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Sample records for african-american older adults

  1. Home Remedy Use Among African American and White Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Sara A.; Sandberg, Joanne C.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Altizer, Kathryn P.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Home remedy use is an often overlooked component of health self-management, with a rich tradition, particularly among African Americans and others who have experienced limited access to medical care or discrimination by the health care system. Home remedies can potentially interfere with biomedical treatments. This study documented the use of home remedies among older rural adults, and compared use by ethnicity (African American and white) and gender. A purposeful sample of 62 community-dwelling adults ages 65+ from rural North Carolina was selected. Each completed an in-depth interview, which probed current use of home remedies, including food and non-food remedies, and the symptoms or conditions for use. Systematic, computer-assisted analysis was used to identify usage patterns. Five food and five non-food remedies were used by a large proportion of older adults. African American elders reported greater use than white elders; women reported more use for a greater number of symptoms than men. Non-food remedies included long-available, over-the-counter remedies (e.g., Epsom salts) for which “off-label” uses were reported. Use focused on alleviating common digestive, respiratory, skin, and musculoskeletal symptoms. Some were used for chronic conditions in lieu of prescription medications. Home remedy use continues to be a common feature of the health self-management of older adults, particularly among African Americans, though at lower levels than previously reported. While some use is likely helpful or benign, other use has the potential to interfere with medical management of disease. Health care providers should be aware of the use of remedies by their patients. PMID:26543255

  2. Barriers, Motivations, and Preferences for Physical Activity Among Female African American Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gothe, Neha P.; Kendall, Bradley J.

    2016-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, less than 11% of adults more than the age of 65 meet the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Among minority populations, only 5% of non-Hispanic Black older adults met the guidelines. Given our limited understanding of psychosocial and environmental factors that affect physical activity participation in these groups, the purpose of our focus groups was to investigate barriers, motivators, and preferences of physical activity for community-dwelling African American older adults. Three focus groups were conducted with female African American older adults (N = 20). Questions posed to each focus group targeted motivations and barriers toward physical activity as well as their preferences for physical activity. The motivations included perceived health benefits of physical activity, social support, and enjoyment associated with engagement in physical activity. Prominent barriers included time and physical limitations, peer pressure and family responsibilities, and weather and poor neighborhood conditions. Group activities involving a dance component and novel exercises such as tai-chi or yoga were preferred choices. These findings should be taken into consideration when designing and implementing research or community physical activity programs for female African American older adults. PMID:28138500

  3. Social support, physical functioning, and cognitive functioning among older African American adults.

    PubMed

    Ayotte, Brian J; Allaire, Jason C; Whitfield, Keith E

    2013-01-01

    Social support and functional ability are related to a number of outcomes in later life among African Americans, including cognitive performance. This study examined how providing and receiving social support was related to fluid and crystallized cognitive abilities among aging African American adults after accounting for functional limitations, age, education, sex, income, and self-reported health. Data from 602 African American adults (M = 69.08, SD = 9.74; 25% male) were analyzed using latent variable modeling. Fluid ability was a second-order factor indicated by measures that assessed verbal memory, working memory, perceptual speed, and inductive reasoning. Crystallized ability was a first-order factor indicated by three measures that assessed vocabulary (Shipley Verbal Meaning Test and parts A and B of the ETS Vocabulary Test). Results indicated that the receipt of social support was negatively related to both fluid and crystallized abilities, while the provision of support was positively related to fluid and crystallized ability. Follow-up tests found that the receipt of support was more strongly related to fluid ability than crystallized ability. There was no significant difference regarding the relationship of provision of support with fluid ability compared to crystallized ability. Results discuss the importance of considering the social context of older adults when examining cognitive ability.

  4. Patterns of family health history communication among older African American adults.

    PubMed

    Hovick, Shelly R; Yamasaki, Jill S; Burton-Chase, Allison M; Peterson, Susan K

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study examined patterns of communication regarding family health history among older African American adults. The authors conducted 5 focus groups and 6 semi-structured interviews with African Americans aged 60 years and older (N = 28). The authors identified 4 distinct patterns of family health history communication: noncommunication, open communication, selective communication (communication restricted to certain people or topics), and one-way communication (communication not reciprocated by younger family members). In general, participants favored open family health history communication, often resulting from desires to change patterns of noncommunication in previous generations regarding personal and family health history. Some participants indicated that they were selective about what and with whom they shared health information in order to protect their privacy and not worry others. Others described family health history communication as one-way or unreciprocated by younger family members who appeared uninterested or unwilling to share personal and family health information. The communication patterns that the authors identified are consistent with communication privacy management theory and with findings from studies focused on genetic testing results for hereditary conditions, suggesting that individuals are consistent in their communication of health and genetic risk information. Findings may guide the development of health message strategies for African Americans to increase family health history communication.

  5. Differential Item Functioning of the Boston Naming Test in Cognitively Normal African American and Caucasian Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pedraza, Otto; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Smith, Glenn E.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Willis, Floyd B.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Lucas, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Scores on the Boston Naming Test (BNT) are frequently lower for African American when compared to Caucasian adults. Although demographically-based norms can mitigate the impact of this discrepancy on the likelihood of erroneous diagnostic impressions, a growing consensus suggests that group norms do not sufficiently address or advance our understanding of the underlying psychometric and sociocultural factors that lead to between-group score discrepancies. Using item response theory and methods to detect differential item functioning (DIF), the current investigation moves beyond comparisons of the summed total score to examine whether the conditional probability of responding correctly to individual BNT items differs between African American and Caucasian adults. Participants included 670 adults age 52 and older who took part in Mayo's Older Americans and Older African Americans Normative Studies. Under a 2-parameter logistic IRT framework and after correction for the false discovery rate, 12 items where shown to demonstrate DIF. Six of these 12 items (“dominoes,” “escalator,” “muzzle,” “latch,” “tripod,” and “palette”) were also identified in additional analyses using hierarchical logistic regression models and represent the strongest evidence for race/ethnicity-based DIF. These findings afford a finer characterization of the psychometric properties of the BNT and expand our understanding of between-group performance. PMID:19570311

  6. Values important to terminally ill African American older adults in receiving hospice care.

    PubMed

    Noh, Hyunjin

    2014-01-01

    While racial disparity in the use of hospice care by older African Americans is widely acknowledged, little is known about the values that they consider as important in receiving health care services along with direct experiences with having these values respected by hospice care providers. Using individual, face-to-face interviews, data were collected directly from 28 African American hospice patients about their experiences in hospice care. Content analysis was used to identify and categorize themes from multiple readings of the qualitative data. Resulting themes included: dying at home, open communications, independent decision-making, autonomy in daily life, unwillingness to be a burden, and relationships. Through the initial assessment, value preferences can be explored and then shared with hospice team members to ensure that services are provided in such a way that their values and preferences are respected.

  7. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in older African Americans.

    PubMed

    Funnyé, Allen S; Akhtar, Abbasi J; Biamby, Gisele

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if older African Americans are disproportionately affected by acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and to review the clinical impact of AIDS and the importance of prevention and treatment efforts. A review of the literature and statistics was obtained using Medline and the AIDS Public Information Data Set offered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Twenty-seven percent of the U.S. population is above the age of 50, and the number of AIDS cases in this group is growing, with African Americans accounting for the highest proportion of cases and deaths. Testing for HIV may be delayed and symptoms attributed to other illnesses. Though 5% of new cases occur in those over 50, prevention programs, testing, and the perception of risk by providers may be insufficient. There are few research studies on HIV treatment in older patients and no specific guidelines for antiretroviral treatments available. Although death rates for AIDS has been declining, adults over 50 still have the highest mortality rate. Co-morbid conditions, such as heart disease and hypertension, may require taking multiple drugs, which may complicate treatment. Increasing heterosexual transmission rates and a lack of information on HIV reinforces the need for specific prevention programs targeted toward older African Americans.

  8. Predictors of Retention Among African American and Hispanic Older Adult Research Participants in the Well Elderly 2 Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Mike; Jackson, Jeanne; Mandel, Deborah; Blanchard, Jeanine; Holguin, Jess; Lai, Mei-Ying; Marterella, Abbey; Vigen, Cheryl; Gleason, Sarah; Lam, Claudia; Azen, Stan; Clark, Florence

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to document predictors of long-term retention among minority participants in the Well Elderly 2 Study, a randomized controlled trial of a lifestyle intervention for community-dwelling older adults. The primary sample included 149 African American and 92 Hispanic men and women aged 60–95 years, recruited at senior activity centers and senior residences. Chi-square and logistic regression procedures were undertaken to examine study-based, psychosocial, and health-related predictors of retention at 18 months following study entry. For both African Americans and Hispanics, intervention adherence was the strongest predictor. Retention was also related to high active coping and average (vs. high or low) levels of activity participation among African Americans and high social network strength among Hispanics. The results suggest that improved knowledge of the predictors of retention among minority elders can spawn new retention strategies that can be applied at individual, subgroup, and sample-wide levels. PMID:24652865

  9. Examining the perceptions, preferences, and practices that influence healthy aging for African American older adults: an ecological perspective.

    PubMed

    Waites, Cheryl

    2013-10-01

    This study explored the healthy aging and health promotion perceptions, preferences, and practices of a purposive sample of African American older adults who resided in two communities in the south. An ecological framework was used to capture environmental factors, perceptions regarding access to health promotion resources, and health behavior preferences and practices. A mixed-method approach was used. Health supporting amenities were mapped, focus groups were conducted, and demographic information was obtained. The data were merged to create consolidated themes. The results indicated that health promotion amenities were available, but with some limitations. Convenient access to transportation strongly affected ability to use resources. Older adults were interested in preserving their health and independence, but some had difficulty staying motivated to maintain a healthy lifestyle. They wanted easier access to amenities. Implications for best practice include attention to culturally responsive outreach, motivating with social support and incentives, and developing community-based culturally compatible programming.

  10. Freedom Road: Adult Education of African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Elizabeth A., Ed.

    This book contains six chapters by various authors about the history of African Americans' contributions and participation in adult education. The book reports on how some African American leaders saw the connection between education and the eventual freedom or uplift of the African American people. Following a foreword (Phyllis M. Cunningham) and…

  11. Effective screening for Alzheimer's disease among older African Americans.

    PubMed

    Mast, B T; Fitzgerald, J; Steinberg, J; MacNeill, S E; Lichtenberg, P A

    2001-05-01

    Relatively little data exist concerning the utility of brief cognitive measures to detect dementia among African Americans. The current study evaluated the clinical utility of the Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE) and the Fuld Object Memory Evaluation (FOME) in detecting Alzheimer's disease (AD) among both African American and European American older adults. One hundred and forty geriatric patients from a large urban academic medical center were examined. Overall, the FOME appeared to be more effective in detecting AD than was the MMSE (93% sensitivity vs. 75% sensitivity, respectively), although both measures suffered from relatively low specificity (63.5) in the full sample. The FOME demonstrated exceptional clinical utility among African American patients (sensitivity 98.3%; specificity = 64.5; positive predictive power 83.8%; negative predictive power 95.2%). The results of this study support the use of the FOME among older African Americans to detect dementia.

  12. Perceived discrimination and cognition in older African Americans.

    PubMed

    Barnes, L L; Lewis, T T; Begeny, C T; Yu, L; Bennett, D A; Wilson, R S

    2012-09-01

    Existing evidence suggests that psychosocial stress is associated with cognitive impairment in older adults. Perceived discrimination is a persistent stressor in African Americans that has been associated with several adverse mental and physical health outcomes. To our knowledge, the association of discrimination with cognition in older African Americans has not been examined. In a cohort of 407 older African Americans without dementia (mean age = 72.9; SD = 6.4), we found that a higher level of perceived discrimination was related to poorer cognitive test performance, particularly episodic memory (estimate = -0.03; SE = .013; p < .05) and perceptual speed tests (estimate = -0.04; SE = .015; p < .05). The associations were unchanged after adjusting for demographics and vascular risk factors, but were attenuated after adjustment for depressive symptoms (Episodic memory estimate = -0.02; SE = 0.01; Perceptual speed estimate = -0.03; SE = 0.02; both p's = .06). The association between discrimination and several cognitive domains was modified by level of neuroticism. The results suggest that perceived discrimination may be associated with poorer cognitive function, but does not appear to be independent of depressive symptoms. (JINS, 2012, 18, 1-10).

  13. Prevalence and correlates of perceived societal racism in older African-American adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Moody-Ayers, Sandra Y; Stewart, Anita L; Covinsky, Kenneth E; Inouye, Sharon K

    2005-12-01

    Although experiences of racism in day-to-day life may affect minority patients' interaction with the health system and may influence health outcomes, little is known about these experiences in patients with chronic diseases. The goal of this study was to explore the frequency and correlates of perceived societal racism in 42 African Americans aged 50 and older with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Twenty-seven items of the McNeilly Perceived Racism Scale were used to assess exposure to racist incidents in employment and public domains and emotional and coping responses to perceived racism in general. Mean age was 62, 71% were women, and more than half rated their health as fair/poor (55%). Overall, 95.2% of the participants reported at least some exposure to perceived societal racism. Higher mean lifetime exposure to societal racism, based on summary scores on the perceived racism scale, was reported by men (35.0+/-19.1) than women (19.7+/-14.4) (P<.01) and by those with higher household income (30.7+/-17.3) than those with lower household income (18.6+/-15.1) (P<.05). Greater passive coping (e.g., "avoiding it," "ignoring it") was associated with being female and having lower household income and fair/poor self-rated health. The findings that perception of racism and a range of emotional and coping responses were common in older African-American patients attending two diabetes clinics suggest that physicians and other healthcare providers may need to be more aware of patients' day-to-day experiences of societal racism and the influence these experiences may have on patient trust in the medical system and their adherence to medical advice or engagement in self-management of their chronic conditions.

  14. Evaluation of a mindfulness-based intervention program to decrease blood pressure in low-income African-American older adults.

    PubMed

    Palta, Priya; Page, G; Piferi, R L; Gill, J M; Hayat, M J; Connolly, A B; Szanton, S L

    2012-04-01

    Hypertension affects a large proportion of urban African-American older adults.While there have been great strides in drug development, many older adults do not have access to such medicines or do not take them. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR)has been shown to decrease blood pressure in some populations. This has not been tested in low-income, urban African-American older adults. Therefore, the primary purpose of this pilot study was to test the feasibility and acceptability of a mindfulness-based program for low income, minority older adults provided in residence. The secondary purpose was to learn if the mindfulness-based program produced differences in blood pressure between the intervention and control groups. Participants were at least 62 years old and residents of a low-income senior residence. All participants were African-American, and one was male.Twenty participants were randomized to the mindfulness-based intervention or a social support control group of the same duration and dose. Blood pressure was measured with the Omron automatic blood pressure machine at baseline and at the end of the 8-week intervention. A multivariate regression analysis was performed on the difference in scores between baseline and post-intervention blood pressure measurements, controlling for age,education, smoking status, and anti-hypertensive medication use. Effect sizes were calculated to quantify the magnitude of the relationship between participation in the mindfulness-based intervention and the outcome variable, blood pressure. Attendance remained 980%in all 8 weeks of both the intervention and the control groups. The average systolic blood pressure decreased for both groups post-intervention. Individuals in the intervention group exhibited a 21.92-mmHg lower systolic blood pressure compared to the social support control group post-intervention and this value was statistically significant(p=0.020). The average diastolic blood pressure decreased in the

  15. A six-year follow-up study of social network changes among African-American, Caribbean, and U.S.-born Caucasian urban older adults.

    PubMed

    Conway, Francine; Magai, Carol; Jones, Samuel; Fiori, Katherine; Gillespie, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study explores dynamic changes in network size and composition by examining patterns of older adults' social network change over time, that is: types of movements; the reason for the loss of network members; and the relation of movement and composition in concert. This study is a 6-year follow up of changes in the social networks of U.S.-Born Caucasian, African-American, and Caribbean older adults. One hundred and twenty-four community-dwelling older adults were interviewed during 2 data collection points over a 6-year period. Differences between Wave 1 and Wave 2 data were examined using paired sample t-tests confirmed with post-hoc tests and multivariate analyses. Results regarding types of movement showed that network changes were attributed to attrition--the "loss" of network members and a novel movement--the "addition" of network members not heretofore discussed. The results show an interaction between kinship status, ethnicity, and time--the attrition of non-kin members was underscored by ethnic differences. The type of network change was specific for type of network affiliation, such that children were more likely to be added to the networks of the young-old and kin were more likely to be lost in networks of the old-old. Older adults engage in social network interactions marked by compensatory processes beyond loss of network members such as social promotion and demotion. These social network processes are of emotional and functional significance for the older adult.

  16. Depressive Symptoms Are More Strongly Related to Executive Functioning and Episodic Memory Among African American compared with Non-Hispanic White Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zahodne, Laura B.; Nowinski, Cindy J.; Gershon, Richard C.; Manly, Jennifer J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether the reserve capacity model can be extended to cognitive outcomes among older African Americans. Two hundred and ninety-two non-Hispanic Whites and 37 African Americans over age 54 participated in the normative study for the NIH Toolbox for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function. Multiple-group path analysis showed that associations between depressive symptoms and cognition differed by race, independent of age, education, reading level, income, health, and recruitment site. Depressive symptoms were associated with slowed processing speed among Whites and worse task-switching, inhibition, and episodic memory among African Americans. African Americans may be more vulnerable to negative effects of depression on cognition than non-Hispanic Whites. Further research is needed to explicate the psychological and neurobiological underpinnings of this greater vulnerability. PMID:25280795

  17. Attention HIV: older African American women define sexual risk.

    PubMed

    McCord, Laneshia R

    2014-01-01

    Understanding sexual-risk behaviours as defined by a culture presents new challenges for human service professionals. Older African American women constitute the fastest growing group of new cases of HIV in the USA. With heterosexual sex as the primary mode of transmission among this group, there exist minimal programmes that are culture and age-specific in terms of primary and secondary prevention. In an attempt to address this gap in knowledge, this study examined how a group of older African American women defined sexual-risk behaviour. A focus group was conducted with seven women age 45 and older, who were recruited from a community centre. This paper examines the way that sexual-risk behaviour was defined through thematic analysis and conceptualises the locus of sexual risk behaviour as defined by the participants. The major theme of the study was social prescription, how to behave sexually as an ageing adult. Underlying ideas that arose were that unprotected sex occurred out of habit, that impulsivity was associated with risky sex and that older women needed to be aware of warning signs and behaviours of potential mates. Micro- and macro-level implications for human service professionals are discussed.

  18. Health information-seeking behavior and older African American women.

    PubMed

    Gollop, C J

    1997-04-01

    This study explored the ways in which urban, older, African American women obtain health information and some of the factors that influence such activity. Among the possible determinants examined were self-perceived literacy, access to health information, and mobility. The findings suggest that respondents receive health information from their physicians, the mass media, and members of their social networks. The results of this research also indicated that members of this population have a highly positive perception of the public library, although only a small segment use the library regularly, and that it may be in the interest of the library to investigate the role it could play in providing health information to older adults.

