Jenkins-Williams, Mary E.
Within a local school district, the dropout rate among African American males is among the highest in the United States. There is ample research on these dropout rates among African American males; however, what remains understudied are the experiences of young African American males who have successfully negotiated 4 years of high school to…
Bell, Edward Earl
The purpose of this study was to assess the socialization skills, self-esteem, and academic readiness of African American males in a school environment. Discussions with students and the School Perceptions Questionnaire provided data for this investigation. The intended targets for this investigation were African American students; however, there…
Huff, Carlton L.
Although there are more African American male students in higher education, they do not succeed to the same extent as other demographic groups. The purpose of this Action Research qualitative interpretative phenomenological analysis is to explore the lived experiences of African American male high school students in regards to their academic…
Rainer, Samantha Marilyn
Current research has focused primarily on the negative aspects of African American males and high school attainment, examining the misleading high school drop out rates among African American males rather than the steady increase in high school completion. My study explored the factors that help contribute to high school completion among African…
The large number of suspensions of African American high school males is one of the primary concerns facing high school administrators nationwide. At high schools in the southern United States, African American males are suspended at greater rates than their counterparts. Suspensions affect their levels of achievement, attitudes towards school,…
Allen, Tyrone J.
Low performance of African American male students in high school math is an ongoing concern of Maryland's public schools. Because disproportionately large numbers of African American male students enroll in Algebra 2 in Grade 11, the use of early academic counseling to promote enrollment in Algebra 2 in Grade 9 and to increase self-regulation may…
Bell, Edward E.
Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American…
Rowlett, Joel Everett
This case study examined the beliefs of African American males on the psychosocial and pedagogical factors contributing to the underrepresentation of African American males in advanced high school math courses. Six 11th grade African American male juniors from a large, comprehensive, Southeastern high school served as individual cases. Within- and…
Trice, Rodney Nathaniel
This study examines the educational experiences of high achieving African American males. More specifically, it analyzes the influences on their successful navigation through high school science. Through a series of interviews, observations, questionnaires, science portfolios, and review of existing data the researcher attempted to obtain a deeper understanding of high achieving African American males and their limitations to academic attainment and high school science experiences. The investigation is limited to ten high achieving African American male science students at Woodcrest High School. Woodcrest is situated at the cross section of a suburban and rural community located in the southeastern section of the United States. Although this investigation involves African American males, all of whom are successful in school, its findings should not be generalized to this nor any other group of students. The research question that guided this study is: What are the limitations to academic attainment and the high school science experiences of high achieving African American males? The student participants expose how suspension and expulsion, special education placement, academic tracking, science instruction, and teacher expectation influence academic achievement. The role parents play, student self-concept, peer relationships, and student learning styles are also analyzed. The anthology of data rendered three overarching themes: (1) unequal access to education, (2) maintenance of unfair educational structures, and (3) authentic characterizations of African American males. Often the policies and practices set in place by school officials aid in creating hurdles to academic achievement. These policies and practices are often formed without meaningful consideration of the unintended consequences that may affect different student populations, particularly the most vulnerable. The findings from this study expose that high achieving African American males face major
Ijames, Erika Denise
Research indicates that internal and external factors such as role models, stereotypes, and pressures placed on African American males by their family and friends influence their perceptions of science careers (Assibey-Mensah, 1997; Hess & Leal, 1997; Jacobowitz, 1983; Maple & Stage, 1991; Thomas, 1989; Ware & Lee, 1988). The purpose of this research was to investigate the perceptions of African American high school males about selected science careers based on apparent internal and external factors. Two questions guided this research: (1) What are high school African American males' perceptions of science careers? (2) What influences high school African American males' perceptions of science careers? This research was based on a pilot study in which African American college males perceived a selection of science careers along racial and gender lines. The follow-up investigation was conducted at Rockriver High School in Acorn County, and the participants were three college-bound African American males. The decision to choose males was based on the concept of occupational niching along gender lines. In biology, niching is defined as the role of a particular species regarding space and reproduction, and its interactions with other factors. During the seven-week period of the students' senior year, they met with the researcher to discuss their perceptions of science careers. An ethnographic approach was used to allow a richer and thicker narrative to occur. Critical theory was used to describe and interpret the voices of the participants from a social perspective. The data collected were analyzed using a constant comparative analysis technique. The participants revealed role models, negative stereotypes, peer pressure, social pressures, and misconceptions as some of the factors that influenced their perceptions of science careers. Results of this research suggest that by dispelling the misconceptions, educators can positively influence the attitudes and perceptions of
McGee, Ebony O.
This study investigated the risk and protective factors of 11 high-achieving African American males attending 4 urban charter high schools in a Midwestern city to determine what factors account for their resilience and success in mathematics courses, and in high school more generally. This research was guided by a Phenomenological Variant of…
Thompson, LaTasha; Davis, Julius
Many researchers, educators, administrators, policymakers and members of the general public doubt the prevalence of high-achieving African-American males in urban high schools capable of excelling in mathematics. As part of a larger study, the current study explored the educational experiences of four high-achieving African-American males…
Land, A'Lesia; Mixon, Jason R.; Butcher, Jennifer; Harris, Sandra
This qualitative, narrative study explored experiences of six successful African American male high school students. Findings suggested that barriers prior to high school were negative elements in the home and community. To be successful in high school, they overcame barriers of absent fathers, disruptive homes, negative community, and peers, and…
Smith, Jacqueline A.
The mixed method research study was designed to evaluate the effects on a mentoring initiative on 40 African American and Hispanic males in an urban high school. The study took place over a three-month period in a traditional public school with 2,000 students. Data collection methods used included individual interview with student mentees, surveys…
Investigates career maturity differences among 133 African American male high school student-athletes. Findings revealed no significant differences between student-athletes and their nonathlete peers on the career maturity attitude and competence variables. Findings further indicated that 94% of student-athletes as compared to 72% of nonathletes…
Wakefield, W. David; Fajardo, Gabriela
This study investigated male Latino and African American adolescents' experiences with racial discrimination at school. Participants (N = 85) were recruited from an urban public high school in southern California. Students completed paper and pencil measures assessing their experiences with racial discrimination. Overall, Latino and African…
Brown-Wright, Lynda; Tyler, Kenneth Maurice
The current study examined associations between home-school dissonance and several academic and psychological variables among 80 African American male high school students. Regression analyses revealed that home-school dissonance significantly predicted multiple academic and psychological variables, including amotivation, academic cheating,…
Welch, Amy L.
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of poverty on the achievement of African American male high school students attending the same large Midwest urban school district. Cumulative grade point average (GPA) at the tenth grade level were compared to the level of poverty provided through census data of African American male tenth…
Thomas, Tonya Chavis
The purpose of this study was to examine the different perceptions that shape African American male high school students' understanding of their academic experiences that lead to their success or lack of success in school. In addition, the study identified factors that explain the underachievement of African American male students who are…
Johnson, Stanley Louis, Jr.
Helping teachers to effectively use culturally relevant instructional practices can help the educational community close the literacy gap for African American males. This study examines effective secondary English teachers and their high achieving African American male students. Using critical race and sociocultural theories as a conceptual…
The purpose of this study was to examine self-determination and achievement motivation as predictors of successful school performance for high school African American males enrolled in an urban Texas school district. The students (N = 108) were placed into two distinct groups: higher-performing and lower-performing African American males based…
Harper, Shaun R.
More than two-thirds of all African American males who begin college never finish. This and a legion of other discouraging facts about African American males are the usual headlines. Sharon Fries-Britt suggests that "the disproportionate focus on Black underachievement in the literature not only distorts the image of the community of Black…
Dillard, Rhonda Cherie Crutchfield
This qualitative case study examined the self-efficacy beliefs of three high school principals in economically disadvantaged high schools with consistently high graduation rates for African American males. With the demand on school systems to perform in a politically driven, assessment-based paradigm, there is a need to describe and analyze the…
Muhammad, Rhonda K.
This qualitative study examined the instructional practices of an experienced African American mathematics teacher to determine his perceived capabilities in augmenting academic proficiency for his African American male students. Provided in this descriptive case study are the lived experiences of an African American male teacher working to move…
Polite, Vernon C.
This paper is an ethnographic study of African American male students at an urban high school and an examination of the quality of education received by those students. The study population was composed of 115 African American males in the high school class of 1989 observed from January, 1987, through the December following their expected…
The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship existed between mathematics self-efficacy and mathematics identity to mathematics achievement among African American males from High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09). Subsequently, the extent to which mathematics self-efficacy and mathematics identity accounted for low and…
This study examines whether participating in competitive policy debate influences high school completion, academic achievement, and college readiness for African American male students. The analysis examines data from the Chicago Debate League from 1997 to 2006. Debate participants were 70% more likely to graduate and three times less likely to…
Simmons, Robert W., III
African American males from urban communities have been attending Jesuit high schools in urban spaces for many years, yet little to no literature exists that explores their experiences while attending these elite private schools. This qualitative study of 10 African American males from an urban community attending a similarly positioned Jesuit…
Randle, James P.
A recent study by the Council of the Great City Schools reports that "the nation's young African-American males are in a state of crisis" and describes the situation as "a national catastrophe" (Lewis, Simon, Uzzell, Horwitz, & Casserly, 2010; Herbert, 2010). The report indicates that African-American males still lag…
Jones, Linda D.
Research indicates there are significant differences in the academic performance of minorities and whites, particularly at the high school level. On average, Latino and African American high school students read and perform math on the same level as 13-year-old white students and trail their white peers by an average of 20 test points on math and…
Davis, Gareth G.; Muhlhausen, David B.
To measure the extent of the progress that has been made in the fight against violent crime over the past decade and to get some perspective on the progress that must still be made, this analysis examines the data for one of the most vulnerable groups in the United States, young African American males who reside in eight of the largest U.S.…
Burrow, Rufus, Jr.
Presents views of Frederick Douglass, W. E. B. Du Bois, Malcolm X, and James Hal Cone (African-American male leaders) toward African-American women in the United States. Discusses the role of African-American men in addressing and eradicating sexism in African-American churches and the African-American community. (SLD)
Johnson, Kimberly C.
A major concern in the public schools is the low academic achievement of African American males. This mixed methods study examined the classroom experiences of African American male students in an alternative program. The dual purpose was to investigate the teachers' perceptions and their ability to provide best learning environments for…
Greene, Mark Brandon
The purpose of this body of work was to examine barriers that lead to high school non-completion for African-American males and to propose strategies to better support this group. Specifically, it examined how African-American male high school graduates vary from African-American male non-graduates. Across personal and environmental factors, this…
Green, Robert L.
This paper analyzes the relationship between levels of educational attainment and outcomes for African American males, in particular the likelihood of conflict with the criminal justice system. The analysis begins with a look at society's belief system and political and economic forces, and argues that these have combined to promote failure among…
A review of the literature reveals that African-American males do not achieve at the same academic levels as their White counterparts. This article reports the effectiveness of a school-based male mentoring program established by a professional school counselor in an urban high school that formed a relationship of support for male students…
Brown, Anthony L.
Drawing from ethnographic data, this paper explores how African American male teachers working with African American male students performed their pedagogy. This paper highlights how teachers' understanding of African American males social and educational needs shaped their pedagogical performance. Interestingly however, teachers' performance was…
Anderson Goins, Johnell Roxann
Retaining African American students, specifically African American males, is an issue that plagues the American higher education system. Research shows that African American male students are the lowest represented group in the gifted studies programs (Ford, 2010). Lockie and Burke (1999); Chen and DeJardins (2010) and Bell (2010a) found that…
African American males face numerous challenges to their physical and psychological well-being. This project is a survey of the literature and trends relative to African American males from 1987 to the present. In reviewing the fifteen years since Parham and McDavis published their now famous article on African American men as an endangered…
McNeal, CoSandra; Perkins, Isaac; Lyons, Shenia
Research on African American men's health is limited. Perception and knowledge of health may have a significant effect on health seeking behavior and self care. This study was designed to examine factors that may influence health perception and knowledge among African American males. This is a cross-sectional study of 343 African American males…
Thompson, LaTasha R.; Lewis, Bradford F.
The mathematics success of African American male adolescents has been given limited attention. Most often, African American males are viewed in terms of their failure as opposed to their success. This tendency to focus almost exclusively on African American failure is a debilitating feature of extant literature and it constrains our understanding…
Ford, Donna Y.; Moore, James L., III
This article focuses on the achievement gap, with attention devoted to underachievement and low achievement among African American males in urban school contexts. More specifically, the article explains problems and issues facing or confronting these Black male students in urban education settings. A central part of this discussion is grounded in…
Odom, Lynn Cheryl Lanier
This study examined the patterns of parental involvement and parenting styles of a particular sample of academically successful African American males who attended and graduated from historically Black colleges or universities. More specifically, investigated was the presence of any relationships between parental involvement, parenting styles,…
Odom, Lynn Lanier; McNeese, Rose M.
The purpose of this study was to examine the patterns of parental involvement and parenting styles of the parents of academically successful African American males who graduated from historically Black colleges or universities (Odom, 2013). More specifically, the study investigated relationships among students' perceptions of their parents'…
Brown, Alanka P.
The purpose of this study was to identify the nonacademic reasons that preclude African American males from enrolling in college after high school completion. The examination of this study evolved as a result of an abundance of African American males choosing not to enroll in college after completing high school. A mixed-methods research design…
Richardson, Joseph B., Jr.; Van Brakle, Mischelle; St. Vil, Christopher
Research indicates that inner-city neighborhood effects are correlated with school dropout, substance abuse, crime, violence, homicide, HIV risk related behaviors, and incarceration for adolescent African American males. Parents of adolescent African American males face many challenges as they try to keep their children safe in high-risk…
Bianco, Margarita; Leech, Nancy L.; Mitchell, Kara
The need for African American male teachers is clear; however their pathway to teaching is in disrepair. This article shares research findings and a description of a pre-collegiate course designed to encourage high school students of color, including African American males, to explore teaching. More specifically, drawing from survey and interview…
Hines, Erik M.; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl
Parental characteristics, ecological factors, and the academic achievement of African American male high school students were examined. One hundred fifty-three 11th and 12th grade African American males completed the Parenting Style Index (Steinberg, Lamborn, Darling, Mounts, & Dornbusch, 1994) and a demographic questionnaire. Results…
Shropshire, Delia F. B.
The purpose of the study was to determine to what extent teaching style relates to third grade African American male academic achievement. The problem in this study addressed the factors affecting the academic achievement of the African American third grade male. This problem led the researcher to investigate the teaching styles of the…
This paper describes an effort to provide prospective teachers opportunities to better understand African American male students and better focus on how they learn mathematics. Prospective teachers spent 15 hours over an eight week span mentoring and tutoring African American males without the guise of practicing teachers. Qualitative data drawn…
Dickens, Manuel Dewayne
The purpose of this qualitative case study that consists of six African American male participants is to examine, describe, and analyze African American male persistence factors at a community college in the midwest of the United States. The study uses qualitative content analysis as a research method that provides a systematic and objective means…
Rivers, Celeste A.
For many decades, society has struggled with academic underachievement, particularly among African American males. Although a myriad of studies have identified significant causal factors of African American academic underachievement from the perspectives and circumstances of the student, limited studies focus on this problem from the perspective…
Conchas, Gilberto Q.; Lin, Alex R.; Oseguera, Leticia; Drake, Sean J.
Through a Multiple Marginality Framework, this exploratory case study highlights how African American male youth in an urban high school setting perceive the opportunity structure during the historic election of the first African American President. Youth optimism generated by Obama's election gives students a sense of hope despite the persistent…
Palmer, Robert T.; Maramba, Dina C.
Although African Americans continue to demonstrate a desire for education, Black male enrollment and completion rates in higher education are dismal when compared to other ethnic groups. Researchers and scholars have noted various theories and philosophies responsible for the academic disengagement of African American men in higher education. This…
The driving force behind high-stakes-testing may be attributed to the issue of education reform. In the last decade, high-stakes testing has generated intense controversy among educators and parents. The use of high-stakes testing in making decisions about student promotion and graduation is both controversial and significant. The purpose of the…
ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? The prevalence of high blood pressure in African Americans is among the highest in ...
Daniels, Byron L.
The home and the public school classroom have been key environments in the African American community and have been instrumental in developing identity and encouraging academic progress. Despite this, the dropout rates of African American males in secondary grades have increased, while academic achievement scores of African American males in the…
O'Brien, Kathryn Mary
The purpose of the current research was to examine racial, male and athletic identities and their individual and collective impact on the academic performance of African American male Division I student-athletes (AAMSAs). Data was collected using the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity (MIBI), the Male Role Norms Scale (MRNS), and the…
Henderson, Jack L.
Nationally, 30% of high school students do not graduate. Among this percentage, 50% are African-American. This study focused on at-promise African-American male classroom engagement where the researcher employed a mixed-methods methodology. Findings reveal that in order to engage and keep at-promise African-American males in high school, educators…
Hotchkins, Bryan K.
Background/Context: High school educational environments find Black males experience systemic racial microaggressions in the form of discipline policies, academic tracking and hegemonic curriculum (Allen, Scott, & Lewis, 2013). Black males in high school are more likely than their White male peers to have high school truancies and be viewed as…
McMillian, M. Monique
To improve achievement among African American students, education professionals must pay special attention to African American male achievement and reframe the academic achievement gap as a treatment gap. Engagement studies suggest that African American students, and African American boys in particular, are susceptible to academic disengagement.…
Miller-Johnson, Shari; C. Winn, Donna-Marie; Coie, John D.; Malone, Patrick S.; Lochman, John
This study examined childhood and adolescent risk factors for males' reports of getting someone pregnant during adolescence. These questions were examined in an urban sample of 335 African American males involved in a prospective, longitudinal study. Childhood aggression significantly predicted reported pregnancies during adolescence. Boys who…
Dalton, Cecil Jerome
This study represents a review of the literature along with an analysis of secondary data. The study analyzes and highlights the disparities in the quality of education provided to African American males. High school graduation rates among African American males as compared to other races suggest that there are factors that have created such…
Hamlet, Conrad E.
There has been no shortage of calls to improve teaching. Even the federal law, the No Child Left Behind Act, has mandated high quality teaching in the nation's public schools. But the question still remains "What makes an effective teacher, particularly of African-American males in an urban environment?" African-American males in…
Voisin, Dexter R.; Bird, Jason D. P.
This study explored the beliefs of African American male adolescents concerning the high rates of HIV infection among their peers and their reasons for those beliefs. In-depth interviews were conducted with a sample of 16 male African Americans, and a thematic analysis of the data was conducted. Half of the participants believed that peers were…
Stuart, Alesia K.
This study was conducted to research factors which influence rural African American males in their college attendance decision. The study was an attempt to discover specific influences in the higher education pursuit from aspiration to enrollment. As African American males and low income students represent lower enrollment figures in higher education, this study attempts to provide research which may improve these numbers. The literature which provides the theoretical frame is related to Hossler (et al., 1999) and his research entitled Going to College. Hossler's study recommended additional research to study African American males. Hossler concluded this participant segment was influenced by different factors than the majority of study participants. This qualitative study includes student interviews. Three high schools in three counties in the Black Belt of rural Alabama were the sites selected for participants. Thirty African American male seniors' responses were transcribed and coded to identify themes related to influences stated by the participants. The students' voices provided insight into their college enrollment pursuit. The findings indicate rural students lack the resources and academic preparation significant for higher education admission. African American males in rural Alabama tend to be first generation students and lack information important to college enrollment. The rural high schools lack the personnel, college and career guidance to ensure participants are aware and prepared to traverse the process of college enrollment. This study identifies policy development needs to address inadequacies that African American males attending rural schools encounter during secondary enrollment. Research participants state college aspirations. Problems arise as participants move from the aspiration stage toward enrollment. Several factors will limit higher education opportunities for the participants. Inadequate knowledge on ACT scores, college cost financial
Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E.
Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship…
Braden, Warren R.
Peer mentoring among African-American males (referred to as "homies") on the west side of Chicago was examined in an afrocentric ethnographic study. The study used three data collection methods: a survey (of respondents' definition of the word "mentor") administered at bus stops, elevated train stations, gyms, and libraries to…
Simmons-Reed, Evette A.; Cartledge, Gwendolyn
Exclusionary policies are practiced widely in schools despite being associated with extremely poor outcomes for culturally and linguistically diverse students, particularly African American males with and without disabilities. This article discusses zero tolerance policies, the related research questioning their basic assumptions, and the negative…
Singer, John N.
This study presents narrative case study vignettes of three elite African American male football athletes at a major historically White institution of higher education with a big-time athletics department. More specifically, I draw from critical race theory to garner insight into their secondary schooling background, what education means to them,…
Owens, Delila; Simmons, Robert W., III; Bryant, Rhonda M.; Henfield, Malik
Using a qualitative framework, researchers explored urban African American male students' perceptions of their school counselors and the ways to improve school counseling services. While participants reported positive feelings toward their school counselors, they identified specific services school counselors can offer them to optimize academic…
Jeffers, Adam R.
This project examines the early educational experiences of 6 young African American males (ages 18-25) who attended urban schools in San Diego, California. All 6 men were incarcerated for at least 1-year before participating in a pre-release program. The participants were part of a pre-release program in San Diego, California, which was selected…
The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the experiences of African American male students in community college and to explore their decision-making process to persist. The study sought to describe these experiences and to discover any impact these experiences might have on decisions regarding completing a degree. The research…
Yates, Lucian, III; Moore, Jerrel; Vairez, Mathias R., Jr.; Barber-Freeman, Pamela T.; Ross, William; Parker, William H.; Bautista, Ramiro
While the population of America's public schools is becoming more diverse, the percentage of minority teachers is steadily decreasing. While over 44% of all students in America are minority, only 12-14% of teachers are minorities and less than 2% are African American males. The challenge for colleges of education is to recruit more African…
Oaks, D'Arcy John; Duckett, Kirstan; Suddeth, Todd; Kennedy-Phillips, Lance
Qualitative interviews were employed to assess the effectiveness of a leadership program geared toward African American male personal and professional development, and to examine the relationship between program participation and connectedness. Elements of both social engagement (mentoring and being mentored, peer-to-peer relationships, and…
Wimbush, Jason D.
This phenomenological research was designed to explore the lived experiences of African American male educators in a mid-Atlantic state through the lens of the phenomenon of shortage of African American male teachers. The overarching question guiding this study addressed the lived experiences of African American male educators in a mid-Atlantic…
Tatum, Alfred W.
Drawing from a sociohistorical understanding of the roles of texts for African American males and data from a recent survey of teens' meaningful experiences with texts, the author provides a general understanding of the roles of texts among African American males and African American male adolescents' meaningful relationships with texts. These…
Brooks, Michael; Steen, Sam
The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of African American male counselor educators regarding the limited number of African American male faculty members in counselor education. Implications and suggestions on how universities can recruit and retain African American male faculty members are provided.
This phenomenological research study explored the perceptions and lived experiences of African-American male teachers related to the underrepresentation of African-American males in the teaching profession. The study was guided by four research questions. The data was collected from 15 African-American male teachers at the elementary school level,…
Lee, Felecia A; Lewis, Rhonda K; Sly, Jamilia R; Carmack, Chakema; Roberts, Shani R; Basore, Polly
African American males experience poor academic performance, high absenteeism at school, and are at increased risk of being involved in violence than other racial groups. Given that the educational outlook for African American males appears bleak, it is important to assess the aspirations of these adolescent males in order to find the gap between aspirations and educational attainment. In order to promote positive development within this population, it is essential that factors that affect African American males be identified. A survey was administered to male students attending elementary, middle, and high schools in a local school district. A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the career and educational aspirations of African American males. A total of 473 males were surveyed: 45% African American, 22% Caucasian, 13% biracial, and 19% Other (including Asian American, Hispanic, Native American). The results revealed that African American males aspired to attend college at the same rate as other ethnic groups. Also, African American males were more likely to aspire to be professional athletes than males from other ethnic groups. Important factors to consider when designing a program are discussed as well as future research and limitations.
Levin, Henry M.; Belfield, Clive; Muennig, Peter; Rouse, Cecilia
This paper calculates the public savings (financial benefits) from greater public investments in the education of African-American males. Over one-fifth of each age cohort of black males in US is not a high school graduate. We identify five interventions that would--based on credible research--increase the graduation rate; we also report the…
Paxton, Keisha C.; Williams, John K.; Bolden, Sherica; Guzman, Yesenia; Harawa, Nina T.
Background HIV continues to impact African American women at alarming rates. Yet, few researchers have examined the relationship factors promoting unprotected sex within African American communities, especially instances in which women are aware that their male partners are engaging in high risk behaviors. This qualitative study explored the sexual behaviors, relationship characteristics, and HIV prevention strategies utilized by African American women in relationships with African American men at-risk for HIV. Method To understand the issues that should be addressed in a sexual risk-reduction intervention, data were collected from three, two-hour focus group discussions (n=24) comprised primarily of low-income African American women with histories of at-risk male sex partners. At-risk partners included specifically men who had sex with other men or with transgender individuals, used crack cocaine or injection drugs, had lengthy incarceration periods, or an unknown sexual history. Discussion questions examined external factors affecting sexual risk behaviors such as societal pressures, peer norms, and financial vulnerability. Discussions were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using a consensual qualitative research approach. Results Five themes, including self-esteem, social influences on behavior, relationship fidelity, sexual risk behavior, and partners' sexual behaviors, were identified as placing women at increased risk for HIV. Reasons for inconsistent condom use included concern for maintaining the relationship and substance use before and during sex. African American women also believed that men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) were dishonest about their sexuality due to stigma towards homosexuality/bisexuality. Despite these challenges, participants indicated that African American women have a strong sense of pride that can positively impact behaviors in relationships. Conclusion The findings of this study support that social and contextual factor
Former Principals' Perceptions of the Effectiveness of the Educational Leadership Constituent Council (ELCC) Standards on Raising the Performance of African American Males on the State High School Graduation Test (GHSGT)
Ficklin, Henry Clay
The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of former principals on the effect of the Educational Leadership Constituent Council (ELCC) standards in raising the performance of African American males on standardized tests, specifically the State High School Graduation Test (SHSGT) in a southern school district. Since the…
Brown, Anthony L.
Numerous scholars have illustrated how African American teachers' past experiences provide them a philosophical vision committed to teaching for social and educational change for African American students. This article draws from this body of work by looking at the diverse ways five African American male teachers used their past experiences to…
Pringle, Beverley E.; Lyons, James E.; Booker, Keonya C.
African American high school students are performing behind their White classmates regardless of whether they are in majority or minority populations at school. Teacher expectations, among school-related factors that can impact the academic achievement of African American high school students, are the focus of this study. Interviews were conducted…
Stone, Daryl Bryant
" self-efficacy between lower-level computer science majors and upper-level computer science majors. (5) There is no significant difference in "Computer Science Degree" self-efficacy between each of the five groups of students. Finally, the researcher selected African-American male students attending six primary schools, including the predominately African-American elementary, middle and high school that the researcher attended during his own academic career. Additionally, a racially mixed elementary, middle and high school was selected from the same county in Maryland. Bowie State University provided both the underclass and upperclass computer science majors surveyed in this study. Of the five hypotheses, the sample provided enough evidence to support the claim that there are significant differences in the "Computer Science Degree" self-efficacy between each of the five groups of students. ANOVA analysis by question and total self-efficacy scores provided more results of statistical significance. Additionally, factor analysis and review of the qualitative data provide more insightful results. Overall, the data suggest 'a clog' may exist in the middle school level and students attending racially mixed schools were more confident in their computer, math and science skills. African-American males admit to spending lots of time on social networking websites and emailing, but are 'dis-aware' of the skills and knowledge needed to study in the computing disciplines. The majority of the subjects knew little, if any, AAMs in the 'computing discipline pipeline'. The collegian African-American males, in this study, agree that computer programming is a difficult area and serves as a 'major clog in the pipeline'.
White, Nathan J.; Rayle, Andrea Dixon
This article describes the school-based, small group adaptation of the existing Strong Teens Curriculum (STC) for African American male adolescents in high schools. The STC was created to equip adolescents with skills that promote more effective social interaction and enhance personal emotional and psychological wellness. The authors present a…
Despite the overwhelming evidence that African American males are disproportionately overrepresented in special education, school suspensions, high school dropout rates, and their overall academic achievement, there is little being done in schools and districts to specifically address these issues. The current body of research focuses on the…
Halasa, Katrina Bassam
The major purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the past in order to understand the complex phenomenon of students engaging in science (Newman, Ridenour, Newman, & DeMarco, 2003) specifically through the oral histories of six self-identified African American males enrolled in a high school Advanced Placement Biology class and the…
Goodman, Julia M; Karasek, Deborah; Anderson, Elizabeth; Catalano, Ralph A
Natural selection conserves mechanisms allowing women to spontaneously abort gestations least likely to yield fit offspring. Small gestational size has been proposed as an indicator of fitness observable by maternal biology. Previous research suggests that exposure to ambient stress in utero results in more "culling" of small fetuses and therefore lower rates of small-for-gestational-age (SGA). However, African American women persistently have higher rates of SGA than non-Hispanic white women, despite experiencing more ambient stress. This paper tests whether attenuation of the stress response among highly stressed African American women, as suggested by the weathering hypothesis, may help to explain this apparent inconsistency. We apply time-series modeling to over 2 million African American and non-Hispanic white male term births in California over the period of January 1989 through December 2010. We test for the parabolic (i.e., "U" shaped) relationship, implied by an attenuated stress response, between unusually strong labor market contraction and the rate of SGA among African American term male infants, and a linear relationship among non-Hispanic whites. We find the hypothesized parabolic relationship among term male African American infants. As expected, we find a linear relationship between unexpected layoffs and the rate of SGA among term male non-Hispanic whites. These results are robust to sensitivity analyses. These results may help to explain the high rates of SGA among term male African American infants, despite greater maternal exposure to ambient stress during pregnancy.
Watson, Jarvis M.
African American male college students are graduating at rates lower than their White male college counterparts. This epidemic is a result of the historical implications of institutional racism within American society. Despite these barriers, there are African American males that achieve academically and graduate college. This phenomenological…
Polite, Vernon C., Ed.; Davis, James Earl, Ed.
