa V.; Ingles, Sue A.; Press, Michael F.; Deming, Sandra L.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Wan, Peggy; Sheng, Xin; Pooler, Loreall C.; Van Den Berg, David J.; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Henderson, Brian E.; Haiman, Chris A.; Stram, Daniel O.

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) simultaneously investigating hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) have become a powerful tool in the investigation of new disease susceptibility loci. Haplotypes are sometimes thought to be superior to SNPs and are promising in genetic association analyses. The application of genome-wide haplotype analysis, however, is hindered by the complexity of haplotypes themselves and sophistication in computation. We systematically analyzed the haplotype effects for breast cancer risk among 5,761 African American women (3,016 cases and 2,745 controls) using a sliding window approach on the genome-wide scale. Three regions on chromosomes 1, 4 and 18 exhibited moderate haplotype effects. Furthermore, among 21 breast cancer susceptibility loci previously established in European populations, 10p15 and 14q24 are likely to harbor novel haplotype effects. We also proposed a heuristic of determining the significance level and the effective number of independent tests by the permutation analysis on chromosome 22 data. It suggests that the effective number was approximately half of the total (7,794 out of 15,645), thus the half number could serve as a quick reference to evaluating genome-wide significance if a similar sliding window approach of haplotype analysis is adopted in similar populations using similar genotype density. PMID:23468962

  11. Understanding the Breast Cancer Experience of Survivors: a Qualitative Study of African American Women in Rural Eastern North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Torres, Essie; Dixon, Crystal; Richman, Alice R

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to gain an in-depth understanding of African American breast cancer survivors' experiences, barriers and facilitators in accessing breast cancer treatment, and challenges in adherence to follow-up care. We conducted seven focus groups with 32 African American women with breast cancer in three rural counties in eastern North Carolina during August-November 2013. Surveys were also utilized to gather basic demographic and breast health history information. Thematic analysis was performed using the immersion crystallization approach. Several common areas of life affected by breast cancer included faith and support networks, psychosocial well-being, and quality of care issues. Faith in God was an important coping mechanism essential to all women in the study and a critical facilitator in survivorship. Support networks consisted of family, church-family, friends, and co-workers. The concept of fear included the discovery of breast cancer and fear of death, negative side effects of treatment, and social stigma of having breast cancer. Factors that influenced provider-patient relationship were age of provider, perceived lack of empathy, and providers leaving during treatment. Participants also expressed their lack of knowledge regarding a number of the side effects they were experiencing during and after their treatment. Results of this study contribute to the assessment of potential coping mechanisms used by African American breast cancer survivors (i.e., spirituality, positive attitudes, and support networks) that can potentially be effective and have a positive impact on the adjustment of life for survivors. PMID:25877467

  12. Molecular phenotypes in triple negative breast cancer from African American patients suggest targets for therapy.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Robert; Sullivan, Catherine; Offor, Onyinye; Lezon-Geyda, Kimberly; Halligan, Kyle; Fischbach, Neal; Shah, Mansi; Bossuyt, Veerle; Schulz, Vincent; Tuck, David P; Harris, Lyndsay N

    2013-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by high proliferation, poor differentiation and a poor prognosis due to high rates of recurrence. Despite lower overall incidence African American (AA) patients suffer from higher breast cancer mortality in part due to the higher proportion of TNBC cases among AA patients compared to European Americans (EA). It was recently shown that the clinical heterogeneity of TNBC is reflected by distinct transcriptional programs with distinct drug response profiles in preclinical models. In this study, gene expression profiling and immunohistochemistry were used to elucidate potential differences between TNBC tumors of EA and AA patients on a molecular level. In a retrospective cohort of 136 TNBC patients, a major transcriptional signature of proliferation was found to be significantly upregulated in samples of AA ethnicity. Furthermore, transcriptional profiles of AA tumors showed differential activation of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and a signature of BRCA1 deficiency in this cohort. Using signatures derived from the meta-analysis of TNBC gene expression carried out by Lehmann et al., tumors from AA patients were more likely of basal-like subtypes whereas transcriptional features of many EA samples corresponded to mesenchymal-like or luminal androgen receptor driven subtypes. These results were validated in The Cancer Genome Atlas mRNA and protein expression data, again showing enrichment of a basal-like phenotype in AA tumors and mesenchymal subtypes in EA tumors. In addition, increased expression of VEGF-activated genes together with elevated microvessel area determined by the AQUA method suggest that AA patients exhibit higher tumor vascularization. This study confirms the existence of distinct transcriptional programs in triple negative breast cancer in two separate cohorts and that these programs differ by racial group. Differences in TNBC subtypes and levels of tumor angiogenesis in AA versus EA patients

  13. Developing and testing lay literature about breast cancer screening for African American women.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Elizabeth Ann; Coon, Sharon; Mohrmann, Carolyn; Hardin, Susan; Stewart, Beth; Gibson, Regina Shoate; Cantrell, Mary; Lord, Janet; Heard, Jeanne

    2003-01-01

    Written materials about breast cancer screening for African American women with low literacy skills are needed. Available materials were not at or below third-grade reading levels, were not culturally sensitive, and were not accurate in illustrating correct breast self-examination (BSE) techniques. Focus groups representing the target population helped the authors design a pamphlet describing how to perform BSE and a motivational picture book to help women overcome barriers to screening. The authors chose a food theme for the cover of the pamphlet written at a third-grade level and suggested a photographic version. In the motivational book, two women address barriers to screening and replace myths and fears with facts and actions. Data from 162 women showed that they learned from both the photographic and illustrated versions. Women in the photographic group found significantly more lumps in the silicone models, so the authors chose that version to use in final testing. Finally, nurses pretested a group of patients before they reviewed the materials and post-tested another group after they reviewed them. The group who had reviewed the materials had greater knowledge of and intent to follow the guidelines and received higher scores on BSE techniques.

  14. Factors associated with body mass index among African American breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Selina A.; Claridy, Mechelle D.; Whitehead, Mary S.; Sheats, Joyce Q.; Yoo, Wonsuk; Alema-Mensah, Ernest; Ansa, Benjamin E.; Braithwaite, Ronald L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Weight gain after diagnosis and treatment is common among breast cancer survivors (BCSs). Little information exists regarding associations between body mass index (BMI) and lifestyle factors and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) among African American (AA) BCSs. The present study sought to determine associations between BMI, dietary intake, and physical activity as lifestyle modification strategies and HR-QoL among AA BCSs. Methods For this cross-sectional study, a lifestyle assessment tool was administered to 195 AA BCSs. Possible predictor variables included socio-demographic and medical characteristics, dietary intake and physical activity patterns, and physical health. The outcome variable was BMI. Results Many BCSs (63%) had BMIs ≥25 Kg/M2 and presented with stage I cancer (41%) at diagnosis. Among those presenting with late-stage cancer (IIIA, IIIB, IV), 76% were overweight or obese (p=0.0008). Eighty-four percent reported excellent-to-good physical health (p=0.0499) and were less likely to have higher BMIs compared to those reporting fair-to-poor physical health (OR=0.616 [CI=0.192–1.978]). Responders with graduate level education were more likely to have healthy body weights than those attaining high school or less educational levels (OR=2.379 [CI=0.617–9.166]). Conclusions Most AA BCSs surveyed were overweight or obese, did not engage in recommended physical activity levels and failed to consume diets linked to breast cancer prevention. Interventions are needed to promote weight loss, improve dietary intake, and enhance physical activity among AA BCSs. PMID:27019873

  15. Genomic profiling of breast cancer in African-American women using MammaPrint.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Raquel A; Wray, Lynette; Mete, Mihriye; Herbolsheimer, Pia; Smith, Karen L; Bijelic, Lana; Boisvert, Marc E; Swain, Sandra M

    2016-10-01

    Breast cancer in African-American females (AAF) has a less favorable outcome than that in Caucasians. More information is needed regarding its biology. We evaluated gene expression in tumors from AAF presenting with early stage or locally advanced breast cancer using MammaPrint(®), BluePrint (®) (molecular subtype) and TargetPrint (®) [estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor, and Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2) mRNA levels]. Genomic information was correlated with clinical and pathologic characteristics and Oncotype DX(®) Recurrence Score(®) (RS). One hundred Patients were enrolled, 1 not evaluable by BluePrint. The median age was 60 years (range 22-98), and eighty-four (84 %) patients had stage I or II disease. High Risk MammaPrint was present in 66 % of patients and in 52 % of patients with stage I disease. High Risk MammaPrint was associated with young age (p = 0.02), high grade (p < 0.0001), HER2 expression (p = 0.016), and triple-negative phenotype (p < 0.001). Sixty-four tumors (65 %) were Luminal type (47 % of these were classified as High Risk), 26 (26 %) were Basal type, and 9 (9 %) HER2 type. Twenty-two cancers were triple negative (TN) by IHC and 19 (90 %) Basal type. Among the 15 tumors HER2 positive by IHC/FISH, 8 (53 %) were HER2 type by BluePrint. Eleven tumors with ER expression of 1-9 % were ER negative by TargetPrint and none of these was Luminal type. None of the seven tumors HER2 positive by IHC/FISH but negative by TargetPrint was HER type. RS results were available in 29 patients: two had High Risk both by RS and MammaPrint; eight had intermediate RS, with four High Risk by MammaPrint; 19 had a low RS, with eight High Risk by MammaPrint. AAF with stage I to III breast cancer often present with High Risk disease. Molecular heterogeneity is present within TN, HER2-positive, and ER-positive breast cancer. RS and MammaPrint offer different prognostic information. PMID:27568021

  16. Genomic profiling of breast cancer in African-American women using MammaPrint.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Raquel A; Wray, Lynette; Mete, Mihriye; Herbolsheimer, Pia; Smith, Karen L; Bijelic, Lana; Boisvert, Marc E; Swain, Sandra M

    2016-10-01

    Breast cancer in African-American females (AAF) has a less favorable outcome than that in Caucasians. More information is needed regarding its biology. We evaluated gene expression in tumors from AAF presenting with early stage or locally advanced breast cancer using MammaPrint(®), BluePrint (®) (molecular subtype) and TargetPrint (®) [estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor, and Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2) mRNA levels]. Genomic information was correlated with clinical and pathologic characteristics and Oncotype DX(®) Recurrence Score(®) (RS). One hundred Patients were enrolled, 1 not evaluable by BluePrint. The median age was 60 years (range 22-98), and eighty-four (84 %) patients had stage I or II disease. High Risk MammaPrint was present in 66 % of patients and in 52 % of patients with stage I disease. High Risk MammaPrint was associated with young age (p = 0.02), high grade (p < 0.0001), HER2 expression (p = 0.016), and triple-negative phenotype (p < 0.001). Sixty-four tumors (65 %) were Luminal type (47 % of these were classified as High Risk), 26 (26 %) were Basal type, and 9 (9 %) HER2 type. Twenty-two cancers were triple negative (TN) by IHC and 19 (90 %) Basal type. Among the 15 tumors HER2 positive by IHC/FISH, 8 (53 %) were HER2 type by BluePrint. Eleven tumors with ER expression of 1-9 % were ER negative by TargetPrint and none of these was Luminal type. None of the seven tumors HER2 positive by IHC/FISH but negative by TargetPrint was HER type. RS results were available in 29 patients: two had High Risk both by RS and MammaPrint; eight had intermediate RS, with four High Risk by MammaPrint; 19 had a low RS, with eight High Risk by MammaPrint. AAF with stage I to III breast cancer often present with High Risk disease. Molecular heterogeneity is present within TN, HER2-positive, and ER-positive breast cancer. RS and MammaPrint offer different prognostic information.

  17. Evaluation of Conceptual Framework for Recruitment of African American Patients With Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Heiney, Sue P.; Adams, Swann Arp; Wells, Linda M.; Johnson, Hiluv

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To describe the Heiney-Adams Recruitment Framework (H-ARF); to delineate a recruitment plan for a randomized, behavioral trial (RBT) based on H-ARF; and to provide evaluation data on its implementation. Data Sources All data for this investigation originated from a recruitment database created for an RBT designed to test the effectiveness of a therapeutic group convened via teleconference for African American women with breast cancer. Data Synthesis Major H-ARF concepts include social marketing and relationship building. The majority of social marketing strategies yielded 100% participant recruitment. Greater absolute numbers were recruited via Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act waivers. Using H-ARF yielded a high recruitment rate (66%). Conclusions Application of H-ARF led to successful recruitment in an RBT. The findings highlight three areas that researchers should consider when devising recruitment plans: absolute numbers versus recruitment rate, cost, and efficiency with institutional review board–approved access to protected health information. Implications for Nursing H-ARF may be applied to any clinical or population-based research setting because it provides direction for researchers to develop a recruitment plan based on the target audience and cultural attributes that may hinder or help recruitment. PMID:20439201

  18. Nurturing Advocacy Inclusion to Bring Health Equity in Breast Cancer among African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Ashing, Kimlin Tam; Miller, Aria M.; Mitchell, Eudora; Martin, Virginia; McDowell, Kommah; Santifer, Rhonda; Smith, June; Brown, Shirley; Ragin, Camille; Carrington, Agatha

    2015-01-01

    Summary This paper will present the multiple roles and the impact of cancer advocates. The emerging literature provides evidence for the consideration and integration of African American BC survivors as advocates in practice, policy and research relevant to cancer prevention and control. We present a practical outline for organizational assessment for the inclusion of advocates in these arenas. This assessment can be conducted by all levels of partners, including community advocacy and scientific organizations. PMID:26913082

  19. Important Role of Menarche in Development of Estrogen Receptor–Negative Breast Cancer in African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Zirpoli, Gary; Hong, Chi-Chen; Yao, Song; Troester, Melissa A.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Schedin, Pepper; Bethea, Traci N.; Borges, Virginia; Park, Song-Yi; Chandra, Dhyan; Rosenberg, Lynn; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Palmer, Julie R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Menarche is a critical time point for diverging fates of mammary cells of origin. African American women have young age at menarche, which could be associated with their high rates of estrogen receptor–negative (ER-) breast cancer. Methods: In the AMBER Consortium, using harmonized data from 4426 African American women with breast cancer and 17 474 controls, we used polytomous logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for ages at menarche and first live birth (FLB), and the interval between, in relation to ER+ and ER- breast cancer. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Risk of ER- breast cancer was reduced with later age at menarche among both parous and nulliparous women (≥15 vs <11 years OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.48 to 0.81 and OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.29 to 1.10, respectively), with no effect of age at FLB. For ER+ breast cancer, the inverse association was weaker among nulliparous women. While longer intervals between menarche and FLB were associated with increased risk of ER+ breast cancer in a dose-response fashion (OR for 20 year interval = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.08 to 1.79, P trend = .003), ER- risk was only increased for intervals up to 14 years and not beyond (P trend = .33). Conclusions: While ER- breast cancer risk was markedly reduced in women with a late age at menarche, there was not a clear pattern of increased risk with longer interval between menarche and FLB, as was observed for ER+ breast cancer. These findings indicate that etiologic pathways involving adolescence and pregnancy may differ for ER- and ER+ breast cancer. PMID:26085483

  20. Genetic variations in vitamin D-related pathways and breast cancer risk in African American women in the AMBER consortium.

    PubMed

    Yao, Song; Haddad, Stephen A; Hu, Qiang; Liu, Song; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A; Hong, Chi-Chen; Zhu, Qianqian; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara; Cheng, Ting-Yuan David; Bensen, Jeannette T; Johnson, Candace S; Trump, Donald L; Haiman, Christopher A; Olshan, Andrew F; Palmer, Julie R; Ambrosone, Christine B

    2016-05-01

    Studies of genetic variations in vitamin D-related pathways and breast cancer risk have been conducted mostly in populations of European ancestry, and only sparsely in African Americans (AA), who are known for a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency. We analyzed 24,445 germline variants in 63 genes from vitamin D-related pathways in the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk (AMBER) consortium, including 3,663 breast cancer cases and 4,687 controls. Odds ratios (OR) were derived from logistic regression models for overall breast cancer, by estrogen receptor (ER) status (1,983 ER positive and 1,098 ER negative), and for case-only analyses of ER status. None of the three vitamin D-related pathways were associated with breast cancer risk overall or by ER status. Gene-level analyses identified associations with risk for several genes at a nominal p ≤ 0.05, particularly for ER- breast cancer, including rs4647707 in DDB2. In case-only analyses, vitamin D metabolism and signaling pathways were associated with ER- cancer (pathway-level p = 0.02), driven by a single gene CASR (gene-level p = 0.001). The top SNP in CASR was rs112594756 (p = 7 × 10(-5), gene-wide corrected p = 0.01), followed by a second signal from a nearby SNP rs6799828 (p = 1 × 10(-4), corrected p = 0.03). In summary, several variants in vitamin D pathways were associated with breast cancer risk in AA women. In addition, CASR may be related to tumor ER status, supporting a role of vitamin D or calcium in modifying breast cancer phenotypes. PMID:26650177

  1. Genetic variations in vitamin D-related pathways and breast cancer risk in African American women in the AMBER consortium.

    PubMed

    Yao, Song; Haddad, Stephen A; Hu, Qiang; Liu, Song; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A; Hong, Chi-Chen; Zhu, Qianqian; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara; Cheng, Ting-Yuan David; Bensen, Jeannette T; Johnson, Candace S; Trump, Donald L; Haiman, Christopher A; Olshan, Andrew F; Palmer, Julie R; Ambrosone, Christine B

    2016-05-01

    Studies of genetic variations in vitamin D-related pathways and breast cancer risk have been conducted mostly in populations of European ancestry, and only sparsely in African Americans (AA), who are known for a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency. We analyzed 24,445 germline variants in 63 genes from vitamin D-related pathways in the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk (AMBER) consortium, including 3,663 breast cancer cases and 4,687 controls. Odds ratios (OR) were derived from logistic regression models for overall breast cancer, by estrogen receptor (ER) status (1,983 ER positive and 1,098 ER negative), and for case-only analyses of ER status. None of the three vitamin D-related pathways were associated with breast cancer risk overall or by ER status. Gene-level analyses identified associations with risk for several genes at a nominal p ≤ 0.05, particularly for ER- breast cancer, including rs4647707 in DDB2. In case-only analyses, vitamin D metabolism and signaling pathways were associated with ER- cancer (pathway-level p = 0.02), driven by a single gene CASR (gene-level p = 0.001). The top SNP in CASR was rs112594756 (p = 7 × 10(-5), gene-wide corrected p = 0.01), followed by a second signal from a nearby SNP rs6799828 (p = 1 × 10(-4), corrected p = 0.03). In summary, several variants in vitamin D pathways were associated with breast cancer risk in AA women. In addition, CASR may be related to tumor ER status, supporting a role of vitamin D or calcium in modifying breast cancer phenotypes.

  2. African-American caregivers' breast health behavior.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Megumi; Pickard, Joseph G; Welch-Saleeby, Patricia; Johnson, Sharon

    2009-10-01

    This study utilizes a stress and coping framework which includes cognitive appraisal, personal and environmental resources, coping and stress to examine factors related to African-American caregivers' breast cancer screenings, including mammograms, clinical examinations and self-examinations. Using data from the Black Rural and Urban Caregivers Mental Health and Functioning Study, we performed separate logistic regressions for each type of breast cancer screening. Results reveal that having a regular doctor checkup (coping), care recipients having a cancer diagnosis (cognitive appraisal, and living in urban areas (environment resources) are associated with receiving a mammogram. Having greater income, having at least a high school degree (both personal resources) and having a regular doctor checkup (coping) are associated with receiving a clinical examination. Increased caregiver strain (stress), being 40 years old or older, social support (coping) and living in rural areas are associated with performing a self-examination. Targeting African-American caregivers, particularly in rural areas, for increased education on the importance of receiving breast cancer screenings is crucial to addressing health disparities. Making resources available, encouraging caregivers to get a clinical examination and a mammogram and directing public education toward caregivers are important points of intervention.

  3. The Effects of Symptoms on Quality of Life during Chemotherapy in African-American Women with Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Gaton-Johansson, Fannie; Watkins, Crystal C; Kanu, Iye Kamara; Whitehouse, Erin; Sarenmalm, Elisabeth Kenne; Brovall, Maria; Kozachik, Sharon L

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about the effects of burdensome symptoms dur- ing chemotherapy treatment in African-American women. This study explored the symptom burden occurring during chemotherapy treatment and how these symptoms impacted functional well-being and quality of life (QOL). A sample of 30 African-American women with breast cancer (BC) completed a battery of questionnaires that were used to collect the data at baseline, midpoint, and at the completion of chemotherapy. There were significant differences in the severity of symptoms for worse pain, pain inteiference with activities of daily living (ADLs), present fatigue and history offatigue, present nausea and history of nausea and insomnia as well as lower intensity of QOL measures over the course of chemotherapy treatment. All symptoms had greater intensity at midpoint and completion than at baseline. Worst pain had a significant negative effect on functional well-being. Both pain and depression each had significant negative effects on QOL. PMID:27045153

  4. A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial to Increase Breast Cancer Screening Among African American Women: The Black Cosmetologists Promoting Health Program

    PubMed Central

    Sadler, Georgia Robins; Ko, Celine M.; Wu, Phillis; Alisangco, Jennifer; Castañeda, Sheila F.; Kelly, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    Background African American women have disproportionately higher rates of breast cancer (BC) mortality than all other ethnic groups, thus highlighting the importance of promoting early detection. Methods African American women (N = 984) from San Diego, California participated in a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of BC education sessions offered in beauty salons. Cosmetologists received ongoing support, training, and additional culturally aligned educational materials to help them engage their clients in dialogues about the importance of BC early detection. Posters and literature about BC early detection were displayed throughout the salons and cosmetologists used synthetic breast models to show their clients how BC lumps might feel. Participants in the control group received a comparable diabetes education program. Baseline and six month follow-up surveys were administered to evaluate changes in women’s BC knowledge, attitudes and screening behaviors. Results This intervention was well received by the participants and their cosmetologists and did not interfere with, or prolong, the client’s salon visit. Women in the intervention group reported significantly higher rates of mammography compared to women in the control group. Training a single educator proved sufficient to permeate the entire salon with the health message and salon clients agreed that cosmetologists could become effective health educators. Conclusions Cosmetologists are in an ideal position to increase African American women’s BC knowledge and adherence to BC screening guidelines. PMID:22046851

  5. Comparison of the Genomic Landscape Between Primary Breast Cancer in African American Versus White Women and the Association of Racial Differences With Tumor Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Tanya; Moy, Beverly; Mroz, Edmund A.; Ross, Kenneth; Niemierko, Andrzej; Rocco, James W.; Isakoff, Steven; Ellisen, Leif W.; Bardia, Aditya

    2015-01-01

    Purpose African American women are more likely to die as a result of breast cancer than white women. The influence of somatic genomic profiles on this racial disparity is unclear. We aimed to compare the racial distribution of tumor genomic characteristics and breast cancer recurrence. Methods We assessed white and African American women with stage I to III breast cancer diagnosed from 1988 to 2013 and primary tumors submitted to The Cancer Genome Atlas from 2010 to 2014. We used Cox proportional hazards models to evaluate the association of race and genetic traits with tumor recurrence. Results We investigated exome sequencing and gene expression data in 663 and 711 white and 105 and 159 African American women, respectively. African Americans had more TP53 mutations (42.9% v 27.6%; P = .003) and fewer PIK3CA mutations (20.0% v 33.9%; P = .008). Intratumor genetic heterogeneity was greater in African American than white tumors overall by 5.1 units (95% CI, 2.4 to 7.7) and within triple-negative tumors by 4.1 units (95% CI, 1.4 to 6.8). African Americans had more basal tumors by the 50-gene set predictor using the predication analysis of microarray method (PAM50; 39.0% v 18.6%; P < .001) and fewer PAM50 luminal A tumors (17.0% v 34.7%; P < .001). Among triple-negative subtypes, African Americans had more basal-like 1 and mesenchymal stem-like tumors. African Americans had a higher risk of tumor recurrence than whites (hazard ratio, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.05 to 4.67). Racial differences in TP53 mutation, PAM50 basal subtype, and triple-negative tumor prevalence but not intratumor genetic heterogeneity influenced the magnitude and significance of the racial disparity in tumor recurrence. Conclusion African Americans had greater intratumor genetic heterogeneity and more basal gene expression tumors, even within triple-negative breast cancer. This pattern suggests more aggressive tumor biology in African Americans than whites, which could contribute to racial disparity in

  6. UNDERSTANDING THE BREAST CANCER EXPERIENCE OF WOMEN: A QUALITATIVE STUDY OF AFRICAN AMERICAN, ASIAN AMERICAN, LATINA AND CAUCASIAN CANCER SURVIVORS

    PubMed Central

    ASHING-GIWA, KIMLIN TAM; PADILLA, GERALDINE; TEJERO, JUDITH; KRAEMER, JANET; WRIGHT, KAREN; COSCARELLI, ANNE; CLAYTON, SHEILA; WILLIAMS, IMANI; HILLS, DAWN

    2006-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer in American women across most ethnic groups. Although the psychosocial impact of breast cancer is being studied, there is little information on women from diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds. We conducted a qualitative study with breast cancer survivors (BCS) of various ethnicities. A total of 102 BCS participated in focus group interviews (24 African Americans, 34 Asians, 26 Latinas and 18 Caucasians); 20 health professionals participated in key informant interviews. Important ethnic differences in type of treatment were noted, Asians and Latinas were more likely to receive mastectomies and African American BCS were least likely to receive adjuvant therapies, including radiation and chemotherapy. These BCS enjoyed a fairly good overall health-related quality of life (HRQOL) with some persistent concerns. The prevailing concerns among all women included overall health, moderate physical concerns, cancer recurrence or metastases, psychosocial concerns related to worry about children and burdening the family, and body image and sexual health concerns. Additional challenges included: lack of knowledge about breast cancer; medical care issues such as insurance, cost and amount of time spent with physician; cultural sensitivity of providers, language barriers, cultural factors related to beliefs about illness, gender role and family obligations (e.g. self-sacrifice). These BCS, particularly the women of color, voiced that their spiritual beliefs and practices are central to their coping. This study accomplishes two goals; it adds to the sparse literature concerning the psychosocial sequelae of breast cancer among women of color, and it increases our knowledge of specific cultural influences (e.g. dietary practices, coping) and socio-ecological factors on HRQOL. More importantly, the study addressed areas that have not been studied before, specifically, an in-depth study on BCS QOL comparing multiple ethnic groups

  7. Genetic variants in one-carbon metabolism genes and breast cancer risk in European American and African American women.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhihong; Yao, Song; Zirpoli, Gary; David Cheng, Ting-Yuan; Roberts, Michelle; Khoury, Thaer; Ciupak, Gregory; Davis, Warren; Pawlish, Karen; Jandorf, Lina; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Bandera, Elisa V; Ambrosone, Christine B

    2015-08-01

    Folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism plays critical roles in DNA synthesis, repair and DNA methylation. The impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in folate-metabolizing enzymes has been investigated in risk of breast cancer among European or Asian populations, but not among women of African ancestry. We conducted a comprehensive analysis of SNPs in eleven genes involved in one-carbon metabolism and risk of breast cancer in 1,275 European-American (EA) and 1,299 African-American (AA) women who participated in the Women's Circle of Health Study. Allele frequencies varied significantly between EA and AA populations. A number of these SNPs, specifically in genes including MTR, MTRR, SHMT1, TYMS and SLC19A1, were associated with overall breast cancer risk, as well as risk by estrogen receptor (ER) status, in either EA or AA women. Associations appeared to be modified by dietary folate intake. Although single-SNP associations were not statistically significant after correcting for multiple comparisons, polygenetic score analyses revealed significant associations with breast cancer risk. Per unit increase of the risk score was associated with a modest 19 to 50% increase in risk of breast cancer overall, ER positive or ER negative cancer (all p < 0.0005) in EAs or AAs. In summary, our data suggest that one-carbon metabolizing gene polymorphisms could play a role in breast cancer and that may differ between EA and AA women.

  8. Androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen gene polymorphisms and breast cancer in African-American women.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; John, Esther M; Ingles, Sue Ann

    2005-12-01

    Several previous studies have found the CAG repeat polymorphism in exon 1 of the androgen receptor (AR) gene to be associated with breast cancer risk among some groups of Caucasian and Asian women. In a population-based case-control study of 488 African-American women (239 cases and 249 controls), we examined this polymorphism along with a polymorphism (-158 G/A) in an androgen-regulated gene (PSA) whose expression has been correlated with breast cancer prognosis. Overall, we did not observe any significant association between the CAG repeat polymorphism and breast cancer risk. However, among women with a first-degree family history of breast cancer, longer CAG repeats were associated with a significantly increased risk. Women carrying at least one longer allele [(CAG)n > or = 22] had a 3-fold increased risk compared to those with two shorter alleles (odds ratio, 3.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-9.36). There was no significant association between the PSA gene polymorphism and breast cancer risk, nor was there significant gene-gene interaction. In summary, our results further support that shorter CAG repeats (stronger AR transactivation activity) may reduce the risk of breast cancer, at least among some groups of women. Our data, however, are unable to provide evidence that PSA is the pathway through which the protective effect of androgens operates.

  9. Quality-of-life concerns of African American breast cancer survivors within rural North Carolina: blending the techniques of photovoice and grounded theory.

    PubMed

    López, Ellen D S; Eng, Eugenia; Randall-David, Elizabeth; Robinson, Naomi

    2005-01-01

    Social norms imposing a prevailing silence around breast cancer in rural African American communities have made it difficult for survivors to express their quality-of-life (QOL) concerns. In this article, the authors describe how they blended the photovoice method (providing participants with cameras so they can record, discuss, and relate the realities of their lives) with grounded theory techniques to assist 13 African American breast cancer survivors from rural eastern North Carolina in (a) exploring how they perceive and address their QOL within their own social context and (b) developing a conceptual framework of survivorship QOL. The framework that emerged reveals that three social forces (racism, stigmas regarding cancer, and cultural expectations of African American women) drive four QOL concerns (seeking safe sources of support, adjusting to the role of cancer survivor, feeling comfortable about the future, and serving as role models) and that survivors address these concerns by relying on spiritual faith and devising strategies to maintain social standing.

  10. Coping and distress among women under treatment for early stage breast cancer: comparing African Americans, Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites.

    PubMed

    Culver, Jenifer L; Arena, Patricia L; Antoni, Michael H; Carver, Charles S

    2002-01-01

    This study examined coping and distress in African American (n=8), Hispanic (n=53), and non-Hispanic White (n=70) women with early stage breast cancer. The participants were studied prospectively across a year beginning at the time of surgery. African American women reported the lowest levels of distress (particularly before surgery) and depression symptoms. Hispanic women reported the highest levels of self-distraction as a coping response, non-Hispanic Whites reported the highest use of humor. Hispanics reported the highest levels of venting, African Americans reported the lowest levels. African American and Hispanic women reported more religious coping than non-Hispanic Whites. The data also provided evidence of a maladaptive spiral of distress and avoidant coping over time. Although some ethnic differences were identified, findings also point to a great many similarities across groups. PMID:12476431

  11. A Collaborative Study of the Etiology of Breast Cancer Subtypes in African American Women: the AMBER Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Julie R.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Olshan, Andrew F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, with at least five intrinsic subtypes defined by molecular characteristics. Tumors that express the estrogen receptor (ER+) have better outcomes than ER− tumors, due in part to the success of hormonal therapies that target ER+ tumors. The incidence of ER− breast cancer, and the subset of ER− cancers that are basal-like, is about twice as high among African American (AA) women as among U.S. women of European descent (EA). This disparity appears to explain, in part, the disproportionately high mortality from breast cancer that occurs in AA women. Epidemiologic research on breast cancer in AA women lags behind research in EA women. Here, we review differences in the etiology of breast cancer subtypes among AA women and describe a new consortium of ongoing studies of breast cancer in AA women. Methods We combined samples and data from four large epidemiologic studies of breast cancer in AA women, two cohort and two case-control, creating the AMBER consortium. Tumor tissue is obtained and stored in tissue microarrays, with assays of molecular markers carried out at a pathology core. Genotyping, carried out centrally, includes a whole exome SNP array and over 180,000 custom SNPs for fine-mapping of GWAS loci and candidate pathways. Results To date, questionnaire data from 5,739 breast cancer cases and 14,273 controls have been harmonized. Genotyping of the first 3,200 cases and 3,700 controls is underway, with a total of 6,000 each expected by the end of the study period. Conclusions The new consortium will likely have sufficient statistical power to assess potential risk factors, both genetic and non-genetic in relation to specific subtypes of breast cancer in AA women. PMID:24343304

  12. Genetic variations in the Hippo signaling pathway and breast cancer risk in African American women in the AMBER Consortium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianmin; Yao, Song; Hu, Qiang; Zhu, Qianqian; Liu, Song; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Haddad, Stephen A; Yang, Nuo; Shen, He; Hong, Chi-Chen; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A; Bensen, Jeannette T; Troester, Melissa A; Bandera, Elisa V; Rosenberg, Lynn; Haiman, Christopher A; Olshan, Andrew F; Palmer, Julie R; Ambrosone, Christine B

    2016-10-01

    The Hippo signaling pathway regulates cellular proliferation and survival, thus exerting profound effects on normal cell fate and tumorigenesis. Dysfunction of the Hippo pathway components has been linked with breast cancer stem cell regulation, as well as breast tumor progression and metastasis. TAZ, a key component of the Hippo pathway, is highly expressed in triple negative breast cancer; however, the associations of genetic variations in this important pathway with breast cancer risk remain largely unexplored. Here, we analyzed 8309 germline variants in 15 genes from the Hippo pathway with a total of 3663 cases and 4687 controls from the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk Consortium. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using logistic regression for overall breast cancer, by estrogen receptor (ER) status (1983 ER positive and 1098 ER negative), and for case-only analyses by ER status. The Hippo signaling pathway was significantly associated with ER-negative breast cancer (pathway level P = 0.02). Gene-based analyses revealed that CDH1 was responsible for the pathway association (P < 0.01), with rs4783673 in CDH1 statistically significant after gene-level adjustment for multiple comparisons (P = 9.2×10(-5), corrected P = 0.02). rs142697907 in PTPN14 was associated with ER-positive breast cancer and rs2456773 in CDK1 with ER-negativity in case-only analysis after gene-level correction for multiple comparisons (corrected P < 0.05). In conclusion, common genetic variations in the Hippo signaling pathway may contribute to both ER-negative and ER+ breast cancer risk in AA women.

  13. Gene-based analysis of the fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway in relation to breast cancer in African American women: the AMBER consortium.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A; Haddad, Stephen A; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Yao, Song; Bensen, Jeannette T; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara E; Hong, Chi-Chen; Haiman, Christopher A; Olshan, Andrew F; Ambrosone, Christine B; Palmer, Julie R

    2016-01-01

    We conducted gene-based analysis in 26 genes in the FGFR signaling pathway to identify genes carrying genetic variation affecting risk of breast cancer and the specific estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes. Tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for each gene were selected and genotyped on a customized Illumina Exome Array. Imputation was carried out using 1000 Genomes haplotypes. The analysis included 3237 SNPs in 3663 breast cancer cases (including 1983 ER-positive, and 1098 ER-negative) and 4687 controls from the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk consortium, a collaborative project of four large studies of breast cancer in African American women (Carolina Breast Cancer Study, Black Women's Health Study, Women's Circle of Health Study, and Multiethnic Cohort). We used a multi-locus adaptive joint (AdaJoint) test to determine the association of each gene in the FGFR signaling pathway with overall breast cancer and ER subtypes. The FGF1 gene was significantly associated with risk of ER-negative breast cancer (P = 0.001). The FGFR2 gene was associated with risk of overall breast cancer (P = 0.002) and ER-positive breast cancer (P = 0.002). The FGF1 gene affects risk of ER-negative breast cancer in African American women. We confirmed the association of the FGFR2 gene with risk of overall and ER-positive breast cancer. These results highlight the importance of the FGFR signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of breast cancer, and suggest that different genes in the same pathway may be associated with different ER breast cancer subtypes. PMID:26743380

  14. Enhanced Statistical Tests for GWAS in Admixed Populations: Assessment using African Americans from CARe and a Breast Cancer Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Zaitlen, Noah; Lettre, Guillaume; Chen, Gary K.; Tandon, Arti; Kao, W. H. Linda; Ruczinski, Ingo; Fornage, Myriam; Siscovick, David S.; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Larkin, Emma; Lange, Leslie A.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Yang, Qiong; Akylbekova, Ermeg L.; Musani, Solomon K.; Divers, Jasmin; Mychaleckyj, Joe; Li, Mingyao; Papanicolaou, George J.; Millikan, Robert C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; John, Esther M.; Bernstein, Leslie; Zheng, Wei; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Nyante, Sarah J.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Ingles, Sue A.; Press, Michael F.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Deming, Sandra L.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Palmer, Cameron D.; Buxbaum, Sarah; Ekunwe, Lynette; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Henderson, Brian E.; Myers, Simon; Haiman, Christopher A.; Reich, David; Patterson, Nick; Wilson, James G.; Price, Alkes L.

    2011-01-01

    While genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have primarily examined populations of European ancestry, more recent studies often involve additional populations, including admixed populations such as African Americans and Latinos. In admixed populations, linkage disequilibrium (LD) exists both at a fine scale in ancestral populations and at a coarse scale (admixture-LD) due to chromosomal segments of distinct ancestry. Disease association statistics in admixed populations have previously considered SNP association (LD mapping) or admixture association (mapping by admixture-LD), but not both. Here, we introduce a new statistical framework for combining SNP and admixture association in case-control studies, as well as methods for local ancestry-aware imputation. We illustrate the gain in statistical power achieved by these methods by analyzing data of 6,209 unrelated African Americans from the CARe project genotyped on the Affymetrix 6.0 chip, in conjunction with both simulated and real phenotypes, as well as by analyzing the FGFR2 locus using breast cancer GWAS data from 5,761 African-American women. We show that, at typed SNPs, our method yields an 8% increase in statistical power for finding disease risk loci compared to the power achieved by standard methods in case-control studies. At imputed SNPs, we observe an 11% increase in statistical power for mapping disease loci when our local ancestry-aware imputation framework and the new scoring statistic are jointly employed. Finally, we show that our method increases statistical power in regions harboring the causal SNP in the case when the causal SNP is untyped and cannot be imputed. Our methods and our publicly available software are broadly applicable to GWAS in admixed populations. PMID:21541012

  15. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in DNA bypass polymerase genes and association with breast cancer and breast cancer subtypes among African Americans and Whites

    PubMed Central

    Family, Leila; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Troester, Melissa A.; Wu, Michael C.; Anders, Carey K.; Olshan, Andrew F.

    2015-01-01

    DNA damage recognition and repair is a complex system of genes focused on maintaining genomic stability. Recently, there has been a focus on how breast cancer susceptibility relates to genetic variation in the DNA bypass polymerases pathway. Race-stratified and subtype-specific logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between 22 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven bypass polymerase genes and breast cancer risk in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based, case–control study (1,972 cases and 1,776 controls). We used SNP-set kernel association test (SKAT) to evaluate the multi-gene, multi-locus (combined) SNP effects within bypass polymerase genes. We found similar ORs for breast cancer with three POLQ SNPs (rs487848 AG/AA vs. GG; OR = 1.31, 95 % CI 1.03–1.68 for Whites and OR = 1.22, 95 % CI 1.00–1.49 for African Americans), (rs532411 CT/TT vs. CC; OR = 1.31, 95 % CI 1.02–1.66 for Whites and OR = 1.22, 95 % CI 1.00–1.48 for African Americans), and (rs3218634 CG/CC vs. GG; OR = 1.29, 95 % CI 1.02–1.65 for Whites). These three SNPs are in high linkage disequilibrium in both races. Tumor subtype analysis showed the same SNPs to be associated with increased risk of Luminal breast cancer. SKAT analysis showed no significant combined SNP effects. These results suggest that variants in the POLQ gene may be associated with the risk of Luminal breast cancer. PMID:25417172

  16. Understanding and effectively addressing breast cancer in African American women: Unpacking the social context.

    PubMed

    Williams, David R; Mohammed, Selina A; Shields, Alexandra E

    2016-07-15

    Black women have a higher incidence of breast cancer before the age of 40 years, more severe disease at all ages, and an elevated mortality risk in comparison with white women. There is limited understanding of the contribution of social factors to these patterns. Elucidating the role of the social determinants of health in breast cancer disparities requires greater attention to how risk factors for breast cancer unfold over the lifecourse and to the complex ways in which socioeconomic status and racism shape exposure to psychosocial, physical, chemical, and other individual and community-level assaults that increase the risk of breast cancer. Research that takes seriously the social context in which black women live is also needed to maximize the opportunities to prevent breast cancer in this underserved group. Cancer 2016;122:2138-49. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  17. Understanding and effectively addressing breast cancer in African American women: Unpacking the social context.

    PubMed

    Williams, David R; Mohammed, Selina A; Shields, Alexandra E

    2016-07-15

    Black women have a higher incidence of breast cancer before the age of 40 years, more severe disease at all ages, and an elevated mortality risk in comparison with white women. There is limited understanding of the contribution of social factors to these patterns. Elucidating the role of the social determinants of health in breast cancer disparities requires greater attention to how risk factors for breast cancer unfold over the lifecourse and to the complex ways in which socioeconomic status and racism shape exposure to psychosocial, physical, chemical, and other individual and community-level assaults that increase the risk of breast cancer. Research that takes seriously the social context in which black women live is also needed to maximize the opportunities to prevent breast cancer in this underserved group. Cancer 2016;122:2138-49. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:26930024

  18. A culturally specific dietary plan to manage weight gain among African American breast cancer survivors: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Kathleen A; Royak-Schaler, Renee; Nesbitt, Kim; Zhan, Min; Kozlovsky, Adriane; Hurley, Kristen; Pelser, Colleen; Tkaczuk, Katherine H Rak; Ryan, Alice S

    2012-04-01

    Breast cancer survival rates are lower in African Americans (AAs) than in Caucasians, owing in part to a higher prevalence of obesity in the former, which increases the risk of recurrence and mortality. The Women's Intervention Nutrition Study (WINS) found that Caucasian women who followed a low-fat eating plan experienced a lower rate of cancer recurrence than women who maintained their usual diets. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of a WINS plan tailored to the cultural needs of AA breast cancer survivors. This feasibility pilot study was conducted at a university National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center outpatient clinic with AA breast cancer survivors. The culturally specific WINS (WINS-c) plan included eight individual counseling sessions, five educational group meetings, and follow-up telephone calls over a 1-year period. Outcome measures included dietary fat, triglyceride, insulin and glucose levels, and fruit and vegetable intake. Participants (n = 8) had a mean age of 61.1 years (standard error of the mean (SEM) 3.1 years) and a mean BMI of 32 kg/m(2) (SEM 4.25 kg/m)(2). Baseline daily fat consumption decreased from 64.6 g (range 36.8-119.6g) to 44.0 g (21.6-73.4g) at 52 weeks (p = 0.07). Mean daily consumption of fruits and vegetables increased by 36% and 15%, respectively. Mean triglyceride levels decreased at 12 months (p < 0.05). Sustained hyperinsulinemia was noted in most participants, including those without diabetes. Mean calcium and vitamin D consumption decreased over the 1-year study period. In AA breast cancer survivors, the WINS-c program resulted in a trend toward reduced fat consumption and may represent a sustainable approach in this population for improvement of diet quality after breast cancer. PMID:23139389

  19. Benefits from an uncertainty management intervention for African-American and Caucasian older long-term breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Mishel, Merle H; Germino, Barbara B; Gil, Karen M; Belyea, Michael; Laney, Iris Carlton; Stewart, Janet; Porter, Laura; Clayton, Margaret

    2005-11-01

    In a randomized controlled design, this study tested the efficacy of a theoretically based uncertainty management intervention delivered to older long-term breast cancer survivors. The sample included 509 recurrence-free women (360 Caucasian, 149 African-American women) with a mean age of 64 years (S.D.=8.9 years) who were 5-9 years post-treated for breast cancer. Women were randomly assigned to either the intervention or usual care control condition. The intervention was delivered during four weekly telephone sessions, in which study nurses guided cancer survivors in the use of audiotaped cognitive-behavioral strategies to manage uncertainty about recurrence, and a self-help manual designed to help women understand and manage long-term treatment side effects and other symptoms. Treatment outcome data on uncertainty management were gathered at pre-intervention and 10-months afterward. Repeated measures MANOVA evaluating treatment group, ethnic group, and treatment by ethnic interaction effects indicated that training in uncertainty management resulted in improvements in cognitive reframing, cancer knowledge, patient-health care provider communication, and a variety of coping skills. Results are discussed in terms of the importance of theory-based interventions for cancer survivors that target triggers of uncertainty about recurrence and in terms of ethnic differences in response to the intervention. PMID:15712339

  20. Cancer and the African American Experience

    Cancer.gov

    The first plenary of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the many factors that lead to inequalities in cancer care outcomes for African Americans.

  1. OBESITY, BODY FAT DISTRIBUTION, AND RISK OF BREAST CANCER SUBTYPES IN AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN PARTICIPATING IN THE AMBER CONSORTIUM

    PubMed Central

    Bandera, Elisa V.; Chandran, Urmila; Hong, Chi-Chen; Troester, Melissa A.; Bethea, Traci N.; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Park, Song-Yi; Olshan, Andrew F.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Palmer, Julie R.; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Purpose African American (AA) women are more likely than white women to be obese and to be diagnosed with ER- and triple negative (TN) breast cancer, but few studies have evaluated the impact of obesity and body fat distribution on breast cancer subtypes in AA women. We evaluated these associations in the AMBER Consortium by pooling data from four large studies. Methods Cases were categorized according to hormone receptor status as ER+, ER-, and TN (ER-, PR-, and HER2-) based on pathology data. A total of 2,104 ER+ cases, 1,070 ER- cases (including 491 TN cases), and 12,060 controls were included. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using logistic regression, taking into account breast cancer risk factors. Results In postmenopausal women, higher recent (most proximal value to diagnosis/index date) BMI was associated with increased risk of ER+ cancer (OR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.02–1.67 for BMI≥35 vs <25 kg/m2) and with decreased risk of TN tumors (OR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.39–0.93 for BMI≥35 vs. <25). High young adult BMI was associated with decreased premenopausal ER+ cancer and all subtypes of postmenopausal cancer, and high recent waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with increased risk of pre-menopausal ER+ tumors (OR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.01–1.80) and all tumor subtypes combined in postmenopausal women (OR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.02–1.56). Conclusions The impact of general and central obesity varies by menopausal status and hormone receptor subtype in AA women. Our findings imply different mechanisms for associations of adiposity with TN and ER+ breast cancers. PMID:25809092

  2. Genetic variants in microRNAs and breast cancer risk in African American and European American women

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Song; Graham, Kelly; Shen, Jie; Sucheston Campbell, Lara E.; Singh, Prashant; Zirpoli, Gary; Roberts, Michelle; Ciupak, Gregory; Davis, Warren; Hwang, Helena; Khoury, Thaer; Bovbjerg, Dana H.; Jandorf, Lina; Pawlish, Karen S.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Liu, Song; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Zhao, Hua

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an integral part of the post-transcriptional machinery of gene expression and have been implicated in the carcinogenic cascade. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in miRNAs and risk of breast cancer have been evaluated in populations of European or Asian ancestry, but not among women of African ancestry. Here we examined 145 SNPs in 6 miRNA processing genes and in 78 miRNAs which target genes known to be important in breast cancer among 906 African American (AA) and 653 European American (EA) cases and controls enrolled in the Women’s Circle of Health Study (WCHS). Allele frequencies of most SNPs (87%) differed significantly by race. We found a number of SNPs in miRNAs and processing genes in association with breast cancer overall or stratified by estrogen receptor (ER) status. Several associations were significantly different by race, with none of the associations being significant in both races. Using a polygenic risk score to combine the effects of multiple SNPs, we found significant associations with the score in each subgroup analysis. For ER-positive cancer, each unit increment of the risk score was associated with a 51% increased risk in AAs (OR=1.51, 95% CI=1.30–1.74, p=3.3*10−8) and a 73% increased risk in EAs (OR=1.73, 95% CI=1.45–2.06, p=1.4*10−9). These data show, for the first time, that miRNA-related genetic variations may underlie the etiology of breast cancer in both populations of African and European ancestries. Future studies are needed to validate our findings and to explore the underlying mechanisms. PMID:24062209

  3. Replication of GWAS “Hits” by Race for Breast and Prostate Cancers in European Americans and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Raska, Paola; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Millikan, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we assessed association of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) “hits” by race with adjustment for potential population stratification (PS) in two large, diverse study populations; the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (CBCS; N total = 3693 individuals) and the University of Pennsylvania Study of Clinical Outcomes, Risk, and Ethnicity (SCORE; N total = 1135 individuals). In both study populations, 136 ancestry information markers and GWAS “hits” (CBCS: FGFR2, 8q24; SCORE: JAZF1, MSMB, 8q24) were genotyped. Principal component analysis was used to assess ancestral differences by race. Multivariable unconditional logistic regression was used to assess differences in cancer risk with and without adjustment for the first ancestral principal component (PC1) and for an interaction effect between PC1 and the GWAS “hit” (SNP) of interest. PC1 explained 53.7% of the variance for CBCS and 49.5% of the variance for SCORE. European Americans and African Americans were similar in their ancestral structure between CBCS and SCORE and cases and controls were well matched by ancestry. In the CBCS European Americans, 9/11 SNPs were significant after PC1 adjustment, but after adjustment for the PC1 by SNP interaction effect, only one SNP remained significant (rs1219648 in FGFR2); for CBCS African Americans, 6/11 SNPs were significant after PC1 adjustment and after adjustment for the PC1 by SNP interaction effect, all six SNPs remained significant and an additional SNP now became significant. In the SCORE European Americans, 0/9 SNPs were significant after PC1 adjustment and no changes were seen after additional adjustment for the PC1 by SNP interaction effect; for SCORE African Americans, 2/9 SNPs were significant after PC1 adjustment and after adjustment for the PC1 by SNP interaction effect, only one SNP remained significant (rs16901979 at 8q24). We show that genetic associations by race are modified by interaction between individual SNPs and PS

  4. Breast cancer survival disparity between African American and Caucasian women in Arkansas: A race-by-grade analysis

    PubMed Central

    Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Siegel, Eric R.; Medarametla, Srikanth; Makhoul, Issam; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Despite progress in breast cancer treatment, disparity persists in survival time between African American (AA) and Caucasian women in the US. Tumor stage and tumor grade are the major prognostic factors that define tumor aggressiveness and contribute to racial disparity between AA and Caucasian women. Studying the interaction of race with tumor grade or stage may provide further insights into the role of intrinsic biological aggressiveness in disecting the AA-Caucasian survival disparity. Therefore, the current study was performed to evaluate the interaction of race with tumor grade and stage at diagnosis regarding survival in a cohort of patients treated at the Winthrop P. Rockefeller Cancer Institute of the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (Little Rock, AR, USA). The cohort included 1,077 patients, 208 (19.3%) AA and 869 (80.7%) Caucasian, diagnosed with breast cancer between January 1997 and December 2005. Kaplan-Meier survival plots were generated and Cox regressions were performed to analyze the associations of race with breast cancer-specific survival time. Over a mean follow-up time of 1.5 years, AA women displayed increased mortality risk due to breast cancer-specific causes [hazard ratio (HR), 1.74; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.23–2.46]. The magnitude of racial disparity varied strongly with tumor grade (race-x-grade interaction; P<0.001). No significant interaction was observed between race and tumor stage or race and age at diagnosis. Among women diagnosed with grade I tumors, the race disparity in survival time after controlling for tumor stage and age was strong (HR, 9.07; 95% CI, 2.11–38.95), but no significant AA-Caucasian disparity was observed among women with higher-grade tumors. The data suggest that, when diagnosed with grade I breast cancer, AA may experience poorer survival outcomes compared with Caucasian patients, regardless of tumor stage or age. The findings potentially provide significant clinical and public health

  5. Discussing Cancer: Communication with African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Caito, Nikki; Hood, Sula; Thompson, Vetta L. Sanders

    2015-01-01

    Regular screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) facilitates earlier detection, lowers mortality, and may reduce incidence through detection and removal of pre-cancerous polyps. Optimizing health professional delivery of CRC screening information and recommendations can assist in reducing CRC disparity in the African American community. This paper presents qualitative data on African Americans’ attitudes about health professional CRC communications based on the analysis of focus groups (N=79). Using a social-ecological framework, colorectal cancer and professional communication themes are examined to offer four general and nine cancer specific theoretically based and culturally appropriate strategies for improving health professional cancer communication with African Americans. PMID:25050658

  6. Cancer statistics for African Americans, 2013.

    PubMed

    DeSantis, Carol; Naishadham, Deepa; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2013-05-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society estimates the number of new cancer cases and deaths for African Americans and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and screening prevalence based upon incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. It is estimated that 176,620 new cases of cancer and 64,880 deaths will occur among African Americans in 2013. From 2000 to 2009, the overall cancer death rate among males declined faster among African Americans than whites (2.4% vs 1.7% per year), but among females, the rate of decline was similar (1.5% vs 1.4% per year, respectively). The decrease in cancer death rates among African American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. The reduction in overall cancer death rates since 1990 in men and 1991 in women translates to the avoidance of nearly 200,000 deaths from cancer among African Americans. Five-year relative survival is lower for African Americans than whites for most cancers at each stage of diagnosis. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors remains an active area of research. Overall, progress in reducing cancer death rates has been made, although more can and should be done to accelerate this progress through ensuring equitable access to cancer prevention, early detection, and state-of-the-art treatments.