  19. Culturally Conscientious Pain Measurement in Older African Americans.

    PubMed

    Booker, Staja Q; Herr, Keela A; Tripp-Reimer, Toni

    2016-10-01

    Despite considerable pain disparities across the care continuum, pain is an understudied health problem in older ethnic minority groups, such as African Americans. Quality pain measurement is a core task in pain management and a mechanism by which pain disparities may be reduced. Pain measurement includes the methods (e.g., assessment approaches, tools) and metrics that researchers and clinicians use to understand the characteristics of pain. However, there are significant issues and gaps that negatively affect pain measurement in older African Americans. Of concern is insufficient representation in pain research, which impedes the testing and refinement of many standardized self-report, behavioral and surrogate report, physiological, and composite measures of pain. The purposes for this article are to discuss the status of pain measurement and factors that affect our knowledge on pain measurement in older African Americans, and to provide guidance for culturally conscientious pain measurement using the available literature.

  20. Exploring the Sexuality of African American Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Laganá, Luciana; White, Theresa; Bruzzone, Daniel E.; Bruzzone, Cristine E.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To identify sexually-related themes of the sexuality of older African American women. Study Design Mixed method. Place and Duration of Study Department of Psychology, California State University Northridge, between July 2009 and June 2011. Methodology We included 13 African American older women (57 to 82 years of age), 11 of whom self-identified as heterosexual, one as bisexual, and one as lesbian. We used a semi-structured interview protocol through which we explored some aspects of the respondents’ sexuality (assessed at a superficial level, to be as tactful as possible). Moreover, we collected information on demographics and self-rated physical health. Two co-authors served as coders, and used content analysis to identify the most salient sexuality themes. Results Emerging themes were (in order from most to least endorsed): having sexual desire (often unfulfilled); engaging in less sexual activity in older age; experiencing changes in one’s sexual life as a function of absence of a spouse; and exercising control over how one’s sexual life is conducted. Motivated by the paucity of our sexuality data, we have also provided suggestions to scholars interested in conducting more in-depth further research on this topic with older African American women. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the common notion that older women are asexual is a myth, while lack of a suitable sexual partner is a problem reported by many African American older women who would otherwise enjoy sexual interaction. PMID:25632380

  1. The association between depressive symptoms, anger, and perceived support resources among underserved older HIV positive black/African American adults.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Nicole Ennis; Hearn, Lauren E; Burrell, Larry

    2014-09-01

    By 2015, half of those living with HIV in the United States will be ≥50 years of age. Research suggests that perceived social support is an important factor in maintaining positive health behaviors in this population. The present study examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and trait anger on perceived social support in a sample of low-income HIV positive (HIV+) African Americans ≥50 years of age. Additionally, we examined life stressors moderated the relationship between mental health and perceived support. This study includes 95 HIV+ men and women ≥50 years of age who identify as black/African American. As expected, depressive symptoms and trait anger showed a strong inverse relationship with perceived support resources. Furthermore, life stressors also showed a strong inverse relationship with perceived support. However, life stressors did not moderate the relationship between depressive symptoms and anger. Instead life stressors demonstrated a strong independent relationship with perceived support. The association between depressive symptoms, trait anger, life stressors, and lower perceived support suggests that these factors play a role in one's ability to access needed support resources. Greater perceived support is associated with improved health in HIV+ persons, and may be especially important in tailoring interventions for those ≥50 years of age.

  2. Interaction of African American Learners Online: An Adult Education Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Haijun; Yang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how various life factors and personal attributes affect African American adult learners' use of the three types of learning interaction-learner-content, learner-instructor, and learner-learner. Multivariate multiple regression analyses were used. The aggregate effect of life factors on African American adult learners' use of…

  3. The Impact of Desegregation on Cognition among Older African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Keith E.; Wiggins, Sebrina A.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the influence of educational desegregation on cognitive performance. Data from African American adults who had attended desegregated (DS) versus segregated (SS) schools indicated that DS adults had significantly higher mean cognitive scores than SS adults. After controlling for age, gender, years of education, and years in desegregated…

  4. Older African Americans' Beliefs about Pain, Biomedicine, and Spiritual Medicine.

    PubMed

    Booker, Staja Q

    2015-01-01

    Persistent (chronic) pain prompts older African Americans (AAs) to utilize a combination of biomedicine (BM) and spiritual medicine (SM)for pain management. Because less is known about how older AAs use these pain management interventions, healthcare providers are unable to provide holistic care and optimal pain management. Using a Christian and Afrocentric perspective, this article reviews older AAs use of BM and SM, offering reconmendations on how to integrate BM and SM for pain management.

  5. Clustering of Risk Behaviours among African American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baruth, M.; Addy, C. L.; Wilcox, S.; Dowda, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Individuals may engage in more than one risk behaviour at any given time. The extent to which risk behaviours cluster among African American adults has been largely unexplored. This study examined the prevalence and clustering of three risk behaviours among African American church members: smoking; low moderate-to-vigorous intensity…

  6. Transformative Learning Intervention: Effect on Functional Health Literacy and Diabetes Knowledge in Older African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ntiri, Daphne W.; Stewart, Merry

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of a transformative learning (TL) intervention on functional health literacy and diabetes knowledge in older African Americans. Twenty participants from senior community centers completed a six-session intervention. The short-form Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (s-TOFHLA), Literacy Assessment for…

  7. Organizational Religious Behavior among Older African Americans: Findings from the National Survey of American Life

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M.; Bullard, Kai McKeever; Wallace, John M.; Jackson, James S.

    2010-01-01

    This study utilizes data from the older African American sub-sample of the National Survey of American Life (n=837) to examine the sociodemographic and denominational correlates of organizational religious involvement among older African Americans. Six measures of organizational religious participation are utilized, including two measures of time allocation for organized religious pursuits. The findings indicate significant gender, region, marital status and denominational differences in organizational religiosity. Of particular note, although older black women generally displayed higher levels of religious participation, older black men spent more hours per week in other activities at their place of worship. The findings are discussed in relation to prior work in the area of religious involvement among older adults. New directions for research on religious time allocation are outlined. PMID:21052487

  8. Older African American Women’s Lived Experiences with Depression

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Earlise C.; Mengesha, Maigenete; Issa, Fathiya

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about older African American women’s lived experiences with depression. What does depression mean to this group? What are they doing about their depression? Unfortunately, these questions are unanswered. This study examined older African American women’s lived experiences with depression and coping behaviours. The common sense model provided the theoretical framework for present study. Thirteen community-dwelling African American women aged 60 and older (M =71 years) participated. Using qualitative phenomenological data analysis, results showed the women held beliefs about factors that can cause depression including experiences of trauma, poverty, and disempowerment. Results also indicated the women believed that depression is a normal reaction to life circumstances and did not see the need to seek professional treatment for depression. They coped by use of culturally-sanctioned behaviours including religious practices and resilience. It appears these women’s beliefs about depression and use of culturally-sanctioned coping behaviours might potentially be a barrier to seeking professional mental health care, which could result in missed opportunities for early diagnosis and treatment of depression among this group. Implications for research, educational and clinical interventions are discussed. PMID:23742034

  9. A brief report on WAIS-R normative data collection in Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies.

    PubMed

    Lucas, John A; Ivnik, Robert J; Smith, Glenn E; Ferman, Tanis J; Willis, Floyd B; Petersen, Ronald C; Graff-Radford, Neill R

    2005-06-01

    Historically, neuropsychological measures such as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) have yielded unacceptably high rates of misdiagnosis of impairment among cognitively normal African Americans, primarily due to poor test specificity and inadequate representation of ethnic minorities in the normative sample. In this report, we briefly review these issues and describe efforts by investigators in Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies (MOAANS) to develop more appropriate norms for African American elders on the WAIS-R. During MOAANS data collection, the third edition of the WAIS (WAIS-III) was introduced with updated representation of ethnic minorities in the normative database. More recently, specific demographic corrections for African Americans have been derived for WAIS-III subtest scores and indices. As such, WAIS-R normative estimates are not presented here. Interested readers who wish to obtain a full set of MOAANS WAIS-R norms, however, are invited to contact the authors for these data.

  10. African Americans in Adult Education: The Harlem Renaissance Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Bailey, Juanita

    2006-01-01

    This study examined a 25-year period of African Americans in adult education by accessing the archival holdings of three major data centers: the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, the Moorland-Spingarn Archives, and the Hollis Burke Frissell Library. The sociopolitical context of the data was analyzed using a Black feminist…

  11. African American Young Adult Smoking Initiation: Identifying Intervention Points and Prevention Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Marshall K.; Mansker, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans have one of the lowest smoking rates as teens yet have one of the highest smoking rates as adults. Approximately 40% of African Americans who have ever smoked started smoking between the ages of 18 and 21. Purpose: This study aimed to identify why African American young adults began smoking in young adulthood and what…

  12. Understanding older men and their male friendships: a comparison of african american and white men.

    PubMed

    Greif, Geoffrey L

    2009-01-01

    Friendships can lead to longer and healthier lives. Yet little is known about how older men, particularly African American men, define and carry out their friendships with other men. This article presents the findings from qualitative interviews with 23 African American and 23 White older men who were part of a larger study. The subjects were asked whether friendships are important; if they have enough male friends; how they define, carry out, and maintain their friendships; and the nature of their fathers' friendships. Comparisons are drawn between the African American and White men. Implications for social work practice are included.

  13. Daily temporal self-care responses to osteoarthritis symptoms by older African Americans and whites

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Myrna; Nutini, Jean; Musa, Donald; King, Jennifer; Albert, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent form of arthritis and is among the most prevalent chronic conditions in the United States. Because there is no known cure for OA, treatment is directed towards the alleviation of pain, improving function, and limiting disability. The major burden of care falls on the individual, who tailors personal systems of care to alleviate troublesome symptoms. To date, little has been known about the temporal variations in self-care that older patients with OA develop, nor has it been known to what extent self-care patterns vary with ethnicity and disease severity. This study was designed to demonstrate the self-care strategies used by older African Americans and whites to alleviate the symptoms of OA on a typical day and during specific segments of a typical day over the past 30 days. A sample of 551 older adults participated in in-depth interviews, and the authors clustered their responses into six categories. Findings showed that the frequency of particular behaviors varied by time of day, disease severity, and race. Overall, patterns of self-care behaviors were similar between African-Americans and whites, but African-Americans used them in different proportions than whites and in response to disease severity. Knowledge of what strategies persons with OA use to lessen their symptoms at various times of the day may enable practitioners and their patients to improve management of OA symptoms. Recognition that people may choose their strategies to ameliorate their symptoms by race and disease severity may further enable tailored symptom relief. PMID:18841454

  14. A Six-Year Follow-Up Study of Social Network Changes among African-American, Caribbean, and U.S.-Born Caucasian Urban Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Francine; Magai, Carol; Jones, Samuel; Fiori, Katherine; Gillespie, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study explores dynamic changes in network size and composition by examining patterns of older adults' social network change over time, that is: types of movements; the reason for the loss of network members; and the relation of movement and composition in concert. This study is a 6-year follow up of changes in the social networks of U.S.-Born…

  15. Cost-Effectiveness of a Community-Integrated Home Based Depression Intervention in Older African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Pizzi, Laura T.; Jutkowitz, Eric; Frick, Kevin D.; Suh, Dong-Churl; Prioli, Katherine M.; Gitlin, Laura N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To test the cost-effectiveness of a home-based depression program, Beat the Blues (BTB). Design We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis as part of a previously reported randomized controlled trial that tested BTB versus a wait-list control group. Setting Community-dwelling older African American adults. Participants African Americans who were ≥55 years of age, English speaking, cognitively intact (MMSE ≥24), and had depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score ≥5) (N=129). Intervention Participants randomly assigned to BTB received up to 10 home visits over a period of 4 months by licensed social workers who provided care management, referral/linkage, stress reduction, depression education, and behavioral activation to help participants achieve self-identified goals. Measurements Incremental cost effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of BTB versus wait-list controls during the 4-month study period. The primary ICER was defined as cost/quality-adjusted life year using the EQ-5D and secondarily using the HUI-3. Additional ICERs were calculated using clinical measures (cost per depression improvement, cost per depression remission). Costs included BTB intervention, depression-related healthcare visits and medications, caregiver time, and social services. Results BTB cost per participant per month was $146. Base case ICERs were $64,896 per QALY (EQ-5D) and $36,875 per QALY (HUI-3). Incremental cost per depression improvement was $2,906 and per remission was $3,507. Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses yielded cost/QALY range of $20,500-$76,500. Conclusion Based on the range of cost effectiveness values resulting from this study, BTB is a cost-effective treatment for managing depressive symptoms in older African Americans that compares favorably with the cost effectiveness of previously tested approaches. PMID:25516025

  16. An exploration of mental health literacy among older African Americans.

    PubMed

    Stansbury, Kim L; Peterson, Tina L; Beecher, Blake

    2013-01-01

    The intent of this exploratory descriptive study was to examine mental health literacy (MHL) with 28 African American elders who reside in Kentucky. Collectively, all elders were partially literate of mental disorders and familiar with self-help and professional interventions and Alzheimer's and depression were the most recognized mental disorders. An awareness of MHL is an essential first step to understanding African American elders' views about mental health which then can facilitate the design and development of culturally relevant psychoeducational programs geared to this subset of the aging population.

  17. Genome-Wide Association Analysis of the Sense of Smell in U.S. Older Adults: Identification of Novel Risk Loci in African-Americans and European-Americans.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jing; Wyss, Annah; Yang, Jingyun; Price, T Ryan; Nicolas, Aude; Nalls, Michael; Tranah, Greg; Franceschini, Nora; Xu, Zongli; Schulte, Claudia; Alonso, Alvaro; Cummings, Steven R; Fornage, Myriam; Zaykin, Dmitri; Li, Leping; Huang, Xuemei; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Liu, Yongmei; Gasser, Thomas; Wilson, Robert S; De Jager, Philip L; Singleton, Andrew B; Pinto, Jayant M; Harris, Tamara; Mosley, Thomas H; Bennett, David A; London, Stephanie; Yu, Lei; Chen, Honglei

    2016-11-23

    The human sense of smell decreases with age, and a poor sense of smell are among the most important prodromal symptoms of several neurodegenerative diseases. Recent evidence further suggests a racial difference in the sense of smell among U.S. older adults. However, no genome-wide association study (GWAS) on the sense of smell has been conducted in African-Americans (AAs). We performed the first genome-wide meta-analysis of the sense of smell among 1979 AAs and 6582 European-Americans (EAs) from three U.S. aging cohorts. In the AA population, we identified nine novel regions (KLF4-ACTL7B, RAPGEF2-FSTL5, TCF4-LOC100505474, PCDH10, KIAA1751, MYO5B, MIR320B1-CD2, NR5A2-LINC00862, SALL1-C16orf97) that were associated with the sense of smell (P < 5 × 10(-8)). Many of these regions have been previously linked to neuropsychiatric (schizophrenia or epilepsy) or neurodegenerative (Parkinson's or Alzheimer's disease) diseases associated with a decreased sense of smell. In the EA population, we identified two novel loci in or near RASGRP1 and ANXA2P3 associated with sense of smell. In conclusion, this study identified several ancestry-specific loci that are associated with the sense of smell in older adults. While these findings need independent confirmation, they may lead to novel insights into the biology of the sense of smell in older adults and its relationships to neuropsychological and neurodegenerative diseases.

  18. The Lived Experience of African American Caregivers Caring for Adult African American Patients With Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Heather

    2016-04-01

    Assistance from informal caregivers such as family members, friends, or neighbors is crucial to adequately managing the complex care of heart failure (HF) patients. This study examined the lived experience of African American caregivers caring for African American patients with HF. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 10 participants who were formally interviewed. The interviews, analyzed using Colaizzi's steps, revealed six themes: layers of support, realization of self-neglect, experiencing the "blues," connecting with healthcare providers, unmet financial needs, and perception of nonadherence. The information regarding the experience of African American caregivers of HF patients obtained through this research will inform the delivery of culturally competent support to caregivers, thereby improving quality of life for both the HF patients and their caregivers.

  19. The Black Arts Movement and African American Young Adult Literature: An Evaluation of Narrative Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Laretta

    2005-01-01

    In this article I question whether or not African American young adult literature serves as a primer for, and a version of, African American adult literature. Using the Black Aesthetic as my literary theory and the Coretta Scott King Award as the young adult canon, I note that while the content of adolescent literature is consistent with the…

  20. African Genetic Ancestry is Associated with Sleep Depth in Older African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Indrani; Matthews, Karen A.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Strollo, Patrick J.; Causer, Victoria; Reis, Steven E.; Hall, Martica H.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: The mechanisms that underlie differences in sleep characteristics between European Americans (EA) and African Americans (AA) are not fully known. Although social and psychological processes that differ by race are possible mediators, the substantial heritability of sleep characteristics also suggests genetic underpinnings of race differences. We hypothesized that racial differences in sleep phenotypes would show an association with objectively measured individual genetic ancestry in AAs. Design: Cross sectional. Setting: Community-based study. Participants: Seventy AA adults (mean age 59.5 ± 6.7 y; 62% female) and 101 EAs (mean age 60.5 ± 7 y, 39% female). Measurements and Results: Multivariate tests were used to compare the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and in-home polysomnographic measures of sleep duration, sleep efficiency, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), and indices of sleep depth including percent visually scored slow wave sleep (SWS) and delta EEG power of EAs and AAs. Sleep duration, efficiency, and sleep depth differed significantly by race. Individual % African ancestry (%AF) was measured in AA subjects using a panel of 1698 ancestry informative genetic markers and ranged from 10% to 88% (mean 67%). Hierarchical linear regression showed that higher %AF was associated with lower percent SWS in AAs (β (standard error) = −4.6 (1.5); P = 0.002), and explained 11% of the variation in SWS after covariate adjustment. A similar association was observed for delta power. No association was observed for sleep duration and efficiency. Conclusion: African genetic ancestry is associated with indices of sleep depth in African Americans. Such an association suggests that part of the racial differences in slow-wave sleep may have genetic underpinnings. Citation: Halder I, Matthews KA, Buysse DJ, Strollo PJ, Causer V, Reis SE, Hall MH. African genetic ancestry is associated with sleep depth in older African Americans. SLEEP 2015;38(8):1185–1193

  1. Pain intensity assessment: a comparison of selected pain intensity scales for use in cognitively intact and cognitively impaired African American older adults.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Laurie Jowers; Herr, Keela

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of selected pain intensity scales including the Faces Pain Scale (FPS), the Verbal Description Scale, the Numeric Rating Scale, and the Iowa Pain Thermometer to assess pain in cognitively impaired minority older adults. A descriptive correlational design was used, and a convenience sample of 57 volunteers age 58 and older residing in the South was recruited for this study. The sample consisted of 8 males and 49 females with a mean age of 76. Fifty-nine percent of the sample completed an 11th grade education or less, and 59% completed high school or college. Seventy-seven percent (n = 44) of the sample scored 24 or less on the mental status exam, indicating some degree of cognitive impairment. The remaining 23% (n = 13) were cognitively intact. All of the participants were able to use each of the scales to rate their pain. Concurrent validity of the scales was supported with Spearman rank correlation coefficients ranging from.74 to.83 in the cognitively impaired group and.81 to.96 in the cognitively intact group. Test-retest reliability at a 2-week interval was acceptable in the cognitively intact group (Spearman rank correlations ranged from.73 to.83) and to a lesser degree in the cognitively impaired group (correlations ranged from.52 to.79). When asked about scale preference, both the cognitively impaired and the intact group indicated a preference for the FPS. Findings from this study suggest that cognitive impairment did not inhibit older minority participants' ability to use a variety of pain intensity scales. Additionally, options should be provided that address individual needs of older adults considering specific cognitive level and disability, education, gender, ethnicity, and cultural influences concerning perceptions of the various pain intensity scales.