This collection provides many insights into the condition of African American males, emphasizing educational attainment and achievement, and offers methodologies for documenting how the social and educational worlds of African American males intersect. The essays are: (1) "Teaching Black Males: Lessons from the Experts" (Michele Foster…
Jennings, Larissa; Rompalo, Anne M; Wang, Jing; Hughes, James; Adimora, Adaora A; Hodder, Sally; Soto-Torres, Lydia E; Frew, Paula M; Haley, Danielle F
Knowledge of sexual partners' HIV infection can reduce risky sexual behaviors. Yet, there are no published studies to-date examining prevalence and characteristics associated with knowledge among African-American women living in high poverty communities disproportionately affected by HIV. Using the HIV Prevention Trial Network's (HPTN) 064 Study data, multivariable logistic regression was used to examine individual, partner, and partnership-level determinants of women's knowledge (n = 1,768 women). Results showed that women's demographic characteristics alone did not account for the variation in serostatus awareness. Rather, lower knowledge of partner serostatus was associated with having two or more sex partners (OR = 0.49, 95 % CI 0.37-0.65), food insecurity (OR = 0.68, 95 % CI 0.49-0.94), partner age >35 years (OR = 0.68, 95 % CI 0.49-0.94), and partner concurrency (OR = 0.63, 95 % CI 0.49-0.83). Access to financial support (OR = 1.42, 95 % CI 1.05-1.92) and coresidence (OR = 1.43, 95 % CI 1.05-1.95) were associated with higher knowledge of partner serostatus. HIV prevention efforts addressing African-American women's vulnerabilities should employ integrated behavioral, economic, and empowerment approaches.
Senegal, Pamela Gibson
This research is a qualitative case study exploring the experiences of African American male mentoring community college students. Such programs have proliferated throughout higher education, over the past 20 years, in an effort to improve the retention, performance and goal attainment of African American males. The theoretical framework shaping…
Preston-Cunningham, Tammie; Boyd, Barry L.; Elbert, Chanda D.; Dooley, Kim E.; Peck-Parrott, Kelli
This study investigates the perceptions of leadership of African American undergraduate males who attend a predominately-White institution in the Southwest after participation in a leadership development program. Research concerning African American undergraduate males in education has been from a deficit-orientated narrative and focused primarily…
Dawson, Dawnay Ardrean
The purpose of this study was to examine leadership practices that lead to improving academic achievement for African American males. Specifically, this study examined cultural insensitivity and its impact on educating African American male students in reading. The study utilized several techniques to determine what practices educators used to…
Earls, Melissa K.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Social Skills Group Play Therapy on remedying the social skills deficits of adolescent African-American males. Additionally, the study investigated whether age and grade level impacted the outcome of the intervention. The participants were adolescent African-American males ages 10 to…
African-American male students are systematically forced to confine themselves to the social construct that European-American society has developed for them. Actions, behaviors, and words that communicate this message spread both interracially and intraracially within schools and affect African-American males tremendously in terms of their…
This study examined the effective strategies, resources, and programs urban superintendents utilize to improve the academic achievement for African-American males. This study employed a mixed-methods approach to answer the following research questions regarding urban superintendents and the academic achievement for African-American males: What…
Tatum, Alfred W.; Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.
Advancing the literacy development of African American males in contexts that are characteristically urban has been a challenging task for educators across the P-12 spectrum. Frames that have been traditionally used to improve the reading achievement of African American males have not reversed trends in reading achievement that find many of these…
The purpose of this study was to examine the factors that African American males perceived as influencing their retention in higher education. The purpose was also to discover African American males' perceptions of their freshman year experiences and how the university's initiatives influenced their decision to return their sophomore year.…
Baber, Lorenzo DuBois
The lack of postsecondary success for African American males has garnered significant attention from academic scholars and public policy leaders. While this scholarship provides a strong portrait on issues related to African American males, there are still significant gaps to be addressed. Most notably, current research tends to focus on students…
Jenkins, Shantelle K.
Many studies involving African American male students have focused on achievement gaps and student retention models of those attending four-year institutions. However, there are limited investigations of African American male students at the community college and very few that focus on faculty perceptions. This study employed a mixed Delphi…
Patterson, Randall B.
The previous decade has seen the creation of African American Male Initiative programs at colleges and universities across the United States. These programs were created in response to the low retention and graduation rates of African American males on these campuses. There has been little research, however, to discover best practices for these…
Williams, Alaric; Justice, Madeline
The purpose of this study was to discern the attitudes of African American undergraduate male students regarding counseling in four Texas universities. In addition to the attitudes, the reasons why African American males do not choose to seek counseling served as a secondary purpose. The study also examined the comparison of attitudes between…
Dandridge, Janae' K.
This study examines the perspective of public secondary education through the lived experiences and voices of 10 African American male students. The study was qualitative in nature and utilized an action research case study design. The researcher conducted semi structured interviews with a randomly selected group of African American male students…
Smith, Marisha R.
The purpose of this study was to identify contributing factors for academic success among African American male student athletes from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Life narrative analysis was used in this qualitative study. The researcher conducted in-depth individual interviews with 7 African American males who attended college on athletic…
Smothers, Aneil Chrisfor
The focus of this research is in the area of African American male superintendents and their leadership in diverse settings. The research approach adopted in this dissertation used semi-structured interviews with five African American male superintendents that consisted of three main issues: (1) personal; (2) leadership quality/effectiveness and…
Georgia Univ. System, Atlanta. Board of Regents.
In 2000, the University System of Georgia (USG) verified that USG institutions enrolled a low percentage of African American males in comparison with the percentage of African American males in the state's population. In 2001, the USG developed a special funding initiative to conduct a study of barriers to the participation of African American…
Lyles, Lolita Laree
A qualitative grounded theory approach is utilized to study the academic and career trajectories of twenty African American male collegiate students living in San Bernardino, California. There is limited research that explores the positive educational experiences of young adult African American males. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to…
Ellis, Kimberly Carlotta
This study aimed to learn what factors influenced the college choice decision-making process of African American male club basketball players in the community college. To understand how the participants determined their educational path, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 21 African American male students who were enrolled in at least six…
Richardson, Joseph B., Jr.
This article examines the role of the African American uncle as a vital yet overlooked form of social support and social capital in the lives of adolescent African American male sons living in single-female-headed households. Research rarely examines the affective roles and functions of men in Black families; moreover, poor urban Black male youth…
Lewis, Linwood J; Kertzner, Robert M
This paper examined five challenges to clear understanding of African American male sexualities: incorrect assumptions of African American homogeneity; an underemphasis on developmental change, the contexts and the meanings of sexual behaviors; and a lack of compelling theoretical grounding for African American sexualities. Critical elements for effective theorizing and research about African American sexualities (i.e. multiple levels of analysis, examination of phenomenological meaning of sexuality, measurement of dynamic/developmental change) were outlined and candidate theories within sexual science (social exchange theories, symbolic interactionism, sexual scripting theory) were analyzed in light of these elements. It is suggested that a re-orientation of sex research about African American men using these elements will result in improved understanding of African American sexualities in multiple contexts.
Mukku, Venkata K; Benson, Timothy G; Alam, Farzana; Richie, William D; Bailey, Rahn K
Incarceration affects the lives of many African American men and often leads to poverty, ill health, violence, and a decreased quality of life. There has been an unprecedented increase in incarceration among African American males since 1970. In 2009, the incarceration rate among black males was 6.7 times that of white males and 2.6 times of Hispanic males. Substance abuse in African American males leads to higher mortality rates, high rates of alcohol-related problems, more likely to be victims of crimes, and HIV/AIDS. African Americans comprised only 14% of the U.S. population but comprised 38% of the jail population. The cost of incarcerating persons involved in substance related crimes has increased considerably over the past two decades in the U.S. A reduction in the incarceration rate for non-violent offences would save an estimated $17 billion per year. Substance use disorder makes the individual more prone to polysubstance use and leads to impulse control problems, selling drugs, and other crimes. The high rate of incarceration in U.S. may adversely affect health care, the economy of the country, and will become a burden on society. Implementation of good mental health care, treatment of addiction during and after incarceration will help to decrease the chances of reoffending. Therapeutic community programs with prison-based and specialized treatment facilities, cognitive behavioral therapy treatment for 91-180 days, and 12-step orientation with staff specialized in substance abuse can be helpful. It is essential for health care professionals to increase public awareness of substance abuse and find ways to decrease the high rates of incarceration.
Mukku, Venkata K.; Benson, Timothy G.; Alam, Farzana; Richie, William D.; Bailey, Rahn K.
Incarceration affects the lives of many African American men and often leads to poverty, ill health, violence, and a decreased quality of life. There has been an unprecedented increase in incarceration among African American males since 1970. In 2009, the incarceration rate among black males was 6.7 times that of white males and 2.6 times of Hispanic males. Substance abuse in African American males leads to higher mortality rates, high rates of alcohol-related problems, more likely to be victims of crimes, and HIV/AIDS. African Americans comprised only 14% of the U.S. population but comprised 38% of the jail population. The cost of incarcerating persons involved in substance related crimes has increased considerably over the past two decades in the U.S. A reduction in the incarceration rate for non-violent offences would save an estimated $17 billion per year. Substance use disorder makes the individual more prone to polysubstance use and leads to impulse control problems, selling drugs, and other crimes. The high rate of incarceration in U.S. may adversely affect health care, the economy of the country, and will become a burden on society. Implementation of good mental health care, treatment of addiction during and after incarceration will help to decrease the chances of reoffending. Therapeutic community programs with prison-based and specialized treatment facilities, cognitive behavioral therapy treatment for 91–180 days, and 12-step orientation with staff specialized in substance abuse can be helpful. It is essential for health care professionals to increase public awareness of substance abuse and find ways to decrease the high rates of incarceration. PMID:23162480
Holliday, Rhonda Conerly; Braithwaite, Ronald L.; Yancey, Elleen; Akintobi, Tabia; Stevens-Watkins, Danielle; Smith, Selina; Powell, C. Lamonte
Substance use correlates of depressive symptoms among incarcerated adult male African American substance users were examined in the current study. Frequency of drug use was assessed with 12 items specific to an individual’s substance use. The Patient Depression Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to assess symptoms of depression. Approximately 90% of the sample displayed symptoms of depression ranging from minimal to severe. Regression models revealed that three substance use variables demonstrated a significant predictor of depression, including alcohol (β = .16, p= .03), hallucinogens (β = − .17, p =.021), and ecstasy (β = − .14, p= .05). The study findings indicate a need to consider the role of specific substances with regard to symptoms of depression. The results are discussed in the context of transition planning for jail inmates. PMID:27133518
Green, Calvin Earl
The purpose of this study was to investigate achievement factors of African American males on a college campus in the state of Texas, primarily a private 4-year college that serves a predominantly African American student population. The researcher used a case study approach to determine factors that affect the persistence of these college-aged…
This qualitative phenomenological study examined the lived experiences of persisting as described by ten African American men in persisting in a community college program. The primary research question was: "How do African American males describe their lived experiences of persisting in community college health and public programs?" African…
Davis-Kendrick, Kaetrena D.
A recent American Library Association (ALA) report has shown that less than 1% of credentialed librarians are African American males. This article discusses possible reasons for this dearth; and, in an effort to inform future LIS recruiting and marketing campaigns, the included study attempted to discover which factors lead African American males…
Cooper, Terri I.
The academic achievement gap that exists between African American students and their Caucasian peers is a challenging national concern for which an absolute solution has been elusive. Specifically, the African American male over-represents failure in most academic categories. Policy makers and educators acknowledge that this represents a national…
Wallace, Jerry L.
This qualitative phenomenological research study used narrative inquiry to explore the lived experiences of African American male community college instructors using interviews, classroom observations, and personal testimonies conducted at a Southeast Texas community college. Brown (2009) previously conducted a study on African American male…
Johnson, Jeffery M.; Watson, Betty Collier, Ed.
Stereotypes of the African American male in the popular media have imprinted a harsh and unflattering image in the public consciousness that has negatively affected the self-image of African Americans. Additionally, those stereotypes affect the decision making of employers, police officers, teachers, and other authority figures, resulting in a…
Bland, Anthony D.
African American male students at an Arkansas College inspired this investigation of their life experiences and the affects of literacy enablers and obstacles African American males face in an Arkansas College. The selection process for participants incorporated convenient sampling of African American male students at an Arkansas College. The…
Johnson, Diane Wynn
The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics (2010) expects new industries to generate approximately 2.7 million jobs in science and technology by the year 2018, and there is concern as to whether there will be enough trained individuals to fill these positions. A tremendous resource remains untapped, African American students, especially African American males (National Science Foundation, 2009). Historically, African American males have been omitted from the so called science pipeline. Fewer African American males pursue a science discipline due, in part; to limiting factors they experience in school and at home (Ogbu, 2004). This is a case study of African American males who are enrolled in advanced science courses at a predominantly African American (84%) urban high school. Guided by expectancy-value theory (EVT) of achievement related results (Eccles, 2009; Eccles et al., 1983), twelve African American male students in two advanced science courses were observed in their science classrooms weekly, participated in an in-depth interview, developed a presentation to share with students enrolled in a tenth grade science course, responded to an open-ended identity questionnaire, and were surveyed about their perceptions of school. Additionally, the students' teachers were interviewed, and seven of the students' parents. The interview data analyses highlighted the important role of supportive parents (key socializers) who had high expectations for their sons and who pushed them academically. The students clearly attributed their enrollment in advanced science courses to their high regard for their science teachers, which included positive relationships, hands-on learning in class, and an inviting and encouraging learning environment. Additionally, other family members and coaches played important roles in these young men's lives. Students' PowerPoint(c) presentations to younger high school students on why they should take advanced science courses highlighted these
Chacko, Satish Jacob; Pauwaa, Sunil; Barengolts, Elena; Ciubotaru, Irina; Kansal, Mayank M
Vitamin D deficiency is common among African Americans in the United States and is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. In this study, prediabetic African American males who were found to be vitamin D-deficient were randomized to vitamin D supplementation and assessed for changes in left atrial (LA) volume. Prediabetic African American males who were vitamin D-deficient (25(OH)D: 5.0-29 ng/mL) were randomized to high-dose ergocalciferol or placebo. Echocardiography was performed at baseline and at 1 year. Ejection fraction (EF), septal and posterior wall thickness, LA area, LA length, LA volume, E, A, septal and lateral e' and a', deceleration time, and isovolumetric relaxation time were collected. Eighty-one of 158 (51%) subjects received vitamin D2 . Baseline characteristics were similar among both groups. In the placebo group, left atrial volume significantly increased on follow-up (LA volume increased 6.3 mL, P = 0.0025). Compared with placebo group, the treatment group with ergocalciferol had attenuated increases in left atrial volume (LA volume increased 2.6 mL, P = 0.29). Changes in left atrial volume persisted when indexed to body surface area. There was no significant difference in other diastolic parameters and blood pressure between groups. In conclusion, vitamin D-deficient prediabetic African American males who were treated with high-dose vitamin D2 were found to have attenuated increases in left atrial volume compared with controls over 12-month follow-up.
Stinson, David W.
This article shows how equity research in mathematics education can be decentered by reporting the "voices" of mathematically successful African American male students as they recount their experiences with school mathematics, illustrating, in essence, how they negotiated the White male math myth. Using post-structural theory, the…
Bryan, Nathaniel; Browder, Jamison K.
As of 2012, data indicate that only one percent of public school teachers are African American males. Numerous reports urge decision makers and higher education professionals to aggressively recruit and retain African American males as teachers in an effort to improve the academic outcomes of African American children in our educational system…
Mosby, John R.
For many African American college students, the challenges to achieve academic success are overwhelming. The disproportionate number of African American male students enrolled in the community college system is of substantial concern because community colleges have not traditionally been successful in producing African American male graduates and…
Halasa, Katrina Bassam
The major purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the past in order to understand the complex phenomenon of students engaging in science (Newman, Ridenour, Newman, & DeMarco, 2003) specifically through the oral histories of six self-identified African American males enrolled in a high school Advanced Placement Biology class and the oral histories about events that followed during their post high school experiences. To elucidate an understanding of this phenomenon, this research explored the ecology of African American males' descriptions of their school science, their peer school science community, their lived experiences during and after graduation, and their meso-community (Bronfenbrenner, 1979). Many minority and low-income students are less likely to enroll in rigorous courses during high school (Education Trust, 2006). This study is of utmost importance because capturing the informants' oral histories may improve rigorous science education. Many African American male students are attending urban schools with an ever growing achievement gap among their White counterparts (Norman, Ault, Bentz, & Meskimen, 2001); therefore, they are disengaging in science. As a result, African American males are underrepresented in both science careers and achievements in science (Atwater, 2000; National Science Foundation, 1994). The six oral histories highlighted the ecological factors that affected African American males regarding (1) the impact of their relationship with their mothers, (2) the understanding of personal responsibility, (3) the notion of a scientist, (4) the issue of gender being more of an obstacle than race, (5) the understanding that education is valuable, (6) the interactions and influence of relationships with others on their decisions, (7) the development of integrity through the participation in sports, (8) the ecological neighborhood environment influences an image, (9) the enrollment of Advanced Placement Biology course helped the transition
Hanson, Sandra L.; Johnson, Elizabeth Palmer
Data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS) for the years 1988 to 1992 are used to explore the science experiences of young African-American women during the high school years. The comparison groups we use in trying to understand these experiences involve White women (for a race contrast) and African-American men (for a gender contrast). Within the context of a critical feminist perspective, it is argued that gender is constructed in a different way in White and African-American communities. Instead of expecting a disadvantage for young African-American women because of their gender and minority statuses, it is suggested that unique gender ideologies and work-family arrangements in the African-American community give these young women the resources and agency that allow them to compete with their White female counterparts and their African-American male counterparts in the science domain. Results from our analyses of the NELS data confirm these expectations. We find that on a majority of science measures, African-American women do as well as - and sometimes better than - White women and African-American men. For example, there are no differences between African-American women and men on attitudes toward science. And when compared with White women, African-American women tend to have more positive attitudes. When disadvantages appear for these young African-American women, they are more likely to be race effects then gender effects. The minimal gender effects in the science experiences of young African-Americans is in contrast to the more frequent male advantage in the White sample. A careful examination of family and individual resources shows that African-American families compensate for disadvantages on some resources (e.g., family socioeconomic status) by providing young women with an excess of other resources (e.g., unique gender ideologies, work expectations, and maternal expectations and involvement). And, unlike White parents, they sometimes
Nicks, Myrick Lamon
African American students make up 17% of the public school population nationwide. Ironically, 41% percent of students in special education are African American (Kunjufu, 2005). The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of teacher demographics on the overrepresentation of African American males in special education in a coastal school…
Wilson, Kimi Leemar
National data continues to show an underrepresentation of African American males pursuing science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) majors, careers and professions in the United States. Whites and Asian Americans are continuously positioned as the face of STEM education and participation. And while research has provided ways to support mathematics and science learning for African American males, there still remains a gap in understanding how their formed mathematics-science identities in K-12 public schooling influences STEM participation. The research undertaken in this study explores this gap, and uses an integrative identity framework to understand mathematics-science identity development which goes beyond personal identity, and explores the relational, collective and material components of identity. Specifically, this research seeks to answer the following research questions: What are the shared lived experiences that exist between a group of African American male students developing a mathematics-science identity, and how these shared lived experiences shape their mathematics-science identity development? Therefore, by analyzing African American males lived experiences employing an integrative identity framework fosters a greater understanding of how mathematics-science identity is formed in K-12 public schools, which impacts STEM education and participation. The high school aged youth featured in this study consist of four African American males, who live in a moderate size city in California. Data for this study consists of observations, phenomenological interviews, and policy document analysis that took place over six months. Data has been analyzed to describe and interpret the young men's mathematics and science experiences, as revealed in their K-12 public school education. This inquiry sought to make meaning of how African American males experience mathematics and science teaching and learning within K-12 public schooling and how these
Greif, Geoffrey L
Friendships can lead to longer and healthier lives. Yet little is known about how older men, particularly African American men, define and carry out their friendships with other men. This article presents the findings from qualitative interviews with 23 African American and 23 White older men who were part of a larger study. The subjects were asked whether friendships are important; if they have enough male friends; how they define, carry out, and maintain their friendships; and the nature of their fathers' friendships. Comparisons are drawn between the African American and White men. Implications for social work practice are included.
Johnson, Ryan A.
The purpose of this study was to explore the academic experiences of highly successful African-American male graduates of small, private liberal arts colleges using a qualitative approach. Fourteen highly successful alumni from selective, private colleges were purposefully selected for the study, including seven African-American males and seven…
The purpose of this study is to examine an Africentric rite of passage program's impact on African-American male high school students. It is intended to determine whether a rite of passage program will affect attendance, discipline and achievement. The study also investigates the development of a school-based Africentric program as well as its…
Byrd, Goldie S; Edwards, Christopher L; Kelkar, Vinaya A; Phillips, Ruth G; Byrd, Jennifer R; Pim-Pong, Dora Som; Starks, Takiyah D; Taylor, Ashleigh L; Mckinley, Raechel E; Li, Yi-Ju; Pericak-Vance, Margaret
The health and well-being of all individuals, independent of race, ethnicity, or gender, is a significant public health concern. Despite many improvements in the status of minority health, African American males continue to have the highest age-adjusted mortality rate of any race-sex group in the United States. Such disparities are accounted for by deaths from a number of diseases such as diabetes, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), cancer, and cardiovascular disease, as well as by many historical and present social and cultural constructs that present as obstacles to better health outcomes. Distrust of the medical community, inadequate education, low socioeconomic status, social deprivation, and underutilized primary health care services all contribute to disproportionate health and health care outcomes among African Americans compared to their Caucasian counterparts. Results of clinical research on diseases that disproportionately affect African American males are often limited in their reliability due to common sampling errors existing in the majority of biomedical research studies and clinical trials. There are many reasons for underrepresentation of African American males in clinical trials, including their common recollection and interpretation of relevant historical of biomedical events where minorities were abused or exposed to racial discrimination or racist provocation. In addition, African American males continue to be less educated and more disenfranchised from the majority in society than Caucasian males and females and their African American female counterparts. As such, understanding their perceptions, even in early developmental years, about health and obstacles to involvement in research is important. In an effort to understand perspectives about their level of participation, motivation for participation, impact of education, and engagement in research, this study was designed to explore factors that impact their willingness to participate. Our
DiSalvo, Elizabeth Betsy
The implementation of a learning environment for young African American males, called the Glitch Game Testers, was launched in 2009. The development of this program was based on formative work that looked at the contrasting use of digital games between young African American males and individuals who chose to become computer science majors. Through analysis of cultural values and digital game play practices, the program was designed to intertwine authentic game development practices and computer science learning. The resulting program employed 25 African American male high school students to test pre-release digital games full-time in the summer and part-time in the school year, with an hour of each day dedicated to learning introductory computer science. Outcomes for persisting in computer science education are remarkable; of the 16 participants who had graduated from high school as of 2012, 12 have gone on to school in computing-related majors. These outcomes, and the participants' enthusiasm for engaging in computing, are in sharp contrast to the crisis in African American male education and learning motivation. The research presented in this dissertation discusses the formative research that shaped the design of Glitch, the evaluation of the implementation of Glitch, and a theoretical investigation of the way in which participants navigated conflicting motivations in learning environments.
Maryland State Department of Education, 2007
In 1993, the Governor's Commission on Black Males, chaired by then Delegate Elijah E. Cummings, issued a report that studied the conditions of African-American males in Maryland as they related to employment, health conditions, criminal justice, and education. The Commission provided a "snapshot of the plight of the black males in…
Reboussin, Beth A; Green, Kerry M; Milam, Adam J; Furr-Holden, C Debra M; Ialongo, Nicholas S
African American male high school students have the highest rates of marijuana use among all racial, ethnic, and gender groups, yet there is limited research examining contextual factors salient to the African American community. The purpose of this study was to examine how neighborhood environment measured in 8th grade is related to longitudinal transitions in marijuana use during high school (9th to 12th grades) in a sample of urban African Americans. Four hundred and fifty-two African American children were interviewed annually beginning in 1st grade as part of a longitudinal field study in Baltimore city. Latent transition analysis indicated early in high school posed the greatest risk for initiation and progression of marijuana use. Community violence exposure was associated with an increased likelihood of transitioning from no marijuana use to infrequent use (adjusted odds ratios (AOR) = 2.40, p < 0.001). Higher perceived neighborhood disorder (AOR = 3.20, p = 0.004), drug activity and sales in the neighborhood (AOR = 2.28, p = 0.028), and community violence exposure (AOR = 4.54, p < 0.001) were associated with an increased risk of transitioning from no use to frequent/problematic marijuana use. There was evidence for partial mediation of these associations by perceptions of harm and depressed mood. Drug activity and sales was associated with progression from infrequent to frequent and problematic use (AOR = 2.87, p = 0.029). African American youth living in urban environments with exposure to drug activity, violence, and neighborhood disorder are at increased risk for both initiation and progression to more frequent and problematic marijuana use during high school. These findings highlight the need to develop interventions for African American youth that are mindful of the impact of the additional stressors of living in a high-risk urban environment during a critical developmental transition period. Reducing exposure
Brown, Anthony L.
This article explores the theoretical implications around positioning the Black male teacher as the central agent of social change for Black male students. In addressing such concerns, my intention is not to discourage efforts to recruit and retain more African American men as teachers, but to trouble the commonsense assumptions embedded in such…
Ornelas, India J; Amell, Jim; Tran, Anh N; Royster, Michael; Armstrong-Brown, Janelle; Eng, Eugenia
In this study we used a participatory qualitative research approach--photovoice--to collect information about African American men's perceptions of the factors that influenced their own health and the health of their communities. Photovoice was conducted as part of the "Men as Navigators (MAN) for Health" project, an evaluation of a male lay health advisor (LHA) intervention in central North Carolina. Twelve African American men living in both urban and rural communities took photographs and discussed the photos in six photo discussion sessions. Analysis involved identifying recurring themes from the photos and transcriptions of photo discussions. The results suggest that race and racism, male gender socialization, and social networks and social capital all have important influences on African American men's health. The implications for further research and public health practice are discussed.
Farmer, Errick D.; Hope, Warren C.
African American males face major challenges in retention and graduation from institutions of higher education. The 6-year graduation rate for African American males at 4-year public institutions and private nonprofit colleges is less than 40%. This figure suggests that persistence toward degree attainment is a problem. The purpose of this study…
In this study, the researcher intended to provide insights into the lives of African-American male students who are striving to become better students. The researcher also attempted to answer the following question: How can African-American males learn to be more successful not only in school but in their lives in general? The mixed-methods…
The ongoing research concerning African American males enrolled in teacher education programs is essential for a number of reasons. Research specifically addressing preservice teaching, teacher education, and the African American male student is needed to promote the well-being of any school of education. According to McCray, Sindelar, Kilgore,…
Anderson, Kenneth A.; Sadler, Camelia I.
Longitudinal research on reading curricula and skills that predict future reading achievement for African American males in special education is quite limited. Using a national sample over a five-year period, this study highlights reading skills most associated with later reading achievement for African American males in special education. For…
Alarming statistics reveal that African American male students are encountering long-standing challenges in K-12 mathematics. However, few studies have explored the phenomena associated with African American males and K-12 mathematics education, particularly at the middle school level in the context of an Algebra 1 course of study. The purpose of…
Frazier, Nicole Denise
The reading achievement of African American males might be impacted by a host of variables. This study was undertaken to determine if there was a difference in the culturally responsive characteristics present in the learning environment of a middle school and the reading achievement of middle school African American males. The purpose of this…
Bryant, Keneshia; Haynes, Tiffany; Greer-Williams, Nancy; Hartwig, Mary S
Among African-Americans, the faith community has a long history of providing support to its members. Because African-American men tend to delay and decline traditional depression treatment, the faith community may be an effective source of support. The aim of this study was to determine how a rural African-American faith community describes and perceives experiences of depression among African-American males. A convenience sample of 24 men and women participated in focus groups and interview. Four themes were identified: defining depression, etiology of depression, denial of depression, and effect of masculine roles on depression experience.
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine how the construct of mentoring by African American males can support the academic development of African American male students. Since African American male students perform significantly lower in academic subjects than their counterparts of other ethnicities, there is an exigent need for change in this area. Built upon the conceptual framework of communal interactions and identity, the inquiry questioned the experiences of mentors for African American male secondary students, and their perceptions of the influence of a mentoring relationship when the mentor and mentee are of similar backgrounds. Participants in this study were 7 African American males who had mentored or were currently mentoring African American male students. Data, obtained through semi structured interviews and focus group interviews, were coded for themes that reflected the experiences of mentors in mentoring African American males. Mentors in this study reported that students with whom they share similar backgrounds and experiences were better able to relate to them than those who had dissimilar backgrounds and experiences. In addition, mentors reported their mentees were more likely to envision themselves in professional areas beyond their perceived cultural norm when they routinely interact with successful African American males from various fields; thus, it was important for mentors to provide opportunities for students to interact with professionals. Contributions to social change will emerge as African American male mentors understand and employ their roles as a fundamental component in the academic development of African American male secondary students and thus empower this population of students to achieve academic success and to serve in a capacity that nurtures their immediate surroundings.
Smith, Megan L.; Roysircar, Gargi
Interviews with 5 African American male past presidents of the Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development provided insights into minority leadership. Among observed themes, a communal worldview permeated actions, historical events affected development, personal traits and external resources promoted resilience, and skin color…
Alexander, Jamie Dowdy
Tendency to foreclose on careers, vocational exploration, and career commitment were examined in relationship to racial-ethnic socialization, parental responsiveness, and career-related verbal encouragement and emotional support among 228 African American male and female college athletes and non-athletes. A number of tests were conducted to test…
Campbell-Whatley, Gloria D.; Algozzine, Bob; Obiakor, Festus
Discusses the impact that mentoring programs can have on the academic achievement and social development of young African American males. Provides steps for starting a mentoring program, examines the mentor's role, offers suggestions for mentor-student interactions, and offers some cautionary considerations, such as legal ramifications and school…
Maryland State Department of Education, 2006
On June 9, 2003, the Task Force on the Education of Maryland's African-American Males was convened by the Maryland K-16 Leadership Council (chaired by the University System of Maryland Chancellor William E. Kirwan, former Maryland Acting Secretary of Higher Education John A. Sabatini, Jr., and Maryland State Superintendent of Schools Nancy S.…
McWaine, Wendell Lamar, II
The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a relationship between registration status and the persistence, end-of-semester GPA, and course success for African American males in a suburban community college system. This study also sought to determine if there was a difference between the persistence, end-of-semester GPA, and course…
Moon, Natasha S.; Singh, Anneliese A.