  7. Does compliance with radiation therapy differ in African-American patients with early-stage breast cancer?

    PubMed

    Sharma, Charu; Harris, Lyndsay; Haffty, Bruce G; Yang, Qifeng; Moran, Meena S

    2010-01-01

    The worse outcomes in African-American (AA) breast cancer patients have been attributed to a variety of factors, including compliance/variations with treatment. We evaluated a large cohort of AA patients treated with breast conservation therapy (BCT) in an effort to determine if compliance with radiation or if choice of chemotherapy regimen could be a contributing factor for the worse outcomes reported in AA patients. Our two cohorts consisted of 221 AA and 2170 white patients treated with BCT. Chart reviews were conducted to document dates of treatment, treatment breaks, dose delivered, and chemotherapy delivered. The data were analyzed to detect differences between the two cohorts. The median radiation dose delivered (including cone-down) was 64 Gy in both cohorts (p = 0.9910). The median number of treatment days was: AA, 45 (range 21-71 days) versus white, 45 (range 14-90 days; p = 0.8465). The chemotherapy regimens administered were: adriamycin/cytoxan (17% AA versus 19% white, respectively), adriamycin/cytoxan/taxol (13% versus 5%), cytoxan/methotrexate/5-FU (53% versus 59%), cytoxan/methotrexate/5-FU/vincristine (0% versus 3%), cytoxan/adriamycin/5-FU (12% versus 11%), high dose/transplant (0% versus 1%), and other (4% versus 5%), p = 0.113. Our large institutional series suggests that compliance with radiation therapy, once patients are seen in consultation and simulated, does not differ significantly between AA and white patients. In our large cancer center environment, AA patients referred for radiation therapy appear to receive the same radiation doses in a comparable time frame to white patients. Further exploration of compliance for adjuvant chemotherapy regimens in AA patients is warranted.

  8. Recent breast cancer trends among Asian/Pacific Islander, Hispanic, and African-American women in the US: changes by tumor subtype

    PubMed Central

    Hausauer, Amelia K; Keegan, Theresa HM; Chang, Ellen T; Clarke, Christina A

    2007-01-01

    Background Recently, unprecedented drops in breast cancer incidence have been reported for populations of mostly White European descent. Incidence patterns in non-White racial/ethnic groups are less described. Therefore, we examined population-based breast cancer incidence trends separately for US Asian/Pacific Islander, Hispanic, African-American, and non-Hispanic White women by etiologically relevant tumor subtype characteristics, including hormone receptor status, histology, size, and in situ behavior. Methods We obtained breast cancer data from 13 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) cancer registries to calculate age-adjusted incidence rates and trends, stratified by race/ethnicity and tumor subtype for the period 1992–2004. Detailed analyses were limited to women 50 years old or older. Joinpoint regression was used to assess incidence trends by annual quarter of diagnosis. Results Between 2001 and 2004, incidence rates of invasive breast cancer in women 50 years old or older declined appreciably among Asians/Pacific Islanders (-8.5%) and Hispanics (-2.9%) and were stable in African-Americans (+0.5%), reductions substantially lower than those observed among non-Hispanic Whites (-14.3%). In Asian/Pacific Islander women, perceptible but statistically nonsignificant decreases were observed for hormone receptor-positive, lobular, and small tumors only. Rates of hormone receptor-negative tumors increased among African-Americans (26.1%) and Hispanics (26.9%) during 2001–2004. Incidence trends in most groups, except African-American women, peaked between 1999 and mid-2002. Rates of in situ cancer remained stable in all groups. Conclusion Recently reported reductions in breast cancer incidence varied considerably by race/ethnicity. These patterns are consistent with documented racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence and discontinuation of hormone therapy (HT) after July 2002 but do not correspond as well to patterns of mammography use in these

  9. Oral Cancer in African Americans: Addressing Health Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Virginia J.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Choi, Youjin; Tomar, Scott L.; Logan, Henrietta L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To explore factors underlying African Americans' perceptions of oral cancer and the oral cancer exam. Study findings were used to guide development of oral cancer messages designed to increase oral cancer exams among African Americans. Methods: Focus groups were conducted to understand African Americans' attitudes and expectations…

  10. A Community-Based Exercise and Support Group Program in African-American Breast Cancer Survivors (ABCs)

    PubMed Central

    Nock, Nora L.; Owusu, Cynthia; Kullman, Emily L.; Austin, Kris; Roth, Beth; Cerne, Stephen; Harmon, Carl; Moore, Halle; Vargo, Mary; Hergenroeder, Paul; Malone, Hermione; Rocco, Michael; Tracy, Russell; Lazarus, Hillard M.; Kirwan, John P.; Heyman, Ellen; Berger, Nathan A.

    2014-01-01

    African-American (AA) women have higher rates of breast cancer (BCa) mortality than Caucasian women, and a recent study using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registry suggests that this disparity may be due, in part, to the poorer health status of AAs at diagnosis and not treatment related issues. Randomized controlled trials involving supervised aerobic and resistance exercise have shown improved body composition and improvement in cancer-related biomarkers in BCa patients and may lead to improved recurrence and survival rates; however, most trials have focused on Caucasians and many have been conducted in academic- and clinic-based settings. We evaluated the feasibility of conducting a 20-week, supervised, resistance training, group exercise intervention coupled with a support group and home walking program utilizing facilities and personnel at a community cancer support center (The Gathering Place, Beachwood, Ohio) in AA Stage I–III BCa survivors who were within 12 months of completing treatment (surgery, chemotherapy, and/or breast irradiation); and, evaluated the potential effects of this intervention on physical measures and cancer-related biomarkers. 27 patients provided informed consent and 19 participated in the program. On average, attendance rates were 70.0% ± 19.1% for the exercise sessions and 63.1% ± 13.8% for the support group. We observed a significant decrease in circulating C-peptide levels (B: 893.9 ± 399.1 pg/mL; EOI: 723.9 ± 319.0 pg/mL; p=0.01). Although we did not observe a significant decrease in weight in the entire sample, there was a significant decrease in waist circumference and percent total body fat among those who attended 70% or more of the exercise sessions. In summary, we demonstrated that conducting lifestyle interventions in AA BCa survivors in a community setting is feasible. Future interventions should invoke strategies to enhance adherence and include a structured dietary intervention to

  11. Real-Time Moment-to-Moment Emotional Responses to Narrative and Informational Breast Cancer Videos in African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollinger, Sarah; Kreuter, Matthew W.

    2012-01-01

    In a randomized experiment using moment-to-moment audience analysis methods, we compared women's emotional responses with a narrative versus informational breast cancer video. Both videos communicated three key messages about breast cancer: (i) understand your breast cancer risk, (ii) talk openly about breast cancer and (iii) get regular…

  12. Attitudes toward cancer and implications for mental health outcome in African-American cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Amy Y; Gary, Faye; Zhu, Hui

    2015-03-01

    This study examined African-American cancer patients’ attitudes toward cancer and their relationship with long-term mental health outcomes. Using mixed methods, 74 breast and prostate cancer patients including 34 depressed and 23 nondepressed African-Americans and 17 depressed Whites were interviewed. The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. Qualitative data analysis identified themes that were coded. The codes were entered into SPSS software. Fisher’s exact test was performed to examine group differences in the identified themes. Nondepressed African-Americans more frequently reported cancer as an adaptive experience (p = 0.047) and less frequently as a struggle (p = 0.012) than the depressed African-Americans and Whites. Groups did not significantly differ in the belief that cancer has no cure (p = 0.763), but depressed African-Americans more frequently reported unwillingness to share a cancer diagnosis with family or friends than depressed Whites (p = 0.50). African-Americans’ adaptive attitudes to cancer exhibit a pragmatist approach and a worldview shaped by their lived experience. Participants’ narratives were examined to illuminate the meanings of these findings. Adaptive attitudes to cancer are associated with better long-term mental health outcomes, and conversely, unpreparedness and inability to cope are associated with a higher risk of depression among African-American cancer patients. Education about cancer and supports for treatment navigation are important measures for improving the long-term mental health of African-Americans living with cancer.

  13. Psychological adjustment among African American breast cancer patients: one-year follow-up results of a randomized psychoeducational group intervention.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Kathryn L; Lamdan, Ruth M; Siegel, Jamie E; Shelby, Rebecca; Moran-Klimi, Karen; Hrywna, Mary

    2003-05-01

    The effectiveness of support group interventions for cancer patients has been established among White patients but has been virtually unstudied among minority patients. The current study represents the 1st randomized support group intervention targeted to African American women with breast cancer. Participants (N = 73) with nonmetastatic breast cancer were randomly assigned to an 8-week group intervention or an assessment-only control condition At 12 months, the intervention resulted in improved mood as well as improved general and cancer-specific psychological functioning among women with greater baseline distress or lower income. Subsequent research is needed to address effective methods of enrolling and following women with fewer psychosocial and financial resources, as they were the most likely to benefit from this particular intervention.

  14. Genetic variants in one-carbon metabolism genes and breast cancer risk in European American (EA) and African American (AA) women

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Zhihong; Yao, Song; Zirpoli, Gary; Cheng, Ting-Yuan David; Roberts, Michelle; Khoury, Thaer; Ciupak, Gregory; Davis, Warren; Pawlish, Karen; Jandorf, Lina; Bovbjerg, Dana H.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Ambrosone, Christine B.

    2015-01-01

    Folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism plays critical roles in DNA synthesis, repair, and DNA methylation. The impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in folate-metabolizing enzymes has been investigated in risk of breast cancer among European or Asian populations, but not among women of African ancestry. We conducted a comprehensive analysis of SNPs in eleven genes involved in one-carbon metabolism and risk of breast cancer in 1,275 European-American (EA) and 1,299 African-American (AA) women who participated in the Women’s Circle of Health Study. Allele frequencies varied significantly between EA and AA populations. A number of these SNPs, specifically in genes including MTR, MTRR, SHMT1, TYMS, and SLC19A1, were associated with overall breast cancer risk, as well as risk by estrogen receptor (ER) status, in either EA or AA women. Associations appeared to be modified by dietary folate intake. Although single-SNP associations were not statistically significant after correcting for multiple comparisons, polygenetic score analyses revealed significant associations with breast cancer risk. Per unit increase of the risk score was associated with a modest 19% to 50% increase in risk of breast cancer overall, ER positive or ER negative cancer (all P<0.0005) in EAs or AAs. In summary, our data suggest that one-carbon metabolizing gene polymorphisms could play a role in breast cancer and that may differ between EA and AA women. PMID:25598430

  15. Colorectal Cancer in African Americans: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Renee; White, Pascale; Nieto, Jose; Vieira, Dorice; Francois, Fritz; Hamilton, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This review is an update to the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) Committee on Minority Affairs and Cultural Diversity's paper on colorectal cancer (CRC) in African Americans published in 2005. Over the past 10 years, the incidence and mortality rates of CRC in the United States has steadily declined. However, reductions have been strikingly much slower among African Americans who continue to have the highest rate of mortality and lowest survival when compared with all other racial groups. The reasons for the health disparities are multifactorial and encompass physician and patient barriers. Patient factors that contribute to disparities include poor knowledge of benefits of CRC screening, limited access to health care, insurance status along with fear and anxiety. Physician factors include lack of knowledge of screening guidelines along with disparate recommendations for screening. Earlier screening has been recommended as an effective strategy to decrease observed disparities; currently the ACG and American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopists recommend CRC screening in African Americans to begin at age 45. Despite the decline in CRC deaths in all racial and ethnic groups, there still exists a significant burden of CRC in African Americans, thus other strategies including educational outreach for health care providers and patients and the utilization of patient navigation systems emphasizing the importance of screening are necessary. These strategies have been piloted in both local communities and Statewide resulting in notable significant decreases in observed disparities. PMID:27467183

  16. Colorectal Cancer in African Americans: An Update.

    PubMed

    Williams, Renee; White, Pascale; Nieto, Jose; Vieira, Dorice; Francois, Fritz; Hamilton, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This review is an update to the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) Committee on Minority Affairs and Cultural Diversity's paper on colorectal cancer (CRC) in African Americans published in 2005. Over the past 10 years, the incidence and mortality rates of CRC in the United States has steadily declined. However, reductions have been strikingly much slower among African Americans who continue to have the highest rate of mortality and lowest survival when compared with all other racial groups. The reasons for the health disparities are multifactorial and encompass physician and patient barriers. Patient factors that contribute to disparities include poor knowledge of benefits of CRC screening, limited access to health care, insurance status along with fear and anxiety. Physician factors include lack of knowledge of screening guidelines along with disparate recommendations for screening. Earlier screening has been recommended as an effective strategy to decrease observed disparities; currently the ACG and American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopists recommend CRC screening in African Americans to begin at age 45. Despite the decline in CRC deaths in all racial and ethnic groups, there still exists a significant burden of CRC in African Americans, thus other strategies including educational outreach for health care providers and patients and the utilization of patient navigation systems emphasizing the importance of screening are necessary. These strategies have been piloted in both local communities and Statewide resulting in notable significant decreases in observed disparities. PMID:27467183

  17. Differences in cancer incidence, mortality, and survival between African Americans and whites.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, B; Figgs, L W; Zahm, S H

    1995-01-01

    This report highlights selected evidence of different cancer patterns among African Americans and whites and considers potential risk factors associated with these cancers. During the years 1987 to 1991, African Americans experienced higher incidence and mortality rates than whites for multiple myeloma and for cancers of the oropharynx, colorectum, lung and bronchus, cervix, and prostate. African Americans had lower incidence and mortality for cancer of the urinary bladder. The incidence of breast cancer was higher among white women, but mortality was higher among African American women. Five-year relative survival for the period 1983 to 1990 was generally lower among African Americans than whites for cancers of the oropharynx, colorectum, cervix, prostate, and female breast but slightly higher for multiple myeloma. From 1973 to 1991, there were significant declines in cervical cancer incidence among women of both races, oropharyngeal cancer mortality among whites, and bladder cancer mortality for whites and African Americans. Risk factors for the more prominent cancers suggest that efforts aimed at changing lifestyles, achieving socioeconomic parity, and insuring environmental equity are likely to relieve African Americans of much of their disproportionate cancer burden. PMID:8741798

  18. The influence of spirituality and religiosity on breast cancer screening delay in African American women: application of the Theory of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior (TRA/TPB).

    PubMed

    Gullate, Mary

    2006-01-01

    African American women (AAW) are 25% more likely to present with late stage breast cancer and 20% more likely to die from their disease than Caucasian women. Researchers report that a treatment delay of 3 months is a significant factor in breast cancer mortality. Socioeconomic factors, lack of access and knowledge, spiritual and religious beliefs, fear and fatalism are reported as contributing factors to screening delays. Studies have primarily applied the Health Belief Model (HBM) and modified versions like the Champion HBM to preventive health practices. Neither have significant inclusion of spirituality or religiosity. The TRA/TPB focus on beliefs, intent and attitude as individual determinants of the likelihood of performing a specific behavior; but have not had wide utility in studies related to screening delays among AAW. This paper explores the utility of applying the TRA/TPB as the theoretical framework for determining cultural relevance of spirituality and religiosity to screening delays among AAW.

  19. Intake of energy-dense foods, fast foods, sugary drinks, and breast cancer risk in African American and European American women.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Urmila; McCann, Susan E; Zirpoli, Gary; Gong, Zhihong; Lin, Yong; Hong, Chi-Chen; Ciupak, Gregory; Pawlish, Karen; Ambrosone, Christine B; Bandera, Elisa V

    2014-01-01

    Limiting energy-dense foods, fast foods, and sugary drinks that promote weight gain is a cancer prevention recommendation, but no studies have evaluated intake in relation to breast cancer risk in African American (AA) women. In a case-control study with 1692 AA women (803 cases and 889 controls) and 1456 European American (EA) women (755 cases and 701 controls), odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for risk were computed, stratifying for menopausal and estrogen receptor (ER) status. Among postmenopausal EA women, breast cancer risk was associated with frequent consumption of energy-dense foods (OR = 2.95; 95% CI: 1.66-5.22), fast foods (OR = 2.35; 95% CI: 1.38-4.00), and sugary drinks (OR = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.13-3.70). Elevated risk of ER+ tumors in EA women was associated with energy-dense (OR = 1.75; 95% CI: 1.14-2.69) and fast foods (OR = 1.84; 95% CI: 1.22-2.77). Among AA women, frequent fast food consumption was related to premenopausal breast cancer risk (OR = 1.97; 95% CI: 1.13-3.43), and with ER+ tumors. Energy adjustment attenuated risk estimates in AA women, while strengthening them among EA women. Frequent consumption of energy-dense and fast foods that have poor nutritive value appeared to increase breast cancer risk in AA and EA women, with differences by menopausal status and ER status. PMID:25265504

  20. Intake of energy-dense foods, fast foods, sugary drinks, and breast cancer risk in African American and European American women.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Urmila; McCann, Susan E; Zirpoli, Gary; Gong, Zhihong; Lin, Yong; Hong, Chi-Chen; Ciupak, Gregory; Pawlish, Karen; Ambrosone, Christine B; Bandera, Elisa V

    2014-01-01

    Limiting energy-dense foods, fast foods, and sugary drinks that promote weight gain is a cancer prevention recommendation, but no studies have evaluated intake in relation to breast cancer risk in African American (AA) women. In a case-control study with 1692 AA women (803 cases and 889 controls) and 1456 European American (EA) women (755 cases and 701 controls), odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for risk were computed, stratifying for menopausal and estrogen receptor (ER) status. Among postmenopausal EA women, breast cancer risk was associated with frequent consumption of energy-dense foods (OR = 2.95; 95% CI: 1.66-5.22), fast foods (OR = 2.35; 95% CI: 1.38-4.00), and sugary drinks (OR = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.13-3.70). Elevated risk of ER+ tumors in EA women was associated with energy-dense (OR = 1.75; 95% CI: 1.14-2.69) and fast foods (OR = 1.84; 95% CI: 1.22-2.77). Among AA women, frequent fast food consumption was related to premenopausal breast cancer risk (OR = 1.97; 95% CI: 1.13-3.43), and with ER+ tumors. Energy adjustment attenuated risk estimates in AA women, while strengthening them among EA women. Frequent consumption of energy-dense and fast foods that have poor nutritive value appeared to increase breast cancer risk in AA and EA women, with differences by menopausal status and ER status.

  1. An exome-wide analysis of low frequency and rare variants in relation to risk of breast cancer in African American Women: the AMBER Consortium.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Stephen A; Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A; Haiman, Christopher A; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara E; Bensen, Jeannette T; Zhu, Qianqian; Liu, Song; Yao, Song; Bandera, Elisa V; Rosenberg, Lynn; Olshan, Andrew F; Ambrosone, Christine B; Palmer, Julie R; Lunetta, Kathryn L

    2016-09-01

    A large percentage of breast cancer heritability remains unaccounted for, and most of the known susceptibility loci have been established in European and Asian populations. Rare variants may contribute to the unexplained heritability of this disease, including in women of African ancestry (AA). We conducted an exome-wide analysis of rare variants in relation to risk of overall and subtype-specific breast cancer in the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk (AMBER) Consortium, which includes data from four large studies of AA women. Genotyping on the Illumina Human Exome Beadchip yielded data for 170 812 SNPs and 8287 subjects: 3629 cases (1093 estrogen receptor negative (ER-), 1968 ER+, 568 ER unknown) and 4658 controls, the largest exome chip study to date for AA breast cancer. Pooled gene-based association analyses were performed using the unified optimal sequence kernel association test (SKAT-O) for variants with minor allele frequency (MAF) ≤ 5%. In addition, each variant with MAF >0.5% was tested for association using logistic regression. There were no significant associations with overall breast cancer. However, a novel gene, FBXL22 (P = 8.2×10(-6)), and a gene previously identified in GWAS of European ancestry populations, PDE4D (P = 1.2×10(-6)), were significantly associated with ER- breast cancer after correction for multiple testing. Cases with the associated rare variants were also negative for progesterone and human epidermal growth factor receptors-thus, triple-negative cancer. Replication is required to confirm these gene-level associations, which are based on very small counts at extremely rare SNPs. PMID:27267999

  2. Novel recurrently mutated genes in African American colon cancers

    PubMed Central

    Guda, Kishore; Veigl, Martina L.; Varadan, Vinay; Nosrati, Arman; Ravi, Lakshmeswari; Lutterbaugh, James; Beard, Lydia; Willson, James K. V.; Sedwick, W. David; Wang, Zhenghe John; Molyneaux, Neil; Miron, Alexander; Adams, Mark D.; Elston, Robert C.; Markowitz, Sanford D.; Willis, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    We used whole-exome and targeted sequencing to characterize somatic mutations in 103 colorectal cancers (CRC) from African Americans, identifying 20 new genes as significantly mutated in CRC. Resequencing 129 Caucasian derived CRCs confirmed a 15-gene set as a preferential target for mutations in African American CRCs. Two predominant genes, ephrin type A receptor 6 (EPHA6) and folliculin (FLCN), with mutations exclusive to African American CRCs, are by genetic and biological criteria highly likely African American CRC driver genes. These previously unsuspected differences in the mutational landscapes of CRCs arising among individuals of different ethnicities have potential to impact on broader disparities in cancer behaviors. PMID:25583493

  3. Novel recurrently mutated genes in African American colon cancers.

    PubMed

    Guda, Kishore; Veigl, Martina L; Varadan, Vinay; Nosrati, Arman; Ravi, Lakshmeswari; Lutterbaugh, James; Beard, Lydia; Willson, James K V; Sedwick, W David; Wang, Zhenghe John; Molyneaux, Neil; Miron, Alexander; Adams, Mark D; Elston, Robert C; Markowitz, Sanford D; Willis, Joseph E

    2015-01-27

    We used whole-exome and targeted sequencing to characterize somatic mutations in 103 colorectal cancers (CRC) from African Americans, identifying 20 new genes as significantly mutated in CRC. Resequencing 129 Caucasian derived CRCs confirmed a 15-gene set as a preferential target for mutations in African American CRCs. Two predominant genes, ephrin type A receptor 6 (EPHA6) and folliculin (FLCN), with mutations exclusive to African American CRCs, are by genetic and biological criteria highly likely African American CRC driver genes. These previously unsuspected differences in the mutational landscapes of CRCs arising among individuals of different ethnicities have potential to impact on broader disparities in cancer behaviors. PMID:25583493

  4. Ancestral links of Chesapeake Bay region African Americans to specific Bight of Bonny (West Africa) microethnic groups and increased frequency of aggressive breast cancer in both regions.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Fatimah L C

    2008-01-01

    The high frequency of aggressive, early onset, and highly fatal breast cancer among Chesapeake Bay region African Americans suggests that there may be a contributing ancestral component. This study identifies the region's founding African, European, and Native American Indian populations using ethnogenetic layering and identifies the microethnic substructure of each founding continental aggregate. The largest component (38%) of the enslaved Africans brought to the Chesapeake Bay originally came from the coastal and hinterlands of the Bight of Bonny, a region with very high rates of aggressive, early onset breast cancer. Ethnogenetic layering is applied a second time to reveal the microethnic groups of the Bight of Bonny hinterlands with historical links to the Chesapeake Bay region. These analyses identify the specific microethnic groups within this region of Africa that may be the sources of relevant polymorphisms contributing to the etiology of aggressive breast cancer in the Chesapeake Bay. This report suggests a historical link between specific African microethnic groups and a US health disparity.

  5. FGFR2 and other loci identified in genome-wide association studies are associated with breast cancer in African-American and younger women

    PubMed Central

    Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Shetty, Priya B.; Guan, Xiaowei; Nyante, Sarah J.; Luo, Jingchun; Brennan, Donal J.; Millikan, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from previously published genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and multiple ancestry informative markers were genotyped in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (CBCS) (742 African-American (AA) cases, 1230 White cases; 658 AA controls, 1118 White controls). In the entire study population, 9/10 SNPs in fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) were significantly associated with breast cancer after adjusting for age, race and European ancestry [odds ratios (OR) range 1.17–1.81]. Associations were observed for SNPs in FGFR2, LSP1, H19, TLR1/TLR6 and RELN for AA; FGFR2, TNRC9, H19 and MAP3K1 for Whites; FGFR2, TNRC9, Msc5A1 and chromosome 8q for women ≥50 years old and FGFR2 and TNRC9 for women <50 years old. FGFR2 haplotypes based upon rs11200014, rs2981579, rs1219648 and rs2420946 were associated with increased risk of breast cancer, including the GTGT haplotype in AAs [OR = 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04–1.56] and younger women of either race [OR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.02–1.78) and the ATGT haplotype in Whites (OR = 1.30, 95% CI 1.15–1.46). Recent GWAS hits for breast cancer in Europeans and Whites (i.e. women of European descent) thus showed evidence of replication among AAs and Whites in the CBCS. Several new haplotypes were associated with breast cancer in AA and younger women, particularly the FGFR2 GTGT haplotype. These results highlight the need to conduct GWAS among younger women and in a variety of racial–ethnic populations. PMID:20554749

  6. Associations of dietary folate, Vitamins B6 and B12 and methionine intake with risk of breast cancer among African American and European American women.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhihong; Ambrosone, Christine B; McCann, Susan E; Zirpoli, Gary; Chandran, Urmila; Hong, Chi-Chen; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Jandorf, Lina; Ciupak, Gregory; Pawlish, Karen; Lu, Quanjun; Hwang, Helena; Khoury, Thaer; Wiam, Bshara; Bandera, Elisa V

    2014-03-15

    African American (AA) women are more likely than European American (EA) women to be diagnosed with breast cancer at younger ages and to develop poor prognosis tumors. However, these racial differences are largely unexplained. Folate and other methyl-group nutrients may be related to breast carcinogenesis, but few studies have examined these associations in AA populations. We examined the associations of dietary intake of these nutrients with breast cancer risk overall, by menopausal and estrogen receptor (ER) status among 1,582 AA (749 cases) and 1,434 EA (744 cases) women using data from a case-control study, the Women's Circle of Health Study. Unconditional multivariable logistic regression models were used to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of each nutrient and breast cancer risk. In AA women, inverse associations were observed for natural food folate intake among premenopausal women (fourth vs. first quartile: OR = 0.57, 95% CI, 0.33-1.00; p for trend = 0.06) and for ER-positive tumors (fourth vs. first quartile: OR = 0.58, 95% CI, 0.36-0.93; p for trend = 0.03), whereas in EA women, a positive association was observed for intake of synthetic folate (fourth vs. first quartile: OR = 1.53, 95% CI, 1.06-2.21; p for trend = 0.03). Our findings suggest that natural food folate intake is inversely associated with breast cancer risk and that this association may vary by race, menopausal status or ER status. The finding of an increased risk observed among EA women with the highest intake of synthetic folate from fortified foods warrants further investigation.

  7. Cancer Screening Behaviors of African American Women Enrolled in a Community-Based Cancer Prevention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Reiter, Paul L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background African American women have increased mortality rates for cervical, breast, and colorectal cancers, yet not all receive the recommended screening tests for these cancers. We characterized the cancer screening behaviors of African American women enrolled in a community-based cancer prevention trial. Methods We examined cross-sectional data from 1123 African American customers aged ≥18 years from 37 beauty salons in North Carolina who completed the North Carolina BEAUTY and Health Project baseline survey. Mixed logistic regression models were used to identify correlates of receiving cervical, breast, and colorectal cancer screening tests within recommended screening guidelines. Results Overall, 94% (1026 of 1089) of women aged ≥18 years reported receiving a Pap smear test within the last 3 years, 70% (298 of 425) of women aged ≥40 years reported receiving a mammography within the last year, and 64% (116 of 180) of women aged ≥50 years were considered to be within recommended screening guidelines for colorectal cancer. Age was correlated with recent Pap smear testing and mammography. Women who reported receiving a recent Pap smear test were more likely to report a mammogram in the last year, and women with a recent mammogram were more likely to be within recommended screening guidelines for colorectal cancer. Many women reported multiple barriers to getting recommended cancer screening tests. Conclusions Almost all women reported receiving a Pap smear test within the last 3 years. Future interventions should focus on increasing breast and colorectal cancer screening among African American women. PMID:21332413

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyls, cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) polymorphisms, and breast cancer risk among African American women and white women in North Carolina: a population-based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu; Millikan, Robert C; Bell, Douglas A; Cui, Lisa; Tse, Chiu-Kit J; Newman, Beth; Conway, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Epidemiologic studies have not shown a strong relationship between blood levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and breast cancer risk. However, two recent studies showed a stronger association among postmenopausal white women with the inducible M2 polymorphism in the cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) gene. Methods In a population-based case-control study, we evaluated breast cancer risk in relation to PCBs and the CYP1A1 polymorphisms M1 (also known as CYP1A1*2A), M2 (CYP1A1*2C), M3 (CYP1A1*3), and M4 (CYP1A1*4). The study population consisted of 612 patients (242 African American, 370 white) and 599 controls (242 African American, 357 white). Results There was no evidence of strong joint effects between CYP1A1 M1-containing genotypes and total PCBs in African American or white women. Statistically significant multiplicative interactions were observed between CYP1A1 M2-containing genotypes and elevated plasma total PCBs among white women (P value for likelihood ratio test = 0.02). Multiplicative interactions were also observed between CYP1A1 M3-containing genotypes and elevated total PCBs among African American women (P value for likelihood ratio test = 0.10). Conclusions Our results confirm previous reports that CYP1A1 M2-containing genotypes modify the association between PCB exposure and risk of breast cancer. We present additional evidence suggesting that CYP1A1 M3-containing genotypes modify the effects of PCB exposure among African American women. Additional studies are warranted, and meta-analyses combining results across studies will be needed to generate more precise estimates of the joint effects of PCBs and CYP1A1 genotypes. PMID:15642161

  9. Informing cancer prevention strategies for African Americans: the relationship of African American acculturation to fruit, vegetable, and fat intake.

    PubMed

    Ard, Jamy D; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Chen, Chuhe; Aickin, Mikel; Svetkey, Laura P

    2005-06-01

    Acculturation has been associated with health-related behaviors in African Americans. We sought to determine if there is a relationship between acculturation and dietary intake in African Americans. African Americans in the PREMIER trial completed the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS) and 2 nonconsecutive 24-h dietary recalls (n = 238). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and canonical correlation were used to assess relationships between acculturation and dietary intakes. Canonical correlation (p = 0.05) showed that traditional African Americans had lower intakes of fruits/vegetables and milk/dairy with higher intakes of fats, meat, and nuts. This pattern was supported by differences in the ANOVA. African American acculturation is related to dietary intake. These findings have implications for the design of cancer-related public health messages targeted to African Americans. PMID:16015458

  10. Polymorphisms in the carcinogen detoxification genes CYB5A and CYB5R3 and breast cancer risk in African American women

    PubMed Central

    Blanke, Kristina L.; Sacco, James C.; Millikan, Robert C.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Luo, Jingchun; Trepanier, Lauren A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Cytochrome b5 (encoded by CYB5A) and NADH cytochrome b5 reductase (encoded by CYB5R3) detoxify aromatic and heterocyclic amine mammary carcinogens found in cigarette smoke. We hypothesized that CYB5A and CYB5R3 polymorphisms would be associated with breast cancer risk in women. Methods We characterized the prevalence of 18 CYB5A and CYB5R3 variants in genomic DNA from African American (AfrAm) and Caucasian (Cauc) women from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study population (1946 cases and 1747 controls), and determined their associations with breast cancer risk, with effect modification by smoking. Results A CYB5R3 variant, I1M+6T (rs8190370) was significantly more common in breast cancer cases (MAF 0.0238) compared to controls (0.0169, P =0.039); this was attributable to a higher MAF in AfrAm cases (0.0611) compared to AfrAm controls (0.0441, P=0.046; adjusted OR 1.41, CI 0.98-2.04; P=0.062). When smoking was considered, I1M+6T was more strongly associated with breast cancer risk in AfrAm smokers (adjusted OR 2.10, 1.08-4.07; P=0.028) compared to never-smokers (OR=1.21; 0.77-1.88; P for interaction=0.176). I1M+6T and three additional CYB5R3 variants, -251T, I8-1676C, and *392C, as well as two CYB5A variants, 13G and I2-992T, were significantly more common in AfrAms compared to Caucs. Conclusions CYB5R3 I1M+6 C>T should be considered in future molecular epidemiologic studies of breast cancer risk in AfrAms. Further, variants in CYB5A and CYB5R3 should be considered in the evaluation of other tumors in AfrAms that are associated with aromatic and heterocyclic amine exposures, to include prostate, bladder, and colon cancers. PMID:25225034

  11. Hot Spot Mutation in TP53 (R248Q) Causes Oncogenic Gain-of-Function Phenotypes in a Breast Cancer Cell Line Derived from an African American patient.

    PubMed

    Shtraizent, Nataly; Matsui, Hiroshi; Polotskaia, Alla; Bargonetti, Jill

    2016-01-01

    African American (AA) breast cancer patients often have triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) that contains mutations in the TP53 gene. The point mutations at amino acid residues R273 and R248 both result in oncogenic gain-of-function (GOF) phenotypes. Expression of mutant p53 (mtp53) R273H associates with increased cell elasticity, survival under serum deprivation conditions, and increased Poly (ADP ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) on the chromatin in the AA-derived TNBC breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-468. We hypothesized that GOF mtp53 R248Q expression could stimulate a similar phenotype in the AA-derived TNBC cell line HCC70. To test this hypothesis we depleted the R248Q protein in the HCC70 cell line using shRNA-mediated knockdown. Using impedance-based real-time analysis we correlated the expression of mtp53 R248Q with increased cell deformability. We also documented that depletion of mtp53 R248Q increased PARP1 in the cytoplasm and decreased PARP1 on the chromatin. We conclude that in the AA-derived TNBC HCC70 cells mtp53 R248Q expression results in a causative tumor associated phenotype. This study supports using the biological markers of high expression of mtp53 R273H or R248Q as additional diagnostics for TNBC resistant subtypes often found in the AA community. Each mtp53 protein must be considered separately and this work adds R248Q to the increasing list of p53 mutations that can be used for diagnostics and drug targeting. Here we report that when R248Q mtp53 proteins are expressed in TNBC, then targeting the gain-of-function pathways may improve treatment efficacy.

  12. Hot Spot Mutation in TP53 (R248Q) Causes Oncogenic Gain-of-Function Phenotypes in a Breast Cancer Cell Line Derived from an African American patient

    PubMed Central

    Shtraizent, Nataly; Matsui, Hiroshi; Polotskaia, Alla; Bargonetti, Jill

    2015-01-01

    African American (AA) breast cancer patients often have triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) that contains mutations in the TP53 gene. The point mutations at amino acid residues R273 and R248 both result in oncogenic gain-of-function (GOF) phenotypes. Expression of mutant p53 (mtp53) R273H associates with increased cell elasticity, survival under serum deprivation conditions, and increased Poly (ADP ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) on the chromatin in the AA-derived TNBC breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-468. We hypothesized that GOF mtp53 R248Q expression could stimulate a similar phenotype in the AA-derived TNBC cell line HCC70. To test this hypothesis we depleted the R248Q protein in the HCC70 cell line using shRNA-mediated knockdown. Using impedance-based real-time analysis we correlated the expression of mtp53 R248Q with increased cell deformability. We also documented that depletion of mtp53 R248Q increased PARP1 in the cytoplasm and decreased PARP1 on the chromatin. We conclude that in the AA-derived TNBC HCC70 cells mtp53 R248Q expression results in a causative tumor associated phenotype. This study supports using the biological markers of high expression of mtp53 R273H or R248Q as additional diagnostics for TNBC resistant subtypes often found in the AA community. Each mtp53 protein must be considered separately and this work adds R248Q to the increasing list of p53 mutations that can be used for diagnostics and drug targeting. Here we report that when R248Q mtp53 proteins are expressed in TNBC, then targeting the gain-of-function pathways may improve treatment efficacy. PMID:26703669

  13. Innate Immunity Pathways and Breast Cancer Risk in African American and European-American Women in the Women’s Circle of Health Study (WCHS)

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Zhihong; Quan, Lei; Yao, Song; Zirpoli, Gary; Bandera, Elisa V.; Roberts, Michelle; Coignet, Jean-Gabriel; Cabasag, Citadel; Sucheston, Lara; Hwang, Helena; Ciupak, Gregory; Davis, Warren; Pawlish, Karen; Jandorf, Lina; Bovbjerg, Dana H.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Hong, Chi-Chen

    2013-01-01

    African American (AA) women are more likely than European American (EA) women to be diagnosed with early, aggressive breast cancer. Possible differences in innate immune pathways (e.g., inflammatory responses) have received little attention as potential mechanisms underlying this disparity. We evaluated distributions of selected genetic variants in innate immune pathways in AA and EA women, and examined their associations with breast cancer risk within the Women’s Circle of Health Study (WCHS). In stage I of the study (864 AA and 650 EA women) we found that genotype frequencies for 35 of 42 tested SNPs (18 candidate genes) differed between AAs and EAs (corroborated by ancestry informative markers). Among premenopausal AA women, comparing variant allele carriers to non-carriers, reduced breast cancer risk was associated with CXCL5-rs425535 (OR=0.61, P=0.02), while among EA women, there were associations with TNFA-rs1799724 (OR =2.31, P =0.002) and CRP-rs1205 (OR=0.54, P=0.01). For postmenopausal women, IL1B-rs1143627 (OR=1.80, P=0.02) and IL1B-rs16944 (OR=1.85, P =0.02) were associated with risk among EA women, with significant associations for TNFA-rs1799724 limited to estrogen receptor (ER) positive cancers (OR=2.0, P =0.001). However, none of the SNPs retained significance after Bonferroni adjustment for multiple testing at the level of P0.0012 (0.05/42) except for TNFA-rs1799724 in ER positive cancers. In a stage II validation (1,365 AA and 1,307 EA women), we extended evaluations for four SNPs (CCL2-rs4586, CRP-rs1205, CXCL5-rs425535, and IL1RN-rs4251961), which yielded similar results. In summary, distributions of variants in genes involved in innate immune pathways were found to differ between AA and EA populations, and showed differential associations with breast cancer according to menopausal or ER status. These results suggest that immune adaptations suited to ancestral environments may differentially influence breast cancer risk among EA and AA women

  14. Factors influencing medical information seeking among African American cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Alicia K; Sellergren, Sarah A; Manfredi, Clara; Williams, Maryann

    2002-01-01

    Qualitative research methods were used to explore factors that may affect medical information seeking, treatment engagement, and emotional adjustment among African American cancer patients. Focus group findings suggest that an array of cultural and socioeconomic factors plays important roles in the behavior of African American cancer patients. Participants described a number of important barriers and facilitators of medical information seeking and treatment participation. Factors linked to the health care-related behaviors and adjustment of African American cancer patients included limited knowledge and misinformation about cancer, mistrust of the medical community, concerns about privacy, lack of insurance, religious beliefs, and emotional issues such as fear and stigma associated with seeking emotional support. Recommendations are made that may assist mental and physical health providers in improving patient information and mental and physical health outcomes of African American cancer patients.

  15. A Community-Based Exercise and Support Group Program Improves Quality of Life in African-American Breast Cancer Survivors: A Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nock, Nora L.; Owusu, Cynthia; Flocke, Susan; Krejci, Susan A.; Kullman, Emily L.; Austin, Kris; Bennett, Beth; Cerne, Stephen; Harmon, Carl; Moore, Halle; Vargo, Mary; Hergenroeder, Paul; Malone, Hermione; Rocco, Michael; Tracy, Russell; Lazarus, Hillard M.; Kirwan, John P.; Heyman, Ellen; Berger, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    African-American (AA) breast cancer (BCa) survivors have higher mortality rates, more comorbidities and are less likely to meet national physical activity guidelines after diagnosis compared to Caucasian BCa survivors. We previously reported that a 20-week resistance exercise intervention coupled with a support group and home walking program, conducted using facilities and personnel at a community cancer support center, in Stage I–III AA BCa survivors improved strength, fitness and circulating C-peptide levels. Here, we report our findings on changes in quality of life (QoL) and other behavioral measures associated with this 20-week intervention and, discuss findings from a qualitative analysis of semi-structured patient interviews. We found a clinically relevant improvement in QoL using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy for Breast Cancer (FACT-B) (Baseline, B: 101.1 ± 21.5; End-of-Intervention, EOI: 108.5 ± 21.6; p = 0.05) and, a significant decrease in depression using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (B: 11.9 ± 8.1; EOI: 9.0 ± 5.5; p = 0.03). Our analysis of the patient interviews support improvements in these behavioral measures in that participants stated that they “feel better”, were “more motivated” and “uplifted” after the program. The patient interviews also provided insights to the primary motivators (e.g., social support, improvements in strength and function, weight loss) and barriers (e.g., family and health issues) in adhering to the program and provided suggestions for improving the program (e.g., incorporating nutritional and treatment related side-effect discussions). Our results suggest that community-based lifestyle interventions may improve QoL and depression in AA BCa survivors and lend insights for improving future programs. PMID:26640827

  16. Factors associated with delays in screening of self-detected breast changes in African-American women.

    PubMed

    Gullatte, Mary Magee; Phillips, Janice M; Gibson, Lynette M

    2006-07-01

    Breast cancer mortality is higher among African-American women than among White women. African-American women are 25% more likely to present with late stage breast cancer and 20% more likely to die from breast cancer than White women. Treatment delay of 3 months is a significant factor in breast cancer mortality The purpose of this integrative review is to explore factors that impact delays in screening The most common patient-controlled delays were lack of education and knowledge about the perceived seriousness of breast symptoms, the associated risk factors, limited knowledge regarding the potential benefits of early detection in improving breast cancer survival, and expressed fatalistic perspectives about breast cancer. Other variables related to delays included factors such as advancing age, low socioeconomic status, fear of diagnosis, consequences of cancer treatments, shame and embarrassment, misconceptions about the etiology of breast cancer, family priorites, denial, and spirituality including faith-influenced delays. PMID:17004426

  17. Active surveillance of prostate cancer in African American men.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Jonathan L; Feibus, Allison H; Maddox, Michael M; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B; Moparty, Krishnarao; Thomas, Raju; Sartor, Oliver

    2014-12-01

    Active surveillance (AS) is a treatment strategy for prostate cancer (PCa) whereby patients diagnosed with PCa undergo ongoing characterization of their disease with the intent of avoiding radical treatment. Previously, AS has been demonstrated to be a reasonable option for men with low-risk PCa, but existing cohorts largely consist of Caucasian Americans. Because African Americans have a greater incidence, more aggressive, and potentially more lethal PCa than Caucasian Americans, it is unclear if AS is appropriate for African Americans. We performed a review of the available literature on AS with a focus on African Americans.

  18. Developing a Cancer Prevention Programme for African-American Daughters and Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annang, Lucy; Spencer, S. Melinda; Jackson, Dawnyéa; Rosemond, Tiara N.; Best, Alicia L.; Williams, Leah R.; Carlos, Bethany

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe how nominal group technique was used to inform the development of a breast and cervical cancer awareness programme for African-American adult daughters and mothers. Design: A qualitative approach using nominal group technique. Setting: A mid-sized city in the Southern USA. Method: Nominal group technique was used with 30…

  19. The African-American cancer crisis, Part II: A prescription.

    PubMed

    Byrd, W M; Clayton, L A

    1993-01-01

    To appreciate the causes of the African-American cancer crisis, contemporary myths and perceptual gaps regarding cancer in blacks must be analyzed and placed in historical context. Since ancient times, racism has permeated western scientific, medical, and social cultures. Yet contemporary analysts typically frame a 370-year-old African-American health deficit in nonracial terms, and ignore both the metamorphosis of racism and the impact of racism on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer; exposure to cancer-causing industrial pollutants; educational opportunities for black health professionals and policymakers, and other factors. If the African-American cancer crisis is to be halted, the growing divergence between urgent needs and meager resources devoted to preventing, detecting, and treating cancer in blacks must be sharply reversed.

  20. Perceptions of Support Among Older African American Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Jill B.; Moore, Charles E.; Powe, Barbara D.; Agarwal, Mansi; Martin, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To explore the perceived social support needs among older adult African American cancer survivors. Research Approach Qualitative design using grounded theory techniques. Setting Outpatient oncology clinics in the southeastern United States. Participants Focus groups with 22 older adult African American cancer survivors. Methodologic Approach Purposeful sampling technique was used to identify focus group participants. In-depth interviews were conducted and participants were interviewed until informational redundancy was achieved. Main Research Variables Social support needs of older adult African American patients with cancer. Findings Social support was influenced by (a) symptoms and treatment side effects, (b) perceptions of stigma and fears expressed by family and friends, (c) cultural beliefs about cancer, and (d) desires to lessen any burden or disruption to the lives of family and friends. Survivors navigated within and outside of their networks to get their social support needs met. In some instances, survivors socially withdrew from traditional sources of support for fear of being ostracized. Survivors also described feeling hurt, alone, and socially isolated when completely abandoned by friends. Conclusions The support from family, friends, and fellow church members is important to positive outcomes among older African American cancer survivors. However, misconceptions, fears, and negative cultural beliefs persist within the African American community and negatively influence the social support available to this population. Interpretations Early identification of the factors that influence social support can facilitate strategies to improve outcomes and decrease health disparities among this population. PMID:20591808

  1. Fatalistic Beliefs about Cancer Prevention among Older African American Men

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Mark; Shires, Deirdre; Chapman, Robert A.; Burnett, Janice

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Evidence suggests that minority groups are more likely to exhibit fatalistic beliefs about cancer prevention (FBCP); defined as confusion, pessimism, and helplessness about one’s ability to prevent cancer. This study examines socioeconomic and psychosocial predictors of FBCP among older African American men. Methods African American men (N=1,666) enrolled in Medicare and participating in a longitudinal study on patient navigation were surveyed. Measures included three FBCP constructs, demographic items, and physical and mental health variables. Binary logistic regression was performed. Results The average participant was 73.6 years old; 76.5% felt helpless, 44.2% were confused, and 40.7% were pessimistic about the ability to prevent cancer. As education increased, so did all three FBCP. Being downhearted was predictive of confused and helpless beliefs. Discussion It is critical for health practitioners to understand how psychosocial and economic challenges influence beliefs that may impede cancer prevention efforts for older African American men. PMID:25651585

  2. Perspectives of African Americans on Lung Cancer: A Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Waldman, Laura Tesler; Browning, Emily; Gagne, Joshua; Emmons, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Background. Disparities in incidence and mortality for lung cancer in African Americans are well documented; however, the extent to which disparities reflect differences in patient perceptions of tobacco and lung cancer treatment is unclear. The objective of this study was to explore African Americans’ knowledge of lung cancer, perceived risk, interest in smoking cessation, attitudes toward lung cancer treatment, and lung cancer diagnosis and treatment experiences. Patients and Methods. The cohort comprised 32 African-American current and former smokers without a cancer diagnosis who participated in focus groups and 10 African Americans with lung cancer who participated in in-depth interviews. Transcripts were analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. Results. Participants without a cancer diagnosis were aware of the link between smoking and lung cancer, the common symptoms of the disease, and its poor prognosis. They desired specific, personalized smoking-cessation information. If diagnosed, the majority reported, they would seek medical care. Most believed that insurance and socioeconomic factors were more likely to affect treatment access than racial discrimination. Participants with a cancer diagnosis were also aware of the relationship between smoking and lung cancer. They felt their treatment plans were appropriate and trusted their physicians. Most did not believe that race affected their care. Conclusion. This qualitative study suggests that African-American smokers are aware of the relationship between smoking and lung cancer and are interested in smoking-cessation treatment. These data also indicate that lung cancer disparities are unlikely to be associated with differential willingness to receive care but that African Americans may perceive financial and insurance barriers to lung cancer treatment. PMID:25795634

  3. Knowledge and Attitudes about Colon Cancer Screening among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Aimee S.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To explore knowledge and attitudes about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African American patients age 45 and older at a community health center serving low-income and uninsured patients. Methods: We conducted 7 focus groups and 17 additional semistructured interviews. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed…

  4. Admixture mapping of lung cancer in 1812 African-Americans.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Ann G; Wenzlaff, Angela S; Bock, Cathryn H; Ruterbusch, Julie J; Chen, Wei; Cote, Michele L; Artis, Amanda S; Van Dyke, Alison L; Land, Susan J; Harris, Curtis C; Pine, Sharon R; Spitz, Margaret R; Amos, Christopher I; Levin, Albert M; McKeigue, Paul M

    2011-03-01

    Lung cancer continues to be the leading cause of cancer death in the USA and the best example of a cancer with undisputed evidence of environmental risk. However, a genetic contribution to lung cancer has also been demonstrated by studies of familial aggregation, family-based linkage, candidate gene studies and most recently genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The African-American population has been underrepresented in these genetic studies and has patterns of cigarette use and linkage disequilibrium that differ from patterns in other populations. Therefore, studies in African-Americans can provide complementary data to localize lung cancer susceptibility genes and explore smoking dependence-related genes. We used admixture mapping to further characterize genetic risk of lung cancer in a series of 837 African-American lung cancer cases and 975 African-American controls genotyped at 1344 ancestry informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Both case-only and case-control analyses were conducted using ADMIXMAP adjusted for age, sex, pack-years of smoking, family history of lung cancer, history of emphysema and study site. In case-only analyses, excess European ancestry was observed over a wide region on chromosome 1 with the largest excess seen at rs6587361 for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (Z-score = -4.33; P = 1.5 × 10⁻⁵) and for women with NSCLC (Z-score = -4.82; P = 1.4 × 10⁻⁶). Excess African ancestry was also observed on chromosome 3q with a peak Z-score of 3.33 (P = 0.0009) at rs181696 among ever smokers with NSCLC. These results add to the findings from the GWAS in Caucasian populations and suggest novel regions of interest.

  5. Cancer screening patterns by weight group and gender for urban African American church members.

    PubMed

    Leone, Lucia A; Allicock, Marlyn; Pignone, Michael P; Johnson, La-Shell; Walsh, Joan F; Campbell, Marci K

    2012-04-01

    Obese white women have lower rates of cancer screening compared to non-obese women. This study will determine if a relationship exists between weight and adherence to cancer screening guidelines among African Americans. We used multivariate logistic regression to examine the relationship between being up-to-date with cancer screening (colorectal, breast, cervical, and prostate) and weight group (normal, overweight, obese I, obese II+) using data from older (age 50+) members (N = 955) of 20 African American churches in Michigan and North Carolina. CRC testing rates were examined using multiple definitions to account for differences in screening rates vs. polyp surveillance rates. After adjusting for confounders, we found relationships between weight group and up-to-date CRC (P = 0.04) and PSA (P = 0.004) testing for men and mammography (P = 0.03) for women. Compared to normal-weight men, obese I men were more likely to be up-to-date with CRC (OR 2.35, 95%CI 1.02-5.40) and PSA (OR 4.24 95%CI 1.77-10.17) testing. CRC screening rates were lower when individuals with polyps were excluded from the analysis; however, patterns by weight remained the same. Contrary to previous research, we did not find lower rates of cancer screening among obese African Americans. Instead, we found that normal-weight African American men had lower screening rates than any other group. As we did not consistently find lower screening rates among obese African Americans, targeting this group for increased screening promotion may not be the most effective way to reduce weight-related cancer disparities.