  2. Strategic Planning for Recruitment and Retention of Older African Americans in Health Promotion Research Programs.

    PubMed

    Dreer, Laura E; Weston, June; Owsley, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to 1) describe a strategic plan for recruitment and retention used in conducting eye health education research with African-Americans living in urban and rural areas of Alabama and 2) characterize recruitment and retention patterns for this community-based project. We evaluated an eye health education program tailored specifically to older African Americans. InCHARGE© was designed to promote eye disease prevention by conveying the personal benefits of annual, dilated, comprehensive eye care and teaching strategies to minimize barriers to regular eye care. The InCHARGE© program or a social contact control program was delivered at 20 senior centers in predominately African American urban and rural communities. From pooled data across three studies, 380 African Americans completed a questionnaire about knowledge and attitudes/beliefs about eye disease and eye care before the program and by telephone at either 3 or 6 months after the presentation. The project consisted of 4 phases and a total of 10 strategic objectives for recruitment as well as retention of older African Americans that were implemented in a systematic fashion. Overall, retention rates for follow-up at either 3 or 6 months were 75% and 66% respectively. African Americans from rural areas were more likely to be lost to follow-up compared to those from urban areas. We discuss the benefits of utilizing a strategic plan that serves to address problems with underrepresentation of minorities in clinical research.

  3. Strategic Planning for Recruitment and Retention of Older African Americans in Health Promotion Research Programs

    PubMed Central

    Dreer, Laura E.; Weston, June; Owsley, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to 1) describe a strategic plan for recruitment and retention used in conducting eye health education research with African-Americans living in urban and rural areas of Alabama and 2) characterize recruitment and retention patterns for this community-based project. We evaluated an eye health education program tailored specifically to older African Americans. InCHARGE© was designed to promote eye disease prevention by conveying the personal benefits of annual, dilated, comprehensive eye care and teaching strategies to minimize barriers to regular eye care. The InCHARGE© program or a social contact control program was delivered at 20 senior centers in predominately African American urban and rural communities. From pooled data across three studies, 380 African Americans completed a questionnaire about knowledge and attitudes/beliefs about eye disease and eye care before the program and by telephone at either 3 or 6 months after the presentation. The project consisted of 4 phases and a total of 10 strategic objectives for recruitment as well as retention of older African Americans that were implemented in a systematic fashion. Overall, retention rates for follow-up at either 3 or 6 months were 75% and 66% respectively. African Americans from rural areas were more likely to be lost to follow-up compared to those from urban areas. We discuss the benefits of utilizing a strategic plan that serves to address problems with underrepresentation of minorities in clinical research. PMID:25346876

  4. Losing Faith and Using Faith: Older African Americans Discuss Spirituality, Religious Activities, and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Jin Hui; Lewis, Lisa M.; Barg, Frances K.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objectives Older African Americans are often under diagnosed and under treated for depression. Given that older African Americans are more likely than whites to identify spirituality as important in depression care, we sought to understand how spirituality may play a role in the way they conceptualize and deal with depression in order to inform possible interventions aimed at improving the acceptability and effectiveness of depression treatment. Design Cross-sectional qualitative interview study of older African American primary care patients. Participants and Setting Forty-seven older African American patients recruited from primary care practices in the Baltimore, MD area, interviewed in their homes. Measurements Semi-structured interviews lasting approximately 60 minutes. Interviews were transcribed and themes related to spirituality in the context of discussing depression were identified using a grounded-theory approach. Main Results Participants in this study held a faith-based explanatory model of depression with a particular emphasis on the cause of depression and what to do about it. Specifically, participants described depression as being due to a “loss of faith” and faith and spiritual/religious activities were thought to be empowering in the way they can work together with medical treatments to provide the strength for healing to occur. Conclusions The older African Americans in this study described an intrinsically spiritual explanatory model of depression. Addressing spirituality in the clinical encounter may lead to improved detection of depression and treatments that are more congruent with patient’s beliefs and values. PMID:19156471

  5. Enhancing Adherence among Older African American Men Enrolled in a Longitudinal Cancer Screening Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Marvella E.; Havstad, Suzanne; Vernon, Sally W.; Davis, Shawna D.; Kroll, David; Lamerato, Lois; Swanson, G. Marie

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to enhance adherence among older (aged 55 years and older) African American men enrolled in a cancer screening trial for prostate, lung, and colorectal cancer. For this study, we defined "adherence" as completing the trial screenings. Design and Methods: We used a randomized trial design. Case managers…

  6. Disabilities in older African-American women: understanding the current state of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jones, Debbie Ann

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this review sought to address the following question: What does the current literature report regarding older African-American women with disabilities? A search of PubMed database was done for research on African-American women, ages 45 years and older, who have a disability. Sixty-one articles were reviewed and categorized into groups according to themes. The term disability was only defined in one of the studies. Overall, the studies reviewed revealed racial and ethnic disparities among African-American women with disabilities that included increased hospital days, poor health days, hospitalizations, being functionally totally dependent, and having increased primary and repeat amputations when compared to their White counterparts.

  7. The Association Between Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms among Older African Americans: The Role of Psychological and Social Factors

    PubMed Central

    Nadimpalli, S.B.; James, B.D.; Yu, L.; Cothran, F.; Barnes, L. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies have demonstrated a link between perceived discrimination and depression in ethnic minority groups, yet most have focused on younger or middle-aged African Americans and little is known about factors that may moderate the relationship. Methods Participants were 487 older African Americans (60-98) enrolled in the Minority Aging Research Study. Discrimination, depressive symptoms, and psychological and social resources were assessed via interview using validated measures. Ordinal logistic regression models were used to assess (1) the main relationship between discrimination and depression and (2) resilience, purpose in life, social isolation, and social networks as potential moderators of this relationship. Results In models adjusted for age, sex, education, and income, perceived discrimination was positively associated with depressive symptoms (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.31, p < .001). However, there was no evidence of effect modification by resilience, purpose in life, social isolation, or social networks (all ps ≤ .05). Conclusion and Implications Findings provide support for accumulating evidence on the adverse mental health effects of discrimination among older African Americans. Because the association was not modified by psychological or social factors, these findings do not support a role for a buffering effect of resources on discrimination and depressive symptoms. Further studies are needed to examine a wider range of coping resources among older adults. PMID:25494668

  8. Anxiety Psychopathology in African American Adults: Literature Review and Development of an Empirically Informed Sociocultural Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Lora Rose; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, the extant literature concerning anxiety psychopathology in African American adults is summarized to develop a testable, explanatory framework with implications for future research. The model was designed to account for purported lower rates of anxiety disorders in African Americans compared to European Americans, along with other…

  9. Factors Influencing Dating Experiences Among African American Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Naomi M.; Lee, Anna K.; Witherspoon, Daphne D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined sociocultural factors that impact dating and sexual experiences of heterosexual African American undergraduate college students attending a historically Black institution in the Southeastern United States. Specifically, mate availability and relationship involvement were analyzed to document students’ experiences, and how these influences may be associated with sexual decision making and behavior. Data from nine focus groups (N = 57) were aggregated and four subthemes were identified: competition among women, acceptability of mates, high prevalence of casual relationships, and lowered expectations for commitment. Power dynamics emerged as a contributing factor to the types of relationship involvement, sexual decision-making, and behavior among participants. The importance of prevention programs focusing on situational and cultural variables is highlighted. Additionally, implications for professionals working with emerging adults to consider the impact of the gender ratio imbalance, and perceived power distributions on perceptions of dating relationships, and sexual decision making and behavior are addressed. PMID:25530924

  10. Perceived Racism and Encouragement among African American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowles, Joanna; Duan, Changming

    2012-01-01

    Racial discrimination has negatively affected African Americans in the United States for centuries and produced one of the most publicly recognized histories of social oppression. Extensive research has shown the deleterious effects of racism on African American people and clearly demonstrated that perceived racism and discrimination may…

  11. Recruitment Challenges: Lessons from Senior Centers and Older African-American Participants in a Literacy Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ntiri, Daphne W.; Stewart, Merry

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the challenges encountered in the recruitment of urban older African-Americans in a study to explore the effects of interactive educational intervention on functional health literacy and diabetes knowledge. Our methods included identification of challenges related to the individual characteristics of seniors' centers that…

  12. Community-based breast cancer intervention program for older African American women in beauty salons.

    PubMed

    Forte, D A

    1995-01-01

    African American women are at high risk for morbidity and mortality from breast cancer. African American women ages 50 and older have been a difficult group to reach through conventional breast cancer intervention programs. Cultural and health beliefs that differ from mainstream society are reported to be factors contributing to the low rates of breast screening among this group. In addition to these attitudinal factors, older African American women are disproportionately represented among uninsured and under-insured Americans. As a result, cost becomes a barrier to mammography screening for many of these women. This project proposes to increase breast cancer screening awareness and provide a referral or free breast screening, or both, for African American women ages 50 and older. This information will be offered in the culturally familiar setting of local beauty salons. The culturally sensitive educational pamphlets developed by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and video developed by the NCI-funded project, Cancer Prevention Research Unit, will be used to promote mammography, clinical breast examinations, and breast self-examination. Providers staffing a mobile mammography van provided by Dr. Anitha Mitchell of the Association of Black Women Physicians through a grant from the Breast and Cervical Cancer Control Program, funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, will perform mammograms for women on site during scheduled intervals. A followup telephone survey will be conducted.

  13. Feelings of Gratitude Toward God Among Older Whites, Older African Americans, and Older Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    Krause, Neal

    2012-03-01

    The first goal of this study is to see if social relationships in the church influence feelings of gratitude toward God. The second goal is to assess the impact of race and ethnicity on this relationship. The data support the following hypotheses: (1) older people who go to church more often tend to receive more spiritual support from fellow church members; (2) older adults who receive more spiritual support at church will derive a deeper understanding of themselves and others; (3) older people who develop greater insight into themselves and others will derive a greater sense of religious meaning in life; and (4) older adults who develop a deeper sense of religious meaning in life will feel more grateful to God. The results also indicate that the study model explains how feelings of gratitude toward God arise among older blacks and whites, but not older Mexican Americans.

  14. It’s a Matter of Trust: Older African Americans Speak About Their Health Care Encounters

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Bryan R.; Hodgson, Nancy A.; Gitlin, Laura N.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine perceptions of older African Americans’ encounters with health care providers and ways to enhance trust. Method Transcribed semi-structured interviews with African American senior center members were analyzed, using Pattern Coding method. Results Four themes emerged: “Added Insult of Ageism,” “Alternative Remedies,” “Good Providers in a ‘Broken’ System,” and “The Foundation of Trust Is Person Recognition.” Provider behaviors leading to mistrust included erroneously assuming stereotypical preferences and competence, spending inadequate time listening to patients, disregarding patient preferences, and insufficiently explaining treatments. Discussion Of importance to improving trust among older African American patients is valuing individual histories and preferences by reallocating scarce time to person-centered listening, individualizing treatments, more completely explaining interventions, and assuring that patients understand and agree with treatment plans. PMID:25669876

  15. RELATIONAL SCHEMAS, HOSTILE ROMANTIC RELATIONSHIPS, AND BELIEFS ABOUT MARRIAGE AMONG YOUNG AFRICAN AMERICAN ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Ronald L.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Lei, Man Kit; Landor, Antoinette

    2011-01-01

    The present study tests a developmental model designed to explain the romantic relationship difficulties and reluctance to marry often reported for African Americans. Using longitudinal data from a sample of approximately 400 African American young adults, we examine the manner in which race-related adverse experiences during late childhood and early adolescence give rise to the cynical view of romantic partners and marriage held by many young African Americans. Our results indicate that adverse circumstances disproportionately suffered by African American youth (viz., harsh parenting, family instability, discrimination, criminal victimization, and financial hardship) promote distrustful relational schemas that lead to troubled dating relationships, and that these negative relationship experiences, in turn, encourage a less positive view of marriage. PMID:22328799

  16. RELATIONAL SCHEMAS, HOSTILE ROMANTIC RELATIONSHIPS, AND BELIEFS ABOUT MARRIAGE AMONG YOUNG AFRICAN AMERICAN ADULTS.

    PubMed

    Simons, Ronald L; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Lei, Man Kit; Landor, Antoinette

    2012-02-01

    The present study tests a developmental model designed to explain the romantic relationship difficulties and reluctance to marry often reported for African Americans. Using longitudinal data from a sample of approximately 400 African American young adults, we examine the manner in which race-related adverse experiences during late childhood and early adolescence give rise to the cynical view of romantic partners and marriage held by many young African Americans. Our results indicate that adverse circumstances disproportionately suffered by African American youth (viz., harsh parenting, family instability, discrimination, criminal victimization, and financial hardship) promote distrustful relational schemas that lead to troubled dating relationships, and that these negative relationship experiences, in turn, encourage a less positive view of marriage.

  17. Waiting to Exhale: African American Women and Adult Learning Through Movies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Elice E.

    Scholars have addressed adults and the impact of popular culture on adult learning, but little attention has been directed toward the relationship between adult learning and African Americans. Most specifically, minimal information is related to adult learning that evolves as a result of popular culture influences. Popular culture promotes…

  18. A phenomenological study of obesity and physical activity in southern African American older women.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Pamela G; Eaves, Yvonne D; Vance, David E; Moneyham, Linda D

    2015-04-01

    African American women are more likely to be classified as overweight or obese than European American women and little is known about this phenomenon. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the lived experiences of overweight and obese African American older women living in the southern regions of the United States. Semistructured, audiotaped interviews were conducted to elicit narratives from nine participants. Interview data were transcribed verbatim and then coded and analyzed using Colaizzi's phenomenological analysis framework. Three major categories emerged: impact of health conditions, incongruent perceptions, and the desire for independence. The focus of culturally appropriate interventions aimed at increasing physical activity for this group should incorporate activities that will help them remain independent, because weight loss is not a primary motivator.

  19. Active coping, personal satisfaction, and attachment to land in older African-American farmers.

    PubMed

    Maciuba, Sandra A; Westneat, Susan C; Reed, Deborah B

    2013-05-01

    Elevated suicide mortality rates have been reported for farmers and for the elderly. Very little literature exists that looks at the health of older minority farmers. This mixed-method study describes older African-American farmers (N = 156) in the contexts of active coping, personal satisfaction from farm work, and attachment to their farmland to provide insight into the psychosocial dimensions of their mental health. Findings show that the farmers have positive perspectives on work and farm future, and strong attachment to the land. Differences were noted by gender. Nurses can use these findings to frame culturally appropriate strategies for aging farmers to maximize positive outcomes.

  20. The 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL): Performance of African Americans in a National Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngwudike, Benjamin C.

    2008-01-01

    The 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL): Performance of African Americans in a National Context Sponsored by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) the 2003 NAAL was America's most comprehensive assessment of adult literacy since the 1992 National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS). NAAL was a nationally representative…

  1. Implementation of Evidence-Based HIV Interventions for Young Adult African American Women in Church Settings

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the barriers and facilitators to using African American churches as sites for implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions among young African American women. Design Mixed methods cross-sectional design. Setting African American churches in Philadelphia, PA. Participants 142 African American pastors, church leaders, and young adult women ages 18 to 25. Methods Mixed methods convergent parallel design. Results The majority of young adult women reported engaging in high-risk HIV-related behaviors. Although church leaders reported willingness to implement HIV risk-reduction interventions, they were unsure of how to initiate this process. Key facilitators to the implementation of evidence-based interventions included the perception of the leadership and church members that HIV interventions were needed and that the church was a promising venue for them. A primary barrier to implementation in this setting is the perception that discussions of sexuality should be private. Conclusion Implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions for young adult African American women in church settings is feasible and needed. Building a level of comfort in discussing matters of sexuality and adapting existing evidence-based interventions to meet the needs of young women in church settings is a viable approach for successful implementation. PMID:25139612

  2. Fear factors: cross validation of specific phobia domains in a community-based sample of African American adults.

    PubMed

    Chapman, L Kevin; Vines, Lauren; Petrie, Jenny

    2011-05-01

    The current study attempted a cross-validation of specific phobia domains in a community-based sample of African American adults based on a previous model of phobia domains in a college student sample of African Americans. Subjects were 100 African American community-dwelling adults who completed the Fear Survey Schedule-Second Edition (FSS-II). Domains of fear were created using a similar procedure as the original, college sample of African American adults. A model including all of the phobia domains from the FSS-II was initially tested and resulted in poor model fit. Cross-validation was subsequently attempted through examining the original factor pattern of specific phobia domains from the college sample (Chapman, Kertz, Zurlage, & Woodruff-Borden, 2008). Data from the current, community based sample of African American adults provided poor fit to this model. The trimmed model for the current sample included the animal and social anxiety factors as in the original model. The natural environment-type specific phobia factor did not provide adequate fit for the community-based sample of African Americans. Results indicated that although different factor loading patterns of fear may exist among community-based African Americans as compared to African American college students, both animal and social fears are nearly identical in both groups, indicating a possible cultural homogeneity for phobias in African Americans. Potential explanations of these findings and future directions are discussed.

  3. Tailored and targeted interventions to encourage dilated fundus examinations in older African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Ellish, Nancy J.; Royak-Schaler, Renee; Higginbotham, Eve J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To compare the effects of a tailored and targeted print intervention in promoting dilated fundus examinations (DFEs) in older African Americans, and to determine if other factors are associated with getting a DFE. Methods African Americans, 65 years of age or older, who had not had a DFE in at least two years were recruited from community settings. Participants were randomized to receive either a tailored or targeted newsletter. Telephone follow-up was conducted at one, three, and six months to ascertain eye examination status. All self-reported DFEs were confirmed by contacting their eye doctor by telephone. Main outcome measure Doctor-confirmed DFE at six months. Results Of the 329 participants enrolled, 128 (38.9%) had a doctor-confirmed DFE. There was no difference in doctor-confirmed DFEs by intervention group (RR=1.07, 0.82–1.40 CI), with 66 participants in the tailored group (40.2%) and 62 (37.6%) participants in the targeted group having a doctor-confirmed DFE. Based on logistic regression analysis, reading the newsletter (OR=1.76, 1.08–2.87 CI) and planning on making an appointment for a DFE (OR=2.46, 1.42–4.26 CI) were significant predictors for getting a DFE. Conclusion The tailored and targeted interventions were equally effective in promoting doctor-confirmed DFEs at six months. Given the increases cost and effort associated with tailoring, our results suggest that well-designed targeted print messages can motivate older African Americans to get DFEs. PMID:22159679

  4. The African American Sermon As an Exemplar of Culturally Relevant Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac, E. Paulette; Rowland, Michael L.