The authors use a phenomenological research tradition grounded in CRT tenets to describe the daily lived experiences that 12 male African American youth had in relation to the achievement gap. Researchers collected individual semi-structured interviews and focus group data related to the study phenomenon. There were five themes identified in…
Patton, Jamie S.
As the governing board is calling for increased persistence and graduation rates, Peaks University (a pseudonym) in the southwestern United States will need to incorporate strategies to improve the perseverance to graduation of specific student groups including African American males. In a state where "Hispanics constitute 25 percent and…
Singer, John N.
This study utilized critical race theory (CRT) as an epistemological framework and theoretical tool for understanding African American male student-athletes' perceptions of racism and the potential impact racism might have on their educational experiences and overall development. This qualitative case study included a single focus group and…
Landeau, Reginald H., Jr.
The study evaluates the relationship between middle school principals' leadership characteristics and academic achievement of African American male students in grades 6, 7, and 8 in a large urban school district. Academic achievement is typically defined as the cognitive knowledge, skills, and abilities that are measured by achievement tests. The…
Ballard, Harlan E.; Cintron, Rosa
While access to higher education for racial and ethnic minorities improved over the last half of the 20th century, the percentage of these populations obtaining terminal degrees does not approach their respective percentage of society at large. By interviewing five African American males who completed a doctoral program at a Majority White…
African American male teachers represent a disproportionately low number of educators in the American public school system. This lack of representation has implications for understanding, interacting with and educating the growing population of students of African descent in public schools. In addition, all students benefit from experiencing…
Yeldell, Karyn Mitchell
This research study was focused on teacher dispositions and practices that create positive teacher-student relationships with African-American elementary male students. Robert Pianta's work on relationships between teachers and students, over the past decade, provided a conceptual framework for this specific study. A review of the literature…
Davies Gomez, Lisa
Algebra is the gatekeeper of access to higher-level math and science courses, higher education and future earning opportunities. Unequal numbers of African-American males drop out of Algebra and mathematics courses and underperform on tests of mathematical competency and are thus denied both essential skills and a particularly important pathway to…
Moyo, Tawonga Timothy
The academic achievement gap persists in spite of much concern and talk in both the educational and political arenas. Moreover, literature on the education of African American male students at the college level is scarce; the existing literature is on the achievement gap issue in general. In this phenomenological study, the academic achievement…
The roles of urban superintendents are crucial to improving the educational outlook for the neediest students, specifically the African-American males. The roles and responsibilities of the urban school superintendent today are more numerous, complex, and demanding than in the past. The expectations of today's urban superintendents are to be…
Northcutt, Kellen Jamil
The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore and understand perceptions of African American male football athletes at Division I institutions that also played professional football, regarding their collegiate experiences and transition from athletics to post-playing careers. The study examined issues of race and social…
Wakefield, William D; Hudley, Cynthia
This study investigated male African American adolescents' thinking about responses to racial discrimination. Participants (N=67) were recruited from an urban public high school in southern California. Students completed paper and pencil measures assessing their ethnic identity status and their preferred responses to racial discrimination. African American male adolescents whose scores fell into the unexamined ethnic identity or exploration ethnic identity range more strongly endorsed passive responses than individuals whose scores fell into the achieved ethnic identity range. However, a variety of situational factors moderated participants' responses, including the status of the perpetrator of discrimination and the circumstances in which the discrimination occurred. Results were discussed in terms of the social cognitive variables of self-presentation and perceptions of discrimination.
Mason, John Leonard, Jr.
African American males fail to graduate from colleges and universities as compared to any other demographic. The impact of this non-completion failure continues to touch the African American family structure, community stability, economic reduction at all levels, and an increasing situational hopelessness. The literature surrounding the struggles…
Johnson, C. Douglas; Eby, Lillian T.
The objectives of the present study were to identify the factors related to career success of college educated, African American men and to explore the relative importance of human capital, social capital, individual differences, and demographic attributes in predicting career success. Using a sample of 247 African American males, we found some…
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of racial identity/consciousness development on the academic achievement of African American male college freshmen. In the late 1900s Black identity models were developed to help African Americans grasp hold of who they were, as they lived in the residues of the peculiar institution of slavery.…
A quantitative, correlational design was utilized in this study to examine the relationship between academic self-efficacy, racial identity, and the academic success of first-generation African American male college students at Predominantly White Institutions of higher education. The study comprised 89 first-generation African American male…
Ford, David Julius, Jr.
Studies have shown that involvement in a student organization can improve the academic and psychosocial outcomes of African American male students (Harper, 2006b; Robertson & Mason, 2008; Williams & Justice, 2010). Further, Harper, Byars, and Jelke (2005) stated that African American fraternities and sororities (i.e., Black Greek-letter…
Strayhorn, Terrell L.
This study regressed undergraduate grades on background traits, pre-college variables, and measures of sociocultural capital for nationally representative samples of African American and Latino male undergraduates using data from the NCES's National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS:88/00). Results suggest that African American and Latino males…
Scott, Sonya V.; Rodriguez, Louie F.
This study draws from a larger phenomenological study on African American academic persistence and career aspirations in education. This article highlights three African American males' experiences with concentrated forms of stereotype threat in teacher education. Their voices revealed dimensions of how power and privilege operate in teacher…
This study investigated the relationship between an after-school tutorial program for African American high school students at a Title I school and scores on the science portion of the High School Graduation Examination (HSGE). Passing the examination was required for graduation. The target high school is 99% African American and the passing rate…
Elliott, Stanley J.
In light of escalating enrollments of African American students on college campuses and continuing calls to increase the numbers of African American male faculty, a considerable amount of research has been conducted over the years to explore the relative status of African American male faculty (Bennett, 2001). It was difficult to find a college or…
Bryant, Jacinta Maria
The issue of the overrepresentation of African Americans in special education is a persistent concern that has negatively impacted African American male students, their families, school districts, and the field of special education. School districts throughout the nation report a higher representation of African American males in special education…
James, Melinda Lloyd
This dissertation examined the part athletics and resiliency played in degree completion of African American males. Specifically, it investigated three at-risk African American males and the dynamics of athletic participation and resiliency in their degree completion. In view of the fact that many African American students begin their higher…
James, LaNora Marcell
The purpose of the qualitative collective case study is to identify the weaknesses in the methods used to recruit highly qualified African American preservice teachers in the Washington, DC metropolitan area. The data collection process consisted of one-on-one, open-ended interview questions with 10 highly qualified African American public school…
Vega, Desireé; Moore, James L., III; Miranda, Antoinette H.
Drawing on a larger study, this qualitative investigation explored the factors that African American and Latino high school students perceived as barriers to positive educational opportunities. Eighteen African American and Latino urban high school students comprised the sample. The findings indicated that perceived barriers to positive…
Bruce, Marino A; Beech, Bettina M; Griffith, Derek M; Thorpe, Roland J
Spirituality and religion have been identified as important determinants of health for adults; however, the impact of faith-oriented factors on health behaviors and outcomes among African American adolescent males has not been well studied. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between religiosity and spirituality and obesity-related behaviors among 12-19 year old African American males (N = 105) in the Jackson Heart KIDS Pilot Study. Key variables of interest are church attendance, prayer, daily spirituality, weight status, attempts to lose weight, nutrition, physical activity, and stress. Daily spirituality is associated with whether an individual attempts to lose weight. The results from logistic regression models suggest that daily spirituality increases the odds that African American male adolescents attempt to lose weight (OR = 1.22, CI: 1.07-1.41) and have a history of diet-focused weight management (OR = 1.13, CI: 1.02-1.26). Future studies are needed to further explore the association between religion, spirituality, and obesity-related behaviors.
McGowan, Brian Lamont
African American men enter postsecondary institutions having been socialized to adopt stereotypical notions of masculinity. These traditional expectations of masculinity play a role in how African American men negotiate relationships with their male counterparts on the campus. African American men cultivate close relationships with other men to…
Gordon, Beverly M.
Background/Context: Today, in the era of the first African American president, approximately one third of all African Americans live in suburban communities, and their children are attending suburban schools. Although most research on the education of African American students, particularly males, focuses on their plight in urban schooling, what…
Spencer, Natalie Faye
The purpose of this research study was to understand the experiences of high achieving African American students and their parents. The experiences of high achieving African American students and their parents have been missing from literature on the academic achievement of African American students. Much of the literature that has been published…
Kogan, Steven M; Yu, Tianyi; Allen, Kimberly A; Pocock, Alexandra M; Brody, Gene H
African American male adolescents' involvement with multiple sexual partners has important implications for public health as well as for their development of ideas regarding masculinity and sexuality. The purpose of this study was to test hypotheses regarding the pathways through which racial discrimination affects African American adolescents' involvement with multiple sexual partners. We hypothesized that racial discrimination would engender psychological distress, which would promote attitudes and peer affiliations conducive to multiple sexual partnerships. The study also examined the protective influence of parenting practices in buffering the influence of contextual stressors. Participants were 221 African American male youth who provided data at ages 16 and 18; their parents provided data on family socioeconomic disadvantages. Of these young men, 18.5% reported having 3 or more sexual partners during the past 3 months. Structural equation models indicated that racial discrimination contributed to sexual activity with multiple partners by inducing psychological distress, which in turn affected attitudes and peer affiliations conducive to multiple partners. The experience of protective parenting, which included racial socialization, closeness and harmony in parent-child relationships, and parental monitoring, buffered the influence of racial discrimination on psychological distress. These findings suggest targets for prevention programming and underscore the importance of efforts to reduce young men's experience with racial discrimination.
Kogan, Steven M.; Yu, Tianyi; Allen, Kimberly A.; Pocock, Alexandra M.; Brody, Gene H.
African American male adolescents’ involvement with multiple sexual partners has important implications for public health as well as for their development of ideas regarding masculinity and sexuality. The purpose of this study was to test hypotheses regarding the pathways through which racial discrimination affects African American adolescents’ involvement with multiple sexual partners. We hypothesized that racial discrimination would engender psychological distress, which would promote attitudes and peer affiliations conducive to multiple sexual partnerships. The study also examined the protective influence of parenting practices in buffering the influence of contextual stressors. Participants were 221 African American male youth who provided data at ages 16 and 18; their parents provided data on family socioeconomic disadvantages. Of these young men, 18.5% reported having 3 or more sexual partners during the past 3 months. Structural equation models indicated that racial discrimination contributed to sexual activity with multiple partners by inducing psychological distress, which in turn affected attitudes and peer affiliations conducive to multiple partners. The experience of protective parenting, which included racial socialization, closeness and harmony in parent-child relationships, and parental monitoring, buffered the influence of racial discrimination on psychological distress. These findings suggest targets for prevention programming and underscore the importance of efforts to reduce young men’s experience with racial discrimination. PMID:25937821
Lease, Suzanne H.
This study assesses factors predictive of the range of possible occupations considered by 166 African American high school students. There are no differences in the number of African American representative occupations (those in which 13.5% or more employees were African American) considered compared to nonrepresentative occupations (those with…
Hill, Robert B.
Young black males account for almost half of all unwed fathers. The average black adolescent unwed father is 17 years old at the birth of his first child, comes from an unusually large family, began having sex at an earlier age than other black men, and has had slightly positive educational and employment experiences. Most also exhibit a high…
Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y; Wu, Chun Yi
African American women are at greater risk for complications related to high blood pressure. This study examined relationships between high blood pressure, pulse pressure, body mass index, family adaptability, family cohesion and social support among 146 Urban African American women. Significant relationships were found between family adaptability and systolic blood pressure (p = .03) and between adaptability and pulse pressure (p ≤ .01). Based on study results, practitioners should routinely assess family functioning, specifically family adaptability, in African American women who are at risk for high blood pressure or diagnosed with high blood pressure to minimize complications associated with hypertension.
Parson, Gail C.; Kritsonis, William Allan
The purpose of this article is to assess six habits of academic achievement by African American male students from households of poverty whom been successful in completing a 5-A high school program of study. Despite the wealth of research that indicates a great disparity among racial and gender groups with regard to standardized assessment,…
Ashcraft, Pamela F
The purpose of this phenomenological inquiry was to construct an explanatory model of illness in inner-city African-American adolescent males using Kleinman's Explanatory Model of Illness as a framework. Thirteen males were enrolled in this study. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were used to explore adolescents' perspectives regarding the nature, cause, prevention and responses to obesity; their perception of self; and meanings they attach to obesity with particular emphasis on existing attitudes, expectations, and values. Data analysis was achieved through a process of inductive content analysis. Findings, future research and clinical implications are discussed.
Gregory, Anne; Weinstein, Rhona S
African Americans are over-represented in school suspensions, yet little is known about the underlying contributing dynamics. Study 1 reviewed a high school's annual discipline data and 442 students referred for defiance. African Americans were over-represented in referrals for defiance and most students received referrals from one or several teachers. This suggests that defiance referrals are specific to the classroom situation. Examining the situational specificity of referrals, Study 2 used repeated measures and multilevel modeling with a sub-sample of 30 African American students. Attendance, grades, and teacher reports showed that students behaved more defiantly and less cooperatively with teachers perceived as having untrustworthy authority. Predictors of African American student trust in teacher authority included teacher caring and high expectations, offering implications for lowering the discipline gap.
Jones, Sheila Kay
Low test scores in science and fewer career choices in science among African American high school students than their White counterparts has resulted in lower interest during high school and an underrepresentation of African Americans in science and engineering fields. Reasons for this underachievement are not known. This qualitative study used a grounded theory methodology to examine what influence parental involvement, ethnic identity, and early mentoring had on the academic achievement in science and career choice in science of African American urban high school 10th grade students. Using semi-structured open-ended questions in individual interviews and focus groups, twenty participants responded to questions about African American urban high school student achievement in science and their career choice in science. The median age of participants was 15 years; 85% had passed either high school biology or physical science. The findings of the study revealed influences and interactions of selected factors on African American urban high school achievement in science. Sensing potential emerged as the overarching theme with six subthemes; A Taste of Knowledge, Sounds I Hear, Aromatic Barriers, What Others See, The Touch of Others, and The Sixth Sense. These themes correlate to the natural senses of the human body. A disconnect between what science is, their own individual learning and success, and what their participation in science could mean for them and the future of the larger society. Insight into appropriate intervention strategies to improve African American urban high school achievement in science was gained.
Cunningham, Michael; Swanson, Dena Phillips; Hayes, Demarquis M
This study examined the role of hypermasculinity as a form of reactive coping among urban African American adolescent males (ages 12-17) and assessed the extent to which hypermasculinity is influenced by youth appraisals of how adults in their school and community perceive them. Two research questions were addressed: (a) Do adolescent males who report negative community and school experiences use hypermasculine attitudes as a coping response? (b) Do the effects of perceived negative school and community experiences persist, if they are present at all? Participants in the study were 241 African American adolescent males who attended public schools in a large southeastern city. Associating youth-reported questionnaires on perceived teacher expectations and perceptions of community challenges from one wave of data on hypermasculine attitudes within the same year and 2 years later, the results indicate that hypermasculinity attitudes stem from negative perceptions in the community and school contexts. Also, hypermasculinity attitudes were associated with these negatively perceived experiences across time. When examined longitudinally, negative experiences in the community had a stronger relation to hypermasculinity than similar experiences at school.
Connell, Judith; Knight, Margaret
Twenty-first century literacy is more than being able to encode for spelling ability, decode for reading comprehension, and calculate for numeric reasoning. It demands the skills to negotiate the world of technology. Health literacy is lower than general literacy, and general literacy is lower among African American males than the overall population. The authors discuss the prospects of incorporating Game Based Learning approaches into strategies for teaching health literacy. Results of a survey administered to youth to determine their level of involvement in video game playing indicate that key elements must be in place to ensure that a game will be played. These include action, strategy, and entertainment. Future investigation will examine the knowledge level of African American adolescent males of the nexus of certain concepts of climate change and health literacy. Climate change has significant implications for human health. This understanding will produce a scientifically based foundation for curricular and instructional decisions that include GBL. Results of this study will be used to design a video game concept and will contribute to the body of knowledge concerning environmental justice and empower individuals to make informed decisions about their own health and those they influence.
Growing evidence suggests that drug and alcohol use are fueling the heterosexual transmission of HIV among African Americans. This study aims to examine the relative contribution of drug and alcohol use of male and female partners to risks of heterosexual transmission of HIV among 535 African American HIV serodiscordant couples (N = 1,070 participants) who participated in an HIV prevention trial. Associations found between use of drugs and alcohol by one or both partners and sexual risk indicators varied by type of substance and whether male or female partner or both partners reported use. The findings suggest multiple ways in which substance use of male and female partners may be contributing to the heterosexual transmission of HIV and other STDs among African Americans and underscore the need for HIV prevention strategies to address dyadic patterns of substance use that lead to sexual risks.
Growing evidence suggests that drug and alcohol use are fueling the heterosexual transmission of HIV among African Americans. This study aims to examine the relative contribution of drug and alcohol use of male and female partners to risks of heterosexual transmission of HIV among 535 African American HIV serodiscordant couples (N = 1,070 participants) who participated in an HIV prevention trial. Associations found between use of drugs and alcohol by one or both partners and sexual risk indicators varied by type of substance and whether male or female partner or both partners reported use. The findings suggest multiple ways in which substance use of male and female partners may be contributing to the heterosexual transmission of HIV and other STDs among African Americans and underscore the need for HIV prevention strategies to address dyadic patterns of substance use that lead to sexual risks. PMID:20499153
Evans, Dauvell K.
The purpose of this study was to apply the College Self-Efficacy Inventory (CSEI) to further analyze the situations surrounding African American males' retention rate. The research that has been conducted has consistently proven that African American males' retention is among the lowest compared to any other males or females of any other…
Walker, Lemanski Chante'
The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe and explore American male elementary teachers' perceptions on factors that contribute to decisions to remain in or exit the teaching field, specifically elementary education. Ten African American male elementary teachers participated in the study. The theory from this study was the…
Parker, DeJuan Dennis
In this twenty-first century there is a disproportionate amount of African American males in special education in the U.S. This is a factor happening day by day affecting the achievement gap between Black and White students, especially males. The purpose of this study is to point out factors that contribute to the overrepresentation of African…
Green, Patrice Tolbert
African Americans have a long and very important history in the engineering fields. With a tradition that includes accomplished scientists such as George Washington Carver, Norman Buknor, and Mark Dean, African Americans have been very important to the development of new products, technology, inventions, and innovations (Gordon, 2008). The…
Ornelas, India J.; Amell, Jim; Tran, Anh N.; Royster, Michael; Armstrong-Brown, Janelle; Eng, Eugenia
In this study we used a participatory qualitative research approach—photovoice—to collect information about African American men’s perceptions of the factors that influenced their own health and the health of their communities. Photovoice was conducted as part of the “Men as Navigators (MAN) for Health” project, an evaluation of a male lay health advisor (LHA) intervention in central North Carolina. Twelve African American men living in both urban and rural communities took photographs and discussed the photos in six photo discussion sessions. Analysis involved identifying recurring themes from the photos and transcriptions of photo discussions. The results suggest that race and racism, male gender socialization, and social networks and social capital all have important influences on African American men’s health. The implications for further research and public health practice are discussed. PMID:19201993
Harper, Gary W; Davidson, Jonathan; Hosek, Sybil G
The current study examined differences between gang-involved and non-gang-involved homeless African American male youth with regard to negative affect, substance use, and antisocial/violent behavior. A total of 69 homeless African American young men were recruited from community agencies and completed structured face-to-face interviews. Overall, gang members reported higher rates of negative mental and physical health outcomes than did non-gang members, with current gang members reporting higher levels of depression and anxiety, greater levels of antisocial and violent behavior, and higher levels of lifetime alcohol and marijuana use. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that greater levels of gang involvement were associated with more frequent lifetime use of alcohol and marijuana and higher levels of participation in violent behaviors. Implications of these findings for interventions with homeless African American male youth and future research directions are discussed.
Smith, Craig A.
Continued research on the first-year experience of African American male students entering institutions of higher learning is necessary and can provide a deeper look at institutional and individual factors that African American male students may encounter, and impact their academic success. Understanding the issues that affect African American…
Wooten, Cynthia Brooks
The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate ways in which six teachers in the intermediate grades at one urban and one rural school enabled their African American male students to be successful in their literacy efforts. It was my assumption that successful teachers of African American males would also be teachers who integrated…
Warren, Lateshia McCord
The purpose of this study was to describe the personal and professional beliefs of teachers who were successful with providing literacy instruction to elementary school African American males in a Title I elementary school. This study examined the literacy practices of teachers and their beliefs about African American males. It also investigated…
Poullard, Colina C.
This study was designed to investigate the perceptions that at-risk African American male students have towards non-minority female teachers and the role they played in their academic success. Participants were low income African American males attending a Southeast Texas University and who were successful in their non-minority female teachers'…
African-American males are disappearing at alarming rates before our eyes through racially driven practices that secure their position in the penal system and special education. Though many scholars in the field of education have highlighted alarming rates of incarceration and overrepresentation in special education for African-American males,…
Blair, Carlos L.
This research study endeavors to examine successful pedagogical practices that may increase the literacy skills of African American male students. This study examines how urban setting teachers utilize specific reading strategies including reading circles, small and individual group tutoring, in an effort to increase African American males'…
Milhausen, Robin R.; Crosby, Richard; Yarber, William L.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Ding, Kele
Objective: To determine differences between African American adolescents on STD/HIV sexual-risk behaviors and precursors to these risk behaviors. Methods: Six hundred sixty-three rural and 3313 nonrural adolescents who completed the 1999 YRBS Survey were selected. Results: Rural females and males were more likely to report ever having coitus and…
Bruce, Marino A; Beech, Bettina M; Edwards, Christopher L; Sims, Mario; Scarinci, Isabel; Whitfield, Keith E; Gilbert, Keon; Crook, Errol D
Obesity is a biological risk factor or comorbidity that has not received much attention from scientists studying hypertension among African American men. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between weight status and high blood pressure among African American men with few economic resources. The authors used surveillance data collected from low-income adults attending community- and faith-based primary care clinics in West Tennessee to estimate pooled and group-specific regression models of high blood pressure. The results from group-specific logistic regression models indicate that the factors associated with hypertension varied considerably by weight status. This study provides a glimpse into the complex relationship between weight status and high blood pressure status among African American men. Additional research is needed to identify mechanisms through which excess weight affects the development and progression of high blood pressure.
Marryshow, Derrick; Hurley, Eric A; Allen, Brenda A; Tyler, Kenneth M; Boykin, A Wade
This study examined Ogbu's widely accepted thesis that African American students reject high academic achievement because they perceive its limited utility in a world where their upward mobility is constrained by racial discrimination. Boykin's psychosocial integrity model contends that Black students value high achievement but that discrepancies between their formative cultural experiences and those imposed in school lead them to reject the modes of achievement available in classrooms. Ninety Black children completed a measure of attitudes toward students who achieve via mainstream or African American cultural values. Participants rejected the mainstream achievers and embraced the African American cultural achievers. Moreover, they expected their teachers to embrace the mainstream achievers and reject those who achieved through high-verve behavior. Results suggest that Boykin's thesis is a needed refinement to Ogbu's ideas. They indicate that Black children may reject not high achievement but some of the mainstream cultural values and behaviors on which success in mainstream classrooms is made contingent.
Aronson, Robert E.; Whitehead, Tony L.; Baber, Willie L.
In this article we describe and analyze the challenges faced by an intervention program that addresses the fatherhood needs of low-income urban African American males. We used life history as the primary research strategy for a qualitative evaluation of a program we refer to as the Healthy Men in Healthy Families Program to better understand the circumstances and trajectory of men’s lives, including how involvement in the program might have benefited them in the pursuit of their fatherhood goals. A model of masculine transformation, developed by Whitehead, was used to interpret changes in manhood/fatherhood attitudes and behaviors that might be associated with the intervention. We combined Whitehead’s model with a social ecology framework to further interpret challenges at intrapersonal, interpersonal, community, and broader societal levels. PMID:12721134
Aronson, Robert E; Whitehead, Tony L; Baber, Willie L
In this article we describe and analyze the challenges faced by an intervention program that addresses the fatherhood needs of low-income urban African American males. We used life history as the primary research strategy for a qualitative evaluation of a program we refer to as the Healthy Men in Healthy Families Program to better understand the circumstances and trajectory of men's lives, including how involvement in the program might have benefited them in the pursuit of their fatherhood goals. A model of masculine transformation, developed by Whitehead, was used to interpret changes in manhood/fatherhood attitudes and behaviors that might be associated with the intervention. We combined Whitehead's model with a social ecology framework to further interpret challenges at intrapersonal, interpersonal, community, and broader societal levels.
Aslam, Ahmed Faraz; Aslam, Ahmad Kamal; Qamar, Muhammad Umair R; Levey, Robert
Primary lymphedema tarda is considered to be a congenital disease with delayed manifestations. We report a case of isolated lymphedema of the left upper extremity in an 88-year-old African-American male. The diagnosis of lymphedema was confirmed by lymphoscintigraphy, and appropriate diagnostic studies were done to rule out other known causes of lymphedema. Lymphoscintigraphic findings were consistent with idiopathic primary lymphedema. During the course of investigations, the patient was found to have adenocarcinoma in situ of the sigmoid colon with no evidence of metastatic spread. Based on the available data, we were unable to establish a causative relationship between colonic carcinoma and lymphedema in our patient. Therefore, this case can best be described as a case of Idiopathic primary lymphedema tarda. We emphasize the use of histopathologic examination in the diagnostic algorithm to rule out underlying malignant process only in patients with radionuclide findings suggestive of secondary lymphedema with no obvious etiology.
Aslam, Ahmed Faraz; Aslam, Ahmad Kamal; Qamar, Muhammad Umair R.; Levey, Robert
Primary lymphedema tarda is considered to be a congenital disease with delayed manifestations. We report a case of isolated lymphedema of the left upper extremity in an 88-year-old African-American male. The diagnosis of lymphedema was confirmed by lymphoscintigraphy, and appropriate diagnostic studies were done to rule out other known causes of lymphedema. Lymphoscintigraphic findings were consistent with idiopathic primary lymphedema. During the course of investigations, the patient was found to have adenocarcinoma in situ of the sigmoid colon with no evidence of metastatic spread. Based on the available data, we were unable to establish a causative relationship between colonic carcinoma and lymphedema in our patient. Therefore, this case can best be described as a case of Idiopathic primary lymphedema tarda. We emphasize the use of histopathologic examination in the diagnostic algorithm to rule out underlying malignant process only in patients with radionuclide findings suggestive of secondary lymphedema with no obvious etiology. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:16080675
Petty, Barrett Wade McCoy
The study examined factors that predicted the completion of programs of study at Arkansas institutions of higher education for African American males. Astin's (1993a) Input-Environment-Output (I-E-O) Model was used as the theoretical foundation. Descriptive analyses and hierarchical logistic regression analyses were performed on the data. The…
Brady, Sonya S.; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.
This study examined whether coping moderated the impact of community violence exposure (CVE) on violent behavior among 285 urban African American and Latino adolescent males assessed annually across 5 years. Composites indicating overall CVE (having knowledge of others' victimization, witnessing violence, direct victimization) and approach to…
Thomas, Duane E.; Coard, Stephanie I.; Stevenson, Howard C.; Bentley, Keisha; Zamel, Pamela
The present study investigated the predictive influence of students' reactive emotional coping and racial socialization experiences on teachers' perceptions of classroom behavior adjustment problems. Participants were 148 African American male youth attending a secondary school in a large northeastern city. Behavioral outcomes included teacher…
Newbold, Anthony J.
An achievement gap exists in mathematics between low-income African American male students and their European American counterparts. Although this problem has been approached using different interventions with minimal results, the impact of homogenous grouping is not well understood in spite of its use. As a result, this study was conducted to…
Bonner, Fred A., II; Lewis, Chance W.; Bowman-Perrott, Lisa; Hill-Jackson, Valerie; James, Marlon
This article focuses on the underrepresentation of African American males in gifted and talented programs, and offers a number of key recommendations to practitioners and researchers who seek viable strategies to circumvent this problem. Beyond the focus on underrepresentation, several additional topics for discussion are excogitated to provide a…
Brown, M. Christopher, II, Ed.; Dancy, T. Elon, II, Ed.; Davis, James Earl, Ed.
This book's predecessor, "Black Sons to Mothers: Compliments, Critiques, and Challenges for Cultural Workers in Education" (Peter Lang, 2000), sparked a decade of meaningful scholarship on the educational experiences and academic outcomes of African American males. "Black Sons to Mothers" proffered seminal contributions to the academic literature…
Rowley, Larry L.; Bowman, Phillip J.
In this post-industrial global society, parental and student role strains may exacerbate social-ecological risks and academic difficulties of African American male students. Therefore, school-based interventions must ensure rigorous preparation, promote successful navigation of social-ecological risks, and mobilize cultural-ecological strengths to…
Mohamed, Roslyn J. F. Billy
With the signing of the No Child Left Behind Act in 2001, much emphasis has been placed on the accountability of schools and school districts to ensure higher academic achievement of all students. The achievement gap remains among African American male students in urban school districts. This purposed quantitative study explored the relationship…
Wilson, Roy T.
This study examined the disconnect between child study teams, teachers, principals and parents in the monitoring of IEP's and effective implementation of interventions needed to move African American males from special education placements to mainstream classes. In addition, stakeholder attitudes, perceptions, opinions, and beliefs were examined…
Myerson, Joel; Green, Leonard; van den Berk-Clark, Carissa; Grucza, Richard A.
Rationale Alcohol dependence is known to be associated with steep discounting of delayed rewards, but its relation to the discounting of delayed losses and probabilistic rewards is unclear. Moreover, patterns of alcohol consumption vary considerably between communities, but previous research has not examined the relation between discounting and alcohol dependence in low-income African Americans. Objectives The goal of the present study was to determine whether low-income, alcohol-dependent African Americans differ from controls in the degree to which they discount delayed rewards, delayed losses, or probabilistic rewards. Methods African American participants, both cases and controls, were recruited from the same low-income neighborhoods, and propensity-score matching was used to further control for demographic differences. Participants performed three tasks that assessed their discounting of hypothetical monetary outcomes: delayed rewards, delayed losses, and probabilistic rewards. Results Alcohol-dependent cases discounted delayed gains, but not delayed losses or probabilistic gains, more steeply than their matched controls. The difference in discounting of delayed gains was localized to the male cases, whose discounting was steeper than either the male controls or the female cases; no gender difference was observed between male and female controls. Conclusions The present results extend findings regarding discounting by substance abusers to a previously unstudied group, low-income African Americans, and suggest that in this group at least, alcohol dependence, particularly in males, may be more a reflection of choosing immediate rewards than of ignoring their delayed negative consequences. PMID:26387518
Pannell, Lynette Martin
The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences of Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) scores between fourth-grade African American male students who were enrolled in single-sex classrooms and their counterparts who were enrolled in coeducational classrooms. The research provided descriptive data concerning one Title I school in rural…
Haywood, Jerry L.