  6. A pilot randomized study of skills training for African American cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Davis, Cindy; Rust, Connie; Choi, Sam

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the efficacy of a psychosocial group intervention for African American breast cancer survivors based on the Cancer Survival Toolbox with the specific aim of decreasing distress and improving aspects of psychosocial functioning and quality of life. This pilot study utilized a randomized, repeated measures, experimental design. The study sample (N = 71) consisted of an intervention group (n = 23) of cancer survival skills training for 6 weeks and a control group (n = 48). The study could not confirm that cancer skills training in a psychoeducational group setting had a positive effect on decreasing stress or improving aspects of psychosocial functioning and quality of life.

  7. African American Men and Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... have one of the highest incidences of prostate cancer in the world, and in this country the ... an epidemic. Winston Dyer: My introduction to prostate cancer started with the death of my 46-year- ...

  8. Health Conditions Common in African American Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... health. Return to top Health conditions common in African-American women Asthma Breast cancer Cancer Cervical cancer Diabetes Glaucoma and cataracts Heart disease High blood pressure High cholesterol HIV/AIDS Infant death Kidney disease Lupus Mental health ...

  9. Donation Intentions for Cancer Genetics Research Among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jasmine A.; Weathers, Benita; Barg, Frances K.; Troxel, Andrea B.; Shea, Judy A.; Bowen, Deborah; Guerra, Carmen E.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Scientific agencies rely on individuals to donate their DNA to support research on chronic conditions that disproportionately affect African Americans; however, donation is variable in this population. The purpose of this study was to identify sociodemographic characteristics, health care variables, and cultural values having significant independent associations with intentions to donate blood or saliva samples for cancer genetics research among African American adults. Method: Cross-sectional survey of donation intentions. Results: The majority of respondents (73%) were willing to donate a biological sample for cancer genetics research. The results of the multivariate regression model found that respondents who received care at a facility other than a doctor's office (e.g., community center) were about five times more likely to be willing to donate a sample for cancer genetics research (odds ratio [OR]=5.28, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.16–24.12, p=0.03); whereas, greater levels of religiosity (OR=0.09, 95% CI=0.01–0.75, p=0.02) and present temporal orientation (OR=0.23, 95% CI=0.06–0.79, p=0.02) were associated with a lower likelihood of donating a sample. Conclusion: Efforts to enhance donation of biological samples for cancer genetics research may need to target diverse clinical sites for recruitment. Additionally, recruitment materials may need to address cultural values related to religiosity and present temporal orientation. PMID:22224593

  10. African American women's perceptions of cancer clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Haynes-Maslow, Lindsey; Godley, Paul; Dimartino, Lisa; White, Brandolyn; Odom, Janice; Richmond, Alan; Carpenter, William

    2014-01-01

    Cancer clinical trials are important for resolving cancer health disparities for several reasons; however, clinical trial participation among African Americans is significantly lower than Caucasians. This study engaged focus groups of 82 female African American cancer survivors or cancer caregivers, including those in better resourced, more urban areas and less resourced, more rural areas. Informed by an integrated conceptual model, the focus groups examined perceptions of cancer clinical trials and identified leverage points that future interventions may use to improve enrollment rates. Study findings highlight variation in community knowledge regarding cancer clinical trials, and the importance of community education regarding clinical trials and overcoming historical stigma associated with clinical research specifically and the health care system more generally. Study participants commented on the centrality of churches in their communities, and thus the promise of the church as loci of such education. Findings also suggested the value of informed community leaders as community information sources, including community members who have a previous diagnosis of cancer and clinical trial experience. The sample size and location of the focus groups may limit the generalizability of the results. Since the women in the focus groups were either cancer survivors or caregivers, they may have different experiences than nonparticipants who lack the close connection with cancer. Trust in the health system and in one's physician was seen as important factors associated with patient willingness to enroll in clinical trials, and participants suggested that physicians who were compassionate and who engaged and educated their patients would build important trust requisite for patient participation in clinical trials. PMID:24905181

  11. Spiritual Expressions of African Americans and Whites in Cancer Pain

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Harleah G.; Meghani, Salimah H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Spiritual practices are one way that individuals cope with cancer pain. Purpose Describe and contrast expressions and values about the use of spirituality for pain in African American (AA) and White (WH) oncology patients. Methods Six groups (3 AA; 3 WH; n=42; mean age 58) were conducted. Focus group and qualitative methodology with a cultural interpretive lens was utilized. The Model of Integrated Spirituality provided the conceptual framework for understanding the narratives. Findings AAs and WHs did not differ on demographics, pain status, or integrative therapies. Three spirituality themes emerged: 1) pain and distress as antecedents to the use of spirituality; 2) active and existential attributes of the use of spirituality; and 3) mobilization of internal and external resources as outcomes. There were commonalities between AAs and WHs but greater frequency of certain subthemes and keywords in AAs. Conclusions Future studies should examine whether differences in overt expressions translate into different types and levels of spiritual usage. Implications for Practice Clinicians should recognizing similar as well as different uses and descriptions of spirituality between African Americans and Whites. PMID:22024953

  12. Recruiting African American Men for Cancer Screening Studies: Applying a Culturally Based Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abernethy, Alexis D.; Magat, Maricar M.; Houston, Tina R.; Arnold, Harold L., Jr.; Bjorck, Jeffrey P.; Gorsuch, Richard L.

    2005-01-01

    In a study of psychosocial factors related to prostate cancer screening (PCS) of African American men, researchers achieved significant success in recruitment. Key strategies included addressing specific barriers to PCS for African American men and placing recruitment efforts in a conceptual framework that addressed cultural issues (PEN-3 model).…

  13. Obesity Predicts Differential Response to Cancer Prevention Interventions among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone, Lucia A.; James, Aimee S.; Allicock, Marlyn; Campbell, Marci K.

    2010-01-01

    "Wellness for African Americans Through Churches" was a randomized trial that tested the effectiveness of tailored print and video (TPV) and/or lay health advisors (LHA) at increasing recreational physical activity (RPA), fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption, and colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in African American churches. Baseline data…

  14. Circles of Care: Implementation and Evaluation of Support Teams for African Americans with Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Laura C.; Green, Melissa A.; Hayes, Michelle; Diehl, Sandra J.; Warnock, Steven; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Lin, Feng-Chang; Earp, Jo Anne

    2014-01-01

    Background: Community-based peer support may help meet the practical, emotional, and spiritual needs of African Americans with advanced cancer. Support teams are a unique model of peer support for persons facing serious illness, but research is rare. This study sought to (a) implement new volunteer support teams for African Americans with advanced…

  15. Variants in the vitamin D pathway, serum levels of vitamin D, and estrogen receptor negative breast cancer among African-American women: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction American women of African ancestry (AA) are more likely than European Americans (EA) to have estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer. 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) is low in AAs, and was associated with ER-negative tumors in EAs. We hypothesized that racial differences in 25OHD levels, as well as in inherited genetic variations, may contribute, in part, to the differences in tumor characteristics. Methods In a case (n = 928)-control (n = 843) study of breast cancer in AA and EA women, we measured serum 25OHD levels in controls and tested associations between risk and tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in VDR, CYP24A1 and CYP27B1, particularly by ER status. Results More AAs had severe vitamin D deficiency (< 10 ng/ml) than EAs (34.3% vs 5.9%), with lowest levels among those with the highest African ancestry. Associations for SNPs differed by race. Among AAs, VDR SNP rs2239186, associated with higher serum levels of 25OHD, decreased risk after correction for multiple testing (OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.31-0.79, p by permutation = 0.03), but had no effect in EAs. The majority of associations were for ER-negative breast cancer, with seven differential associations between AA and EA women for CYP24A1 (p for interaction < 0.10). SNP rs27622941 was associated with a > twofold increased risk of ER-negative breast cancer among AAs (OR = 2.62, 95% CI = 1.38-4.98), but had no effect in EAs. rs2209314 decreased risk among EAs (OR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.20-0.73), with no associations in AAs. The increased risk of ER-negative breast cancer in AAs compared to EAs was reduced and became non-significant (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 0.80-1.79) after adjusting for these two CYP24A1 SNPs. Conclusions These data suggest that genetic variants in the vitamin D pathway may be related to the higher prevalence of ER-negative breast cancer in AA women. PMID:22480149

  16. Fine-mapping IGF1 and prostate cancer risk in African Americans: the multiethnic cohort study.

    PubMed

    Giorgi, Elena E; Stram, Daniel O; Taverna, Darin; Turner, Stephen D; Schumacher, Fredrick; Haiman, Christopher A; Lum-Jones, Annette; Tirikainen, Maarit; Caberto, Christian; Duggan, David; Henderson, Brian E; Le Marchand, Loic; Cheng, Iona

    2014-09-01

    Genetic variation at insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) has been linked to prostate cancer risk. However, the specific predisposing variants have not been identified. In this study, we fine-mapped the IGF1 locus for prostate cancer risk in African Americans. We conducted targeted Roche GS-Junior 454 resequencing of a 156-kb region of IGF1 in 80 African American aggressive prostate cancer cases. Three hundred and thirty-four IGF1 SNPs were examined for their association with prostate cancer risk in 1,000 African American prostate cancer cases and 991 controls. The top associated SNP in African Americans, rs148371593, was examined in an additional 3,465 prostate cancer cases and 3,425 controls of non-African American ancestry-European Americans, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and Native Hawaiians. The overall association of 334 IGF1 SNPs and prostate cancer risk was assessed using logistic kernel-machine methods. The association between each SNP and prostate cancer risk was evaluated through unconditional logistic regression. A false discovery rate threshold of q < 0.1 was used to determine statistical significance of associations. We identified 8 novel IGF1 SNPs. The cumulative effect of the 334 IGF1 SNPs was not associated with prostate cancer risk (P = 0.13) in African Americans. Twenty SNPs were nominally associated with prostate cancer at P < 0.05. The top associated SNP among African Americans, rs148371593 [minor allele frequency (MAF) = 0.03; P = 0.0014; q > 0.1], did not reach our criterion of statistical significance. This polymorphism was rare in non-African Americans (MAF < 0.003) and was not associated with prostate cancer risk (P = 0.98). Our findings do not support the role of IGF1 variants and prostate cancer risk among African Americans.

  17. African Americans' and Hispanics' information needs about cancer care.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita; Ung, Danielle; Montiel-Ishino, F Alejandro; Nelson, Alison; Canales, Jorge; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2015-06-01

    Few studies have reported on African American and Hispanic (AA and H) populations' informational needs when seeking cancer care at an institution that offers clinical trials. Moffitt Cancer Center (MCC) sought to identify and examine the decision making process, the perceptions, and the preferred channels of communication about cancer care services for AA and H communities in order to develop a list of marketing recommendations. Five focus groups (N = 45) consisting of two AA and three H were conducted in four counties of the MCC catchment area in Tampa, FL. Participants were asked about their perceptions, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about cancer care and MCC. Focus groups were audio-recorded and verbatim transcripts were analyzed using content analysis. Similarities in responses were found between AA and H participants. Participants received general health and cancer information from media sources and word of mouth and preferred to hear patient testimonials. There were concerns about costs, insurance coverage, and the actual geographic location of the cancer center. In general, H participants were not opposed to participating in cancer clinical trials/research, whereas, AA participants were more hesitant. A majority of participants highly favored an institution that offered standard care and clinical trials. AA and H participants shared similar concerns and preferences in communication channels, but each group had specific informational needs. The perceptions and preferences of AA and H must be explored in order to successfully and efficiently increase cancer clinical trial participation. PMID:25189798

  18. African Americans' and Hispanics' information needs about cancer care.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita; Ung, Danielle; Montiel-Ishino, F Alejandro; Nelson, Alison; Canales, Jorge; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2015-06-01

    Few studies have reported on African American and Hispanic (AA and H) populations' informational needs when seeking cancer care at an institution that offers clinical trials. Moffitt Cancer Center (MCC) sought to identify and examine the decision making process, the perceptions, and the preferred channels of communication about cancer care services for AA and H communities in order to develop a list of marketing recommendations. Five focus groups (N = 45) consisting of two AA and three H were conducted in four counties of the MCC catchment area in Tampa, FL. Participants were asked about their perceptions, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about cancer care and MCC. Focus groups were audio-recorded and verbatim transcripts were analyzed using content analysis. Similarities in responses were found between AA and H participants. Participants received general health and cancer information from media sources and word of mouth and preferred to hear patient testimonials. There were concerns about costs, insurance coverage, and the actual geographic location of the cancer center. In general, H participants were not opposed to participating in cancer clinical trials/research, whereas, AA participants were more hesitant. A majority of participants highly favored an institution that offered standard care and clinical trials. AA and H participants shared similar concerns and preferences in communication channels, but each group had specific informational needs. The perceptions and preferences of AA and H must be explored in order to successfully and efficiently increase cancer clinical trial participation.

  19. Are You at Risk for Oral Cancer? What African American Men Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... nidcrinfo@mail.nih.gov . Order Now Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? About Clinical Trials Information for ... Know Are You At Risk for Oral Cancer? What African American Men Need to Know Main Content ...

  20. Perceived discrimination, coping, and quality of life for African-American and Caucasian persons with cancer.

    PubMed

    Merluzzi, Thomas V; Philip, Errol J; Zhang, Zhiyong; Sullivan, Courtney

    2015-07-01

    In racial disparities research, perceived discrimination is a proposed risk factor for unfavorable health outcomes. In a proposed "threshold-constraint" theory, discrimination intensity may exceed a threshold and require coping strategies, but social constraint limits coping options for African Americans, who may react to perceived racial discrimination with disengagement, because active strategies are not viable under this social constraint. Caucasian Americans may experience less discrimination and lower social constraint, and may use more active coping strategies. There were 213 African Americans and 121 Caucasian Americans with cancer who participated by completing measures of mistreatment, coping, and quality of life. African Americans reported more mistreatment than Caucasian Americans (p < 001) and attributed mistreatment more to race or ethnicity (p < .001). In the mistreatment-quality of life relationship, disengagement was a significant mediator for Caucasians (B = -.39; CI .13-.83) and African Americans (B = -.20; CI .07-.43). Agentic coping was a significant mediator only for Caucasians (B = -.48; CI .18-.81). Discrimination may exceed threshold more often for African Americans than for Caucasians and social constraint may exert greater limits for African Americans. Results suggest that perceived discrimination affects quality of life for African Americans with cancer because their coping options to counter mistreatment, which is racially based, are limited. This process may also affect treatment, recovery, and survivorship.

  1. Hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, vitamin D, and colorectal cancer among whites and African Americans.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chung-Jyi; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2012-10-01

    African Americans have the highest incidence and mortality rates of colorectal cancer among all US racial and ethnic groups. Dietary factors, lifestyle factors, obesity, variability in screening rates, socioeconomic differences, barriers to screening, and differences in access to health care may be contributory factors to racial and ethnic disparities. African Americans are more likely to demonstrate microsatellite instability in their colorectal tumors leading to malignancy. However, these differences do not completely explain all the variances. Ample evidence implicates insulin resistance and its associated conditions, including elevated insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), in colorectal carcinogenesis. African Americans have a high risk for and a high prevalence of insulin resistance and subsequent overt type 2 diabetes. Recent clinical studies revealed that ethnic differences between whites and African Americans in early diabetes-related conditions including hyperinsulinemia already exist during childhood. African Americans have a much higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency than whites throughout their life spans. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with higher rates of diabetes and colorectal cancer, particularly in individuals with high serum insulin and IGF-1 levels. Moreover, African Americans have lower insulin sensitivity in tissues, independent of obesity, fat distribution, and inflammation. Further development of measures of biomarkers of tumor biology and host susceptibility may provide further insight on risk stratification in African Americans.

  2. Colorectal cancer screening in African Americans: practice patterns in the United States. Are we doing enough?

    PubMed Central

    Waghray, Abhijeet; Jain, Alok; Waghray, Nisheet

    2016-01-01

    Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common form of malignancy and a leading cause of death in the United States. Screening decreases CRC incidence and mortality. African Americans are at an increased risk of developing CRC, and recommendations are to initiate screening at the age of 45. This study aims to assess the rate of screening for colorectal cancer in African Americans between the ages of 45–49. Methods: African Americans between the ages of 45–49 were identified in the Explorys national database. Patients who completed a colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy or fecal occult blood test were identified and stratified by sex and insurance status. A P value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: A total of 181 200 African Americans were identified as eligible for screening. Only 31 480 patients (17.4%) received at least one screening procedure for CRC. The majority of patients (66.7%) were screened via colonoscopy. African American females were more likely to complete a screening test (17.8% vs 16.7%; P < 0.01). The majority of patients (66.0%) who completed a screening test had private insurance. Conclusion: Race, gender and barriers to medical care contribute to disparities in CRC screening rates. Among African Americans, CRC screening remains suboptimal. Tailored public health initiatives, medical record alerts and improved communication between providers and patients are fundamental to addressing issues that impact poor adherence to CRC screening in African Americans. PMID:27071411

  3. Lessons learned in developing a culturally adapted intervention for African-American families coping with parental cancer.

    PubMed

    Davey, Maureen P; Kissil, Karni; Lynch, Laura; Harmon, La-Rhonda; Hodgson, Nancy

    2012-12-01

    Prior clinical research supports the effectiveness of cancer support groups for cancer patients and their families, yet African-American families continue to be underrepresented in cancer support groups and in cancer clinical research studies. In order to fill this gap, we developed and evaluated a culturally adapted family support group for African-American families coping with parental cancer. We encountered unexpected challenges in overcoming barriers to recruitment, partnering with oncology providers, and building trust with the African-American community and African-American families coping with parental cancer. We describe actions taken during the two phases of this study and lessons learned along the way about recruiting and engaging African-American families in cancer support group studies, partnering with oncology providers, networking with the African-American community, and the importance of demonstrating cultural sensitivity to overcome the understandable historical legacy of mistrust.

  4. Development and validation of measures of religious involvement and the cancer experience among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Cheryl L.; Caplan, Lee; Schulz, Emily; Blake, Victor; Southward, Vivian L.; Buckner, Ayanna V.

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that African Americans diagnosed with cancer tend to use religion in coping, however less is known about the specific role that religion plays in the coping process. Based on previous qualitative work, five instruments were developed to assess the role of religious involvement in cancer coping: God as helper, God as healer, Faith in healing, Control over cancer, and New perspective. The instruments were administered to 100 African Americans with cancer. Each exhibited high internal reliability, and concurrent and discriminant validity. These instruments may have applied value for the development of church-based cancer support/survivorship interventions. PMID:19383653

  5. African American Participation in Oncology Clinical Trials--Focus on Prostate Cancer: Implications, Barriers, and Potential Solutions.

    PubMed

    Ahaghotu, Chiledum; Tyler, Robert; Sartor, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    In the United States, the incidence and mortality rates of many cancers, especially prostate cancer, are disproportionately high among African American men compared with Caucasian men. Recently, mortality rates for prostate cancer have declined more rapidly in African American versus Caucasian men, but prostate cancer is still the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in African American men in the United States. Compared with Caucasian men, prostate cancer occurs at younger ages, has a higher stage at diagnosis, and is more likely to progress after definitive treatments in African American men. Reasons for racial discrepancies in cancer are multifactorial and potentially include socioeconomic, cultural, nutritional, and biologic elements. In addition to improving access to novel therapies, clinical trial participation is essential to adequately establish the risks and benefits of treatments in African American populations. Considering the disproportionately high mortality rates noted in these groups, our understanding of the natural history and responses to therapies is limited. This review will explore African American underrepresentation in clinical trials with a focus on prostate cancer, and potentially effective strategies to engage African American communities in prostate cancer research. Solutions targeting physicians, investigators, the community, and health care systems are identified. Improvement of African American participation in prostate cancer clinical trials will benefit all stakeholders. PMID:26786562

  6. African-American heredity prostate cancer study: a model for genetic research.

    PubMed

    Powell, I J; Carpten, J; Dunston, G; Kittles, R; Bennett, J; Hoke, G; Pettaway, C; Weinrich, S; Vijayakumar, S; Ahaghotu, C A; Boykin, W; Mason, T; Royal, C; Baffoe-Bonnie, A; Bailey-Wilson, J; Berg, K; Trent, J; Collins, F

    2001-04-01

    A genome-wide scan of high-risk prostate cancer families in North America has demonstrated linkage of a particular marker to Chromosome 1q (HPC1). An even greater proportion of African-American families have shown linkage to HPC1. Therefore, investigators at the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) in collaboration with Howard University and a predominantly African-American group of urologists established the African-American Hereditary Prostate Cancer (AAHPC) Study Network to confirm the suggested linkage of HPC in African Americans with a gene on Chromosome 1. Blood samples from recruited families were sent to Howard University for extraction of DNA. The DNA was sent to NHGRI at NIH where the genotyping and genetic sequence analysis was conducted. Genotype data are merged with pedigree information so that statistical analysis can be performed to establish potential linkage. From March 1, 1998, to June 1, 1999, a total of 40 African-American families have been recruited who met the study criteria. Preliminary results suggest that racial/ethnicity grouping may affect the incidence and extent of linkage of prostate cancer to specific loci. The importance of these findings lays in the future treatment of genetic-based diseases.

  7. Family and friend interactions among African-American men deciding whether or not to have a prostate cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Jones, Randy A; Steeves, Richard; Williams, Ishan

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer disproportionately affects African-American men. Family, friends, and trust in health care providers are factors that influence the decision making of African-American men when determining whether or not to get a prostate cancer screening done. PMID:20648856

  8. Word on the Street: Engaging Local Leaders in a Dialogue About Prostate Cancer Among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfeld, Elinor R.; Francis, Linda E.

    2016-01-01

    African American men face the highest rates of prostate cancer, yet with no consensus for screening and treatment, making informed health care decisions is difficult. This study aimed to identify approaches to empowering African American men as proactive participants in prostate cancer decision making using an established community–campus partnership employing elements of community-based participatory research methods. Community stakeholders with an interest in, and knowledge about, health care in two local African American communities were recruited and completed key informant interviews (N = 39). Grounded theory coding identified common themes related to prostate cancer knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and responses to them. Common barriers such as gender roles, fear, and fatalism were identified as barriers to work-up and treatment, and both communities’ inadequate and inaccurate prostate cancer information described as the key problem. To build on community strengths, participants said the change must come from inside these communities, not be imposed from the outside. To accomplish this, they suggested reaching men through women, connecting men to doctors they can trust, making men’s cancer education part of broader health education initiatives designed as fun and inexpensive family entertainment events, and having churches bring community members in to speak on their experiences with cancer. This study demonstrated the success of community engagement to identify not only barriers but also local strengths and facilitators to prostate cancer care in two suburban/rural African American communities. Building collaboratively on community strengths may improve prostate cancer care specifically and health care in general. PMID:25595017

  9. Enhancing Adherence among Older African American Men Enrolled in a Longitudinal Cancer Screening Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Marvella E.; Havstad, Suzanne; Vernon, Sally W.; Davis, Shawna D.; Kroll, David; Lamerato, Lois; Swanson, G. Marie

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to enhance adherence among older (aged 55 years and older) African American men enrolled in a cancer screening trial for prostate, lung, and colorectal cancer. For this study, we defined "adherence" as completing the trial screenings. Design and Methods: We used a randomized trial design. Case managers…

  10. Word on the Street: Engaging Local Leaders in a Dialogue About Prostate Cancer Among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Elinor R; Francis, Linda E

    2016-09-01

    African American men face the highest rates of prostate cancer, yet with no consensus for screening and treatment, making informed health care decisions is difficult. This study aimed to identify approaches to empowering African American men as proactive participants in prostate cancer decision making using an established community-campus partnership employing elements of community-based participatory research methods. Community stakeholders with an interest in, and knowledge about, health care in two local African American communities were recruited and completed key informant interviews (N = 39). Grounded theory coding identified common themes related to prostate cancer knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and responses to them. Common barriers such as gender roles, fear, and fatalism were identified as barriers to work-up and treatment, and both communities' inadequate and inaccurate prostate cancer information described as the key problem. To build on community strengths, participants said the change must come from inside these communities, not be imposed from the outside. To accomplish this, they suggested reaching men through women, connecting men to doctors they can trust, making men's cancer education part of broader health education initiatives designed as fun and inexpensive family entertainment events, and having churches bring community members in to speak on their experiences with cancer. This study demonstrated the success of community engagement to identify not only barriers but also local strengths and facilitators to prostate cancer care in two suburban/rural African American communities. Building collaboratively on community strengths may improve prostate cancer care specifically and health care in general.

  11. Current Knowledge and Perceptions of Cancer Held by African American Seniors in the District of Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Stephanie; Young, Loretha; Cousin, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cancer is a disease that is perceived negatively, especially in the African American community. Cultural attitudes, beliefs, and the lack of relevant health information all play a role in the extent of the negative perceptions of this multifaceted disease. Purpose: To conduct a qualitative assessment of the perceptions of cancer of…

  12. A Community-Driven Intervention for Prostate Cancer Screening in African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Kushal; Ukoli, Flora; Liu, Jianguo; Beech, Derrick; Beard, Katina; Brown, Byron; Sanderson, Maureen; Kenerson, Donna; Cooper, Leslie; Canto, Marie; Blot, Bill; Hargreaves, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of an educational intervention on prostate cancer screening behavior and knowledge. Participants were 104 African American men, 45 years and older, who had not been screened for prostate cancer with a prostate-specific antigen and/or digital rectal exam within the past year. All participants…

  13. Influence of Place of Residence in Access to Specialized Cancer Care for African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onega, Tracy; Duell, Eric J.; Shi, Xun; Demidenko, Eugene; Goodman, David

    2010-01-01

    Context: Disparities in cancer care for rural residents and for African Americans have been documented, but the interaction of these factors is not well understood. Purpose: The authors examined the simultaneous influence of race and place of residence on access to and utilization of specialized cancer care in the United States. Methods: Access to…

  14. Breast cancer disparities: high-risk breast cancer and African ancestry.

    PubMed

    Newman, Lisa A

    2014-07-01

    African American women have a lower lifetime incidence of breast cancer than white/Caucasian Americans yet have a higher risk of breast cancer mortality. African American women are also more likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer at young ages, and they have higher risk for the biologically more aggressive triple-negative breast cancers. These features are also more common among women from western, sub-Saharan Africa who share ancestry with African Americans, and this prompts questions regarding an association between African ancestry and inherited susceptibility for certain patterns of mammary carcinogenesis.

  15. Assessing the Key Attributes of Low Utilization of Mammography Screening and Breast-self Exam among African-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Rupak; David, Nganwa; Bogale, Asseged; Nandy, Shami; Habtemariam, T.; Tameru, Berhanu

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: African-American (AA) women living in four Black Belt Counties (BBC) of Alabama; consisting of Barbour, Macon, Green and Wilcox are known to have lower mammogram utilization and breast self-exam rates when compared to their white female counterparts. The influence of socioeconomic and demographic factors on these disparities has not been clearly defined so far. Our study was designed to determine whether these observed disparities can be predicted with the socioeconomic and other demographic attributes. METHODS: Health Disparity Questionnaires data (n = 516) for BBC of Alabama was analyzed using a logistic regression model to examine the association of breast cancer screening rates and breast self-exam with income, the level of education, family doctor, type of health insurance, obesity, and age. RESULTS: Income, education, family doctor, age and health insurance were independent predictors for the low utilization rate of mammography and breast self-exam (BSE). CONCLUSION: Improving socioeconomic conditions such as level of education and availability of health care are essential to increase the rates of breast cancer screening test and breast self-exam in the BBC of Alabama. PMID:26958089

  16. Case-control assessment of diet and lung cancer risk in African Americans and Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    Pillow, P C; Hursting, S D; Duphorne, C M; Jiang, H; Honn, S E; Chang, S; Spitz, M R

    1997-01-01

    In this case-control study we determined whether dietary differences underlie some of the ethnic and sex differences in US lung cancer rates. We examined the relationship between diet and lung cancer development in 137 lung cancer cases (93 African Americans and 44 Mexican Americans) and 187 controls (78 African Americans and 109 Mexican Americans). Cases reported a higher daily mean total fat intake (p < 0.001), whereas controls had a higher daily mean intake of dietary fiber (p < 0.001) and fruits (p = 0.02). Ethnic differences in diet were also observed: Mexican Americans consumed less total fat (p < 0.02) and more fiber (p < 0.001) and vegetables (p = 0.08) than African Americans. Additionally, men consumed more total fat (p = 0.08) and less fiber (p = 0.001), fruits (p < 0.001), and vegetables (p = 0.002) than women. Multivariable analysis, after adjustment for the effects of pack-years of smoking, age, total energy intake, sex, and ethnicity, demonstrated a positive association between high total fat consumption and lung cancer risk (p < 0.01) and an inverse association between high fruit consumption and lung cancer risk (p = 0.05). In conclusion, our findings support the hypothesis that diet, particularly high fat consumption and low fruit and vegetable consumption, contributes (independent of cigarette smoking) to the excess lung cancer risk in African-American men, who have the highest lung cancer rates in the United States.

  17. Occupational Risk Factors for Selected Cancers Among African American and White Men in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Nathaniel C.; Levine, Robert S.; Hall, H. Irene; Cosby, Otis; Brann, Edward A.; Hennekens, Charles H.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined occupational risks for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, Hodgkin’s disease, and soft-tissue sarcoma among African American and White men. Methods. Race-specific multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted using data from a large US population-based case–control study. Results. Significant occupational risks were limited to African Americans; chromium was associated with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (odds ratio [OR] = 3.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2, 12.9) and wood dust was associated with Hodgkin’s disease (OR = 4.6, 95% CI = 1.6, 13.3) and soft-tissue sarcoma (OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 1.6, 8.6). Conclusions. Race-specific occupational risk factors for cancer were evident only among African American men. This may reflect racial disparities in levels of exposure to occupational carcinogens. PMID:14534232

  18. Validity of the Process of Change for Colorectal Cancer Screening Among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    DuHamel, Katherine; Li, Yuelin; Rakowski, William; Samimi, Parisa; Jandorf, Lina

    2013-01-01

    Background Process of change (POC) is a construct of the transtheoretical model that proposes to promote healthy behaviors. Purpose African Americans participate in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening less often than whites, while disease onset is younger, and incidence and mortality from CRC are higher. Methods POC items for CRC screening were administered to 158 African Americans, the majority of whom were female (75.9%) and were not employed (85.4%). Confirmatory factor analysis was used to validate four factors reflecting the POC sub-domains. Results Support of the factor validity of the POC with internal consistency of standardized alpha for the four factors was found. A logistic regression showed predictive validity in predicting current screening stage for two of the four sub-domains. Conclusion These data support the application of the POC to prediction of CRC screening intention among African Americans. PMID:21165726

  19. Characterizing genetic risk at known prostate cancer susceptibility loci in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Haiman, Christopher A; Chen, Gary K; Blot, William J; Strom, Sara S; Berndt, Sonja I; Kittles, Rick A; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Isaacs, William B; Ingles, Sue A; Stanford, Janet L; Diver, W Ryan; Witte, John S; Chanock, Stephen J; Kolb, Suzanne; Signorello, Lisa B; Yamamura, Yuko; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Thun, Michael J; Murphy, Adam; Casey, Graham; Sheng, Xin; Wan, Peggy; Pooler, Loreall C; Monroe, Kristine R; Waters, Kevin M; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N; Stram, Daniel O; Henderson, Brian E

    2011-05-01

    GWAS of prostate cancer have been remarkably successful in revealing common genetic variants and novel biological pathways that are linked with its etiology. A more complete understanding of inherited susceptibility to prostate cancer in the general population will come from continuing such discovery efforts and from testing known risk alleles in diverse racial and ethnic groups. In this large study of prostate cancer in African American men (3,425 prostate cancer cases and 3,290 controls), we tested 49 risk variants located in 28 genomic regions identified through GWAS in men of European and Asian descent, and we replicated associations (at p≤0.05) with roughly half of these markers. Through fine-mapping, we identified nearby markers in many regions that better define associations in African Americans. At 8q24, we found 9 variants (p≤6×10(-4)) that best capture risk of prostate cancer in African Americans, many of which are more common in men of African than European descent. The markers found to be associated with risk at each locus improved risk modeling in African Americans (per allele OR = 1.17) over the alleles reported in the original GWAS (OR = 1.08). In summary, in this detailed analysis of the prostate cancer risk loci reported from GWAS, we have validated and improved upon markers of risk in some regions that better define the association with prostate cancer in African Americans. Our findings with variants at 8q24 also reinforce the importance of this region as a major risk locus for prostate cancer in men of African ancestry.

  20. African Americans' Perceptions of Prostate-Specific Antigen Prostate Cancer Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Jaimie C.; Vines, Anissa I.; Carlisle, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Background: In 2012, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force released a hotly debated recommendation against prostate-specific antigen testing for all men. The present research examines African Americans' beliefs about their susceptibility to prostate cancer (PCa) and the effectiveness of prostate-specific antigen testing in the context of the…

  1. Barriers to Obtaining Sera and Tissue Specimens of African-American Women for the Advancement of Cancer Research

    PubMed Central

    Strissel, Katherine J.; Nicholas, Dequina A.; Castagne-Charlotin, Myriam; Ko, Naomi; Denis, Gerald V.

    2016-01-01

    African-American women, a historically understudied and underserved group, have increased risk for triple-negative breast cancer and obesity-associated disease. Obesity-associated metabolic diseases share a common link of low grade chronic inflammation, but not all obese women have metabolic disturbances or are inflamed. One goal of our ongoing research is to identify blood biomarkers that can predict increased risk of breast cancer in women who have obesity or metabolic dysfunction. However, vulnerable populations that stand to benefit most from advances in biomedical research are also underrepresented in research studies. The development of effective, novel approaches for cancer prevention and treatment will require significant basic medical research effort to establish the necessary evidence base in multiple populations. Work with vulnerable human subjects at a safety net hospital enabled us to comment on potential obstacles to obtaining serological and tissue specimens from African-American women. Here, we report some unexpected barriers to participation in our ongoing research study that might inform future efforts. PMID:27441007

  2. Health parties for African American study recruitment.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Georgia Robins; York, Crystal; Madlensky, Lisa; Gibson, Kathi; Wasserman, Linda; Rosenthal, Eric; Barbier, Leslie; Newman, Vicky A; Tso, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    Innovative strategies are needed to increase minorities' research participation. Using existing social networks within the African American community, "home health parties" were tested as a way to recruit African American women to a breast cancer control study. Parties included social, educational, and recruitment components. All women attending health parties consented, completed a survey, and received the study's preliminary breast cancer risk assessment. There were no differences in rates of participation for subsequent study components between women recruited via parties versus other methods. Health parties are viable recruitment strategies, reduce barriers to participation, provide a supportive environment, and are relatively inexpensive. PMID:17020516

  3. Comparing knowledge of colorectal and prostate cancer among African American and Hispanic men.

    PubMed

    Powe, Barbara D; Cooper, Dexter L; Harmond, Lokie; Ross, Louie; Mercado, Flavia E; Faulkenberry, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    African American and Hispanic men are less likely to participate in prostate and colorectal cancer screening and have poorer outcomes from these diseases. Guided by the Patient/Provider/System Theoretical Model for Cancer Screening, this study compares the relationships among knowledge of prostate and colorectal cancer, perceptions of cancer fatalism, common sources of cancer information, and awareness of cancer resources screening between African American (n = 72) and Hispanic (n = 47) men who attend federally qualified health centers and a hospital-based primary care clinic in a southern state. African American men were older, had higher levels of education, and were more knowledgeable about cancer than Hispanic men were. However, Hispanic men were more fatalistic about cancer. Most men in both groups were more likely to get cancer information from the television and/or radio, with few accessing the Internet for this information. The men were not aware of many of the leading cancer-related organizations and programs. Nurses continue to play a critical role in patient education and enhancing screening rates. These findings suggest that culturally and educationally appropriate intervention strategies are needed to enhance knowledge and that the television/radio may be an effective medium for delivering these strategies.

  4. Adverse Clinical Outcome Associated With Mutations That Typify African American Colorectal Cancers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenghe; Li, Li; Guda, Kishore; Chen, Zhengyi; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Park, Young Soo; Markowitz, Sanford D; Willis, Joseph

    2016-12-01

    African Americans have the highest incidence and mortality from colorectal cancer (CRC) of any US racial group. We recently described a panel of 15 genes that are statistically significantly more likely to be mutated in CRCs from African Americans than in Caucasians (AA-CRC genes). The current study investigated the outcomes associated with these mutations in African American CRCs (AA-CRCs). In a cohort of 66 patients with stage I-III CRCs, eight of 27 CRCs with AA-CRC gene mutations (Mut+) developed metastatic disease vs only four of 39 mutation-negative (Mut-) cases (P = .03, Cox regression model with two-sided Wald test). Moreover, among stage III cases (n = 33), Mut+ cancers were nearly three times more likely to relapse as Mut- cases (7 of 15 Mut+ vs 3 of 18 Mut-; P = .03, Cox regression model with two-sided Wald test). AA-CRC mutations may thus define a high-risk subset of CRCs that contributes to the overall disparity in CRC outcomes observed in African Americans.

  5. Adverse Clinical Outcome Associated With Mutations That Typify African American Colorectal Cancers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenghe; Li, Li; Guda, Kishore; Chen, Zhengyi; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Park, Young Soo; Markowitz, Sanford D; Willis, Joseph

    2016-12-01

    African Americans have the highest incidence and mortality from colorectal cancer (CRC) of any US racial group. We recently described a panel of 15 genes that are statistically significantly more likely to be mutated in CRCs from African Americans than in Caucasians (AA-CRC genes). The current study investigated the outcomes associated with these mutations in African American CRCs (AA-CRCs). In a cohort of 66 patients with stage I-III CRCs, eight of 27 CRCs with AA-CRC gene mutations (Mut+) developed metastatic disease vs only four of 39 mutation-negative (Mut-) cases (P = .03, Cox regression model with two-sided Wald test). Moreover, among stage III cases (n = 33), Mut+ cancers were nearly three times more likely to relapse as Mut- cases (7 of 15 Mut+ vs 3 of 18 Mut-; P = .03, Cox regression model with two-sided Wald test). AA-CRC mutations may thus define a high-risk subset of CRCs that contributes to the overall disparity in CRC outcomes observed in African Americans. PMID:27582379

  6. Enhancing knowledge of colorectal cancer among African Americans: why are we waiting until age 50?

    PubMed

    Powe, Barbara D; Finnie, Ramona; Ko, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Because of low rates of colorectal cancer screening among African Americans, it may be beneficial to begin educating persons about this disease before age 50. Using the Patient/Provider/System Theoretical Model for cancer screening, this study compared knowledge of colorectal cancer, sources of information, and awareness of programs among participants of age 20-29, 30-49, and 50-75 years. The majority (n = 354) were women and African American (mean age = 37 years, mean education = 12th grade). Younger participants tended to know less about the disease, but there were few differences in knowledge between the two older groups. Persons in the 40-49-year age group were more likely to be familiar with the role diet plays in the risk of colorectal cancer. Participants associated the need for screening with the presence of symptoms. Television and radio were listed as the most frequent source of information about cancer. The Internet was the least used. The majority were not familiar with selected national programs and services focused on increasing awareness of cancer. Findings suggest that colorectal cancer-related information should be targeted toward this population before age 50, using multiple sources such as TV/radio, providers, magazines, and cancer-related organizations. An estimated 104,950 colon and 40,340 rectal cancer cases will be diagnosed in 2005 with an estimated 56,290 deaths from the disease (American Cancer Society [ACS], 2005). Despite a stabilization of colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence rates since the 1980s, African American males and females have higher incidence and mortality rates associated with this disease compared to Whites. The 5-year survival rate for CRC among African Americans improved to 54% during the years 1995-2000, but lagged well behind the 64% survival rate for Whites during the same time period. Screening and early detection of CRC followed by effective treatment is crucial to reducing these mortality rates.

  7. Gene by Environment Investigation of Incident Lung Cancer Risk in African-Americans

    PubMed Central

    David, Sean P.; Wang, Ange; Kapphahn, Kristopher; Hedlin, Haley; Desai, Manisha; Henderson, Michael; Yang, Lingyao; Walsh, Kyle M.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Wiencke, John K.; Spitz, Margaret R.; Wenzlaff, Angela S.; Wrensch, Margaret R.; Eaton, Charles B.; Furberg, Helena; Mark Brown, W.; Goldstein, Benjamin A.; Assimes, Themistocles; Tang, Hua; Kooperberg, Charles L.; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Tindle, Hilary; Patel, Manali I.; Amos, Christopher I.; Bergen, Andrew W.; Swan, Gary E.; Stefanick, Marcia L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies have identified polymorphisms linked to both smoking exposure and risk of lung cancer. The degree to which lung cancer risk is driven by increased smoking, genetics, or gene–environment interactions is not well understood. Methods We analyzed associations between 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with smoking quantity and lung cancer in 7156 African-American females in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI), then analyzed main effects of top nominally significant SNPs and interactions between SNPs, cigarettes per day (CPD) and pack-years for lung cancer in an independent, multi-center case–control study of African-American females and males (1078 lung cancer cases and 822 controls). Findings Nine nominally significant SNPs for CPD in WHI were associated with incident lung cancer (corrected p-values from 0.027 to 6.09 × 10− 5). CPD was found to be a nominally significant effect modifier between SNP and lung cancer for six SNPs, including CHRNA5 rs2036527[A](betaSNP*CPD = − 0.017, p = 0.0061, corrected p = 0.054), which was associated with CPD in a previous genome-wide meta-analysis of African-Americans. Interpretation These results suggest that chromosome 15q25.1 variants are robustly associated with CPD and lung cancer in African-Americans and that the allelic dose effect of these polymorphisms on lung cancer risk is most pronounced in lighter smokers. PMID:26981579

  8. Dietary carbohydrate intake, glycaemic load, glycaemic index and ovarian cancer risk in African-American women.

    PubMed

    Qin, Bo; Moorman, Patricia G; Alberg, Anthony J; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Bondy, Melissa; Cote, Michele L; Funkhouser, Ellen; Peters, Edward S; Schwartz, Ann G; Terry, Paul; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Bandera, Elisa V

    2016-02-28

    Epidemiological evidence regarding the association between carbohydrate intake, glycaemic load (GL) and glycaemic index (GI) and risk of ovarian cancer has been mixed. Little is known about their impact on ovarian cancer risk in African-American women. Associations between carbohydrate quantity and quality and ovarian cancer risk were investigated among 406 cases and 609 controls using data from the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study (AACES). AACES is an ongoing population-based case-control study of ovarian cancer in African-Americans in the USA. Cases were identified through rapid case ascertainment and age- and site-matched controls were identified by random-digit dialling. Dietary information over the year preceding diagnosis or the reference date was obtained using a FFQ. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% CI adjusted for covariates. The OR comparing the highest quartile of total carbohydrate intake and total sugar intake v. the lowest quartile were 1·57 (95% CI 1·08, 2·28; P trend=0·03) and 1·61 (95% CI 1·12, 2·30; P trend<0·01), respectively. A suggestion of an inverse association was found for fibre intake. Higher GL was positively associated with the risk of ovarian cancer (OR 1·18 for each 10 units/4184 kJ (1000 kcal); 95% CI 1·04, 1·33). No associations were observed for starch or GI. Our findings suggest that high intake of total sugars and GL are associated with greater risk of ovarian cancer in African-American women.

  9. Cultural perceptions in cancer care among African-American and Caucasian patients.

    PubMed Central

    Matsuyama, Robin K.; Grange, Christina; Lyckholm, Laurie J.; Utsey, Shawn O.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: This exploratory study examined perceptions and beliefs of African Americans and Caucasians related to cancer care. Understanding belief systems and cultures optimizes cancer treatment and care delivery to ethnic minority individuals. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Focus groups were conducted with 39 African-American and Caucasian cancer patients. Data analysis included whole group analysis with a team of five researchers. RESULTS: Regardless of ethnicity, cancer patients share many of the same emotions and experiences, and want complete information and quality care. Differences were also apparent. African-American participants were more likely to report increased religious behaviors, believe that healthcare providers demonstrate care with simple actions and provision of practical assistance, and use church and community information sources. Caucasian participants were more likely to report spiritual but not overtly religious changes, and depend on healthcare providers for information. CONCLUSION: Understanding how culture colors perceptions, communication and information requirements is critical to providing effective care to ethnically diverse cancer patients. Findings have implications for professionals understanding ways patients seek information, the role of spirituality and religion in care, and ways healthcare providers demonstrate care. PMID:17987914

  10. Regional, racial, and gender differences in colorectal cancer screening in middle-aged African-Americans and Whites.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Phyllis M; Suzuki, Rie

    2012-12-01

    African-Americans have higher incidence and mortality from colorectal cancer than non-African-Americans. Early detection with colorectal cancer (CRC) screening reduces untimely death because the test can detect abnormalities and precancerous polyps in the colon and rectum. However, African-Americans aged 50 and older continue to have low CRC screening adherence. A retrospective analysis was conducted on data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey to examine trends in self-reported CRC screening by geographic region, race, and gender. African-Americans, particularly men, were less likely to have been screened for colon cancer compared to all races and genders in this study. Individuals in the south were more likely to receive CRC screening than other regions. Colon cancer education and interventions are needed among low-adherent groups to promote the benefits of early detection with CRC screening.

  11. The influence of culture on breast-feeding decisions by African American and white women.

    PubMed

    Street, Darlene Joyner; Lewallen, Lynne Porter

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how culture influenced breast-feeding decisions in African American and white women, using the Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality as a framework. One hundred eighty-six participants responded to the following: The word culture means beliefs and traditions passed down by your family and friends. How has culture affected how you plan to feed your baby? Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data. Four categories of responses were identified: influences of family, known benefits of breast-feeding, influences of friends, and personal choice. The findings suggest that race alone may not be as influential in infant feeding decisions as other factors. Although some women acknowledged the effect of their cultural background and experiences, most women reported that their culture did not affect their infant feeding decision. In this population, breast-feeding decisions were based on the influences of family, friends, self, and the perceived knowledge of breast-feeding benefits. Although breast-feeding statistics are commonly reported by race, cultural influences on infant feeding decisions may transcend race and include the influence of family and friends, learned information from impersonal sources, and information that is shared and observed from other people. PMID:23360941

  12. The influence of culture on breast-feeding decisions by African American and white women.

    PubMed

    Street, Darlene Joyner; Lewallen, Lynne Porter

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how culture influenced breast-feeding decisions in African American and white women, using the Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality as a framework. One hundred eighty-six participants responded to the following: The word culture means beliefs and traditions passed down by your family and friends. How has culture affected how you plan to feed your baby? Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data. Four categories of responses were identified: influences of family, known benefits of breast-feeding, influences of friends, and personal choice. The findings suggest that race alone may not be as influential in infant feeding decisions as other factors. Although some women acknowledged the effect of their cultural background and experiences, most women reported that their culture did not affect their infant feeding decision. In this population, breast-feeding decisions were based on the influences of family, friends, self, and the perceived knowledge of breast-feeding benefits. Although breast-feeding statistics are commonly reported by race, cultural influences on infant feeding decisions may transcend race and include the influence of family and friends, learned information from impersonal sources, and information that is shared and observed from other people.

  13. Fat, fibre and cancer risk in African Americans and rural Africans.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, Stephen J D; Li, Jia V; Lahti, Leo; Ou, Junhai; Carbonero, Franck; Mohammed, Khaled; Posma, Joram M; Kinross, James; Wahl, Elaine; Ruder, Elizabeth; Vipperla, Kishore; Naidoo, Vasudevan; Mtshali, Lungile; Tims, Sebastian; Puylaert, Philippe G B; DeLany, James; Krasinskas, Alyssa; Benefiel, Ann C; Kaseb, Hatem O; Newton, Keith; Nicholson, Jeremy K; de Vos, Willem M; Gaskins, H Rex; Zoetendal, Erwin G

    2015-04-28

    Rates of colon cancer are much higher in African Americans (65:100,000) than in rural South Africans (<5:100,000). The higher rates are associated with higher animal protein and fat, and lower fibre consumption, higher colonic secondary bile acids, lower colonic short-chain fatty acid quantities and higher mucosal proliferative biomarkers of cancer risk in otherwise healthy middle-aged volunteers. Here we investigate further the role of fat and fibre in this association. We performed 2-week food exchanges in subjects from the same populations, where African Americans were fed a high-fibre, low-fat African-style diet and rural Africans a high-fat, low-fibre western-style diet, under close supervision. In comparison with their usual diets, the food changes resulted in remarkable reciprocal changes in mucosal biomarkers of cancer risk and in aspects of the microbiota and metabolome known to affect cancer risk, best illustrated by increased saccharolytic fermentation and butyrogenesis, and suppressed secondary bile acid synthesis in the African Americans.

  14. Fat, Fiber and Cancer Risk in African Americans and Rural Africans

    PubMed Central

    O'Keefe, Stephen J.D.; Li, Jia V.; Lahti, Leo; Ou, Junhai; Carbonero, Franck; Mohammed, Khaled; Posma, Joram M; Kinross, James; Wahl, Elaine; Ruder, Elizabeth; Vipperla, Kishore; Naidoo, Vasudevan; Mtshali, Lungile; Tims, Sebastian; Puylaert, Philippe G.B.; DeLany, James; Krasinskas, Alyssa; Benefiel, Ann C.; Kaseb, Hatem O.; Newton, Keith; Nicholson, Jeremy K.; de Vos, Willem M.; Gaskins, H. Rex; Zoetendal, Erwin G.

    2015-01-01

    Rates of colon cancer are much higher in African Americans (65:100,000) than in rural South Africans (<5:100,000). The higher rates are associated with higher animal protein and fat and lower fiber consumption, higher colonic secondary bile acids, lower colonic short chain fatty acid quantities and higher mucosal proliferative biomarkers of cancer risk in otherwise healthy middle aged volunteers. Here we investigate further the role of fat and fiber in this association. We performed two-week food exchanges in subjects from the same populations, where African Americans were fed a high-fiber, lowfat African-style diet, and rural Africans a high-fat low-fiber western-style diet under close supervision. In comparison to their usual diets, the food changes resulted in remarkable reciprocal changes in mucosal biomarkers of cancer risk and in aspects of the microbiota and metabolome known to affect cancer risk, best illustrated by increased saccharolytic fermentation and butyrogenesis and suppressed secondary bile acid synthesis in the African Americans. PMID:25919227

  15. Carrying the burden: perspectives of African American pastors on peer support for people with cancer.

    PubMed

    Green, Melissa A; Lucas, Justin; Hanson, Laura C; Armstrong, Tonya; Hayes, Michelle; Peacock, Stacie; Elliott-Bynum, Sharon; Goldmon, Moses; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2014-10-01

    For African Americans facing advanced cancer, churches are trusted sources of support and ideal settings to improve access to supportive care. The Support Team model enhances community support for practical, emotional, and spiritual caregiving. We report on focus groups with pastors of 23 Black Churches and explore their perspective on the Support Team model for church members with cancer. Pastors describe the needs of church members facing cancer from a holistic perspective and recognize opportunities for synergistic faith-health collaboration. The results of this study indicate potential benefits of the Support Team model in Black Churches to reduce silent suffering among individuals facing cancer.