    Historically, the Black Church was culturally responsive to the needs of their community. In order to meet the needs of African American adult learners, the church had to assume many roles one of which was that of educator. Like many informal institutions of learning, the Black Church has been overlooked as a site for adult education research. Ten…

  5. Civic Engagement in Relation to Outcome Expectations among African American Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, He Len; Probert, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined civic engagement--volunteering and political activism--among 129 African American young adults from an urban community. The proposed model considered factors that motivate young adults to participate in civic activities as well as barriers that might inhibit involvement. Drawing upon social cognitive theory, this study…

  6. Probing the Paradoxical Pattern of Cigarette Smoking among African-Americans: Low Teenage Consumption and High Adult Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feigelman, William; Lee, Julia

    1995-01-01

    Based on secondary analysis of the 1990 California Tobacco Survey of 24,296 adult and 7,767 adolescent respondents, this study investigates enigmatic results established by past research of comparatively low smoking prevalence rates among African American adolescents and high use patterns for African American adults. Findings support hypothesis…

  7. The Lived Experience of the Adult African American Female Who Has Lived in Multiple Foster Care Placements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Avonda C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine and describe the lived experiences of the adult African American woman who had lived in multiple foster care placements. Eleven adult African American women ages 22-25 participated in semi-structured, face-to-face interviews to tell their stories and provide data of the memories of the experience. The…

  8. Optimism and coping strategies among Caucasian, Korean, and African American older women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heesoon; Mason, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Coping strategies and optimism have significant effects on the health of older women. Culture affects coping behaviors used to deal with stress. We examined the relationship between optimism and coping strategies used to manage daily stress and health among community-dwelling Caucasian, Korean American, and African American women. Data were collected from 373 women over the age of 65. Results showed that each group used different coping strategies. The more optimistic used more problem-focused and adaptive copings, while the less optimistic employed more avoidant copings. Differences in cultural background and individual levels of optimism guided their coping strategies.

  9. Tobacco and Marijuana Initiation Among African American and White Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Sara M.; Patel, Roshni P.; Cheh, Paul; Hsia, Jason; Rolle, Italia V.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction African American youth use marijuana at similar rates and tobacco at lower rates compared with white youth; however, in adulthood, tobacco use is similar. Tobacco and marijuana use are closely associated; differing initiation patterns may contribute to observed racial differences in tobacco prevalence by age. Therefore, it is important to assess tobacco and marijuana initiation patterns by race. Methods Data were obtained from 56,555 adults aged 18–25 who completed the 2005–2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. The analysis was restricted to those who reported ever use of marijuana and combustible tobacco (cigarettes and/or cigars). Three mutually exclusive categories of initiation patterns were evaluated: use of marijuana before tobacco; marijuana and tobacco at the same age; and tobacco before marijuana. Multivariable regression models were used to assess changes over time and compare these outcomes by race while controlling for sociodemographics, risk perceptions, and current substance use. Results In 2005, 26.6% of African American and 14.3% of white young adults used marijuana before tobacco, compared with 41.5% of African American and 24.0% of white young adults in 2012 (P < .001). Overall, African American young adults had greater odds of using marijuana before tobacco (AOR = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.67, 1.91) compared with whites. Conclusion African American young adults were more likely than whites to use marijuana before tobacco and both groups were increasingly likely to use marijuana before tobacco over time. A greater understanding of how marijuana initiation interacts with tobacco initiation could inform more effective tobacco and marijuana use prevention efforts. Implications Among ever users of combustible tobacco and marijuana, greater proportions of African American young adults used marijuana before tobacco or at the same age than their white counterparts. Moreover, both African Americans and whites were more likely to use

  10. Diabetic indicators are the strongest predictors for cardiovascular disease risk in African American adults

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Ashley N; Ralston, Penny A; Young-Clark, Iris; Ilich, Jasminka Z

    2016-01-01

    African Americans have higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to other racial groups. Modifiable and non-modifiable factors play a role in the development of both diseases. This study assessed diabetes indicators in relation to other CVD risk factors taking into account confounders, among African American adults. This was a cross-sectional study in mid-life and older African Americans (≥45 years) who were recruited from the local churches. Fasting blood was collected and serum analyzed for diabetes indicators, apolipoproteins, adipokines, and lipid profile. CVD risk scores were determined using the American Heart Association and Framingham Risk Score assessments. Homeostasis Model Assessments (HOMAs) were calculated using glucose and insulin concentrations. Confounding variables were assessed by questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 21, and p<0.05 was deemed significant. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze continuous variables. Frequencies and percentages were used to examine categorical variables. T-tests compared different groups while Pearson correlations provided preliminary relationships and determined variables for multiple regression analyses. A total of n=79 participants were evaluated (69% women), 59.3±9.2 years, BMI=34.7±8.3 (mean ± SD). As expected, AA men had higher fasting blood glucose than women (123.6±54.9 mg/dL versus 99.0±21.8 mg/dL), and AA women had higher insulin (11.8±13.1 mg/dL versus 7.6±6.0 mg/dL). Our study confirmed that it is likely for AA men to have significantly lower adiponectin concentrations in comparison to AA women. Based on the CVD risk assessments, men had a significantly higher risk of developing CVD than women, which has been shown previously. Apolipoproteins, adipokines, and lipid profile also negatively influenced the cardiovascular health outcomes in men. Dietary intake, probably by influencing participants’ weight

  11. An intensely sympathetic awareness: experiential similarity and cultural norms as means for gaining older African Americans' trust of scientific research.

    PubMed

    Sabir, Myra G; Pillemer, Karl A

    2014-04-01

    Well-known trust-building methods are routinely used to recruit and retain older African Americans into scientific research studies, yet the quandary over how to overcome this group's hesitance to participate in research remains. We present two innovative and testable methods for resolving the dilemma around increasing older African Americans' participation in scientific research studies. Certain specific and meaningful experiential similarities between the primary researcher and the participants, as well as clear recognition of the elders' worth and dignity, improved older African Americans' willingness to adhere to a rigorous research design. Steps taken in an intervention study produced a potentially replicable strategy for achieving strong results in recruitment, retention and engagement of this population over three waves of assessment. Sixty-two (n=62) older African Americans were randomized to treatment and control conditions of a reminiscence intervention. Sensitivity to an African American cultural form of respect for elders (recognition of worth and dignity), and intersections between the lived experience of the researcher and participants helped dispel this population's well-documented distrust of scientific research. Results suggest that intentional efforts to honor the worth and dignity of elders through high level hospitality and highlighting meaningful experiential similarities between the researcher and the participants can improve recruitment and retention results. Experiential similarities, in particular, may prove more useful to recruitment and retention than structural similarities such as age, race, or gender, which may not in themselves result in the trust experiential similarities elicit.

  12. Do the adult criminal careers of African Americans fit the “facts”?

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Elaine Eggleston; Ensminger, Margaret E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose A major gap in the criminal career research is our understanding of offending among African Americans, especially beyond early adulthood. In light of this gap, this study describes the criminal career patterns of a cohort of African American males and females. Methods This paper uses official criminal history data spanning ages 17 to 52 from the Woodlawn Study, a community cohort of 1,242 urban African American males and females. We use basic descriptive statistics as well as group-based modeling to provide a detailed description of the various dimensions of their adult criminal careers. Results We find cumulative prevalence rates similar to those for African Americans from national probability sample estimates, yet participation in offending extends farther into midlife than expected with a substantial proportion of the cohort still engaged in offending into their 30s. Conclusions The descriptive analyses contribute to the larger body of knowledge regarding the relationship between age and crime and the unfolding of the criminal career for African American males and females. The applicability of existing life course and developmental theories is discussed in light of the findings. PMID:25605979

  13. Health empowerment technologies (HET): building a web-based tool to empower older African American patient-doctor relationships.

    PubMed

    Winbush, Greta Berry; McDougle, Leon; Labranche, Lynda; Khan, Sidra; Tolliver, Sophia

    2013-11-01

    Responding to health and digital inequities among older African Americans, a customized web-based mobile health information intervention is being developed for this vulnerable group and their doctors as part of the Health Empowerment Technologies (HET) Project. The belief is an empowered patient-doctor relationship leads to more improved health outcomes than patient empowerment alone. Using health information technology to empower both older African Americans and their doctors by increasing health literacy and computer capacities of both is the major HET study aim. A focus group of older African American patients and one of their doctors yielded data to help build the HET. Thematic analysis of opinions and preferences about the content and structure of the HET revealed concordance and asymmetry among the patients and doctors. While challenges prevail in its construction, building this ethnicity-specific web-based health information technology presents the opportunity to integrate health information technology in clinical encounters for every patient.

  14. Blood Pressure Dipping and Urban Stressors in Young Adult African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Mellman, Thomas A.; Hall Brown, Tyish S.; Kobayashi, Ihori; Abu-Bader, Soleman H.; Lavela, Joseph; Altaee, Duaa; McLaughlin, Latesha; Randall, Otelio S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Blunted nocturnal blood pressure (BP) dipping is an early marker of cardiovascular risk that is prevalent among African Americans. Purpose We evaluated relationships of BP dipping to neighborhood and posttraumatic stress and sleep in urban residing young adult African Americans. Methods One hundred thirty six Black, predominately African American, men and women with a mean age of 22.9 (SD = 4.6) filled out surveys, were interviewed and had two, 24-hour ambulatory BP recordings. Results Thirty eight percent had BP dipping ratios < .10. Wake after sleep onset (WASO), neighborhood disorder and neighborhood poverty rates but not posttraumatic stress symptoms, and other sleep measures, correlated significantly with dipping ratios. Models with the neighborhood measures that also included WASO increased the explained variance. Conclusions Studies elucidating mechanisms underlying effects of neighborhoods on BP dipping and the role of disrupted sleep, and how they can be mitigated are important directions for future research. PMID:25623895

  15. Characterizing Change in Religious and Spiritual Identity among a National Sample of African American Adults

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Beverly Rosa; Holt, Cheryl L.; Le, Daisy; Shultz, Emily

    2016-01-01

    We explore changes in self-reported religious/spiritual identity in 313 African American adults over an average period of 2.5 years. Changes in religious and spiritual identity were reported by half of the participants and were associated with age, education, and income. The least stability was observed among respondents identifying as religious/not spiritual at baseline but shifting to religious and spiritual at follow-up. This trend was significant for respondents age 55 and over. Faith-based interventions for African Americans should consider viewing religious and spiritual identity as a fluid rather than fixed characteristic assessing changes in spiritual and religious attributes over time. PMID:27103881

  16. Racial discrimination and health-promoting vs damaging behaviors among African-American adults.

    PubMed

    Corral, Irma; Landrine, Hope

    2012-11-01

    Studies have found relationships between racial discrimination and increased health-damaging behaviors among African-Americans, but have not examined possible concomitant decreased health-promoting behaviors. We explored the role of discrimination in two health-promoting behaviors, consuming ≥ 5 fruits/vegetables daily (FVC) and physical activity (PA), for the first time, and likewise examined discrimination's contribution to cigarette smoking, among a sample of N = 2118 African-American adults. Results revealed that discrimination contributed positively to smoking and to PA but was unrelated to FVC. These findings suggest that both adaptive and maladaptive health behaviors might be used to cope with the stress of discrimination.

  17. Black Greek-Letter Organizations: A Legacy of African American Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Keiwana O'Neal

    2012-01-01

    The education of African American adults evolved in response to the changing social, economic, and political needs of the Black community. To address these needs, Black Greek-Letter Organizations (BGLOs) created and implemented initiatives at the local, national, and international levels using education as a catalyst to change aspects of African…

  18. Literacy and Identity: Reflections of Six African American Males in an Adult Literacy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drayton, Brendaly Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This multiple case study explored how the literate experiences of six African American men influenced their perceptions of and engagement with a community-based adult basic education and literacy (ABEL) program in a large northeastern city. The theoretical framework included a social practices view of literacy and a constructivist view of…

  19. Physiologic Responses to Racial Rejection Images among Young Adults from African-American Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Blumenthal, Terry D.; Carlson, Erika N.; Lawson, Yolanda N.; Shell, J. Clark

    2009-01-01

    Physiologic reactivity to racially rejecting images was assessed in 35 young adults (10 males, 25 female) from African-American backgrounds using the startle probe paradigm. In a laboratory setting, participants viewed 16 images depicting racial rejection, racial acceptance, nonracial negative, and nonracial positive themes. While viewing these…

  20. Family, Child, and Teacher Perceptions of African American Adult Assistance to Young Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Msengi, Shadrack Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the perceptions of African American adult family members, their children, and teachers regarding how family members viewed their roles in assisting their elementary-aged children to become better readers. The study compared each of the subgroups' perceptions respectively regarding: (a) the child's reading level; (b) family…

  1. Buffering Effects of a Family-Based Intervention for African American Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Smith, Karen; Brown, Anita C.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on the buffering effects of Adults in the Making (AIM), a family-centered preventive intervention, on the link between life stress and increases in risk behaviors among 347 rural, southern African Americans as they left high school. Of the families, 174 were assigned to the prevention condition and 173 to a control condition.…

  2. Adult Social Behavioral Effects of Heavy Adolescent Marijuana Use among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kerry M.; Ensminger, Margaret E.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of heavy adolescent marijuana use on employment, marriage, and family formation and tested both dropping out of high school and adult marijuana use as potential mediators of these associations among a community sample of African Americans followed longitudinally from age 6 to age 32-33. They used propensity …

  3. Concepts of Infidelity among African American Emerging Adults: Implications for HIV/STI Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyre, Stephen L.; Flythe, Michelle; Hoffman, Valerie; Fraser, Ashley E.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used an exploratory methodology to determine what cultural models African American emerging adults use to understand infidelity/cheating. Cultural models are defined as "cognitive schema[s] that [are] intersubjectively shared by a social group" (D'Andrade, 1987, p. 112). We interviewed 144 participants ages 19-22 from three…

  4. The Longitudinal Effect of Drug Use on Productivity Status of Nonmetropolitan African American Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roldós, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the longitudinal effect of marijuana and heavy alcohol use on the productivity status of nonmetropolitan African American young adults. This analysis was based on secondary data from the Family and Community Health Study. For alcohol, the study evaluated the effects on productivity status for…

  5. Young Adult Fiction by African American Writers, 1968-1993: A Critical and Annotated Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutenplon, Deborah; Olmstead, Ellen

    This bibliography presents annotations and critical appraisals of all fiction titles published between 1968 and 1993 by African American authors and targeting young adult readers--166 titles by 57 authors. Only works of fiction--historical fiction, modern realistic fiction, fantasy and science fiction, and mystery and suspense--by African American…

  6. Financial decision-making abilities and financial exploitation in older African Americans: Preliminary validity evidence for the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS).

    PubMed

    Lichtenberg, Peter A; Ficker, Lisa J; Rahman-Filipiak, Annalise

    2016-01-01

    This study examines preliminary evidence for the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS), a new person-centered approach to assessing capacity to make financial decisions, and its relationship to self-reported cases of financial exploitation in 69 older African Americans. More than one third of individuals reporting financial exploitation also had questionable decisional abilities. Overall, decisional ability score and current decision total were significantly associated with cognitive screening test and financial ability scores, demonstrating good criterion validity. Study findings suggest that impaired decisional abilities may render older adults more vulnerable to financial exploitation, and that the LFDRS is a valid tool.

  7. Unequal Burden of Disease, Unequal Participation in Clinical Trials: Solutions from African American and Latino Community Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Marvella E.; Siminoff, Laura A.; Pickelsimer, Elisabeth; Mainous, Arch G.; Smith, Daniel W.; Diaz, Vanessa A.; Soderstrom, Lea H.; Jefferson, Melanie S.; Tilley, Barbara C.

    2013-01-01

    African Americans and Latinos are underrepresented in clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to elicit solutions to participation barriers from African Americans and Latinos. Fifty-seven adults (32 African Americans, 25 Latinos) ages 50 years and older participated. The Institute of Medicine's "Unequal Treatment" conceptual framework was…

  8. A Faith-Based and Cultural Approach to Promoting Self-Efficacy and Regular Exercise in Older African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Mary Ellen; Guion, W. Kent

    2010-01-01

    The health benefits of regular exercise are well documented, yet there has been limited success in the promotion of regular exercise in older African American women. Based on theoretical and evidence-based findings, the authors recommend a behavioral self-efficacy approach to guide exercise interventions in this high-risk population. Interventions…

  9. Recruitment and Retention Strategies among Older African American Women Enrolled in an Exercise Study at a PACE Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan-Marx, Eileen M.; Mangione, Kathleen K.; Ackerson, Theimann; Sidorov, Ingrid; Maislin, Greg; Volpe, Stella L.; Craik, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined employment of specific recruitment and retention strategies in a study evaluating outcomes of a moderate activity exercise program for older African American women with functional impairments attending a Program for All-Inclusive Care of Elders (PACE). Design and Methods: Recruitment and retention strategies focused on…

  10. Correlates of rehabilitation hospital length of stay among older African-American patients.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Terry L.; Lichtenberg, Peter A.; Wakeman, Melanie A.; Scott-Okafor, Hellena

    2002-01-01

    This study addresses a gap in the current literature on the correlates of rehabilitation hospital length of stay for older African Americans. Using data from 616 consecutively admitted rehabilitation patients who ranged in age from 50 to 103 years old, we tested the effect of patient's primary medical impairment; structural factors such as admit and discharge setting; level of depression (Geriatric Depression Scale); functional ability upon hospital admission (FIM score); and other control variables. Hierarchical linear regression models show that medical impairment alone was not a robust predictor of LOS. However, when controlling for structural and psychosocial factors, and medical condition, then circulation/amputation impairment was directly associated with longer LOS. Being unmarried or at risk for depression were also directly related to longer LOS. Consequently, rehabilitation administrators and hospital staff should note these findings to determine whether and how these factors affect discharge outcomes in their particular rehabilitative environments. PMID:12392049

  11. Mental Health and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  12. Perceived discrimination and social networks among older African Americans and Caribbean blacks.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Gillian L; Rue, Tessa C

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms among older black American populations is poorly understood. Although a small number of studies have examined the relationship between stress and social support, few have examined the association between perceived discrimination, social networks, and depressive symptoms among a representative sample of older racial and ethnic groups. This study examines (a) the relationship between sociodemographic factors, perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms and (b) social networks as a potential moderator in the perceived discrimination and depressive symptom relationship between 2 groups of older black Americans. This was a cross-sectional study using data from the National Survey of American Life with a sample of older African Americans (N = 837) and Caribbean blacks (N = 271). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 12-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Linear regression analyses were used to predict depressive symptoms. The relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms was significant in both groups. Social networks contributed as a protective factor for depressive symptoms for both groups. However, there was no significant moderation effect. Results suggest that regardless of ethnic affiliation, the experience of perceived discrimination is similar in both groups and is a risk factor for depressive symptoms. Future research is needed in this area to better understand the associations between sociodemographic factors, perceived discrimination, social networks, and their impact on depressive symptoms.