The goal of this study was to examine the experience of African American males who did not achieve academic success in their first year of college at a predominately White institution (PWI) in Southwestern Georgia. This study used a qualitative case study design to investigate the experience held by this target group. The qualitative case study…
Moore, Antionette L.
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how the computer is utilized in the daily lives of seven African American male youth in the southeastern region of the United States. Critical pedagogy was selected as the theoretical framework using Paulo Freire ideas of problem-posing education to promote awareness towards using the computer…
This dissertation examines the relationship of African American male undergraduate students from the context of one academic institution in the southwest border region of the United States. It explores the aspect of a sense of belonging on this particular university campus. The multiple mixed simultaneous study was conducted through the…
Owens, Delila; Lacey, Krim; Rawls, Glinda; Holbert-Quince, JoAnne
The path to upward mobility or economic success for African American men is often filled with obstacles and roadblocks. Many first-generation African American men entering colleges and universities face limited resources and opportunities to aid in their career development and efforts to meet their career objectives. This article explores the…
Griffith, Derek M.; Gunter, Katie; Allen, Julie Ober
Despite the potential health consequences, African American men tend to treat their roles as providers, fathers, spouses, and community members as more important than engaging in health behaviors such as physical activity. We conducted 14 exploratory focus groups with 105 urban, middle-aged African American men from the Midwest to examine factors…
Morgan, Adrienne L.
The history of African Americans seeking medical education in the United States is rooted in a legacy of racial segregation, cultural constructs, and legal doctrine that differs from other ethnic and racial groups. The disturbing results of this legacy are that while African Americans account for 12.9% of the U.S. population, they only account for…
Kogan, Steven M.; Yu, Tianyi; Allen, Kimberly A.; Brody, Gene H.
Racial discrimination is a pervasive stressor that can undermine mental health among African American youth and young adults. Several studies identify links between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms; however, this research base does not focus on male African American youth who experience significant racism-related stress during the transition to young adulthood. Moreover, few prospective studies consider significant confounding variables that affect exposure to and perception of discriminatory treatment. In response to this need, we examined the effect of exposure to racial discrimination from ages 16–18 on depressive symptoms among male African Americans at age 20. Racial self-concept, one’s sense of positivity about one’s race, was examined as a mediator and self-control as a moderator. Hypotheses were tested with 222 participants, age 16 at baseline and age 20 at the endpoint. Participants provided self-report data at 5 time points. Exposure to racial discrimination from ages 16–18 predicted depressive symptoms at age 20, net of confounding influences. Racial self-concept mediated this effect. Self-control moderated the influence of discrimination on racial self-concept. This study underscores the salience of racial discrimination in the development of depressive symptoms among African American male youth and the clinical utility of interventions targeting racial pride and self-control. PMID:25344920
Smith, Suzanne B.
National concern about the reading proficiency of adolescents and the alarming statistics on the literacy achievement of African American males have created much interest in the topic of "motivated literacy" for researchers, policy makers, and educators. African American twelfth graders perform at the same level in reading as White…
Murphy, Robert L.
African American males consistently perform at significantly lower academic levels, than their peers, at every age level and on almost every national assessment (Lewis, Simon, Uzzell, Horwitz, & Casserly, 2010; Harvey, 2010; Tsoi-A-Fatt, 2010; Fergus & Noguera, 2010), and of all racial/ethnic and gender groups, African American males…
Byrd, David A.; Butler, Bettie Ray; Lewis, Chance W.; Bonner, Fred A., II; Rutledge, Michael; Watson, Jesse J.
This qualitative research study examined the experiences of one African American former college athlete and two athletic department academic advisors at a BCS Division University in the Southern Region of the United States, Given the catastrophic shortage of African American male K-12 teachers, the participants of this study were interviewed to…
Willis, Belinda F.
Literature that addresses how the arts enhance student learning through creative expression is minimal. This is especially true for African-American elementary students from high-poverty backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to employ a case study design to explore how African-American elementary students in high-poverty schools experience…
Digneo, Miriam L.
The focus of this study was the problem of the high dropout rate among African American and Hispanic students enrolled in Westchester, New York, high schools during the 2003-2004 school year. A mixed method was used to collect data in this study. The 90 participants consisted of minority and non minority high school students who had dropped out of…
Bowe, Marilyn Louise Simmons
The literature includes few studies of the interrelations of achievement goals and achievement emotions with respect to minority students and science achievement. The objective of this study was to test the control-value theory (CVT) of achievement emotions to determine if the eight discrete achievement emotions would be predictive of test scores on the High School Graduation Test (GHSGT)-Science for African-American compared to European-American science students. Convenience cluster sampling was employed to select 160 students who were all juniors in the same public high school at the time that they took the GHSGT-Science. The central research question for this study aimed to uncover whether any of the eight achievement emotions identified in CVT would contribute significantly to the predictability of science achievement as measured by GHSGT-Science scores. Data were collected using a nonexperimental, cross sectional design survey. Data were analyzed using a hierarchal, forced entry, multiple regression analysis. Key results indicated that the eight achievement emotions were predictive of GHSGT-Science score outcomes. Positive social change at the individual level could reflect a boost in confidence for African American science students and help decrease the achievement gap in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) endeavors between European Americans and African-American students. Educators may consider the importance of achievement emotions in science outcomes by including social emotional learning (SEL) as a part of the regular science curriculum. Future researchers should repeat the study in a school district where the population is available to support the desired cluster sample of equal parts European Americans to African Americans and male to female students.
Thompson, Aisha R.; Gregory, Anne
Research has identified successful transitions from middle to high school as critical for students' academic success. Identifying risks and protective factors associated with challenge or success in the early years of high school is crucial, especially for African American students who are disproportionately represented in the ranks of adolescents…
Feigelman, William; Lee, Julia
Based on secondary analysis of the 1990 California Tobacco Survey of 24,296 adult and 7,767 adolescent respondents, this study investigates enigmatic results established by past research of comparatively low smoking prevalence rates among African American adolescents and high use patterns for African American adults. Findings support hypothesis…
Nasir, Na'ilah Suad; McLaughlin, Milbrey W.; Jones, Amina
In this article, the authors explore variation in the meanings of racial identity for African American students in a predominantly African American urban high school. They view racial identity as both related to membership in a racial group and as fluid and reconstructed in the local school setting. They draw on both survey data and observational…
Objective: To examine iron metabolism during the second and third trimesters in African American women with high-risk pregnancies. Design: Longitudinal pilot study. Setting: Large, university-based, urban Midwestern U.S. medical center. Participants: Convenience sample of 32 African American wome...
Cameron, Mark; Taggar, Carolyn E.
This qualitative study examined perceptions of the causes and nature of conflicts and violence among African-American girls in an urban high school. In-depth, iterative interviewing was used to explore the perceptions of these girls, male students, teachers, and other school personnel. Ethnographic observation was also used. Conflicts and violence…
Graham, David Mark
Research investigating the impact of factors such as gender, socioeconomic status, racial socialization, and academic self-concept on the academic achievement of African American high school students has been of interest to scholars for decades. Previous literature has focused much attention on the relationship of each of these constructs and…
Bhattacharyya, Sumita; Mead, Timothy P.; Nathaniel, Rajkumar
This study explored if a weeklong science camp changed Louisiana African-American high school students' perception of science. A semi-structured survey was used before and after the camp to determine the changes in science attitudes and career choices. Among the perceived benefits were parental involvement, increased science academic ability, and…
Predictors of parental home and school involvement for high school adolescents were examined within two groups of urban African American parents from various socioeconomic levels. Home involvement was defined as parent-adolescent communication about school and learning, while school involvement was defined in terms of parent attendance and…
Means, Darris R.; Clayton, Ashley B.; Conzelmann, Johnathan G.; Baynes, Patti; Umbach, Paul D.
This qualitative case study explores the career and educational aspirations, college choice process, and college barriers and opportunities of 26 rural, African American high school students. Data included interviews with 26 students and 11 school staff members. Findings suggest that the students' rural context shapes aspirations. In addition,…
Bradley, Elva Elaine
In this study I examine the manner in which high-achieving African American undergraduate men negotiate cultural challenges in a predominantly White institution (PWI). Cultural theory underpins the conceptual framework of this case study. Basing the study in cultural theory provided a lens through which to view the lived experiences of the twenty…
Bennett-Smith, Keisha K.
There is a need for research in the area of career choice of minority students in the United States. This descriptive study examined the factors that may influence Native American and African American high school students' career choices. These factors include such variables as parental educational level, family composition, and potential grade…
Gregory, Anne; Thompson, Aisha R.
Many African American adolescents who enter high school with low achievement are at-risk for being perceived as defiant and uncooperative by their classroom teachers. This generalized view of risk, however, offers little understanding of the differentiated behavior these students have with their teachers. The study followed 35 African American…
McKechnie, Jessica Diaz
This study examined the relationship between college-going self-efficacy and high school students' perceived levels of achievement goal orientations (mastery-approach, performance-approach, performance-avoidance), vocational identity, need for occupational information, and barriers to occupational goals for a sample of African American urban…
Williams, Joseph M.; Bryan, Julia
This qualitative multicase research study identified the home, school, and community factors and processes that contributed to the academic success of 8 urban, African American high school graduates from low-income, single-parent families. Ten main themes emerged: school-related parenting practices, personal stories of hardship, positive…
On the basis of systematic evaluation of three program databases, totaling 246 programs, this article provides a discussion on a best practice program for low-income African American students transitioning from middle school to high school in urban school settings. The main research question was "Of the programs touted as best practice, is there…
Kellow, J. Thomas; Jones, Brett D.
"Stereotype threat" refers to the risk associated with confirming a negative stereotype based on group membership. We examined this effect in a sample of African-American high school students. Stereotype threat was manipulated by presenting a visual spatial reasoning test as (a) diagnostic of mathematical ability or (b) a culture and…
Tyler, Kenneth; Brown-Wright, Lynda; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Thomas, Deneia; Stevens, Ruby; Roan-Belle, Clarissa; Gadson, Nadia; Smith, La Toya
The current study examined associations between home-school dissonance and several academic and psychological variables among 239 African American high school students. Regression analyses revealed that home-school dissonance significantly predicted multiple academic and psychological variables, including academic cheating, disruptive classroom…
Tanksley, Mary Dennard
This practicum was designed to improve the attendance rate for African American male students in the After School Reading Is Fundamental (RIF) program. The attendance rate for male students was far below that of female students. The following strategies to increase male participation in the reading program were developed: local businesses and…
Coker, Kendell L; Ikpe, Uduakobong N; Brooks, Jeannie S; Page, Brian; Sobell, Mark B
This study examined the relationship between traumatic stress, social problem solving, and moral disengagement among African American inner-city high school students. Participants consisted of 45 (25 males and 20 females) African American students enrolled in grades 10 through 12. Mediation was assessed by testing for the indirect effect using the confidence interval derived from 10,000 bootstrapped resamples. The results revealed that social problem-solving skills have an indirect effect on the relationship between traumatic stress and moral disengagement. The findings suggest that African American youth that are negatively impacted by trauma evidence deficits in their social problem solving skills and are likely to be at an increased risk to morally disengage. Implications for culturally sensitive and trauma-based intervention programs are also provided.
Coker, Kendell L.; Ikpe, Uduakobong N.; Brooks, Jeannie S.; Page, Brian; Sobell, Mark B.
This study examined the relationship between traumatic stress, social problem solving, and moral disengagement among African American inner-city high school students. Participants consisted of 45 (25 males and 20 females) African American students enrolled in grades 10 through 12. Mediation was assessed by testing for the indirect effect using the confidence interval derived from 10,000 bootstrapped resamples. The results revealed that social problem-solving skills have an indirect effect on the relationship between traumatic stress and moral disengagement. The findings suggest that African American youth that are negatively impacted by trauma evidence deficits in their social problem solving skills and are likely to be at an increased risk to morally disengage. Implications for culturally sensitive and trauma-based intervention programs are also provided. PMID:25071874
Baxter, Vern Kenneth; Marina, Peter
This paper reports results from an ethnographic study of African-American youth subculture in a New Orleans high school. The paper contends that youth subculture remains an important construct to situate stylistic resistance among subaltern groups like urban black youth that confront demands for conformity from representatives of institutional…
Examining the Perceptions of Gwinnett and Cobb County Georgia Principals to Determine the Strategies Needed to Improve Performance and Graduation Rates of African-American Males in Metropolitan U.S. Schools
Henderson, Darren L.
The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of high school administrators in Gwinnett and Cobb Counties, Georgia that have successfully narrowed the achievement gap for high school African-American males as to: (a) why the achievement gap continues to occur in other metropolitan high schools in the United States; (b) what successful…
Beamon, Krystal K
Scholars have noted that an elevated level of sports socialization in the family, neighborhood, and media exists within the African American community, creating an overrepresentation of African American males in certain sports. As a result, African American males may face consequences that are distinctly different from the consequences of those who are not socialized as intensively toward athletics, such as lower levels of academic achievement, higher expectations for professional sports careers as a means to upward mobility, and lower levels of career maturity. This study examines the sport socialization of African American male former collegiate athletes through in-depth ethnographic interviews. The results show that the respondents' perceptions were that their socializing agents and socializing environment emphasized athletics above other roles, other talents, and the development of other skills.
Bond, Vernon; Adams, R. George; Vaccaro, Paul; Blakely, Raymond; Franks, B. Don; Williams, Deborah; Obisesan, Thomas O.; Millis, Richard
The aim of our study was to examine whether there is an association between blood pressure reactivity to the cold pressor test in African Americans who engaged in different levels of physical activity. We examined the systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac index, total peripheral resistance, and forearm blood flow during a two-minute cold pressor test in 15 aerobic, physically active and 15 physically inactive, normotensive young adult African-American males. Peak oxygen consumption varied as a function of physical activity, and was significantly higher in the physically active than in the physically inactive subjects (54.5 ± 1.5 vs 36.8 ± 0.7 ml · kg−1 · min−1) (P<.05). During the cold pressor test, consisting of immersing the foot in ice water, the change in cardiovascular responses were similar between the physically active and the physically inactive groups. These results suggest that regular physical activity may not contribute to an attenuated blood pressure response to behavioral stress of the cold pressor test in normotensive young adult African-American males. PMID:11455996
Much has been written concerning the challenges many teachers face in engaging African American males in reading practices. While much of this extant scholarship focuses on African American males at the pre-adolescent stage of development and beyond, little has been written regarding increasing reading engagement in African American boys in P-5…
KENNEDY, S. B.; NOLEN, S.; APPLEWHITE, J.; WAITERS, E.; VANDERHOFF, J.
The purpose of this pilot project was to develop, administer and assess a brief male-focused and behavioural-driven condom promotion programme for young adult African American males in an urban setting. To achieve the aims of this study, linkages with local community centres were initially fostered and both quantitative and qualitative research methods were employed. Based on relevant tenets of the social cognitive theory and the stages of change model, a series of focus groups were conducted among the target population, recruited from non-traditional urban settings, to identify and further explore their perceived condom use barriers and facilitators in order to support programme development. Specifically, the topical items addressed those young men’s perceptions of sexuality and condom use within three broad contexts: general sexual behaviours, condom use behaviours, and the relationship between condoms and substance use. The focus group discussions were audiotaped and the transcribed data summarized and analysed based on those thematic topics. The findings revealed that significant myths, misconceptions and knowledge gaps exist regarding HIV/STD-related prevention, condom promotion and substance use. The findings imply that there is a critical need to develop target group suitable condom promotion programmes in order to successfully promote, foster and sustain condom use among high-risk populations. PMID:17852001
Senteio, Charles; Veinot, Tiffany
Adherence to treatment recommendations for chronic diseases is notoriously low across all patient populations. But African American patients, who are more likely to live in low-income neighborhoods and to have multiple chronic conditions, are even less likely to follow medical recommendations. Yet we know little about their contextually embedded, adherence-related experiences. We interviewed individuals (n = 37) with at least two of the following conditions: hypertension, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. Using an "invisible work" theoretical framework, we outline the adherence work that arose in patients' common life circumstances. We found five types: constantly searching for better care, stretching medications, eating what I know, keeping myself alive, and trying to make it right. Adherence work was effortful, challenging, and addressed external contingencies present in high-poverty African American neighborhoods. This work was invisible within the health care system because participants lacked ongoing, trusting relationships with providers and rarely discussed challenges with them.
Beale, Tyson J.
This study explored the family dynamics of persistent African American college men. These students were typical Black males, not those pre-categorized as high-achieving or unprepared for college. The stories of participants revealed their strength, ambition, and intentions to successfully gain a baccalaureate degree. In general Black males are…
Drayton, Brendaly Elizabeth
This multiple case study explored how the literate experiences of six African American men influenced their perceptions of and engagement with a community-based adult basic education and literacy (ABEL) program in a large northeastern city. The theoretical framework included a social practices view of literacy and a constructivist view of…
DeGruy, Joy; Kjellstrand, Jean M.; Briggs, Harold E.; Brennan, Eileen M.
African American adolescents must negotiate the transition to adulthood in a society that makes the achievement of positive cultural identity and self-respect difficult. Frequently, young men turn to violence in an attempt to achieve respect in their communities. This article explores factors that predict the use of violence among African American…
Phalen, Earl Martin
A passion to ensure the educational and life success of all children, particularly young African American men, has propelled my work for all of my professional life. Although following one's passion can make for a fulfilling life, passion is not enough to create a successful and sustainable nonprofit organization. Like many leaders in the…
This study examined the fatherhood experiences of 50 low-income, urban, African American fathers and father figures whose children were enrolled in an Early Head Start Program. Information was gathered via qualitative interviews conducted within participants' homes and communities and participant observation. Quantitative methods were used to…
The college graduation rates for African-Americans, as compared to other ethnic cohorts, remains at a continuous low level. According to the National Center for Education Statistics (2014), 1,602,480 baccalaureate degrees were conferred nationwide to college students during 2009-2010. The purpose of this phenomenological research study is to…
Johnson, Edwin T.
Pi Chapter of the Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc. at Morgan State University made a significant contribution to the identity construction of college-educated African American men in the state of Maryland. The initiates of Pi Chapter constructed identities that allowed the members to see themselves as participants in mainstream American society as…
Cunningham, Michael; Swanson, Dena Phillips; Spencer, Margaret Beale; Dupree, Davido
Examines the relations between physical maturation and youths' perceptions of their family context and the associated daily stresses experienced. Results extend the literature on physical development and urban African American populations. Findings suggest that adolescent-perceived hassles are indications of parental monitoring and more adaptive…
Rogers, Charles R.; Goodson, Patricia
Racial disparities in health among African American men (AAM) in the United States are extensive. In contrast to their White counterparts, AAM have more illnesses and die younger. AAM have colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates 25% and 50% higher, respectively, than White men. Due to CRC’s younger age at presentation and high incidence among AAM, CRC screening (CRCS) is warranted at the age of 45 rather than 50, but little is known about younger AAM’s views of CRCS. Employing survey design, the purpose of the study was to describe the male role norms (MRN), knowledge, attitudes, perceived subjective norms, and perceived barriers associated with screening for CRC among a non-random sample of 157 young adult AAM (ages 19–45). Sixty-seven percent of the study sample received a passing knowledge score (85% or better), yet no significant differences were found among the three educational levels (i.e., low, medium, high). More negative attitudes toward CRCS correlated with the participants’ strong perceptions of barriers, but no extremely negative or positive MRN and perceived subjective norms were found. The factors significantly associated with attitudes were family history of cancer (unsure), work status, and perceived barriers. Findings from this study provide a solid basis for developing structured health education interventions that address the salient factors shaping young adult AAM’s view of CRC and early detection screening behaviors. PMID:25506049
Maslowsky, Julie; Schulenberg, John; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Hannigan, John H.; Greenwald, Mark K.; Janisse, James; Sokol, Robert J.; Delaney-Black, Virginia
African-American adolescents experience disproportionate rates of negative consequences of substance use despite using substances at average or below-average rates. Due to underrepresentation of African-American adolescents in etiological literature, risk and protective processes associated with their substance use require further study. This study examines the role of parental support in adolescents’ conduct problems (CPs), depressive symptoms (DSs), and alcohol and marijuana use in a national sample and a high-risk sample of African-American adolescents. In both samples, parental support was inversely related to adolescent CPs, DSs, and alcohol and marijuana use. CPs, but not DSs, partially mediated the relation of parental support to substance use. Results were consistent across the national and high-risk samples, suggesting that the protective effect of parental support applies to African-American adolescents from a range of demographic backgrounds. PMID:26843811
Brown, Stacey Marvetta
The state of African American education is complex. Beginning in the 17th century, African Americans fought for an education that allowed them to read and write. During the 21st century, African Americans value on education extends beyond only reading and writing to using these skills and other skills to maintain strong academic and leadership…
Juergensen, Miyoshi B.
This study explores African American educators' ideas about school completion in the 1920s and 1930s as a way to begin to understand their contributions to the historical discourse on school completion. Using publications from African American professional teaching organizations, the author elevates and examines how African American educators both…
White, Monique S; Addison, Clifton C; Jenkins, Brenda W Campbell; Bland, Vanessa; Clark, Adrianne; LaVigne, Donna Antoine
Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions and is linked to hypertension among African American youth. Optimistic bias influences behavior of youth causing them to underestimate their susceptibility to negative health outcomes. This study explored adolescent behaviors and prevalence of high blood pressure and obesity in a school district. We examined the relationship between individual health risk practices and optimistic bias on health outcomes; 433 African American high school students were administered a survey and had their obesity and blood pressure measured by the school nurse. Canonical correlational analyses were used to examine relationships between health risk practices and descriptive statistics for optimistic bias and health outcomes. Engaging in moderate exercise for at least 30 min in the last 7 days and lower blood pressure was the only statistically significant relationship. Two-thirds of the students did not perceive themselves to be at risk of developing cardiovascular disease with males at greater risk than females, despite the presence of clinical risk factors for hypertension and obesity. Reducing health optimistic bias is an effective way of motivating young people to adopt more positive behaviors using educational institutions to implement intervention programs that promote positive health behavior as a way to reduce health disparities.
White, Monique S.; Addison, Clifton C.; Campbell Jenkins, Brenda W.; Bland, Vanessa; Clark, Adrianne; Antoine LaVigne, Donna
Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions and is linked to hypertension among African American youth. Optimistic bias influences behavior of youth causing them to underestimate their susceptibility to negative health outcomes. This study explored adolescent behaviors and prevalence of high blood pressure and obesity in a school district. We examined the relationship between individual health risk practices and optimistic bias on health outcomes; 433 African American high school students were administered a survey and had their obesity and blood pressure measured by the school nurse. Canonical correlational analyses were used to examine relationships between health risk practices and descriptive statistics for optimistic bias and health outcomes. Engaging in moderate exercise for at least 30 min in the last 7 days and lower blood pressure was the only statistically significant relationship. Two-thirds of the students did not perceive themselves to be at risk of developing cardiovascular disease with males at greater risk than females, despite the presence of clinical risk factors for hypertension and obesity. Reducing health optimistic bias is an effective way of motivating young people to adopt more positive behaviors using educational institutions to implement intervention programs that promote positive health behavior as a way to reduce health disparities. PMID:28230728
Griffith, Derek M; Gunter, Katie; Allen, Julie Ober
Despite the potential health consequences, African American men tend to treat their roles as providers, fathers, spouses, and community members as more important than engaging in health behaviors such as physical activity. We conducted 14 exploratory focus groups with 105 urban, middle-aged African American men from the Midwest to examine factors that influence their health behaviors. Thematic content analysis revealed three interrelated barriers to physical activity: (a) work, family, and community commitments and priorities limited time and motivation for engaging in physical activity; (b) physical activity was not a normative individual or social activity and contributed to men prioritizing work and family responsibilities over physical activity; and (c) the effort men exerted in seeking to fulfill the provider role limited their motivation and energy to engage in physical activity. These findings highlight the need for physical activity interventions that consider how health fits in the overall context of men's lives.
Seth, Puja; Raiji, Paulomi T; DiClemente, Ralph J; Wingood, Gina M; Rose, Eve
Previous research has established the association between psychosocial factors and risky sexual behaviour. However, few studies have examined the relationship between psychological distress and sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV-associated behaviours in African-American youth. The present study examined the association of psychological distress with STI/HIV-risk behaviour and psycho-social mediators of HIV-preventive behaviours. A sample of 715 African-American female adolescents, 15-21 years old, completed an audio computer assisted self-interviewing (ACASI) assessing sociodemographics, psychological distress, self-efficacy, communication and STI/HIV-associated sexual behaviours. Participants also provided self-collected vaginal swab specimens, which were assayed for STIs. High levels of psychological distress were defined as having a score of > or =7 on the eight-item Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale. The overall prevalence of high levels of psychological distress was 44.5%. Logistic regression analyses revealed that adolescents with high psychological distress, relative to those with low psychological distress, were more likely to have a biologically confirmed STI (adjusted odd ratio (AOR) = 1.40), use condoms inconsistently (AOR = 1.50), not use condoms during their last casual sexual encounter (AOR = 1.89), have sex while high on alcohol or drugs (AOR = 1.47), have male sexual partners with concurrent female sexual partners (AOR = 1.98), have low condom use self-efficacy (AOR = 1.54), partner sexual communication self-efficacy (AOR = 1.77), refusal self-efficacy (AOR = 2.05) and be more fearful of communicating with their partners (AOR = 1.98). These findings, although preliminary, could be used to inform HIV intervention programs and physicians/clinicians providing regular health care maintenance to African-American female adolescents engaging in risky sexual behaviour.
Ghafoor, Asma; Jemal, Ahmedin; Cokkinides, Vilma; Cardinez, Cheryll; Murray, Taylor; Samuels, Alicia; Thun, Michael J
The American Cancer Society provides estimates on the number of new cancer cases and deaths, and compiles health statistics on African Americans in a biennial publication, Cancer Facts and Figures for African Americans. The compiled statistics include cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and lifestyle behaviors using the most recent data on incidence and survival from the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program, mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), and behavioral information from the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), and National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). It is estimated that 132,700 new cases of cancer and 63,100 deaths will occur among African Americans in the year 2003. Although African Americans have experienced higher incidence and mortality rates of cancer than whites for many years, incidence rates have declined by 2.7 percent per year in African-American males since 1992, while stabilizing in African-American females. During the same period, death rates declined by 2.1 percent and 0.4 percent per year among African-American males and females, respectively. The decrease in both incidence and death rates from cancer among African-American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. Nonetheless, African Americans still carry the highest cancer burden among US racial and ethnic groups. Most cancers detectable by screening are diagnosed at a later stage and survival rates are lower within each stage of disease in African Americans than in whites. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors is an active area of research.
Vescio, Vicki A.
As a group, African American males face some pervasive obstacles to school success. Collectively they are expelled, suspended, disciplined, retained, and referred to special education at disproportionately high percentages when compared to their peers. As a result of this persistent treatment, African American males have a tendency to disidentify…
Brooks, Ronald A.; Lee, Sung-Jae; Stover, Gabriel N.; Barkley, Thomas W.
SUMMARY This study examined HIV testing behaviors, perceived vulnerability to HIV, and correlates of sexual risk behaviors of young adult Latino and African American male gang members in Los Angeles, California. Data were collected from 249 gang members ages 18–26 years old. The majority (59%) of gang members reported unprotected vaginal intercourse (UVI) in the past 12 months. Only one-third (33.2%) of gang members had ever been tested for HIV. In our multivariate analysis, gang members who reported UVI were more likely to have engaged in the following behaviors: had sex with someone they just met (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 4.51), had sex with someone they think or know had an STD (AOR = 4.67), or had sex while incarcerated (AOR = 8.92). In addition, gang members with a higher perceived vulnerability to HIV were less likely to report UVI in the previous 12 months (AOR= 0.75). These findings offer implications for development of an HIV prevention intervention for young Latino and African American male gang members. PMID:21364062
Bates, Mekeshia D; Griffin, Mary T Quinn; Killion, Cheryl M; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J
This descriptive pilot study explored the knowledge and attitudes of African-American males toward genetic testing and their willingness to participate in genetic testing. A convenience sample of 104 African-American males, from 19 to 79 years of age, was recruited from a national fraternity meeting. Data were collected using four surveys: Demographic and Background Data, Perceived Knowledge of Genetic Testing, Attitudes Toward Genetic Testing, and Willingness to Participate in Genetic Testing. Perceived genetic knowledge was low with a mean score of 5.6; however, participants had a favorable attitude toward genetic testing. Findings from this study suggested that participants were willing to participate in genetic testing with a total score of 46.8. Significant correlations existed between perceived genetic knowledge and willingness to participate in genetic testing. Interventions to increase perceived genetic knowledge and educate the participant on who is conducting the test and how the test will be performed may be beneficial to increase participation in genetic testing.
Brooks, R A; Lee, S-J; Stover, G N; Barkley, T W
This study examined HIV testing behaviours, perceived vulnerability to HIV and correlates of sexual risk behaviours of young adult Latino and African American male gang members in Los Angeles, California. Data were collected from 249 gang members aged 18-26 years. The majority (59%) of gang members reported unprotected vaginal intercourse (UVI) in the past 12 months. Only one-third (33.2%) of gang members had ever been tested for HIV. In our multivariate analysis, gang members who reported UVI were more likely to have engaged in the following behaviours: had sex with someone they just met (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.51), had sex with someone they think or know had a sexually transmitted infection (STI; AOR = 4.67) or had sex while incarcerated (AOR = 8.92). In addition, gang members with a higher perceived vulnerability to HIV were less likely to report UVI in the previous 12 months (AOR = 0.75). These findings offer implications for development of an HIV prevention intervention for young Latino and African American male gang members.
African American Parent Involvement: An Examination of the Characteristics That Determine the Most Successful School and Parent Relationships between Lower Socioeconomic, African American Parents, and Highly Effective Schools
Williams, Marcheta Ganther
The literature contains extensive research that focuses on parent involvement and parent involvement programs. The past decade and a half has warranted some parent involvement programs that focused on the student populations of African American students and lower socioeconomic status students. In schools in which the African American student…
A Mixed Methods Study Identifying Antecedents to the Later Disengagement of African American Males in Public Schools by Examining Attitudes and Behaviors of Students and Teachers at the Elementary School Level
Childs, Deirdre L.