  16. Factors influencing behavioral intention regarding prostate cancer screening among older African-American men.

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Marvella E.; Vernon, Sally W.; Havstad, Suzanne L.; Thomas, Shirley A.; Davis, Shawna D.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess factors associated with perceptions of prostate cancer screening among African-American men aged > or = 55 years based upon items developed using the Preventive Health model (PHM). RESEARCH APPROACH: Focus group research and thematic coding using content analysis. SETTING: A large midwestern, private, nonprofit health system. PARTICIPANTS: African-American men aged > or = 55 years. Focus group 1 included 10 men who ranged in age from 55-87 years, with a mean age of 73.4 years. The 11 participants in focus group 2 ranged in age from 55-81 years, with a mean age of 68.7 years. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH: Focus group questions were developed based on the conceptual framework of the PHM. African-American men aged > or = 55 years were randomly selected from the patient population of the healthcare system to participate in one of two focus groups. Content analysis was used to code the focus group transcripts. MAIN RESEARCH VARIABLES: Self-reported perceptions of prostate cancer screening. FINDINGS: Major themes emerging from the focus groups related to prostate cancer screening include: lack of knowledge regarding cancer, fear of cancer, confusion between prostate cancer screening and prostate cancer diagnostic tests, encouragement by others as motivation for cancer screening, intergenerational transfer of health information, lack of health insurance coverage as a barrier to prostate cancer screening and treatment, and limited availability of screening clinic hours during nonworking hours. INTERPRETATION: The information gained from this study could be used to develop interventions promoting informed and shared decision-making by patients and their providers regarding prostate cancer screening. PMID:16623062

  17. Toward a Trustworthy Voice: Increasing the Effectiveness of Automated Outreach Calls to Promote Colorectal Cancer Screening among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Albright, Karen; Richardson, Terri; Kempe, Karin L; Wallace, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Colorectal cancer screening rates are lower among African-American members of Kaiser Permanente Colorado (KPCO) than among members of other races and ethnicities. This study evaluated use of a linguistically congruent voice in interactive voice response outreach calls about colorectal cancer screening as a strategy to increase call completion and response. Methods: After an initial discussion group to assess cultural acceptability of the project, 6 focus groups were conducted with 33 KPCO African-American members. Participants heard and discussed recordings of 5 female voices reading the same segment of the standard-practice colorectal cancer message using interactive voice response. The linguistic palette included the voices of a white woman, a lightly accented Latina, and 3 African-American women. Results: Participants strongly preferred the African-American voices, particularly two voices. Participants considered these voices the most trustworthy and reported that they would be the most effective at increasing motivation to complete an automated call. Participants supported the use of African-American voices when designing outgoing automated calls for African Americans because the sense of familiarity engendered trust among listeners. Participants also indicated that effective automated messages should provide immediate clarity of purpose; explain why the issue is relevant to African Americans; avoid sounding scripted; emphasize that the call is for the listener’s benefit only; sound personable, warm, and positive; and not create fear among listeners. Discussion: Establishing linguistic congruence between African Americans and the voices used in automated calls designed to reach them may increase the effectiveness of outreach efforts. PMID:24867548

  18. Evaluating a Community-Partnered Cancer Clinical Trials Pilot Intervention with African American Communities

    PubMed Central

    Green, Melissa A.; Michaels, Margo; Blakeney, Natasha; Odulana, Adebowale A.; Isler, Malika Roman; Richmond, Alan; Long, Debra G.; Robinson, William S.; Taylor, Yhenneko J.; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Cancer Clinical Trial (CCT) accrual and retention rates remain disproportionately low among African Americans. Awareness and access to trials are crucial facilitators of trial participation. Strategies developed within a community-based participatory framework (CBPR) are potential solutions to increase awareness and access to CCTs. In this study, we describe the pilot phase of three innovative community-centered modules to improve basic CCT knowledge, awareness of locations to access CCT information, and opportunities to participate in CCTs. Design Four community organizations completed Community Bridges to CCTs training-of-the trainer and recruited adult African American volunteers to participate in one of three CCT education modules: a workshop about CCTs; a role-play describing one person's experience with CCTs; or a call and response session reviewing myths and facts about CCTs. Pre- and post-test surveys were collected and analyzed using McNemar agreement statistic to evaluate changes in knowledge and attitudes regarding trials. Results Trainers enrolled 125 participants in the Call and Response (n=22), Role-play (n=60), and Workshop (n=43) modules. Module participants were mostly African American, female, and mean age of 53 years. Comparison of pre and post-test responses demonstrates favorable changes in awareness of CCTs and where to access to CCTs across the sample. Analysis by module type indicates significant increases for participants in the Call and Response (p < 0.01) and Role-Play modules (p < 0.001), but not the Workshop module. Conclusion Despite measures taken to increase the participation and retention rate of African Americans in clinical trials, little advancement has been made. Developing tailored community education modules on CCTs within the CBPR framework is a promising innovation to increase knowledge about CCTs and favorable attitudes about participation that are known precursors to trial enrollment. PMID:25564207

  19. Evaluating a community-partnered cancer clinical trials pilot intervention with African American communities.

    PubMed

    Green, Melissa A; Michaels, Margo; Blakeney, Natasha; Odulana, Adebowale A; Isler, Malika Roman; Richmond, Alan; Long, Debra G; Robinson, William S; Taylor, Yhenneko J; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2015-03-01

    Cancer clinical trial (CCT) accrual and retention rates remain disproportionately low among African Americans. Awarenesss and access to trials are crucial facilitators of trial participation. Strategies developed within a community-based participatory framework (CBPR) are potential solutions to increase awareness and access to CCTs. In this study, we describe the pilot phase of three innovative community-centered modules to improve basic CCT knowledge, awareness of locations to access CCT information, and opportunities to participate in CCTs. Four community organizations completed Community Bridges to CCT training-of-the-trainer and recruited adult African American volunteers to participate in one of three CCT education modules: a workshop about CCTs, a role play describing one person's experience with CCTs, or a call and response session reviewing myths and facts about CCTs. Pre- and post-test surveys were collected and analyzed using McNemar agreement statistic to evaluate changes in knowledge and attitudes regarding trials. Trainers enrolled 125 participants in the call and response (n = 22), role play (n = 60), and workshop (n = 43) modules. Module participants were mostly African American, female, and with a mean age of 53 years. Comparison of pre- and post-test responses demonstrates favorable changes in awareness of CCTs and where to access CCTs across the sample. Analysis by module type indicates significant increases for participants in the call and response (p < 0.01) and role play modules (p < 0.001), but not the workshop module. Despite measures taken to increase the participation and retention rate of African Americans in clinical trials, little advancement has been made. Developing tailored community education modules on CCTs within the CBPR framework is a promising innovation to increase knowledge about CCTs and favorable attitudes about participation that are known precursors to trial enrollment.

  20. Food groups and colon cancer risk in African-Americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Satia-Abouta, Jessie; Galanko, Joseph A; Martin, Christopher F; Ammerman, Alice; Sandler, Robert S

    2004-05-01

    The disparities in colon cancer incidence between African-Americans and other U.S. ethnic groups are largely unexplained. This report examines associations of various food groups with colon cancer in African-Americans and Caucasians from a case-control study. Incident cases of histologically confirmed colon cancer, age 40-80 years, (n = 613) and matched controls (n = 996) were interviewed in-person to ascertain potential colon cancer risk factors. Diet over the year before diagnosis or interview date was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire adapted to include regional foods. Multivariate logistic regression models estimated energy-adjusted and non-energy adjusted odds ratios (OR). Controls generally reported higher consumption (daily amount and weekly frequency) of fruits, vegetables and dark green, deep yellow fruits/vegetables, whereas cases consumed more refined carbohydrates and fats, oils and snacks. Regardless of ethnic group or energy adjustment, high and frequent vegetable consumption (particularly dark green vegetables) was protective, consistent with 20-50% reductions in risk. In Caucasians, high refined carbohydrate and red meat consumption (amount and frequency) was associated with a statistically significant 2-fold increased risk in non-energy adjusted models. In African-Americans, frequent intake of dairy foods was associated with a doubling in risk (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1-3.4) in non-energy-adjusted models, whereas frequent fruit consumption correlated with a non-significant 30% lower risk. These findings add to growing evidence that plant foods may protect against colon cancer; however, the effects of the other food groups varied by ethnic group and energy adjustment. These results may also explain some of the ethnic differences in colon cancer incidence.

  1. Awareness of cancer-related programs and services among rural African Americans.

    PubMed

    Demark-Wahnefried, W; McClelland, J; Campbell, M K; Hoben, K; Lashley, J; Graves, C; Motsinger, B; Rimer, B K

    1998-04-01

    African Americans are at increased risk for cancer and represent an important target population for programs such as Healthy People 2000, the Cancer Information Service (CIS), and the 5 a Day for Better Health Initiative. Yet, awareness of such programs among rural blacks is unknown. This study assessed awareness of these programs and determined related knowledge and beliefs among rural African Americans. It was undertaken as part of the baseline survey for the Black Churches United for Better Health project, a National Cancer Institute-funded initiative. A minority of respondents (n = 3737) demonstrated name recognition of Healthy People 2000 (23.4%), the CIS (42.4%), and the 5 a Day Program (40.7%). Far fewer (7.4%) were able to correctly identify the recommended daily number of servings of fruits and vegetables. Reported family history of cancer was associated with a greater tendency believe that eating more fruits and vegetables can prevent disease. These findings underscore the need for efforts to reach the rural black community with culturally sensitive and stage appropriate cancer prevention messages. Knowledge of family history of cancer may play an important role in targeting subgroups and delivering effective cancer prevention messages.

  2. Use of Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs and Distal Large Bowel Cancer in Whites and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Christopher; Galanko, Joseph; Woosley, John T.; Schroeder, Jane C.; Keku, Temitope O.; Satia, Jessie A.; Halabi, Susan; Sandler, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the belief that the etiology of and risk factors for rectal cancer might differ from those for colon cancer, relatively few studies have examined rectal cancer in relation to use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The authors evaluated the association between NSAIDs and distal large bowel cancer in African Americans and whites, using data from a population-based case-control study of 1,057 incident cases of adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon, rectosigmoid junction, and rectum and 1,019 controls from North Carolina (2001–2006). NSAID use was inversely associated with distal large bowel cancer in whites (odds ratio (OR) = 0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.46, 0.79). The inverse association was evident for all types of NSAIDs but was slightly stronger with prescription NSAIDs, particularly selective cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors (OR = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.25, 0.56). Compared with whites, a relatively weak inverse association was found in African Americans (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.55, 1.40), although odds ratio heterogeneity by race could not be confirmed (P = 0.21). In addition, the strength of the association with NSAIDs varied by tumor location, suggesting more potent effects for rectal and rectosigmoid cancers than for sigmoid cancer. The chemopreventive potential of NSAIDs might differ by population and by tumor characteristics. PMID:18945689

  3. Patterns of information behavior and prostate cancer knowledge among African-American men.

    PubMed

    Ross, Levi; Dark, Tyra; Orom, Heather; Underwood, Willie; Anderson-Lewis, Charkarra; Johnson, Jarrett; Erwin, Deborah O

    2011-12-01

    The purposes of this study are to explore cancer information acquisition patterns among African-American men and to evaluate relationships between information acquisition patterns and prostate cancer prevention and control knowledge. A random sample of 268 men participated in a statewide interviewer-administered, telephone survey. Men classified as non-seekers, non-medical source seekers, and medical source seekers of prostate cancer information differed on household income, level of education, and beliefs about personal risk for developing prostate cancer. Results from multiple regression analysis indicated that age, education, and information-seeking status were associated with overall levels of prostate cancer knowledge. Results from logistic regression analyses indicated that men who included physicians as one of many information resources (medical source seekers) had superior knowledge over non-seekers and non-medical source seekers on 33% of individual knowledge details. The findings emphasize the need to connect lower-income and lower-educated African-American men to physicians as a source of prostate cancer control information.

  4. Development of the Ways Of Helping Questionnaire: a measure of preferred coping strategies for older African American cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Jill B; Stewart, Barbara J; Crandell, Jamie L; Lynn, Mary R

    2009-06-01

    Although researchers have identified beneficial coping strategies for cancer patients, existing coping measures do not capture the preferred coping strategies of older African American cancer survivors. A new measure, the Ways of Helping Questionnaire (WHQ), was evaluated with 385 African American cancer survivors. Validity evidence from factor analysis resulted in 10 WHQ subscales (Others There for Me, Physical and Treatment Care Needs, Help from God, Church Family Support, Helping Others, Being Strong for Others, Encouraging My Healthy Behaviors, Others Distract Me, Learning about Cancer, and Distracting Myself). Reliability evidence was generally strong. Evidence regarding hypothesized relationships with measures of well-being and another coping measure was mixed. The WHQ's content coverage makes it especially relevant for older African American cancer survivors. PMID:19259991

  5. The Race Gap in Support Group Participation by Breast Cancer Survivors: Real or Artifact?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalec, Barret; Van Willigen, Marieke; Wilson, Kenneth; Schreier, Ann; Williams, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Addressing methodological weaknesses of previous research, this study assesses whether African American women are, in fact, less likely to participate in breast cancer support groups than are White women. Of the breast cancer survivors, 958 (26% African Americans, 73% Caucasian) completed interviews concerning demographic characteristics, other…

  6. Mother-Daughter Dyad Recruitment and Cancer Intervention Challenges in an African American Sample

    PubMed Central

    Mosavel, Maghboeba; Ports, Katie; Leighton-Herrmann, Ellyn

    2014-01-01

    Developing an effective youth-based health messaging intervention for African American women, who remain disparately impacted by cancer, presents unique challenges. This paper reports on the challenges with recruiting familial dyads from predominantly low-income, African American neighborhoods, as well as the challenges associated with designing and implementing an upward-directed cancer screening intervention. We developed and pilot tested an educational workshop that provided adolescents with cancer screening information to share with their mother or female relative. Data from follow-up interviews and focus groups, as well as observation records regarding implementation obstacles highlight important lessons learned. The use of familial dyads as well as issues of access posed challenges for recruitment and follow-up. Workshop-related challenges stemmed from the approach, content and length. Finally, personal and environmental factors presented barriers to adolescent message delivery and adult follow-through. By identifying these challenges, we hope to influence and enable the future development of effective adolescent-initiated health messaging interventions. PMID:25489496

  7. Structural and Sociocultural Factors Associated with Cervical Cancer Screening Among HIV-Infected African American Women in Alabama

    PubMed Central

    Moneyham, Linda; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Chamot, Eric; Scarinci, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract African American women have disproportionately high prevalence rates of HIV and cervical cancer. HIV-infected women are significantly less likely to obtain recommended cervical cancer screenings than HIV-uninfected women. The purpose of this study was to examine sociocultural and structural factors associated with cervical cancer screening among HIV-infected African American in Alabama. The PEN-3 Model and the Health Belief Model were used as theoretical frameworks. In-depth interviews were conducted with twenty HIV-infected African American women to identify perceptions, enablers, and nurturers, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, and perceived benefits related to cervical cancer and screening. The most common positive perceptions, enablers, and nurturers that contributed to cervical cancer screening included internal motivation and awareness of the importance of HIV-infected women getting Pap tests due to their weakened immune system. Negative perceptions, enablers, and nurturers included lack of knowledge about cervical cancer and screening, and lack of perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer. The results of this study can be used to guide the development of culturally relevant cervical cancer and screening education interventions aimed at increasing cervical cancer screening adherence among HIV-infected African American women. PMID:25514125

  8. Structural and sociocultural factors associated with cervical cancer screening among HIV-infected African American women in Alabama.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michelle; Moneyham, Linda; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Chamot, Eric; Scarinci, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    African American women have disproportionately high prevalence rates of HIV and cervical cancer. HIV-infected women are significantly less likely to obtain recommended cervical cancer screenings than HIV-uninfected women. The purpose of this study was to examine sociocultural and structural factors associated with cervical cancer screening among HIV-infected African American in Alabama. The PEN-3 Model and the Health Belief Model were used as theoretical frameworks. In-depth interviews were conducted with twenty HIV-infected African American women to identify perceptions, enablers, and nurturers, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, and perceived benefits related to cervical cancer and screening. The most common positive perceptions, enablers, and nurturers that contributed to cervical cancer screening included internal motivation and awareness of the importance of HIV-infected women getting Pap tests due to their weakened immune system. Negative perceptions, enablers, and nurturers included lack of knowledge about cervical cancer and screening, and lack of perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer. The results of this study can be used to guide the development of culturally relevant cervical cancer and screening education interventions aimed at increasing cervical cancer screening adherence among HIV-infected African American women.

  9. Uncovering myths and transforming realities among low-SES African-American men: implications for reducing prostate cancer disparities.

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Joann T.; Webster, J. DeWitt; Fields, Norma J.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: Prostate cancer provides the most dramatic evidence of cancer disparities based on race and ethnicity among U.S. men. African-American men still hold a commanding lead in both prostate cancer incidence and mortality, particularly among those of low socioeconomic status (SES) and the medically underserved. Therefore, the need for early intervention persists. The purpose of this exploratory pilot study was to: a) assess the knowledge of a cohort of low-SES African-American men regarding prostate health/prostate cancer, and b) uncover myths/misinformation as barriers to prostate health decisions and behaviors. PROCEDURES: Asymptomatic African-American men participated in focus groups to candidly discuss: a) health concerns, b) prostate health, c) prostate cancer screening, diagnosis and treatment, and d) factors influencing prostate health decisions/behaviors. FINDINGS: Participants revealed sociocultural and psychological barriers: myths and lack of accurate/adequate knowledge about prostate health and cancer, fear, denial and apathy. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest factors that may explain the reluctance and limited participation in prostate health and prostate cancer services among medically underserved, socioeconomically disadvantaged, African-American men. Lack of knowledge, which affects all barriers to care, is amenable to change. Therefore, improvements in prostate cancer outcomes are achievable through culturally and linguistically appropriate health education tailored to their specific needs. PMID:15540880

  10. Feasibility Study of Engaging Barbershops for Prostate Cancer Education in Rural African-American Communities.

    PubMed

    Luque, John S; Roy, Siddhartha; Tarasenko, Yelena N; Ross, Levi; Johnson, Jarrett; Gwede, Clement K

    2015-12-01

    The barbershop is a promising setting where African-American men might receive information and education about prostate cancer. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of engaging rural barbershops as venues for barbers to deliver a prostate cancer education intervention to increase informed decision-making for prostate cancer screening among customers. Twelve barbershops were recruited from two separate micropolitan areas in Georgia as intervention and control sites. Structured interviews were conducted with 11 barbers in both sites about customer characteristics as well as their willingness to participate in the study. The interviews were audio recorded and transcribed for analysis. In the intervention site, six barbers completed a survey and a pre-/posttest prostate cancer knowledge instrument following training classes. Barbers reported a wide average range of customers served per week (50 to 300). African-American men made up an average of 87% of customers. Barbers thought prostate cancer was an important discussion topic, felt they would be comfortable discussing it, and supported the participation of their barbershop in the study. For intervention group barbers, there was a statistically significant difference between the average pretest knowledge score of 72% (mean 12.2, SD=3.2) and the posttest knowledge score of 89% (mean 15.2, SD=1.1) (P=0.03) on the 17-item prostate cancer knowledge instrument. Based on the multiple interactions with the barbers, there was high receptivity to the topic and consensus about the importance of addressing prostate cancer with their customers. Rural barbershops represent feasible venues for delivering a prostate cancer education intervention. PMID:25288347

  11. Addressing Low Colorectal Cancer Screening in African Americans: Using Focus Groups to Inform the Development of Effective Interventions.

    PubMed

    May, Folasade P; Whitman, Cynthia B; Varlyguina, Ksenia; Bromley, Erica G; Spiegel, Brennan M R

    2016-09-01

    African Americans have the highest burden of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the United States of America (USA) yet lower CRC screening rates than whites. Although poor screening has prompted efforts to increase screening uptake, there is a persistent need to develop public health interventions in partnership with the African American community. The aim of this study was to conduct focus groups with African Americans to determine preferences for the content and mode of dissemination of culturally tailored CRC screening interventions. In June 2013, 45-75-year-old African Americans were recruited through online advertisements and from an urban Veterans Affairs system to create four focus groups. A semi-structured interview script employing open-ended elicitation was used, and transcripts were analyzed using ATLAS.ti software to code and group data into a concept network. A total of 38 participants (mean age = 54) were enrolled, and 59 ATLAS.ti codes were generated. Commonly reported barriers to screening included perceived invasiveness of colonoscopy, fear of pain, and financial concerns. Facilitators included poor diet/health and desire to prevent CRC. Common sources of health information included media and medical providers. CRC screening information was commonly obtained from medical personnel or media. Participants suggested dissemination of CRC screening education through commercials, billboards, influential African American public figures, Internet, and radio. Participants suggested future interventions include culturally specific information, including details about increased risk, accessing care, and dispelling of myths. Public health interventions to improve CRC screening among African Americans should employ media outlets, emphasize increased risk among African Americans, and address race-specific barriers. Specific recommendations are presented for developing future interventions. PMID:25963898

  12. Addressing Low Colorectal Cancer Screening in African Americans: Using Focus Groups to Inform the Development of Effective Interventions.

    PubMed

    May, Folasade P; Whitman, Cynthia B; Varlyguina, Ksenia; Bromley, Erica G; Spiegel, Brennan M R

    2016-09-01

    African Americans have the highest burden of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the United States of America (USA) yet lower CRC screening rates than whites. Although poor screening has prompted efforts to increase screening uptake, there is a persistent need to develop public health interventions in partnership with the African American community. The aim of this study was to conduct focus groups with African Americans to determine preferences for the content and mode of dissemination of culturally tailored CRC screening interventions. In June 2013, 45-75-year-old African Americans were recruited through online advertisements and from an urban Veterans Affairs system to create four focus groups. A semi-structured interview script employing open-ended elicitation was used, and transcripts were analyzed using ATLAS.ti software to code and group data into a concept network. A total of 38 participants (mean age = 54) were enrolled, and 59 ATLAS.ti codes were generated. Commonly reported barriers to screening included perceived invasiveness of colonoscopy, fear of pain, and financial concerns. Facilitators included poor diet/health and desire to prevent CRC. Common sources of health information included media and medical providers. CRC screening information was commonly obtained from medical personnel or media. Participants suggested dissemination of CRC screening education through commercials, billboards, influential African American public figures, Internet, and radio. Participants suggested future interventions include culturally specific information, including details about increased risk, accessing care, and dispelling of myths. Public health interventions to improve CRC screening among African Americans should employ media outlets, emphasize increased risk among African Americans, and address race-specific barriers. Specific recommendations are presented for developing future interventions.

  13. Knowledge, beliefs and barriers associated with prostate cancer prevention and screening behaviors among African-American men.

    PubMed

    Blocker, Deborah E; Romocki, LaHoma Smith; Thomas, Kamilah B; Jones, Belinda L; Jackson, Ethel Jean; Reid, LaVerne; Campbell, Marci K

    2006-08-01

    African-American men have the highest prostate cancer rates worldwide, and innovative efforts are needed to increase cancer prevention and screening behaviors among this population. Formative research was conducted to assess attitudes and behaviors linked to prostate cancer prevention activities that could be used to develop a culturally relevant intervention for an African-American church-based population. Four gender-specific focus groups were conducted with 29 men and women at two African-American churches in central North Carolina. Three primary themes emerged from the focus group discussions: culturally and gender-influenced beliefs and barriers about cancer prevention and screening; barriers related to the healthcare system: and religious influences, including the importance of spiritual beliefs and church support. These discussions revealed the importance of the black family, the positive influence of spouses/partners on promoting cancer screening and healthy behaviors, the roles of faith and church leadership, and beliefs about God's will for good health. These findings also revealed that there are still major barriers and challenges to cancer prevention among African Americans, including continued mistrust of the medical community and negative attitudes toward specific screening tests. Findings provide important insights to consider in implementing successful prostate cancer prevention interventions designed for church-based audiences. PMID:16916126

  14. Perceptions of cancer clinical research among African American men in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Trantham, Laurel C.; Carpenter, William R; DiMartino, Lisa D.; White, Brandolyn; Green, Melissa; Teal, Randall; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Godley, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The problem of cancer health disparities is substantial. Clinical trials are widely advocated as a means of reducing disparities and bringing state-of-the-art care to the broader community, where most cancer care is delivered. This study sought to develop a better understanding of why disproportionately few African American men enroll in clinical trials given their substantial cancer burden. Design This study applied community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods to design and conduct four focus groups of African American male cancer survivors and their caregivers in North Carolina. Results Among major themes, participants expressed confusion about the relationship between clinical trials, treatment, and research, signifying patient confusion and misinterpretation of common clinical trial terminology. Social norms including gender barriers and generational differences remain problematic; participants often reported that men do not talk about health issues, are unwilling to go to the doctor, and exhibit misapprehension and distrust regarding trials. Participants perceived this as detrimental to community health and expressed the need for more clarity in clinical trials information and a more fundamental social openness and communication about cancer detection and treatment. Conclusion Findings indicate the importance of clinical trials education in both traditional provider referral to trials and also in general patient navigation. To dispel pervasive misapprehension regarding placebos, clinical trials information should emphasize the role of standard care in modern cancer treatment trials. Many participants described willingness to participate in a trial upon physician recommendation, suggesting merit in improving patient-physician communication through culturally competent terminology and trial referral systems. PMID:26113749

  15. Identification of a novel germline missense mutation of the androgen receptor in African American men with familial prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Si-Yi; Liu, Tao; Liu, Zhen-Zhen; Ledet, Elisa; Velasco-Gonzalez, Cruz; Mandal, Diptasri M; Koochekpour, Shahriar

    2010-01-01

    Race, family history and age are the unequivocally accepted risk factors for prostate cancer (PCa). Androgen receptor (AR)-dependent signaling is an important element in prostate carcinogenesis and its progression to metastatic disease. We examined the possibility of genomic changes in the AR in association with familial PCa in African Americans who have a higher incidence and mortality rate and a clinically more aggressive disease presentation than Caucasians. Genomic DNAs of 60 patients from 30 high-risk African American and Caucasian families participating in the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center genetic linkage study of PCa were studied. Exon-specific polymerase-chain reaction, bi-directional automated sequencing and restriction enzyme genotyping were used to analyze for mutations in the coding region of the AR gene. We identified a germline AR (A1675T) (T559S) substitution mutation in the DNA-binding domain in three PCa-affected members of an African-American family with a history of early-onset disease. The present study describes the first AR germline mutation in an African-American family with a history of familial PCa. The AR (T559S) mutation may contribute to the disease by altering AR DNA-binding affinity and/or its response to androgens, non-androgenic steroids or anti-androgens. Additional studies will be required to define the frequency and contribution of the AR (A1675T) allele to early-onset and/or familial PCa in African Americans. PMID:20173765

  16. African-American and Caucasian disparities in colorectal cancer mortality and survival by data source: An epidemiologic review

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Dominik D.; Waterbor, John; Hughes, Timothy; Funkhouser, Ellen; Grizzle, William; Manne, Upender

    2009-01-01

    Over the past four decades in the United States, there has been a divergent trend in mortality rates between African-Americans and Caucasians with colorectal cancer (CRC). Rates among Caucasians have been steadily declining, whereas rates among African-Americans have only started a gradual decline in recent years. We reviewed epidemiologic studies of CRC racial disparities between African-Americans and Caucasians, including studies from SEER and population-based cancer registries, Veterans Affairs (VA) databases, healthcare coverage databases, and university and other medical center data sources. Elevated overall and stage-specific risks of CRC mortality and shorter survival for African-Americans compared with Caucasians were reported across all data sources. The magnitude of racial disparities varied across study groups, with the strongest associations observed in university and non-VA hospital-based medical center studies, while an attenuated discrepancy was found in VA database studies. An advanced stage of disease at the time of diagnosis among African-Americans is a major contributing factor to the racial disparity in survival. Several studies, however, have shown that an increased risk of CRC death among African-Americans remains even after controlling for tumor stage at diagnosis, socioeconomic factors, and comorbidity. Despite advances in treatment, improvements in the standard of care, and increased screening options, racial differences persist in CRC mortality and survival. Therefore, continued research efforts are necessary to disentangle the clinical, social, biological, and environmental factors that constitute the racial disparity. In addition, results across data sources should be considered when evaluating racial differences in cancer outcomes. PMID:18048968

  17. Mortality from Western cancers rose dramatically among African-Americans during the 20th century: are dietary animal products to blame?

    PubMed

    McCarty, M F

    2001-08-01

    Statistics compiled by the National Cancer Institute indicate that, between 1935 and 1974, age-adjusted mortality from most 'Western' cancers (those of the breast, colon, prostate, pancreas, ovary, and kidney) rose dramatically in African-Americans. This phenomenon is paralleled by marked increases in the incidence of these cancers in Asia and Southern Europe during the latter 20th century, in conjunction with increased intakes of dietary animal products. A credible case can be made that diets rich in animal products work in various complementary ways to up-regulate serum levels of insulin, free IGF-I, and free sex hormones: hormones that appear to have important promotional activity for Western cancers. It seems likely that dietary animal product intake by black Americans increased substantially during the 20th century, and that this fact is primarily responsible for their concurrent marked increase in mortality from Western cancers. A whole-food vegan diet rich in fruits and vegetables, especially if coupled with regular exercise and smoking avoidance, could be expected to have a remarkably positive impact on African-American cancer risk, reversing the increases in cancer risk incurred during the 20th century. PMID:11461167

  18. Intrinsic breast tumor subtypes, race, and long-term survival in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Katie M.; Cole, Stephen R.; Tse, Chiu-Kit; Perou, Charles M.; Carey, Lisa A.; Foulkes, William D.; Dressler, Lynn G.; Geradts, Joseph; Millikan, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Previous research identified differences in breast cancer-specific mortality across four "intrinsic" tumor subtypes: luminal A, luminal B, basal-like, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive/estrogen receptor negative (HER2+/ER−). Experimental Design We used immunohistochemical markers to subtype 1149 invasive breast cancer patients (518 African American, 631 white) in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based study of women diagnosed with breast cancer. Vital status was determined through 2006 using the National Death Index, with median follow-up of 9 years. Results Cancer subtypes luminal A, luminal B, basal-like and HER2+/ER- were distributed as 64%, 11%, 11% and 5% for whites, and 48%, 8%, 22% and 7% for African Americans, respectively. Breast cancer mortality was higher for patients with HER2+/ER- and basal-like breast cancer compared to luminal A and B. African Americans had higher breast-cancer specific mortality than whites, but the effect of race was statistically significant only among women with luminal A breast cancer. However, when compared to the luminal A subtype within racial categories, mortality for patients with basal-like breast cancer was higher among whites (HR=2.0, 95% CI: 1.2, 3.4) than African Americans (HR=1.5, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.4), with the strongest effect seen in postmenopausal white women (HR=3.9, 95% CI: 1.5, 10.0). Conclusions Our results confirm the association of basal-like breast cancer with poor prognosis, and suggest that basal-like breast cancer is not an inherently more aggressive disease in African American women compared to whites. Additional analyses are needed in populations with known treatment profiles to understand the role of tumor subtypes and race in breast cancer mortality, and in particular our finding that among women with luminal A breast cancer, African Americans have higher mortality than whites. PMID:21169259

  19. Determinants of prostate cancer screening in a sample of African American military servicemen.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Hyacinth J

    2006-05-01

    This descriptive/cross-sectional study assessed determinants of prostate cancer screening in a sample of African American military servicemen who were age 45 years and older. Data were collected using the Edwards Prostate Perception Survey, a 52-item questionnaire that assessed knowledge, beliefs, self-efficacy, health-related practices, and demographic variables. Despite reporting high knowledge and positive belief about prostate cancer and screening, 43% of the respondents indicated they had never been screened with the prostate-specific antigen blood test, and 27% reported that health care providers had not recommended screening. Respondents were more likely to be screened if they had more knowledge of the prostate-specific antigen test, were retired, older, and when health care providers recommended it. The younger active duty servicemen in the 45 to 50 age group reported the lowest rates of screening.

  20. Adaptation of a Cancer Clinical Trials Education Program for African American and Latina/o Community Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelto, Debra J.; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Njoku, Ogo; Rodriguez, Maria Carina; Villagra, Cristina; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Riley, Natasha E.; Behar, Alma I.; Jandorf, Lina

    2016-01-01

    The pilot study reported in this article culturally and linguistically adapted an educational intervention to promote cancer clinical trials (CCTs) participation among Latinas/os and African Americans. The single-session slide presentation with embedded videos, originally developed through a campus-community partnership in Southern California, was…

  1. Circles of Care: Development and Initial Evaluation of a Peer Support Model for African Americans with Advanced Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Laura C.; Armstrong, Tonya D.; Green, Melissa A.; Hayes, Michelle; Peacock, Stacie; Elliot-Bynum, Sharon; Goldmon, Moses V.; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Earp, Jo Anne

    2013-01-01

    Peer support interventions extend care and health information to underserved populations yet rarely address serious illness. Investigators from a well-defined academic-community partnership developed and evaluated a peer support intervention for African Americans facing advanced cancer. Evaluation methods used the Reach, Efficacy, Adoption,…

  2. Disease Free Probability after the First Primary Ductal Carcinoma In Situ of the Breast: A Comparison between African-American and White-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Azadeh; Stapp, Robert; Raghunathan, Aditya; Yan, Xiaowei; Kirchner, H. Lester; Griggs, Jennifer; Newman, Lisa; Chitale, Dhananjay; Dick, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Compelling evidence about the differences in the biology and behavior of invasive breast cancer between African-American (AA) and White-American (WA) women motivate inquiry into comparing the clinicopathology of non-invasive breast cancer (ductal carcinoma in situ, DCIS). METHODS AA and WA women diagnosed with their first primary DCIS between 1990 and1999 were identified from the institutional tumor registry. Data on method of presentation, treatment, pateint characteristics were retreived from electronic medical records. Patients were followed up through the medical records until the diagnosis of a subsequent cancer or the last-day of contact with the institution. RESULTS A total of 100 (29.6%) AAs and 236 (70.4%) WAs with the mean age of 60 (SD±13) and 57 (SD±12), respectively, contributed to this study. DCIS was detected during routine screening mammography for 81% (n=81) of AAs and 88.4% (n=206) of WAs (P=0.073). Differences in the distributions of grade, margin status, necrosis, or treatment modalities were not statistically significant between AAs and WAs. Analysis of competing risks Cox proportional hazard multivariate modeling yielded a significant 8-year cumulative risk of a second cancer for AAs but only in the ipsilateral breast (HR=3.96, 95% CI 1.42–11.04, P=.01). CONCLUSION Despite comparable clinical presentation and treatment, 8 years after the initial treatment, AAs expereinced a higher risk of second breast cancer in ipsilateral but not in the contralateral breast. The observed excess risk of a second cancer in the ipsilateral breast may suggest of intrinsic differences in the biology of cancer. PMID:21874310

  3. Role of religion in cancer coping among African Americans: A qualitative examination

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Cheryl L.; Caplan, Lee; Schulz, Emily; Blake, Victor; Southward, Penny; Buckner, Ayanna; Lawrence, Hope

    2013-01-01

    The present study used qualitative methods to examine if and how African Americans with cancer use religiosity in coping. Patients (N=23) were recruited from physician offices and completed 1–1.5 hour interviews. Themes that emerged included but were not limited to control over one’s illness, emotional response, importance of social support, role of God as a healer, relying on God, importance of faith for recovery, prayer and scripture study, and how one makes sense of the illness. Participants had a great deal to say about the role of religion in coping. These themes may have utility for development of support interventions if they can be operationalized and intervened upon. PMID:19337932

  4. Adherence to Analgesics for Cancer Pain: A Comparative Study of African Americans and Whites Using an Electronic Monitoring Device.

    PubMed

    Meghani, Salimah H; Thompson, Aleda M L; Chittams, Jesse; Bruner, Deborah W; Riegel, Barbara

    2015-09-01

    Despite well-documented disparities in cancer pain outcomes among African Americans, surprisingly little research exists on adherence to analgesia for cancer pain in this group. We compared analgesic adherence for cancer-related pain over a 3-month period between African Americans and whites using the Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS). Patients (N = 207) were recruited from outpatient medical oncology clinics of an academic medical center in Philadelphia (≥18 years of age, diagnosed with solid tumors or multiple myeloma, with cancer-related pain, and at least 1 prescription of oral around-the-clock analgesic). African Americans reported significantly greater cancer pain (P < .001), were less likely than whites to have a prescription of long-acting opioids (P < .001), and were more likely to have a negative Pain Management Index (P < .001). There were considerable differences between African Americans and whites in the overall MEMS dose adherence, ie, percentage of the total number of prescribed doses that were taken (53% vs 74%, P < .001). On subanalysis, analgesic adherence rates for African Americans ranged from 34% (for weak opioids) to 63% (for long-acting opioids). Unique predictors of analgesic adherence varied by race; income levels, analgesic side effects, and fear of distracting providers predicted analgesic adherence for African Americans but not for whites. Perspective: Despite evidence of disparities in cancer pain outcomes among African Americans, surprisingly little research exists on African Americans' adherence to analgesia for cancer pain. This prospective study uses objective measures to compare adherence to prescribed pain medications between African American and white patients with cancer pain.

  5. Pre-screening age African-American males: what do they know about prostate cancer screening, knowledge, and risk perceptions?

    PubMed

    Miller, David B

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among men and the second most common cause of cancer mortality among men in America. African-American men have a mortality rate from prostate cancer twice that of Caucasian men. Although prostate screening remains controversial, it provides an opportunity for the cancer to be detected early when treatment is most effective. Limited research has been conducted regarding prostate cancer awareness and knowledge among African-American men under 50. This article highlights a pilot study assessing the knowledge, attitudes, risk perceptions, and reasons for participating in prostate cancer screening among African-American males between the ages of 30-45. Study findings suggest these participants recognized an awareness of risk factors associated with the disease, yet underestimated their risk of developing the disease. Additionally they present uneven knowledge of the prostate and its function and possess positive perceptions of their general health beliefs and practices. Practice implications and directions for future research regarding prostate cancer among this population are highlighted.

  6. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Breast Cancer What is Breast Cancer? How Tumors Form The body is made up ... tumors form in the breast tissue. Who Gets Breast Cancer? Breast cancer is one of the most common ...

  7. Nucleotide excision repair genes and risk of lung cancer among San Francisco bay area Latinos and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jeffrey S.; Wrensch, Margaret R.; Hansen, Helen M.; Sison, Jennette D.; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Seldin, Michael F.; Kelsey, Karl T.; Kittles, Rick A.; Silva, Gabriel; Wiencke, John K.

    2009-01-01

    Few studies on the association between nucleotide excision repair (NER) variants and lung cancer risk have included Latinos and African Americans. We examine variants in six NER genes (ERCC2, ERCC4, ERCC5, LIG1, RAD23B and XPC) in association with primary lung cancer risk among 113 Latino and 255 African American subjects newly diagnosed with primary lung cancer from 1998 to 2003 in the San Francisco Bay Area, and 579 healthy controls (299 Latinos and 280 African Americans). Individual single nucleotide polymorphism and haplotype analyses, multifactor dimensionality reduction, and principal components analysis were performed to assess the association between six genes in the NER pathway and lung cancer risk. Among Latinos, ERCC2 haplotype CGA (rs238406, rs11878644, rs6966) was associated with reduced lung cancer risk [odds ratio (OR) of 0.65 and 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.44-0.97], especially among non-smokers (OR=0.29; 95% CI: 0.12-0.67). From multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis, in Latinos, smoking and three SNPs (ERCC2 rs171140, ERCC5 rs17655, and LIG1 rs20581) together had a prediction accuracy of 67.4% (p=0.001) for lung cancer. Among African Americans, His/His genotype of ERCC5 His1104Asp (rs17655) was associated with increased lung cancer risk (OR=1.78; 95% CI: 1.09-2.91), and LIG1 haplotype GGGAA (rs20581, rs156641, rs3730931, rs20579, and rs439132) was associated with reduced lung cancer risk (OR=0.61; 95% CI: 0.42-0.88). Our study suggests different elements of the NER pathway may be important in the different ethnic groups resulting either from different linkage relationship, genetic backgrounds, and/or exposure histories. PMID:18709642

  8. Needs of low-income african american cancer survivors: multifaceted and practical.

    PubMed

    Mosavel, Maghboeba; Sanders, Kimberley

    2011-12-01

    This study aimed to identify the needs of low-income, African American cancer survivors in an urban setting. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews conducted with cancer survivors (n = 12), caregivers (n = 10), professionals (n = 10), and surveys from town hall meetings (n = 80). The major needs identified, across all groups, included a diverse array of practical needs including transportation, financial and job assistance, childcare, self-care assistance, more education and lifestyle information when diagnosed as well as after diagnosis, better post treatment plan, and more need for social support. They identified the ideal resource center as being located within the survivor's neighborhood and would provide a range of medically specific support as well as recreational services. Being of limited economic means has a host of implications for those diagnosed with cancer and for their family members. Participants suggested that needs for cancer survivors have to take into account a complexity of factors including culture, family, and especially economic implications. PMID:21706193

  9. Environmental influences on the high mortality from colorectal cancer in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sumit; O'Keefe, Stephen J D

    2007-09-01

    Colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer related death in American adults. The incidence and mortality are highest in African Americans (AAs) (incidence: 52 per 100,000) and lowest in American Hispanics (37 per 100,000). Comparative studies with Native Africans (<5 per 100,000) suggest that genetic susceptibility is an unlikely explanation and that environmental influences are to blame. Studies have suggested that risk is high because of excessive intakes of animal meat and fat products and differences in colonic bacterial metabolism, and that preventative and therapeutic management of colon cancer is compromised by the development of greater tumour virulence possibly resulting from disparities in educational and insurance status, screening behaviour, treatment patterns, social support, and access to and use of health care facilities. It should be possible to reduce the unacceptably higher rates of morbidity and mortality from colon cancer in AAs by dietary and lifestyle changes aimed at suppressing excessive intakes of animal meat and fat products, increasing the consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables, controlling energy balance, and by developing strategies to improve the availability, use and accessibility to health care resources. PMID:17823224

  10. Obesity and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  11. Using north carolina medicare data to assess excess prostate cancer mortality among african americans.

    PubMed

    Schenck; Stroud; Godley; Manning; Schoenbach; Symon

    2000-10-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the basis for the higher prostate cancer mortality rate for African American (AA) men, which is twice the rate for White men.METHODS: 221 AA and 979 White men with a primary diagnosis code of prostate cancer ("patients") in the North Carolina Medicare Hospitalization claims from 1997 were compared with 1,326 AA and 5,874 White men of the same age with no cancer hospitalizations ("beneficiaries") selected from the NC Medicare Enrollment files. Mortality rates were calculated as the cumulative percent of deaths using the hospital discharge date as day 1. AA and White age distributions were similar.RESULTS: Cumulative mortality percentages at 6, 12, and 18 months were, respectively, 4.5, 7.7, 10.9 for AA patients; 2.8, 6.5, 9.2 for White patients; 2.3, 3.8, 7.4 for AA beneficiaries; and 1.8, 3.1, 6.1 for White beneficiaries.CONCLUSIONS: AA prostate cancer patients had higher overall mortality than did White prostate cancer patients during the first year, but by 12-months the White-Black survival advantage for prostate cancer patients was similar in magnitude to the White-Black survival advantage among the non-cancer Medicare beneficiaries. AAs' higher prostate cancer mortality may derive from higher short-term case fatality rates, which may reflect differences in treatment and access to quality medical care, co-morbidities, and tumor characteristics such as stage and grade at diagnosis, and in part from the survival disadvantage for AA in the general population.

  12. African American Men’s and Women’s Perceptions of Clinical Trials Research: Focusing on Prostate Cancer among a High-Risk Population in the South

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Otis L.; Jackson, Dawnyéa D.; Thomas, Tracey L.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Hébert, James R.

    2013-01-01

    While African Americans are at significantly higher risk for developing certain cancers, they also have low rates of participation in cancer research, particularly clinical trials. This study assessed both African American men’s and African American women’s (1) knowledge of and participation in cancer-related clinical research and (2) barriers to and motivations for participating in clinical research. Data were collected from a total of 81 participants. Phase I of this research consisted of qualitative focus groups (all 81 participants). Phase II included quantitative pre/post survey data from an education program (56 participants). Findings from the study revealed that African American men and women had poor knowledge about clinical trials and the informed consent process, limited experience in participating in clinical trials, and they feared and mistrusted cancer research. Participants identified incentives, assurance of safety, knowledge and awareness, and benefiting others as motivators to participate in clinical trials research. PMID:24185170

  13. A novel genomic alteration of LSAMP associates with aggressive prostate cancer in African American men

    PubMed Central

    Petrovics, Gyorgy; Li, Hua; Stümpel, Tanja; Tan, Shyh-Han; Young, Denise; Katta, Shilpa; Li, Qiyuan; Ying, Kai; Klocke, Bernward; Ravindranath, Lakshmi; Kohaar, Indu; Chen, Yongmei; Ribli, Dezső; Grote, Korbinian; Zou, Hua; Cheng, Joseph; Dalgard, Clifton L.; Zhang, Shimin; Csabai, István; Kagan, Jacob; Takeda, David; Loda, Massimo; Srivastava, Sudhir; Scherf, Matthias; Seifert, Martin; Gaiser, Timo; McLeod, David G.; Szallasi, Zoltan; Ebner, Reinhard; Werner, Thomas; Sesterhenn, Isabell A.; Freedman, Matthew; Dobi, Albert; Srivastava, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of cancer genomes in global context is of great interest in light of changing ethnic distribution of the world population. We focused our study on men of African ancestry because of their disproportionately higher rate of prostate cancer (CaP) incidence and mortality. We present a systematic whole genome analyses, revealing alterations that differentiate African American (AA) and Caucasian American (CA) CaP genomes. We discovered a recurrent deletion on chromosome 3q13.31 centering on the LSAMP locus that was prevalent in tumors from AA men (cumulative analyses of 435 patients: whole genome sequence, 14; FISH evaluations, 101; and SNP array, 320 patients). Notably, carriers of this deletion experienced more rapid disease progression. In contrast, PTEN and ERG common driver alterations in CaP were significantly lower in AA prostate tumors compared to prostate tumors from CA. Moreover, the frequency of inter-chromosomal rearrangements was significantly higher in AA than CA tumors. These findings reveal differentially distributed somatic mutations in CaP across ancestral groups, which have implications for precision medicine strategies. PMID:26844274

  14. Vitamin D and Immune Response: Implications for Prostate Cancer in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Batai, Ken; Murphy, Adam B.; Nonn, Larisa; Kittles, Rick A.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common cancer among men in the U.S. African American (AA) men have a higher incidence and mortality rate compared to European American (EA) men, but the cause of PCa disparities is still unclear. Epidemiologic studies have shown that vitamin D deficiency is associated with advanced stage and higher tumor grade and mortality, while its association with overall PCa risk is inconsistent. Vitamin D deficiency is also more common in AAs than EAs, and the difference in serum vitamin D levels may help explain the PCa disparities. However, the role of vitamin D in aggressive PCa in AAs is not well explored. Studies demonstrated that the active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, has anti-inflammatory effects by mediating immune-related gene expression in prostate tissue. Inflammation also plays an important role in PCa pathogenesis and progression, and expression of immune-related genes in PCa tissues differs significantly between AAs and EAs. Unfortunately, the evidence linking vitamin D and immune response in relation to PCa is still scarce. This relationship should be further explored at a genomic level in AA populations that are at high risk for vitamin D deficiency and fatal PCa. PMID:26941739

  15. Androgen Receptor-Target Genes in African American Prostate Cancer Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bi-Dar; Yang, Qi; Ceniccola, Kristin; Bianco, Fernando; Andrawis, Ramez; Jarrett, Thomas; Frazier, Harold; Patierno, Steven R.; Lee, Norman H.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence and mortality rates of prostate cancer (PCa) are higher in African American (AA) compared to Caucasian American (CA) men. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying PCa disparities, we employed an integrative approach combining gene expression profiling and pathway and promoter analyses to investigate differential transcriptomes and deregulated signaling pathways in AA versus CA cancers. A comparison of AA and CA PCa specimens identified 1,188 differentially expressed genes. Interestingly, these transcriptional differences were overrepresented in signaling pathways that converged on the androgen receptor (AR), suggesting that the AR may be a unifying oncogenic theme in AA PCa. Gene promoter analysis revealed that 382 out of 1,188 genes contained cis-acting AR-binding sequences. Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed STAT1, RHOA, ITGB5, MAPKAPK2, CSNK2A,1 and PIK3CB genes as novel AR targets in PCa disparities. Moreover, functional screens revealed that androgen-stimulated AR binding and upregulation of RHOA, ITGB5, and PIK3CB genes were associated with increased invasive activity of AA PCa cells, as siRNA-mediated knockdown of each gene caused a loss of androgen-stimulated invasion. In summation, our findings demonstrate that transcriptional changes have preferentially occurred in multiple signaling pathways converging (“transcriptional convergence”) on AR signaling, thereby contributing to AR-target gene activation and PCa aggressiveness in AAs. PMID:23365759

  16. Utilization of Mammography Services among Elderly Rural and Urban African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agho, Augustine O; Mosley, Barbara W; Rivers, Patrick A; Parker, Shandowyn

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study was a two-year educational intervention and research project aimed at increasing the awareness of breast cancer and the utilization of Clinical Breast Examination (CBE) services and Self-Breast Examination (SBE) among elderly rural and urban African American women who are Medicare beneficiaries. Design: The study was…

  17. Results from a prostate cancer admixture mapping study in African-American men.

    PubMed

    Bock, Cathryn Hufford; Schwartz, Ann G; Ruterbusch, Julie J; Levin, Albert M; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Land, Susan J; Wenzlaff, Angela S; Reich, David; McKeigue, Paul; Chen, Wei; Heath, Elisabeth I; Powell, Isaac J; Kittles, Rick A; Rybicki, Benjamin A

    2009-11-01

    There are considerable racial disparities in prostate cancer risk, with a 60% higher incidence rate among African-American (AA) men compared with European-American (EA) men, and a 2.4-fold higher mortality rate in AA men than in EA men. Recently, studies have implicated several African-ancestry associated prostate cancer susceptibility loci on chromosome 8q24. In the current study, we performed admixture mapping in AA men from two independent case-control studies of prostate cancer to confirm the 8q24 ancestry association and also identify other genomic regions that may harbor prostate cancer susceptibility genes. A total of 482 cases and 261 controls were genotyped for 1,509 ancestry informative markers across the genome. The mean estimated individual admixture proportions were 20% European and 80% African. The most significant observed increase in European ancestry occurred at rs2141360 on chromosome 7q31 in both the case-only (P = 0.0000035) and case-control analyses. The most significant observed increase in African ancestry across the genome occurred at a locus on chromosome 5q35 identified by SNPs rs7729084 (case-only analysis P = 0.002), and rs12474977 (case-control analysis P = 0.004), which are separated by 646 kb and were adjacent to one another on the panel. On chromosome 8, rs4367565 was associated with the greatest excess African ancestry in both the case-only and case-control analyses (case-only and case-control P = 0.02), confirming previously reported African-ancestry associations with chromosome 8q24. In conclusion, we confirmed ancestry associations on 8q24, and identified additional ancestry-associated regions potentially harboring prostate cancer susceptibility loci.