  13. Perceptions of the food marketing environment among African American teen girls and adults.

    PubMed

    Bibeau, Wendy S; Saksvig, Brit I; Gittelsohn, Joel; Williams, Sonja; Jones, Lindsey; Young, Deborah Rohm

    2012-02-01

    Obesity disproportionately affects African American adolescents, particularly girls. While ethnically targeted marketing of unhealthful food products contributes to this disparity, it is not known how African Americans perceive the food marketing environment in their communities. Qualitative methods, specifically photovoice and group discussions, were used to understand perceptions of African American adults and teen girls regarding targeted food marketing to adolescent girls. An advisory committee of four students, two faculty, and two parents was formed, who recruited peers to photograph their environments and participate in group discussions to answer "what influences teen girls to eat what they do." Seven adults and nine teens (all female) participated in the study. Discussions were transcribed, coded, and analyzed with ATLAS.ti to identify common and disparate themes among participants. Results indicated that adults and teens perceived the type of food products, availability of foods, and price to influence the girls' choices. The girls spoke about products that were highly convenient and tasty as being particularly attractive. The adults reported that advertisements and insufficient nutrition education were also influencers. The teens discussed that the places in which food products were available influenced their choices. Results suggest that the marketing of highly available, convenient food at low prices sell products to teen girls. Future work is needed to better understand the consumer's perspective on the food and beverage marketing strategies used.

  14. Anxiety symptomatology and perceived health in African American adults: Moderating role of emotion regulation

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Sierra E.; Walker, Rheeda L.

    2014-01-01

    Though emotional health has been theoretically and empirically linked to physical health, the anxiety-physical health association in particular is not well understood for African American adults. This study examined anxiety as a specific correlate of perceived health in addition to testing the potential moderating role of emotion regulation, an index of how and when individuals modulate emotions, in the association for anxiety to perceived health. Study participants were 151 community-based African American adults who completed measures of anxiety symptomatology and emotion regulation in addition to responding to a self-report question of perceived health. Results showed that higher levels of anxiety symptomatology were associated with poorer health ratings for those who reported more limited access to emotion regulation strategies but not those who reported having more emotion regulation strategies. The findings suggest that anxiety-related distress and health problems may be interrelated when emotion regulation strategies are limited. PMID:25045943

  15. Text Messaging for Sexual Communication and Safety Among African American Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Broaddus, Michelle R.; Dickson-Gomez, Julia

    2014-01-01

    African American young adults are at high risk of HIV infection during their lifetimes, and the male condom remains the best method of prevention. Efforts to increase condom use should address the barrier of condom negotiation. We conducted a thematic analysis of qualitative, semi-structured interviews with African American young adults to examine their use of text messaging for requesting Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) or sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing and condom use within the larger context of general sexual communication using text messages. Text messaging gave participants a level of comfort and disinhibition to discuss sexual topics and negotiate sexual safety. Benefits of text messages included ease of communication, privacy, and increased ability to express condom desires. Difficulties reflected the potential relationship implications of suggesting HIV/STI testing and condom use. Condom negotiation strategies using text messages also mirrored those used found to be used in face-to-face communication. PMID:24045286

  16. Rates and factors associated with falls in older European Americans, Afro-Caribbeans, African-Americans, and Hispanics

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Edgar Ramos; Tappen, Ruth; Engstrom, Gabriella; da Costa, Bruno R

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate rates and factors associated with older adult falls in different ethnic groups. Participants and methods Information on demographics, medical and falls history, and pain and physical activity levels was collected from 550 community-dwelling older adults (75±9 years old, 222 European Americans, 109 Afro-Caribbeans, 106 African-Americans, and 113 Hispanics). Results Taking medications for anxiety (risk ratio [RR] =1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.1–2.0), having incontinence (RR =1.4, 95% CI =1.1–1.8, P=0.013), back pain (RR =1.4, 95% CI =1.0–1.8), feet swelling (RR =1.3, 95% CI =1.1–1.7), and age ≥75 years (RR =1.3, 95% CI =1.0–1.6) were associated with falls. The associations were stronger for Afro-Caribbeans, but they presented approximately 40% lower prevalence of falls than the other groups. Conclusion Taking anxiety medication, incontinence, back pain, feet swelling, and age ≥75 years were associated with falls, and Afro-Caribbeans presented lower prevalence of falls. These findings need to be taken into consideration in clinical interventions in aging. PMID:26604718

  17. Depression Over the Adult Life Course for African American Men: Toward a Framework for Research and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Daphne C.

    2014-01-01

    Rarely are within-group differences among African American men explored in the context of mental health and well-being. Though current conceptual and empirical studies on depression among African American men exists, these studies do not offer a framework that considers how this disorder manifests over the adult life course for African American men. The purpose of this article is to examine the use of an adult life course perspective in understanding the complexity of depression for African American men. The proposed framework underscores six social determinants of depression (socioeconomic status, stressors, racial and masculine identity, kinship and social support, self-esteem and mastery, and access to quality health care) to initiate dialogue about the risk and protective factors that initiate, prolong, and exacerbate depression for African American men. The framework presented here is meant to stimulate discussion about the social determinants that influence depression for African American men to and through adulthood. Implications for the utility and applicability of the framework for researchers and health professionals who work with African American men are discussed. PMID:22105067

  18. A Cascade Model Connecting Life Stress to Risk Behavior Among Rural African American Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    A 3-wave cascade model linking life stress to increases in risk behavior was tested with 347 African American emerging adults living in the rural South. Data analyses using structural equation modeling and latent growth curve modeling demonstrated that life stress was linked to increases in risk behavior as African Americans transitioned out of secondary school. The cascade model indicated that life stress fostered increases in negative emotions. Negative emotions, in turn, were linked to increases in affiliations with deviant peers and romantic partners; this forecast increases in risk behavior. The findings supported a stress proliferation framework, in which primary stressors affect increases in secondary stressors that carry forward to influence changes in risk behaviors that can potentially compromise mental health. PMID:20576186

  19. The Adults in the Making Program: Long-Term Protective Stabilizing Effects on Alcohol Use and Substance Use Problems for Rural African American Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Smith, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This report addresses the long-term efficacy of the Adults in the Making (AIM) prevention program on deterring the escalation of alcohol use and development of substance use problems, particularly among rural African American emerging adults confronting high levels of contextual risk. Method: African American youths (M age, pretest =…

  20. Preventing cognitive decline in older African Americans with mild cognitive impairment: design and methods of a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Rovner, Barry W; Casten, Robin J; Hegel, Mark T; Leiby, Benjamin E

    2012-07-01

    Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) affects 25% of older African Americans and predicts progression to Alzheimer's disease. An extensive epidemiologic literature suggests that cognitive, physical, and/or social activities may prevent cognitive decline. We describe the methods of a randomized clinical trial to test the efficacy of Behavior Activation to prevent cognitive decline in older African Americans with the amnestic multiple domain subtype of MCI. Community Health Workers deliver 6 initial in-home treatment sessions over 2-3 months and then 6 subsequent in-home booster sessions using language, materials, and concepts that are culturally relevant to older African Americans during this 24 month clinical trial. We are randomizing 200 subjects who are recruited from churches, senior centers, and medical clinics to Behavior Activation or Supportive Therapy, which controls for attention. The primary outcome is episodic memory as measured by the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised at baseline and at months 3, 12, 18, and 24. The secondary outcomes are general and domain-specific neuropsychological function, activities of daily living, depression, and quality-of-life. The negative results of recent clinical trials of drug treatments for MCI and Alzheimer's disease suggest that behavioral interventions may provide an alternative treatment approach to preserve cognition in an aging society.

  1. Preventing Cognitive Decline in Older African Americans with Mild Cognitive Impairment: Design and Methods of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rovner, Barry W.; Casten, Robin J.; Hegel, Mark T.; Leiby, Benjamin E.

    2012-01-01

    Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) affects 25% of older African Americans and predicts progression to Alzheimer's disease. An extensive epidemiologic literature suggests that cognitive, physical, and/or social activities may prevent cognitive decline. We describe the methods of a randomized clinical trial to test the efficacy of Behavior Activation to prevent cognitive decline in older African Americans with the amnestic multiple domain subtype of MCI. Community Health Workers deliver 6 initial in-home treatment sessions over 2-3 months and then 6 subsequent in-home booster sessions using language, materials, and concepts that are culturally relevant to older African Americans during this 24 month clinical trial. We are randomizing 200 subjects who are recruited from churches, senior centers, and medical clinics to Behavior Activation or Supportive Therapy, which controls for attention. The primary outcome is episodic memory as measured by the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised at baseline and at months 3, 12, 18, and 24. The secondary outcomes are general and domain-specific neuropsychological function, activities of daily living, depression, and quality-of-life. The negative results of recent clinical trials of drug treatments for MCI and Alzheimer's disease suggest that behavioral interventions may provide an alternative treatment approach to preserve cognition in an aging society. PMID:22406101

  2. Health Behavior Decision-making in African-American Adults Diagnosed with Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Findlay, Lillian J; El-Mallakh, Peggy; Howard, Patricia B; Hatcher, Jennifer; Clark, James J

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about the factors that influence health behavior decision-making among people with schizophrenia. The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the processes used by 10 African-American adults with schizophrenia when making health behavior decisions and identification of perceived barriers and facilitators to health. Three phases of health behavior decision-making were identified: Recognizing Complex Components of Health, Personalizing Components of Health, and Tracking Health Status. Findings may guide clinicians' efforts to improve the health status of patients, as well as influence future research in understanding health behavior decision-making among vulnerable populations.

  3. Variation in Older Americans Act Caregiver Service Use, Unmet Hours of Care, and Independence Among Hispanics, African Americans, and Whites

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Angelica P.; George, Rebecca; Angel, Jacqueline L.; Markides, Kyriakos; Torres-Gil, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Home- and community-based services (HCBS) are underused by minority seniors and their caregivers, despite greater rates of disability. We examined racial/ethnic variation among 1,749 Hispanic, African American, and Whites receiving Older Americans Act Title III caregiver services in 2009. In addition, we identified the volume of services used by caregivers, their unmet hours of respite care, and the relationship between service use and seniors’ ability to live independently. Minority caregivers cared for seniors in urban areas who had higher rates of disability, poverty, and Medicaid coverage. Hispanics had the highest rate of unmet hours of care, while caregiver services were less likely to help African Americans remain at home. Minorities sought services through community agencies and were more educated than demographically similar national cohorts. Greater efforts to reach minority caregivers of less educated, disabled seniors in urban areas and through community agencies may reduce unmet needs and support independent living. PMID:23438508

  4. Sleep paralysis and trauma, psychiatric symptoms and disorders in an adult African American population attending primary medical care.

    PubMed

    Mellman, Thomas A; Aigbogun, Notalelomwan; Graves, Ruth Elaine; Lawson, William B; Alim, Tanya N

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence of sleep paralysis (SP) absent narcolepsy appears to not be uncommon in African Americans and probably other non-European groups. Prior research has linked SP to trauma and psychiatric disorders and suggested a specific relationship to panic disorder in African Americans. The objective of our study was to evaluate relationships of SP with trauma, concurrent psychiatric symptoms and lifetime psychiatric diagnoses in an adult African American population recruited from primary care. Cross sectional study with surveys and diagnostic interviews; Patients attending primary care clinics filled out a survey that determined the 6 month prevalence and associated features of SP, a panic disorder screen, the self-rated Hamilton Depression Scale, and an inventory of trauma exposure. A subset of trauma-exposed participants (N = 142) received comprehensive diagnostic interviews that incorporated the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and the Clinician Assessed PTSD Scale. Four hundred and forty-one adults participated (mean age-40.0 SD = 13.3, 68% female, 95% African American). Fourteen percent endorsed recent SP. In approximately 1/3 of those with SP, episodes also featured panic symptoms. SP was strongly associated with trauma history, and concurrent anxiety and mood symptoms. SP was not associated with specific psychiatric disorders other than lifetime (but not current) alcohol or substance use disorders. Our findings suggest that SP is not uncommon in adult African Americans and is associated with trauma and concurrent distress but not with a specific psychiatric diagnosis.

  5. Natural mentoring processes deter externalizing problems among rural African American emerging adults: a prospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Steven M; Brody, Gene H; Chen, Yi-Fu

    2011-12-01

    A 3-wave model linking natural mentoring relationships to externalizing behavior was tested with 345 rural African American emerging adults in their final year of high school. Structural equation models were executed linking multi-informant reports of mentor-emerging adult relationship quality with youths' externalizing behavior 18 months later. Consistent with our primary hypotheses, emerging adults whose relationships with their natural mentors were characterized by instrumental and emotional support and affectively positive interactions reported lower levels of anger, rule-breaking behavior, and aggression. These effects emerged independent of the influences of family support and youth gender. Two intrapersonal processes, a future orientation and self-regulation, emerged as mediators of the influence of natural mentoring relationships. The influence of natural mentors was most pronounced for emerging adults experiencing high levels of life stress.

  6. Natural Mentoring Processes Deter Externalizing Problems Among Rural African American Emerging Adults: A Prospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Steven M.; Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-fu

    2011-01-01

    A 3-wave model linking natural mentoring relationships to externalizing behavior was tested with 345 rural African American emerging adults in their final year of high school. Structural equation models were executed linking multi-informant reports of mentor-emerging adult relationship quality with youths’ externalizing behavior 18 months later. Consistent with our primary hypotheses, emerging adults whose relationships with their natural mentors were characterized by instrumental and emotional support and affectively positive interactions reported lower levels of anger, rule-breaking behavior, and aggression. These effects emerged independent of the influences of family support and youth gender. Two intrapersonal processes, a future orientation and self-regulation, emerged as mediators of the influence of natural mentoring relationships. The influence of natural mentors was most pronounced for emerging adults experiencing high levels of life stress. PMID:21293917

  7. Disability and Health: Exploring the Disablement Experience of Young Adult African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Tracie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to examine disablement as experienced by young adult African American men and women with permanent mobility impairment. Methods This study included a sample of 5 male and 5 female participants ranging in age from 22 to 39. An exploratory descriptive design and qualitative methods, including interviews and fieldnotes, were used. Interview data was analyzed using the process of inductive qualitative content analysis. Results Basic desires for independence, shared intimacy, and psychological and physical health were not diminished by physical limitations. The disablement experience of this group is reflected in the themes of “Cumulative Losses” and “Sustained Desires.” The findings of this study describe the high level of motivation that young adult African American men and women with disabilities have to improve levels of health and well-being within the context of their impairments. Conclusion This study provides a better understanding of the contextual factors and experiences that may contribute to the development of further disability and subsequent health-related problems over time. Increased knowledge of the disablement experience of these young men and women may assist health care entities and social service providers in improving health care and rehabilitation efforts targeting this group. PMID:23745770

  8. Anxiety symptomatology and perceived health in African American adults: moderating role of emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Carter, Sierra E; Walker, Rheeda L

    2014-07-01

    Although emotional health has been theoretically and empirically linked to physical health, the anxiety-physical health association in particular is not well understood for African American adults. This study examined anxiety as a specific correlate of perceived health in addition to testing the potential moderating role of emotion regulation, an index of how and when individuals modulate emotions, in the association for anxiety to perceived health. Study participants were 151 community-based African American adults who completed measures of anxiety symptomatology and emotion regulation in addition to responding to a self-report question of perceived health. Results showed that higher levels of anxiety symptomatology were associated with poorer health ratings for those who reported more limited access to emotion regulation strategies but not those who reported having more emotion regulation strategies. The findings suggest that anxiety-related distress and health problems may be interrelated when emotion regulation strategies are limited. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Prediction of HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors among Disadvantaged African American Adults using a Syndemic Conceptual Framework

    PubMed Central

    Nehl, Eric J.; Klein, Hugh; Sterk, Claire E.; Elifson, Kirk W.

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on HIV sexual risk taking among a community-based sample of disadvantaged African American adults. The objective is to examine multiple factors associated with sexual HIV risk behaviors within a syndemic conceptual framework. Face-to-face, computer-assisted, structured interviews were conducted with 1,535 individuals in Atlanta, Georgia. Bivariate analyses indicated a high level of relationships among the HIV sexual risks and other factors. Results from multivariate models indicated that gender, sexual orientation, relationship status, self-esteem, condom use self-efficacy, sex while the respondent was high, and sex while the partner was high were significant predictors of condomless sex. Additionally, a multivariate additive model of risk behaviors indicated that the number of health risks significantly increased the risk of condomless sex. This intersection of HIV sexual risk behaviors and their associations with various other behavioral, socio-demographics, and psychological functioning factors helps explain HIV risk-taking among this sample of African American adults and highlights the need for research and practice that accounts for multiple health behaviors and problems. PMID:26188618

  10. Prediction of HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Disadvantaged African American Adults Using a Syndemic Conceptual Framework.

    PubMed

    Nehl, Eric J; Klein, Hugh; Sterk, Claire E; Elifson, Kirk W

    2016-02-01

    The focus of this paper is on HIV sexual risk taking among a community-based sample of disadvantaged African American adults. The objective is to examine multiple factors associated with sexual HIV risk behaviors within a syndemic conceptual framework. Face-to-face, computer-assisted, structured interviews were conducted with 1535 individuals in Atlanta, Georgia. Bivariate analyses indicated a high level of relationships among the HIV sexual risks and other factors. Results from multivariate models indicated that gender, sexual orientation, relationship status, self-esteem, condom use self-efficacy, sex while the respondent was high, and sex while the partner was high were significant predictors of condomless sex. Additionally, a multivariate additive model of risk behaviors indicated that the number of health risks significantly increased the risk of condomless sex. This intersection of HIV sexual risk behaviors and their associations with various other behavioral, socio-demographic, and psychological functioning factors help explain HIV risk-taking among this sample of African American adults and highlights the need for research and practice that accounts for multiple health behaviors and problems.