African American males have not experienced the academic successes throughout their school careers that males of other cultures have experienced. This mixed methods study identified possible antecedents to the later disengagement of poorly performing African American male students in an inner city public elementary school by examining data…
Hayes, Robert E., III
Globalization of the world economy has confirmed the need for citizens to exemplify competitive capacities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields. Since the 1970s, American higher education has seen increasing numbers of students entering college but has witnessed a decline in the number of students enrolling in STEM programs. African American men fall behind other students in regards to academic performance, persistence, and success throughout primary, secondary, and tertiary schooling. Accordingly, participation of African American men in STEM disciplines is low in comparison to White males and other race groups. Various factors have been identified as contributing to the academic failures of Black men. Poor academic and social preparedness, racial identity issues, institutional climates, negative stereotypes, and fear of success have been cited as potential contributors to the relative invisibility of African American men in STEM disciplines. This study explores the life stories of five African American male scholars in the college of engineering at a predominantly white university. The goal of the qualitative investigation is to help university faculty and administrators understand the institutional, interpersonal, and collective mechanisms influencing the success identities of African American male undergraduates in STEM academic programs. Understanding the lived experiences of this population may help universities innovate stronger supports for men of color in college and broaden the borders for all students interested in STEM careers.
This study investigated the relationship between an after-school tutorial program for African American high school students at a Title I school and scores on the science portion of the High School Graduation Examination (HSGE). Passing the examination was required for graduation. The target high school is 99% African American and the passing rate of the target high school was 42%---lower than the state average of 76%. The purpose of the study was to identify (a) the relationship between a science tutorial program and scores on the science portion of the HSGE, (b) the predictors of tutoring need by analyzing the relationship between biology grades and scores on the science portion of the HSGE, and (c) the findings between biology grades and scores on the science portion of the HSGE by analyzing the relationship between tutorial attendance and HSGE scores. The study was based on Piaget's cognitive constructivism, which implied the potential benefits of tutorials on high-stakes testing. This study used a 1-group pretest-posttest, quantitative methodology. Results showed a significant relationship between tutoring and scores on the biology portion of the HSGE. Results found no significant relationship between the tutorial attendance and the scores on the biology portion of the HSGE or between the biology grades and scores on the biology portion of the HSGE before tutoring. It has implications for positive social change by providing educational stakeholders with empirically-based guidance in determining the potential benefit of tutorial intervention strategies on high school graduation examination scores.
Phipps, Jonathan Lanier
This study was focused on the identification of selected risk factors seemingly present among African American male adolescents 13 to 18 years old who were participants in special education programs at their schools. Many of these male adolescents were also found to participate in the juvenile justice system under what was characterized as…
Gordeuk, Victor R.; Diaz, Sharmin F.; Onojobi, Gladys O.; Kasvosve, Ishmael; Debebe, Zufan; Edossa, Amanuel; Pantin, Jeremy M.; Xiong, Shigang; Nekhai, Sergei; Nouraie, Mehdi; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Taylor, Robert E.
Background Alcohol consumption is associated with increased iron stores. In sub-Saharan Africa, high dietary ionic iron and the ferroportin Q248H allele have also been implicated in iron accumulation. We examined the associations of ferroportin Q248H, alcohol and dietary iron with serum ferritin, aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) and alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) concentrations in African Americans. Methods Inner-city African Americans (103 men, 40 women) were recruited from the community according to reported ingestion of >4 alcoholic drinks per day or <2 per week. Typical daily heme iron, non-heme iron and alcohol were estimated using University of Hawaii’s multiethnic dietary questionnaire. Based on dietary questionnaire estimates we established categories of < versus ≥56 g alcohol per day, equivalent to 4 alcoholic drinks per day assuming 14 g alcohol per drink. Results Among 143 participants, 77% drank <56 g alcohol/day and 23% ≥56 g/d as estimated by the questionnaire. The prevalence of ferroportin Q248H was 23.3% with alcohol >56 g/d versus 7.5% with lower amounts (P=0.012). Among subjects with no history of HIV disease, serum ferritin concentration had positive relationships with male gender (P=0.041), alcohol consumption (P=0.021) and ALT concentration (P=0.0001) but not with dietary iron intake or ferroportin Q248H. Serum AST and ALT concentrations had significant positive associations with male gender and hepatitis C seropositivity but not with alcohol or dietary iron intake or ferroportin Q248H. Conclusions Our findings suggest a higher prevalence of ferroportin Q248H with greater alcohol consumption, and this higher prevalence raises the possibility that the allele might ameliorate the toxicity of alcohol. Our results suggest that alcohol but not dietary iron contributes to higher body iron stores in African Americans. Studies with larger numbers of participants are needed to further clarify the relationship of ferroportin Q248H with the
An African American male to female transgender patient treated with estrogen detected a breast lump that was confirmed by her primary care provider. The patient refused mammography and 14 months later she was diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer with spinal cord compression. We used ethnographic interviews and observations to elicit the patient’s conceptions of her illness and actions. The patient identified herself as biologically male and socially female; she thought that the former protected her against breast cancer; she had fears that excision would make a breast tumor spread; and she believed injectable estrogens were less likely than oral estrogens to cause cancer. Analysis suggests dissociation between the patient’s social and biological identities, fear and fatalism around cancer screening, and legitimization of injectable hormones. This case emphasizes the importance of eliciting and interpreting a patient’s conceptions of health and illness when discordant understandings develop between patient and physician. PMID:19898907
Molock, Sherry Davis; Puri, Rupa; Matlin, Samantha; Barksdale, Crystal
This study investigated whether hopelessness and depression were risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviors in African American adolescents and looked at whether religious participation and religious coping protected these students from suicidality. Participants were 212 African American high school students (133 females, 79 males). The…
Cokley, Kevin; McClain, Shannon; Jones, Martinique; Johnson, Samoan
The purpose of this study was to examine academic disidentification along with demographic and psychological factors related to the academic achievement of African American adolescents. Participants included 96 African American students (41 males, 55 females) in an urban high school setting located in the Southwest. Consistent with previous…
Graham, Anthony; Erwin, Kimberly D.
This phenomenological investigation examines the perceptions of the teaching profession as a viable career option by high-achieving high school-aged African American boys. Researchers used random sampling to identify high schools in one large urban school district and criterion sampling to examine the perceptions of 63 African American 11th-grade…
Richardson, Joseph B; Brakle, Mischelle Van
For many poor, African American families living in the inner city, the juvenile justice system has become a de facto mental health service provider. In this article, longitudinal, ethnographic study methods were used to examine how resource-deprived, inner-city parents in a New York City community relied on the juvenile justice system to provide their African American male children with mental health care resources. The results of three case studies indicate that this strategy actually contributed to an escalation in delinquency among the youth.
Braddock, Jomills Henry, II; Hua, Lv
A study prolongs research on college choice by analyzing what African American students state about the importance of the college's athletic reputation when choosing which school to attend. Descriptive results indicate that roughly one out of every three African American respondents believe that a school's athletic reputation is at least a…
Daire, Andrew P.; LaMothe, Saron; Fuller, David P.
Compared with White persons, Black/African American persons in the United States continue to experience high rates of educational deficits and employment stagnation as well as lower college graduation rates. This study examined the influences on Black/African American and White college students' high school completion, college attendance, and…
Smith, Rodney D.
This study explored the perceptions and perspectives of African American male students with regard to their experiences in a youth development initiative sponsored by a community-based organization. This examination aimed to ascertain the aspects of the program that, first, prompted the students to be a part of the initiative, but also those…
Harris, Yvette Monique
The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore factors that could lead to academic success for African-American males enrolled in community college. By conducting a phenomenological study, those factors leading to graduation will be derived from the particular lens of perception of the participants' lived experiences. The…
Lewis, Shaun; Boes, Susan R.; Chibbaro, Julie S.
This small action research study (ARS) began with a review of the literature examining the relationship of gangsta rap in regards to academic achievement, self-esteem, decision-making, identity issues and development of young African American males. The purpose of the ARS was to examine the correlation between gangsta rap and its influence on 5th…
Hudson, Wayne V.
The purpose of this theoretical study was to explore, examine, and analyze the United States (US) Zero Tolerance (ZT) educational policies and practices of the school-to-prison pipeline phenomenon. This study specifically explored the influence of the ZT policy on African American males becoming part of that system. The study was guided by three…
Villarreal, María de Lourdes; García, Hugo A.
This Grounded Theory study utilized Self-determination Theory to analyze the interview results of 18 community college African American and Latino males. The goal was to learn what helped participants to succeed and persist in developmental and transfer-level writing courses despite the obstacles that they faced. Three major themes emerged: (a)…
Herring, Melvin H.
This study explores the relationship between negative school climate factors (i.e., teacher neglect, peer rejection, discrimination) and academic outcomes amongst a sample of adolescent African American males. Specifically, this study directly examines a) the influence of negative school climate perceptions on the students' academic…
Bugg, Elmer A., Jr.
This qualitative study elicited key themes in an attempt to understand the nature and essence of the career advancement experiences of a select group of African American male community college presidents. Research was conducted through a "culturally sensitive" research design (Tillman, 2002) that contained four elements: "culturally congruent…
Kellow, J. Thomas; Jones, Brett D.
This study investigated whether African American high school freshman students experience stereotype threat when taking a test that is seen as a predictor of their success on a high-stakes test. The authors conceptually replicated a previous study by Kellow and Jones (2005) using a true experimental design, as opposed to a quasi-experimental…
Suggests sources of information for African American History Month for library media specialists who work with students in grades four through eight. Gale Research's "African-American Reference Library," which includes "African-America Biography,""African-American Chronology," and "African-American Almanac,"…
Brown, Sherine R; Hossain, Mian Bazle; Bronner, Yvonne
Differences in male and female perception response to the Pulvers Body Image Scale (PBIS) were examined among 356 freshmen African American students attending an urban historically Black college/university (HBCU). Participants completed a questionnaire identifying images that best represented their current, healthy, and ideal body image. Compared with males, more females selected the normal body image as their ideal (63.3% vs. 15.3%) and healthy body shape (59.3% vs. 15.3%) (p<.001). Compared with females, more males selected the overweight body image as their ideal (44.6% vs. 30.2%) and healthy body shape (52.2% vs. 36.2%) (p<.01). Similarly, more males selected the obese body image as their ideal (40.1% vs. 6.5%) and healthy body shape (32.5% vs. 4.5%) compared with females (p<.001). Male freshmen at an HBCU perceive a larger body image as healthy and ideal more often than their female counterparts, thereby increasing the potential for their weight-related health risks.
In this article, Paris explores the deep linguistic and cultural ways in which youth in a multiethnic urban high school employ linguistic features of African American Language (AAL) across ethnic lines. The author also discusses how knowledge about the use of AAL in multiethnic contexts might be applied to language and literacy education and how…
Waters, Eric L.
Asynchronous online credit recovery programs have been implemented in public schools across the United States for a variety of reasons. In this case, African American female students who are deficient in course credits towards high school graduation have taken advantage of this relatively new e-programming mechanism as a means to capture course…
McKillip, Mary E. M.; Mackey, Philip E.
This report shows college enrollment and graduation trends among African American SAT® takers who finished high school in 2004 and 2010 by various student characteristics, including aspirations, self-perceived ability, and academic achievements. In every case, students in the top categories were the most likely to enroll in four-year colleges…
Ewart, Craig K.; And Others
Describes effective methods for identifying and recruiting high risk African American ninth-grade girls to measure their fitness and assess the impact of fitness training on blood pressure. A multistage step test for fitness assessment in such girls is presented. The "Project Heart" aerobics class and control groups are described. (SM)
This article explores practitioner inquiry and culturally relevant pedagogy to create academic success with students facing high school exit examinations in Reading. In Florida, about one-third of African American students passed the test in 2010. Student perspectives on achievement, school processes, and engagement were incorporated with…
Davis, Larry E.; Ajzen, Icek; Saunders, Jeanne; Williams, Trina
Study explores high school completion among African Americans. Students completed a theory of planned behavior questionnaire early in their 2nd year. Intentions to complete the year were accurately predicted from attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. Intentions and, to a lesser extent, perceived behavioral control,…
Austin, Chandra Yvette
This study examined the relationship between specific factors believed to influence career decision self-efficacy and math/science related goal intentions (proxy for engineering related goal intentions) among African American high school students. Minority students generally tend to be underrepresented in such careers, as indicated by the National…
Thornhill, Theodore E.
African American history is often taught poorly in high school U.S. history courses. However, we know little about how Black students perceive and experience this situation. I use a refined racial socialization framework and interview data with 32 Black college students in the Northeast to investigate how familial racial socialization shapes their…
Walpole, MaryBeth; McDonough, Patricia M.; Bauer, Constance J.; Gibson, Carolyn; Kanyi, Kamau T.; Toliver, Rita
This qualitative study focused on African American and Latino high school students perceptions of standardized admission tests, including the Scholastic Assessment Tests (I and II) and the ACT Assessment. Students enrolled in college preparatory classes were interviewed about these tests individually and in focus groups in fall 1998 in their…
Slavinsky, J.; Rosenberg, D. M.; DiCarlo, R. P.; Kissinger, P.
The known link between sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), coupled with the increasing prevalence of HIV in African-American men, makes understanding STD transmission trends in this group important for directing future preventive measures. The goal of this study was to determine if self-reported behavioral factors are predictive of incident sexually transmitted diseases in a group of high risk, HIV-negative African-American men. Five hundred and sixty-two "high risk" (defined as having four or more partners in the last year or having been diagnosed with an STD in the last year) HIV-negative African-American men were administered a baseline behavioral survey and followed to detect an incident STD. Overall, 19% (n = 108) of the patients acquired an incident STD during the study period. In multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis, the only factor associated with an incident STD was age < or = 19 (hazard ratio, 2.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 4.54). No other risk factors were statistically significant. In conclusion, self-reported behavioral factors, such as substance use and sexual practices, do not seem to be a good measure of STD risk among a group of high risk, HIV-negative, African-American men. PMID:10946531
Joseph, Christine L. M.; Peterson, Edward; Havstad, Suzanne; Johnson, Christine C.; Hoerauf, Sarah; Stringer, Sonja; Gibson-Scipio, Wanda; Ownby, Dennis R.; Elston-Lafata, Jennifer; Pallonen, Unto; Strecher, Victor
Rationale: Urban African-American youth, aged 15–19 years, have asthma fatality rates that are higher than in whites and younger children, yet few programs target this population. Traditionally, urban youth are believed to be difficult to engage in health-related programs, both in terms of connecting and convincing. Objectives: Develop and evaluate a multimedia, web-based asthma management program to specifically target urban high school students. The program uses “tailoring,” in conjunction with theory-based models, to alter behavior through individualized health messages based on the user's beliefs, attitudes, and personal barriers to change. Methods: High school students reporting asthma symptoms were randomized to receive the tailored program (treatment) or to access generic asthma websites (control). The program was made available on school computers. Measurements and Main Results: Functional status and medical care use were measured at study initiation and 12 months postbaseline, as were selected management behaviors. The intervention period was 180 days (calculated from baseline). A total of 314 students were randomized (98% African American, 49% Medicaid enrollees; mean age, 15.2 yr). At 12 months, treatment students reported fewer symptom-days, symptom-nights, school days missed, restricted-activity days, and hospitalizations for asthma when compared with control students; adjusted relative risk and 95% confidence intervals were as follows: 0.5 (0.4–0.8), p = 0.003; 0.4 (0.2–0.8), p = 0.009; 0.3 (0.1–0.7), p = 0.006; 0.5 (0.3–0.8), p = 0.02; and 0.2 (0.2–0.9), p = 0.01, respectively. Positive behaviors were more frequently noted among treatment students compared with control students. Cost estimates for program delivery were $6.66 per participating treatment group student. Conclusions: A web-based, tailored approach to changing negative asthma management behaviors is economical, feasible, and effective in improving asthma outcomes in a
... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to a ... glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in African Americans. Half of those with glaucoma don't know ...
Beaver, Kevin M; Sak, Ashley; Vaske, Jamie; Nilsson, Jessica
Gene x environment interactions have been found to be associated with the development of antisocial behaviors. The extant gene x environment research, however, has failed to measure directly the ways in which global measures of genetic risk may interact with a putative environmental risk factor. The current study addresses this gap in the literature and examines the interrelationships among a global measure of genetic risk based on five genetic polymorphisms, a measure of parent-child relations, and eight antisocial phenotypes. Analysis of African-American males (N = 145 to 159) drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) revealed two broad findings. First, the genetic risk and parent-child relations scales were inconsistently related to the outcome variables. Second, genetic risk and parent-child relations interacted to predict variation in all of the eight antisocial phenotype measures. These findings point to the possibility that measures of genetic risk that are based on multiple polymorphisms can be employed to examine the gene x environmental basis to antisocial behavioral phenotypes.
Dembo, R; Schmeidler, J; Sue, C C; Borden, P; Manning, D; Rollie, M
Using data collected on nearly 4,000 Anglo, Hispanic White, and African-American male youths processed at the Hillsborough County Juvenile Assessment Center, we examine their psychosocial, substance use, and other delinquent behavior differences. In extending the results of previous research in a manner consistent with the concept of relative deviance, significant differences in these variables are found across the three groups. Implications of the findings for theory, service delivery, and policy are also considered.
Peterson, John L.; And Others
Examines the frequency and correlates of unprotected anal intercourse among 250 gay and bisexual African-American men in the San Francisco (California) Bay area. More than 50 percent reported having unprotected anal intercourse in the past six months. Findings demonstrate the need for risk reduction programs targeting this population. (SLD)
Santisteban, Daniel A.; Coatsworth, J. Douglas; Perez-Vidal, Angel; Mitrani, Victoria; Jean-Gilles, Michele; Szapocnik, Jose
The intervention described in this paper used Brief Strategic/Structural Family Therapy (BSFT) to reduce the likelihood that African American and Hispanic youth would initiate drug use by decreasing existing behavior problems at the individual level and improving maladaptive family functioning at the family level. The program targeted African…
Murphy, Jean C.
This is an interpretive study of the influence of Black Hegemony on the academic success of three successful African Americans: Clifton L. Taulbert, Henry Louis Gates, Jr., and Margaret Morgan Lawrence. All three spent their youth in southern communities strongly influenced by Jim Crow laws and customs, and their academic accomplishments were…
Bauermeister, Jose A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard
Researchers have found mixed support for documenting whether work is protective or harmful during adolescence. This study examined the association between work and problem behaviors among African American youth (N = 592; 53% female; M = 14.8 years, SD = 0.60) followed from mid-adolescence to young adulthood over eight Waves (90% response rate over…
Evans, Dwayne E.
This study explored the significance of African American students' trust of teachers and its impact on student engagement in school. It also focused on the potential impact of teachers' race on student-teacher trust relationships. Research for this study used a cross-sectional approach. Interviews were conducted with 22 students of…
Myers, Lena Wright
Explores the process of socialization among black males in the United States through interview data from 230 subjects, focusing on the effect of structure of family of origin. Findings show the lack of a statistically significant relationship between family structure and effective early socialization. (SLD)
Research indicated that educators must consider socio-ecological accommodations because not all students learn in cooperative groups. Students must be taught how to discover the process of learning and to apply knowledge to real life situations. Gurian and Ballew (2003) identified differences in the male and female brain and the differences in how…
This essay explores Black male literacy practices as institutional critique at a large Midwestern land grant university. Through documenting a student's process of reinstatement at his university, I demonstrate how vernacular perspectives, language, and networking strategies are used for developing self-efficacy and critical literacies. Black…
Quimby, Julie L.; Wolfson, Jane L.; Seyala, Nazar D.
This study examined the influence of social cognitive variables on African American adolescents' interest in environmental science. The sample consisted of 132 (57 male, 75 female) high school seniors enrolled in an urban scientific and technical high school from which 95% of graduates continue in higher education. Results of the regression…
Pitchford-Nicholas, Gloria Jean
The preparedness of students to enter college is an ongoing issue of national concern. The purpose of the study was to conduct a mixed method descriptive case study to answer the question: "How African-American and Hispanic High School Students in an Urban Charter High School may benefit from the Early College High School Model of receiving…
Hunter, Andrea G.; Friend, Christian A.; Murphy, S. Yvette; Rollins, Alethea; Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay; Laughinghouse, Janzelean
Using an interpretivist approach, this article explores young African American men's (n = 20) reflections on coming of age and the meanings of father loss. Based on focus groups, the authors found that it was through autobiographical narratives of loss, survival, and redemption that young men positioned themselves ideologically and constructed the…
Sullivan, Elizabeth A.; Abramowitz, Carolyn S.; Lopez, Mabel; Kosson, David S.
The utility of the psychopathy construct in predicting laboratory deficits, criminal behavior, response to intervention, and recidivism has been well documented in European American populations. However, less is known about the manifestation and correlates of psychopathy in Latino and African American populations. The present study examined the…
Townsel, Norman L., Jr.
Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) holds that self-efficacy and outcome expectations are primary predictors of career choice goals and actions, with contextual influences moderating those choices and actions. Racial identity research indicates that African American adolescents perceive more barriers than their White counterparts. The current…
Doyle, Otima; Clark, Trenette T.; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana; Nebbitt, Von E.; Goldston, David B.; Estroff, Sue E.; Magan, Ifrah
Researchers have called for qualitative investigations into African American fathers’ parenting practices that consider their social context and identify specific practices. Such investigations can inform the way we conceptualize African American fathers’ parenting practices, which can in turn contribute to prevention interventions with at-risk youth. We conducted semi-structured, qualitative interviews about parenting with 30 self-identified, African American, biological fathers of pre-adolescent sons at-risk for developing aggressive behaviors, depressive symptoms, or both. Fathers provided descriptions of their parenting practices, which were at times influenced by their environmental context, fathers’ residential status, and masculine ideologies. Our systematic analysis revealed four related themes that emerged from the data: managing emotions, encouragement, discipline, and monitoring. Of particular note, fathers in the current sample emphasized the importance of teaching their sons to manage difficult emotions, largely utilized language consistent with male ideologies (i.e., encouragement rather than love or nurturance), and engaged in high levels of monitoring and discipline in response to perceived environmental challenges and the developmental needs of their sons. The findings provide deeper insight into the parenting practices of African American fathers who are largely understudied, and often misunderstood. Further, these findings highlight considerations that may have important implications for father-focused prevention interventions that support African American fathers, youth, and families. PMID:26366126
Winston, Deborah L.
A large, growing number of mis-educated American citizens are being produced by America's public schools. Many of these students are being funneled into the penal system shortly after dropping out of high school. This phenomenon is especially prevalent among African American male students, many of whom have withdrawn academically years prior…
Vidourek, Rebecca A; King, Keith A; Montgomery, LaTrice
This study examines the psychosocial determinants of marijuana use among youth. A total of 7,488 African American middle and high school students from 133 metropolitan private and public schools completed a survey assessing psychosocial factors associated with annual marijuana use. The PRIDE survey, a nationally recognized survey on substance use, was used to assess the frequency of marijuana use and the influence of psychosocial factors on marijuana use among African American students. Results indicated that 18.5% of African American youth used marijuana in the past year. Males were significantly more likely than females to report using marijuana. Engaging in risky behaviors, such as getting in trouble at school and with police and attending a party with alcohol and other drugs, were significantly correlated with annual marijuana use. Conversely, having multiple parent, teacher, and school protective factors reduced annual marijuana use in this population. Such findings may assist prevention specialists in developing interventions to reduce and prevent marijuana use.
Lippman, Sheri A.; Philip, Susan; Bernstein, Kyle; Neilands, Torsten B.; Lightfoot, Marguerita
Abstract A self-administered, street intercept survey was conducted in order to examine the relation of stigma and shame associated with sexually transmitted infections (STI) to STI testing practices, partner notification, and partner-delivered treatment among young African American men (n=108) in a low-income, urban community in San Francisco with high STI burden. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that increasing STI-related stigma was significantly associated with a decreased odds of STI testing, such that every standard deviation increase in stigma score was associated with 0.62 decreased odds of having been tested (aOR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.38–1.00), controlling for age. STI stigma was also significantly associated with a decreased willingness to notify non-main partners of an STI (aOR: 0.64 95% CI: 0.41–0.99). Participants with higher levels of stigma and shame were also significantly less likely to be willing to deliver STI medication to a partner (stigma aOR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.37–0.88; shame aOR 0.53 95% CI: 0.34–0.83). Findings suggest that STI-related stigma and shame, common in this population, could undermine STI testing, treatment, and partner notification programs. The medical establishment, one of the institutional factors to have reinforced this culture of stigma, must aid efforts to reduce its effects through providing integrated services, reframing sexual health in campaigns, educating clients, and providing wider options to aid disclosure and partner notification practices. PMID:25133501
Gardiner, Phillip S
Today, over 70% of African American smokers prefer menthol cigarettes, compared with 30% of White smokers. This unique social phenomenon was principally occasioned by the tobacco industry's masterful manipulation of the burgeoning Black, urban, segregated, consumer market in the 1960s. Through the use of television and other advertising media, coupled with culturally tailored images and messages, the tobacco industry "African Americanized" menthol cigarettes. The tobacco industry successfully positioned mentholated products, especially Kool, as young, hip, new, and healthy. During the time that menthols were gaining a large market share in the African American community, the tobacco industry donated funds to African American organizations hoping to blunt the attack on their products. Many of the findings in this article are drawn from the tobacco industry documents disclosed following the Master Settlement Agreement in 1998. After a short review of the origins and growth of menthols, this article examines some key social factors that, when considered together, led to disproportionate use of mentholated cigarettes by African Americans compared with other Americans. Unfortunately, the long-term impact of the industry's practice in this community may be partly responsible for the disproportionately high tobacco-related disease and mortality among African Americans generally and African American males particularly.
Jackson, Lisa D
This article will examine the social implications for African American homosexual males seeking to achieve the American Dream. Invisible Life and Just as I Am-the first two novels in a trilogy by the late E. Lynn Harris writing from a semi-autobiographical perspective in late-twentieth century America-will serve as the texts that drive this research topic. Careful analysis of these works will substantiate the assertion that the American Dream, even on the cusp of the new millennium, is just beyond the grasp of this specific subpopulation.
Schocker, Jessica B.; Woyshner, Christine
This article addresses the dearth of African American women in high school U.S. history textbooks. The authors conducted a content analysis of the images in an African American history textbook and found that black women are underrepresented. Women are found in less than 15 percent of the images in the African American history text, while they…
Gutiérrez, Orlando M.; Judd, Suzanne E.; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Zhi, Degui; Limdi, Nita; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Rich, Stephen S.; Sale, Michèle M.; Freedman, Barry I.
Background Two independent coding variants in the apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1), G1 and G2, strongly associate with nephropathy in African Americans; associations with cardiovascular disease are more controversial. Although APOL1 binds plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), data on APOL1 risk variant associations with HDL subfractions are sparse. Methods Two APOL1 G1 single nucleotide polymorphisms and the G2 insertion/deletion polymorphism were genotyped in 2010 Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study participants with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-based lipoprotein subfraction measurements. Linear regression was used to model associations between numbers of APOL1 G1/G2 risk variants and HDL subfractions, adjusting for demographic, clinical and ancestral covariates. Results Female sex and higher percentage of African ancestry were positively associated with the number of APOL1 G1/G2 risk alleles. In the unadjusted analysis, mean (standard error) small HDL concentrations (μmol/L) for participants with zero, one and two G1/G2 risk alleles were 19.0 (0.2), 19.7 (0.2) and 19.9 (0.4), respectively (P = 0.02). Adjustment for age, sex, diabetes and African ancestry did not change the results but strengthened the statistical significance (P = 0.004). No significant differences in large or medium HDL, very low-density lipoprotein or low-density lipoprotein particle concentrations were observed by APOL1 genotype. Conclusions Greater numbers of APOL1 G1/G2 risk alleles were associated with higher small HDL particle concentrations in African Americans. These results may suggest novel areas of investigation to uncover reasons for the association between APOL1 risk variants with adverse outcomes in African Americans. PMID:26152403
This collection for children tells the stories of 16 African Americans who helped make America what it is today. African Americans can take pride in the heritage of these contributors to society. Biographies are given for the following: (1) Sojourner Truth, preacher and abolitionist; (2) Frederick Douglass, abolitionist; (3) Harriet Tubman, leader…
Robinson, W. LaVome; Case, Mary H.; Whipple, Christopher R.; Gooden, Adia S.; Lopez-Tamayo, Roberto; Lambert, Sharon F.; Jason, Leonard A.
Suicide is an often-overlooked manifestation of violence among African American youth that has become more prevalent in the last two decades. This article reports on the process used to culturally adapt a cognitive-behavioral coping with stress prevention intervention for African American adolescents. We implemented this adapted school-based suicide prevention intervention with 758 African American 9th, 10th and 11th grade students at four high schools in a large Midwestern city. The findings presented are preliminary. The adolescents in this sample endorsed high levels of suicide risk, with females endorsing significantly more suicide risk than males. Those receiving the prevention intervention evidenced an 86% relative suicide risk reduction, compared to the standard care control participants. The presented model of adaptation and resulting culturally-grounded suicide prevention intervention significantly reduced suicide risk among African American adolescents. Clinical, research and policy implications are discussed. PMID:27517094
Robinson, W LaVome; Case, Mary H; Whipple, Christopher R; Gooden, Adia S; Lopez-Tamayo, Roberto; Lambert, Sharon F; Jason, Leonard A
Suicide is an often-overlooked manifestation of violence among African American youth that has become more prevalent in the last two decades. This article reports on the process used to culturally adapt a cognitive-behavioral coping with stress prevention intervention for African American adolescents. We implemented this adapted school-based suicide prevention intervention with 758 African American 9(th,) 10(th) and 11(th) grade students at four high schools in a large Midwestern city. The findings presented are preliminary. The adolescents in this sample endorsed high levels of suicide risk, with females endorsing significantly more suicide risk than males. Those receiving the prevention intervention evidenced an 86% relative suicide risk reduction, compared to the standard care control participants. The presented model of adaptation and resulting culturally-grounded suicide prevention intervention significantly reduced suicide risk among African American adolescents. Clinical, research and policy implications are discussed.