  18. Do African American Patients Treated with Radical Cystectomy for Bladder Cancer have Worse Overall Survival? Accounting for Pathologic Staging and Patient Demographics Beyond Race Makes a Difference

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, Deborah R.; Canner, Joseph K.; Kates, Max; Schoenberg, Mark P.; Bivalacqua, Trinity J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is estimated that 74,000 men and women in the United States will be diagnosed with bladder cancer and 16,000 will die from the disease in 2015. The incidence of bladder cancer in Caucasian males is double that of African American males, but African American men and women have worse survival. Although factors contributing to this disparity have been analyzed, there is still great uncertainty as to why this disparity exists. Objective: To evaluate whether the disparities in bladder cancer survival after radical cystectomy for transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder amongst African American (AA) and Caucasian patients is attributable to patient demographics, year of diagnosis, and/or tumor characteristics. Methods: Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER) data from 1973–2011, African American and Caucasian patients treated with a radical cystectomy for TCC of the bladder were identified. Primary outcomes were all-cause and cancer-specific mortality. Differences in survival between African Americans and Caucasian patients were assessed using chi-square tests for categorical variables and Student’s t-tests for continuous variables. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to measure the hazard ratio for African Americans compared to Caucasians for all-cause and cancer-specific mortality. In addition, coarsened matching techniques within narrow ranges, were used to match African American and Caucasian patients on the basis of age, sex, and cancer stage. Following matching, differences in all-cause and cancer-specific mortality were again assessed using a stratified Cox proportional hazards model, using the matching strata for the regression strata. Results: The study cohort consisted of 21,406 African American and Caucasian patients treated with radical cystectomy for bladder urothelial cancer, with 6.2% being African American and 73.9% male. African American patients had worse all-cause and cancer

  19. Identification of novel mutations by exome sequencing in African American colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Ashktorab, Hassan; Daremipouran, Mohammad; Devaney, Joe; Varma, Sudhir; Rahi, Hamed; Lee, Edward; Shokrani, Babak; Schwartz, Russell; Nickerson, Mike; Brim, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Background To identify genome wide single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and mutations in African Americans (AAs) with colorectal cancer (CRC). There is a need of such studies in AAs since they display a higher incidence of aggressive CRC tumors. Methods We performed whole exome sequencing (WES) on DNA from 12 normal–tumor pairs of AA CRC patients’ tissues. Data analysis was carried out using GATK (Genome Analysis Tool Kit). Normative population databases (e.g. 1000 Genomes SNP database, dbSNP, and HapMap) were used for comparison. Variants were annotated using Annova and validated by Sanger sequencing. Results We identified somatic mutations in genes that are known targets in CRC such as APC, BRAF, KRAS, and PIK3CA. We detected novel alterations in the WNT pathway gene, APC, within its exon 15 of which mutations are highly associated with CRC. Conclusions This first WES from AA CRC patients provides insight into the identification of novel somatic mutations in APC. Our data suggest an association between specific mutations in the WNT signaling pathway and increased risk of CRC. The analysis of the pathogenicity of these novel variants might help understand the aggressive nature of CRC in AAs. PMID:25250560

  20. Obesity, weight gain, and ovarian cancer risk in African American women.

    PubMed

    Bandera, Elisa V; Qin, Bo; Moorman, Patricia G; Alberg, Anthony J; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Bondy, Melissa; Cote, Michele L; Funkhouser, Ellen; Peters, Edward S; Schwartz, Ann G; Terry, Paul; Schildkraut, Joellen M

    2016-08-01

    Although there is growing evidence that higher adiposity increases ovarian cancer risk, little is known about its impact in African American (AA) women, the racial/ethnic group with the highest prevalence of obesity. We evaluated the impact of body mass index (BMI) 1 year before diagnosis and weight gain since age 18 years on ovarian cancer risk in a population-based case-control study in AA women in 11 geographical areas in the US. Cases (n = 492) and age and site matched controls (n = 696) were identified through rapid case ascertainment and random-digit-dialing, respectively. Information was collected on demographic and lifestyle factors, including self-reported height, weight at age 18 and weight 1 year before diagnosis/interview. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for potential covariates. Obese women had elevated ovarian cancer risk, particularly for BMI ≥ 40 kg/m(2) compared to BMI <25 (OR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.12-2.66; p for trend: 0.03). There was also a strong association with weight gain since age 18 (OR: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.07-2.16; p for trend: 0.02) comparing the highest to lowest quartile. In stratified analyses by menopausal status, the association with BMI and weight gain was limited to postmenopausal women, with a 15% (95% CI: 1.05-1.23) increase in risk per 5 kg/m(2) of BMI and 6% (95% CI: 1.01-1.10) increase in risk per 5 kg of weight gain. Excluding hormone therapy users essentially did not change results. Obesity and excessive adult weight gain may increase ovarian cancer risk in post-menopausal AA women.

  1. A Cancer Center’s Approach to Engaging African American Men About Cancer: The Men’s Fellowship Breakfast, Southeastern Michigan, 2008–2014

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Derek M.; Beasley, Derrick D.; Braxton, Effat Id-Deen

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite disproportionate rates of cancer morbidity and mortality among African American men, few community-based efforts have been developed and sustained to educate African American men about cancer. The University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center implemented a series of breakfasts to improve cancer awareness, screening, and education among African American men. This article describes the rationale for and history of the community intervention. Community Context The 21 breakfasts were held from 2008 through mid-2014 in Ypsilanti and Ann Arbor, Michigan. Ypsilanti ranks below Michigan and the nation on most socioeconomic indicators, although most residents are high school graduates (88% in Ypsilanti and 96.5% in Ann Arbor). African American men in Ypsilanti have higher death rates for diseases associated with poor diet and inadequate physical activity compared with Ypsilanti whites and general populations in Michigan and the nation. Methods We conducted a multicomponent qualitative process evaluation including staff meetings, conversations with participants, and focus groups. We collected 425 post-event surveys to evaluate the breakfasts quantitatively. Outcomes Participants were African American (85%), were aged 51 to 70 years (54%), had health insurance (89%), and had some college education (38%). Fifty-three percent of participants reported interest in the breakfast topics including nutrition; 46%, prostate cancer; 34%, colorectal cancer, and 32%, pain management; 62% reported willingness to participate in a clinical trial. Interpretation African American men are interested in learning about health and are willing to attend a health-focused breakfast series. The Men’s Fellowship Breakfast is a promising strategy for bringing men together to discuss cancer screening and risk reduction. PMID:25254982

  2. Development of a spiritually based educational program to increase colorectal cancer screening among African American men and women.

    PubMed

    Holt, Cheryl L; Roberts, Chastity; Scarinci, Isabel; Wiley, Shereta R; Eloubeidi, Mohamad; Crowther, Martha; Bolland, John; Litaker, Mark S; Southward, Vivian; Coughlin, Steven S

    2009-07-01

    This study describes the development of a spiritually based intervention to increase colorectal cancer screening through African American churches by framing the health message with spiritual themes and scripture. The intervention development phase consisted of ideas from an advisory panel and core content identified in focus groups. In the pilot-testing phase, prototypes of the intervention materials were tested for graphic appeal in additional focus groups, and content was tested for acceptability and comprehension in cognitive interviews. Participants preferred materials showing a variety of African Americans in real settings, bright color schemes, and an uplifting message emphasizing prevention and early detection. Spiritual themes such as stewardship over the body, being well to serve God, and using faith to overcome fear, were well received. The materials were then finalized for implementation and will be used by community health advisors to encourage screening. PMID:19657823

  3. Disparities in breast cancer and african ancestry: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Newman, Lisa A

    2015-01-01

    Recognition of breast cancer disparities between African-American and White American women has generated exciting research opportunities investigating the biologic and hereditary factors that contribute to the observed outcome differences, leading to international studies of breast cancer in Africa. The study of breast cancer in women with African ancestry has opened the door to unique investigations regarding breast cancer subtypes and the genetics of this disease. International research efforts can advance our understanding of race/ethnicity-associated breast cancer disparities within the USA; the pathogenesis of triple negative breast cancer; and hereditary susceptibility for breast cancer.

  4. A computer-tailored intervention to promote informed decision making for prostate cancer screening among African-American men

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Jennifer D.; Mohllajee, Anshu P.; Shelton, Rachel C.; Drake, Bettina F.; Mars, Dana R.

    2010-01-01

    African-American men experience a disproportionate burden of prostate cancer (CaP) morbidity and mortality. National screening guidelines advise men to make individualized screening decisions through a process termed “informed decision making” (IDM). In this pilot study, a computer-tailored decision-aid designed to promote IDM was evaluated using a pre/post test design. African-American men aged 40+ recruited from a variety of community settings (n=108). At pre-test, 43% of men reported having made a screening decision; at post-test 47% reported this to be the case (p=0.39). Significant improvements were observed on scores (0–100%) of knowledge (54% vs 72%; p<0.001), decision self-efficacy (87% vs 89%; p<0.01), and decisional conflict (21% vs 13%; p<0.001). Men were also more likely to want an active role in decision-making after using the tool (67% vs 75%; p=0.03). These results suggest that use of a computer-tailored decision-aid is a promising strategy to promote IDM for CaP screening among African-American men. PMID:19477736

  5. Pros and cons of prostate cancer screening: associations with screening knowledge and attitudes among urban African American men.

    PubMed

    Davis, Stacy N; Diefenbach, Michael A; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis; Chen, Tianle; Hall, Simon J; Thompson, Hayley S

    2010-03-01

    Discussion of the pros and cons of prostate cancer screening tests, rather than routine screening, is recommended to support informed screening decisions, particularly among African American men. This study explored physician explanation of pros and cons of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and digital rectal exam (DRE) and its association with knowledge and screening attitudes. Two hundred-one African American men were asked if a physician had ever provided a comprehensive explanation of pros and cons of the PSA test and DRE. All men completed a 10-item prostate cancer knowledge scale and a subset completed a 26-item attitudes measure. Only 13% of the sample reported receiving a comprehensive explanation. Also, prostate cancer knowledge in the sample was low (mean = 43% correct). Multivariate analyses revealed that total prostate cancer knowledge was associated with men receiving a comprehensive explanation (p = .05), as well as past prostate cancer screening (p = .02) and younger age (p = .009). Although comprehensive explanation of prostate cancer screening was related to total prostate cancer knowledge, it was unrelated to a subset of items that may be central to fully informed screening decisions. Furthermore, comprehensive explanation of prostate cancer screening (p = .02), along with DRE recommendation (p = .009) and older age (p = .02), were related to fewer negative screening attitudes. Findings suggest that continued focus on patient education and physician communication is warranted. PMID:20355346

  6. Base excision repair genes and risk of lung cancer among San Francisco Bay Area Latinos and African-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jeffrey S.; Wrensch, Margaret R.; Hansen, Helen M.; Sison, Jennette D.; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Seldin, Michael F.; Kelsey, Karl T.; Wiencke, John K.

    2009-01-01

    Base excision repair (BER) is the primary DNA damage repair mechanism for repairing small base lesions resulting from oxidation and alkylation damage. This study examines the association between 24 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) belonging to five BER genes (XRCC1, APEX1, PARP1, MUTYH and OGG1) and lung cancer among Latinos (113 cases and 299 controls) and African-Americans (255 cases and 280 controls). The goal was to evaluate the differences in genetic contribution to lung cancer risk by ethnic groups. Analyses of individual SNPs and haplotypes were performed using unconditional logistic regressions adjusted for age, sex and genetic ancestry. Four SNPs among Latinos and one SNP among African-Americans were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with either risk of all lung cancer or non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, only the association between XRCC1 Arg399Gln (rs25487) and NSCLC among Latinos (odds ratio associated with every copy of Gln = 1.52; 95% confidence interval: 1.01–2.28) had a false-positive report probability of <0.5. Arg399Gln is a SNP with some functional evidence and has been shown previously to be an important SNP associated with lung cancer, mostly for Asians. Since the analyses were adjusted for genetic ancestry, the observed association between Arg399Gln and NSCLC among Latinos is unlikely to be confounded by population stratification; however, this result needs to be confirmed by additional studies among the Latino population. This study suggests that there are genetic differences in the association between BER pathway and lung cancer between Latinos and African-Americans. PMID:19029194

  7. Cancer statistics for African Americans, 2016: Progress and opportunities in reducing racial disparities.

    PubMed

    DeSantis, Carol E; Siegel, Rebecca L; Sauer, Ann Goding; Miller, Kimberly D; Fedewa, Stacey A; Alcaraz, Kassandra I; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2016-07-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides the estimated number of new cancer cases and deaths for blacks in the United States and the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, survival, screening, and risk factors for cancer. Incidence data are from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries, and mortality data are from the National Center for Health Statistics. Approximately 189,910 new cases of cancer and 69,410 cancer deaths will occur among blacks in 2016. Although blacks continue to have higher cancer death rates than whites, the disparity has narrowed for all cancers combined in men and women and for lung and prostate cancers in men. In contrast, the racial gap in death rates has widened for breast cancer in women and remained level for colorectal cancer in men. The reduction in overall cancer death rates since the early 1990s translates to the avoidance of more than 300,000 deaths among blacks. In men, incidence rates from 2003 to 2012 decreased for all cancers combined (by 2.0% per year) as well as for the top 3 cancer sites (prostate, lung, and colorectal). In women, overall rates during the corresponding time period remained unchanged, reflecting increasing trends in breast cancer combined with decreasing trends in lung and colorectal cancer rates. Five-year relative survival is lower for blacks than whites for most cancers at each stage of diagnosis. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors remains an active area of research. Progress in reducing cancer death rates could be accelerated by ensuring equitable access to prevention, early detection, and high-quality treatment. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:290-308. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  8. Differential gene expression between African American and European American colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Jovov, Biljana; Araujo-Perez, Felix; Sigel, Carlie S; Stratford, Jeran K; McCoy, Amber N; Yeh, Jen Jen; Keku, Temitope

    2012-01-01

    The incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer (CRC) is higher in African Americans (AAs) than other ethnic groups in the U. S., but reasons for the disparities are unknown. We performed gene expression profiling of sporadic CRCs from AAs vs. European Americans (EAs) to assess the contribution to CRC disparities. We evaluated the gene expression of 43 AA and 43 EA CRC tumors matched by stage and 40 matching normal colorectal tissues using the Agilent human whole genome 4x44K cDNA arrays. Gene and pathway analyses were performed using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM), Ten-fold cross validation, and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). SAM revealed that 95 genes were differentially expressed between AA and EA patients at a false discovery rate of ≤5%. Using IPA we determined that most prominent disease and pathway associations of differentially expressed genes were related to inflammation and immune response. Ten-fold cross validation demonstrated that following 10 genes can predict ethnicity with an accuracy of 94%: CRYBB2, PSPH, ADAL, VSIG10L, C17orf81, ANKRD36B, ZNF835, ARHGAP6, TRNT1 and WDR8. Expression of these 10 genes was validated by qRT-PCR in an independent test set of 28 patients (10 AA, 18 EA). Our results are the first to implicate differential gene expression in CRC racial disparities and indicate prominent difference in CRC inflammation between AA and EA patients. Differences in susceptibility to inflammation support the existence of distinct tumor microenvironments in these two patient populations.

  9. Prostate Cancer Knowledge and Decision Making Among African-American Men and Women in the Southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Otis L.; Jackson, Dawnyéa D.; Thomas, Tracey L.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Hébert, James R.

    2014-01-01

    This study used multiple methods for assessing African-American (AA) men’s and their female relatives, friends, and significant others’ knowledge and cancer-related decision-making practices within the context of a prostate cancer (PrCA) education program. Data were collected from 81 participants using qualitative focus groups and 49 participants also completed quantitative pre/post surveys. Findings showed that men often relied on their female “significant other” and doctors for guidance on cancer-related decisions. Women described their role in assisting with their male partners’ cancer decisions. AA men’s and women’s knowledge scores increased between pre- and post-tests which can indicate a greater likelihood of future participation in informed cancer-related decision making. Also, using multiple methods in formative research can provide relevant information for developing effective cancer-related interventions. PMID:26190946

  10. What Is Breast Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Next Topic Types of breast cancers What is breast cancer? Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast ... breast cancer? ” and Non-cancerous Breast Conditions . How Breast Cancer Spreads Breast cancer can spread through the lymph ...

  11. Factors associated with delays to diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in women in a Louisiana urban safety net hospital.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Only lung cancer surpasses breast cancer as a cause of death from cancer; however, the burden of breast cancer is not borne equally across racial and ethnic groups. In the United States, African American (AA) women have significantly higher mortality rates from breast cancer than white women. Dela...

  12. Affecting African American Men’s Prostate Cancer Screening Decision-making through a Mobile Tablet-Mediated Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Sultan, Dawood H.; Rivers, Brian M.; Osongo, Ben O.; Wilson, Danyell S.; Schenck, April; Carvajal, Rodrigo; Rivers, Desiree; Roetzheim, Richard; Lee Green, B.

    2014-01-01

    African American men experience a 60% higher incidence of prostate cancer and are more than twice as likely to die from it than White men. Evidence is insufficient to conclude that definitively screening for prostate cancer reduces the likelihood of morbidity or death. Patients are encouraged to discuss screening alternatives with health care providers for informed decision-making (IDM). The extent of IDM in clinical or community setting is not known. This study uses data from a community-based, computer-mediated, IDM intervention that targeted 152 African American aged 40 to 70. Pretest-posttest differences in means for prostate cancer knowledge, screening decisional conflict, and screening decisional self-efficacy were examined by two-tailed t-tests. Overall, the intervention significantly improved respondents’ prostate cancer knowledge (p<.0001), significantly improved decisional self-efficacy (p<.0001) and significantly reduced decisional conflict (p<.0001). Specifically, the intervention significantly promoted IDM among men who reported more education, being married, having financial resources, and younger age. PMID:25130238

  13. Fine-mapping of genome-wide association study-identified risk loci for colorectal cancer in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hansong; Haiman, Christopher A.; Burnett, Terrilea; Fortini, Barbara K.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Henderson, Brian E.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Blot, William J.; Keku, Temitope O.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Pande, Mala; Amos, Christopher I.; West, Dee W.; Casey, Graham; Sandler, Robert S.; Haile, Robert; Stram, Daniel O.; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies of colorectal cancer (CRC) in Europeans and Asians have identified 21 risk susceptibility regions [29 index single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)]. Characterizing these risk regions in diverse racial groups with different linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure can help localize causal variants. We examined associations between CRC and all 29 index SNPs in 6597 African Americans (1894 cases and 4703 controls). Nine SNPs in eight regions (5q31.1, 6q26-q27, 8q23.3, 8q24.21, 11q13.4, 15q13.3, 18q21.1 and 20p12.3) formally replicated in our data with one-sided P-values <0.05 and the same risk directions as reported previously. We performed fine-mapping of the 21 risk regions (including 250 kb on both sides of the index SNPs) using genotyped and imputed markers at the density of the 1000 Genomes Project to search for additional or more predictive risk markers. Among the SNPs correlated with the index variants, two markers, rs12759486 (or rs7547751, a putative functional variant in perfect LD with it) in 1q41 and rs7252505 in 19q13.1, were more strongly and statistically significantly associated with CRC (P < 0.0006). The average per allele risk was improved using the replicated index variants and the two new markers (odds ratio = 1.14, P = 6.5 × 10−16) in African Americans, compared with using all index SNPs (odds ratio = 1.07, P = 3.4 × 10−10). The contribution of the two new risk SNPs to CRC heritability was estimated to be 1.5% in African Americans. This study highlights the importance of fine-mapping in diverse populations. PMID:23851122

  14. Atlas of prostate cancer heritability in European and African-American men pinpoints tissue-specific regulation.

    PubMed

    Gusev, Alexander; Shi, Huwenbo; Kichaev, Gleb; Pomerantz, Mark; Li, Fugen; Long, Henry W; Ingles, Sue A; Kittles, Rick A; Strom, Sara S; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Nemesure, Barbara; Isaacs, William B; Zheng, Wei; Pettaway, Curtis A; Yeboah, Edward D; Tettey, Yao; Biritwum, Richard B; Adjei, Andrew A; Tay, Evelyn; Truelove, Ann; Niwa, Shelley; Chokkalingam, Anand P; John, Esther M; Murphy, Adam B; Signorello, Lisa B; Carpten, John; Leske, M Cristina; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Hennis, Anslem J M; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Hsing, Ann W; Chu, Lisa; Goodman, Phyllis J; Klein, Eric A; Witte, John S; Casey, Graham; Kaggwa, Sam; Cook, Michael B; Stram, Daniel O; Blot, William J; Eeles, Rosalind A; Easton, Douglas; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Benlloch, Sara; Muir, Kenneth; Giles, Graham G; Southey, Melissa C; Fitzgerald, Liesel M; Gronberg, Henrik; Wiklund, Fredrik; Aly, Markus; Henderson, Brian E; Schleutker, Johanna; Wahlfors, Tiina; Tammela, Teuvo L J; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Key, Tim J; Travis, Ruth C; Neal, David E; Donovan, Jenny L; Hamdy, Freddie C; Pharoah, Paul; Pashayan, Nora; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Stanford, Janet L; Thibodeau, Stephen N; McDonnell, Shannon K; Schaid, Daniel J; Maier, Christiane; Vogel, Walther; Luedeke, Manuel; Herkommer, Kathleen; Kibel, Adam S; Cybulski, Cezary; Wokolorczyk, Dominika; Kluzniak, Wojciech; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Teerlink, Craig; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida K; Arndt, Volker; Park, Jong Y; Sellers, Thomas A; Lin, Hui-Yi; Slavov, Chavdar; Kaneva, Radka; Mitev, Vanio; Batra, Jyotsna; Spurdle, Amanda; Clements, Judith A; Teixeira, Manuel R; Pandha, Hardev; Michael, Agnieszka; Paulo, Paula; Maia, Sofia; Kierzek, Andrzej; Conti, David V; Albanes, Demetrius; Berg, Christine; Berndt, Sonja I; Campa, Daniele; Crawford, E David; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaziano, J Michael; Giovannucci, Edward; Hoover, Robert; Hunter, David J; Johansson, Mattias; Kraft, Peter; Le Marchand, Loic; Lindström, Sara; Navarro, Carmen; Overvad, Kim; Riboli, Elio; Siddiq, Afshan; Stevens, Victoria L; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Vineis, Paolo; Yeager, Meredith; Trynka, Gosia; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Schumacher, Frederick R; Price, Alkes L; Freedman, Matthew L; Haiman, Christopher A; Pasaniuc, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    Although genome-wide association studies have identified over 100 risk loci that explain ∼33% of familial risk for prostate cancer (PrCa), their functional effects on risk remain largely unknown. Here we use genotype data from 59,089 men of European and African American ancestries combined with cell-type-specific epigenetic data to build a genomic atlas of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) heritability in PrCa. We find significant differences in heritability between variants in prostate-relevant epigenetic marks defined in normal versus tumour tissue as well as between tissue and cell lines. The majority of SNP heritability lies in regions marked by H3k27 acetylation in prostate adenoc7arcinoma cell line (LNCaP) or by DNaseI hypersensitive sites in cancer cell lines. We find a high degree of similarity between European and African American ancestries suggesting a similar genetic architecture from common variation underlying PrCa risk. Our findings showcase the power of integrating functional annotation with genetic data to understand the genetic basis of PrCa. PMID:27052111

  15. Atlas of prostate cancer heritability in European and African-American men pinpoints tissue-specific regulation.

    PubMed

    Gusev, Alexander; Shi, Huwenbo; Kichaev, Gleb; Pomerantz, Mark; Li, Fugen; Long, Henry W; Ingles, Sue A; Kittles, Rick A; Strom, Sara S; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Nemesure, Barbara; Isaacs, William B; Zheng, Wei; Pettaway, Curtis A; Yeboah, Edward D; Tettey, Yao; Biritwum, Richard B; Adjei, Andrew A; Tay, Evelyn; Truelove, Ann; Niwa, Shelley; Chokkalingam, Anand P; John, Esther M; Murphy, Adam B; Signorello, Lisa B; Carpten, John; Leske, M Cristina; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Hennis, Anslem J M; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Hsing, Ann W; Chu, Lisa; Goodman, Phyllis J; Klein, Eric A; Witte, John S; Casey, Graham; Kaggwa, Sam; Cook, Michael B; Stram, Daniel O; Blot, William J; Eeles, Rosalind A; Easton, Douglas; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Benlloch, Sara; Muir, Kenneth; Giles, Graham G; Southey, Melissa C; Fitzgerald, Liesel M; Gronberg, Henrik; Wiklund, Fredrik; Aly, Markus; Henderson, Brian E; Schleutker, Johanna; Wahlfors, Tiina; Tammela, Teuvo L J; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Key, Tim J; Travis, Ruth C; Neal, David E; Donovan, Jenny L; Hamdy, Freddie C; Pharoah, Paul; Pashayan, Nora; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Stanford, Janet L; Thibodeau, Stephen N; McDonnell, Shannon K; Schaid, Daniel J; Maier, Christiane; Vogel, Walther; Luedeke, Manuel; Herkommer, Kathleen; Kibel, Adam S; Cybulski, Cezary; Wokolorczyk, Dominika; Kluzniak, Wojciech; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Teerlink, Craig; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida K; Arndt, Volker; Park, Jong Y; Sellers, Thomas A; Lin, Hui-Yi; Slavov, Chavdar; Kaneva, Radka; Mitev, Vanio; Batra, Jyotsna; Spurdle, Amanda; Clements, Judith A; Teixeira, Manuel R; Pandha, Hardev; Michael, Agnieszka; Paulo, Paula; Maia, Sofia; Kierzek, Andrzej; Conti, David V; Albanes, Demetrius; Berg, Christine; Berndt, Sonja I; Campa, Daniele; Crawford, E David; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaziano, J Michael; Giovannucci, Edward; Hoover, Robert; Hunter, David J; Johansson, Mattias; Kraft, Peter; Le Marchand, Loic; Lindström, Sara; Navarro, Carmen; Overvad, Kim; Riboli, Elio; Siddiq, Afshan; Stevens, Victoria L; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Vineis, Paolo; Yeager, Meredith; Trynka, Gosia; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Schumacher, Frederick R; Price, Alkes L; Freedman, Matthew L; Haiman, Christopher A; Pasaniuc, Bogdan

    2016-04-07

    Although genome-wide association studies have identified over 100 risk loci that explain ∼33% of familial risk for prostate cancer (PrCa), their functional effects on risk remain largely unknown. Here we use genotype data from 59,089 men of European and African American ancestries combined with cell-type-specific epigenetic data to build a genomic atlas of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) heritability in PrCa. We find significant differences in heritability between variants in prostate-relevant epigenetic marks defined in normal versus tumour tissue as well as between tissue and cell lines. The majority of SNP heritability lies in regions marked by H3k27 acetylation in prostate adenoc7arcinoma cell line (LNCaP) or by DNaseI hypersensitive sites in cancer cell lines. We find a high degree of similarity between European and African American ancestries suggesting a similar genetic architecture from common variation underlying PrCa risk. Our findings showcase the power of integrating functional annotation with genetic data to understand the genetic basis of PrCa.

  16. "It's up to you and God": understanding health behavior change in older African American survivors of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Harper, Felicity W K; Nevedal, Andrea; Eggly, Susan; Francis, Carie; Schwartz, Kendra; Albrecht, Terrance L

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated the beliefs and attitudes of older African American colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors that may influence health behavior changes after treatment. Drawing from existing theories of health behavior change and cultural beliefs about health, a semi-structured interview guide was developed to elicit survivors' perspectives. Qualitative focus groups and interviews were conducted with 17 survivors identified through the Detroit Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results registry. Using verbatim transcripts from the sessions and NVivo software, thematic analysis was conducted to analyze patterns of responses. Transcripts were coded for seven categories (health behaviors, who/what motivates change, self-efficacy, fatalism, religion/spirituality, beliefs about cancer, race/ethnicity). Five themes emerged from the data (personal responsibility, resilience, desire for information, intentions to change, beliefs in divine control). Findings support the relevance of existing theories of health behavior change to older African American CRC survivors. Cultural considerations are suggested to improve interventions seeking to maximize changes in diet and exercise among this group of survivors. PMID:23646096

  17. Atlas of prostate cancer heritability in European and African-American men pinpoints tissue-specific regulation

    PubMed Central

    Gusev, Alexander; Shi, Huwenbo; Kichaev, Gleb; Pomerantz, Mark; Li, Fugen; Long, Henry W.; Ingles, Sue A.; Kittles, Rick A.; Strom, Sara S.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Nemesure, Barbara; Isaacs, William B.; Zheng, Wei; Pettaway, Curtis A.; Yeboah, Edward D.; Tettey, Yao; Biritwum, Richard B.; Adjei, Andrew A.; Tay, Evelyn; Truelove, Ann; Niwa, Shelley; Chokkalingam, Anand P.; John, Esther M.; Murphy, Adam B.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Carpten, John; Leske, M. Cristina; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Hennis, Anslem J. M.; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Hsing, Ann W.; Chu, Lisa; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Klein, Eric A.; Witte, John S.; Casey, Graham; Kaggwa, Sam; Cook, Michael B.; Stram, Daniel O.; Blot, William J.; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Easton, Douglas; Kote-Jarai, ZSofia; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Benlloch, Sara; Muir, Kenneth; Giles, Graham G.; Southey, Melissa C.; Fitzgerald, Liesel M.; Gronberg, Henrik; Wiklund, Fredrik; Aly, Markus; Henderson, Brian E.; Schleutker, Johanna; Wahlfors, Tiina; Tammela, Teuvo L. J.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Key, Tim J.; Travis, Ruth C.; Neal, David E.; Donovan, Jenny L.; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Pharoah, Paul; Pashayan, Nora; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Stanford, Janet L.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; McDonnell, Shannon K.; Schaid, Daniel J.; Maier, Christiane; Vogel, Walther; Luedeke, Manuel; Herkommer, Kathleen; Kibel, Adam S.; Cybulski, Cezary; Wokolorczyk, Dominika; Kluzniak, Wojciech; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Teerlink, Craig; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida K.; Arndt, Volker; Park, Jong Y.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Slavov, Chavdar; Kaneva, Radka; Mitev, Vanio; Batra, Jyotsna; Spurdle, Amanda; Clements, Judith A.; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Pandha, Hardev; Michael, Agnieszka; Paulo, Paula; Maia, Sofia; Kierzek, Andrzej; Cook, Margaret; Guy, Michelle; Govindasami, Koveela; Leongamornlert, Daniel; Sawyer, Emma J.; Wilkinson, Rosemary; Saunders, Edward J.; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Dadaev, Tokhir; Morgan, Angela; Fisher, Cyril; Hazel, Steve; Livni, Naomi; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Pedersen, John; Hopper, John L.; Adolfson, Jan; Stattin, Paer; Johansson, Jan-Erik; Cavalli-Bjoerkman, Carin; Karlsson, Ami; Broms, Michael; Auvinen, Anssi; Kujala, Paula; Maeaettaenen, Liisa; Murtola, Teemu; Taari, Kimmo; Weischer, Maren; Nielsen, Sune F.; Klarskov, Peter; Roder, Andreas; Iversen, Peter; Wallinder, Hans; Gustafsson, Sven; Cox, Angela; Brown, Paul; George, Anne; Marsden, Gemma; Lane, Athene; Davis, Michael; Zheng, Wei; Signorello, Lisa B.; Blot, William J.; Tillmans, Lori; Riska, Shaun; Wang, Liang; Rinckleb, Antje; Lubiski, Jan; Stegmaier, Christa; Pow-Sang, Julio; Park, Hyun; Radlein, Selina; Rincon, Maria; Haley, James; Zachariah, Babu; Kachakova, Darina; Popov, Elenko; Mitkova, Atanaska; Vlahova, Aleksandrina; Dikov, Tihomir; Christova, Svetlana; Heathcote, Peter; Wood, Glenn; Malone, Greg; Saunders, Pamela; Eckert, Allison; Yeadon, Trina; Kerr, Kris; Collins, Angus; Turner, Megan; Srinivasan, Srilakshmi; Kedda, Mary-Anne; Alexander, Kimberly; Omara, Tracy; Wu, Huihai; Henrique, Rui; Pinto, Pedro; Santos, Joana; Barros-Silva, Joao; Conti, David V.; Albanes, Demetrius; Berg, Christine; Berndt, Sonja I.; Campa, Daniele; Crawford, E. David; Diver, W. Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giovannucci, Edward; Hoover, Robert; Hunter, David J.; Johansson, Mattias; Kraft, Peter; Le Marchand, Loic; Lindström, Sara; Navarro, Carmen; Overvad, Kim; Riboli, Elio; Siddiq, Afshan; Stevens, Victoria L.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Vineis, Paolo; Yeager, Meredith; Trynka, Gosia; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Schumacher, Frederick R.; Price, Alkes L.; Freedman, Matthew L.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Pasaniuc, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    Although genome-wide association studies have identified over 100 risk loci that explain ∼33% of familial risk for prostate cancer (PrCa), their functional effects on risk remain largely unknown. Here we use genotype data from 59,089 men of European and African American ancestries combined with cell-type-specific epigenetic data to build a genomic atlas of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) heritability in PrCa. We find significant differences in heritability between variants in prostate-relevant epigenetic marks defined in normal versus tumour tissue as well as between tissue and cell lines. The majority of SNP heritability lies in regions marked by H3k27 acetylation in prostate adenoc7arcinoma cell line (LNCaP) or by DNaseI hypersensitive sites in cancer cell lines. We find a high degree of similarity between European and African American ancestries suggesting a similar genetic architecture from common variation underlying PrCa risk. Our findings showcase the power of integrating functional annotation with genetic data to understand the genetic basis of PrCa. PMID:27052111

  18. Spiritually Based Intervention to Increase Colorectal Cancer Screening among African Americans: Screening and Theory-Based Outcomes from a Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Cheryl L.; Litaker, Mark S.; Scarinci, Isabel C.; Debnam, Katrina J.; McDavid, Chastity; McNeal, Sandre F.; Eloubeidi, Mohamad A.; Crowther, Martha; Bolland, John; Martin, Michelle Y.

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer screening has clear benefits in terms of mortality reduction; however, it is still underutilized and especially among medically underserved populations, including African Americans, who also suffer a disproportionate colorectal cancer burden. This study consisted of a theory-driven (health belief model) spiritually based…

  19. Social determinants of Black-White disparities in breast cancer mortality: a review.

    PubMed

    Gerend, Mary A; Pai, Manacy

    2008-11-01

    Despite the recent decline in breast cancer mortality, African American women continue to die from breast cancer at higher rates than do White women. Beyond the fact that breast cancer tends to be a more biologically aggressive disease in African American than in White women, this disparity in breast cancer mortality also reflects social barriers that disproportionately affect African American women. These barriers hinder cancer prevention and control efforts and modify the biological expression of disease. The present review focuses on delineating social, economic, and cultural factors that are potentially responsible for Black-White disparities in breast cancer mortality. This review was guided by the social determinants of health disparities model, a model that identifies barriers associated with poverty, culture, and social injustice as major causes of health disparities. These barriers, in concert with genetic, biological, and environmental factors, can promote differential outcomes for African American and White women along the entire breast cancer continuum, from screening and early detection to treatment and survival. Barriers related to poverty include lack of a primary care physician, inadequate health insurance, and poor access to health care. Barriers related to culture include perceived invulnerability, folk beliefs, and a general mistrust of the health care system. Barriers related to social injustice include racial profiling and discrimination. Many of these barriers are potentially modifiable. Thus, in addition to biomedical advancements, future efforts to reduce disparities in breast cancer mortality should address social barriers that perpetuate disparities among African American and White women in the United States. PMID:18990731

  20. Social determinants of Black-White disparities in breast cancer mortality: a review.

    PubMed

    Gerend, Mary A; Pai, Manacy

    2008-11-01

    Despite the recent decline in breast cancer mortality, African American women continue to die from breast cancer at higher rates than do White women. Beyond the fact that breast cancer tends to be a more biologically aggressive disease in African American than in White women, this disparity in breast cancer mortality also reflects social barriers that disproportionately affect African American women. These barriers hinder cancer prevention and control efforts and modify the biological expression of disease. The present review focuses on delineating social, economic, and cultural factors that are potentially responsible for Black-White disparities in breast cancer mortality. This review was guided by the social determinants of health disparities model, a model that identifies barriers associated with poverty, culture, and social injustice as major causes of health disparities. These barriers, in concert with genetic, biological, and environmental factors, can promote differential outcomes for African American and White women along the entire breast cancer continuum, from screening and early detection to treatment and survival. Barriers related to poverty include lack of a primary care physician, inadequate health insurance, and poor access to health care. Barriers related to culture include perceived invulnerability, folk beliefs, and a general mistrust of the health care system. Barriers related to social injustice include racial profiling and discrimination. Many of these barriers are potentially modifiable. Thus, in addition to biomedical advancements, future efforts to reduce disparities in breast cancer mortality should address social barriers that perpetuate disparities among African American and White women in the United States.

  1. Calcium intake and prostate cancer among African Americans: effect modification by vitamin D receptor calcium absorption genotype.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Glovioell W; Schwartz, Gary G; John, Esther M; Ingles, Sue Ann

    2012-01-01

    High dietary intake of calcium has been classified as a probable cause of prostate cancer, although the mechanism underlying the association between dietary calcium and prostate cancer risk is unclear. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a key regulator of calcium absorption. In the small intestine, VDR expression is regulated by the CDX-2 transcription factor, which binds a polymorphic site in the VDR gene promoter. We examined VDR Cdx2 genotype and calcium intake, assessed by a food frequency questionnaire, in 533 African-American prostate cancer cases (256 with advanced stage at diagnosis, 277 with localized stage) and 250 African-American controls who participated in the California Collaborative Prostate Cancer Study. We examined the effects of genotype, calcium intake, and diet-gene interactions by conditional logistic regression. Compared with men in the lowest quartile of calcium intake, men in the highest quartile had an approximately twofold increased risk of localized and advanced prostate cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 2.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.40, 3.46), with a significant dose-response. Poor absorbers of calcium (VDR Cdx2 GG genotype) had a significantly lower risk of advanced prostate cancer (OR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.19, 0.90). The gene-calcium interaction was statistically significant (p = 0.03). Among men with calcium intake below the median (680 mg/day), carriers of the G allele had an approximately 50% decreased risk compared with men with the AA genotype. These findings suggest a link between prostate cancer risk and high intestinal absorption of calcium.

  2. Barriers to prostate cancer prevention and community recommended health education strategies in an urban African American community in Jackson, Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Ekúndayò, Olúgbémiga T; Tataw, David B

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the use of survey research in collaboration with the African American urban community of Georgetown, Jackson, Mississippi to identify and understand prostate cancer knowledge, resource utilization, and health education strategies considered most effective in reaching the community with prostate cancer prevention messages. The study revealed profound needs in disease identification and resources awareness and utilization. Barriers to utilization were identified by participants to include lack of self-efficacy, low self-esteem, lack of trust in the health care system, limited knowledge of prostate pathology, and limited ability to pay. Participants' recommended strategies for reaching the community with prostate cancer education include traditional and nontraditional strategies. The list of recommendations exclude modern-day outlets such as handheld devices, Twitter, Facebook, blogs, wikis, and other Internet-based outlets. The findings provide a road map for program development and an intervention research agenda custom-tailored to the Georgetown community of Jackson, Mississippi.

  3. Racial disparities in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment by hormone receptor and HER2 status

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lu; Li, Christopher I.

    2015-01-01

    Background African American and Hispanic women are more likely to be diagnosed with aggressive forms of breast cancer. Disparities within each subtype of breast cancer have not been well documented. Methods Using data from 18 SEER cancer registries, we identified 102,064 women aged 20 years or older, diagnosed with invasive breast cancer in 2010–2011, and with known stage, hormone receptor (HR) and HER2 status. Associations between race/ethnicity and cancer stage and receipt of guideline concordant treatment were evaluated according to HR/HER2 status. Results Overall, African American and Hispanic women were 30–60% more likely to be diagnosed with stage II–IV breast cancer compared to Non-Hispanic whites. African American women had 40–70% higher risks of stage IV breast cancer across all four subtypes. American Indian/Alaska Native women had a 3.9-fold higher risk of stage IV triple negative breast cancer. African American and Hispanic whites were 30–40% more likely to receive non-guideline concordant treatment for breast cancer overall and across subtypes. Conclusions Women in several racial/ethnic groups are more likely to be diagnosed with more advanced stage breast cancer. African American and American Indian/Alaska native women in particular had the highest risk of being diagnosed with stage IV triple negative breast cancer. African American and Hispanic women were also consistently at higher risk of not receiving guideline concordant treatment across subtypes. Impact These findings provide important characterization of which subtypes of breast cancer racial/ethnic disparities in stage and treatment persist. PMID:26464428

  4. Comparison of Statistical Methods for Estimating Genetic Admixture in a Lung Cancer Study of African Americans and Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Selvin, Steve; Hansen, Helen M.; Barcellos, Lisa F.; Wrensch, Margaret R.; Sison, Jennette D.; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Kittles, Rick A.; Silva, Gabriel; Buffler, Patricia A.; Seldin, Michael F.; Wiencke, John K.

    2008-01-01

    A variety of methods are available for estimating genetic admixture proportions in populations; however, few investigators have conducted detailed comparisons using empirical data. The authors characterized admixture proportions among self-identified African Americans (n = 535) and Latinos (n = 412) living in the San Francisco Bay Area who participated in a lung cancer case-control study (1998–2003). Individual estimates of genetic ancestry based on 184 informative markers were obtained from a Bayesian approach and 2 maximum likelihood approaches and were compared using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficients, and Bland-Altman plots. Case-control differences in individual admixture proportions were assessed using 2-sample t tests and logistic regression analysis. Results indicated that Bayesian and frequentist approaches to estimating admixture provide similar estimates and inferences. No difference was observed in admixture proportions between African-American cases and controls, but Latino cases and controls significantly differed according to Amerindian and European genetic ancestry. Differences in admixture proportions between Latino cases and controls were not unexpected, since cases were more likely to have been born in the United States. Genetic admixture proportions provide a quantitative measure of ancestry differences among Latinos that can be used in analyses of genetic risk factors. PMID:18791191

  5. Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing Determination of Distinctive DNA Hypermethylated Genes in the Progression to Colon Cancer in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Shakoori, Afnan; Zarnogi, Shatha; Sun, Xueguang; Varma, Sudhir; Lee, Edward; Laiyemo, Adeyinka O.; Washington, Kareem

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. Many studies have focused on the determination of methylated targets in colorectal cancer. However, few analyzed the progressive methylation in the sequence from normal to adenoma and ultimately to malignant tumors. This is of utmost importance especially in populations such as African Americans who generally display aggressive tumors at diagnosis and for whom markers of early neoplasia are needed. We aimed to determine methylated targets in the path to colon cancer in African American patients using Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing (RRBS). Methods. Genomic DNA was isolated from fresh frozen tissues of patients with different colon lesions: normal, a tubular adenoma, a tubulovillous adenoma, and five cancers. RRBS was performed on these DNA samples to identify hypermethylation. Alignment, mapping, and confirmed CpG methylation analyses were performed. Preferential hypermethylated pathways were determined using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Results. We identified hypermethylated CpG sites in the following genes: L3MBTL1, NKX6-2, PREX1, TRAF7, PRDM14, and NEFM with the number of CpG sites being 14, 17, 10, 16, 6, and 6, respectively, after pairwise analysis of normal versus adenoma, adenoma versus cancer, and normal versus cancer. IPA mapped the above-mentioned hypermethylated genes to the Wnt/β-catenin, PI3k/AKT, VEGF, and JAK/STAT3 signaling pathways. Conclusion. This work provides insight into novel differential CpGs hypermethylation sites in colorectal carcinogenesis. Functional analysis of the novel gene targets is needed to confirm their roles in their associated carcinogenic pathways.

  6. Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing Determination of Distinctive DNA Hypermethylated Genes in the Progression to Colon Cancer in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Shakoori, Afnan; Zarnogi, Shatha; Sun, Xueguang; Varma, Sudhir; Lee, Edward; Laiyemo, Adeyinka O.; Washington, Kareem

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. Many studies have focused on the determination of methylated targets in colorectal cancer. However, few analyzed the progressive methylation in the sequence from normal to adenoma and ultimately to malignant tumors. This is of utmost importance especially in populations such as African Americans who generally display aggressive tumors at diagnosis and for whom markers of early neoplasia are needed. We aimed to determine methylated targets in the path to colon cancer in African American patients using Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing (RRBS). Methods. Genomic DNA was isolated from fresh frozen tissues of patients with different colon lesions: normal, a tubular adenoma, a tubulovillous adenoma, and five cancers. RRBS was performed on these DNA samples to identify hypermethylation. Alignment, mapping, and confirmed CpG methylation analyses were performed. Preferential hypermethylated pathways were determined using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Results. We identified hypermethylated CpG sites in the following genes: L3MBTL1, NKX6-2, PREX1, TRAF7, PRDM14, and NEFM with the number of CpG sites being 14, 17, 10, 16, 6, and 6, respectively, after pairwise analysis of normal versus adenoma, adenoma versus cancer, and normal versus cancer. IPA mapped the above-mentioned hypermethylated genes to the Wnt/β-catenin, PI3k/AKT, VEGF, and JAK/STAT3 signaling pathways. Conclusion. This work provides insight into novel differential CpGs hypermethylation sites in colorectal carcinogenesis. Functional analysis of the novel gene targets is needed to confirm their roles in their associated carcinogenic pathways. PMID:27688749

  7. Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing Determination of Distinctive DNA Hypermethylated Genes in the Progression to Colon Cancer in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Ashktorab, Hassan; Shakoori, Afnan; Zarnogi, Shatha; Sun, Xueguang; Varma, Sudhir; Lee, Edward; Shokrani, Babak; Laiyemo, Adeyinka O; Washington, Kareem; Brim, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. Many studies have focused on the determination of methylated targets in colorectal cancer. However, few analyzed the progressive methylation in the sequence from normal to adenoma and ultimately to malignant tumors. This is of utmost importance especially in populations such as African Americans who generally display aggressive tumors at diagnosis and for whom markers of early neoplasia are needed. We aimed to determine methylated targets in the path to colon cancer in African American patients using Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing (RRBS). Methods. Genomic DNA was isolated from fresh frozen tissues of patients with different colon lesions: normal, a tubular adenoma, a tubulovillous adenoma, and five cancers. RRBS was performed on these DNA samples to identify hypermethylation. Alignment, mapping, and confirmed CpG methylation analyses were performed. Preferential hypermethylated pathways were determined using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Results. We identified hypermethylated CpG sites in the following genes: L3MBTL1, NKX6-2, PREX1, TRAF7, PRDM14, and NEFM with the number of CpG sites being 14, 17, 10, 16, 6, and 6, respectively, after pairwise analysis of normal versus adenoma, adenoma versus cancer, and normal versus cancer. IPA mapped the above-mentioned hypermethylated genes to the Wnt/β-catenin, PI3k/AKT, VEGF, and JAK/STAT3 signaling pathways. Conclusion. This work provides insight into novel differential CpGs hypermethylation sites in colorectal carcinogenesis. Functional analysis of the novel gene targets is needed to confirm their roles in their associated carcinogenic pathways. PMID:27688749

  8. Masculinity and the body: how African American and White men experience cancer screening exams involving the rectum.

    PubMed

    Winterich, Julie A; Quandt, Sara A; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Clark, Peter E; Miller, David P; Acuña, Joshua; Arcury, Thomas A

    2009-12-01

    Past research on prostate and colorectal cancer disparities finds that barriers to screening, such as embarrassment and offensiveness, are often reported. Yet none of this literature investigates why. This study uses masculinity and health theory to examine how men experience two common screenings: digital rectal exams (DREs) and colonoscopies. In-depth interviews were conducted with 64 African American and White men from diverse backgrounds, aged 40 to 64, from North Carolina. Regardless of race or education, men experienced DREs more negatively than colonoscopies because penetration with a finger was associated with a gay sexual act. Some men disliked colonoscopies, however, because they associated any penetration as an affront to their masculinity. Because beliefs did not differ by race, future research should focus on structural issues to examine why disparities persist with prostate and colorectal cancer. Recommendations are provided for educational programs and physicians to improve men's experiences with exams that involve the rectum.

  9. Cluster Randomized Trial of a Church-Based Peer Counselor and Tailored Newsletter Intervention to Promote Colorectal Cancer Screening and Physical Activity among Older African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone, Lucia A.; Allicock, Marlyn; Pignone, Michael P.; Walsh, Joan F.; Johnson, La-Shell; Armstrong-Brown, Janelle; Carr, Carol C.; Langford, Aisha; Ni, Andy; Resnicow, Ken; Campbell, Marci K.

    2016-01-01

    Action Through Churches in Time to Save Lives (ACTS) of Wellness was a cluster randomized controlled trial developed to promote colorectal cancer screening and physical activity (PA) within urban African American churches. Churches were recruited from North Carolina (n = 12) and Michigan (n = 7) and were randomized to intervention (n = 10) or…

  10. Lung cancer risk in relation to genetic polymorphisms of microsomal epoxide hydrolase among African-Americans and Caucasians in Los Angeles County.

    PubMed

    London, S J; Smart, J; Daly, A K

    2000-05-01

    Microsomal epoxide hydrolase participates in the metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene, an important carcinogen in tobacco smoke. Two relatively common polymorphisms of the microsomal epoxide hydrolase gene that influence enzyme activity have been described. An association between genetic variation in microsomal epoxide hydrolase and lung cancer risk has been reported in one of two studies of Caucasians. We examined the relation between these two polymorphisms and lung cancer risk among 337 incident cases and 700 population controls of African-American and Caucasian ethnicity enrolled in a case-control study in Los Angeles County. African-Americans, homozygous for the exon 3 variant allele conferring reduced activity, were at decreased risk of lung cancer (odds ratio (OR)=0.08, 95% CI 0.01-0.62). When data from both the exon 3 and exon 4 polymorphisms were combined into indices of predicted microsomal epoxide hydrolase activity, a decreased risk was seen among African-American subjects with very low predicted activity OR=0.10 (95% CI 0.01-0.83). No comparable association was seen among Caucasians. Although the three published results for Caucasians are somewhat variable, the association among African-Americans in these data provides some support for the hypothesis that genetically reduced microsomal epoxide hydrolase activity may be protective against lung cancer.

  11. IGF2R Genetic Variants, Circulating IGF2 Concentrations and Colon Cancer Risk in African Americans and Whites

    PubMed Central

    Hoyo, Cathrine; Murphy, Susan K.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Vidal, Adriana C.; Skaar, David; Millikan, Robert C.; Galanko, Joseph; Sandler, Robert S.; Jirtle, Randy; Keku, Temitope

    2012-01-01

    The Mannose 6 Phosphate/Insulin-like Growth Factor Receptor-2 (IGF2R) encodes a type-1 membrane protein that modulates availability of the potent mitogen, IGF2. We evaluated the associations between IGF2R non-synonymous genetic variants (c.5002G>A, Gly1619Arg(rs629849), and c.901C>G, Leu252Val(rs8191754)), circulating IGF2 levels, and colon cancer (CC) risk among African American and White participants enrolled in the North Carolina Colon Cancer Study (NCCCS). Generalized linear models were used to compare circulating levels of IGF2 among 298 African American and 518 White controls. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of IGF2R genetic variants and CC risk. Women homozygous for the IGF2R c.5002 G>A allele, had higher mean levels of circulating IGF2, 828 (SD=321) ng/ml compared to non-carriers, 595 (SD=217) ng/ml (p-value=0.01). This pattern was not apparent in individuals homozygous for the IGF2R c.901 C>G variant. Whites homozygous for the IGF2R c.901 C>G variant trended towards a higher risk of CC, OR=2.2 [95% CI(0.9–5.4)], whereas carrying the IGF2R c.5002 G>A variant was not associated with CC risk. Our findings support the hypothesis that being homozygous for the IGF2R c.5002 G>A modulates IGF2 circulating levels in a sex-specific manner, and while carrying the IGF2R c.901 C>G may increase cancer risk, the mechanism may not involve modulation of circulating IGF2. PMID:22377707

  12. Feasibility of a web-based training system for peer community health advisors in cancer early detection among african americans.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sherie Lou Z; Tagai, Erin K; Wang, Min Qi; Scheirer, Mary Ann; Slade, Jimmie L; Holt, Cheryl L

    2014-12-01

    We describe the feasibility of a Web-based portal for training peer community health advisors (CHAs). We conducted a community-based implementation trial in African American churches between 2012 and 2014. The Web-based portal allows CHAs to log in and view 13 training videos, preparing them to deliver 3 cancer early detection workshops in their churches. Of 8 churches, 6 completed the training, each certifying 2 CHAs. These CHAs took an average of 26 days to complete the training, requiring little technical assistance. Additional technical assistance was required to implement the workshops. The Web-based system appears to be a feasible method for training lay individuals for the CHA role and has implications for increasing the reach of evidence-based interventions. PMID:25320894

  13. Feasibility of a web-based training system for peer community health advisors in cancer early detection among african americans.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sherie Lou Z; Tagai, Erin K; Wang, Min Qi; Scheirer, Mary Ann; Slade, Jimmie L; Holt, Cheryl L

    2014-12-01

    We describe the feasibility of a Web-based portal for training peer community health advisors (CHAs). We conducted a community-based implementation trial in African American churches between 2012 and 2014. The Web-based portal allows CHAs to log in and view 13 training videos, preparing them to deliver 3 cancer early detection workshops in their churches. Of 8 churches, 6 completed the training, each certifying 2 CHAs. These CHAs took an average of 26 days to complete the training, requiring little technical assistance. Additional technical assistance was required to implement the workshops. The Web-based system appears to be a feasible method for training lay individuals for the CHA role and has implications for increasing the reach of evidence-based interventions.