  11. Acceptability and Preliminary Outcomes of a Peer-Led Depression Prevention Intervention for African American Adolescents and Young Adults in Employment Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tandon, Darius; Mendelson, Tamar; Mance, GiShawn

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the acceptability and preliminary outcomes from an open trial of a depression prevention intervention for low-income African American adolescents and young adults in employment training programs. The sample (N=42) consisted of predominately African American adolescents and young adults (mean age=19.1) exhibiting subclinical…

  12. Financial Decision-making Abilities and Financial Exploitation in Older African Americans: Preliminary Validity Evidence for the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS)

    PubMed Central

    Ficker, Lisa J.; Rahman-Filipiak, Annalise

    2015-01-01

    This study examines preliminary evidence for the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS), a new person-centered approach to assessing capacity to make financial decisions, and its relationship to self-reported cases of financial exploitation in 69 older African Americans. More than one third of individuals reporting financial exploitation also had questionable decisional abilities. Overall, decisional ability score and current decision total were significantly associated with cognitive screening test and financial ability scores, demonstrating good criterion validity. Financially exploited individuals, and non-exploited individuals, showed mean group differences on the Mini Mental State Exam, Financial Situational Awareness, Psychological Vulnerability, Current Decisional Ability, and Susceptibility to undue influence subscales, and Total Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale Score. Study findings suggest that impaired decisional abilities may render older adults more vulnerable to financial exploitation, and that the LFDRS is a valid tool for measuring both decisional abilities and financial exploitation. PMID:26285038

  13. Influences of Social and Style Variables on Adult Usage of African American English Features

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Holly K.; Grogger, Jeffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In this study, the authors examined the influences of selected social (gender, employment status, educational achievement level) and style variables (race of examiner, interview topic) on the production of African American English (AAE) by adults. Method Participants were 50 African American men and women, ages 20–30 years. The authors used Rapid and Anonymous Survey (RAS) methods to collect responses to questions on informal situational and formal message-oriented topics in a short interview with an unacquainted interlocutor. Results Results revealed strong systematic effects for academic achievement, but not gender or employment status. Most features were used less frequently by participants with higher educational levels, but sharp declines in the usage of 5 specific features distinguished the participants differing in educational achievement. Strong systematic style effects were found for the 2 types of questions, but not race of addressee. The features that were most commonly used across participants—copula absence, variable subject–verb agreement, and appositive pronouns—were also the features that showed the greatest style shifting. Conclusions The findings lay a foundation with mature speakers for rate-based and feature inventory methods recently shown to be informative for the study of child AAE and demonstrate the benefits of the RAS. PMID:22361105

  14. A church-based pilot study designed to improve dietary quality for rural, Lower Mississippi Delta, African American Adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To assess the feasibility of implementing a six-month, church-based, dietary, pilot intervention, called Delta Body and Soul (DBS), for African American (AA) adults in the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) region of Mississippi. Effectiveness of the intervention to improve diet quality [measured using t...

  15. Pathways to Adult Marijuana and Cocaine Use: A Prospective Study of African Americans from Age 6 to 42

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fothergill, Kate E.; Ensminger, Margaret E.; Green, Kerry M.; Robertson, Judith A.; Juon, Hee Soon

    2009-01-01

    This study examines pathways to adult marijuana and cocaine use in a cohort of African Americans from Woodlawn, an inner city community in Chicago. Assessments were conducted in first grade (age 6), adolescence (age 16), early adulthood (age 32), and in mid-adulthood (age 42). The "social adaptation life course" framework guided the…

  16. Developmental and ethnic issues experienced by emerging adult African American women related to developing a mature love relationship.

    PubMed

    Tyson, Sheryl Y

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored perspectives of emerging adult African American women on the development of mature love relationships. Inductive analysis of focus group interviews, conducted with a purposive sample of 31 African American women, yielded themes related to relationship goals and characteristics, and interpersonal and societal challenges to finding the right partner and developing a mature love relationship. Core categories that emerged from analysis of the discussions were (1) age and relationship goal differences within the emerging adult group, (2) mature love relationship goals and characteristics, (3) interpersonal obstacles to finding the right partner, and (4) societal obstacles to finding the right partner. Two approaches-black womanist/feminist thought (Collins, 2000 ; Walker, 1983 ) and relationship maturity theory (Paul & White, 1990 )-were then combined to explain the influence of historic and contemporary interpersonal and societal factors on developmental and ethnic issues that challenge positive gender identity formation, hasten intimacy maturity, and hinder the development of mature love relationships among emerging adult African American women. For these women, premature responsibility, especially early caregiver burden, was related to the early development of intimacy capacity and the desire for a mature love relationship, to be protected, and to have someone to help carry the load. Interracial dating, negative stereotypic images of African American women, and even positive images of enduring black love relationships posed difficult challenges to positive identity formation and intimacy maturity. A primary challenge was to counteract negative stereotypic images, so that they could develop their own self-identities as women and as relationship partners.

  17. Mediators of the impact of a home-based intervention (beat the blues) on depressive symptoms among older African Americans.

    PubMed

    Gitlin, Laura N; Roth, David L; Huang, Jin

    2014-09-01

    Older African Americans (N = 208) with depressive symptoms were randomly assigned to a home-based nonpharmacologic intervention (Beat the Blues, or BTB) or wait-list control group. BTB was delivered by licensed social workers and involved up to 10 home visits focused on care management, referral and linkage, depression knowledge and efficacy in symptom recognition, instruction in stress reduction techniques, and behavioral activation through identification of personal goals and action plans for achieving them. Structured interviews by assessors masked to study assignment were used to assess changes in depressive symptoms (main trial endpoint), behavioral activation, depression knowledge, formal care service utilization, and anxiety (mediators) at baseline and 4 months. At 4 months, the intervention had a positive effect on depressive symptoms and all mediators except formal care service utilization. Structural equation models indicated that increased activation, enhanced depression knowledge, and decreased anxiety each independently mediated a significant proportion of the intervention's impact on depressive symptoms as assessed with 2 different measures (PHQ-9 and CES-D). These 3 factors also jointly explained over 60% of the intervention's total effect on both indicators of depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that most of the impact of BTB on depressive symptoms is driven by enhancing activation or becoming active, reducing anxiety, and improving depression knowledge/efficacy. The intervention components appear to work in concert and may be mutually necessary for maximal benefits from treatment to occur. Implications for designing tailored interventions to address depressive symptoms among older African Americans are discussed.

  18. Faith-Based Adult Learning Initiatives for Diabetes Education in the African American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaillard, Trudy

    2006-01-01

    Historically, religion and spirituality have been major influences in the social, cultural, and political lives of African Americans. Spirituality is deeply embedded into their rich cultural heritage, and it is intertwined into all aspects of their life, including beliefs about health and illness. For African Americans, health and illness are a…

  19. African-American Voices in Young Adult Literature: Tradition, Transition, Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karen Patricia, Ed.

    This book contains a collection of 14 original essays. The purpose of the book is to inform teachers, librarians, and other professionals working with young people about aspects of African-American literature and to stimulate further thinking about this literature. After an introduction, chapters in the book are: (1) "African-American Young…

  20. Prosocial Involvement among African American Young Adults: Considering Racial Discrimination and Racial Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Johnson, Rhonda L.

    2012-01-01

    Prosocial involvement is conceptualized as support for or engaging in behaviors that contribute to or benefit African American communities. The current study examines the relationship between prosocial involvement and race-related factors among 303 African American college students. Using two underlying dimensions of prosocial involvement,…

  1. Clues to the Blues: Predictors of Self-Reported Mental and Emotional Health Among Older African American Men.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jamie A; Watkins, Daphne C; Shires, Deirdre; Chapman, Robert A; Burnett, Janice

    2015-09-07

    The mental health needs of aging African American men have been overlooked and few studies have distinguished between more severe clinically diagnosable mental health challenges and less severe emotional states for this population. African American men may not identify with or internalize the terminology of "depression" despite exhibiting the symptom criteria. This exploratory cross-sectional study examined correlates of "downheartedness" as an alternative indicator of emotional health. The authors examined the self-reported responses of 1,666 older African American men on a baseline questionnaire from a larger longitudinal study. Demographic, physical, mental and emotional health, and health system factors were examined as possible correlates of downheartedness. The mean age of participants was 73.6 years and 74.8% of men described themselves as "downhearted and blue" most or all of the time while only 18.5% of them reported feeling moderate to severe anxiety or depression. When other factors were controlled, mobility problems (odds ratio [OR] = 2.36), problems getting health care (OR = 2.69), having a doctor who never listens (OR = 2.18), physical or mental problems that interfere with social activities (OR = 1.34), accomplishing less due to physical health (OR = 1.35), and accomplishing less due to mental/emotional health (OR = 1.57) were all associated with greater odds of being downhearted. The current findings indicate that this sample more closely identified with language accurately describing their emotional health state (i.e., downhearted) and not with clinical mental health terminology (i.e., depression) that may be culturally stigmatized.

  2. Cytokine profiling of young overweight and obese female African American adults with prediabetes.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Rudolf; Parikh, Samip J; Sridhar, Supriya; Guo, De-Huang; Bhagatwala, Jigar; Dong, Yutong; Caldwell, Ruth; Mellor, Andrew; Caldwell, William; Zhu, Haidong; Dong, Yanbin

    2013-10-01

    Approximately 5-10% of subjects with prediabetes become diabetic every year. Inflammation is involved in the development of obesity-related type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, to date, the relationship between inflammation and prediabetes, defined by hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥5.7 and <6.5%, remains largely unexplored, especially in African Americans. Therefore, in this study we examined a comprehensive panel of 13 cytokines involved in the inflammatory response in overweight/obese subjects with prediabetes. A total of 21 otherwise healthy, overweight/obese, young adult African American females with prediabetes, together with 20 matched overweight/obese controls, were selected for this study. Plasma cytokines were assessed by multiplex cytokine profiling. Plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-5, IL-6, IL-7, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were significantly higher in the prediabetic group, as compared to the control group (all p<0.05). Plasma concentrations of all the other cytokines, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70 and IL-13, seemed to be elevated in the prediabetic group, but failed to reach statistical significances. Upon merging both groups, HbA1c was found to be positively correlated with IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-5, IL-7, IL-8, TNF-α and GM-CSF. This study demonstrates elevated levels of various pro-inflammatory cytokines in overweight/obese young subjects with prediabetes, which place them at higher risk of developing T2D and cardiovascular diseases. Our data also call for further investigations in animal models and population cohorts to establish the roles of a variety of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the early development of obesity-related T2D.

  3. African American parents' racial and emotion socialization profiles and young adults' emotional adaptation.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Angel S; Perry, Nicole B; Cavanaugh, Alyson M; Leerkes, Esther M

    2015-07-01

    The current study aimed to identify parents' profiles of racial and emotion socialization practices, to determine if these profiles vary as a function of family income and young adult child gender, and to examine their links with young adults' emotional adaptation. Participants included 192 African American young adults (70% women) who ranged in age from 18 to 24 years (M = 19.44 years). Four maternal profiles emerged: cultural-supportive (high cultural socialization and supportive responses to children's negative emotions), moderate bias preparation (moderate preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and nonsupportive responses to negative emotions), high bias preparation (high preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and nonsupportive responses), and low engaged (low across racial and socialization constructs). Three paternal profiles emerged: multifaceted (moderate across racial and emotion socialization constructs), high bias preparation, and low engaged. Men were more likely to have mothers in the high bias preparation and to have fathers in the multifaceted or high bias preparation profiles. Individuals with higher income were more likely to have mothers in the cultural-supportive profile and to have fathers in the multifaceted profile. Young adults whose mothers fit the cultural-supportive profile or the moderate bias preparation profile had lower levels of depressive symptoms than young adults whose mothers fit the high bias preparation profile.

  4. Marriage and romantic involvement among aged African Americans.

    PubMed

    Tucker, M B; Taylor, R J; Mitchell-Kernan, C

    1993-05-01

    This study examined the extent and structural correlates of marriage, romantic involvement, and preference for romantic involvement among older adults in a national sample of African Americans. Multivariate analyses indicated that gender, age, education, income, and urban residence were important predictors of marriage and romantic involvement. In particular, men and younger respondents were more likely than women and older respondents to be married, have a romantic involvement, or be desirous of a romantic involvement. The effects of the decreased probability of marriage for future cohorts of older African American women on their supportive networks, living arrangements, and income adequacy are discussed.

  5. Factors influencing behavioral intention regarding prostate cancer screening among older African-American men.

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Marvella E.; Vernon, Sally W.; Havstad, Suzanne L.; Thomas, Shirley A.; Davis, Shawna D.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess factors associated with perceptions of prostate cancer screening among African-American men aged > or = 55 years based upon items developed using the Preventive Health model (PHM). RESEARCH APPROACH: Focus group research and thematic coding using content analysis. SETTING: A large midwestern, private, nonprofit health system. PARTICIPANTS: African-American men aged > or = 55 years. Focus group 1 included 10 men who ranged in age from 55-87 years, with a mean age of 73.4 years. The 11 participants in focus group 2 ranged in age from 55-81 years, with a mean age of 68.7 years. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH: Focus group questions were developed based on the conceptual framework of the PHM. African-American men aged > or = 55 years were randomly selected from the patient population of the healthcare system to participate in one of two focus groups. Content analysis was used to code the focus group transcripts. MAIN RESEARCH VARIABLES: Self-reported perceptions of prostate cancer screening. FINDINGS: Major themes emerging from the focus groups related to prostate cancer screening include: lack of knowledge regarding cancer, fear of cancer, confusion between prostate cancer screening and prostate cancer diagnostic tests, encouragement by others as motivation for cancer screening, intergenerational transfer of health information, lack of health insurance coverage as a barrier to prostate cancer screening and treatment, and limited availability of screening clinic hours during nonworking hours. INTERPRETATION: The information gained from this study could be used to develop interventions promoting informed and shared decision-making by patients and their providers regarding prostate cancer screening. PMID:16623062

  6. Orbital sporadic Burkitt lymphoma in an adult diabetic African American female and a review of adult orbital cases

    PubMed Central

    Carmody, John; Misra, Raghunath P; Langford, Marlyn P; Byrd, William A; Ditta, Lauren; Vekovius, Bryan; Texada, Donald E

    2011-01-01

    A case of sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (sBL) presenting with jaw and lid involvement in a diabetic adult African American female and a review of adult orbital Burkitt lymphoma cases are presented. Lid edema, visual loss, ophthalmoparesis, proptosis, and sinusitis progressed over 4 weeks despite antibiotic and steroid treatment. Upper lid biopsy histopathological evaluation and immunophenotyping revealed a homogenous mass of atypical CD10 and CD20-negative B-cells and tingible body macrophages yielding a “starry sky” appearance. Cytogenetic analysis detected a minor variant c-MYC translocation, but no Epstein–Barr virus RNA. Detection of multiple lesions prompted a diagnosis of stage IV disease that totally regressed following radiation and chemotherapy. Review results of the six adult orbital sBL cases support a poor prognosis and a heightened suspicion of variant CD10, CD20 and BCL6 positive sBL in adults presenting with jaw pain and rapidly progressive orbital symptoms, particularly in female, African American, and diabetic patients. PMID:21573040

  7. Financial capacity of older African Americans with amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Triebel, Kristen L; Okonkwo, Ozioma C; Martin, Roy; Griffith, Henry Randall; Crowther, Martha; Marson, Daniel C

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated financial abilities of 154 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (116 white, 38 African American) using the Financial Capacity Instrument (FCI). In a series of linear regression models, we examined the effect of race on FCI performance and identified preliminary predictor variables that mediated observed racial differences on the FCI. Prior/premorbid abilities were identified. Predictor variables examined in the models included race and other demographic factors (age, education, sex), performance on global cognitive measures (MMSE, DRS-2 Total Score), history of cardiovascular disease (hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia), and a measure of educational achievement (WRAT-3 Arithmetic). African American patients with MCI performed below white patients with MCI on 6 of the 7 FCI domains examined and on the FCI total score. WRAT-3 Arithmetic emerged as a partial mediator of group differences on the FCI, accounting for 54% of variance. In contrast, performance on global cognitive measures and history of cardiovascular disease only accounted for 14% and 2%, respectively, of the variance. Racial disparities in financial capacity seem to exist among patients with amnestic MCI. Basic academic math skills related to educational opportunity and quality of education account for a substantial proportion of the group difference in financial performance.

  8. Building a Registry of Research Volunteers among Older Urban African Americans: Recruitment Processes and Outcomes from a Community-Based Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadiha, Letha A.; Washington, Olivia G. M.; Lichtenberg, Peter A.; Green, Carmen R.; Daniels, Karen L.; Jackson, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the study: An emerging strategy for increasing public participation in health research is volunteer registries. Using a community-based participatory research framework, we describe recruitment processes and outcomes in building a research volunteer registry of older urban African Americans. The specific research question examined…

  9. Perceptions, Knowledge, Incentives, and Barriers of Brain Donation among African American Elders Enrolled in an Alzheimer's Research Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambe, Susan; Cantwell, Nicole; Islam, Fareesa; Horvath, Kathy; Jefferson, Angela L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To learn about African American older adults' knowledge and perceptions of brain donation, factors that relate to participating or not participating in a brain donation research program, and methods to increase African American brain donation commitment rates in the context of an Alzheimer's disease (AD) research program. Design and…

  10. Attachment-Focused Integrative Reminiscence with Older African-Americans: A Randomized Controlled Intervention Study

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Charles R.; Kang, Suk-Young; Pillemer, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Prior integrative reminiscence interventions have had a limited focus on attachment themes. The Attachment-Focused Integrative Reminiscence (AFIR) intervention differs from these in its central emphasis on attachment themes. The wide range of health benefits resulting from integrative reminiscence may be due in part to reminiscing about, mourning, and integrating unresolved attachment experiences. Method Participants were randomized into treatment and wait-list control conditions; completed a pre-test; met for 8 consecutive weekly 2-hour sessions of largely attachment-focused reminiscence; then completed post-tests immediately following the intervention and again 6 months later. Results Results show treatment effects for depression (p = .01 and .05 at 8 weeks and 6 months), perceived stress (p = .01 and .04), and emergency room (ER) visits at 6 months (p = .04), with the intervention group showing lower depression and stress and fewer ER visits. Conclusion Integrative reminiscence interventions are cost-effective, have rapid impact, and carry a certain appeal to older adults. Augmenting such interventions with a focus on attachment experiences may reduce perceived stress, an important health risk factor. Wider application of AFIRs may further reduce health disparities among U.S. older adults. PMID:25812080

  11. Factors Linking Childhood Experiences to Adult Romantic Relationships among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.; Landor, Antoinette M.; Bryant, Chalandra M.; Beach, Steven R.H.

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that a high quality relationship with a romantic partner is related to a variety of positive outcomes associated with health and well-being. Establishing such relationships is an important developmental task for young adults and past research indicates that there is a link between experiences in the family of origin and the success of later intimate relationships. It has been suggested that this association can be explained by the acquisition of social competencies (e.g., emotions, schemas, traits) that are acquired during childhood in the family of origin and, in turn, influence interaction with adult romantic partners. The current study builds on this foundation by identifying particular competencies expected to explain the association between childhood exposure to supportive and harsh parenting and later patterns of interaction with romantic partners. Specifically, we examine anger management, attachment style, hostile attribution bias, and self-control as potential mediators using prospective, longitudinal data from a sample of 345 African American young adults. Results from structural equation modeling indicate that each of the mediators in our study accounts for a significant portion of the effect of parenting on the quality of adult romantic relationships although the constructs linking parenting to warm interactions with romantic partners are somewhat different from those that link parenting to hostile interactions with romantic partners. Even after accounting for the effect of the mediators, there is still a direct effect of parenting on both warm/loving and hostile/aggressive interactions with romantic partner. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:24730381

  12. The Role of Body Size in Mate Selection among African American Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Leslie G.; Simons, Ronald L.