Nasim, Aashir; Belgrave, Faye Z.; Jagers, Robert J.; Wilson, Karen D.; Owens, Kristal
African-American adolescents have lower rates of alcohol consumption than White youth. However, African-American youth suffer disproportionately more adverse social, mental, and physical health outcomes related to alcohol use. Affiliating with negative peers is a risk factor for alcohol initiation and consumption. Cultural variables have shown…
... and Management System Report to Congress Knowledge Center Capacity Building Information Services Events Calendar Resource Guide Justice ... Workforce Diversity Grants Youth Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Black/African American ...
Miller, Tracie M.
Despite the research that has been conducted on the quality and effectiveness of teachers being linked to student achievement, little research has explored the perspectives of the teachers in comparison to those of both high performing and low performing high school African-American students. Since students and teachers are the two individuals who…
Raiford, Jerris Laverne; Seth, Puja; Braxton, Nikia D; DiClemente, Ralph J
Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been associated with adverse physical, psychoemotional, and sexual health, and African American women are at higher risk for experiencing IPV. Considering African American women predominantly have African American male partners, it is essential to identify factors associated with IPV perpetration among African American men. The present study examined attitudes toward IPV, ineffective couple conflict resolution, exposure to neighborhood violence, and the interplay of these factors as predictors of IPV perpetration. A community sample of 80 single, heterosexual, African American men between 18 and 29 years completed measures assessing sociodemographics, attitudes towards IPV, perceived ineffective couple conflict resolution, exposure to neighborhood violence, and IPV perpetration during the past 3 months. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses, with age, education, and public assistance as covariates, were conducted on 65 men who reported being in a main relationship. Couple conflict resolution and exposure to neighborhood violence moderated the relation between attitudes supporting IPV and IPV perpetration. Among men who reported high ineffective couple conflict resolution and high exposure to neighborhood violence, IPV perpetration increased as attitudes supporting IPV increased. The findings indicated that interpersonal- and community-level factors interact with individual level factors to increase the risk of recent IPV perpetration among African American men. While IPV prevention should include individual-level interventions that focus on skills building, these findings also highlight the importance of couple-, community-, and structural-level interventions.
... person’s chance of getting or transmitting HIV. The poverty rate is higher among African Americans than other racial/ethnic groups. The socioeconomic issues associated with poverty—including limited access to high-quality health care, ...
Gushue, George V.; Scanlan, Kolone R. L.; Pantzer, Karen M.; Clarke, Christine P.
This study explores the relationship between the social cognitive construct of career decision-making self-efficacy and the outcome variables of vocational identity and career exploration behaviors in a sample of 72 urban African American high school students. The results indicate that higher levels of career decision-making self-efficacy are…
James, Carmela N.
The purpose of this study was to examine the attrition rate of the African American high school student enrolled in advanced academics by looking at the effects of specific quantifiable variables on state-trait anxiety scores. More specifically, this study was concerned with the influence of demographic and school related factors on the…
Giscombe, Cheryl L.; Lobel, Marci
Compared with European Americans, African American infants experience disproportionately high rates of low birth weight and preterm delivery and are more than twice as likely to die during their 1st year of life. The authors examine 5 explanations for these differences in rates of adverse birth outcomes: (a) ethnic differences in health behaviors…
Luster, Tom; McAdoo, Harriette Pipes
Used Perry Preschool data on 121 African American adolescents to explore correlates of self-esteem. Higher self-esteem scores were expected for youths who had experienced success in areas important to them and who perceived that significant others regarded them highly. Data supported the hypothesis that the effects of teens' accomplishments and…
Literature has postulated that noncognitive or psychosocial variables are a strong predictor of African American and international students persisting in college. Using a modified version of the Noncognitive-Revised (NCQ-R) questionnaire developed by Tracey and Sedlacek (1984), this mixed methods descriptive study investigated the relationships…
African-American Men and Higher Education in Maryland. Addressing the Future. Findings and Recommendations of the Task Force To Address the Decline in Enrollment and Graduation of the Black Male from Institutions of Higher Education.
NAACP, Rockville, MD. Montgomery County Branch.
Original data is presented which examines some of the factors that contribute to the low number of African-American males receiving baccalaureate degrees in Maryland. The data represents findings which resulted from research by an appointed task force; a "Town Meeting" of students, parents, and other interested adults; consultation with…
Gutzmer, Kyle; Ludwig-Barron, Natasha T; Wyatt, Gail E; Hamilton, Alison B; Stockman, Jamila K
We examined African American women's experiences of communication with their male intimate partners a couple of hours before and after an incident of unwanted sex. We also examined women's experiences of disclosure following an incident of unwanted sex. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with a community-based sample of sexually active African American women (n = 19) reporting at least one incident of sexual coercion (i.e., being pressured into unwanted sex without consent) by an intimate male partner since the age of 18. Our analysis was guided by "the sexual division of power" from Connell's (1987) theory of gender and power. Data were analyzed inductively by examining the interviews for common themes in the following domains: communication before the unwanted sex, communication after the unwanted sex, and disclosure to others. Men pressured partners for unwanted sex through verbal and non-verbal tactics, ranging from pestering and blunt requests for sex to verbal bullying and violence. Many women responded by clearly saying no. However, many women also described eventually ceasing to resist their partners and engaging in unwanted sex. After the unwanted sex, men actively and passively avoided discussing the incident. Although many women discussed the unwanted sex with family and friends, less women disclosed to trained professionals. In some cases, women did not discuss the incident with anyone at all. These findings indicate that, when addressing sexual violence against women, there is a need to target men as well as the norms of masculinity that underpin physical and sexual violence against women.
Much has been written about reading disparities between African American males and other student groups. Interestingly, the majority of this scholarship focuses on African American males at preadolescent states of development and beyond. To date, relatively little has been documented relative to improving reading outcomes in African American males…
Davis, S P
This historical reconstruction of the experiences of African American women in America from slavery to the present exposes the prevailing and enduring system of White male domination. From White men having control of their reproductive choices, to conspiracy to withhold the right to vote, African American women were victims of both sexism and racism. Later, as a result of the myth conceived by White sociologists of the super African American woman, further divisiveness became apparent in the African American home. As African American women took advantage of educational opportunities only to find that there was a dearth of similarly educated African American males to marry, increasing numbers of African American men were reported as parties to violent acts, drugs or illness. All of these variables are conjectured as impacting on the African American woman's experience. Lastly, data were presented depicting the increasing trend of African American women marrying White men, and the emergence of a more diverse workforce. It was concluded that economics serve as a catalyst for this change in human relations.
Surratt, David Alan
With institutional importance placed on diversity in higher education, considerable research has been conducted regarding the experiences of African Americans at predominantly White institutions. However, the focus has been limited regarding African American administrators in higher education (Jackson, 2004; Allen, 2000; Weems, 2003). The purpose…
Parris, George P.; Owens, Delila; Johnson, Tyrone; Grbevski, Sonja; Holbert-Quince, Joanne
African Americans face numerous obstacles in achieving their fullest developmental and career potentials in the current political, social, and economic environment. These barriers have produced, for the most part, workers who have been wage earners as opposed to being self-employed, and blue-collar workers rather than managers or proprietors…
Galloway, Stephanie Nicole
African American women maintain distinctive social locations at the intersection of race, gender, and class (Crenshaw, 1991; Collins, 1986; 2000; Wing, 2003). However, their voices, interpretation of experiences, and concern with the use of formal education as a mechanism for racial uplift have not been priorities in feminist movements (hooks, 1981; 1989; Perkins, 1993; Smith, 1998; Spitzack & Carter, 1987). Alternatively, Black feminist thought (Collins, 1990; 2000) is a theory constructed by and for African American women. Given the consequences of pursuing formal education in the histories of African American women and the paucity of African American women represented in STEM fields, the purpose of this study was to (a) reveal how African American women conducting research in STEM disciplines accomplished their professional goals, (b) learn how the women negotiated their multiple identities (i.e. race, gender, and class), (c) link the history of educational experiences among African Americans with agendas for social justice, (d) understand how African American women in STEM align their personal accomplishments with broader agendas for activism in higher education, and (e) discover whether there is a collective identity that successful African American women in STEM share. Using Black feminist thought (Collins, 1986; 2000) and narrative analysis of semi- interviews with eight African American women in STEM, the findings from this study revealed: (a) the women in this study described the challenges of pursuing a career in STEM from a feminist perspective, identifying gender as more significant than race; (b) the women in this study experienced more positive interactions with Black male, White female, and White male mentors than with Black female mentors; (c) the women in this study described the use of empowering strategies for overcoming obstacles in their academic pathways; and (d) their collective academic identities were formed by early interactions with
... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...
Kawai, Makoto; O'Hara, Ruth; Einen, Mali; Lin, Ling; Mignot, Emmanuel
Study Objectives: Although narcolepsy affects 0.02–0.05% of individuals in various ethnic groups, clinical presentation in different ethnicities has never been fully characterized. Our goal was to study phenotypic expression across ethnicities in the United States. Design/Setting: Cases of narcolepsy from 1992 to 2013 were identified from searches of the Stanford Center for Narcolepsy Research database. International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition diagnosis criteria for type 1 and type 2 narcolepsy were used for inclusion, but subjects were separated as with and without cataplexy for the purpose of data presentation. Information extracted included demographics, ethnicity and clinical data, HLA-DQB1*06:02, polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) data, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1 level. Patients: 182 African-Americans, 839 Caucasians, 35 Asians, and 41 Latinos with narcolepsy. Results: Sex ratio, PSG, and MSLT findings did not differ across ethnicities. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score was higher and age of onset of sleepiness earlier in African Americans compared with other ethnicities. HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity was higher in African Americans (91.0%) versus others (76.6% in Caucasians, 80.0% in Asians, and 65.0% in Latinos). CSF hypocretin-1 level, obtained in 222 patients, was more frequently low (≤ 110 pg/ml) in African Americans (93.9%) versus Caucasians (61.5%), Asians (85.7%) and Latinos (75.0%). In subjects with low CSF hypocretin-1, African Americans (28.3%) were 4.5 fold more likely to be without cataplexy when compared with Caucasians (8.1%). Conclusions: Narcolepsy in African Americans is characterized by earlier symptom onset, higher Epworth Sleepiness Scale score, higher HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity, and low cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 level in the absence of cataplexy. In African Americans, more subjects without cataplexy have type 1 narcolepsy. Citation: Kawai M, O'Hara R, Einen M, Lin L
Payton, Erica; Thompson, Amy; Price, James H; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Dake, Joseph A
Firearm mortality is the leading cause of death for young African American males, however, few studies have focused on racial/ethnic minority populations and firearm violence. The National Black Caucus of State Legislators advocates for legislation that promotes the health of African Americans. Thus, the purpose of this study was to collect baseline data on African American legislators' perceptions regarding firearm violence in the African American community. A cross-sectional study of African American legislators (n = 612) was conducted to investigate the research questions. Of the 612 questionnaires mailed, 12 were not deliverable, and 170 were returned (28%). Utilizing a three wave mailing process, African American legislators were invited to participate in the study. The majority (88%) of respondents perceived firearm violence to be very serious among African Americans. Few (10%) legislators perceived that addressing legislative issues would be an effective strategy in reducing firearm violence among African Americans. The majority (72%) of legislators perceived the most effective strategy to reducing firearm violence in the African American community should focus on addressing societal issues (e.g. crime and poverty). After adjusting for the number of perceived barriers, the number of perceived benefits was a significant predictor of legislators' perceived effectiveness of firearm violence prevention legislation for 8 of the 24 potential firearm violence prevention legislative bills.
Ciubotaru, Irina; Green, Stefan J; Kukreja, Subhash; Barengolts, Elena
The importance of gut microbiota in pathogenesis of diabetes remains unknown. This study investigated the relationship between microbiota and metabolic markers in African American men (AAM) with prediabetes and hypovitaminosis D. The study was ancillary to a randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation with weekly ergocalciferol (50,000 IU) conducted in AAM veterans over 12 months (D Intervention in Veterans Affairs). Glycemic groups (Gr) were characterized based on changes in oral glucose tolerance between baseline and exit. Subjects with stable normal glucose tolerance were assigned to Gr-1 and those with stable prediabetes (impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose) to Gr-2. Microbiota composition was analyzed in stool collected at the exit (n = 115) and compared between Gr-1 and Gr-2, as well as between the lowest and highest quartiles of dietary intake of energy and fat, hemoglobin A1c, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) level. Differences between Gr-1 and Gr-2 included the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes and Bacteroidales/Clostridia ratios and differences in genera such as Ruminococcus and Dialister. Changes in specific taxa associated with the lowest and highest quartiles of 25(OH)D (eg, Ruminococcus, Roseburia, Blautia, Dorea) were clearly distinct from those of dietary intake (eg, Bacteroides, Bacteroides/Prevotella ratio) or A1c (eg, Faecalibacterium, Catenibacterium, Streptococcus). These findings suggest a novel interaction between microbiota and vitamin D and a role for microbiota in early stages of diabetes development. Although results suggest that specific taxa are associated with glycemic stability over time, a causative relationship between microbiota makeup and dysglycemia is still to be demonstrated.
CIUBOTARU, IRINA; GREEN, STEFAN J.; KUKREJA, SUBHASH; BARENGOLTS, ELENA
The importance of gut microbiota in pathogenesis of diabetes remains unknown. This study investigated the relationship between microbiota and metabolic markers in African American men (AAM) with prediabetes and hypovitaminosis D. The study was ancillary to a randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation with weekly ergocalciferol (50,000 IU) conducted in AAM veterans over 12 months (D Intervention in Veterans Affairs). Glycemic groups (Gr) were characterized based on changes in oral glucose tolerance between baseline and exit. Subjects with stable normal glucose tolerance were assigned to Gr-1 and those with stable prediabetes (impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose) to Gr-2. Microbiota composition was analyzed in stool collected at the exit (n = 115) and compared between Gr-1 and Gr-2, as well as between the lowest and highest quartiles of dietary intake of energy and fat, hemoglobin A1c, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) level. Differences between Gr-1 and Gr-2 included the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes and Bacteroidales/Clostridia ratios and differences in genera such as Ruminococcus and Dialister. Changes in specific taxa associated with the lowest and highest quartiles of 25(OH) D (eg, Ruminococcus, Roseburia, Blautia, Dorea) were clearly distinct from those of dietary intake (eg, Bacteroides, Bacteroides/Prevotella ratio) or A1c (eg, Faecalibacterium, Catenibacterium, Streptococcus). These findings suggest a novel interaction between microbiota and vitamin D and a role for microbiota in early stages of diabetes development. Although results suggest that specific taxa are associated with glycemic stability over time, a causative relationship between microbiota makeup and dysglycemia is still to be demonstrated. PMID:26209747
Reviews the opportunities available in the field of agriculture for African American students and notes efforts of the 136 colleges of agriculture to publicize their offerings and recruit students. Profiles six black leaders in agriculture, highlighting their achievements in research and aid to developing countries. A table provides data on annual…
Lehto, Rebecca H; Song, Lixin; Stein, Karen F; Coleman-Burns, Patricia
African American men have the highest prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates worldwide, but have lower screening rates compared with Caucasian men. The purpose of the study was to identify social ecological factors that affect screening behaviors in African American men, knowledge that could be integral to the design of culturally appropriate interventions. The exploratory study included 60 African American males recruited from the greater Detroit metropolitan area. Social ecological variables examined included age, marital status, presence of health insurance, education, health values and behaviors, physician trust, and perceived stress coping (John Henryism). Analyses included descriptives, chi-square tests, one-way ANOVAs, and logistic regression. Findings concluded that a parsimonious model consisting of two variables (age and health values) was predictive. African American males, > or =50 years, with higher positive health values were more likely to obtain screening. Findings imply the importance of health values and targeted educational and screening interventions for younger African American men.
Randolph, Schenita D; Coakley, Tanya; Shears, Jeffrey; Thorpe, Roland J
African-American males ages 13 through 24 are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), accounting for over half of all HIV infections in this age group in the United States. Clear communication between African-American parents and their youth about sexual health is associated with higher rates of sexual abstinence, condom use, and intent to delay initiation of sexual intercourse. However, little is known about African-American fathers' perceptions of what facilitates and inhibits sexual health communication with their preadolescent and adolescent sons. We conducted focus groups with 29 African-American fathers of sons ages 10-15 to explore perceived facilitators and barriers for father-son communication about sexual health. Participants were recruited from barbershops in metropolitan and rural North Carolina communities highly affected by STIs and HIV, and data were analyzed using content analysis. Three factors facilitated father-son communication: (a) fathers' acceptance of their roles and responsibilities; (b) a positive father-son relationship; and (c) fathers' ability to speak directly to their sons about sex. We also identified three barriers: (a) fathers' difficulty in initiating sexual health discussions with their sons; (b) sons' developmental readiness for sexual health information; and (c) fathers' lack of experience in talking with their own fathers about sex. These findings have implications for father-focused prevention interventions aimed at reducing risky sexual behaviors in adolescent African-American males. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Guda, Kishore; Veigl, Martina L.; Varadan, Vinay; Nosrati, Arman; Ravi, Lakshmeswari; Lutterbaugh, James; Beard, Lydia; Willson, James K. V.; Sedwick, W. David; Wang, Zhenghe John; Molyneaux, Neil; Miron, Alexander; Adams, Mark D.; Elston, Robert C.; Markowitz, Sanford D.; Willis, Joseph E.
We used whole-exome and targeted sequencing to characterize somatic mutations in 103 colorectal cancers (CRC) from African Americans, identifying 20 new genes as significantly mutated in CRC. Resequencing 129 Caucasian derived CRCs confirmed a 15-gene set as a preferential target for mutations in African American CRCs. Two predominant genes, ephrin type A receptor 6 (EPHA6) and folliculin (FLCN), with mutations exclusive to African American CRCs, are by genetic and biological criteria highly likely African American CRC driver genes. These previously unsuspected differences in the mutational landscapes of CRCs arising among individuals of different ethnicities have potential to impact on broader disparities in cancer behaviors. PMID:25583493
DeSantis, Carol; Naishadham, Deepa; Jemal, Ahmedin
In this article, the American Cancer Society estimates the number of new cancer cases and deaths for African Americans and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and screening prevalence based upon incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. It is estimated that 176,620 new cases of cancer and 64,880 deaths will occur among African Americans in 2013. From 2000 to 2009, the overall cancer death rate among males declined faster among African Americans than whites (2.4% vs 1.7% per year), but among females, the rate of decline was similar (1.5% vs 1.4% per year, respectively). The decrease in cancer death rates among African American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. The reduction in overall cancer death rates since 1990 in men and 1991 in women translates to the avoidance of nearly 200,000 deaths from cancer among African Americans. Five-year relative survival is lower for African Americans than whites for most cancers at each stage of diagnosis. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors remains an active area of research. Overall, progress in reducing cancer death rates has been made, although more can and should be done to accelerate this progress through ensuring equitable access to cancer prevention, early detection, and state-of-the-art treatments.
Reed, Elizabeth; Lawrence, Danielle A; Santana, M C; Welles, C Seth L; Horsburgh, C Robert; Silverman, Jay G; Rich, John A; Raj, Anita
The purpose of this study is to determine if experiences of physical violence during early and late adolescence (12-21 years) places urban Black males at increased risk for interpersonal violence perpetration beyond young adulthood (30 years and older). Participants of this cross-sectional study were Black and African American men (N = 455) between the ages of 30 and 65 years, recruited from four urban clinical sites in the Northeast. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze the relation of adolescent experiences of violence to: (1) past 6 month street violence involvement and (2) past year intimate partner violence perpetration. Ten percent of the sample reported that they experienced adolescent victimization. Men reporting adolescent victimization were significantly more likely to report past 6-month street violence involvement (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 3.2, 95 % CI = 1.7-6.3) and past 6 month intimate partner violence perpetration (AOR = 2.8, 95 % CI = 1.8-5.4) compared to men who did not report such victimization. Study findings suggest that in order to prevent adulthood perpetration of violence, more work is needed to address experiences of victimization among young Black males, particularly violence experienced during adolescence.
Thompson, Vetta L. Sanders; Akbar, Maysa D.; Bazile, Anita
The attitudes and beliefs about utilization of mental health services of 201 African Americans, 18 years and older, are explored. One hundred and thirty-four females and 66 males participated in mixed sex focus groups conducted in an urban, Midwestern city. Discussion probes addressed participant perceptions of psychotherapists and psychotherapy,…
Rury, John L.; Hill, Shirley
This paper considers African-American student protests in secondary schools during the 1960s and early 1970s. Taking a national perspective, it charts a growing sense of independence and militancy among black students as they made the schools a focal point of activism. Activist students challenged established civil rights organisations on a…
Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Raman, Aarthi; Sharma, Sushma; Fitch, Mark D.; Fleming, Sharon E.
Objective: To identify family and child nutrition and dietary attributes related to children's dietary intakes. Design: African American children (ages 8-11 years, n = 156), body mass index greater than 85th percentile, from urban, low-income neighborhoods. Baseline, cross-sectional data collected as part of an ongoing diabetes prevention…
Braddock, Jomills Henry, II; Lv, Hua; Dawkins, Marvin P.
This study extends research on college choice, with recent national survey data, by examining what African American students say about the importance of college athletic reputation in choosing which school to attend. We use the Educational Longitudinal Survey to examine the overall distribution of self-reported factors that shape college choices…
Bolland, John M; Bryant, Chalandra M; Lian, Bradley E; McCallum, Debra M; Vazsonyi, Alexander T; Barth, Joan M
Youths growing up in low-income inner-city neighborhoods are at substantial risk for initiating substance use, violent behavior, and sexual intercourse at early ages; these risk behaviors continue at comparatively high rates through adolescence. Hopelessness has been implicated as a risk factor for these behaviors. In this paper, we consider how race influences this process. African Americans form a demographic minority within the United States, but they are often the majority within inner-city neighborhoods. For Caucasians, the opposite typically holds. Mixed-race populations form a minority within both contexts. Using longitudinal data, we examine the relationship between race and risk behaviors in several impoverished inner-city neighborhoods where African Americans form the distinct majority and Caucasians and people of mixed racial heritage form a small minority. We also consider how race moderates the relationship between hopelessness and risk behavior. Our findings show that compared to Caucasian or mixed-race adolescents, African American adolescents are less likely to engage in risk behaviors, and that hopelessness has a less important impact on their behaviors.
Strachan, Samantha L.
The underachievement of African American students in science has been a persistent problem in science education. The achievement patterns of African American students indicate that researchers must take a closer look at the types of practices that are being used to meet these students' needs in science classrooms. Determining why science teachers decide to employ certain practices in their classrooms begins with a careful examination of teachers' beliefs as well as their instructional approaches. The purpose of this study was to explore four urban high school science teachers' beliefs about their African American students' learning needs and to investigate how these teachers go about addressing students' needs in science classrooms. This research study also explored the extent to which teachers' practices aligned with the nine dimensions of an established cultural instructional theory, namely the Black Cultural Ethos. Qualitative research methods were employed to gather data from the four teachers. Artifact data were collected from the teachers and they were interviewed and observed. Believing that their students had academic-related needs as well as needs tied to their learning preferences, the four science teachers employed a variety of instructional strategies to meet their students where they were in learning. Overall, the instructional strategies that the teachers employed to meet their students' needs aligned with five of the nine tenets of the Black Cultural Ethos theory.
Ruddy, Barbara E.; Mayer, Anita P.; Ko, Marcia G.; Labonte, Helene R.; Borovansky, Jill A.; Boroff, Erika S.; Blair, Janis E.
Coccidioidomycosis is caused by Coccidioides species, a fungus endemic to the desert regions of the southwestern United States, and is of particular concern for African Americans. We performed a PubMed search of the English-language medical literature on coccidioidomycosis in African Americans and summarized the pertinent literature. Search terms were coccidioidomycosis, Coccidioides, race, ethnicity, African, black, and Negro. The proceedings of the national and international coccidioidomycosis symposia were searched. All relevant articles and their cited references were reviewed; those with epidemiological, immunologic, clinical, and therapeutic data pertaining to coccidioidomycosis in African Americans were included in the review. Numerous studies documented an increased predilection for severe coccidioidal infections, coccidioidomycosis-related hospitalizations, and extrapulmonary dissemination in persons of African descent; however, most of the published studies are variably problematic. The immunologic mechanism for this predilection is unclear. The clinical features and treatment recommendations are summarized. Medical practitioners need to be alert to the possibility of coccidioidomycosis in persons with recent travel to or residence in an area where the disease is endemic. PMID:21193657
Neblett, Enrique W., Jr.; Smalls, Ciara P.; Ford, Kahlil R.; Nguyen, Hoa X.; Sellers, Robert M.
This study uses two waves of data to examine the relationships among patterns of racial socialization experiences and racial identity in a sample of 358 African American adolescents (60% female and 40% male). Using latent class analyses, we identified three patterns of adolescent-reported racial socialization experiences: High Positive, Moderate…
Schiele, Jerome H.
A study of 264 full-time African American social work faculty explored effects of gender, degree level, rank, tenure, and program type on manuscript submission to journals. Most manuscripts were submitted by a minority of subjects, about half were accepted, and high submission rates correlated with being male and having a doctorate. (Author/MSE)
Krossa, Cheryl Delemos
Many studies have been conducted in the area of job satisfaction. Its necessary attributes sor components have been studied, analyzed, validated, standardized, and normed, onpredominantly white male populations. Few of these studies have focused on people of color, specifically African-Americans, and fewer still on those African-Americans working in a high-tech, scientific and research environments. The researchers have defined what is necessary for the current dominent culture`s population, but are their findings applicable and valid for our nation`s other cultures and ethnic groups? Among the conclusions: the subjects felt that there was no real difference in job satisfiers from their white colleagues; however the subjects had the sense of community (African-American) and the need to give back to it. Frustrations included politics, funding, and lack of control.
Educational leaders and institutions struggle with increasing the persistence and graduation rates of Black male college students. Research on Black male college students has often been approached from a deficit lens that shows their challenges and poor academic tenure. This study explored what internal and external tools were utilized by Black…
Sorvillo, F.; Smith, L.; Kerndt, P.; Ash, L.
Trichomonas vaginalis may be emerging as one of the most important cofactors in amplifying HIV transmission, particularly in African-American communities of the United States. In a person co-infected with HIV, the pathology induced by T. vaginalis infection can increase HIV shedding. Trichomonas infection may also act to expand the portal of entry for HIV in an HIV-negative person. Studies from Africa have suggested that T. vaginalis infection may increase the rate of HIV transmission by approximately twofold. Available data indicate that T. vaginalis is highly prevalent among African-Americans in major urban centers of the United States and is often the most common sexually transmitted infection in black women. Even if T. vaginalis increases the risk of HIV transmission by a small amount, this could translate into an important amplifying effect since Trichomonas is so common. Substantial HIV transmission may be attributable to T. vaginalis in African-American communities of the United States. PMID:11747718
President Obama signed the "White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for African Americans" on July 26, 2012. This executive order recognizes that many "African Americans lack equal access to highly effective teachers and principals, safe schools, and challenging college preparatory classes, and disproportionately experience…
Barengolts, Elena; Manickam, Buvana; Eisenberg, Yuval; Akbar, Arfana; Kukreja, Subhash; Ciubotaru, Irina
Objective This double blind, randomized, controlled trial evaluated 12 months high dose vitamin D2 supplementation for improving insulin sensitivity, secretion and glycemic status. Methods African American men with prediabetes (A1C 5.7 – 6.4%), hypovitaminosis D (25OHD 5 – 29 ng/ml), and prevalent medical problems were supplemented with vitamin D3 (400 IU/day) and then randomized to weekly placebo or vitamin D2 (50,000 IU). The primary outcome was the change in oral glucose insulin sensitivity (OGIS, from oral glucose tolerance test) after 12 months of treatment. Secondary outcomes included other glycemic indices, A1C and incident diabetes. Results Baseline characteristics were similar in vitamin D-supplemented (n = 87) and placebo (n = 86) subjects completing the trial with average concentrations 14.4 ng/ml, 362 and 6.1% for 25OHD, OGIS and A1C, respectively. After 12 months vitamin D-supplemented group had a change in serum 25OHD +35 vs +6 ng/ml for placebo, p<0.001; OGIS +7.8 vs −16.0 for placebo, p = 0.026; and A1C −0.01 vs +0.01% for placebo, p = 0.66; while 10% in both groups progressed to diabetes. A post hoc analysis of participants with baseline impaired fasting glucose showed that more subjects in the vitamin D subgroup (31.6%) than placebo (8.3%) returned to normal glucose tolerance, but the difference did not reach significance (p=0.13). Conclusion The trial does not provide evidence that 12 months of high-dose D2 repletion improves clinically relevant glycemic outcomes in subjects with prediabetes and hypovitaminosis D (NCT01375660). PMID:25716637
Williams, Sandra F; Nicholas, Susanne B; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Norris, Keith C
African Americans have exceptionally high rates of hypertension and hypertension related complications. It is commonly reported that the blood pressure lowering efficacy of renin angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors is attenuated in African Americans due to a greater likelihood of having a low renin profile. Therefore these agents are often not recommended as initial therapy in African Americans with hypertension. However, the high prevalence of comorbid conditions, such as diabetes, cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease makes treatment with RAS inhibitors more compelling. Despite lower circulating renin levels and a less significant fall in blood pressure in response to RAS inhibitors in African Americans, numerous clinical trials support the efficacy of RAS inhibitors to improve clinical outcomes in this population, especially in those with hypertension and risk factors for cardiovascular and related diseases. Here, we discuss the rationale of RAS blockade as part of a comprehensive approach to attenuate the high rates of premature morbidity and mortality associated with hypertension among African Americans. PMID:25276290
Ferdinand, Keith C; Armani, Annemarie M
The prevalence of hypertension in blacks in the United States is among the highest in the world. Compared with whites, blacks develop hypertension at an earlier age, their average blood pressures are much higher and they experience worse disease severity. Consequently, blacks have a 1.3 times greater rate of nonfatal stroke, 1.8 times greater rate of fatal stroke, 1.5 times greater rate of heart disease death, 4.2 times greater rate of end-stage kidney disease, and a 50% higher frequency of heart failure; overall, mortality due to hypertension and its consequences is 4 to 5 times more likely in African Americans than in whites. The increased prevalence of hypertension and excessive target organ damage is due to a combination of genetic and, most likely, environmental factors. There are no clinical trial data at present to suggest that lower-than-usual BP targets should be set for high-risk demographic groups such as African Americans. The primary means of prevention and early treatment of hypertension in African Americans will be the appropriate use of lifestyle modification. The International Society of Hypertension in Blacks guidelines realize that most patients will require combination therapy, many of them first-line, to reach appropriate BP goals. Although certain classes and combinations of antihypertensive agents have been well-established to be effective, the choice of drugs for combination therapy in African American patients may be different. Within the African American group, the responsiveness to monotherapy with ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and beta blockers may be less than the responsiveness to diuretics and calcium channel blockers, but these differences are corrected when diuretics are added to the neurohormonal antagonists. Of note, African American patients with systolic BP >15 mm Hg or a diastolic BP >10 mm Hg above goal should be treated with first-line combination therapy.