  14. ENVE: a novel computational framework characterizes copy-number mutational landscapes in colorectal cancers from African American patients.

    PubMed

    Varadan, Vinay; Singh, Salendra; Nosrati, Arman; Ravi, Lakshmeswari; Lutterbaugh, James; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Markowitz, Sanford D; Willis, Joseph E; Guda, Kishore

    2015-01-01

    Reliable detection of somatic copy-number alterations (sCNAs) in tumors using whole-exome sequencing (WES) remains challenging owing to technical (inherent noise) and sample-associated variability in WES data. We present a novel computational framework, ENVE, which models inherent noise in any WES dataset, enabling robust detection of sCNAs across WES platforms. ENVE achieved high concordance with orthogonal sCNA assessments across two colorectal cancer (CRC) WES datasets, and consistently outperformed a best-in-class algorithm, Control-FREEC. We subsequently used ENVE to characterize global sCNA landscapes in African American CRCs, identifying genomic aberrations potentially associated with CRC pathogenesis in this population. ENVE is downloadable at https://github.com/ENVE-Tools/ENVE. PMID:26269717

  15. Employing the church as a marketer of cancer prevention: a look at a health promotion project aimed to reduce colorectal cancer among African Americans in the Midwest.

    PubMed

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Coffey, Candice R; Daley, Christine M; Greiner, K Allen

    2013-01-01

    Health promotion programs designed to address colorectal cancer disparities among African Americans are increasing. Unfortunately, this group still shoulders a disproportionate mortality burden in the United States; these numbers are also reflective of colorectal cancer (CRC) disparities in the Midwest. The purpose of this study was to extrapolate results from in-depth interviews and brief surveys on the effectiveness of the church as a social marketer of CRC-prevention messages. Results show that pastors believe the congregation has limited knowledge about CRC risk and prevention; they also believe the church can improve cancer-prevention communication among members and those affiliated with the church.

  16. Employing the church as a marketer of cancer prevention: a look at a health promotion project aimed to reduce colorectal cancer among African Americans in the Midwest.

    PubMed

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Coffey, Candice R; Daley, Christine M; Greiner, K Allen

    2013-01-01

    Health promotion programs designed to address colorectal cancer disparities among African Americans are increasing. Unfortunately, this group still shoulders a disproportionate mortality burden in the United States; these numbers are also reflective of colorectal cancer (CRC) disparities in the Midwest. The purpose of this study was to extrapolate results from in-depth interviews and brief surveys on the effectiveness of the church as a social marketer of CRC-prevention messages. Results show that pastors believe the congregation has limited knowledge about CRC risk and prevention; they also believe the church can improve cancer-prevention communication among members and those affiliated with the church. PMID:23718957

  17. Adaptation of a Cancer Clinical Trials Education Program for African American and Latina/o Community Members.

    PubMed

    Pelto, Debra J; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Njoku, Ogo; Rodriguez, Maria Carina; Villagra, Cristina; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Riley, Natasha E; Behar, Alma I; Jandorf, Lina

    2016-08-01

    The pilot study reported in this article culturally and linguistically adapted an educational intervention to promote cancer clinical trials (CCTs) participation among Latinas/os and African Americans. The single-session slide presentation with embedded videos, originally developed through a campus-community partnership in Southern California, was chosen for adaptation because it was perceived to fit the CORRECT model of innovation (credible, observable, relevant, relatively advantageous, easy to understand, compatible, and testable) and because of the potential to customize any components not identified as core, allowing them to be revised for cultural and linguistic alignment in New York City. Most of the 143 community participants (76.2%) were female; most (54.6%) were older than 59 years. More than half (78.3%) preferred to speak English or were bilingual in English and Spanish. A large proportion (41.3%) had not completed high school. Knowledge and perceived benefits and barriers regarding CCT showed small, though statistically significant, increases. There were no statistically significant group differences for changes in mean knowledge, perceived benefits, or perceived barriers when examined by ethnicity, education level, language, or other included sociodemographic variables. However, a small, but statistically significant difference in perceived barriers was observed when examined by country of origin, with the foreign born score worsening 0.08 points (SD = 0.47, p = .007) on the 5-point Likert-type scale administered posteducation compared to preeducation. Participants' open-ended comments demonstrated the acceptability of the topic and intervention. This adaptation resulted in an intervention with the potential to educate African American and Latina/o general community members in a new geographic region about the purpose, methods, and benefits of CCTs. PMID:26493870

  18. Breast Cancer Screening: Cultural Beliefs and Diverse Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Cassandra E.

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses the role of culture in breast cancer screening behavior among African American, American Indian/Alaskan Native, Asian American/Pacific Islander, and Hispanic/Latina women. It reviews cultural beliefs, attitudes, and knowledge and their relative influence on women's decisions regarding health tests. The article explores how…

  19. 16 Extraordinary African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    This collection for children tells the stories of 16 African Americans who helped make America what it is today. African Americans can take pride in the heritage of these contributors to society. Biographies are given for the following: (1) Sojourner Truth, preacher and abolitionist; (2) Frederick Douglass, abolitionist; (3) Harriet Tubman, leader…

  20. Understanding African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward Earl

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the socialization skills, self-esteem, and academic readiness of African American males in a school environment. Discussions with students and the School Perceptions Questionnaire provided data for this investigation. The intended targets for this investigation were African American students; however, there…

  1. A Comparison Between Caucasians and African Americans in Willingness to Participate in Cancer Clinical Trials: The Roles of Knowledge, Distrust, Information Sources, and Religiosity.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jingbo; McLaughlin, Margaret; Pariera, Katrina; Murphy, Sheila

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to (a) examine the roles of knowledge, distrust in medical professionals, information sources, and 2 dimensions of religiosity (i.e., religious activity and religious belief) in influencing willingness to participate (WTP) in cancer clinical trials and to (b) compare the results for Caucasians and African Americans in order to inform future recruitment. An online survey was fielded via a Knowledge Networks panel with a nationally representative sample including 478 Caucasians and 173 African Americans. The results showed that distrust in medical professionals was a strong barrier to WTP for both ethnic groups, whereas factual knowledge about trial procedures was not associated with WTP for either ethnic group. Seeking trial information from doctors was positively associated with WTP for Caucasians; seeking trial information from hospitals was positively associated with WTP for African Americans. More interestingly, levels of religious activity negatively predicted WTP for Caucasians but positively predicted WTP for African Americans. Self-reported religious belief was not associated with WTP for either ethnic group. In sum, although distrust is a common barrier to WTP, the influence of preferred information sources and religious activity on WTP varies as a function of ethnicity. PMID:27175604

  2. Development of a spiritually based educational intervention to increase informed decision making for prostate cancer screening among church-attending African American men.

    PubMed

    Holt, Cheryl L; Wynn, Theresa A; Southward, Penny; Litaker, Mark S; Jeames, Sanford; Schulz, Emily

    2009-09-01

    One way of developing culturally relevant health communication in the African American church setting is to develop spiritually based interventions, in which the health message is framed by relevant spiritual themes and scripture. In this article we describe the development of a community health advisor(CHA)-led intervention aimed at increasing informed decision making (IDM) for prostate cancer screening among church-attending African American men. Full-color print educational booklets were developed and pilot tested with extensive community participation of church-attending African American men age-eligible for screening. The intervention development phase consisted of ideas solicited from an advisory panel of African American men (N = 10), who identified core content and developed the spiritual themes. In the intervention pilot testing phase, prototypes of the intervention materials were pilot tested for graphic appeal in two focus groups (N = 16), and content was tested for acceptability and comprehension using individual cognitive response interviews (N = 10). Recommendations were made for project branding and logo and for use of graphics of real people in the educational materials. Significant feedback was obtained from the focus groups, on the graphics, colors, fonts, continuity, titles, and booklet size/shape. The importance of working closely with the community when developing interventions is discussed, as well as the importance of pilot testing of educational materials. PMID:19731129

  3. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...

  4. Diabetes in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, M

    2005-01-01

    African Americans have a high risk for type 2 diabetes. Genetic traits, the prevalence of obesity, and insulin resistance all contribute to the risk of diabetes in the African American community. African Americans have a high rate of diabetic complications, because of poor glycaemic control and racial disparities in health care in the USA. African Americans with diabetes may have an atypical presentation that simulates type 1 diabetes, but then their subsequent clinical course is typical of type 2 diabetes. Culturally sensitive strategies, structured disease management protocols, and the assistance of nurses, diabetic educators, and other health care professionals are effective in improving the outcome of diabetes in the African American community. PMID:16344294

  5. Breast Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  6. The Influence of Spiritual Framing on African American Women's Mammography Intentions: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Best, Alicia L; Spencer, S Melinda; Friedman, Daniela B; Hall, Ingrid J; Billings, Deborah

    2016-06-01

    Spiritual framing of breast cancer communication may provide a useful strategy for addressing disparate rates of breast cancer mortality among African American women. The efficacy of a spiritually framed breast cancer screening (BCS) message was compared with that of a traditional BCS message. Specifically, 200 African American women were randomly assigned to review either a spiritually framed or traditional BCS message and complete a self-administered survey, including a thought-listing form. Message efficacy was measured by number of thoughts generated (elaboration), ratio of positive to negative thoughts (polarity), and intention to obtain and/or recommend a mammogram. Multiple linear regression and structural equation modeling were used to assess direct and indirect (mediated) associations among variables. Spiritual framing was positively associated with greater elaboration (β = .265, SE = .36, p < .001) and more positive polarity (β = .237, SE = .04, p < .001) . Spiritual framing also had a significant indirect effect on mammography intentions through polarity (standardized indirect effect = .057, 95% confidence interval [.024, .106], p < .001). These results indicate that spiritual framing may improve the efficacy of BCS messages among African American women by eliciting more positive thoughts about screening. Interventions targeting African American women might consider the role of spirituality when tailoring messages to encourage regular mammography use. PMID:27142231

  7. The Influence of Spiritual Framing on African American Women’s Mammography Intentions: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    BEST, ALICIA L.; SPENCER, S. MELINDA; FRIEDMAN, DANIELA B.; HALL, INGRID J.; BILLINGS, DEBORAH

    2016-01-01

    Spiritual framing of breast cancer communication may provide a useful strategy for addressing disparate rates of breast cancer mortality among African American women. The efficacy of a spiritually framed breast cancer screening (BCS) message was compared with that of a traditional BCS message. Specifically, 200 African American women were randomly assigned to review either a spiritually framed or traditional BCS message and complete a self-administered survey, including a thought-listing form. Message efficacy was measured by number of thoughts generated (elaboration), ratio of positive to negative thoughts (polarity), and intention to obtain and/or recommend a mammogram. Multiple linear regression and structural equation modeling were used to assess direct and indirect (mediated) associations among variables. Spiritual framing was positively associated with greater elaboration (β = .265, SE = .36, p < .001) and more positive polarity (β = .237, SE = .04, p < .001). Spiritual framing also had a significant indirect effect on mammography intentions through polarity (standardized indirect effect = .057, 95% confidence interval [.024, .106], p < .001). These results indicate that spiritual framing may improve the efficacy of BCS messages among African American women by eliciting more positive thoughts about screening. Interventions targeting African American women might consider the role of spirituality when tailoring messages to encourage regular mammography use. PMID:27142231

  8. The Influence of Spiritual Framing on African American Women's Mammography Intentions: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Best, Alicia L; Spencer, S Melinda; Friedman, Daniela B; Hall, Ingrid J; Billings, Deborah

    2016-06-01

    Spiritual framing of breast cancer communication may provide a useful strategy for addressing disparate rates of breast cancer mortality among African American women. The efficacy of a spiritually framed breast cancer screening (BCS) message was compared with that of a traditional BCS message. Specifically, 200 African American women were randomly assigned to review either a spiritually framed or traditional BCS message and complete a self-administered survey, including a thought-listing form. Message efficacy was measured by number of thoughts generated (elaboration), ratio of positive to negative thoughts (polarity), and intention to obtain and/or recommend a mammogram. Multiple linear regression and structural equation modeling were used to assess direct and indirect (mediated) associations among variables. Spiritual framing was positively associated with greater elaboration (β = .265, SE = .36, p < .001) and more positive polarity (β = .237, SE = .04, p < .001) . Spiritual framing also had a significant indirect effect on mammography intentions through polarity (standardized indirect effect = .057, 95% confidence interval [.024, .106], p < .001). These results indicate that spiritual framing may improve the efficacy of BCS messages among African American women by eliciting more positive thoughts about screening. Interventions targeting African American women might consider the role of spirituality when tailoring messages to encourage regular mammography use.

  9. Role of religious involvement and spirituality in functioning among African Americans with cancer: testing a mediational model

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Cheryl L.; Wang, Min Qi; Caplan, Lee; Schulz, Emily; Blake, Victor; Southward, Vivian L.

    2013-01-01

    The present study tested a mediational model of the role of religious involvement, spirituality, and physical/emotional functioning in a sample of African American men and women with cancer. Several mediators were proposed based on theory and previous research, including sense of meaning, positive and negative affect, and positive and negative religious coping. One hundred patients were recruited through oncologist offices, key community leaders and community organizations, and interviewed by telephone. Participants completed an established measure of religious involvement, the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being Scale (FACIT-SP-12 version 4), the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the Meaning in Life Scale, the Brief RCOPE, and the SF-12, which assesses physical and emotional functioning. Positive affect completely mediated the relationship between religious behaviors and emotional functioning. Though several other constructs showed relationships with study variables, evidence of mediation was not supported. Mediational models were not significant for the physical functioning outcome, nor were there significant main effects of religious involvement or spirituality for this outcome. Implications for cancer survivorship interventions are discussed. PMID:21222026

  10. Breast cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... drink per day (women at high risk for breast cancer should not drink alcohol at all) ... Services Task Force. Risk assessment, genetic counseling, and ... cancer treatment. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. Date ...

  11. Is Public Communication about End-of-Life Care Helping to Inform All?: Cancer News Coverage in African American vs. Mainstream Media

    PubMed Central

    Fishman, Jess M.; Ten Have, Thomas; Casarett, David

    2014-01-01

    Background Because cancers are a leading cause of death, these diseases receive a great deal of news attention. However, because news media frequently target specific racial or ethnic audiences, some populations may receive different information, and it is unknown whether reporting equally informs all about options for care at the end of life. This study of US news reporting compares “mainstream” (general market) media to African American media, which serves the largest minority group. The specific goal of this study was to determine whether these news media communicate differently about cure-directed cancer treatment and end-of-life alternatives. Methods This content analysis includes 660 cancer news stories from online and print media that target either African American or mainstream audiences. The main outcome measures include whether reporting discussed: adverse events of cancer treatment; cancer treatment failure; cancer death/dying; and end-of-life palliative or hospice care. Results Unadjusted and adjusted analyses indicate that the news stories in the African American media are less likely than those in mainstream media to discuss each of the topics studied. Comparing the proportions of news stories in mainstream vs. African American media , 31.6% vs. 13.6% discussed adverse events (OR 2.92; 95% CI 1.51-5.66; P=0.001); 14.1% vs. 4.2% mentioned treatment failure (OR, 3.79; 95% CI 1.45-9.88; P=0.006); and 11.9% vs. 3.8% focused on death/dying (OR, 3.42; 95% CI 1.39-8.38; P=.007). Lastly, although very few news stories discussed end-of-life hospice or palliative care, all were found in mainstream media (7/396 vs. 0/264). Conclusion The African American news media sampled are less likely than mainstream news media to portray negative cancer outcomes and end-of-life care. Given media's segmented audiences, these findings raise concerns that not all audiences are being informed equally well. Because media content is modifiable, there may be opportunities to

  12. African American Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... specific health concerns. Differences in the health of groups can result from Genetics Environmental factors Access to care Cultural factors On this page, you'll find links to health issues that affect African Americans.

  13. African American Men and Prostate Cancer: Be Your Own Advocate and Understand Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... the benefits of prostate cancer screening outweigh the harms. Some doctors screen some men for prostate cancer ... find prostate cancers that never would have caused harm in a man’s lifetime. In either case, screening ...

  14. Types of Breast Cancers

    MedlinePlus

    ... the key statistics about breast cancer? Types of breast cancers Breast cancer can be separated into different types ... than invasive ductal carcinoma. Less common types of breast cancer Inflammatory breast cancer This uncommon type of invasive ...

  15. The California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium (CBCSC): Prognostic factors associated with racial/ethnic differences in breast cancer survival

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Anna H.; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Vigen, Cheryl; Kwan, Marilyn L.; Keegan, Theresa H.M.; Lu, Yani; Shariff-Marco, Salma; Monroe, Kristine R.; Kurian, Allison W.; Cheng, Iona; Caan, Bette J.; Lee, Valerie S.; Roh, Janise M.; Sullivan-Halley, Jane; Henderson, Brian E.; Bernstein, Leslie; John, Esther M.; Sposto, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in mortality among US breast cancer patients are well-documented. Our knowledge of the contribution of lifestyle factors to disease prognosis is based primarily on non-Latina Whites and is limited for Latina, African American and Asian American women. To address this knowledge gap, the California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium (CBCSC) harmonized and pooled interview information (e.g., demographics, family history of breast cancer, parity, smoking, alcohol consumption) from six California-based breast cancer studies and assembled corresponding cancer registry data (clinical characteristics, mortality), resulting in 12,210 patients (6,501 non-Latina Whites, 2,060 African Americans, 2,032 Latinas, 1,505 Asian Americans, 112 other race/ethnicity) diagnosed with primary invasive breast cancer between 1993 and 2007. In total, 3,047 deaths (1,570 breast cancer-specific) were observed with a mean (SD) follow-up of 8.3 (3.5) years. Cox-proportional hazards regression models were fit to data to estimate hazards ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for overall and breast cancer-specific mortality. Compared with non-Latina Whites, the HR of breast cancer-specific mortality was 1.13 (95% CI, 0.97-1.33) for African Americans, 0.84 (95% CI, 0.70-1.00) for Latinas, and 0.60 (95% CI, 0.37-0.97) for Asian Americans after adjustment for age, tumor characteristics, and select lifestyle factors. The CBCSC represents a large and racially/ethnically diverse cohort of breast cancer patients from California. This cohort will enable analyses to jointly consider a variety of clinical, lifestyle, and contextual factors in attempting to explain the long-standing disparities in breast cancer outcomes. PMID:23864487

  16. African-Americans and Hispanics remain at lower risk of ovarian cancer than non-Hispanic Whites after considering non-genetic risk factors and oophorectomy rates

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Anna H; Pearce, Celeste L; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Pike, Malcolm C

    2015-01-01

    Background Risk factors for invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (IEOC) among Hispanics and African Americans are under-studied despite notable differences in incidence relative to non-Hispanic Whites. Methods We used multivariate logistic regression to examine parity, oral contraceptive use, tubal ligation, endometriosis, family history of ovarian cancer, and talc use and risk of IEOC among Hispanics (308 cases, 380 controls), African Americans (128 cases, 143 controls) and non-Hispanic Whites (1265 cases, 1868 controls) using four case-control studies we conducted in Los Angeles County. We expressed each of these factors in the form of increasing risk and calculated population attributable risk percentage (PAR%) estimates for the six risk factors separately and jointly in the three groups. Results The risk associations with these six well-accepted factors were comparable in the three groups. The significant racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of these factors and differences in their oophorectomy rates explained 31% of the lower incidence in African Americans compared to non-Hispanic Whites, but only 13% of the lower incidence in Hispanics. The PAR%s ranged from 27.5% to 31.0% for no tubal ligation, 15.9% to 22.2% for not using oral contraceptives, and 12.2% to 15.1% for using talc in the three groups. Conclusions All six risk factors are comparably important in the three groups. Differences in the prevalence of these factors and their oophorectomy rates explained approximately one-third of the difference in incidence between African Americans and non-Hispanic Whites. Impact Devising strategies to lessen the burden of IEOC will be applicable to all three racial/ethnic groups. PMID:25873577

  17. Socioeconomic Status in Relation to the Risk of Ovarian Cancer in African-American Women: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Alberg, Anthony J; Moorman, Patricia G; Crankshaw, Sydnee; Wang, Frances; Bandera, Elisa V; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Bondy, Melissa; Cartmell, Kathleen B; Cote, Michelle L; Ford, Marvella E; Funkhouser, Ellen; Kelemen, Linda E; Peters, Edward S; Schwartz, Ann G; Sterba, Katherine Regan; Terry, Paul; Wallace, Kristin; Schildkraut, Joellen M

    2016-08-15

    We investigated the association between socioeconomic status and ovarian cancer in African-American women. We used a population-based case-control study design that included case patients with incident ovarian cancer (n = 513) and age- and area-matched control participants (n = 721) from 10 states who were recruited into the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study from December 2010 through December 2014. Questionnaires were administered via telephone, and study participants responded to questions about several characteristics, including years of education, family annual income, and risk factors for ovarian cancer. After adjustment for established ovarian cancer risk factors, women with a college degree or more education had an odds ratio of 0.71 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.51, 0.99) when compared with those with a high school diploma or less (P for trend = 0.02); women with family annual incomes of $75,000 or more had an odds ratio of 0.74 (95% CI: 0.47, 1.16) when compared with those with incomes less than $10,000 (P for trend = 0.055). When these variables were dichotomized, compared with women with a high school diploma or less, women with more education had an adjusted odds ratio of 0.72 (95% CI: 0.55, 0.93), and compared with women with an income less than $25,000, women with higher incomes had an adjusted odds ratio of 0.86 (95% CI: 0.66, 1.12). These findings suggest that ovarian cancer risk may be inversely associated with socioeconomic status among African-American women and highlight the need for additional evidence to more thoroughly characterize the association between socioeconomic status and ovarian cancer. PMID:27492896

  18. Integrated community education model: breast health awareness to impact late-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Northington, LaDonna; Martin, Tina; Walker, Jean T; Williams, P Renée; Lofton, Susan P; Cooper, Janet R; Luther, Cynthia H; Keller, Sheila D

    2011-08-01

    Race and ethnicity play roles in breast cancer mortality, particularly for African American women. As a result, a three-pronged integrated community education model (i.e., faith-based, community, and state agencies) was generated and tested in a medically underserved area with high mortality rates from breast cancer to increase participation in breast health education, provide early screening and detection practices, and provide access to annual mammograms and referral sources. The model provided three women with life-saving early diagnoses, in addition to providing potentially hundreds of women with a network of breast health, self-monitoring, and referral sources for future issues.

  19. Endoscopic Breast Surgery in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-02-05

    Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  20. Renal cancer paradox: higher incidence but not higher mortality among African-Americans.

    PubMed

    Lipworth, Loren; McLaughlin, Joseph K; Tarone, Robert E; Blot, William J

    2011-07-01

    To compare temporal trends in the incidence and mortality of renal cell cancer among blacks and whites for clues to etiologic differences. We examined trends in age-adjusted and age-specific Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results incidence and US mortality rates for renal cancer for 1973 through 2007, as well as nephrectomy rates from surgery codes for kidney cancer for 2000 through 2007. For nearly four decades, incidence rates for renal cell cancer have been rising more rapidly among blacks than whites, leading to a shift in excess from among whites to among blacks, almost entirely accounted for by an excess of localized disease. The incidence patterns are puzzling, as localized renal cell cancer is primarily detected incidentally by imaging, to which blacks have historically had less access. In contrast to the incidence patterns, there has been an unexpected convergence of renal cancer mortality rates, which have been virtually identical among blacks and whites since the early 1990 s. Nephrectomy rates, regardless of stage, were lower among blacks than among whites, despite almost identical cause-specific survival rates in both races. The identical mortality patterns, combined with higher and more rapidly increasing incidence and lower rates of nephrectomies among blacks, suggest that renal cell cancer may tend to be a less aggressive tumor in blacks. This hypothesis is supported by the favorable stage distribution among blacks and their higher survival for distant and unstaged cancer. Further research into the enigmatic descriptive epidemiology and the biology and natural history of renal cell cancer may shed light on the etiology of this malignancy and its more frequent occurrence among black Americans.

  1. Breast Cancer Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast Cancer - Overview Request Permissions Print to PDF Breast Cancer - Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... bean-shaped organs that help fight infection. About breast cancer Cancer begins when healthy cells in the breast ...

  2. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  3. The Other African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matory, J. Lorand

    Black North America is ethnically and culturally diverse. It contains many groups who do not call themselves or have not always called themselves "Negro,""Black,""African-American," and so forth, such as Louisiana Creoles of color and many of the Indian tribes east of the Mississippi. There are also numerous North American ethnic groups of African…

  4. Educating African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American…

  5. Genetic variants in IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-3, and adiponectin genes and colon cancer risk in African Americans and Whites

    PubMed Central

    Keku, Temitope O.; Vidal, Adriana; Oliver, Shannon; Hoyo, Catherine; Hall, Ingrid J.; Omofoye, Seun; McDoom, Maya; Worley, Kendra; Galanko, Joseph; Sandler, Robert S.; Millikan, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Evaluating genetic susceptibility may clarify effects of known environmental factors and also identify individuals at high risk. We evaluated the association of four insulin-related pathway gene polymorphisms in insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) (CA)n repeat, insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-II) (rs680), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) (rs2854744), and adiponectin (APM1 rs1501299) with colon cancer risk, as well as relationships with circulating IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-3, and C-peptide in a population-based study. Methods Participants were African Americans (231cases, 306 controls) and Whites (297 cases, 530 controls). Consenting subjects provided blood specimens, and lifestyle/diet information. Genotyping for all genes except IGF-I was performed by the 5′-exonuclease (Taqman) assay. The IGF-I (CA)n repeat was assayed by PCR, and fragment analysis. Circulating proteins were measured by enzyme immunoassays. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by logistic regression. Results The IGF-I (CA)19 repeat was higher in White controls (50%) than African American controls (31%). Whites homozygous for the IGF-I (CA)19 repeat had a nearly two fold increase in risk of colon cancer (OR=1.77; 95%CI=1.15–2.73), but not African Americans (OR= 0.73, 95%CI 0.50–1.51). We observed an inverse association between the IGF-II Apa1 A-variant and colon cancer risk (OR= 0.49, 95%CI 0.28–0.88) in Whites only. Carrying the IGFBP-3 variant alleles was associated with lower IGFBP-3 protein levels, a difference most pronounced in Whites (p- trend < 0.05). Conclusions These results support an association between insulin pathway-related genes and elevated colon cancer risk in Whites but not in African Americans. PMID:22565227

  6. Surgery for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Next Topic Breast-conserving surgery (lumpectomy) Surgery for breast cancer Most women with breast cancer have some type ... Relieve symptoms of advanced cancer Surgery to remove breast cancer There are two main types of surgery to ...

  7. Learning about Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... genetic terms used on this page Learning About Breast Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast ... Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast cancer? Breast cancer is a common disease. Each year, ...

  8. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  9. Identifying Barriers to Colonoscopy Screening for Nonadherent African American Participants in a Patient Navigation Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sly, Jamilia R.; Edwards, Tiffany; Shelton, Rachel C.; Jandorf, Lina

    2013-01-01

    African Americans have a higher rate of colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality than other racial/ethnic groups. This disparity is alarming given that CRC is largely preventable through the use of endoscopy (screening colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy), yet rates of CRC screening among African Americans is suboptimal. Only 48.9% of African Americans are…

  10. Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans

    Cancer.gov

    The EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans is a free comprehensive multimedia curricula for health professionals caring for persons with cancer and their families.

  11. Interaction between Red Meat Intake and NAT2 Genotype in Increasing the Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Japanese and African Americans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hansong; Iwasaki, Motoki; Haiman, Christopher A; Kono, Suminori; Wilkens, Lynne R; Keku, Temitope O; Berndt, Sonja I; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2015-01-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines formed in cooked meat may be an underlying mechanism for the red meat-colorectal cancer (CRC) association. These compounds require bioactivaction by N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2). An interaction effect between red meat consumption and NAT2 in increasing CRC risk has been inconsistently reported in whites. We investigated this interaction in two populations in which the high-activity rapid NAT2 phenotype is 10- and 2-fold more common than in whites. We meta-analyzed four studies of Japanese (2,217 cases, 3,788 controls) and three studies of African Americans (527 cases, 4,527 controls). NAT2 phenotype was inferred from an optimized seven-SNP genotyping panel. Processed and total red meat intakes were associated with an increased CRC risk in Japanese and in both ethnic groups combined (P's ≤ 0.002). We observed an interaction between processed meat intake and NAT2 in Japanese (P = 0.04), African Americans (P = 0.02), and in both groups combined (P = 0.006). The association of processed meat with CRC was strongest among individuals with the rapid NAT2 phenotype (combined analysis, OR for highest vs. lowest quartile: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.28-2.05; Ptrend = 8.0×10-5), intermediate among those with the intermediate NAT2 phenotype (1.29, 95% CI: 1.05-1.59; Ptrend = 0.05) and null among those with the slow phenotype (Ptrend = 0.45). A similar interaction was found for NAT2 and total red meat (Pinteraction = 0.03). Our findings support a role for NAT2 in modifying the association between red meat consumption and CRC in Japanese and African Americans. PMID:26683305

  12. Marketing a Healthy Mind, Body, and Soul: An Analysis of How African American Men View the Church as a Social Marketer and Health Promoter of Colorectal Cancer Risk and Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y.; Vanchy, Priya; Baker, Tamara A.; Daley, Christine; Ndikum-Moffer, Florence; Greiner, K. Allen

    2016-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ranks colorectal cancer (CRC) as the third most commonly diagnosed cancer among men in the United States; African American (AA) men are at even greater risk. The present study was from a larger study that investigates the church's role as a social marketer of CRC risk and prevention messages, and…

  13. Cancer and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Action Campaigns and Initiatives Performance Improvement and Management System Report to Congress Knowledge Center Capacity Building Information Services Events Calendar Resource Guide Reentry Resources Trauma ...

  14. Sun protection behaviors among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Hall, H I; Rogers, J D

    1999-01-01

    The anatomic distribution of some skin cancers suggests that sun exposure may be an etiologic factor for skin cancer among African Americans. Yet little is known about sun protection behaviors among African Americans. We analyzed data from the 1992 National Health Interview Survey (N = 1,583) to determine the prevalence of sun protection behaviors and sun sensitivity. About 6% of African Americans reported being extremely sensitive to the sun and severe sunburning, and 9% reported mild burns. Overall, 53% of respondents (47% of men and 57% of women) reported that they were very likely to wear protective clothing, seek shade, or use sunscreen lotion. Women were more likely than men to report seeking shade and using sunscreen. Sun protection behaviors were more frequently reported by those who sunburn more easily and were positively associated with age. Use of sunscreen was positively associated with income and education. Education about sun protection and early detection may help reduce the morbidity and mortality of skin cancer among African Americans.

  15. Reach Out for Health: A Church-Based Pilot Breast Cancer Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Jennifer Dacey; Peterson, Karen; Stoddard, Anne M.; Colditz, Graham; Sorensen, Gloria

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development and testing of Reach Out For Health, a peer-led, church-based breast cancer education program for African American and Hispanic communities. Pretest-posttest evaluation of screening practices and attitudes among women over age 40 indicated that the intervention was associated with improved attitudes toward mammography,…

  16. Advancing Social Workers' Responsiveness to Health Disparities: The Case of Breast Cancer Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altpeter, Mary; Mitchell, James F.; Pennell, Joan

    2005-01-01

    This study provides the basis for customizing culturally responsive social work health promotion programs aimed at eliminating breast cancer screening and mortality disparities between white and African American women. Survey data collected from a random sample of 853 women in rural North Carolina were used to explore the impact of psychosocial…

  17. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  18. Admixture Mapping of African–American Women in the AMBER Consortium Identifies New Loci for Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Receptor Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A.; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Yao, Song; Haddad, Stephen; Haiman, Christopher A.; Bandera, Elisa V.; John, Esther M.; Bernstein, Leslie; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Deming, Sandra L.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Palmer, Julie R.; Lunetta, Kathryn L.

    2016-01-01

    Recent genetic admixture coupled with striking differences in incidence of estrogen receptor (ER) breast cancer subtypes, as well as severity, between women of African and European ancestry, provides an excellent rationale for performing admixture mapping in African American women with breast cancer risk. We performed the largest breast cancer admixture mapping study with in African American women to identify novel genomic regions associated with the disease. We conducted a genome-wide admixture scan using 2,624 autosomal ancestry informative markers (AIMs) in 3,629 breast cancer cases (including 1,968 ER-positive, 1093 ER-negative, and 601 triple-negative) and 4,658 controls from the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk (AMBER) Consortium, a collaborative study of four large geographically different epidemiological studies of breast cancer in African American women. We used an independent case-control study to test for SNP association in regions with genome-wide significant admixture signals. We found two novel genome-wide significant regions of excess African ancestry, 4p16.1 and 17q25.1, associated with ER-positive breast cancer. Two regions known to harbor breast cancer variants, 10q26 and 11q13, were also identified with excess of African ancestry. Fine-mapping of the identified genome-wide significant regions suggests the presence of significant genetic associations with ER-positive breast cancer in 4p16.1 and 11q13. In summary, we identified three novel genomic regions associated with breast cancer risk by ER status, suggesting that additional previously unidentified variants may contribute to the racial differences in breast cancer risk in the African American population. PMID:27708667

  19. Osteoporosis screening is unjustifiably low in older African-American women.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Consuelo H.; Goldfeder, Jason S.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: More than one million Americans suffer osteoporotic fractures yearly, resulting in a marked increase in morbidity and mortality. Despite a decrease in bone mineral density with increasing age in all ethnic groups and both genders, preventative and therapeutics efforts in osteoporosis have been focused on caucasian and Asian women. This study assesses the osteoporosis screening practices and the frequency of low bone density in a primarily African-American population of older women. METHODS: Medical records of 252 women at risk for osteoporosis were reviewed for the diagnosis of osteoporosis, prior osteoporosis screening, prior breast cancer screening, and the use of calcium, vitamin D or estrogen. Subsequently, 128 women were assessed for risk factors for osteoporosis, and their bone mineral density was measured using a peripheral bone densitometer. RESULTS: Osteoporosis screening had been performed in 11.5% of the subjects. Of the women evaluated by peripheral bone densitometry, 44.5% of all women, 40.4% of African-American women, and 53.3% of caucasian women had abnormally low bone density measurements. The frequency of abnormal bone density increased with both increasing age and decreasing body mass index. CONCLUSIONS: Although few women in this population were previously screened for osteoporosis, low bone density occurred in African-American women at substantial rates. Increasing age and low body mass are important risk factors for low bone density in African-American women. Ethnicity should not be used as an exclusion criterion for screening for osteoporosis. PMID:15101666

  20. Knowledge, beliefs, and risk factors for osteoporosis among African-American and Hispanic women.

    PubMed

    Geller, S E; Derman, R

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop and conduct a needs and risk instrument to assess knowledge of osteoporosis risk factors, identify beliefs and attitudes about this disease, and delineate the presence and/or absence of healthy behaviors associated with osteoporosis among African American and Hispanic women. The survey findings suggest that African-American and Hispanic women are not well-versed in behaviors that would promote and maintain optimal bone mass. Consequently, they are not practicing appropriate lifestyle and dietary habits to decrease their risk of osteoporosis. Such behaviors include inadequate physical activity, inadequate calcium intake, cigarette smoking, and long-term steroid use. Less than 10% of women in the study were getting adequate daily dietary calcium intake, with only 13% taking daily calcium supplements to augment this deficit and less than one-half of women exercising at a minimal level (20 minutes/3 times a week). Women in this study also had limited knowledge about osteoporosis, perceived this condition to be less of a health threat as compared to breast cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease, and very few had the perception that being Hispanic or African American was a factor to consider in assessing their risk of osteoporosis. Our findings suggest that osteoporosis education and prevention initiatives are needed, specifically for African-American and Hispanic women, to promote healthy behaviors, identify women at-risk, and encourage early diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Comparison of survival and clinicopathologic features in colorectal cancer among African American, Caucasian, and Chinese patients treated in the United States: Results from the surveillance epidemiology and end results (SEER) database.

    PubMed

    Lin, Junzhong; Qiu, Miaozhen; Xu, Ruihua; Dobs, Adrian Sandra

    2015-10-20

    African American patients of colorectal cancer (CRC) were found to have a worse prognosis than Caucasians, but it has not been fully understood about the survival difference among Chinese and these two races above. In this study, we used the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database to analyze the survival difference among these three race/ethnicities in the United States. Adenocarcinoma patients of colorectal cancer with a race/ethnicity of Caucasian, Chinese and African American were enrolled for study. Patients were excluded if they had more than one primary cancer but the CRC was not the first one, had unknown cause of death or unknown survival months. The 5-year cause specific survival (CSS) was our primary endpoint. Totally, there were 585,670 eligible patients for analysis. Chinese patients had the best and African American patients had the worst 5-year CSS (66.7% vs 55.9%), P < 0.001. The 5-year CSS for Caucasian patients was 62.9%. Race/ethnicity was an independent prognostic factor in the multivariate analysis, P < 0.001. The comparison of clinicopathologic factors among these three race/ethnicities showed that the insurance coverage rate, income, percentage that completing high school and percentage of urban residence was lowest in the African American patients. Chinese patients had the highest percentage of married, while African American patients ranked lowest. More African American patients were diagnosed as stage IV and had high percentage of signet ring cell and mucinous adenocarcinoma. It is likely that biological differences as well as socioeconomic status both contribute to the survival disparity among the different race/ethnicities.

  2. Comparison of survival and clinicopathologic features in colorectal cancer among African American, Caucasian, and Chinese patients treated in the United States: Results from the surveillance epidemiology and end results (SEER) database.

    PubMed

    Lin, Junzhong; Qiu, Miaozhen; Xu, Ruihua; Dobs, Adrian Sandra

    2015-10-20

    African American patients of colorectal cancer (CRC) were found to have a worse prognosis than Caucasians, but it has not been fully understood about the survival difference among Chinese and these two races above. In this study, we used the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database to analyze the survival difference among these three race/ethnicities in the United States. Adenocarcinoma patients of colorectal cancer with a race/ethnicity of Caucasian, Chinese and African American were enrolled for study. Patients were excluded if they had more than one primary cancer but the CRC was not the first one, had unknown cause of death or unknown survival months. The 5-year cause specific survival (CSS) was our primary endpoint. Totally, there were 585,670 eligible patients for analysis. Chinese patients had the best and African American patients had the worst 5-year CSS (66.7% vs 55.9%), P < 0.001. The 5-year CSS for Caucasian patients was 62.9%. Race/ethnicity was an independent prognostic factor in the multivariate analysis, P < 0.001. The comparison of clinicopathologic factors among these three race/ethnicities showed that the insurance coverage rate, income, percentage that completing high school and percentage of urban residence was lowest in the African American patients. Chinese patients had the highest percentage of married, while African American patients ranked lowest. More African American patients were diagnosed as stage IV and had high percentage of signet ring cell and mucinous adenocarcinoma. It is likely that biological differences as well as socioeconomic status both contribute to the survival disparity among the different race/ethnicities. PMID:26375551

  3. EFFECTS OF USING ONLINE NARRATIVE AND DIDACTIC INFORMATION ON HEALTHCARE PARTICIPATION FOR BREAST CANCER PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Meg; Han, Jeong Yeob; Shaw, Bret; McTavish, Fiona; Gustafson, David H.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To determine the effects of online narrative and didactic information on breast cancer patients’ healthcare participation and the interaction effects of race. Methods Sample: 353 breast cancer patients (111 African Americans) using an eHealth program with narratives (audiovisual and text) and didactic information (text only). Measures: healthcare participation scale (0, 4 months), online information use. Analyses: hierarchical regression. Results Narrative (β = .123, p <.01) and didactic (β = .104, p <.05) information use had independent and positive effects on healthcare participation. Effects of both were significantly greater for African Americans. Conclusions Findings are consistent with and advance prior research on online learning processes and outcomes for breast cancer patients: (1) Benefits accrue with using a variety of online learning tools; and (2) African Americans use and benefit more from online narrative and didactic information than do Caucasians. Practice implications eHealth programs should provide both didactic and narrative information—especially for African Americans and might consider making greater use of interactive and audiovisual formats. As patients increasingly use of the web for cancer information, clinicians should provide lists of web high quality resources that provide both narrative and didactic information. PMID:18201859

  4. It takes two to talk about prostate cancer: a qualitative assessment of African American men's and women's cancer communication practices and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Daniela B; Thomas, Tracey L; Owens, Otis L; Hébert, James R

    2012-11-01

    Prostate cancer (PrCA) is the most commonly diagnosed nonskin cancer among men. African American (AA) men in South Carolina have a PrCA death rate 150% higher than that of European American (EA) men. This in-depth qualitative research explored AA men's and women's current practices, barriers, and recommended strategies for PrCA communication. A purposive sample of 43 AA men and 38 AA spouses/female relatives participated in focus groups (11 male groups; 11 female groups). A 19-item discussion guide was developed. Coding and analyses were driven by the data; recurrent themes within and across groups were examined. Findings revealed AA men and women agreed on key barriers to discussing PrCA; however, they had differing perspectives on which of these were most important. Findings indicate that including AA women in PrCA research and education is needed to address barriers preventing AA men from effectively communicating about PrCA risk and screening with family and health care providers. PMID:22806569

  5. Breast Cancer -- Male

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Overview Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  6. Obesity and Mortality After Breast Cancer by Race/Ethnicity: The California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Marilyn L.; John, Esther M.; Caan, Bette J.; Lee, Valerie S.; Bernstein, Leslie; Cheng, Iona; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Henderson, Brian E.; Keegan, Theresa H.M.; Kurian, Allison W.; Lu, Yani; Monroe, Kristine R.; Roh, Janise M.; Shariff-Marco, Salma; Sposto, Richard; Vigen, Cheryl; Wu, Anna H.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated body size and survival by race/ethnicity in 11,351 breast cancer patients diagnosed from 1993 to 2007 with follow-up through 2009 by using data from questionnaires and the California Cancer Registry. We calculated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals from multivariable Cox proportional hazard model–estimated associations of body size (body mass index (BMI) (weight (kg)/height (m)2) and waist-hip ratio (WHR)) with breast cancer–specific and all-cause mortality. Among 2,744 ascertained deaths, 1,445 were related to breast cancer. Being underweight (BMI <18.5) was associated with increased risk of breast cancer mortality compared with being normal weight in non-Latina whites (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.91, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14, 3.20), whereas morbid obesity (BMI ≥40) was suggestive of increased risk (HR = 1.43, 95% CI: 0.84, 2.43). In Latinas, only the morbidly obese were at high risk of death (HR = 2.26, 95% CI: 1.23, 4.15). No BMI–mortality associations were apparent in African Americans and Asian Americans. High WHR (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1) was associated with breast cancer mortality in Asian Americans (HR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.21, 4.03; P for trend = 0.01), whereas no associations were found in African Americans, Latinas, or non-Latina whites. For all-cause mortality, even stronger BMI and WHR associations were observed. The impact of obesity and body fat distribution on breast cancer patients' risk of death may vary across racial/ethnic groups. PMID:24107615

  7. PSA-Based Screening Outcomes, Dietary Heterocyclic Amine Exposure, and Prostate Cancer Risk in African Americans: Annual Report (Year 1 of 3)

    SciTech Connect

    Bogen, K T

    2006-01-18

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the second leading cause of male U.S. cancer deaths, with African-Americans having the highest rate of PC mortality worldwide, as well as more abnormal results from screening tests that correlate with current or eventual PC. A 3-year prospective clinic-based study is studying the performance of current (PSA and DRE) vs. (% free PSA) clinical biomarkers of PC risk in 400 African-American men 50 to 70 years of age who undergo PC screening in Oakland, CA (East Bay San Francisco area), as well as possible association of PC screening results for these men with their dietary exposures to the cancer-causing heterocyclic amine, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) that forms when meat is cooked. This study expands an ongoing NIH-funded study (by the same research team) to add a new %-free-PSA test, results of which will be compared with PSA/DRE results and PhIP exposures estimated by dietary interviews. For 392 men studied under the NIH protocol, an odds ratio (95% CL) of 32 (3.2, 720) for highly elevated PSA ({ge}20 ng/mL) was observed in the highest 15% vs. the lower 50% of estimated daily PhIP intakes. Approximately 100 additional men have completed participation in the expanded NIH/DOD-supported study. This study will help define the potential value of improved screening and dietary/behavioral intervention to reduce PC risk, namely, prevention of PhIP intake by avoiding overcooked meats.

  8. African American Administrators and Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Dianne; Taylor, Janice D.; Burrell, Charlotte; Stewart, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the issues of African American participation in the administrative ranks of the academy. The authors find that African Americans tend to hold positions that are marginal in academic organizations, lacking power and influence, and that not much has changed over recent decades. Forces influencing this condition are explored,…

  9. African-American Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Lucinda

    This paper examines the history of African American children's literature, the present-day status of it, and ventures predictions about its future. The paper also considers the historic and social factors of the debate about whether an author who is not African American can write a book that will/should be accepted in this category of children's…

  10. African-American Sacred Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, A. Peter

    1991-01-01

    The history of African-American sacred music is traced from the time of slavery to the present interest in gospel music. The religious music of African Americans is geared toward liberation themes. It is important that this music does not dilute its power through cross-over with other music forms. (SLD)

  11. Breast Cancer (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Breast Cancer KidsHealth > For Kids > Breast Cancer Print A A ... for it when they are older. What Is Breast Cancer? The human body is made of tiny building ...

  12. Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men between ... 60 and 70. Breast lumps usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. ...

  13. Innovative and Community-Guided Evaluation and Dissemination of a Prostate Cancer Education Program for African-American Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Dawnyea D; Owens, Otis L; Friedman, Daniela B; Dubose-Morris, Ragan

    2015-12-01

    African Americans (AA) are more likely to develop and die from cancer than any other racial or ethnic group. The aims of this research were to (1) evaluate current education materials being implemented in a community-based prostate cancer education program for AA communities, (2) refine materials based on findings from aim 1, (3) share updated materials with participants from aim 1 for additional improvements, and (4) disseminate and evaluate the improved education program through a statewide videoconference with AA men and women. AA individuals evaluated the current education program through a mail survey (n=32) and community forum (n=38). Participants reported that the existing prostate cancer education program content could be understood by lay persons, but recommendations for improvement were identified. They included the following: defining unknown and/or scientific terminology, increasing readability by increasing font size and enlarging images, and including more recent and relevant statistics. Following refinement of the education materials based on survey and forum feedback, a statewide videoconference was implemented. Following the videoconference, participants (25 men; 3 women) reported that they would encourage others to learn more about prostate cancer, talk to their doctor about whether or not to get screened for prostate cancer, and recommend the conference to others. There is great potential for using this type of iterative approach to education program development with community and clinical partners for others conducting similar work.

  14. Association of germline microRNA SNPs in pre-miRNA flanking region and breast cancer risk and survival: the Carolina Breast Cancer Study

    PubMed Central

    Bensen, Jeannette T.; Tse, Chiu Kit; Nyante, Sarah J.; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Cole, Stephen R.; Millikan, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Common germline variation in the 5′ region proximal to precursor (pre-) miRNA gene sequences is evaluated for association with breast cancer risk and survival among African Americans and Caucasians. Methods We genotyped 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 6 miRNA gene regions previously associated with breast cancer, in 1972 cases and 1776 controls. In a race-stratified analysis using unconditional logistic regression, odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to evaluate SNP association with breast cancer risk. Additionally, hazard ratios (HR) for breast cancer-specific mortality were estimated. Results 2 miR-185 SNPs provided suggestive evidence of an inverse association with breast cancer risk (rs2008591, OR = 0.72 (95% CI = 0.53 – 0.98, p-value = 0.04) and rs887205, OR = 0.71 (95% CI = 0.52 – 0.96, p-value = 0.03), respectively) among African Americans. Two SNPs, miR-34b/34c (rs4938723, HR = 0.57 (95% CI = 0.37 – 0.89, p-value = 0.01)) and miR-206 (rs6920648, HR = 0.77 (95% CI = 0.61 – 0.97, p-value = 0.02)), provided evidence of association with breast cancer survival. Further adjustment for stage resulted in more modest associations with survival (HR = 0.65 (95% CI = 0.42 – 1.02, p-value = 0.06 and HR = 0.79 (95% CI = 0.62 – 1.00, p-value = 0.05, respectively). Conclusions Our results suggest that germline variation in the 5' region proximal to pre-miRNA gene sequences may be associated with breast cancer risk among African Americans and breast cancer-specific survival generally, however further validation is needed to confirm these findings. PMID:23526039

  15. A Community Capacity-Enhancement Approach to Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening among Older Women of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Karen; McGraw, Sarah A.

    2006-01-01

    In the Screening Older Minority Women project, the authors applied a community capacity-enhancement approach to promoting breast and cervical cancer screening among older women of color. Members of informal support networks were recruited for this health promotion intervention to empower Latina and African American women to engage in positive…

  16. Successfully Educating Our African-American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moncree-Moffett, Kareem

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this empirical study was to explore the lived experiences of African American retired female teachers who have prior experience with educating urban African American students in public schools. Also explored are the experiences of active African American female teachers of urban African American students and comparisons are…

  17. General Information about Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  18. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer - Treatment Options Request Permissions Print to PDF Breast Cancer - Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... recommendations for ovarian ablation . Hormonal therapy for metastatic breast cancer Hormonal therapies are also commonly used to treat ...

  19. Breast Cancer Disparities

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  20. Breast cancer in men

    MedlinePlus

    ... in situ-male; Intraductal carcinoma-male; Inflammatory breast cancer-male; Paget disease of the nipple-male; Breast cancer-male ... The cause of breast cancer is not clear. But there are risk ... breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to radiation Higher ...

  1. Living Beyond Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Instagram YouTube 2,600 men are diagnosed with breast cancer each year. Learn about risk factors, treatment options ... help hundreds of thousands of people affected by breast cancer. Donate Today Breast Cancer inFocus: Breast Cancer During ...

  2. Hepatitis C in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Saab, Sammy; Jackson, Christian; Nieto, Jose; Francois, Fritz

    2014-10-01

    The care of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in African Americans represents an opportunity to address a major health disparity in medicine. In all facets of HCV infection, African Americans are inexplicably affected, including in the prevalence of the virus, which is higher among them compared with most of the racial and ethnic groups. Ironically, although fibrosis rates may be slow, hepatocellular carcinoma and mortality rates appear to be higher among African Americans. Sustained viral response (SVR) rates have historically significantly trailed behind Caucasians. The reasons for this gap in SVR are related to both viral and host factors. Moreover, low enrollment rates in clinical trials hamper the study of the efficacy of anti-viral therapy. Nevertheless, the gap in SVR between African Americans and Caucasians may be narrowing with the use of direct-acting agents. Gastroenterologists, hepatologists, primary care physicians, and other health-care providers need to address modifiable risk factors that affect the natural history, as well as treatment outcomes, for HCV among African Americans. Efforts need to be made to improve awareness among health-care providers to address the differences in screening and referral patterns for African Americans.

  3. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer On This Page What are hormones? How do ... sensitive breast cancer: Adjuvant therapy for early-stage breast cancer : Research has shown that women treated for early- ...