    2016-01-01

    A profusion of studies have demonstrated that body size is a major factor in mate selection for both men and women. The particular role played by weight, however, has been subject to some debate, particularly with respect to the types of body sizes deemed most attractive, and scholars have questioned the degree to which body size preferences are constant across groups. In this paper, we drew from two perspectives on this issue, Sexual Strategies Theory and what we termed the cultural variability perspective, and used survey data to examine how body size was associated with both casual dating and serious romantic relationships. We used a United States sample of 386 African American adolescents and young adults between ages 16 and 21, living in the Midwest and Southeast, and who were enrolled in either high school or college. Results showed that overweight women were more likely to report casually dating than women in the thinnest weight category. Body size was not related to dating status among men. Among women, the results suggest stronger support for the cultural variability argument than for Sexual Strategies Theory. Potential explanations for these findings are discussed. PMID:26973377

  13. The Built Food Environment and Dietary Intake among African-American Adults

    PubMed Central

    Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Okamoto, Hiroe; Hernandez, Daphne C.; Regan, Seann D.; McNeill, Lorna H.; Obasi, Ezemenari M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The built food environment surrounding people's homes may influence their dietary intake. This exploratory study examined how the density of different sources of food in the residential environment was associated with dietary consumption among 77 African-American adults in Houston, Texas. Methods The number of fast-food-type restaurants, large grocery stores, and convenience-type stores within 2- and 5-mile residential buffers were divided by the respective areas to obtain food environment density variables. Intake of fruit and vegetables [FV], fiber [FI], and percent energy from fat [PEF] was assessed using National Health Interview Survey items. Covariate-adjusted regressions were used to assess relations of interest. Results Greater density of fast-food-type restaurants within 2 miles was associated with greater FV, FI, and PEF (ps ≤ .012); and for FV and FI within 5 miles (ps < .004). Density of large grocery stores was unrelated to intake. Greater density of convenience-type stores within 2 miles was negatively associated with FV and FI (ps ≤ .03); results became marginal at 5 miles for FV (p = .10) but not FI (p = .03). Conclusion Maximizing healthy offerings in venue-rich metropolitan areas might provide direction for policies to reduce obesity. PMID:26685808

  14. Africentrism--Perspective or Paradigm? Implications for Adult Education. Proceedings of the African American Adult Education Research Pre-Conference (Knoxville, Tennessee, May 18-19, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy, Talmadge C., Ed.; And Others

    The following papers were presented at a research preconference on the implications of Afrocentrism for adult education: "The African American Adult Education Pre-Conference: Historical Reflections" (Colin); "The Perspective 'Is' the Paradigm: The Congruence of World View and Research Methodology" (Dozier-Henry);…

  15. Physical Activity and Blood Pressure Responsiveness to the Cold Pressor Test in Normotensive Young Adult African-American Males

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Vernon; Adams, R. George; Vaccaro, Paul; Blakely, Raymond; Franks, B. Don; Williams, Deborah; Obisesan, Thomas O.; Millis, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was to examine whether there is an association between blood pressure reactivity to the cold pressor test in African Americans who engaged in different levels of physical activity. We examined the systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac index, total peripheral resistance, and forearm blood flow during a two-minute cold pressor test in 15 aerobic, physically active and 15 physically inactive, normotensive young adult African-American males. Peak oxygen consumption varied as a function of physical activity, and was significantly higher in the physically active than in the physically inactive subjects (54.5 ± 1.5 vs 36.8 ± 0.7 ml · kg−1 · min−1) (P<.05). During the cold pressor test, consisting of immersing the foot in ice water, the change in cardiovascular responses were similar between the physically active and the physically inactive groups. These results suggest that regular physical activity may not contribute to an attenuated blood pressure response to behavioral stress of the cold pressor test in normotensive young adult African-American males. PMID:11455996

  16. Aerobic exercise attenuates blood pressure reactivity to cold pressor test in normotensive, young adult African-American women.

    PubMed

    Bond, V; Mills, R M; Caprarola, M; Vaccaro, P; Adams, R G; Blakely, R; Roltsch, M; Hatfield, B; Davis, G C; Franks, B D; Fairfax, J; Banks, M

    1999-01-01

    Exaggerated blood pressure reactivity to behavioral stress has been observed in the African-American population, and such a pressor response is believed to play a role in hypertension. Regular aerobic exercise has been shown to exert an anti-hypertensive effect, and this may alter the blood pressure hyperreactivity observed in African Americans. To test the hypothesis that aerobic exercise attenuates pressor reactivity in African Americans, we studied eight healthy aerobically-trained normotensive African-American females and five similar sedentary females. The stress stimuli consisted of the cold pressor test with the foot immersed in ice water for two minutes. The aerobic exercise training protocol consisted of six weeks of jogging at 60-70% of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), three days/week for 35 min/exercise session. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance, and forearm blood flow were measured. Manifestation of a training effect was illustrated by a 24.1 +/- 0.2% increase in VO2peak (26.9 +/- 1.2 mL x kg(-1) min(-1) vs 35.4 +/- 1.6 mL x kg(-1) min(-1)) (P<.05). Within the exercise-trained group there was a 6.3 +/- .15% decrease in systolic pressure (129 +/- 4.6 mm Hg vs. 121 +/- 5.4 mm Hg) (P<.05), and a 5.0 +/- .05% decrement in mean arterial blood pressure (99 +/- 3.3 mm Hg vs 94 +/- 3.6 mm Hg) (P<.05) during the cold pressor test. Pressor reactivity to cold stress did not change in the untrained group. Measures of heart rate, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance, and forearm blood flow were unaltered during conditions of the cold pressor test. We conclude that aerobic exercise attenuates the blood pressure reactivity to behavioral stress in young, adult normotensive African-American females. A lifestyle change such as exercising may play a role in reducing the risk of hypertension in African-American women.

  17. Peer Victimization and Substance Use Among African American Adolescents and Emerging Adults on Chicago's Southside.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jun Sung; Voisin, Dexter R; Cho, Sujung; Smith, Douglas C; Resko, Stella M

    2017-03-13

    Urban African-American youth residing in poorly resourced communities are at a heightened risk of peer victimization, which consequently increases their likelihood of risky behaviors such as substance use. The present study examined whether there was a direct relationship between peer victimization and substance use and whether it was mediated by negative peer norms, internalizing problems, and bullying perpetration. African-American youth (n = 638) completed a self-administered questionnaire on age, biological sex, socioeconomic status, lifetime substance use, peer victimization and bullying perpetration, negative peer norms, and internalizing problems. There were no direct effects between peer victimization and substance use. However, negative peer norms and bullying were both independently associated with substance use, although internalizing problems were not significant. In addition, peer victimization increased the odds of internalizing problems. Social services must be expended in low-income communities to effectively address peer victimization and substance use among urban African-American youth. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Nonmarital Relationships and Changing Perceptions of Marriage Among African American Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Barr, Ashley B; Simons, Ronald L; Simons, Leslie Gordon

    2015-10-01

    Cohabitation has become increasingly widespread over the past decade. Such trends have given rise to debates about the relation between cohabitation and marriage, in terms of what cohabitation means for individual relationship trajectories and for the institution of marriage more generally. Using recent data from a sample of almost 800 African Americans and fixed effects modeling procedures, in the present study the authors shed some light on these debates by exploring the extent to which cohabitation, relative to both singlehood and dating, was associated with within-individual changes in African Americans' marital beliefs during the transition to adulthood. The findings suggest that cohabitation is associated with changes in marital beliefs, generally in ways that repositioned partners toward marriage, not away from it. This was especially the case for women. These findings suggest that, for young African American women, cohabitation holds a distinct place relative to dating and, in principle if not practice, relative to marriage.

  19. Exploring the Continuum of Vaccine Hesitancy Between African American and White Adults: Results of a Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Sandra; Jamison, Amelia; Musa, Donald; Hilyard, Karen; Freimuth, Vicki

    2016-01-01

    Vaccine delay and refusal present very real threats to public health. Since even a slight reduction in vaccination rates could produce major consequences as herd immunity is eroded, it is imperative to understand the factors that contribute to decision-making about vaccines. Recent scholarship on the concept of “vaccine hesitancy” emphasizes that vaccine behaviors and beliefs tend to fall along a continuum from refusal to acceptance. Most research on hesitancy has focused on parental decision-making about childhood vaccines, but could be extended to explore decision-making related to adult immunization against seasonal influenza. In particular, vaccine hesitancy could be a useful approach to understand the persistence of racial/ethnic disparities between African American and White adults. This study relied on a thematic content analysis of qualitative data, including 12 semi-structured interviews, 9 focus groups (N=90), and 16 in-depth interviews, for a total sample of 118 (N=118) African American and White adults. All data were transcribed and analyzed with Atlas.ti. A coding scheme combining both inductive and deductive codes was utilized to identify themes related to vaccine hesitancy. The study found a continuum of vaccine behavior from never-takers, sometimes-takers, and always-takers, with significant differences between African Americans and Whites.  We compared our findings to the Three Cs: Complacency, Convenience, and Confidence framework. Complacency contributed to low vaccine acceptance with both races.  Among sometimes-takers and always-takers, convenience was often cited as a reason for their behavior, while never-takers of both races were more likely to describe other reasons for non-vaccination, with convenience only a secondary explanation.  However, for African Americans, cost was a barrier.  There were racial differences in trust and confidence that impacted the decision-making process. The framework, though not a natural fit for the data

  20. Exploring the Continuum of Vaccine Hesitancy Between African American and White Adults: Results of a Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Sandra; Jamison, Amelia; Musa, Donald; Hilyard, Karen; Freimuth, Vicki

    2016-12-29

    Vaccine delay and refusal present very real threats to public health. Since even a slight reduction in vaccination rates could produce major consequences as herd immunity is eroded, it is imperative to understand the factors that contribute to decision-making about vaccines. Recent scholarship on the concept of "vaccine hesitancy" emphasizes that vaccine behaviors and beliefs tend to fall along a continuum from refusal to acceptance. Most research on hesitancy has focused on parental decision-making about childhood vaccines, but could be extended to explore decision-making related to adult immunization against seasonal influenza. In particular, vaccine hesitancy could be a useful approach to understand the persistence of racial/ethnic disparities between African American and White adults. This study relied on a thematic content analysis of qualitative data, including 12 semi-structured interviews, 9 focus groups (N=90), and 16 in-depth interviews, for a total sample of 118 (N=118) African American and White adults. All data were transcribed and analyzed with Atlas.ti. A coding scheme combining both inductive and deductive codes was utilized to identify themes related to vaccine hesitancy. The study found a continuum of vaccine behavior from never-takers, sometimes-takers, and always-takers, with significant differences between African Americans and Whites.  We compared our findings to the Three Cs: Complacency, Convenience, and Confidence framework. Complacency contributed to low vaccine acceptance with both races.  Among sometimes-takers and always-takers, convenience was often cited as a reason for their behavior, while never-takers of both races were more likely to describe other reasons for non-vaccination, with convenience only a secondary explanation.  However, for African Americans, cost was a barrier.  There were racial differences in trust and confidence that impacted the decision-making process. The framework, though not a natural fit for the data

  1. Ethnically Diverse Older Adults' Beliefs about Staying Mentally Sharp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Daniela B.; Laditka, Sarah B.; Laditka, James N.; Wu, Bei; Liu, Rui; Price, Anna E.; Tseng, Winston; Corwin, Sara J.; Ivey, Susan L.; Hunter, Rebecca; Sharkey, Joseph R.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined diverse older adults' (n = 396, ages 50+) views about how to stay mentally sharp. We conducted 42 focus groups in four languages at nine United States locations using a standardized discussion guide and methods. The groups represented African Americans, American Indians, Chinese Americans, Latinos, Whites other than Latinos,…

  2. Longitudinal associations between social support and physical and mental health in African American adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African Americans report a greater number of modifiable risk factors, such as overweight/obesity, physical inactivity and poor dietary habits, putting them at increased risk of developing and dying from chronic diseases. These risk factors are also associated with poorer health-related quality of li...

  3. College graduation reduces vulnerability to STIs/HIV among African-American young adult women.

    PubMed

    Painter, Julia E; Wingood, Gina M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Depadilla, Lara M; Simpson-Robinson, Lashun

    2012-01-01

    African-American women are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. The Theory of Gender and Power (TGP) posits that socioeconomic exposures, including educational attainment, place women at increased risk for STIs/HIV. This study examined the association between educational attainment and vulnerability to STIs/HIV, as well as potential TGP-driven mediators of this association, among African-American women. Baseline data were assessed from an STI/HIV prevention intervention for African-American women (n = 848) aged 18 to 29 recruited from three Kaiser Permanente Centers in Atlanta, Georgia. Data collection included a survey of demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral measures and self-collected, laboratory-confirmed vaginal swabs for STIs (trichomoniasis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and human papillomavirus). Multiple regression analyses and multivariate mediation analyses were used to examine the association between educational attainment with a laboratory-confirmed STI and potential TGP mediators. Controlling for age and receipt of public assistance, the odds of an STI diagnosis were 73% lower among participants with a college degree or greater compared with participants who had not completed high school. There were also significant associations between educational attainment and multiple TGP mediators from the sexual division of power and the structure of cathexis. TGP constructs did not mediate the association between educational attainment and laboratory-confirmed STI. The current study suggests that graduating from college may lead to a beneficial reduction in vulnerability to STIs/HIV among African-American women. Findings from this study support expanding structural-level interventions, emphasizing both high school and college graduation, as a means of reducing vulnerability to STIs/HIV among African-American women.

  4. The association of interacting neighborhood gene-environment risk with cortisol and blood pressure in African-American adults

    PubMed Central

    Coulon, Sandra M.; Wilson, Dawn K.; Van Horn, M. L.; Hand, Gregory A.; Kresovich, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Background African-American adults are disproportionately affected by stress-related chronic conditions like high blood pressure (BP), and both environmental stress and genetic risk may play a role in its development. Purpose This study tested whether the dual risk of low neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and glucocorticoid genetic sensitivity interacted to predict waking cortisol and BP. Methods Cross-sectional waking cortisol and BP were collected from 208 African-American adults who were participating in a follow-up visit as part of the Positive Action for Today’s Health trial. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped, salivary cortisol samples were collected, and neighborhood SES was calculated using 2010 Census data. Results The sample was mostly female (65%), with weight classified as overweight or obese (MBMI=32.74, SD=8.88), and a mean age of 55.64 (SD=15.21). The gene-by-neighborhood SES interaction predicted cortisol (B=0.235, p=.001, r2=.036), but not BP. For adults with high genetic risk, waking cortisol was lower with lower SES but higher with higher SES (B=0.87). Lower neighborhood SES was also related to higher systolic BP (B=−0.794, p=.028). Conclusions Findings demonstrated an interaction whereby African-American adults with high genetic sensitivity had high levels of waking cortisol with higher neighborhood SES, and low levels with lower neighborhood SES. This moderation effect is consistent with a differential susceptibility gene-environment pattern, rather than a dual-risk pattern. These findings contribute to a growing body of evidence that demonstrates the importance of investigating complex gene-environment relations in order to better understand stress-related health disparities. PMID:26685668

  5. Redefining racial residential segregation and its association with physical activity among African Americans 50 years and older: a mixed methods approach.

    PubMed

    Armstrong-Brown, Janell; Eng, Eugenia; Hammond, Wizdom Powell; Zimmer, Catherine; Bowling, J Michael

    2015-04-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the factors contributing to disproportionate disease rates among older African Americans. Previous literature indicates that older African Americans are more likely to live in racially segregated neighborhoods and that racial residential segregation is associated with limited opportunities for physical activity. A cross-sectional mixed methods study was conducted guided by the concept of therapeutic landscapes. Multilevel regression analyses demonstrated that racial residential segregation was associated with more minutes of physical activity and greater odds of meeting physical activity recommendations. Qualitative interviews revealed the following physical activity related themes: aging of the neighborhood, knowing your neighbors, feeling of safety, and neighborhood racial identity. Perceptions of social cohesion enhanced participants' physical activity, offering a plausible explanation to the higher rates of physical activity found in this population. Understanding how social cohesion operates within racially segregated neighborhoods can help to inform the design of effective interventions for this population.

  6. Homelessness among older african-american women: interpreting a serious social issue through the arts in community-based participatory action research.

    PubMed

    Feen-Calligan, Holly; Washington, Olivia G M; Moxley, David P

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the incorporation of the arts into a community-based participatory action research (CBPAR) project formulated to develop and test practices for helping homeless older African-American women. Studying how older African-American women become homeless has evolved into developing and testing promising interventions by the Leaving Homelessness Intervention Research Project (LHIRP). The women's participation in creative group activities helped them to communicate their experience with homelessness, express their concerns, develop personal strengths, and obtained mutual understanding. The use of multiple art forms has revealed a number of creative strengths among the participants, which have in turn inspired innovative artistic strategies and methodologies as part of the multiple methods that LHIRP incorporates. These interventions have been useful in helping participants resolve their homelessness. The role and benefit of the arts in CBPAR is described to show how creative activities help researchers and the public to better understand the complexities of homelessness.

  7. Redefining Racial Residential Segregation and its Association With Physical Activity Among African Americans 50 years and Older: A Mixed Methods Approach

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong-Brown, Janelle; Eng, Eugenia; Hammond, Wizdom Powell; Zimmer, Catherine; Bowling, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the factors contributing to disproportionate disease rates among older African Americans. Previous literature indicates that older African Americans are more likely to live in racially segregated neighborhoods and that racial residential segregation is associated with limited opportunities for physical activity. A cross-sectional mixed methods study was conducted guided by the concept of therapeutic landscapes. Multilevel regression analyses demonstrated that racial residential segregation was associated with more minutes of physical activity and greater odds of meeting physical activity recommendations. Qualitative interviews revealed the following physical activity related themes: aging of the neighborhood, knowing your neighbors, feeling of safety, and neighborhood racial identity. Perceptions of social cohesion enhanced participants’ physical activity, offering a plausible explanation to the higher rates of physical activity found in this population. Understanding how social cohesion operates within racially segregated neighborhoods can help to inform the design of effective interventions for this population. PMID:24812201

  8. Self-esteem mediates the relationship between volunteering and depression for African American caregivers.

    PubMed

    Shen, Huei-Wern; Pickard, Joseph G; Johnson, Sharon D

    2013-01-01

    Research on the influence of volunteering on mental health outcomes has not placed enough focus on African American female caregivers who are at risk for adverse outcomes such as depression. This study addresses this gap by examining the mechanism through which volunteering might influence depressive symptoms using data collected from 521 African American female caregivers of older adults. Regression results indicate that although volunteering is inversely associated with depressive symptoms, self-esteem mediates this relationship. Findings suggest inclusion in volunteering for African American female caregivers may be relevant to promotion of their mental well-being.