Newman, Lori M; Berman, Stuart M
This article reviews the epidemiology of sexually transmitted disease (STD) disparities for African American communities in the United States. Data are reviewed from a variety of sources such as national case reporting and population-based studies. Data clearly show a disproportionately higher burden of STDs in African American communities compared with white communities. Although disparities exist for both viral and bacterial STDs, disparities are greatest for bacterial STDs such as gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis. Gonorrhea rates among African Americans are highest for adolescents and young adults, and disparities are greatest for adolescent men. Although disparities for men who have sex with men (MSM) are not as great as for heterosexual populations, STD rates for both white and African American MSM populations are high, so efforts to address disparities must also include African American MSM. Individual risk behavior and sociodemographic characteristics of African Americans do not seem to account fully for increased STD rates for African Americans. Population-level determinants such as sexual networks seem to play an important role in STD disparities. An understanding of the epidemiology of STD disparities is critical for identifying appropriate strategies and tailoring strategies for African American communities. Active efforts are needed to reduce not only the physical consequences of STDs, such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic pain, newborn disease, and increased risk of HIV infection, but also the social consequences of STDs such as economic burden, shame, and stigma.
Hall, Ronald E.
Discusses the impact of racial stereotyping on the performance of African American and European American athletes, providing an alternative to race-based intelligence differentials. Focuses on stereotypes of African American men; the Bell Curve; the high proportion of African Americans in U.S. athletics; and masculinity and the stereotype of the…
Romney, Paulette B.
High attrition rates of African American college students' is a continuing concern of higher education administrators. This is particularly true of African American men attending community college. African American men consistently experience low levels of scholastic achievement as a result of entering college underprepared, with academic deficits…
Riccio, Cynthia A.; Ochoa, Salvador Hector; Garza, Sylvia G.; Nero, Collette L.
Research indicates that high numbers of African American children receive special education services. To address the overrepresentation of African Americans in special education, this study examined the source of referral and the behaviors that precipitate the referral of African Americans for evaluation due to behavioral or emotional concerns.…
McDade, Rhyanne S; King, Keith A; Vidourek, Rebecca A; Merianos, Ashley L
The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with school violence perpetration among African American youth. African American students in 7th through 12th grade (n = 7488) in schools within one Metropolitan area completed the Pride National Drug Survey. Chi square analyses revealed school violence perpetration significantly differed based on grade and prosocial behavioral involvement. Students in 7th-8th grade (54.7%) were more likely to engage in school violence in comparison to 9th-12th grade students (48.8%). Students with low prosocial behavior (52.8%) involvement were more likely than their counterparts (48.9%) to engage in school violence perpetration. Logistic regression also indicated females and 9th-12th students with low prosocial behavior involvement were significantly less likely than their counterparts to engage in school violence. Findings should be considered by health educators and prevention specialists when developing programs and efforts to prevent in school violence perpetration among African American students.
Ellis, Wendy Taylor
This qualitative study investigated the internal and external protective factors that serve to ameliorate barriers to academic achievement posed by the cultural factors of poverty, minority status, and rural residence for high-ability students, rendering them academically resilient. While there has been ample research on underachievement among…
Schoener, Herbert Joseph, III; McKenzie, Kathryn Bell
Although much of the current educational research literature on achievement gaps has focused on core curricular areas in public schools, few have focused on racially identifiable gaps in non-core areas such as high school foreign languages. These achievement, and thus advancement, gaps often result in the under-representation of students of color…
Thompson, Gail L.; Allen, Tawannah G.
In order to ensure that American students are competitive with students in other countries, since the 1980s, U.S. policymakers have been trying to improve the K-12 public school system. Recent reform efforts have led to the current high-stakes testing movement, which measures student achievement and school effectiveness mainly by standardized test…
Morowski, Deborah L.; Davis, O. L., Jr.
"Race, ethnicity, and poverty are poor excuses for low expectations" (Monroe 1997, 111). Negro educators who forged an academic haven for secondary students in the early twentieth century held as strongly to this belief as did Monroe, an urban Black educator, a century and a half later. Whereas the American high school movement gained…
Rosenbloom, Susan Rakosi; Way, Niobe
Interviews and participant observation are used to describe how ethnic minority students in an urban high school experience discrimination. The findings suggest critical variations among students that contributed to a hostile school environment. Asian American students discussed physical and verbal harassment by peers, while Black and Latino…
Bogart, Laura M.; Thorburn, Sheryl
Although prior research shows that substantial proportions of African Americans hold conspiracy beliefs, little is known about the subgroups of African Americans most likely to endorse such beliefs. We examined the relationship of African Americans' sociodemographic characteristics to their conspiracy beliefs about HIV/AIDS and birth control. Anonymous telephone surveys were conducted with a targeted random-digit-dial sample of 500 African Americans (15-44 years) in the contiguous United States. Respondents reported agreement with statements capturing beliefs in HIV/AIDS conspiracies (one scale) and birth control conspiracies (two scales). Sociodemographic variables included gender, age, education, employment, income, number of people income supports, number of living children, marital/cohabitation status, religiosity and black identity. Multivariate analyses indicated that stronger HIV/AIDS conspiracy beliefs were significantly associated with male gender, black identity and lower income. Male gender and lower education were significantly related to black genocide conspiracy beliefs, and male gender and high religiosity were significantly related to contraceptive safety conspiracy beliefs. The set of sociodemographic characteristics explained a moderately small amount of the variance in conspiracy beliefs regarding HIV/AIDS (R2 range=0.07-0.12) and birth control (R2 range=0.05-0.09). Findings suggest that conspiracy beliefs are not isolated to specific segments of the African-American population. PMID:16895286
Tauriac, Jesse J.; Scruggs, Natoschia
Perceptions of extreme, moderate, and mild forms of elder abuse among African-American women (n=25) and men (n=10) were examined. African-American respondents emphasized physical abuse when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Along with physical abuse, verbal abuse was the most frequently identified form of abuse, and was significantly…
Wright, Dianne; Taylor, Janice D.; Burrell, Charlotte; Stewart, Gregory
This article explores the issues of African American participation in the administrative ranks of the academy. The authors find that African Americans tend to hold positions that are marginal in academic organizations, lacking power and influence, and that not much has changed over recent decades. Forces influencing this condition are explored,…
Sigmon, Scott B.
To better serve people in a counseling relationship, it is useful to understand them not only culturally, but demographically as well. This paper traces historical, religious, demographic aspects and treatment of alcohol abuse in African Americans. Historically, alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence have varied for African Americans. During the…
It is beneficial to any institution of higher education to be able to understand why some students are able to persist to graduation and why some students leave college prematurely. Factors concerning retention and persistence of African American men have been a "hot topic" of discussion in higher education. The purpose of this…
Anthony, Taiwanna D.; Kritsonis, William Allan; Herrington, David E.
One could argue that advance teacher training does not make a difference in student achievement. According to William Sanders, a Professor at the University of Tennessee, the single most dominate factor affecting student achievement gain is teachers advance training. African American students make up 17 percent of the public school population…
Jackson, Darrell D.
Despite the vast research on African Americans and affirmative action, little qualitative analysis has been done to investigate how race exists and functions in American law schools. This dissertation researches the ways in which race is constructed, deconstructed, and reconstructed within two American law schools. Three primary lenses guide this…
Toms, Ozalle Marie
According to Planty et al. (2009) in 2006, nearly 3.3 million students in the United States received out of school suspensions, demonstrating that exclusionary discipline is on the rise and a frequently used practice in schools across the country. Research shows that African Americans are suspended at higher rates and are more likely to receive…
Bryc, Katarzyna; Auton, Adam; Nelson, Matthew R; Oksenberg, Jorge R; Hauser, Stephen L; Williams, Scott; Froment, Alain; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Wambebe, Charles; Tishkoff, Sarah A; Bustamante, Carlos D
Quantifying patterns of population structure in Africans and African Americans illuminates the history of human populations and is critical for undertaking medical genomic studies on a global scale. To obtain a fine-scale genome-wide perspective of ancestry, we analyze Affymetrix GeneChip 500K genotype data from African Americans (n = 365) and individuals with ancestry from West Africa (n = 203 from 12 populations) and Europe (n = 400 from 42 countries). We find that population structure within the West African sample reflects primarily language and secondarily geographical distance, echoing the Bantu expansion. Among African Americans, analysis of genomic admixture by a principal component-based approach indicates that the median proportion of European ancestry is 18.5% (25th-75th percentiles: 11.6-27.7%), with very large variation among individuals. In the African-American sample as a whole, few autosomal regions showed exceptionally high or low mean African ancestry, but the X chromosome showed elevated levels of African ancestry, consistent with a sex-biased pattern of gene flow with an excess of European male and African female ancestry. We also find that genomic profiles of individual African Americans afford personalized ancestry reconstructions differentiating ancient vs. recent European and African ancestry. Finally, patterns of genetic similarity among inferred African segments of African-American genomes and genomes of contemporary African populations included in this study suggest African ancestry is most similar to non-Bantu Niger-Kordofanian-speaking populations, consistent with historical documents of the African Diaspora and trans-Atlantic slave trade.
Pinderhughes, Elaine B
It is not possible to understand African American marriages fully without attention to the social, economic, racial, and historical factors that have stressed male-female relationships beyond those stresses experienced by majority couples. I propose that the societal projection process (Bowen, 1978) has entrapped African Americans in ways that have continually and severely strained their marital and couple relationships. These experiences, and the ways in which African Americans have responded to them, have created a vulnerability that is compounded by societal shifts and changes, and is manifest in the precipitous decline of marriages at a rate higher than that found in all other racial groups in the U.S. I will examine the state of African American marriages in this cultural context, with specific attention to the effects of the unequal sex ratio, socioeconomic conditions, and overstressed male-female relationships. I will then discuss implications and offer suggestions for therapists who work with this population.
Chandler, Donald S., Jr.
This study examined the safe-sex practices of African-American colleges students in light of culturally-specific beliefs that stigmatize Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in the African-American community. A total of 21 self-selected, sexually-active African-American students (15 females and 6 males) aged 18-22 completed the AIDS…
Franklin, M E
This article discusses the cultural and educational needs of African-American learners with disabilities. Six theoretical assumptions establish some basic suppositions about culturally and linguistically diverse learners and effective instructional practices. A review of the literature describes African-American cultural practices, interests, and cognitive styles; highlights the attitudes, perceptions, and instructional practices of effective teachers of African-American students; and includes patterns of teacher-student and peer-group interactions that promote high academic achievement among African-American learners. Recommendations include organizing teaching, learning, and performance in ways that are compatible with the social structure of African-American students with disabilities.
Samuel-Hodge, C D; Johnson, C M; Braxton, D F; Lackey, M
The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) demonstrated risk reduction for incident diabetes through weight loss among all participants, including African Americans. Several DPP translations have been conducted in less controlled settings, including primary care practices and communities; however, there is no detailed compilation of how effective these translations have been for African Americans. This systematic literature review evaluated DPP translations from 2003 to 2012. Eligible records were retrieved using a search strategy of relevant databases and gray literature. Retrieved records (n=1,272) were screened using a priori criteria, which resulted in 21 full-text studies for review. Seventeen studies were included in the full-text qualitative synthesis. Seven studies had 100% African American samples and 10 studies had mixed samples with African American subgroups. African American participants' average weight loss was roughly half of that achieved in the DPP intervention. However, with few higher-quality studies, small sample sizes and differences in intervention designs and implementation, comparisons across interventions were difficult. The suboptimal effectiveness of DPP translations among African American adults, particularly women, signals the need for enhancements to existing evidence-based interventions and more high-quality research that includes other at-risk African American subgroups such as men and younger adults of lower socioeconomic status.
Sudenga, Staci L; Wiener, Howard W; Shendre, Aditi; Wilson, Craig M; Tang, Jianming; Shrestha, Sadeep
Our work aimed to examine the potential influence of variants in interleukin/interleukin receptors genes on high-risk (HR-HPV) HPV clearance. Clearance of genital HR-HPV infection was evaluated for 134 HIV-1 seropositive African-American female adolescents from the Reaching for Excellence in Adolescent Care and Health (REACH) cohort. Genotyping targeted 225 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the exons, 5' untranslated region (UTR) and 3' UTR sequences of 27 immune-related candidate genes encoding interleukin family of cytokines. Cox proportional hazard models were used to determine the association of type-specific HPV clearance adjusting for time-varying CD4+ T-cell count and low-risk (LR-HPV) HPV co-infections. HR-HPV clearance rates were significantly (p < 0.001) associated with five SNPs (rs228942, rs419598, rs315950, rs7737000, and rs9292618) mapped to coding and regulatory regions in three genes (IL2RB, IL1RN, and IL7R). These data suggest that the analyzed genetic variants in interleukin family of cytokines modulate HR-HPV clearance in HIV-1 seropositive African-Americans that warrants replication.
Kelly, Shalonda; Floyd, Frank J
This study examined the associations of racial perspectives that represent pro-African American, anti-African American, or a mixture of these beliefs with marital trust and adjustment for African American couples (N = 93). Religious well-being and socioeconomic status (SES) were examined as contextual moderators. For husbands only, the anti-African American perspective was inversely associated with couple functioning, the mixed perspective was inversely associated with marital trust, and the pro-African American perspective predicted marital trust only for husbands having relatively low religious well-being and relatively high SES. The limited effects of pro-African American attitudes suggest the need to evaluate a wider range of these attitudes in future research. Also, findings corroborate suggestions for therapists to routinely assess and address both cultural pride and shame issues relevant to African American couple relationships.
... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of Alzheimer's, ... two times more likely to develop late-onset Alzheimer's disease than whites and less likely to have a ...
Saab, Sammy; Jackson, Christian; Nieto, Jose; Francois, Fritz
The care of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in African Americans represents an opportunity to address a major health disparity in medicine. In all facets of HCV infection, African Americans are inexplicably affected, including in the prevalence of the virus, which is higher among them compared with most of the racial and ethnic groups. Ironically, although fibrosis rates may be slow, hepatocellular carcinoma and mortality rates appear to be higher among African Americans. Sustained viral response (SVR) rates have historically significantly trailed behind Caucasians. The reasons for this gap in SVR are related to both viral and host factors. Moreover, low enrollment rates in clinical trials hamper the study of the efficacy of anti-viral therapy. Nevertheless, the gap in SVR between African Americans and Caucasians may be narrowing with the use of direct-acting agents. Gastroenterologists, hepatologists, primary care physicians, and other health-care providers need to address modifiable risk factors that affect the natural history, as well as treatment outcomes, for HCV among African Americans. Efforts need to be made to improve awareness among health-care providers to address the differences in screening and referral patterns for African Americans.
Hodges, Janice; Pringle, Lajuan S.
The African American male psyche is a complicated multi-layered mixture of outside media influences, stereotypes, peer pressure, how they see themselves, and how they think others see them. This article describes how school and public librarians can help raise the literacy efforts of young African American males. It cites the need for libraries to…
Chipungu, Sandra S.; Hermann, John; Sambrano, Soledad; Nistler, Mary; Sale, Elizabeth; Springer, J. Fred
Examined characteristics of 12 substance abuse prevention programs serving African American youth. Findings indicated that African American youth exhibited lower use rates than most other ethnic groups, but by age 16-18 years, use was prevalent. Africentric principles and themes integrated into the prevention programs contributed to higher rates…
Hypertension is a highly prevalent risk factor for vascular disease, particularly among African Americans. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) study demonstrated that providing diets with 8-10 fruits and vegetables and 2-3 low-fat dairy foods per day significantly lowered blood pressure. A recent reanalysis showed even stronger effects for African Americans. Studies are needed to translate these findings into methods of effecting dietary change in high-risk populations.
An Exploratory Study on Initial STEM Classes and African American Freshman Males Who Are STEM Majors at a Large Mid-Atlantic State University: Factors Affecting Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Persistence in the STEM Pipeline
Calhoun, William Jason
The purpose of this study was to test how well social cognitive career theory (SCCT) explains the effects of an introductory freshman year science course on the career perspectives of African American males at a large, public mid-Atlantic state university. Embracing SCCT as the foundation of this project, the dissertation intended to gather data from these young men to develop insight into how and in what ways their self-efficacy throughout the semester was influenced by their first science course, and changing their outlook on Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) careers while in school and after graduation. To a small number of freshman African American male students who have declared themselves STEM majors, I utilized a qualitative study investigating this phenomenon. The major findings detailed themes that affected these young men including concerns about mathmatics preparation, isolation, balance, microagression, and help-seeking. Results indicate that there was an impact on the confidence, achievement, and goal setting for these young men due to these factors and that social cognitive career theory was an appropriate framework from which to test these questions.
Walker, Rheeda L
The literature on African American suicide and the acculturation literature were examined to derive a possible explanation for increases in suicide deaths for African American men and apparent resilience for African American women. Historically, African Americans were believed to be unaffected by suicide because of protective factors (e.g., strong religious values and cohesive familial support systems) embedded in the culture. However, minority mental health investigators have found that acculturation sometimes leads to negative consequences for individuals from ethnic minority backgrounds. Accordingly, acculturation and acculturative phenomena are proposed as a model to shed light on African American male suicide as African Americans increasingly engage mainstream values, beliefs, and practices in the absence of traditional protective factors.
genetic testing in African Americans must include the entire coding and flanking non-coding regions of the BRCA2 gene . "* It is noteworthy that BRCA ...Over 80% of inherited breast cancer is due to mutations in the breast cancer predisposing genes BRCA ] and BRCA2. In one of the largest studies of high...population 25-27,32. Therefore, genetic testing in African Americans must include complete sequencing of both BRCA 1 and BRCA2 genes . Familial cancer
Cooper, Hannah L. F.; Osborne, Andrew H.
HIV continues to be transmitted at unacceptably high rates among African Americans, and most HIV-prevention interventions have focused on behavioral change. To theorize additional approaches to HIV prevention among African Americans, we discuss how sexual networks and drug-injection networks are as important as behavior for HIV transmission. We also describe how higher-order social structures and processes, such as residential racial segregation and racialized policing, may help shape risk networks and behaviors. We then discuss 3 themes in African American culture—survival, propriety, and struggle—that also help shape networks and behaviors. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of how these perspectives might help reduce HIV transmission among African Americans. PMID:19372519
Boekeloo, Bradley; Randolph, Suzanne; Timmons-Brown, Stephanie; Wang, Min Qi
Measures are needed to assess youth perceptions about health science careers to facilitate research aimed at increasing youth pursuit of health science. Although the Indiana Instrument provides an established measure of perceptions regarding nursing and ideal careers, we were interested in learning how high-achieving 10th graders from relatively low socioeconomic areas who identify as black/African American (black) perceive health science and ideal careers. The Indiana Instrument was modified, administered to 90 youth of interest, and psychometrically analyzed. Reliable subscales were identified that may facilitate parsimonious, theoretical, and reliable study of youth decision-making regarding health science careers. Such research may help to develop and evaluate strategies for increasing the number of minority health scientists.
Boekeloo, Bradley; Randolph, Suzanne; Timmons-Brown, Stephanie; Wang, Min Qi
Measures are needed to assess youth perceptions about health science careers to facilitate research aimed at facilitating youth pursuit of health science. Although the Indiana Instrument provides an established measure of perceptions regarding nursing and ideal careers, we were interested in learning how high achieving 10th graders from relatively low socioeconomic areas who identify as Black/African American (Black) perceive health science and ideal careers. The Indiana Instrument was modified, administered to 90 youth of interest, and psychometrically analyzed. Reliable subscales were identified that may facilitate parsimonious, theoretical, and reliable study of youth decision-making regarding health science careers. Such research may help to develop and evaluate strategies for increasing the number of minority health scientists. PMID:25194058
Grimes, Lee Edmondson; Haizlip, Breyan; Rogers, Tiffany; Brown, Kimberly D.
Adolescent African American females face multiple obstacles that hinder their educational success. High school completion and college attendance rates remain lower for African American females than those for other racial and gender groups, while pregnancy rates for African American teens are higher. Group work holds promise for meeting the…
Ghazal, Tariq S.; Levy, Steven M.; Childers, Noel K.; Broffitt, Barbara A.; Caplan, Daniel J; Warren, John J.; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Kolker, Justine
Objectives To assess the prevalence and incidence of dental caries in school-aged African-American children who received semi-annual fluoride varnish applications. Methods A cohort of six-year-old high caries-risk African-American children (n=98) was recruited in Uniontown, Alabama and followed for six years. Oral examinations were done annually by three trained/calibrated dentists. Tooth surfaces with cavitated caries, missing due to caries and with filled surfaces were recorded, using WHO criteria. Also, as part of the study, children received periodic oral health instruction, fluoride varnish applications and referral to dentists starting at baseline. Results The person-level prevalence of dmfs/DMFS was: 61.2 percent at mean age 5.9 (n=98, mean dmfs/DMFS=11.6); 63.8 percent at age 6.7 (n=80, mean dmfs/DMFS=13.2); 70.6 percent at age 7.8 (n=68, mean dmfs/DMFS=14.2); 65.7 percent at age 8.8 (n=68, mean dmfs/DMFS=11.8); 55.6 percent at age 9.7 (n=63, mean dmfs/DMFS=8.8); 40.3 percent at age 10.7 (n=62, mean dmfs/DMFS=3.4); and 37.1 percent at age 11.7 (n=62, mean dmfs/DMFS=2.3). The six-year person-level incidence of dmfs/DMFS was 32.3 percent (mean dmfs/DMFS=1.6) from age 5.9 to age 11.7 (n=62). Conclusion In spite of the oral health education and fluoride varnish applications, there was substantial new dental caries in this high-risk sample. Additional studies evaluating risk factors for caries development are ongoing. PMID:27306247
Jarvis, G Eric
This article explored the origins and implications of the underdiagnosis of affective disorders in African-Americans. MEDLINE and old collections were searched using relevant key words. Reference lists from the articles that were gathered from this procedure were reviewed. The historical record indicated that the psychiatric perception of African-Americans with affective disorders changed significantly during the last 200 years. In the antebellum period, the mental disorders of slaves mostly went unnoticed. By the early 20th century, African-Americans were reported to have high rates of manic-depressive disorder compared with whites. By the mid-century, rates of manic-depressive disorder in African-Americans plummeted, whereas depression remained virtually nonexistent. In recent decades, diagnosed depression and bipolar disorder, whether in clinical or research settings, were inexplicably low in African-Americans compared with whites. Given these findings, American psychiatry needs to appraise the deep-seated effects of historical stereotypes on the diagnosis and treatment of African-Americans.
Yerger, V; Malone, R
Background: Among all racial and ethnic groups in the USA, African Americans bear the greatest burden from tobacco related disease. The tobacco industry has been highly influential in the African American community for decades, providing funding and other resources to community leaders and emphasising publicly its support for civil rights causes and groups, while ignoring the negative health effects of its products on those it claims to support. However, the industry's private business reasons for providing such support were unknown. Objective: To understand how and for what purposes the tobacco industry sought to establish and maintain relationships with African American leaders. Methods: Review and analysis of over 700 previously secret internal tobacco industry documents available on the internet. Results: The tobacco industry established relationships with virtually every African American leadership organisation and built longstanding social connections with the community, for three specific business reasons: to increase African American tobacco use, to use African Americans as a frontline force to defend industry policy positions, and to defuse tobacco control efforts. Conclusion: As the tobacco industry expands its global reach, public health advocates should anticipate similar industry efforts to exploit the vulnerabilities of marginalised groups. The apparent generosity, inclusion, and friendship proffered by the industry extract a price from groups in the health of their members. Helping groups anticipate such efforts, confront industry co-optation, and understand the hidden costs of accepting tobacco industry largesse should be part of worldwide tobacco control efforts. PMID:12432159
Bland, Vanessa; Sharma, Manoj
Background: African American women are at high risk of acquiring chronic diseases due to sedentary lifestyles. This objective of this article was to perform a narrative systematic review of physical activity interventions among African American women published between 2009 and 2015. Methods: A review of literature in following databases: Academic Search Premier, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health), ERIC (Education Resources Information Center), MEDLINE, PsychInfo, and SPORTDiscus was performed to locate interventions promoting physical activity among African American women. Results: The search yielded 13 interventions. All the studies were conducted within the United States. It was found that walking coupled with healthy food choices were salient strategies in the interventions. Studies using social support along with healthy diet were found to be more efficacious in fostering physical activity among African American women. Conclusion: Walking, social support and a healthy diet were found to be significant strategies promoting physical activity in African American women. Physical activity for African American women must build on the constructs of healthier food choices and social support. PMID:28326284
Osei, Kwame; Gaillard, Trudy; Kaplow, June; Bullock, Matthew; Schuster, Dara
We examined the metabolic effects of rosiglitazone therapy on glucose control, insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and adiponectin in first-degree relatives of African Americans with type 2 diabetes (DM) with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and DM for 3 months. The study was comprised of 12 first-degree relatives with IGT, 17 newly diagnosed DM, and 19 healthy relatives with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed before and after 3 months of rosiglitazone therapy (4 to 8 mg/d) in patients with IGT and DM. Serum glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and adiponectin levels were measured before and 2 hours during OGTT in the NGT and patients with IGT and DM. Insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and beta-cell function (HOMA-%B) were calculated in each subject using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Rosglitazone improved the overall glycemic control in the IGT and DM groups. Following rosiglitazone, the beta-cell secretion remained unchanged, while HOMR-IR was reduced in DM by 30% (4.12 +/- 1.95 v 6.33 +/- 3.54, P < .05) and the IGT group (3.78 +/- 2.45 v 4.81 +/- 3.49, P = not significant [NS]). Mean plasma adiponectin levels were significantly (P < .05) lower in the DM (6.74 +/- 1.95 microg/mL) when compared with the NGT group(9.61 +/- 5.09). Rosiglitazone significantly (P < .001) increased adiponectin levels by 2-fold in patients with IGT (22.2 +/- 10.97 microg/mL) and 2.5-fold greater in DM (15.68 +/- 8.23 microg/mL) at 3 months when compared with the 0 month. We conclude that adiponectin could play a significant role (1) in the pathogenesis of IGT and DM and (2) the beneficial metabolic effects of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) in high-risk African American patients.
Whitfield, Tracy N.
The qualitative research study explored the organizational characteristics necessary in addressing the low concentration of African American technical consultants employed in the information technology industry. Using research participants' professional experience, participants responded to a developed questionnaire. African American technical…
Yancy, Clyde W
The demographics of the United States are changing, and in the next few decades there will no longer be a racial/ethnic majority population. Increased awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in special populations is warranted as these populations increase. Heart failure carries a substantial burden on those affected, particularly African Americans, who have a disproportionate burden of heart disease. Current treatments for heart failure include angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers, angiotensin II-receptor antagonists, and vasodilating agents. This review discusses the unique characteristics of CVD in African Americans and addresses the need for targeted treatments to reduce the excess burden found in this population.
Archie-Booker, D. Elaine; Cervero, Ronald M.; Langone, Christine A.
Interviews and observations of three AIDS-prevention programs revealed that in this agency, AIDS education overall was not culturally relevant for African-American women for several reasons: (1) organization image and financing were geared toward White gay males; (2) interpretation of the mission did not include African-American women; and (3)…
Drake, Carl Timothy
The purpose of this study was to investigate factors affecting the attitudes that African-American college students have towards introductory college physics. The population targeted for this study consisted of African-American males and females enrolled in introductory college physics classes at an urban public historical black college or…
Johnson, Jonathan Lee
The purpose of this study was to understand how African American college men construct masculine and ethnic notions of their identities, despite disproportionate social obstacles and hegemonic stereotypes. The primary research question of this study was, "how might African American undergraduate males understand and develop healthy concepts…
Noble, Richard, III; Morton, Crystal Hill
This study investigated within group differences between African American female and male students who participated in the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress mathematics assessment. Using results from participating states, we compare average scale scores of African American students based on home regulatory environment and interest…
Hill, K. Dara
This case study narrative examines the circumstances underlying problems of residency in an affluent Midwest suburb experiencing an unexpected influx of working class African American students. Dilemmas engender a cultural mismatch between teachers and students and discomfort with African-American males. In a controversial climate where students…
Gilbert, Jackie; Carr-Ruffino, Norma; Ivancevich, John M.; Lownes-Jackson, Millicent
Undergraduates (n=127) read career histories (including photographs) of fictitious employees in a 2x2x2 design depicting job type (engineer/human resources), ethnicity (Asian or African American), and gender, with the same qualifications and performance information. African-American males were rated most negatively on work characteristics;…
Venzant Chambers, Terah T.; McCready, Lance T.
Drawing from two separate case studies, one on lower track African American students and another on gay and gender nonconforming African American male students, this article explores how students with multiple stigmatized identities make sense of and respond to their marginalization, a process we term "making space." In particular, we consider how…
Witherspoon Favors, Ann E.
Recruiting and retaining African American students is an ongoing challenge for many post-secondary institutions. This dissertation examined the contributing factors to this increasing dilemma and review strategies that may be helpful in the retention of African American male college students. This study also examined the instructional leadership…
Owens, Otis L; Jackson, Dawnyéa D; Thomas, Tracey L; Friedman, Daniela B; Hébert, James R
While African Americans are at a significantly higher risk for developing certain cancers, they also have low rates of participation in cancer research, particularly clinical trials. This study assessed both African American men's and African American women's (1) knowledge of and participation in cancer-related clinical research and (2) barriers to and motivations for participating in clinical research. Data were collected from a total of 81 participants. Phase I of this research consisted of qualitative focus groups (all 81 participants). Phase II included quantitative pre/post survey data from an education program (56 participants). Findings from the study revealed that African American men and women had poor knowledge about clinical trials and the informed consent process, limited experience in participating in clinical trials, and they feared and mistrusted cancer research. Participants identified incentives, assurance of safety, knowledge and awareness, and benefiting others as motivators to participate in clinical trials research.