  4. Comparing Perceived and Test-Based Knowledge of Cancer Risk and Prevention among Hispanic and African Americans: An Example of Community Participatory Research

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Loretta; Bazargan, Mohsen; Lucas-Wright, Anna; Vadgama, Jaydutt V.; Vargas, Roberto; Smith, James; Otoukesh, Salman; Maxwell, Annette E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Most theoretical formulations acknowledge that knowledge and awareness of cancer screening and prevention recommendations significantly influence health behaviors. This study compares perceived knowledge of cancer prevention and screening with test-based knowledge in a community sample. We also examine demographic variables and self-reported cancer screening and prevention behaviors as correlates of both knowledge scores, and consider whether cancer related knowledge can be accurately assessed using just a few, simple questions in a short and easy-to-complete survey. Methods We used a community-partnered participatory research approach to develop our study aims and a survey. The study sample was composed of 180 predominantly African American and Hispanic community individuals who participated in a full-day cancer prevention and screening promotion conference in South Los Angeles, California, on July 2011. Participants completed a self-administered survey in English or Spanish at the beginning of the conference. Results Our data indicate that perceived and test-based knowledge scores are only moderately correlated. Perceived knowledge score shows a stronger association with demographic characteristics and other cancer related variables than the test-based score. Thirteen out of twenty variables that are examined in our study showed a statistically significant correlation with the perceived knowledge score, however, only four variables demonstrated a statistically significant correlation with the test-based knowledge score. Conclusion Perceived knowledge of cancer prevention and screening was assessed with fewer items than test-based knowledge. Thus, using this assessment could potentially reduce respondent burden. However, our data demonstrate that perceived and test-based knowledge are separate constructs. PMID:23530303

  5. Genome-Wide Association Study to Identify Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) Associated With the Development of Erectile Dysfunction in African-American Men After Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kerns, Sarah L.; Ostrer, Harry; Stock, Richard; Li, William; Pearlman, Alexander; Campbell, Christopher; Shao Yongzhao; Stone, Nelson; Kusnetz, Lynda; Rosenstein, Barry S.

    2010-12-01

    Purpose: To identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with erectile dysfunction (ED) among African-American prostate cancer patients treated with external beam radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A cohort of African-American prostate cancer patients treated with external beam radiation therapy was observed for the development of ED by use of the five-item Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) questionnaire. Final analysis included 27 cases (post-treatment SHIM score {<=}7) and 52 control subjects (post-treatment SHIM score {>=}16). A genome-wide association study was performed using approximately 909,000 SNPs genotyped on Affymetrix 6.0 arrays (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA). Results: We identified SNP rs2268363, located in the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) gene, as significantly associated with ED after correcting for multiple comparisons (unadjusted p = 5.46 x 10{sup -8}, Bonferroni p = 0.028). We identified four additional SNPs that tended toward a significant association with an unadjusted p value < 10{sup -6}. Inference of population substructure showed that cases had a higher proportion of African ancestry than control subjects (77% vs. 60%, p = 0.005). A multivariate logistic regression model that incorporated estimated ancestry and four of the top-ranked SNPs was a more accurate classifier of ED than a model that included only clinical variables. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first genome-wide association study to identify SNPs associated with adverse effects resulting from radiotherapy. It is important to note that the SNP that proved to be significantly associated with ED is located within a gene whose encoded product plays a role in male gonad development and function. Another key finding of this project is that the four SNPs most strongly associated with ED were specific to persons of African ancestry and would therefore not have been identified had a cohort of European ancestry been screened. This study

  6. Proteomic-coupled-network analysis of T877A-androgen receptor interactomes can predict clinical prostate cancer outcomes between White (non-Hispanic) and African-American groups.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Naif; Giannopoulos, Paresa N; Chowdhury, Shafinaz; Bonneil, Eric; Thibault, Pierre; Wang, Edwin; Trifiro, Mark; Paliouras, Miltiadis

    2014-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) remains an important contributor to the neoplastic evolution of prostate cancer (CaP). CaP progression is linked to several somatic AR mutational changes that endow upon the AR dramatic gain-of-function properties. One of the most common somatic mutations identified is Thr877-to-Ala (T877A), located in the ligand-binding domain, that results in a receptor capable of promiscuous binding and activation by a variety of steroid hormones and ligands including estrogens, progestins, glucocorticoids, and several anti-androgens. In an attempt to further define somatic mutated AR gain-of-function properties, as a consequence of its promiscuous ligand binding, we undertook a proteomic/network analysis approach to characterize the protein interactome of the mutant T877A-AR in LNCaP cells under eight different ligand-specific treatments (dihydrotestosterone, mibolerone, R1881, testosterone, estradiol, progesterone, dexamethasone, and cyproterone acetate). In extending the analysis of our multi-ligand complexes of the mutant T877A-AR we observed significant enrichment of specific complexes between normal and primary prostatic tumors, which were furthermore correlated with known clinical outcomes. Further analysis of certain mutant T877A-AR complexes showed specific population preferences distinguishing primary prostatic disease between white (non-Hispanic) vs. African-American males. Moreover, these cancer-related AR-protein complexes demonstrated predictive survival outcomes specific to CaP, and not for breast, lung, lymphoma or medulloblastoma cancers. Our study, by coupling data generated by our proteomics to network analysis of clinical samples, has helped to define real and novel biological pathways in complicated gain-of-function AR complex systems.

  7. Proteomic-Coupled-Network Analysis of T877A-Androgen Receptor Interactomes Can Predict Clinical Prostate Cancer Outcomes between White (Non-Hispanic) and African-American Groups

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Naif; Giannopoulos, Paresa N.; Chowdhury, Shafinaz; Bonneil, Eric; Thibault, Pierre; Wang, Edwin; Trifiro, Mark; Paliouras, Miltiadis

    2014-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) remains an important contributor to the neoplastic evolution of prostate cancer (CaP). CaP progression is linked to several somatic AR mutational changes that endow upon the AR dramatic gain-of-function properties. One of the most common somatic mutations identified is Thr877-to-Ala (T877A), located in the ligand-binding domain, that results in a receptor capable of promiscuous binding and activation by a variety of steroid hormones and ligands including estrogens, progestins, glucocorticoids, and several anti-androgens. In an attempt to further define somatic mutated AR gain-of-function properties, as a consequence of its promiscuous ligand binding, we undertook a proteomic/network analysis approach to characterize the protein interactome of the mutant T877A-AR in LNCaP cells under eight different ligand-specific treatments (dihydrotestosterone, mibolerone, R1881, testosterone, estradiol, progesterone, dexamethasone, and cyproterone acetate). In extending the analysis of our multi-ligand complexes of the mutant T877A-AR we observed significant enrichment of specific complexes between normal and primary prostatic tumors, which were furthermore correlated with known clinical outcomes. Further analysis of certain mutant T877A-AR complexes showed specific population preferences distinguishing primary prostatic disease between white (non-Hispanic) vs. African-American males. Moreover, these cancer-related AR-protein complexes demonstrated predictive survival outcomes specific to CaP, and not for breast, lung, lymphoma or medulloblastoma cancers. Our study, by coupling data generated by our proteomics to network analysis of clinical samples, has helped to define real and novel biological pathways in complicated gain-of-function AR complex systems. PMID:25409505

  8. Contribution of the Neighborhood Environment and Obesity to Breast Cancer Survival: The California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Iona; Shariff-Marco, Salma; Koo, Jocelyn; Monroe, Kristine R.; Yang, Juan; John, Esther M.; Kurian, Allison W.; Kwan, Marilyn L.; Henderson, Brian E.; Bernstein, Leslie; Lu, Yani; Sposto, Richard; Vigen, Cheryl; Wu, Anna H.; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Keegan, Theresa H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about neighborhood attributes that may influence opportunities for healthy eating and physical activity in relation to breast cancer mortality. We used data from the California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium and the California Neighborhoods Data System to examine the neighborhood environment, body mass index, and mortality after breast cancer. We studied 8,995 African American, Asian American, Latina, and non-Latina White women with breast cancer. Residential addresses were linked to the CNDS to characterize neighborhoods. We used multinomial logistic regression to evaluate the associations between neighborhood factors and obesity, and Cox proportional hazards regression to examine associations between neighborhood factors and mortality. For Latinas, obesity was associated with more neighborhood crowding (Quartile 4 (Q4) vs. Q1: Odds Ratio (OR)=3.24; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.50-7.00); breast cancer-specific mortality was inversely associated with neighborhood businesses (Q4 vs. Q1: Hazard Ratio (HR)=0.46; 95% CI: 0.25-0.85) and positively associated with multi-family housing (Q3 vs. Q1: HR=1.98; 95% CI: 1.20-3.26). For non-Latina Whites, lower neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) was associated with obesity (Quintile 1 (Q1) vs. Q5: OR=2.52; 95% CI: 1.31-4.84), breast cancer-specific (Q1 vs. Q5: HR=2.75; 95% CI: 1.47-5.12), and all-cause (Q1 vs. Q5: HR=1.75; 95% CI: 1.17-2.62) mortality. For Asian Americans, no associations were seen. For African Americans, lower neighborhood SES was associated with lower mortality in a nonlinear fashion. Attributes of the neighborhood environment were associated with obesity and mortality following breast cancer diagnosis, but these associations differed across racial/ethnic groups. PMID:26063477

  9. Contribution of the neighborhood environment and obesity to breast cancer survival: the California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Iona; Shariff-Marco, Salma; Koo, Jocelyn; Monroe, Kristine R; Yang, Juan; John, Esther M; Kurian, Allison W; Kwan, Marilyn L; Henderson, Brian E; Bernstein, Leslie; Lu, Yani; Sposto, Richard; Vigen, Cheryl; Wu, Anna H; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Keegan, Theresa H M

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about neighborhood attributes that may influence opportunities for healthy eating and physical activity in relation to breast cancer mortality. We used data from the California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium and the California Neighborhoods Data System (CNDS) to examine the neighborhood environment, body mass index, and mortality after breast cancer. We studied 8,995 African American, Asian American, Latina, and non-Latina white women with breast cancer. Residential addresses were linked to the CNDS to characterize neighborhoods. We used multinomial logistic regression to evaluate the associations between neighborhood factors and obesity and Cox proportional hazards regression to examine associations between neighborhood factors and mortality. For Latinas, obesity was associated with more neighborhood crowding [quartile 4 (Q4) vs. Q1: OR, 3.24; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.50-7.00]; breast cancer-specific mortality was inversely associated with neighborhood businesses (Q4 vs. Q1: HR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.25-0.85) and positively associated with multifamily housing (Q3 vs. Q1: HR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.20-3.26). For non-Latina whites, lower neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) was associated with obesity [quintile 1 (Q1) vs. Q5: OR, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.31-4.84], breast cancer-specific (Q1 vs. Q5: HR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.47-5.12), and all-cause (Q1 vs. Q5: HR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.17-2.62) mortality. For Asian Americans, no associations were seen. For African Americans, lower neighborhood SES was associated with lower mortality in a nonlinear fashion. Attributes of the neighborhood environment were associated with obesity and mortality following breast cancer diagnosis, but these associations differed across racial/ethnic groups.

  10. [Male breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Mattson, Johanna; Vehmanen, Leena

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is rare in men. Diagnosis of the illness may be delayed due to the fact that the doctor and the patient fail to suspect it. Male breast cancer is treated mainly on the same principles as female breast cancer. A man affected with breast cancer should always be directed to genetic testing, as inherited mutations increasing the risk of developing cancer are more common than in female breast cancer. Most breast cancers in men are hormone receptor positive. Among hormone treatments, the antiestrogen tamoxifen exhibits the best efficacy both in early-state and advanced cases. PMID:27188086

  11. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  12. Barriers to breastfeeding among African American adolescent mothers.

    PubMed

    Brownell, Kim; Hutton, Laurencia; Hartman, Jacqueline; Dabrow, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to define the barriers to breastfeeding in the inner city African American adolescent mother. The study was conducted at Johnnie Ruth Clarke Health Center in St. Petersburg, Florida from October 1999 to February 2000. The study population included 25 African American adolescent mothers between the ages of 15 and 21 years. The results indicate that these mothers possess adequate knowledge about the benefits of breast milk. The greatest barriers to breastfeeding included pain, embarrassment, and lack of interest. These concerns are appropriate given their developmental stage; however, interventions are necessary to address these issues.

  13. African American Men With Very Low–Risk Prostate Cancer Exhibit Adverse Oncologic Outcomes After Radical Prostatectomy: Should Active Surveillance Still Be an Option for Them?

    PubMed Central

    Sundi, Debasish; Ross, Ashley E.; Humphreys, Elizabeth B.; Han, Misop; Partin, Alan W.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Schaeffer, Edward M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Active surveillance (AS) is a treatment option for men with very low–risk prostate cancer (PCa); however, favorable outcomes achieved for men in AS are based on cohorts that under-represent African American (AA) men. To explore whether race-based health disparities exist among men with very low–risk PCa, we evaluated oncologic outcomes of AA men with very low–risk PCa who were candidates for AS but elected to undergo radical prostatectomy (RP). Patients and Methods We studied 1,801 men (256 AA, 1,473 white men, and 72 others) who met National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria for very low–risk PCa and underwent RP. Presenting characteristics, pathologic data, and cancer recurrence were compared among the groups. Multivariable modeling was performed to assess the association of race with upgrading and adverse pathologic features. Results AA men with very low–risk PCa had more adverse pathologic features at RP and poorer oncologic outcomes. AA men were more likely to experience disease upgrading at prostatectomy (27.3% v 14.4%; P < .001), positive surgical margins (9.8% v 5.9%; P = .02), and higher Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment Post-Surgical scoring system (CAPRA-S) scores. On multivariable analysis, AA race was an independent predictor of adverse pathologic features (odds ratio, [OR], 3.23; P = .03) and pathologic upgrading (OR, 2.26; P = .03). Conclusion AA men with very low–risk PCa who meet criteria for AS but undergo immediate surgery experience significantly higher rates of upgrading and adverse pathology than do white men and men of other races. AA men with very low–risk PCa should be counseled about increased oncologic risk when deciding among their disease management options. PMID:23775960

  14. Developing a typology of African Americans with limited literacy based on preventive health practice orientation: implications for colorectal cancer screening strategies.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Thomas F; Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Ruzek, Sheryl B; Wolak, Caitlin; Rovito, Michael J; Ruggieri, Dominique G; Ward, Stephanie; Paranjape, Anuradha; Greener, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Preventive health messages are often tailored to reach broad sociodemographic groups. However, within groups, there may be considerable variation in perceptions of preventive health practices, such as colorectal cancer screening. Segmentation analysis provides a tool for crafting messages that are tailored more closely to the mental models of targeted individuals or subgroups. This study used cluster analysis, a psychosocial marketing segmentation technique, to develop a typology of colorectal cancer screening orientation among 102 African American clinic patients between the ages of 50 and 74 years with limited literacy. Patients were from a general internal medicine clinic in a large urban teaching hospital, a subpopulation known to have high rates of colorectal cancer and low rates of screening. Preventive screening orientation variables included the patients' responses to questions involving personal attitudes and preferences toward preventive screening and general prevention practices. A k-means cluster analysis yielded three clusters of patients on the basis of their screening orientation: ready screeners (50.0%), cautious screeners (30.4%), and fearful avoiders (19.6%). The resulting typology clearly defines important subgroups on the basis of their preventive health practice perceptions. The authors propose that the development of a validated typology of patients on the basis of their preventive health perceptions could be applicable to a variety of health concerns. Such a typology would serve to standardize how populations are characterized and would provide a more accurate view of their preventive health-related attitudes, values, concerns, preferences, and behaviors. Used with standardized assessment tools, it would provide an empirical basis for tailoring health messages and improving medical communication.

  15. Cluster Randomized Trial of a Church-Based Peer Counselor and Tailored Newsletter Intervention to Promote Colorectal Cancer Screening and Physical Activity Among Older African Americans.

    PubMed

    Leone, Lucia A; Allicock, Marlyn; Pignone, Michael P; Walsh, Joan F; Johnson, La-Shell; Armstrong-Brown, Janelle; Carr, Carol C; Langford, Aisha; Ni, Andy; Resnicow, Ken; Campbell, Marci K

    2016-10-01

    Action Through Churches in Time to Save Lives (ACTS) of Wellness was a cluster randomized controlled trial developed to promote colorectal cancer screening and physical activity (PA) within urban African American churches. Churches were recruited from North Carolina (n = 12) and Michigan (n = 7) and were randomized to intervention (n = 10) or comparison (n = 9). Intervention participants received three mailed tailored newsletters addressing colorectal cancer screening and PA behaviors over approximately 6 months. Individuals who were not up-to-date for screening at baseline could also receive motivational calls from a peer counselor. The main outcomes were up-to-date colorectal cancer screening and Metabolic Equivalency Task (MET)-hours/week of moderate-vigorous PA. Multivariate analyses examined changes in the main outcomes controlling for church cluster, gender, marital status, weight, and baseline values. Baseline screening was high in both intervention (75.9%, n = 374) and comparison groups (73.7%, n = 338). Screening increased at follow-up: +6.4 and +4.7 percentage points for intervention and comparison, respectively (p = .25). Baseline MET-hours/week of PA was 7.8 (95% confidence interval [6.8, 8.7]) for intervention and 8.7 (95% confidence interval [7.6, 9.8]) for the comparison group. There were no significant changes (p = .15) in PA for intervention (-0.30 MET-hours/week) compared with the comparison (-0.05 MET-hours/week). Among intervention participants, PA increased more for those who participated in church exercise programs, and screening improved more for those who spoke with a peer counselor or recalled the newsletters. Overall, the intervention did not improve PA or screening in an urban church population. These findings support previous research indicating that structured PA opportunities are necessary to promote change in PA and churches need more support to initiate effective peer counselor programs. PMID:26515276

  16. Heart failure in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Yancy, Clyde W

    2005-10-10

    The demographics of the United States are changing, and in the next few decades there will no longer be a racial/ethnic majority population. Increased awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in special populations is warranted as these populations increase. Heart failure carries a substantial burden on those affected, particularly African Americans, who have a disproportionate burden of heart disease. Current treatments for heart failure include angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers, angiotensin II-receptor antagonists, and vasodilating agents. This review discusses the unique characteristics of CVD in African Americans and addresses the need for targeted treatments to reduce the excess burden found in this population.

  17. African American Males. A Critical Link in the African American Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dionne J., Ed.

    African Americans are experiencing extreme stress in the United States, and African-American males appear to suffer the most. The chapters in this volume examine some of the issues confronting African-American men today. They include: (1) "Introduction" (Dionne J. Jones); (2) "Reaffirming Young African American Males: Mentoring and Community…

  18. Shoulder impairment before breast cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Ann Marie; Dwyer, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare pre- and post-operative shoulder active range of motion (AROM) values from female breast cancer survivors to population norm values for shoulder AROM; and to compare shoulder AROM differences pre- and post-surgery between female African American and White breast cancer survivors (BCA). Study design This pilot study used a convenience sample and longitudinal design measuring participants 2 times (T0 = baseline, after biopsy but within 2 weeks before BCA surgery; T1 = 2nd postoperative week). Background The U.S. has the largest BCA survivor population in history and yet the mortality burden remains highest among AA BCA survivors. AAs may also have greater burden of physical and functional side effects compared to whites and the general population. Methods and Measures The data were collected from a convenience sample (n = 33; nAA = 9, nW = 24) and included data on shoulder AROM, medical chart review for pre- and co-morbid conditions, and self-reported demographics and medical history. We used t-tests to compare sample AROM means to population norms. We then compared our sample across 2 timepoints (T0 = pre-surgery; T1 = 2 weeks post-surgery) using independent samples t-tests and repeated measures analysis of variance (p < .05) to compare AA to White sub-samples AROM means. Results African Americans had significantly less shoulder abduction (at T0) and flexion (at T1) than whites. However, 100% had significantly reduced AROM for all movements at T0 (prior to surgery but after biopsy) when compared to population norms. Conclusions The significant reduction in shoulder AROM after biopsy but before surgery points to a possible unmet need for early physical therapy intervention. Further research using randomized controlled trial design is recommended. PMID:25593563

  19. Stages of Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat breast cancer. Internal radiation therapy with strontium-89 (a radionuclide ) is used to relieve bone pain ... breast cancer that has spread to the bones. Strontium-89 is injected into a vein and travels to ...

  20. Breast Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat breast cancer. Internal radiation therapy with strontium-89 (a radionuclide ) is used to relieve bone pain ... breast cancer that has spread to the bones. Strontium-89 is injected into a vein and travels to ...

  1. Breast cancer staging

    MedlinePlus

    Doctors use 7 main stages to describe breast cancer. Stage 0, also called carcinoma in situ. This is cancer that is confined to the lobules or ducts in the breast. It has not spread to surrounding tissue. ...

  2. MicroRNA profiling of novel African American and Caucasian Prostate Cancer cell lines reveals a reciprocal regulatory relationship of miR-152 and DNA methyltranferase 1

    PubMed Central

    Theodore, Shaniece C.; Davis, Melissa; Zhao, Fu; Wang, Honghe; Chen, Dongquan; Rhim, Johng; Dean-Colomb, Windy; Turner, Timothy; Ji, Weidong; Zeng, Guohua; Grizzle, William; Yates, Clayton

    2014-01-01

    miRNA expression in African American compared to Caucasian PCa patients has not been widely explored. Herein, we probed the miRNA expression profile of novel AA and CA derived prostate cancer cell lines. We found a unique miRNA signature associated with AA cell lines, independent of tumor status. Evaluation of the most differentially expressed miRNAs showed that miR-132, miR-367b, miR-410, and miR-152 were decreased in more aggressive cells, and this was reversed after treatment of the cells with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine. Sequencing of the miR-152 promoter confirmed that it was highly methylated. Ectopic expression of miR-152 resulted in decreased growth, migration, and invasion. Informatics analysis of a large patient cohort showed that decreased miR-152 expression correlated with increased metastasis and a decrease in biochemical recurrence free survival. Analysis of 39 prostate cancer tissues with matched controls (20 AA and 19 CA), showed that 50% of AA patients had statistically significant lower miR-152 expression compared to only 35% of CA patients. Ectopic expression of miR-152 in LNCaP, PC-3, and MDA-PCa-2b cells down-regulated DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) through direct binding in the DNMT1 3'UTR. There appeared to be a reciprocal regulatory relationship of miR-152/DNMT1 expression, as cells treated with siRNA DNMT1 caused miR-152 to be re-expressed in all cell lines. In summary, these results demonstrate that epigenetic regulation of miR-152/DNMT1 may play an important role in multiple events that contribute to the aggressiveness of PCa tumors, with an emphasis on AA PCa patients. PMID:25004396

  3. The African American Image in American Cinema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourne, St. Clair

    1990-01-01

    Political conditions have influenced the screen images of U.S. cinema, and the images of African Americans have reflected prevailing social stereotypes. The history of African-American representation in films is traced, and it is noted that the tendency to portray African Americans stereotypically has not changed. (SLD)

  4. Freedom Road: Adult Education of African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Elizabeth A., Ed.

    This book contains six chapters by various authors about the history of African Americans' contributions and participation in adult education. The book reports on how some African American leaders saw the connection between education and the eventual freedom or uplift of the African American people. Following a foreword (Phyllis M. Cunningham) and…

  5. Engaging African Americans in Smoking Cessation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…

  6. Complex Syntax Production of African American Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Sandra C.; Roberts, Joanne E.

    2001-01-01

    This study examined changes in the complex syntax production of 85 African American preschoolers and the role of child (gender, age, African American English) and family (home environment) factors. Age, gender, and home environment effects were found for the amount of complex language used. African American English was not related to amount of…

  7. Squamous Cell Cancer Arising in an African American Male Cheek from Discoid Lupus: A Rare Case and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Shapera, Emanuel A; Kim, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    A 50-year-old African American male with Discoid Lupus Erythematosus (DLE) presented to the dermatology clinic for a rapidly enlarging left cheek mass. The mass failed to resolve with conservative measures. A biopsy revealed poorly differentiated Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC). He was referred to Head and Neck Surgery and successfully underwent a resection with free flap reconstruction. Postoperatively he did well. Squamous cell skin carcinomas arising from lesions of Discoid Lupus are rare and aggressive tumors with greater likelihood of metastases. Cases have been reported among patients with different clinical characteristics; we present a rare case arising in an African American male on the face and involving the ear.

  8. Squamous Cell Cancer Arising in an African American Male Cheek from Discoid Lupus: A Rare Case and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A 50-year-old African American male with Discoid Lupus Erythematosus (DLE) presented to the dermatology clinic for a rapidly enlarging left cheek mass. The mass failed to resolve with conservative measures. A biopsy revealed poorly differentiated Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC). He was referred to Head and Neck Surgery and successfully underwent a resection with free flap reconstruction. Postoperatively he did well. Squamous cell skin carcinomas arising from lesions of Discoid Lupus are rare and aggressive tumors with greater likelihood of metastases. Cases have been reported among patients with different clinical characteristics; we present a rare case arising in an African American male on the face and involving the ear.

  9. Squamous Cell Cancer Arising in an African American Male Cheek from Discoid Lupus: A Rare Case and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A 50-year-old African American male with Discoid Lupus Erythematosus (DLE) presented to the dermatology clinic for a rapidly enlarging left cheek mass. The mass failed to resolve with conservative measures. A biopsy revealed poorly differentiated Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC). He was referred to Head and Neck Surgery and successfully underwent a resection with free flap reconstruction. Postoperatively he did well. Squamous cell skin carcinomas arising from lesions of Discoid Lupus are rare and aggressive tumors with greater likelihood of metastases. Cases have been reported among patients with different clinical characteristics; we present a rare case arising in an African American male on the face and involving the ear. PMID:27610262

  10. Squamous Cell Cancer Arising in an African American Male Cheek from Discoid Lupus: A Rare Case and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Shapera, Emanuel A; Kim, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    A 50-year-old African American male with Discoid Lupus Erythematosus (DLE) presented to the dermatology clinic for a rapidly enlarging left cheek mass. The mass failed to resolve with conservative measures. A biopsy revealed poorly differentiated Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC). He was referred to Head and Neck Surgery and successfully underwent a resection with free flap reconstruction. Postoperatively he did well. Squamous cell skin carcinomas arising from lesions of Discoid Lupus are rare and aggressive tumors with greater likelihood of metastases. Cases have been reported among patients with different clinical characteristics; we present a rare case arising in an African American male on the face and involving the ear. PMID:27610262

  11. The deep South network for cancer control: eliminating cancer disparities through community-academic collaboration.

    PubMed

    Partridge, Edward E; Fouad, Mona N; Hinton, Agnes W; Hardy, Claudia M; Liscovicz, Nedra; White-Johnson, Freddie; Higginbotham, John C

    2005-01-01

    African Americans have a substantially increased mortality rate compared to Whites in many cancers, including breast and cervix. The Deep South Network for Cancer Control (the Network) was established to develop sustainable community infrastructure to promote cancer awareness, enhance participation of African Americans and other special populations in clinical trials, recruit and train minority investigators, and develop and test innovative community-based cancer control measures to eliminate cancer mortality disparities in special populations. This article describes the steps necessary to form the network and the process and activities required to establish it as an effective infrastructure for eliminating disparities between Whites and African Americans in the United States.

  12. Classic African American Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNair, Jonda C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to assert that there are classic African American children's books and to identify a sampling of them. The author presents multiple definitions of the term classic based on the responses of children's literature experts and relevant scholarship. Next, the manner in which data were collected and analyzed in regard to…

  13. Wellness among African American Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day-Vines, Norma L.; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    Although there are various definitions of wellness, few conceptual definitions have addressed the contextual dimensions of wellness relative to African American counselors. The authors present an overview of generic models of wellness, discuss factors that both inhibit and promote wellness, offer some culture-specific models of wellness, and…

  14. African American Men in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuyjet, Michael J., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This book is a much-needed resource that includes examples of real-world programs and activities to enhance academic success in the college environment for African American men. The examples are collected from a variety of institutions across the country. With contributions from leading practitioners and scholars in the field, this book explores…

  15. Digital Solutions for Informed Decision Making: An Academic-Community Partnership for the Development of a Prostate Cancer Decision Aid for African-American Men

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Otis L.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Brandt, Heather M.; Bernhardt, Jay M.; Hébert, James R.

    2014-01-01

    African-American (AA) men are significantly more likely to die of prostate cancer (PrCA) than other racial groups, and there is a critical need to identify strategies for providing information about PrCA screening and the importance of informed decision making (IDM). To assess whether a computer-based IDM intervention for PrCA screening would be appropriate for AA men, this formative evaluation study examined their (1) PrCA risk and screening knowledge, (2) decision-making processes for PrCA screening, (3) usage of, attitudes toward, and access to interactive communication technologies (ICTs), and (4) perceptions regarding a future novel computer-based PrCA education intervention. A purposive convenience sample of 39 AA men aged 37–66 years in the Southeastern United States were recruited through faith-based organizations to participate in one of six 90-minute focus groups and complete a 45-item descriptive survey. Participants were generally knowledgeable about PrCA; however, few engaged in IDM with their doctor and few were informed about the associated risks and uncertainties of PrCA screening. Most participants used ICTs on a daily basis for various purposes including health information seeking. Most participants were open to a novel computer-based intervention if the system was easy to use and its animated avatars were culturally appropriate. Because study participants had low exposure to IDM for PrCA, but frequently used ICTs, IDM interventions using ICTs (e.g, computers) hold promise for AA men and should be explored for feasibility and effectiveness. These interventions should aim to increase PrCA screening knowledge and stress the importance of participating in IDM with their doctor. PMID:25563381

  16. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    MedlinePlus

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  17. Differential endothelial cell gene expression by African Americans versus Caucasian Americans: a possible contribution to health disparity in vascular disease and cancer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Health disparities and the high prevalence of cardiovascular disease continue to be perplexing worldwide health challenges. This study addresses the possibility that genetic differences affecting the biology of the vascular endothelium could be a factor contributing to the increased burden of cardiovascular disease and cancer among African Americans (AA) compared to Caucasian Americans (CA). Methods From self-identified, healthy, 20 to 29-year-old AA (n = 21) and CA (n = 17), we established cultures of blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOEC) and applied microarray profiling. BOEC have never been exposed to in vivo influences, and their gene expression reflects culture conditions (meticulously controlled) and donor genetics. Significance Analysis of Microarray identified differential expression of single genes. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis examined expression of pre-determined gene sets that survey nine biological systems relevant to endothelial biology. Results At the highly stringent threshold of False Discovery Rate (FDR) = 0, 31 single genes were differentially expressed in AA. PSPH exhibited the greatest fold-change (AA > CA), but this was entirely accounted for by a homolog (PSPHL) hidden within the PSPH probe set. Among other significantly different genes were: for AA > CA, SOS1, AMFR, FGFR3; and for AA < CA, ARVCF, BIN3, EIF4B. Many more (221 transcripts for 204 genes) were differentially expressed at the less stringent threshold of FDR <.05. Using the biological systems approach, we identified shear response biology as being significantly different for AA versus CA, showing an apparent tonic increase of expression (AA > CA) for 46/157 genes within that system. Conclusions Many of the genes implicated here have substantial roles in endothelial biology. Shear stress response, a critical regulator of endothelial function and vascular homeostasis, may be different between AA and CA. These results potentially have direct implications for the role of

  18. Association between Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Ancestry and Aggressive Prostate Cancer among African Americans and European Americans in PCaP

    PubMed Central

    Steck, Susan E.; Arab, Lenore; Zhang, Hongmei; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Fontham, Elizabeth T. H.; Johnson, Candace S.; Mohler, James L.; Smith, Gary J.; Su, Joseph L.; Trump, Donald L.; Woloszynska-Read, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background African Americans (AAs) have lower circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] concentrations and higher prostate cancer (CaP) aggressiveness than other racial/ethnic groups. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between plasma 25(OH)D3, African ancestry and CaP aggressiveness among AAs and European Americans (EAs). Methods Plasma 25(OH)D3 was measured using LC-MS/MS (Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry) in 537 AA and 663 EA newly-diagnosed CaP patients from the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP) classified as having either ‘high’ or ‘low’ aggressive disease based on clinical stage, Gleason grade and prostate specific antigen at diagnosis. Mean plasma 25(OH)D3 concentrations were compared by proportion of African ancestry. Logistic regression was used to calculate multivariable adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for high aggressive CaP by tertile of plasma 25(OH)D3. Results AAs with highest percent African ancestry (>95%) had the lowest mean plasma 25(OH)D3 concentrations. Overall, plasma 25(OH)D3 was associated positively with aggressiveness among AA men, an association that was modified by calcium intake (ORT3vs.T1: 2.23, 95%CI: 1.26–3.95 among men with low calcium intake, and ORT3vs.T1: 0.19, 95%CI: 0.05–0.70 among men with high calcium intake). Among EAs, the point estimates of the ORs were <1.0 for the upper tertiles with CIs that included the null. Conclusions Among AAs, plasma 25(OH)D3 was associated positively with CaP aggressiveness among men with low calcium intake and inversely among men with high calcium intake. The clinical significance of circulating concentrations of 25(OH)D3 and interactions with calcium intake in the AA population warrants further study. PMID:25919866

  19. Proxy Assessment of Health-Related Quality of Life in African American and White Respondents With Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pickard, A. Simon; Lin, Hsiang-Wen; Knight, Sara J.; Sharifi, Roohollah; Wu, Zhigang; Hung, Shih-Ying; Witt, Whitney P.; Chang, Chih-Hung; Bennett, Charles L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives An emerging issue in the proxy literature is whether specifying different proxy viewpoints contributes to different health-related quality of life (HRQL) assessments, and if so, how might each perspective be informative in medical decision making. The aims of this study were to determine if informal caregiver assessments of patients with prostate cancer differed when prompted from both the patient perspective (proxy-patient) and their own viewpoint (proxy-proxy), and to identify factors associated with differences in proxy perspectives (ie, the intraproxy gap). Research Design and Methods Using a cross-sectional design, prostate cancer patients and their informal caregivers were recruited from urology clinics in the Jesse Brown Veterans Affairs Healthcare System in Chicago. Dyads assessed HRQL using the EQ-5D visual analog scale (VAS) and EORTC QLQ-C30. Results Of 87 dyads, most caregivers were female (83%) and were spouses/partners (58%). Mean difference scores between proxy-patient and proxy-proxy perspectives were statistically significant for QLQ-C30 physical and emotional functioning, and VAS (all P < 0.05), with the proxy-patient perspective closer to patient self-report. Emotional functioning had the largest difference, mean 6.0 (SD 12.8), an effect size = 0.47. Factors weakly correlated with the intraproxy gap included relationship (spouse) and proxy gender for role functioning, and health literacy (limited/functional) for physical functioning (all P < 0.05, 0.20 < r < 0.35). Conclusions Meaningful differences between proxy-patient and proxy-proxy perspectives on mental health were consistent with a conceptual framework for understanding proxy perspectives. Prompting different proxy viewpoints on patient health could help clinicians identify patients who may benefit from clinical intervention. PMID:19169118

  20. Tamoxifen and depression: drug interactions in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Katherine S; Adams, Katie; Breden Crouse, Ericka L

    2013-09-01

    This case describes a 76-year-old African-American female with a history of depression, breast cancer, and hypothyroidism admitted to the inpatient geriatric psychiatry unit for an electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) evaluation. She had one previous episode of depression, which began after a lumpectomy in 2007. Her home medication regimen included tamoxifen 20 mg daily. This case highlights the incidence of depression in persons with breast cancer, examines the controversy of tamoxifen-induced depression, and evaluates antidepressant considerations regarding potentially efficacy-reducing cytochrome P450 2D6 drug interactions with tamoxifen. The pharmacy team played an active role in educating the medical team regarding tamoxifen drug interactions. After many discussions, the patient was ultimately treated with mirtazapine 15 mg at bedtime, in addition to ECT. PMID:24007891

  1. Familial Clustering of Breast and Prostate Cancer and Risk of Postmenopausal Breast Cancer in the Women’s Health Initiative Study

    PubMed Central

    Beebe-Dimmer, Jennifer L.; Yee, Cecilia; Cote, Michele L.; Petrucelli, Nancie; Palmer, Nynikka; Bock, Cathryn; Lane, Dorothy; Agalliu, Ilir; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Simon, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Evidence suggests that the risk of breast and prostate cancer is increased among those with a family history of the same disease and particularly among first-degree relatives. However, less is known about the relationship between breast and prostate cancer within families and particularly among minority populations. METHODS Analyses of participants in the Women’s Health Initiative observational cohort who were free of breast cancer at the time of their baseline examination were conducted. Subjects were followed for breast cancer through August 31, 2009. A Cox proportional hazards regression modeling approach was used to estimate the risk of breast cancer associated with a family history of prostate cancer, breast cancer, and both among first-degree relatives. RESULTS There were 78,171 eligible participants, and 3506 breast cancer cases were diagnosed during the study period. A family history of prostate cancer was associated with a modest increase in breast cancer risk after adjustments for confounders (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.26). In a separate analysis examining the joint impact of both cancers, a family history of both breast and prostate cancer was associated with a 78% increase in breast cancer risk (aHR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.45-2.19). Risk estimates associated with a family history of both breast and prostate cancer were higher among African American women (aHR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.09-5.02) versus white women (aHR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.33-2.08). CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that prostate cancer diagnosed among first-degree family members increases a woman’s risk of developing breast cancer. Future studies are needed to determine the relative contributions of genes and a shared environment to the risk for both cancers. PMID:25754547

  2. Living as a Breast Cancer Survivor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emotional aspects of breast cancer Living as a breast cancer survivor For many women with breast cancer, treatment ... making some new choices. Follow-up care after breast cancer treatment Even after you have completed breast cancer ...

  3. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...

  4. Marketing a Healthy Mind, Body, and Soul: An Analysis of How African American Men View the Church as a Social Marketer and Health Promoter of Colorectal Cancer Risk and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Vanchy, Priya; Baker, Tamara A; Daley, Christine; Ndikum-Moffer, Florence; Greiner, K Allen

    2016-08-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ranks colorectal cancer (CRC) as the third most commonly diagnosed cancer among men in the United States; African American (AA) men are at even greater risk. The present study was from a larger study that investigates the church's role as a social marketer of CRC risk and prevention messages, and whether religiously targeted and tailored health promotion materials will influence screening outcome. We used an integrated theoretical approach to explore participants' perceptions of CRC risk and prevention and how promotion messages should be developed and socially marketed by the church. Six focus groups were conducted with men from predominately AA churches in the Midwest. Themes from focus group discussions showed participants lacked knowledge about CRC, feared cancer diagnosis, and feared the procedure for screening. Roles of masculinity and the mistrust of physicians were also emergent themes. Participants did perceive the church as a trusted marketer of CRC but believed that promotional materials should be cosponsored and codeveloped by reputable health organizations. Employing the church as a social marketer of CRC screening promotion materials may be useful in guiding health promotions and addressing barriers that are distinct among African American men.

  5. Marketing a Healthy Mind, Body, and Soul: An Analysis of How African American Men View the Church as a Social Marketer and Health Promoter of Colorectal Cancer Risk and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Vanchy, Priya; Baker, Tamara A; Daley, Christine; Ndikum-Moffer, Florence; Greiner, K Allen

    2016-08-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ranks colorectal cancer (CRC) as the third most commonly diagnosed cancer among men in the United States; African American (AA) men are at even greater risk. The present study was from a larger study that investigates the church's role as a social marketer of CRC risk and prevention messages, and whether religiously targeted and tailored health promotion materials will influence screening outcome. We used an integrated theoretical approach to explore participants' perceptions of CRC risk and prevention and how promotion messages should be developed and socially marketed by the church. Six focus groups were conducted with men from predominately AA churches in the Midwest. Themes from focus group discussions showed participants lacked knowledge about CRC, feared cancer diagnosis, and feared the procedure for screening. Roles of masculinity and the mistrust of physicians were also emergent themes. Participants did perceive the church as a trusted marketer of CRC but believed that promotional materials should be cosponsored and codeveloped by reputable health organizations. Employing the church as a social marketer of CRC screening promotion materials may be useful in guiding health promotions and addressing barriers that are distinct among African American men. PMID:26424748

  6. Genetics Home Reference: breast cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions breast cancer breast cancer Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Breast cancer is a disease in which certain cells in ...

  7. Hair care practices in African American women.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Chemene R; Quinn, Timothy M; Kelly, A Paul

    2003-10-01

    Hair care in African American women is wrought with historical and cultural issues. Dermatologists need to improve their understanding of hair and scalp disorders in their African American patient population by being informed about the styling methods commonly used by and for these patients. The styling habits described in this article are intended to encompass the hairstyles adapted by a wide range of African American women with varying hair textures.

  8. Chemoprevention of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Files, Julia A; Stan, Daniela L; Allen, Summer V; Pruthi, Sandhya

    2012-11-01

    The development of pharmacologic agents for the prevention of breast cancer is a significant milestone in medical and laboratory research. Despite these advances, the endorsement of preventive options has become challenging and complex, as physicians are expected to counsel and tailor their recommendations using a personalized approach taking into account medical comorbidities, degree of risk and patient preferences. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the major breast cancer prevention trials, review of the pharmacologic options available for breast cancer prevention, and strategies for integrating chemoprevention of breast cancer in high-risk women into clinical practice.

  9. Suicidal Behaviors in the African American Community

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Alex; Molock, Sherry Davis

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the risk and protective factors associated with suicidal thoughts and behaviors in the African American community. The authors provide a brief review of the history of suicide research in African American communities and critique some of the paradigms and underlying assumptions that have made it difficult to address the problem of suicidal behaviors in the African American community. The article also summarizes the articles that are presented in this special edition of the Journal of Black Psychology on suicidality in the African American community. PMID:17047727

  10. African American Preschoolers' Language, Emergent Literacy Skills, and Use of African American English: A Complex Relation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Craig, Holly K.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relation between African American preschoolers' use of African American English (AAE) and their language and emergent literacy skills in an effort to better understand the perplexing and persistent difficulties many African American children experience learning to read proficiently. Method: African American…

  11. African American Therapists Working with African American Families: An Exploration of the Strengths Perspective in Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell-Tolliver, Laverne; Burgess, Ruby; Brock, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    With the exception of Hill's (1971, 1999) work, historically much of the literature on African American families has focused more on pathology than strengths. This study used interviews with 30 African American psychotherapists, self-identified as employing a strengths perspective with African American families, to investigate which strengths they…

  12. Experiences of racist events are associated with negative health consequences for African American women.

    PubMed

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis B; Guevarra, Josephine S; Bovbjerg, Dana H

    2003-06-01

    This study investigated whether experiences of racist events were related to psychological distress, negative health behaviors, and health problems. Participants were 71 African American women (mean age 44.4) who were recruited from an urban cancer-screening clinic as part of a larger longitudinal study on familial risk of breast cancer. Participants completed three study assessments, approximately one month apart, and data were collected via self-report. Correlational analyses revealed that past year and lifetime racism were both related to psychological distress. Among smokers and drinkers, past year racism was positively correlated with number of cigarettes and drinks consumed. Lifetime racism was negatively related to perceived health, and positively related to lifetime history of physical disease and frequency of recent common colds. Analyses using a general linear model revealed that these relationships were largely unaccounted for by other variables. In addition, demographic variables such as income and education were not related to experiences of racism. The results suggest that racism can be detrimental to African American's well being and should be investigated in health disparities research.

  13. Experiences of racist events are associated with negative health consequences for African American women.

    PubMed Central

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A.; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis B.; Guevarra, Josephine S.; Bovbjerg, Dana H.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated whether experiences of racist events were related to psychological distress, negative health behaviors, and health problems. Participants were 71 African American women (mean age 44.4) who were recruited from an urban cancer-screening clinic as part of a larger longitudinal study on familial risk of breast cancer. Participants completed three study assessments, approximately one month apart, and data were collected via self-report. Correlational analyses revealed that past year and lifetime racism were both related to psychological distress. Among smokers and drinkers, past year racism was positively correlated with number of cigarettes and drinks consumed. Lifetime racism was negatively related to perceived health, and positively related to lifetime history of physical disease and frequency of recent common colds. Analyses using a general linear model revealed that these relationships were largely unaccounted for by other variables. In addition, demographic variables such as income and education were not related to experiences of racism. The results suggest that racism can be detrimental to African American's well being and should be investigated in health disparities research. PMID:12856911

  14. Racial disparities in all-cause mortality among younger commercially insured women with incident metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Leopold, Christine; Wagner, Anita K; Zhang, Fang; Lu, Christine Y; Earle, Craig; Nekhlyudov, Larissa; Degnan, Dennis-Ross; Frank Wharam, J

    2016-07-01

    Racial disparities in breast cancer mortality persist and are likely related to multiple factors. Over the past decade, progress has been made in treating metastatic breast cancer, particularly in younger women. Whether disparities exist in this population is unknown. Using administrative claims data between 2000 and 2011 (OptumInsight, Eden Prairie, MN) of members insured through a large national US health insurer, we identified women aged 25-64 years diagnosed with incident metastatic breast cancer diagnosed between November 1, 2000, and December 31, 2008. We examined time from diagnosis to death, with up to 3 years of follow-up. We stratified analyses by geocoded race and socio-economic status, age-at-diagnosis, morbidity score, US region of residence, urban/non-urban, and years of diagnosis. We constructed Kaplan-Meier survival plots and analyzed all-cause mortality using multivariate Cox proportional hazard models. Among 6694 women with incident metastatic breast cancer (78 % Caucasian, 4 % African American, and 18 % other), we found higher mortality rates among women residing in predominantly African American versus Caucasian neighborhoods (hazard ratio (HR) 1.84; 95 % confidence interval, CI 1.39-2.45), women with high versus lower morbidity (HR 1.30 [1.12-1.51]), and women whose incident metastatic diagnosis was during 2000-2004 versus 2005-2008 (HR 1.60 [1.39-1.83]). Caucasian (HR 0.61 [0.52-0.71]) but not African American women (HR not significant) experienced improved mortality in 2005-2008 versus 2000-2004. Despite insured status, African American women and women with multi-morbidity had poorer survival. Only Caucasian women had improved mortality over time. Modifiable risk factors for increased mortality need to be addressed in order to reduce disparities. PMID:27342456

  15. Colonoscopy-specific fears in African Americans and Hispanics.

    PubMed

    Miller, Sarah J; Iztkowitz, Steven H; Redd, William H; Thompson, Hayley S; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis B; Jandorf, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Although fears of colonoscopy may deter African Americans and Hispanics from having a screening colonoscopy, little is known about these fears. This study examined the proportion of African Americans and Hispanics who experience colonoscopy-specific fears and identified factors associated with these fears. Data were collected at an academic hospital in New York City between 2008-2010. African Americans (N = 383) and Hispanics (N = 407) who received a recommendation for a screening colonoscopy completed a questionnaire that assessed: colonoscopy-specific fears, demographics, and psychological variables. Presence of colonoscopy-specific fears was endorsed by 79.5% of participants. Being female (p < 0.001), speaking English (p < 0.001), having greater perceived risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) (p < 0.01), greater worry about risk of CRC (p < 0.01), greater fear of CRC (p < 0.001) and lower levels of self-efficacy of having a colonoscopy (p < 0.01) were associated with greater colonoscopy-specific fears. Results can inform interventions designed to assuage fears in African Americans and Hispanics.

  16. Carboplatin and Eribulin Mesylate in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Patients

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-30

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  17. Perceived Discrimination and Ethnic Identity Among Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Campesino, Maureen; Saenz, Delia S.; Choi, Myunghan; Krouse, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To examine ethnic identity and sociodemographic factors in minority patients' perceptions of healthcare discrimination in breast cancer care. Design Mixed methods. Setting Participants' homes in the metropolitan areas of Phoenix and Tucson, AZ. Sample 39 women treated for breast cancer in the past six years: 15 monolingual Spanish-speaking Latinas, 15 English-speaking Latinas, and 9 African Americans. Methods Two questionnaires were administered. Individual interviews with participants were conducted by nurse researchers. Quantitative, qualitative, and matrix analytic methods were used. Main Research Variables Ethnic identity and perceptions of discrimination. Findings Eighteen women (46%) believed race and spoken language affected the quality of health care. Perceived disrespect from providers was attributed to participant's skin color, income level, citizenship status, and ability to speak English. Discrimination was more likely to be described in a primary care context, rather than cancer care. Ethnic identity and early-stage breast cancer diagnosis were the only study variables significantly associated with perceived healthcare discrimination. Conclusions This article describes the first investigation examining ethnic identity and perceived discrimination in cancer care delivery. Replication of this study with larger samples is needed to better understand the role of ethnic identity and cancer stage in perceptions of cancer care delivery. Implications for Nursing Identification of ethnic-specific factors that influence patient's perspectives and healthcare needs will facilitate development of more effective strategies for the delivery of cross-cultural patient-centered cancer care. PMID:22374505

  18. Integrated connection to neighborhood storytelling network, education, and chronic disease knowledge among African Americans and Latinos in Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Chan; Moran, Meghan B; Wilkin, Holley A; Ball-Rokeach, Sandra J

    2011-04-01

    Combining key ideas from the knowledge-gap hypothesis and communication infrastructure theory, the present study aimed to explain the relations among individuals' education, access to community-based communication resources, and knowledge of chronic diseases (diabetes, hypertension, breast cancer, and prostate cancer) among African Americans and Latinos in Los Angeles. Rather than explore the effect of isolated communication resources, this study explored the effect of an integrated connection to community-based storytellers on chronic disease knowledge. The authors hypothesized that individuals' access to a community-based communication infrastructure for obtaining and sharing information functions as an intervening step in the process where social inequality factors such as education lead to chronic disease knowledge gaps in a local community context. With random samples of African Americans and Latinos in Los Angeles, the authors found that access to community-based communication resources plays a mediating role in the case of breast cancer and diabetes knowledge, but not in hypertension and prostate cancer knowledge. The authors discussed these findings on the basis of communication infrastructure theory and knowledge-gap hypothesis. PMID:21302173

  19. BREAST CANCER AND EXERCISE

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2008-03-19

    Prevent Osteoporosis and Osteoporotic Fractures; Improve Quality of Life; Improve Weight Control, and Muscular and Cardiovascular Fitness; Help the Patients to Return to Working Life; Reduce the Risk of Breast Cancer Recurrence; Prevent Other Diseases and Reduce All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Primary Breast Cancer.

  20. History of Recreational Physical Activity and Survival After Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yani; John, Esther M.; Sullivan-Halley, Jane; Vigen, Cheryl; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Kwan, Marilyn L.; Caan, Bette J.; Lee, Valerie S.; Roh, Janise M.; Shariff-Marco, Salma; Keegan, Theresa H. M.; Kurian, Allison W.; Monroe, Kristine R.; Cheng, Iona; Sposto, Richard; Wu, Anna H.; Bernstein, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic evidence suggests that prediagnosis physical activity is associated with survival in women diagnosed with breast cancer. However, few data exist for racial/ethnic groups other than non-Latina whites. To examine the association between prediagnosis recreational physical activity and mortality by race/ethnicity, we pooled data from the California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium for 3 population-based case-control studies of breast cancer patients (n = 4,608) diagnosed from 1994 to 2002 and followed up through 2010. Cox proportional hazards models provided estimates of the relative hazard ratio for mortality from all causes, breast cancer, and causes other than breast cancer associated with recent recreational physical activity (i.e., in the 10 years before diagnosis). Among 1,347 ascertained deaths, 826 (61%) were from breast cancer. Compared with women with the lowest level of recent recreational physical activity, those with the highest level had a marginally decreased risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio = 0.88, 95% confidence interval: 0.76, 1.01) and a statistically significant decreased risk of mortality from causes other than breast cancer (hazard ratio = 0.63, 95% confidence interval: 0.49, 0.80), and particularly from cardiovascular disease. No association was observed for breast cancer–specific mortality. These risk patterns did not differ by race/ethnicity (non-Latina white, African American, Latina, and Asian American). Our findings suggest that physical activity is beneficial for overall survival regardless of race/ethnicity. PMID:25925388

  1. Improving African American Achievement in Geometry Honors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mims, Adrian B.