Blackett, P.R.; Altmiller, D.H.; Jelley, D.; Wilson, D.P.
A two-year-old African American boy presented with cutaneous xanthomata and extreme hypercholesterolemia. Subsequent studies revealed that the LDL-cholesterol was 1,001 mg/dl and apoB 507 mg/dl. LDL-receptor activity was almost undetectable, which is compatible with the finding of two newly described defective alleles on exon 4 of the LDL-receptor gene coding for part of the ligand-binding domain. One allele contained a 21 base-pair insertion from codon 200 to 207 whereas the other had a point mutation at codon 207. The rarity of genes for FH reported in individuals of African ancestry is discussed. 16 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.
Peterson, Elizabeth A., Ed.
This book contains six chapters by various authors about the history of African Americans' contributions and participation in adult education. The book reports on how some African American leaders saw the connection between education and the eventual freedom or uplift of the African American people. Following a foreword (Phyllis M. Cunningham) and…
Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano
Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…
Neblett, Enrique W; Smalls, Ciara P; Ford, Kahlil R; Nguyên, Hòa X; Sellers, Robert M
This study uses two waves of data to examine the relationships among patterns of racial socialization experiences and racial identity in a sample of 358 African American adolescents (60% female and 40% male). Using latent class analyses, we identified three patterns of adolescent-reported racial socialization experiences: High Positive, Moderate Positive, and Low Frequency. Adolescent-reported racial socialization experiences at Wave 1 were associated with Wave 2 adolescent racial identity approximately one year later. Specifically, High Positive and Low Frequency racial socialization were associated with racial centrality, assimilationist ideology, and nationalist ideology. These findings suggest that various patterns of racial socialization practices play an important role in the developing significance and meaning that African American adolescents ascribe to race.
Day-Vines, Norma L.; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl
Although there are various definitions of wellness, few conceptual definitions have addressed the contextual dimensions of wellness relative to African American counselors. The authors present an overview of generic models of wellness, discuss factors that both inhibit and promote wellness, offer some culture-specific models of wellness, and…
Cuyjet, Michael J., Ed.
This book is a much-needed resource that includes examples of real-world programs and activities to enhance academic success in the college environment for African American men. The examples are collected from a variety of institutions across the country. With contributions from leading practitioners and scholars in the field, this book explores…
Kustaa, Friedrich Freddy
This report concerns a qualitative study on African-American leadership effectiveness as perceived and defined by African-American student leaders at the University of New Mexico (Albuquerque). Six African-American student leaders (three males and three females) participated in-depth interviews. The interviews were audiorecorded and transcribed.…
Newlin, Kelley; Knafl, Kathleen; Melkus, Gail D'Eramo
Culturally competent care for African Americans requires sensitivity to spirituality as a component of the cultural context. To foster understanding, measurement, and delivery of the spiritual component of culturally competent care, this article presents an evolutionary concept analysis of African-American spirituality. The analysis is based on a sample of multidisciplinary research studies reflecting spirituality of African Americans. Findings indicate that African-American spirituality involves quintessential, internal, external, consoling, and transformative attributive dimensions. Findings are considered in relation to previous conceptual analyses of spirituality and suggest that defining attributes of African-American spirituality are both global and culturally prominent. Implications for practice and research are discussed.
Perry, Armon R; Bright, Mikia
Despite only accounting for 6% of the general population, African American males represent nearly 50% of the prison population. To investigate the impact of mass incarceration on African American families, data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being study were analyzed. Specifically, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of previous incarceration on African American fathers' instrumental and affective involvement with their children, and the extent to which their previous incarceration influences their children's behavior. Results revealed that 51% of the fathers in the sample had been incarcerated by their child's fifth birthday. The results also revealed that these fathers fared worse economically and were less involved with their children. Moreover, the children of previously incarcerated fathers had significantly worse behavioral problems than the children of fathers who had never been incarcerated.
Halbert, Chanita Hughes; Kessler, Lisa Jay; Mitchell, Edith
As genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutations is increasingly integrated into the clinical management of high-risk women, it will be important to understand barriers and motivations for genetic counseling among women from underserved minority groups to ensure equitable access to these services. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to synthesize literature on knowledge and attitudes about genetic counseling and testing for inherited breast cancer risk in African Americans. We also review studies that evaluated genetic testing intentions in this population. We conducted a search of the PubMed database to identify studies related to BRCA1/2 testing in African Americans that were published between 1995 and 2003. Overall, studies have evaluated ethnic differences in knowledge and attitudes about genetic testing or have compared African American and Caucasian women in terms of genetic testing intentions. These studies have shown that knowledge about breast cancer genetics and exposure to information about the availability of testing is low among African Americans, whereas expectations about the benefits of genetic testing are endorsed highly. However, much less is known about the psychological and behavioral impact of genetic testing for BRCA1/2 mutations in African Americans. Additional research is needed to understand barriers and motivations for participating in genetic testing for inherited cancer risk in African Americans. The lack of studies on psychological functioning, cancer surveillance, and preventive behaviors following testing is a significant void; however, for these studies to be conducted, greater access to genetic counseling and testing in African Americans will be needed.
Broaddus, Michelle R.; Dickson-Gomez, Julia
African American young adults are at high risk of HIV infection during their lifetimes, and the male condom remains the best method of prevention. Efforts to increase condom use should address the barrier of condom negotiation. We conducted a thematic analysis of qualitative, semi-structured interviews with African American young adults to examine their use of text messaging for requesting Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) or sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing and condom use within the larger context of general sexual communication using text messages. Text messaging gave participants a level of comfort and disinhibition to discuss sexual topics and negotiate sexual safety. Benefits of text messages included ease of communication, privacy, and increased ability to express condom desires. Difficulties reflected the potential relationship implications of suggesting HIV/STI testing and condom use. Condom negotiation strategies using text messages also mirrored those used found to be used in face-to-face communication. PMID:24045286
Recognizing the persistent science achievement gap between inner-city African American students and students from mainstream, White society, this article suggests that the imposition of external standards on inner-city schools will do little to ameliorate this gap because such an approach fails to address the significance of the social and cultural lives of the students. Instead, it is suggested that the use of critical ethnographic research would enable educators to learn from the students how science education can change to meet their aims and interests. The article includes a report on how a science lunch group in an inner-city high school forged a community based on respect and caring and how this community afforded African American male teens the opportunity to participate in science in new ways.
Rao, Vijaya; Flores, Glenn
PURPOSE: African Americans comprise 13% of Americans but only 4% of U.S. physicians. The reasons for this disparity are unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify African-American high-school student perspectives on barriers to African Americans pursuing careers in medicine. METHOD: Focus group interviews (consisting of 15 questions) were conducted of African-American high-school juniors attending a Milwaukee public high school in which 89% of students are African Americans. The two focus groups were conducted in 2006, transcribed and analyzed using grounded theory. RESULTS: The 12 students interviewed in two focus groups had a mean age of 17 years; 41% of students' parents were high-school graduates. Major barriers to becoming a physician cited by students included financial constraints, lack of knowledge about medicine, little/no encouragement at home or in school, negative peer views on excelling academically, lack of African-American role models in the community and on TV, racism in medicine, and easier and more appealing alternatives for making money. Students stated that increasing the number of African-American physicians would enhance patient-physician communication and relationships, and more African Americans would become physicians if there were greater exposure to medicine in schools, more guidance at a younger age and more role models. CONCLUSION: Financial constraints, insufficient exposure to medicine as a career, little encouragement at home and in schools, lack of role models, and negative peer pressure may contribute to racial disparities in the physician workforce for African Americans. Exposure at a young age to role models and to medicine as a profession might increase the number of African American physicians. PMID:17913107
Signorello, Lisa B.; Han, Xijing; Cai, Qiuyin; Cohen, Sarah S.; Cope, Elizabeth L.; Zheng, Wei; Blot, William J.
The beneficial biologic effects attributed to vitamin D suggest a potential to influence overall mortality. Evidence addressing this hypothesis is limited, especially for African Americans who have a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency. The authors conducted a nested case-control study within the prospective Southern Community Cohort Study to relate baseline serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) with subsequent mortality. Cases were 1,852 participants who enrolled from 2002 to 2009 and died >12 months postenrollment. Controls (n = 1,852) were matched on race, sex, age, enrollment site, and blood collection date. The odds ratios for quartile 1 (<10.18 ng/mL) versus quartile 4 (>21.64 ng/mL) levels of 25(OH)D were 1.60 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20, 2.14) for African Americans and 2.11 (95% CI: 1.39, 3.21) for non-African Americans. The effects were strongest for circulatory disease death, where quartile 1 versus quartile 4 odds ratios were 2.53 (95% CI: 1.44, 4.46) and 3.25 (95% CI: 1.33, 7.93) for African Americans and non-African Americans, respectively. The estimated odds of total mortality were minimized in the 25(OH)D range of 35–40 ng/mL. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that vitamin D status may have an important influence on mortality for both African Americans and non-African Americans. PMID:23125439
Signorello, Lisa B; Han, Xijing; Cai, Qiuyin; Cohen, Sarah S; Cope, Elizabeth L; Zheng, Wei; Blot, William J
The beneficial biologic effects attributed to vitamin D suggest a potential to influence overall mortality. Evidence addressing this hypothesis is limited, especially for African Americans who have a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency. The authors conducted a nested case-control study within the prospective Southern Community Cohort Study to relate baseline serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) with subsequent mortality. Cases were 1,852 participants who enrolled from 2002 to 2009 and died >12 months postenrollment. Controls (n = 1,852) were matched on race, sex, age, enrollment site, and blood collection date. The odds ratios for quartile 1 (<10.18 ng/mL) versus quartile 4 (>21.64 ng/mL) levels of 25(OH)D were 1.60 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20, 2.14) for African Americans and 2.11 (95% CI: 1.39, 3.21) for non-African Americans. The effects were strongest for circulatory disease death, where quartile 1 versus quartile 4 odds ratios were 2.53 (95% CI: 1.44, 4.46) and 3.25 (95% CI: 1.33, 7.93) for African Americans and non-African Americans, respectively. The estimated odds of total mortality were minimized in the 25(OH)D range of 35-40 ng/mL. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that vitamin D status may have an important influence on mortality for both African Americans and non-African Americans.
Romano, Patrick S.; And Others
A random household survey of 569 African-American adults in Oakland and 568 in San Francisco (California) indicates a high prevalence of smoking (41.9 percent), with smoking more likely by those reporting high stress. Stressful environment may contribute to high-risk smoking behavior among urban African Americans. (SLD)
Thomas, Erik R.; Lass, Norman J.
Past studies have shown that listeners can distinguish most African American and European American voices, but how they do so is poorly understood. Three experiments were designed to investigate this problem. Recordings of African American and European American college students performing various reading tasks were used as the basis for stimuli in all three. In the first experiment, stimuli were subjected to monotonization, lowpass filtering at 660 Hz, and no modification. In the second, stimuli featuring certain ethnically diagnostic vowels and control stimuli were subjected to monotonization, conversion of vowels to schwa, or no modification. In the third, stimuli featuring diagnostic vowels and control stimuli were modified so that the intonation of paired African American and European American speakers was swapped. In all three experiments, African American and European American listeners in North Carolina and European American listeners in West Virginia identified the ethnicity of the speaker of each stimulus. Vowel quality emerged as the most consistent cue for identifications. However, listeners accessed other cues differently for male and female speakers. Breathiness was correlated with identifications of male speakers but not of female speakers. F0-related factors proved more important for female speakers than for male speakers. [Work supported by NSF.
Courtney and Dennis, two African American male students at McDowell High, were arrested at school for throwing water balloons during senior prank week. The principal assigned two police officers to the magnet school to oversee the implementation of a new discipline protocol. However, several members of the school staff were ill-informed about the…
Morales, Dawn A.; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; St. Lawrence, Janet
Sexual schemas are cognitive representations of oneself as a sexual being and aid in the processing of sexually relevant information. We examined the relationship between sociosexuality (attitudes about casual sex), masculine ideology (attitudes toward traditional men and male roles), and cultural centrality (strength of identity with racial group) as significant psychosocial and sociocultural predictors in shaping young, heterosexual African American men's sexual schemas. A community sample (n=133) of men in a southeastern city of the United States completed quantitative self-report measures examining their attitudes and behavior related to casual sex, beliefs about masculinity, racial and cultural identity, and self-views of various sexual aspects of themselves. Results indicated that masculine ideology and cultural centrality were both positively related to men's sexual schemas. Cultural centrality explained 12 % of the variance in level of sexual schema, and had the strongest correlation of the predictor variables with sexual schema (r=.36). The need for more attention to the bidirectional relationships between masculinity, racial/cultural identity, and sexual schemas in prevention, intervention, and public health efforts for African American men is discussed. PMID:24031118
Lloyd, Stacey W.; Ferguson, Yvonne Owens; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Ellison, Arlinda; Blumenthal, Connie; Council, Barbara J.; Youmans, Selena; Muhammad, Melvin R.; Wynn, Mysha; Adimora, Adaora; Akers, Aletha
Though African-American youth in the South are at high risk for HIV infection, abstinence until marriage education continues to be the only option in some public schools. Using community-based participatory research methods, we conducted 11 focus groups with African-American adults and youth in a rural community in North Carolina with high rates…
Rury, John L.; Hill, Shirley A.
This is the first comprehensive account of African American secondary education in the postwar era. Drawing on quantitative datasets, as well as oral history, this compelling narrative examines how African Americans narrowed the racial gap in high school completion. The authors explore regional variations in high school attendance across the…
Tucker, Jalie A.; Cheong, JeeWon; Chandler, Susan D.
Natural health information sources used by African-American emerging adults were investigated to identify sources associated with high and low substance-related risk. Participants (110 males, 234 females; M age = 18.9 years) were recruited using respondent-driven sampling, and structured interviews assessed substance use, sources of health…
Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Juarez, Lucia
Investigated gender-specific contextual and individual socioeconomic predictors of the timing of first intercourse among low-achieving African American high school students, following financial deprivation and collective socialization theories. Data from 3 years of surveys indicated that males and females were affected differently by social…
Hankerson, Sidney H.; Lee, Young A; Brawley, David K.; Braswell, Kenneth; Wickramaratne, Priya J.; Weissman, Myrna M.
Introduction Substantial racial/ethnic disparities exist in the identification and management of major depression.1 Faith-Based Health Promotion interventions reduce disparities in health screenings for numerous medical conditions.2 However, the feasibility of systematically screening for depression in faith-based settings has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of using a validated instrument to screen for depression in African American churches. Methods Participants were recruited between October and November 2012 at three predominantly African American churches in New York City. A participatory research approach was used to determine screening days. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was administered to 122 participants. Positive depression screen was defined as a PHQ-9 score ≥10. Descriptive statistics were used to report sample characteristics, prevalence of participants who screened positive, and history of help seeking. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the association of positive depression screen and sociodemographic characteristics. Initial analyses were conducted in 2013, with additional analyses in 2014. Results The prevalence estimate for positive depression screen was 19.7%. More men (22.5%) screened positive than women (17.7%). Total household income was inversely related to positive depression screen. A similar percentage of respondents had previously sought help from primary care providers as from clergy. Conclusions It was feasible to screen for depression with the PHQ-9 in African American churches. The prevalence of positive depression screen was high, especially among black men. Churches may be an important setting in which to identify depressive symptoms in this underserved population. PMID:26232907
Rush-Shumpert, Paula J.
The purpose of this study was to understand why graduation rates of African American male students from four-year historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) within a six-year period were not on par with those of other races and ethnicities and, in particular, whether the reasons African American male students drop out rather than persist…
Background Associated with a tripling in obesity since 1970, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in children has risen 9-10 fold. There is a critical need of protocols for trials to prevent T2DM in children. Methods/Design This protocol includes the theory, development, evaluation components and lessons learned from a novel YMCA-based T2DM prevention intervention designed specifically for high-BMI African American children from disadvantaged, inner-city neighborhoods of Oakland, California. The intervention was developed on the basis of: review of epidemiological and intervention studies of pediatric T2DM; a conceptual theory (social cognitive); a comprehensive examination of health promotion curricula designed for children; consultation with research, clinical experts and practitioners and; input from community partners. The intervention, Taking Action Together, included culturally sensitive and age-appropriate programming on: healthy eating; increasing physical activity and, improving self esteem. Discussion Evaluations completed to date suggest that Taking Action Together may be an effective intervention, and results warrant an expanded evaluation effort. This protocol could be used in other community settings to reduce the risk of children developing T2DM and related health consequences. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01039116. PMID:20492667
Design and coverage of high throughput genotyping arrays optimized for individuals of East Asian, African American, and Latino race/ethnicity using imputation and a novel hybrid SNP selection algorithm.
Hoffmann, Thomas J; Zhan, Yiping; Kvale, Mark N; Hesselson, Stephanie E; Gollub, Jeremy; Iribarren, Carlos; Lu, Yontao; Mei, Gangwu; Purdy, Matthew M; Quesenberry, Charles; Rowell, Sarah; Shapero, Michael H; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P; Van den Eeden, Stephen K; Walter, Larry; Webster, Teresa; Whitmer, Rachel A; Finn, Andrea; Schaefer, Catherine; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Risch, Neil
Four custom Axiom genotyping arrays were designed for a genome-wide association (GWA) study of 100,000 participants from the Kaiser Permanente Research Program on Genes, Environment and Health. The array optimized for individuals of European race/ethnicity was previously described. Here we detail the development of three additional microarrays optimized for individuals of East Asian, African American, and Latino race/ethnicity. For these arrays, we decreased redundancy of high-performing SNPs to increase SNP capacity. The East Asian array was designed using greedy pairwise SNP selection. However, removing SNPs from the target set based on imputation coverage is more efficient than pairwise tagging. Therefore, we developed a novel hybrid SNP selection method for the African American and Latino arrays utilizing rounds of greedy pairwise SNP selection, followed by removal from the target set of SNPs covered by imputation. The arrays provide excellent genome-wide coverage and are valuable additions for large-scale GWA studies.
Tishkoff, Sarah A; Reed, Floyd A; Friedlaender, Françoise R; Ehret, Christopher; Ranciaro, Alessia; Froment, Alain; Hirbo, Jibril B; Awomoyi, Agnes A; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Juma, Abdalla T; Kotze, Maritha J; Lema, Godfrey; Moore, Jason H; Mortensen, Holly; Nyambo, Thomas B; Omar, Sabah A; Powell, Kweli; Pretorius, Gideon S; Smith, Michael W; Thera, Mahamadou A; Wambebe, Charles; Weber, James L; Williams, Scott M
Africa is the source of all modern humans, but characterization of genetic variation and of relationships among populations across the continent has been enigmatic. We studied 121 African populations, four African American populations, and 60 non-African populations for patterns of variation at 1327 nuclear microsatellite and insertion/deletion markers. We identified 14 ancestral population clusters in Africa that correlate with self-described ethnicity and shared cultural and/or linguistic properties. We observed high levels of mixed ancestry in most populations, reflecting historical migration events across the continent. Our data also provide evidence for shared ancestry among geographically diverse hunter-gatherer populations (Khoesan speakers and Pygmies). The ancestry of African Americans is predominantly from Niger-Kordofanian (approximately 71%), European (approximately 13%), and other African (approximately 8%) populations, although admixture levels varied considerably among individuals. This study helps tease apart the complex evolutionary history of Africans and African Americans, aiding both anthropological and genetic epidemiologic studies.
Landrine, Hope; Klonoff, Elizabeth A.
Studied African American culture, using a new, shortened, 33-item African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS-33) to assess the scale's validity and reliability. Comparisons between the original form and AAAS-33 reveal high correlations, however, the longer form may be sensitive to some beliefs, practices, and attitudes not assessed by the short…
Tolbert-Hill, Catrice L.
With the large numbers of African American children who are not successful in school, more attention needs to be devoted to developing methods and processes by which they can effectively learn, achieve, and be empowered. The performance statistics for African American students in public schools are alarming. Their suspension rates are high, and 20…
Holland, Nicole E.
Engagement in and transitions between academic institutions may be enhanced for African American urban youth if we consider the role of religiosity, spirituality, and places of worship. This article presents the manner by which African American university students, who attended public high schools, conveyed the influence of their religious and…
Voisin, Dexter R.; Bird, Jason D. P.; Hardestry, Melissa; Shiu, Cheng Shi
This study explores community violence exposures among African American adolescents and whether coping strategies were gendered. In-depth interviews are conducted with a sample of 32 African American high school students. Data are analyzed using a thematic analysis. The primary forms of violence exposures are physical attacks, fighting, and…
Robinson, Melissa L.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Paikoff, Roberta
A sample of 146 African American adolescents living in impoverished neighborhoods with high HIV rates participated in the Chicago HIV Prevention and Adolescent Mental Health Project (CHAMP), a longitudinal study of adolescent HIV risk exposure. The current study examined self-reported reasons why African American adolescents may participate in…
Brown, David Byron
In an era of accountability and high standards for public schools, some African American principals decided to work in predominantly white schools. Their experiences were challenging because they were racial newcomers in schools with students different from their own race. In this case study, 12 African-American principals and assistant principals…
Harrington, Susan G.
This paper identifies and explores three major factors that affect the career choices of African Americans. First, the future of the American employment market is strongly based in technology, yet approximately two-thirds of the African American population reported their level of education at high school completion and lower. Second, African…
Beachum, Floyd D.; Lewis, Chance W.
Problems facing African Americans students are complex and numerous. In this article, we describe current educational contexts (i.e., high standards, accountability, and standardized test scores). In addition, we discuss the realities confronting African American students through West?s (1994) lenses of paranoia and poverty. Finally, we present…
Scheuerell, Scott; Jaeger, Matt
The authors discuss how high school students participated in a unit in which they learned about African American history in a 1:1 computer classroom--in particular, how they were able to use digital history to learn about a variety of African American leaders who are not frequently covered in the traditional American History textbook. In addition,…
Rozie-Battle, Judith L
The research on the psychosocial development of African American girls is limited. Information that is available focuses on teen pregnancy and health issues such as nutrition and physical activity. African American girls are facing challenges, including poverty, crime, poor self-esteem, and peer pressure. Despite some of the negative characteristics attributed to African American girls, many are achieving some success. Policy makers and service providers need to recognize the resiliency and unique needs of African American girls and develop services that ensure their needs are being fully met.
Rohrich, Rod J; Muzaffar, Arshad R
Because of the increasing popularity of rhinoplasty in the African-American patient, we delineate how a rhinoplasty surgeon can perform this challenging technique to obtain uniform and consistent results. First, we address how one can appreciate and analyze the various aesthetic concepts of beauty and the unique anatomic characteristics of the African-American nose. Second, we present a pragmatic, systematic analysis of the African-American nose. Last, we describe the techniques consistently used to modify the African-American nose while achieving or maintaining facial harmony using the open approach to rhinoplasty. Specific case analyses are presented to demonstrate utilization of the technique.
Bell, C. C.
Children exposed to traumatic stress are vulnerable to a variety of stress-related disorders other than classical post-traumatic stress disorder. Several case histories are presented to illustrate some of the diversity of how traumatic stress may manifest in children. African-American children are the main focus of this article as political, economic, social, and morbidity and mortality indicators suggest that African-American children are at high risk for exposure to potentially traumatic stressors. Different presentations of traumatic, stress are discussed in an effort to broaden our understanding of the outcome of traumatic stress to fully help traumatized children. PMID:9170834
Farmer, Thomas W.; Clemmer, Jason T.; Leung, Man-Chi; Goforth, Jennifer B.; Thompson, Jana H.; Keagy, Kristin; Boucher, Signe
Early adolescents' strengths were examined in relation to factors that are associated with developmental risk or resilience in two rural low-income southern communities. The sample was comprised of 279 students (101 boys, 178 girls), all of whom were African American and reflected the public school attendance of this community. Parent reports on…
The use of zero tolerance discipline in schools in the Mississippi Delta created considerable obstacles for African American students to excel, achieve, and graduate. This study used a qualitative phenomenological method to examine and assess how the application of the 1994 zero-tolerance disciplinary policies in Mississippi Delta public schools…
Gushue, George V.; Whitson, Melissa L.
This study examines the influence of two potential sources of strength (i.e., ethnic identity and parent/teacher support) on the cognitive variables of career decision self-efficacy and outcome expectations in a sample of 104 African American ninth-grade students. The results indicate that parental support is positively related to career decision…
Bounds, Patrice Sheri Robinson
The exploration of African American adolescents' career development has gained increasing attention in light of literature describing various barriers impacting their educational and career development and goals. Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) was used as a theoretical framework to help shed light on the contextual factors that influence…
Purpose: Black history as represented in social studies textbooks often lacks depth demanded by historians and authenticity required for cultural relevance to African American students. However, important Black historical narratives sometimes contain difficult prose and refer to times or circumstances that are far removed from students' life…
Ford, Amy Carpenter
This in-depth case study of classroom interaction illuminated how a white female teacher and African American students used talk to build positive authority relationships across their racial difference. Racial difference in classrooms can engender cultural misunderstandings between teachers and students around behavior, communication, and learning…
Bertera, Elizabeth M.
This study combined the African American tradition of oral storytelling with the Hispanic medium of "Fotonovelas." A staggered pretest posttest control group design was used to evaluate four Storytelling Slide Shows on health that featured community members. A total of 212 participants were recruited for the intervention and 217 for the…
Crosby, Richard A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Harrington, Kathy
Investigated whether living in a supportive family was an HIV/STD-protective factor for at-risk African American adolescent girls. Surveys supported the association between living in perceived supportive families and HIV/STD protective benefits. Supportive families enhanced girls' confidence in their ability to negotiate condom use and helped them…
Bennett-Garraway, Jocelyn M.
Do parents play a significant role in the academic achievement and career decision making process of African American children? Studies have confirmed the importance of the role of parents and have even identified preferred parenting styles as having the best academic achievement (Dornbusch, Ritter, Leiderman, Roberts, & Fraleigh, 1987;…
Naar-King, Sylvie; Ellis, Deborah; Kolmodin, Karen; Cunningham, Phillippe; Secord, Elizabeth
African-American adolescents have the highest rates of asthma morbidity and mortality, yet there are few successful behavioral interventions to improve illness management for this group. Mental health providers have an opportunity to expand their services and impact by targeting adolescents with poor asthma management. We describe the adaptation…
Connor, Carol McDonald; Craig, Holly K.
Purpose: This study examined the relation between African American preschoolers' use of African American English (AAE) and their language and emergent literacy skills in an effort to better understand the perplexing and persistent difficulties many African American children experience learning to read proficiently. Method: African American…
Hoffman, Robert P
African-Americans have more hypertension, stroke, and type 2 diabetes than do Caucasians. Endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance are precursors for each. Since these diseases have origins in pediatrics and are associated with obesity, this study was designed to determine if obesity has different effects on endothelial function, insulin sensitivity, and secretion in African-American and Caucasian adolescents. Thirty-three Caucasian and 25 African-Americans (10-18 years old) were subdivided by BMI into lean, overweight, and obesity groups. Endothelial function was measured as forearm vascular resistance (FVR) over 1 min following 5 min of upper arm vascular occlusion. Insulin sensitivity and secretion were measured using intravenous glucose tolerance test and minimal model. Postocclusive FVR was significantly increased in obese African-Americans. Insulin sensitivity was reduced in obese subjects but did not differ by race. Insulin secretion was increased in African-Americans but did not differ by obesity. Subjects were subdivided into risk groups based on 20th percentile for postocclusion FVR response in lean. Seven of nine obese African-Americans were in the high risk group compared to 0 of 5 obese Caucasians. These results demonstrate that obesity significantly impairs endothelial function in African-Americans. Endothelial dysfunction likely predisposes to future cardiometabolic disease in obese African-American adolescents.
Arad, Avigdor D; DiMenna, Fred J; Thomas, Naketa; Tamis-Holland, Jacqueline; Weil, Richard; Geliebter, Allan; Albu, Jeanine B
The purpose of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to determine the effect of a 14-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) intervention with weight stability on metabolic flexibility, insulin sensitivity, and cardiorespiratory fitness in sedentary, premenopausal, nondiabetic, overweight/obese African American women. Twenty-eight subjects were allocated to one of two groups: HIIT, which performed three sessions per week of four high-intensity cycling intervals, or a control group (CON), which maintained their normal level of physical activity. Diet was controlled for all subjects to ensure weight stability. Pre- and postintervention (pre/post), subjects completed an incremental cycling test to limit of tolerance and, following a 10-day high-fat controlled feeding period, a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp to determine insulin sensitivity and substrate oxidation. Nine members of HIIT (age, 29 ± 4 yr; body mass, 90.1 ± 13.8 kg) and eleven members of CON (age, 30 ± 7 yr; body mass, 85.5 ± 10.7 kg) completed the study. HIIT experienced an increased limit of tolerance (post, 1,124 ± 202 s; pre, 987 ± 146 s; P < 0.05), gas exchange threshold (post, 1.29 ± 0.34 liters/min; pre, 0.97 ± 0.23 liters/min; P < 0.05), and fat oxidation at the same absolute submaximal work rate compared with CON (P < 0.05 for group-by-time interaction in all cases). However, changes in peak oxygen consumption (V̇o2peak), insulin sensitivity, free fatty acid suppression during insulin stimulation, and metabolic flexibility were not different in HIIT compared with CON. High-intensity interval training with weight stability increased exercise fat oxidation and tolerance in subjects at risk for diabetic progression, but did not improve insulin sensitivity or fat oxidation in the postabsorptive or insulin-stimulated state.
Historically, African American students have been underrepresented in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). If African American students continue to be underrepresented in STEM fields, they will not have access to valuable and high-paying sectors of the economy. Despite the number of African Americans in these…
Vinci, Debra M; Philipp, Steven F
This descriptive study compares African Americans' and Euro-Americans' perceived value of food selection pertaining to cost, portion size, and meal satisfaction when eating away from home. A stratified sample was drawn from a southern U.S. metropolitan area (N= 1,011; 486 African American, 525 Euro-American). Analysis showed no difference between African-American and Euro-American adults by sex or how often they dined out. These two groups significantly differed across years of education, age, and answering 14 of 18 rated statements on value perceptions. African-Americans' value perceptions were influenced more by lower cost foods and larger portion sizes than those of Euro-Americans. For meal satisfaction, African Americans were more likely to agree with statements that indicate preferring foods high in energy and low in essential micronutrient density. This study supports the need for more investigation.