    2010-01-01

    This case study evaluated the significance of implementing an enrichment mathematics course during the summer to rising African American ninth graders entitled, "Geometry Honors Preview." In the past, 60 to 70 percent of African American students in this school district had withdrawn from Geometry Honors by the second academic quarter. This study…

  2. African American Undergraduates and the Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmire, Ethelene

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the academic library experiences of African American undergraduates attending a research university in the Midwest. Data collection techniques included questionnaires and ethnographic observations. The results indicated that African American undergraduates are using the academic library primarily to read and to study with their…

  3. Smoking Cessation in African-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    1996-01-01

    Because the smoking behavior of African Americans differs considerably from that of other groups, researchers examined differences between African Americans who did and did not use the nicotine patch as an adjunct to counseling and education for smoking cessation. Results indicated the nicotine patch significantly improved six-month cessation…

  4. African American Teaching and the Matriarchal Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffries, Rhonda Baynes

    This paper discusses the role of matriarchs in African-American culture, explaining that traditionally, African-American matriarchs arise from a combination of African norms and American social positions that naturally forces them to assume leadership conditions. The roles these women assume are a response to the desire to survive in a society…

  5. The African American Woman. Runta (Truth).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Monica L.; Watson, Betty Collier, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    The African American woman has commanded widespread public attention, but popular misconceptions of her socioeconomic role and status differ sharply from her actual situation. The following basic characteristics of the contemporary African American woman, drawn from census figures, are outlined: (1) demographically, females comprise a majority of…

  6. A Mirror Image African American Student Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon Dawson, Candice

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a narrative inquiry research project that focuses on the collegiate experiences of African American students at both historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly white institutions (PWIs). I look at how African American college students who engage in race or culturally specific activities, the degree…

  7. African American Art: A Los Angeles Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Harriet

    This curriculum unit focuses on the importance of Los Angeles (California) as a center for African American art and shows how African American artists have developed their own styles and how critics and collectors have encouraged them. The unit consists of four lessons, each of which can stand alone or be used in conjunction with the others. It…

  8. Heart Truth for African American Women

    MedlinePlus

    THE HEART TRUTH ® FOR AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN: AN ACTION PLAN When you hear the term “heart disease,” what’s your first reaction? Like many women, you may ... in four women dies of heart disease. For African American women, the risk of heart disease is especially ...

  9. Hidden Education among African Americans during Slavery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundaker, Grey

    2007-01-01

    Background/Context: Historical studies examine aspects of African American education in and out of school in detail (Woodson 1915, 1933, Bullock 1970, Anderson 1988, Morris 1982, Rachal 1986, Rose 1964, Webber 1978, Williams 2005). Scholars of African American literacy have noted ways that education intersects other arenas such as religion and…

  10. African American Teachers and Culturally Relevant Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Michele

    An overview is presented of research on African American teachers, addressing the large body of literature written by policy analysts, first-person narratives, and the sociological and anthropological literature. Policy research has identified the small number of African American teachers and has studied some reasons for this shortage and some of…

  11. Reading Comprehension among African American Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Mayes, Eric; Arthur, Leslie; Johnson, Joseph; Robinson, Veronica; Ashe, Shante; Elbedour, Salman; Collins, Kathleen M. T.

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the reading comprehension performance of African American graduate students. The result showed that though the African American sample attained statistically significantly higher levels of reading comprehension than a normative sample of undergraduate students, they achieved lower levels of reading comprehension…

  12. Uniting postcolonial, discourse, and linguistic theory to explore participation of African Americans in cancer research as an effect of social and historical race relationships.

    PubMed

    Somayaji, Darryl; Cloyes, Kristin Gates

    2014-01-01

    This article uses a historical framework of postcolonialism; discourse analytic concepts (significance, identity, and relationships); and 5 social and cultural linguistic principles of emergence, positionality, indexicality, relationality, and partialness as a theoretical and methodological triangulation approach to data analysis of focus group discussion. Exemplars of focus group data from a study exploring African American participation in research demonstrate the application of this combined framework as a useful tool for analysis. This approach allows for examination of identity and interaction and generates a more rigorous and complete understanding of how individuals use language to construct identity as participants or nonparticipants in research.

  13. Uniting postcolonial, discourse, and linguistic theory to explore participation of African Americans in cancer research as an effect of social and historical race relationships.

    PubMed

    Somayaji, Darryl; Cloyes, Kristin Gates

    2014-01-01

    This article uses a historical framework of postcolonialism; discourse analytic concepts (significance, identity, and relationships); and 5 social and cultural linguistic principles of emergence, positionality, indexicality, relationality, and partialness as a theoretical and methodological triangulation approach to data analysis of focus group discussion. Exemplars of focus group data from a study exploring African American participation in research demonstrate the application of this combined framework as a useful tool for analysis. This approach allows for examination of identity and interaction and generates a more rigorous and complete understanding of how individuals use language to construct identity as participants or nonparticipants in research. PMID:24469087

  14. Synchronous bilateral breast cancer in a male

    PubMed Central

    Rubio Hernández, María Caridad; Díaz Prado, Yenia Ivet; Pérez, Suanly Rodríguez; Díaz, Ronald Rodríguez; Aleaga, Zaili Gutiérrez

    2013-01-01

    Male breast cancer, which represents only 1% of all breast cancers, is occasionally associated with a family history of breast cancer. Sporadic male breast cancers presenting with another primary breast cancer are extremely rare. In this article, we report on a 70-year-old male patient with bilateral multifocal and synchronous breast cancer and without a family history of breast cancer. PMID:24319497

  15. CDC Vital Signs: Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  16. A spiritually based approach to breast cancer awareness: cognitive response analysis of communication effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Holt, Cheryl L; Lee, Crystal; Wright, Katrina

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the communication effectiveness of a spiritually based approach to breast cancer early detection education with a secular approach, among African American women, by conducting a cognitive response analysis. A total of 108 women from 6 Alabama churches were randomly assigned by church to receive a spiritually based or secular educational booklet discussing breast cancer early detection. Based on the elaboration likelihood model (Petty & Cacioppo, 1981), after reading the booklets participants were asked to complete a thought-listing task, writing down any thoughts they experienced and rating them as positive, negative, or neutral. Two independent coders then used 5 dimensions to code participants' thoughts. Compared with the secular booklet, the spiritually based booklet resulted in significantly more thoughts involving personal connection, self-assessment, and spiritually based responses. These results suggest that a spiritually based approach to breast cancer awareness may be more effective than the secular approach because it caused women to more actively process the message, stimulating central route processing. The incorporation of spiritually based content into church-based breast cancer education could be a promising health communication approach for African American women. PMID:18443989

  17. A spiritually based approach to breast cancer awareness: cognitive response analysis of communication effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Holt, Cheryl L; Lee, Crystal; Wright, Katrina

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the communication effectiveness of a spiritually based approach to breast cancer early detection education with a secular approach, among African American women, by conducting a cognitive response analysis. A total of 108 women from 6 Alabama churches were randomly assigned by church to receive a spiritually based or secular educational booklet discussing breast cancer early detection. Based on the elaboration likelihood model (Petty & Cacioppo, 1981), after reading the booklets participants were asked to complete a thought-listing task, writing down any thoughts they experienced and rating them as positive, negative, or neutral. Two independent coders then used 5 dimensions to code participants' thoughts. Compared with the secular booklet, the spiritually based booklet resulted in significantly more thoughts involving personal connection, self-assessment, and spiritually based responses. These results suggest that a spiritually based approach to breast cancer awareness may be more effective than the secular approach because it caused women to more actively process the message, stimulating central route processing. The incorporation of spiritually based content into church-based breast cancer education could be a promising health communication approach for African American women.

  18. African Americans and the medical establishment.

    PubMed

    Smith, C

    1999-09-01

    The African American community's response to the AIDS epidemic has reflected the profound mistrust of the medical establishment which many African Americans feel. Among African Americans, the belief that the epidemic originated in a genocidal plot is widespread. It is thought that organized medicine has been significantly involved in this plot. If we look at African Americans' historical relationship to the medical establishment from the era of slavery to the recent past, the suspicious attitudes which make such beliefs possible can be seen as an intelligible response to a new disease which disproportionately affects African Americans. Successful medical and public health responses to the epidemic have depended and will continue to depend upon overcoming the historical legacy of suspicion and gaining the trust of the community.

  19. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Balance › Breast Cancer and Bone Loss Fact Sheet Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July, 2010 Download PDFs English ... JoAnn Pinkerton, MD What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  20. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk A woman’s hormone levels normally change throughout ... the development of breast cancer. Important Information about Breast Cancer Risk Factors At present, the factors known to ...

  1. Women with Disabilities and Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Reasonable Accommodations (RA) Women with Disabilities and Breast Cancer Screening Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Finding Breast Cancer Early Can Save Lives Disabilities & Breast Cancer Screening ...

  2. Diet and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, George L; Copeland, Trisha; Khaodhiar, Lalita; Buckley, Rita B

    2003-03-01

    Obesity, overweight, and a sedentary lifestyle-all common conditions in breast cancer patients-are likely to be associated with poor survival and poor quality of life in women with breast cancer. Diet-related factors are thought to account for about 30% of cancers in developed countries. Most studies of diet and healthcare have focused on the role of single nutrients, foods, or food groups in disease prevention or promotion. Recent cancer guidelines on nutrition and physical activity emphasize diets that promote maintenance of a healthy body weight and a prudent dietary pattern that is low in red and processed meats and high in a variety of vegetables, fruits, and whole grains. Except for dietary fat, few nutritional factors in adult life have been associated with breast cancer. Extensive data from animal model research, international correlations linking fat intake and breast cancer rates, and case-control studies support the hypothesis that a high-fat diet is conducive to the development of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Conflicting findings from cohort studies, however, have created uncertainty over the role of dietary fat in breast cancer growth and recurrence. Results from large-scale nutritional intervention trials are expected to resolve such issues. As new and improved data on dietary factors and patterns accumulate, dietary guidelines for cancer risk reduction will become more focused.

  3. Cross-sectional study to assess the association of population density with predicted breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeannette Y; Klimberg, Suzanne; Bondurant, Kristina L; Phillips, Martha M; Kadlubar, Susan A

    2014-01-01

    The Gail and CARE models estimate breast cancer risk for white and African-American (AA) women, respectively. The aims of this study were to compare metropolitan and nonmetropolitan women with respect to predicted breast cancer risks based on known risk factors, and to determine if population density was an independent risk factor for breast cancer risk. A cross-sectional survey was completed by 15,582 women between 35 and 85 years of age with no history of breast cancer. Metropolitan and nonmetropolitan women were compared with respect to risk factors, and breast cancer risk estimates, using general linear models adjusted for age. For both white and AA women, tisk factors used to estimate breast cancer risk included age at menarche, history of breast biopsies, and family history. For white women, age at first childbirth was an additional risk factor. In comparison to their nonmetropolitan counterparts, metropolitan white women were more likely to report having a breast biopsy, have family history of breast cancer, and delay childbirth. Among white metropolitan and nonmetropolitan women, mean estimated 5-year risks were 1.44% and 1.32% (p < 0.001), and lifetime risks of breast cancer were 10.81% and 10.01% (p < 0.001), respectively. AA metropolitan residents were more likely than those from nonmetropolitan areas to have had a breast biopsy. Among AA metropolitan and nonmetropolitan women, mean estimated 5-year risks were 1.16% and 1.12% (p = 0.039) and lifetime risks were 8.94%, and 8.85% (p = 0.344). Metropolitan residence was associated with higher predicted breast cancer risks for white women. Among AA women, metropolitan residence was associated with a higher predicted breast cancer risk at 5 years, but not over a lifetime. Population density was not an independent risk factor for breast cancer.

  4. Features of triple-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Plasilova, Magdalena L.; Hayse, Brandon; Killelea, Brigid K.; Horowitz, Nina R.; Chagpar, Anees B.; Lannin, Donald R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the features of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) using a large national database. TNBC is known to be an aggressive subtype, but national epidemiologic data are sparse. All patients with invasive breast cancer and known molecular subtype diagnosed in 2010 to 2011 were identified from the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB). Patients with and without TNBC were compared with respect to their sociodemographic and clinicopathologic features. TNBC was present in 38,628 of 295,801 (13%) female patients compared to 185 of 3136 (6%) male patients (P < 0.001). The incidence of TNBC varied by region from 10.8% in New England to 15.8% in the east south central US (P < 0.001), as well as by race with the highest rates in African-Americans (23.7%), and lowest in Filipino patients (8.9%). The incidence of TNBC also varied by histology, accounting for 76% of metaplastic cancers, but only 2% of infiltrating lobular carcinomas. TNBCs were significantly larger than non-TNBC (mean 2.8 cm vs 2.1 cm, P < 0.001), and more TNBC were poorly differentiated compared to other subtypes (79.7% vs 25.8%, P < 0.001). On univariate analysis, TNBC was no more likely than non-TNBC to have node-positive disease (32.0% vs 31.7%, respectively, P = 0.218) but in a multivariable analysis controlling for tumor size and grade, TNBC was associated with significantly less node-positivity (OR = 0.59; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.57–0.60). TNBC has distinct features regarding age, gender, geographic, and racial distribution. Compared to non-TNBC, TNBC is larger and higher grade, but less likely to have lymph node metastases. PMID:27583878

  5. Targeting Breast Cancer Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xin; Mu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis is the leading cause of breast cancer-associated deaths. Despite the significant improvement in current therapies in extending patient life, 30–40% of patients may eventually suffer from distant relapse and succumb to the disease. Consequently, a deeper understanding of the metastasis biology is key to developing better treatment strategies and achieving long-lasting therapeutic efficacies against breast cancer. This review covers recent breakthroughs in the discovery of various metastatic traits that contribute to the metastasis cascade of breast cancer, which may provide novel avenues for therapeutic targeting. PMID:26380552

  6. Racism: perceptions of distress among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Vetta L Sanders

    2002-04-01

    Some scholars have suggested that stressful living conditions are a major source of mental disorder among African Americans (Krieger, 1999; Neighbors, 1990; Kessler & Neighbors, 1986). There has, however, been debate as to whether this higher level of distress is due to racism or the fact that African Americans are more often of lower socioeconomic status. Stressors that play a significant role in mental disorder might be expected to occur more frequently among African Americans than the general population. This paper attempts to provide empirical support for the notion that racism is a separate and unique source of stress for African Americans. Specifically, it was hypothesized that African Americans would report more experiences of (1) daily stress and (2) racism than other groups and (3) the impact of racial stress would be greater among African Americans. One hundred and fifty six participants completed the Daily Stress Inventory and the Experience of Discrimination questionnaire. Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that African Americans reported higher impact of discrimination scores than European Americans. There were no gender or ethnicity differences in daily stress or the number of racial incidents reported. The implications of the data are discussed.

  7. Patient Barriers to Follow-Up Care for Breast and Cervical Cancer Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Darnell, Julie S.; Cho, Young I.; Stolley, Melinda R.; Markossian, Talar W.; Calhoun, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Women with breast or cervical cancer abnormalities can experience barriers to timely follow-up care, resulting in delays in cancer diagnosis. Patient navigation programs that identify and remove barriers to ensure timely receipt of care are proliferating nationally. The study used a systematic framework to describe barriers, including differences between African American and Latina women; to determine recurrence of barriers; and to examine factors associated with barriers to follow-up care. Methods Data originated from 250 women in the intervention arm of the Chicago Patient Navigation Research Program (PNRP). The women had abnormal cancer screening findings and navigator encounters. Women were recruited from a community health center and a publicly owned medical center. After describing proportions of African American and Latina women experiencing particular barriers, logistic regression was used to explore associations between patient characteristics, such as race/ethnicity, and type of barriers. Results The most frequent barriers occurred at the intrapersonal level (e.g., insurance issues and fear), while institutional-level barriers such as system problems with scheduling care were the most commonly recurring over time (29%). The majority of barriers (58%) were reported in the first navigator encounter. Latinas (81%) reported barriers more often than African American women (19%). Differences in race/ethnicity and employment status were associated with types of barriers. Compared to African American women, Latinas were more likely to report an intrapersonal level barrier. Unemployed women were more likely to report an institutional level barrier. Conclusion In a sample of highly vulnerable women, there is no single characteristic (e.g., uninsured) that predicts what kinds of barriers a woman is likely to have. Nevertheless, navigators appear able to easily resolve intrapersonal-level barriers, but ongoing navigation is needed to address

  8. The Potential for Enhancing the Power of Genetic Association Studies in African Americans through the Reuse of Existing Genotype Data

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gary K.; Millikan, Robert C.; John, Esther M.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Bernstein, Leslie; Zheng, Wei; Hu, Jennifer J.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Henderson, Brian E.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Stram, Daniel O.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the feasibility of reusing existing control data obtained in genetic association studies in order to reduce costs for new studies. We discuss controlling for the population differences between cases and controls that are implicit in studies utilizing external control data. We give theoretical calculations of the statistical power of a test due to Bourgain et al (Am J Human Genet 2003), applied to the problem of dealing with case-control differences in genetic ancestry related to population isolation or population admixture. Theoretical results show that there may exist bounds for the non-centrality parameter for a test of association that places limits on study power even if sample sizes can grow arbitrarily large. We apply this method to data from a multi-center, geographically-diverse, genome-wide association study of breast cancer in African-American women. Our analysis of these data shows that admixture proportions differ by center with the average fraction of European admixture ranging from approximately 20% for participants from study sites in the Eastern United States to 25% for participants from West Coast sites. However, these differences in average admixture fraction between sites are largely counterbalanced by considerable diversity in individual admixture proportion within each study site. Our results suggest that statistical correction for admixture differences is feasible for future studies of African-Americans, utilizing the existing controls from the African-American Breast Cancer study, even if case ascertainment for the future studies is not balanced over the same centers or regions that supplied the controls for the current study. PMID:20824062

  9. Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... are not listed here. Drugs Approved to Prevent Breast Cancer Evista (Raloxifene Hydrochloride) Keoxifene (Raloxifene Hydrochloride) Nolvadex (Tamoxifen ...

  10. Breast Cancer in Young Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Campaign Initiatives Participation in Cancer Moonshot Stay Informed Breast Cancer in Young Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Syndicate this page Marleah's family history of breast cancer was her motivation for pursuing a career where ...

  11. The Epworth Score in African American Populations

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Amanda L.; Spilsbury, James C.; Patel, Sanjay R.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: African Americans have elevated scores on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) compared to whites. The reason for this difference is not clear. Methods: Responses to the ESS were assessed in 687 patients (52.3% African American) referred to a hospital-based sleep clinic. Differences in total ESS score and the scores on individual Epworth questions were compared in African Americans and whites. Findings were validated in an independent sleep apnea research cohort of 712 subjects (57.3% African Americans). Results: African Americans in the clinic-based population had a higher mean ESS score than whites (11.4 ± 0.3 vs. 9.8 ± 0.3, p < 0.0001). This difference persisted after adjusting for sleepiness risk factors. In adjusted analyses including responses to the other ESS questions, African Americans scored significantly greater on 3 of the 8 ESS component questions: questions 2-“Watching TV,” 6-“Sitting and talking to someone,” and 7-“Sitting quietly after lunch without alcohol.” In the validation cohort, African Americans also had a higher mean ESS score (9.1 ± 0.3, vs. 8.2 ± 0.3, p = 0.04). In addition they had significantly elevated scores on questions 6 and 7 (p = 0.0002, p = 0.012 respectively) even after adjusting for responses to the other Epworth questions. Conclusions: African Americans have greater sleepiness than whites as assessed by the ESS; this is independent of sleepiness risk factors. The difference appears due primarily to differences in responses to questions 6 and 7 of the ESS questions suggesting a difference in the interpretation of these 2 questions. Citation: Hayes AL; Spilsbury JC; Patel SR. The Epworth score in African American populations. J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(4):344-348. PMID:19968012

  12. Docosahexaenoic Acid in Preventing Recurrence in Breast Cancer Survivors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-20

    Benign Breast Neoplasm; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Paget Disease of the Breast; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  13. Substance abuse in African American women.

    PubMed

    Wingo, L K

    2001-01-01

    Substance abuse is a serious problem from which, regardless of sex or race, no one is immune. Each racial and gender group has specific etiological factors relating to the use of illicit drugs. Data regarding substance abuse in African American women has only recently begun to emerge in the literature. Issues such as socio-economic, racism, and sexism, place African American women at particular risk for substance abuse. Limited availability to treatment, a lack of appropriate treatment and poor social supports impact recovery and places these women at risk for relapse. This article provides an overview of the current literature regarding substance abuse, treatment and recovery in African American women.

  14. Misconceptions of depression in african americans.

    PubMed

    Sohail, Zohaib; Bailey, Rahn Kennedy; Richie, William D

    2014-01-01

    Major depression is a very common disabling disorder. Although the relationship between race and depression is complex, depression affects all races, all ethnic and geographic locations as well as all age groups. The prevalence of depression in African Americans is controversial, due to the paucity of research. The deficit in the knowledge and skills in treating depression in African Americans have not been adequately addressed so far. Inadequate and insufficient data on African Americans contributes to the problems of under diagnoses, misdiagnosis, and under treatment of depression. This article will highlight the existing problem of depression in Afro American with a focus on diagnostic and treatment issues.

  15. Assessing spirituality in mentally ill African Americans.

    PubMed

    Perdue, Bobbie; Johnson, Deanna; Singley, Doretha; Jackson, Cheylon

    2006-01-01

    The case scenario illustrates the advantage of using spirituality as a tool for recovery when working with mentally ill African American clients. Often spiritual and clinical perspectives are seen as contradictory. But for African Americans, these perspectives can be mutually reinforcing. Spirituality can serve as a resource of strength. It can provide emotional consolation, inspiration, guidance, and security. It can foster personal responsibility, identity, respect for ethical codes and community building. Mental Health professionals who use spirituality as a tool for recovery can expect to have better client outcomes when working with African Americans than those who do not.

  16. Broccoli Sprout Extract in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-16

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Postmenopausal; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  17. WIC peer counselors’ perceptions of breastfeeding in African-American women with lower incomes

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Tyra T.; Powell, Rachel; Anderson, Alex K.; Hall, Jori; Davis, Marsha; Hilyard, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Background African-American women have the lowest breastfeeding rates among all racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Peer counseling is an effective intervention in improving breastfeeding in this population. However, little is known on peer counselors’ perceptions of breastfeeding in African-American women. Objectives As part of a larger qualitative study, the goal of this study was to understand the contextual factors influencing breastfeeding decisions of low-income African-American women from the perspective of breastfeeding peer counselors (PCs). Methods Three focus groups were conducted with 23 PCs from the WIC program in a Southeastern state. All focus group discussions were audio-recorded, professionally transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Bronfenbrenner’s socio-ecological model was used to group categories into themes. Results Of the sample, 48% were African-American, 78.2% were married, 56.5% had some college education. Five main themes emerged to describe factors at multiple-levels influencing breastfeeding in PCs’ low-income African-American clients: Individual, Microsystem, Exosystem, Macrosystem, and Chronosystem. Novel findings included 1) having breast-pumps may give African-American women a “sense of security”, 2) cultural pressures to be a “strong black woman” can impede breastfeeding support, and 3) breastfeeding “generational gaps” have resulted from American “slavery” and when formula was “a sign of wealth”. Conclusions As PCs described, low-income African-American women breastfeeding decisions are impacted by numerous contextual factors. Findings from this study suggest a need to broaden public health approach to breastfeeding promotion in this population by moving beyond individual characteristics to examining historical and socio-cultural factors underlying breastfeeding practices in African-American women. PMID:25480019

  18. Fatigue Severity among African Americans: Gender and Age Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Sharon; Jason, Leonard A.; Taylor, Renee R.; Torres-Harding, Susan R.; Helgerson, Jena; Witter, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between fatigue, age, and gender among African Americans, Caucasians, and Latinos. Survey results found significant age and gender interactions among African Americans and Caucasians. African American women and older African American men had the highest fatigue rates. There was no significant difference in levels of…

  19. Coming of Age: African American Male Rites-of-Passage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Paul, Jr.

    An overview is provided of issues confronting the African American male, along with a strategy to nurture a new generation of African American males. Chapters 1 and 2 focus on the social status and new demographics of the African American male and the external threats that are devastating to the African American male and the African American…

  20. The African-American History of Martha's Vineyard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weintraub, Elaine

    1993-01-01

    Reports on research into African American history and experiences in Martha's Vineyard (Massachusetts). Examines primary sources and oral traditions of African American cultural and social history from 1703 to the present. Discusses African American sailors, race relations, and contributions by African American individuals to the community. (CFR)

  1. African American Women's Preparation for Childbirth From the Perspective of African American Health-Care Providers.

    PubMed

    Abbyad, Christine; Robertson, Trina Reed

    2011-01-01

    Preparation for birthing has focused primarily on Caucasian women. No studies have explored African American women's birth preparation. From the perceptions of 12 African American maternity health-care providers, this study elicited perceptions of the ways in which pregnant African American women prepare for childbirth. Focus group participants answered seven semistructured questions. Four themes emerged: connecting with nurturers, traversing an unresponsive system, the need to be strong, and childbirth classes not a priority. Recommendations for nurses and childbirth educators include: (a) self-awareness of attitudes toward African Americans, (b) empowering of clients for birthing, (c) recognition of the role that pregnant women's mothers play, (d) tailoring of childbirth classes for African American women, and (e) research on how racism influences pregnant African American women's preparation for birthing.

  2. [Epidemiology of breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Cuevas, Sergio A; Capurso García, Marino

    2006-11-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant tumor worldwide. In recent years there has been observed an increase in its frequency, especially in developing countries, as Mexico, where mortality is arriving to the first cause of death in females. This is, in part, due to a delayed diagnosis, most frequently done in locally advances stages with a low cure rate. This is a review of all risk factors: age, sex, personal and familial history, genetic syndromes, associated breast disease, geographic distribution, body structure and environmental, hormonal, reproductive and dietary factors. It is concluded that breast cancer is a public health problem in developed and developing countries, and the best methods to drop mortality for breast cancer is the wide use of screening mammography in women at risk, in order to find cancers at initial stages and offer the adequate treatment.

  3. General Information about Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  4. What Is Breast Cancer in Men?

    MedlinePlus

    ... statistics about breast cancer in men? What is breast cancer in men? A breast cancer is a malignant ... women but are very rare in men. General breast cancer terms Here are some of the key words ...

  5. General Information about Breast Cancer and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment and Pregnancy (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Breast Cancer and Pregnancy Go to Health Professional Version Key ...

  6. Treatment Options for Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  7. Treatment Option Overview (Male Breast Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  8. Cutaneous manifestations of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tan, Antoinette R

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer may present with cutaneous symptoms. The skin manifestations of breast cancer are varied. Some of the more common clinical presentations of metastatic cutaneous lesions from breast cancer will be described. Paraneoplastic cutaneous dermatoses have been reported as markers of breast malignancy and include erythema gyratum repens, acquired ichthyosis, dermatomyositis, multicentric reticulohistiocytosis, and hypertrichosis lanuginosa acquisita. Mammary Paget's disease, often associated with an underlying breast cancer, and Cowden syndrome, which has an increased risk of breast malignancy, each have specific dermatologic findings. Recognition of these distinct cutaneous signs is important in the investigation of either newly diagnosed or recurrent breast cancer. PMID:27178684

  9. Racial variation in breast tumor promoter methylation in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Kathleen; Edmiston, Sharon N.; Tse, Chiu-Kit; Bryant, Christopher; Kuan, Pei Fen; Hair, Brionna Y.; Parrish, Eloise A.; May, Ryan; Swift-Scanlan, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    Background African American (AA) women are diagnosed with more advanced breast cancers and have worse survival than white women, but a comprehensive understanding of the basis for this disparity remains unclear. Analysis of DNA methylation, an epigenetic mechanism that can regulate gene expression, could help to explain racial differences in breast tumor clinical biology and outcomes. Methods DNA methylation was evaluated at 1287 CpGs in the promoters of cancer-related genes in 517 breast tumors of AA (n=216) or non-AA (n=301) cases in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study. Results Multivariable linear regression analysis of all tumors, controlling for age, menopausal status, stage, intrinsic subtype, and multiple comparisons (FDR), identified 7 CpG probes that showed significant (adjusted p<0.05) differential methylation between AAs and non-AAs. Stratified analyses detected an additional 4 CpG probes differing by race within hormone receptor-negative (HR−) tumors. Genes differentially methylated by race included DSC2, KCNK4, GSTM1, AXL, DNAJC15, HBII-52, TUSC3 and TES; the methylation state of several of these genes may be associated with worse survival in AAs. TCGA breast tumor data confirmed the differential methylation by race and negative correlations with expression for most of these genes. Several loci also showed racial differences in methylation in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) from CBCS cases, indicating that these variations were not necessarily tumor-specific. Conclusions Racial differences in the methylation of cancer-related genes are detectable in both tumors and PBLs from breast cancer cases. Impact Epigenetic variation could contribute to differences in breast tumor development and outcomes between AAs and non-AAs. PMID:25809865

  10. Women and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lippman, M E

    1987-01-01

    One in every 12 women will develop breast cancer; the incidence increases with age, dietary fat intake, caloric intake, height, and weight. The 10-year survival rate of breast cancer patients who refuse therapy is virtually zero. Segmental mastectomy plus radiation and lumpectomy, combined with systemic (adjuvant)chemotherapy, are alternatives under investigation at the National Institutes of Health that may increase the survival rate by decreasing metastatic complications.

  11. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Breast Cancer Survival

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Elana; Quale, Chris; Haggstrom, David; Smith-Bindman, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Background The reasons for race/ethnicity (R/E) differences in breast cancer survival have been difficult to disentangle. Methods Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare data were used to identify 41,020 women aged ≥68 years with incident breast cancer between 1994–1999 including African American (2479), Hispanic (1172), Asian/ Pacific Island (1086), and white women (35,878). A Cox proportional hazards model assessed overall and stage-specific (0/I, II/III, and IV) R/E differences in breast cancer survival after adjusting for mammography screening, tumor characteristics at diagnosis, biologic markers, treatment, comorbidity, and demographics. Results African American women had worse survival than white women, although controlling for predictor variables reduced this difference among all stage breast cancer (hazards ratio [HR], 1.08; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.97–1.20). Adjustment for predictors reduced, but did not eliminate, disparities in the analysis limited to women diagnosed with stage II/III disease (HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.10–1.54). Screening mammography, tumor characteristics at diagnosis, biologic markers, and treatment each produced a similar reduction in HRs for women with stage II/III cancers. Asian and Pacific Island women had better survival than white women before and after accounting for all predictors (adjusted all stages HR, 0.61 [95% CI, 0.47–0.79]; adjusted stage II/III HR, 0.61 [95% CI, 0.47–0.79]). Hispanic women had better survival than white women in all and stage II/III analysis (all stage HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.75–1.04) and stage II/III analysis (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.75–1.04), although these findings did not reach statistical significance. There was no significant difference in survival by R/E noted among women diagnosed with stage IV disease. Conclusions Predictor variables contribute to, but do not fully explain, R/E differences in breast cancer survival for elderly American women. Future analyses

  12. Cognition and Health in African American Men

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Regina C.; Thorpe, Roland J.; Gamaldo, Alyssa A.; Aiken-Morgan, Adrienne T.; Hill, LaBarron K.; Allaire, Jason C.; Whitfield, Keith E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Despite high rates of poor health outcomes, little attention has been focused on associations between prominent health factors and cognitive function in African American men, exclusively. The objective was to examine relationships between cardiovascular and pulmonary health, and cognitive function in African American men. Method Data from 257 men were pooled from two studies of African American aging. The mean age of participants was 58.15 and mean educational attainment was 11.78 years. Participants provided self-reported health and demographic information, completed cognitive measures, and had their blood pressure and peak expiratory flow assessed. Results After adjustment, significant relationships were found between average peak expiratory flow rate (APEFR) and cognitive performance measures. Discussion Results suggest that lung function is important to consider when examining cognitive function in African American men. Understanding the role of health in cognition and implications for quality of life in this population will be critical as life expectancies increase. PMID:25053802

  13. African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... more about African-Americans and stroke at our Power To End Stroke website This content was last reviewed July 2015. ... Attack • Heart Failure (HF) • Heart Valve Problems and Disease • High Blood ...

  14. Mellonee Burnim on African American Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Patricia Shehan

    1995-01-01

    Describes the role and influence of Mellonee Burnim on U.S. music education. Discusses the origins and impact of African American gospel music. Includes a list of selected resources and two lesson plans featuring gospel music. (CFR)

  15. A perfect storm: How tumor biology, genomics, and health care delivery patterns collide to create a racial survival disparity in breast cancer and proposed interventions for change.

    PubMed

    Daly, Bobby; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that there is a significant racial divide in breast cancer incidence and mortality rates. African American women are less likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer than white women but are more likely to die from it. This review explores the factors that may contribute to the racial survival disparity. Consideration is paid to what is known about the role of differences in tumor biology, genomics, cancer screening, and quality of cancer care. It is argued that it is the collision of 2 forces, tumor biology and genomics, with patterns of care that leads to the breast cancer mortality gap. The delays, misuse, and underuse of treatment for African American patients are of increased significance when these patients are presenting with more aggressive forms of breast cancer. In the current climate of health care reform ushered in by the Affordable Care Act, this article also evaluates interventions to close the disparity gap. Prior interventions have been too narrowly focused on the patient rather than addressing the system and improving care across the continuum of breast cancer evaluation and treatment. Lastly, areas of future investigation and policy initiatives aimed at reducing the racial survival disparity in breast cancer are discussed. PMID:25960198

  16. A perfect storm: How tumor biology, genomics, and health care delivery patterns collide to create a racial survival disparity in breast cancer and proposed interventions for change.

    PubMed

    Daly, Bobby; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that there is a significant racial divide in breast cancer incidence and mortality rates. African American women are less likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer than white women but are more likely to die from it. This review explores the factors that may contribute to the racial survival disparity. Consideration is paid to what is known about the role of differences in tumor biology, genomics, cancer screening, and quality of cancer care. It is argued that it is the collision of 2 forces, tumor biology and genomics, with patterns of care that leads to the breast cancer mortality gap. The delays, misuse, and underuse of treatment for African American patients are of increased significance when these patients are presenting with more aggressive forms of breast cancer. In the current climate of health care reform ushered in by the Affordable Care Act, this article also evaluates interventions to close the disparity gap. Prior interventions have been too narrowly focused on the patient rather than addressing the system and improving care across the continuum of breast cancer evaluation and treatment. Lastly, areas of future investigation and policy initiatives aimed at reducing the racial survival disparity in breast cancer are discussed.

  17. Breast cancer screening: cultural beliefs and diverse populations.

    PubMed

    Simon, Cassandra E

    2006-02-01

    This article addresses the role of culture in breast cancer screening behavior among African American, American Indian/Alaskan Native, Asian American/Pacific Islander, and Hispanic/ Latina women. It reviews cultural beliefs, attitudes, and knowledge and their relative influence on women's decisions regarding health tests. The article explores how to build on these cultural values, simultaneously mediating their barrier effects. Building on cultural explanatory models of health behavior, suggestions for incorporating culture into early detection strategies for ethnically and racially diverse, underserved women are provided. In addition, the article offers four practice principles that can be used with all of the groups: inclusion and use of indigenous support; cross-application of approaches for diverse populations; honor and incorporation of culture; and attention to language, literacy, and cultural information.

  18. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, James S.; Heng, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix. PMID:24281093

  19. Predictors of Self-Reported Family Health History of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ricks-Santi, Luisel J; Thompson, Nicole; Ewing, Altovise; Harrison, Barbara; Higginbotham, Kimberly; Spencer, Cherie; Laiyemo, Adeyinka; DeWitty, Robert; Wilson, Lori; Horton, Sara; Dunmore-Griffith, Jacqueline; Williams, Carla; Frederick, Wayne

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify predictors of self-reported family health history of breast cancer in an ethnically diverse population of women participating in a breast cancer screening program. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire about their demography, health, breast health and family health history of breast cancer. The association between family health history of breast cancer and categorical variables were analyzed using the T test, chi square, and multi-nominal logistic regression. Those who were least likely to report a family history of cancer were African Americans (p = 0.02), and immigrant women from South America (p < 0.001) and Africa (p = 0.04). However, 34.4 % reported having a second-degree maternal relative with breast cancer compared to 6.9 % who reported having a second degree paternal relative with breast cancer. Therefore, there is a need to increase efforts to educate families about the importance of collecting and sharing one's family health history.

  20. Predictors of Self-Reported Family Health History of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ricks-Santi, Luisel J; Thompson, Nicole; Ewing, Altovise; Harrison, Barbara; Higginbotham, Kimberly; Spencer, Cherie; Laiyemo, Adeyinka; DeWitty, Robert; Wilson, Lori; Horton, Sara; Dunmore-Griffith, Jacqueline; Williams, Carla; Frederick, Wayne

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify predictors of self-reported family health history of breast cancer in an ethnically diverse population of women participating in a breast cancer screening program. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire about their demography, health, breast health and family health history of breast cancer. The association between family health history of breast cancer and categorical variables were analyzed using the T test, chi square, and multi-nominal logistic regression. Those who were least likely to report a family history of cancer were African Americans (p = 0.02), and immigrant women from South America (p < 0.001) and Africa (p = 0.04). However, 34.4 % reported having a second-degree maternal relative with breast cancer compared to 6.9 % who reported having a second degree paternal relative with breast cancer. Therefore, there is a need to increase efforts to educate families about the importance of collecting and sharing one's family health history. PMID:26201692

  1. Breast Cancer Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The BioScan System was developed by OmniCorder Technologies, Inc. at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The system is able to locate cancerous lesions by detecting the cancer's ability to recruit a new blood supply. A digital sensor detects infrared energy emitted from the body and identifies the minute differences accompanying the blood flow changes associated with cancerous cells. It also has potential use as a monitoring device during cancer treatment. This technology will reduce the time taken to detect cancerous cells and allow for earlier intervention, therefore increasing the overall survival rates of breast cancer patients.

  2. Stereotactic Image-Guided Navigation During Breast Reconstruction in Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-27

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  3. Racial differences in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation outcomes among African Americans and whites.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, B K; Rybicki, L; Sekeres, M; Kalaycio, M; Hanna, R; Sobecks, R; Dean, R; Duong, H; Hill, B T; Bolwell, B; Copelan, E

    2015-06-01

    The impact of race on outcome has been identified in a number of cancers, with African Americans having poorer survival compared with whites. We conducted a study to investigate the association of race with allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) outcomes. We identified 789 patients (58 African Americans and 731 whites) who underwent allogeneic HCT for hematologic disorders. There were no significant differences between African Americans and white patients in gender, performance status or comorbidity score. However, African Americans were younger than whites (median 40 years versus 47 years, P=0.003) and were more likely to be in remission at HCT (74% versus 57%, P=0.011), to have an HLA-mismatched donor (36% versus 14%, P<0.001), to have positive donor or recipient CMV serostatus (90% versus 69%, P<0.001) and to have received a cord blood transplant (21% versus 6%, P<0.001). In univariate analysis, African Americans had worse overall survival (OS) (HR 1.41, P=0.026) compared with whites, with no significant differences in acute or chronic GvHD, non-CMV infection or relapse. However, after adjusting for several transplant and disease-related factors in multivariate analysis, the OS difference between African Americans and whites became nonsignificant (HR 1.27, P=0.18). These results suggest that race in and of itself does not lead to worse survival post HCT.

  4. Bisphosphonates in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Aju; Brufsky, Adam

    2015-08-15

    Bisphosphonates are osteoclast inhibitors, currently being used in oncology to prevent or delay bone morbidity in cancer. Oral and intravenous formulations of bisphosphonates have been found to be efficacious in preventing skeletal-related events such as bone pain, pathologic fractures, spinal cord compression and hypercalcemia of malignancy, in patients with bone metastatic breast cancer. Bisphosphonates are also used to prevent bone loss associated with anti-estrogen therapy using aromatase inhibitors. In addition to its role in preventing bone resorption, several pre-clinical studies have noted an anti-tumor role as well. Recent research effort has particularly focused on investigating an adjuvant role for bisphosphonates in early breast cancer. Recently, few randomized trials have found a beneficial effect for adjuvant use of the aminobisphosphonate, zoledronate, in older patients who are post-menopausal. This review article will summarize the various clinical studies investigating the role of bisphosphonates in breast cancer.

  5. Health literacy, smoking, and health indicators in African American adults

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Diana W.; Vidrine, Jennifer I.; Shete, Sanjay; Spears, Claire A.; Cano, Miguel A.; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Wetter, David W.; McNeill, Lorna H.

    2015-01-01

    We examined cross-sectional associations of health literacy (HL) with smoking and other established health indicators among 1,467 African American adults. Data emanated from a longitudinal cohort study designed to investigate cancer risk factors among church-going African American adults. We conducted linear and logistic regression analyses to assess associations between HL and health indicators. HL was assessed using an established single-item screening question. Outcomes included indicators of poor physical (cigarette smoking, self-rated general and physical health) and mental health (self-rated mental health, depressive symptoms, perceived stress). Nearly 19% of participants had low HL. Low HL was significantly associated with current smoking, poorer self-rated general and physical health, and higher perceived stress (ps < .05) even after controlling for demographic variables (i.e., age, gender, relationship status) and indicators of socioeconomic status (i.e., education, income, insurance status). Low HL appears to be an independent risk factor for smoking and other indicators of poor physical and mental health in a large sample of African American adults. Future directions and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:26513028

  6. Treatment Option Overview (Breast Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat breast cancer. Internal radiation therapy with strontium-89 (a radionuclide ) is used to relieve bone pain ... breast cancer that has spread to the bones. Strontium-89 is injected into a vein and travels to ...

  7. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... 000 women will have been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, and nearly 41,000 women will die from ...

  8. Teaching African American Youth: Learning from the Lives of Three African American Social Studies Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Chantee Earl

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the life histories of three African American social studies teachers, focusing on the evolution and changes in their identities, perspectives, and attitudes related to their profession and instructional practice. In addition, the study addresses the significance of the teachers' racialized experiences as African Americans and…

  9. Perceptions of African American and European American Teachers on the Education of African American Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Ellen; Banks, Joy; Young, Kathryn; Jackson, Francesina R.

    2007-01-01

    The authors interviewed 27 teachers (16 African American and 11 European American) on instructional factors contributing to overidentification of behavior problems in African American boys. Interviews focused on teachers' perspectives of effective teachers, teacher-student relationships, and communication styles. Analysis of the interviews showed…

  10. African American Pastors' Beliefs and Actions Regarding Childhood Incest in the African American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Tesia Denis

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study sought to explore African American pastors' beliefs and actions regarding childhood incest in the African American community and their decisions to inform the proper authorities. This exploratory study was developed in order to draw both public and academic attention to the understudied phenomenon of childhood incest…

  11. Research with African Americans: Lessons Learned about Recruiting African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coker, Angela D.; Huang, Hsin-Hsin; Kashubeck-West, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The authors briefly explore literature related to recruiting African American research participants, reflect on their experiences conducting body image research with a sample of African American college women in an earlier study (S. Kashubeck-West et al., 2008), and discuss some methodological and cultural challenges that they encountered during…

  12. Minimally Invasive Treatments for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... SIR login) Interventional Radiology Minimally Invasive Treatments for Breast Cancer Interventional Radiology Treatments Offer New Options and Hope ... have in the fight against breast cancer. About Breast Cancer When breast tissue divides and grows at an ...

  13. Body size and breast cancer risk: the Multiethnic Cohort.

    PubMed

    White, Kami K; Park, Song-Yi; Kolonel, Laurence N; Henderson, Brian E; Wilkens, Lynne R

    2012-09-01

    The influence of body size on postmenopausal breast cancer risk was investigated among five racial/ethnic groups in the Multiethnic Cohort. Participants were 45-75 years old at recruitment (1993-1996), living in Hawaii and California. Of the 82,971 White, African American, Native Hawaiian, Japanese and Latina women included in this analysis, 3,030 were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. Body mass index (BMI), height, weight and adulthood weight gain were associated with a significantly higher risk and, with the exception of height, were found to vary across ethnic groups. Native Hawaiians and Japanese with a BMI≥30.0 compared to 20.0-24.9 kg/m2 had the highest risk (hazard ratio=1.82, 95% confidence interval: 1.31, 2.54, p-trend=0.001, and hazard ratio=1.59, 95% confidence interval: 1.24, 2.05, p-trend<0.0001, respectively). Current hormone replacement therapy use modified the impact of a high BMI, as non- and former users had a significantly higher risk compared to current users. BMI also had a more pronounced risk for advanced tumors compared to localized tumors. When both BMI and adult weight gain were analyzed simultaneously, adult weight gain, rather than BMI, was a significant risk factor overall. These findings emphasize the significance of maintaining a healthy weight throughout adulthood for the prevention of postmenopausal breast cancer.

  14. Computerized Cognitive Retraining in Improving Cognitive Function in Breast Cancer Survivors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-26

    Cancer Survivor; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  15. The normal breast microenvironment of premenopausal women differentially influences the behavior of breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Breast cancer studies frequently focus on the role of the tumor microenvironment in the promotion of cancer; however, the influence of the normal breast microenvironment on cancer cells remains relatively unknown. To investigate the role of the normal breast microenvironment on breast cancer cell tumorigenicity, we examined whether extracellular matrix molecules (ECM) derived from premenopausal African-American (AA) or Caucasian-American (CAU) breast tissue would affect the tumorigenicity of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. We chose these two populations because of the well documented predisposition of AA women to develop aggressive, highly metastatic breast cancer compared to CAU women. Methods The effects of primary breast fibroblasts on tumorigenicity were analyzed via real-time PCR arrays and mouse xenograft models. Whole breast ECM was isolated, analyzed via zymography, and its effects on breast cancer cell aggressiveness were tested in vitro via soft agar and invasion assays, and in vivo via xenograft models. Breast ECM and hormone metabolites were analyzed via mass spectrometry. Results Mouse mammary glands humanized with premenopausal CAU fibroblasts and injected with primary breast cancer cells developed significantly larger tumors compared to AA humanized glands. Examination of 164 ECM molecules and cytokines from CAU-derived fibroblasts demonstrated a differentially regulated set of ECM proteins and increased cytokine expression. Whole breast ECM was isolated; invasion and soft agar assays demonstrated that estrogen receptor (ER)-, progesterone receptor (PR)/PR- cells were significantly more aggressive when in contact with AA ECM, as were ER+/PR+ cells with CAU ECM. Using zymography, protease activity was comparatively upregulated in CAU ECM. In xenograft models, CAU ECM significantly increased the tumorigenicity of ER+/PR+ cells and enhanced metastases. Mass spectrometry analysis of ECM proteins showed that only 1,759 of approximately 8

  16. Affluence and Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, Steven; Green, Sheryl; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E

    2016-09-01

    High income, high socioeconomic status, and affluence increase breast cancer incidence. Socioeconomic status in USA breast cancer studies has been assessed by block-group socioeconomic measures. A block group is a portion of a census tract with boundaries that segregate, as far as possible, socioeconomic groups. In this study, we used US Census income data instead of block groups to gauge socioeconomic status of breast cancer patients in relationship with incidence, prognostic markers, and survival. US state breast cancer incidence and mortality data are from the U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group, United States Cancer Statistics: 1999-2011. Three-Year-Average Median Household Income by State, 2010 to 2012, is from the U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2011 to 2013 Annual Social and Economic Supplements. County incomes are from the 2005-2009 American Community Survey of the U.S. Census Bureau. The American Community Survey is an ongoing statistical survey that samples a small percentage of the population yearly. Its purpose is to provide communities the information they need to plan investments and services. Breast cancer county incidence and survival data are from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (SEER) data base. We analyzed SEER data from 198 counties in California, Connecticut, Georgia, Hawaii, Iowa, New Mexico, Utah, and Washington. SEER uses the Collaborative Stage (CS) Data Collection System. We have retained the SEER CS variables. There was a significant relationship of income with breast cancer incidence in 50 USA states and the District of Columbia in White women (r = 0.623, p < 0.001). There was a significant relationship between node involvement and income in Whites in 198 USA counties. Income was significantly correlated with 5-year relative survival in Whites with localized breast cancer. Income was not correlated with 5-year survival of Black race (p = 0.364) or other races (p = 0

  17. An evaluation of the integration of non-traditional learning tools into a community based breast and cervical cancer education program: The witness project of Buffalo

    PubMed Central

    Hurd, Thelma C; Muti, Paola; Erwin, Deborah O; Womack, Sharita

    2003-01-01

    Background Breast and cervical cancer continue to represent major health challenges for African American women. among Caucasian women. The underlying reasons for this disparity are multifactorial and include lack of education and awareness of screening and early detection. Traditional educational methods have enjoyed varied success in the African American community and spawned development of novel educational approaches. Community based education programs employing a variety of educational models have been introduced. Successful programs must train and provide lay community members with the tools necessary to deliver strong educational programs. Methods The Witness Project is a theory-based, breast and cervical cancer educational program, delivered by African American women, that stresses the importance of early detection and screening to improve survival and teaches women how to perform breast self examination. Implementing this program in the Buffalo Witness Project of Buffalo required several modifications in the curriculum, integration of non-traditional learning tools and focused training in clinical study participation. The educational approaches utilized included repetition, modeling, building comprehension, reinforcement, hands on learning, a social story on breast health for African American women, and role play conversations about breast and cervical health and support. Results Incorporating non-traditional educational approaches into the Witness Project training resulted in a 79% improvement in the number of women who mastered the didactic information. A seventy-two percent study participation rate was achieved by educating the community organizations that hosted Witness Project programs about the informed consent process and study participation. Conclusion Incorporating non-traditional educational approaches into community outreach programs increases training success as well as community participation. PMID:12775219

  18. Omega-3 Fatty Acid in Treating Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-17

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Male Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  19. Cryosurgery of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Liang; Xu, Kecheng

    2012-01-01

    With recent improvements in breast imaging, the ability to identify small breast tumors is markedly improved, prompting significant interest in the use of cryoablation without surgical excision to treat early-stage breast cancer. The cryoablation is often performed using ultrasound-guided tabletop argon-gas-based cryoablation system with a double freeze/thaw cycle. Recent studies have demonstrated that, as a primary therapy for small breast cancer, cryoablation is safe and effective with durable results, and can successfully destroy all cancers <1.0 cm and tumors between 1.0 and 1.5 cm without a significant ductal carcinoma-in-situ (DCIS) component. Presence of noncalcified DCIS is the cause of most cryoablation failures. At this time, cryoablation should be limited to patients with invasive ductal carcinoma <1.5 cm and with <25% DCIS in the core biopsy. For unresectable advanced breast cancer, cryoablation is a palliation modality and may be used as complementary for subsequent resection or other therapies. PMID:25083433

  20. Multiple sclerosis susceptibility alleles in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Britt A.; Wang, Joanne; Taylor, Elise M.; Caillier, Stacy J.; Herbert, Joseph; Khan, Omar A.; Cross, Anne H.; De Jager, Philip L.; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine F.; Cree, Bruce C.A.; Hauser, Stephen L.; Oksenberg, Jorge R.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease characterized by complex genetics and multifaceted gene-environment interactions. Compared to whites, African Americans have a lower risk for developing MS, but African Americans with MS have a greater risk of disability. These differences between African Americans and whites may represent differences in genetic susceptibility and/or environmental factors. SNPs from 12 candidate genes have recently been identified and validated with MS risk in white populations. We performed a replication study using 918 cases and 656 unrelated controls to test whether these candidate genes are also associated with MS risk in African Americans. CD6, CLEC16a, EVI5, GPC5, and TYK2 contained SNPs that are associated with MS risk in the African American dataset. EVI5 showed the strongest association outside the MHC (rs10735781, OR = 1.233, 95% CI = 1.06–1.43, P value = 0.006). In addition, RGS1 appears to affect age of onset whereas TNFRSF1A appears to be associated with disease progression. None of the tested variants showed results that were statistically in-consistent with the effects established in whites. The results are consistent with shared disease genetic mechanisms among individuals of European and African ancestry. PMID:19865102