  9. African-American Biography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ron

    1995-01-01

    Suggests sources of information for African American History Month for library media specialists who work with students in grades four through eight. Gale Research's "African-American Reference Library," which includes "African-America Biography,""African-American Chronology," and "African-American Almanac,"…

  10. Nonmarital Relationships and Changing Perceptions of Marriage Among African American Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Ashley B.; Simons, Ronald L.; Simons, Leslie Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Cohabitation has become increasingly widespread over the past decade. Such trends have given rise to debates about the relation between cohabitation and marriage, in terms of what cohabitation means for individual relationship trajectories and for the institution of marriage more generally. Using recent data from a sample of almost 800 African Americans and fixed effects modeling procedures, in the present study the authors shed some light on these debates by exploring the extent to which cohabitation, relative to both singlehood and dating, was associated with within-individual changes in African Americans’ marital beliefs during the transition to adulthood. The findings suggest that cohabitation is associated with changes in marital beliefs, generally in ways that repositioned partners toward marriage, not away from it. This was especially the case for women. These findings suggest that, for young African American women, cohabitation holds a distinct place relative to dating and, in principle if not practice, relative to marriage. PMID:26560129

  11. Reducing cardiovascular disease risk in mid-life and older African Americans: A church-based longitudinal intervention project at baseline

    PubMed Central

    Lemacks, Jennifer L.; Wickrama, Kandauda (K.A.S.); Young-Clark, Iris; Coccia, Catherine; Ilich, Jasminka Z.; Harris, Cynthia M.; Hart, Celeste B.; Battle, Arrie M.; O’Neal, Catherine Walker

    2014-01-01

    Introduction African Americans (AAs) experience higher age-adjusted morbidity and mortality than Whites for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Church-based health programs can reduce risk factors for CVD, including elevated blood pressure [BP], excess body weight, sedentary lifestyle and diet. Yet few studies have incorporated older adults and longitudinal designs. Purposes The aims of this study are to: a) describe a theory-driven longitudinal intervention study to reduce CVD risk in mid-life and older AAs; b) compare selected dietary (fruit and vegetable servings/day, fat consumption), physical activity (PA) and clinical variables (BMI, girth circumferences, systolic and diastolic BP, LDL, HDL, total cholesterol [CHOL] and HDL/CHOL) between treatment and comparison churches at baseline; c) identify selected background characteristics (life satisfaction, social support, age, gender, educational level, marital status, living arrangement and medication use) at baseline that may confound results; and d) share the lessons learned. Methods This study incorporated a longitudinal pre/post with comparison group quasi-experimental design. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) was used to discover ideas for the study, identify community advisors, recruit churches (three treatment, three comparison) in two-counties in North Florida, and randomly select 221 mid-life and older AAs (45+) (n = 104 in clinical subsample), stratifying for age and gender. Data were collected through self-report questionnaires and clinical assessments. Results and conclusions Dietary, PA and clinical results were similar to the literature. Treatment and comparison groups were similar in background characteristics and health behaviors but differed in selected clinical factors. For the total sample, relationships were noted for most of the background characteristics. Lessons learned focused on community relationships and participant recruitment. PMID:24685998

  12. Vitamin D3 supplementation for 16 weeks improves flow-mediated dilation in overweight African American adults

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Ryan A; Pedersen-White, Jennifer; Guo, De-Huang; Stallmann-Jorgensen, Inger S.; Keeton, Daniel; Huang, Ying; Shah, Yashesh; Zhu, Haidong; Dong, Yanbin

    2013-01-01

    Background A growing body of evidence has linked vitamin D deficiency to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Vitamin D deficiency is also more common in African Americans for whom an increased cardiovascular disease risk exists. This study sought to test the hypothesis that 16 weeks of 60,000 IU monthly supplementation of oral vitamin D3 would improve flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in African Americans, whereas no change would be observed in the placebo group. Methods A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial was conducted. Fifty-seven African American adults were randomly assigned to either the placebo group or vitamin D group. Results Following 16 weeks of placebo (n=23; mean age 31±2 years) or 60,000 IU monthly oral vitamin D3 (n=22; mean age 29±2 years), serum concentrations of 25 hydroxyvitamin D increased from 38.2±3.0 nmol/L to 48.7±3.2 nmol/L and 34.3±2.2 nmol/L to 100.9±6.6 nmol/L, respectively. No changes in serum parathyroid hormone, serum calcium, or urine calcium/creatinine were observed following either treatment. Following 16 weeks of treatment, significant improvements in FMD were only observed in the vitamin D group (1.8±1.3%), whereas the placebo group had no change (-1.3±0.6%). Similarly, the vitamin D group exhibited an increase in absolute change in diameter (0.005±0.004 cm) and FMD/shear (0.08±0.04 %/s-1, AUC × 103) following treatment, whereas no change (-0.005±0.002 cm and -0.02±0.02 %/s-1, AUC, respectively) was observed following placebo. Conclusions Supplementation of 60,000 IU monthly oral vitamin D3 (~2000 IU per day) for 16 weeks is effective at improving vascular endothelial function in African American adults. PMID:21311504

  13. Not Just Cigarettes: A More Comprehensive Look at Marijuana and Tobacco Use Among African American and White Youth and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Sara M.; Caraballo, Ralph S.; Rolle, Italia V.; Rock, Valerie J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cigarettes, cigars, and marijuana have generally been studied in isolation yet their use does not occur in isolation. Focus on cigarette smoking may overstate the observation that African American youth and young adults are less likely to smoke any combustible product compared with their white counterparts. Assessing cigarette, cigar, and marijuana use trends may help identify the extent of this difference. Methods Data from the 2002–2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (N = 25 541 to N = 28 232) were used to investigate past 30-day cigarette, cigar, and marijuana use trends among African American and white youth (12–17) and young adults (18–25). Logistic regressions assessed trends in combustible tobacco (cigarettes and cigars) and marijuana use, alone and in combination. Results From 2002–2012, the absolute difference in cigarette smoking prevalence between African American and white youth (9.6%–4.2%) and young adults (19.0%–10.5%) narrowed. Any combustible tobacco/marijuana use was significantly lower among African Americans than whites but, relative to cigarettes, the absolute difference was much smaller among youth (7.2%–2.2%) and young adults (15.8%–5.6%). Among any combustible tobacco/marijuana users, using two or more substances ranged from 31.4% to 40.3% among youth and 29.1% to 39.8% among young adults. Conclusion Any combustible tobacco/marijuana use trends suggest the smoking prevalence difference between African American and white youth and young adults is real, but less pronounced than when assessing cigarette smoking alone. Policies and programs addressing smoking behaviors may benefit from broadening focus to monitor and address cigar and marijuana use as well. Implications Trends in any use of cigarettes, cigars, and/or marijuana suggest the difference in smoking prevalence between African American and white youth and young adults is real, but less pronounced than when cigarette smoking is assessed alone. In 2012

  14. Asthma 1-2-3: a low literacy multimedia tool to educate African American adults about asthma.

    PubMed

    Sobel, Rina M; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Waite, Katherine R; Rittner, Sarah S; Wilson, Elizabeth A H; Wolf, Michael S

    2009-08-01

    Asthma 1-2-3 is a newly-developed low-literacy multimedia education tool designed to promote asthma self-care concepts among African American adults. An expert panel (n = 10) informed content development for the tool. The video script and storyboard imagery were shown to 30 African Americans recruited from the American Lung Association, whose reactions and comments guided further revisions. The final version was pilot tested in three diverse community settings in Chicago to determine the efficacy of Asthma 1-2-3 at improving patient understanding of asthma and its symptoms. In all, 130 adults participated in the pilot test. Knowledge scores significantly improved from pretest to posttest following presentation of the developed tool for subjects across all literacy levels (Pretest: Mean = 4.2 [SD = 1.6]; Posttest: M = 6.8 [SD = 2.0], P < 0.001). Symptom pathophysiology concepts were the least understood. Individuals with low literacy had less total knowledge score gains compared to those with marginal and adequate literacy (1.8, 2.6, and 3.2 respectively; P = 0.002). The multimedia tool significantly improved understanding of asthma. Individuals with limited literacy may require additional instruction, repeated viewing, or added tangible cues (i.e. supplementary print materials) to support knowledge retention. In general, feedback from the target population was particularly helpful in the development of the tool and its initial evaluation, and should be considered as a necessary step in the creation of other patient education materials.

  15. Issues inherent in the multicultural feminist couple treatment of African-American, same-gender loving female adult survivors of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Parks, C W; Cutts, R N; Woodson, K M; Flarity-White, L

    2001-01-01

    This manuscript focuses on four potential stumbling blocks in the multicultural feminist couple treatment of African-American, same-gender loving female adult child sexual abuse survivors: (1) gender roles; (2) "coming out" to self, family, and the community; (3) lesbian couple relationships; and (4) the expression of lesbian sexuality. These four potential barriers to therapeutic outcome within the context of multicultural feminist couple treatment needs to be systematically addressed during the provision of culturally-informed clinical services to African-American, same-gender loving female adult child sexual abuse survivors. The nature and impact of feminism on the family, as an institution, served as the framework for this discussion.

  16. The influence of PTSD, sleep fears, and neighborhood stress on insomnia and short sleep duration in urban, young adult, African Americans.

    PubMed

    Hall Brown, Tyish; Mellman, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    African Americans residing in stressful urban environments have high rates of insomnia and short sleep duration, both of which are associated with adverse health outcomes. However, limited data exist that explore factors influencing inadequate sleep in this high-risk population. This study sought to evaluate the contributions of demographics, trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, sleep fears, and neighborhood stress to both insomnia and short sleep in urban African American young adults. Data were analyzed from self-report measures completed by 378 participants 18-35 years of age. PTSD symptom severity and sleep fears were independently associated with insomnia severity, and sleep fears was associated with sleep duration. Results have implications for preventative health intervention strategies for urban African American young adults.

  17. Attitudes and program preferences of African-American urban young adults about pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).

    PubMed

    Smith, Dawn K; Toledo, Lauren; Smith, Donna Jo; Adams, Mary Anne; Rothenberg, Richard

    2012-10-01

    We elicited attitudes about, and service access preferences for, daily oral antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) from urban, African-American young men and women, ages 18-24 years, at risk for HIV transmission through their sexual and drug-related behaviors participating in eight mixed-gender and two MSM-only focus groups in Atlanta, Georgia. Participants reported substantial interest in PrEP associated with its perceived cost, effectiveness, and ease of accessing services and medication near to their homes or by public transportation. Frequent HIV testing was a perceived benefit. Participants differed about whether risk-reduction behaviors would change, and in which direction; and whether PrEP use would be associated with HIV stigma or would enhance the reputation for PrEP users. This provides the first information about the interests, concerns, and preferences of young adult African Americans that can be used to inform the introduction of PrEP services into HIV prevention efforts for this critical population group.

  18. Sociocultural perspectives on physical activity in the lives of older African American and American Indian women: a cross cultural activity participation study.

    PubMed

    Henderson, K A; Ainsworth, B E

    2000-01-01

    Illuminating the diversity and sociocultural specificity of women's experiences may be important if healthy lifestyles and quality of life are to be achieved. The incidence of cardiovascular disease linked to physical inactivity is high among African American and American Indian women. If more is understood about the experience of physical activity involvement, healthier living might be encouraged. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the sociocultural meanings of physical activity for older (over the age of 40 years) African American and American Indian women who participated in the Cross Cultural Activity Participation Study (CAPS). Through qualitative in-depth interviews, we explored how sociocultural perspectives are related to perceptions about physical activity. Gender and other sociocultural factors influenced physical involvement on a continuum from negligible to significant. Both groups interviewed showed evidence that opportunities for physical activity in their free time did not always exist for them. For African American women, history and daily living issues were important factors limiting their involvement. Marginality limited American Indian women, but their cultural pride was often a source of physical activity. The juxtaposition of cultural and personal values emerged as a determinant of physical activity involvement among the women in this study. A further expansion of cultural and personal life situation perspectives is recommended to help understand the complex dimensions of physical activity as it relates to healthy living.

  19. A church-based pilot study designed to improve dietary quality for rural, lower Mississippi Delta, African American adults.

    PubMed

    Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M; Thomson, Jessica L; Onufrak, Stephen J

    2015-04-01

    We piloted a 6-month, church-based, behavioral intervention, Delta Body and Soul (DBS), for African American (AA) adults in the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD). DBS was designed to improve overall dietary quality in LMD AA adults. The intervention included six once monthly group-based educational sessions implemented by trained church members. Program implementation, session attendance, congregational feedback, and baseline and post-intervention, demographic, health, behavioral, and clinical parameters were assessed. Participants were predominately AA, female, and overweight or obese. Retention rate was 79 %. High adherence, defined as attendance at four or more educational sessions, was associated with dietary quality improvement and reduced blood glucose. Implementation of the DBS pilot intervention was feasible and may result in dietary quality and clinical improvements.

  20. A Tool for Change: Young Adult Literature in the Lives of Young Adult African-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Carol Joan

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the role of young adult literature written from an authentic black cultural perspective in helping black young adults achieve the skills and knowledge they require to succeed in this society. Examples of relevant titles are given in the genres of realistic fiction, biography, autobiography, and folklore. (Contains 35 references.) (LRW)

  1. Harvest Health: Translation of the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program for Older African Americans in a Senior Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitlin, Laura N.; Chernett, Nancy L.; Harris, Lynn Fields; Palmer, Delores; Hopkins, Paul; Dennis, Marie P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: We describe the translation of K. R. Lorig and colleagues' Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) for delivery in a senior center and evaluate pre-post benefits for African American participants. Design and Methods: Modifications to the CDSMP included a name change; an additional introductory session; and course augmentations…

  2. African Americans and Glaucoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to a ... glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in African Americans. Half of those with glaucoma don't know ...

  3. Every Voice Counts... Proceedings [of] the Annual African American and Latino/a American Adult Education Research Symposium (10th, Chicago, Illinois, April 21, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garth, Phyllis Ham, Ed.

    This symposium publication consists of 26 presentations. Papers are "'How to Eat an Oreo': Using African American Research through Personal Narrative To Analyze Ethnic Dysmorphic Phenomenon" (Ashford); "Authentic Members: Uncovering Adult Children" (Barnes); "What Good Is Government? Assessment of Government Official…

  4. Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD): An Evaluation of a Semistructured Reading Discussion Group for African American Female Adult-Literacy Students with Histories of Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jayatta D.

    2012-01-01

    Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD), a reading discussion group geared toward African American female adult-literacy students with self-defined histories of trauma, was an outgrowth of research identifying links between trauma, women's struggles with literacy, and the need to be conscious of emotional health…

  5. Selecting Communication Channels for Substance Misuse Prevention with At-Risk African-American Emerging Adults Living in the Southern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Jalie A.; Cheong, JeeWon; Chandler, Susan D.

    2016-01-01

    Natural health information sources used by African-American emerging adults were investigated to identify sources associated with high and low substance-related risk. Participants (110 males, 234 females; M age = 18.9 years) were recruited using respondent-driven sampling, and structured interviews assessed substance use, sources of health…

  6. The Protective Role of Ethnic and Racial Identity and Aspects of an Africentric Orientation against Drug Use among African American Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Judith S.; Pahl, Kerstin

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined (a) the protective potential of multiple components of ethnic and racial identity and (b) the aspects of an Africentric orientation for moderating psychobehavioral risk and protective factors for drug use among a sample of 333 urban low-income African American young adults. Ethnic and racial identity and…

  7. Why Take an HIV Test? Concerns, Benefits, and Strategies to Promote HIV Testing among Low-Income Heterosexual African American Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Scyatta A.; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Harris, Muriel J.; Townsend, Tiffany G.; Miller, Kim S.

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative study examined perceptions of HIV testing and strategies to enhance HIV testing among HIV-negative African American heterosexual young adults (ages 18-25 years). Twenty-six focus groups (13 male groups, 13 female groups) were conducted in two low-income communities (urban and rural). All sessions were audio-recorded and transcribed.…

  8. Associations among environmental supports, physical activity, and blood pressure in African-American adults in the PATH trial.

    PubMed

    Coulon, Sandra M; Wilson, Dawn K; Egan, Brent M

    2013-06-01

    High blood pressure disproportionately affects African-American adults and is a leading cause of stroke and heart attack. Engaging in recommended levels of physical activity reduces blood pressure, and social and physical environmental supports for physical activity may increase engagement in physical activity. Based on social cognitive theory within a bioecological framework, the present study tested hypotheses that perceived peer social support for physical activity and neighborhood walkability would be positively associated with physical activity, and that physical activity would mediate their relation with blood pressure. Baseline data were collected with 434 African-American adults in underserved communities (low income, high crime) participating in the Positive Action for Today's Health (PATH) trial. Perceived peer social support for physical activity and neighborhood walkability were measured with validated surveys. Physical activity was assessed with 7-day accelerometry (moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, min/day) and with a 4-week recall of walking. Three blood pressure assessments were taken by trained staff using standard protocols, with values from the second and third assessments averaged. The sample was predominantly female (63%), overweight (mean body mass index = 30.9, SD = 8.4), and had slightly elevated blood pressures with a mean systolic blood pressure of 132.4 (SD = 17.9) and a mean diastolic blood pressure of 81.4 (SD = 11.0). Results demonstrated that peer social support for physical activity (B = 2.43, p = .02) and neighborhood walkability (B = 2.40, p = .046) were significantly related to average daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Neighborhood walkability was also significantly associated with self-reported average daily walking (B = 8.86, p = .02). Physical activity did not mediate their relation with blood pressure and no significant direct effects of these variables on blood pressure were found. The positive influence of

  9. Perceived environmental church support is associated with dietary practices among African-American adults.

    PubMed

    Baruth, Meghan; Wilcox, Sara; Condrasky, Margaret D

    2011-06-01

    A unique strength of the African-American community is the importance of church and faith. Interventions promoting health might want to build on these strengths by developing faith-based interventions that encourage churches to create an environment that supports behavior change. The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between perceived environmental church support for healthy eating and intake of fruit and vegetables and fat- and fiber-related behaviors, and to examine whether these relationships differ by sex. The design was a cross-sectional study in which participants completed self-report dietary and perceived church support measures before initiation of an intervention. Relationships between fruit and vegetable consumption, fat- and fiber-related behaviors, and perceived church support (eg, total, written informational, spoken informational, instrumental [fruit and vegetable consumption only]), along with Support×Sex interactions were examined. Participants were 1,136 African-American church members from four geographically defined districts in South Carolina. Statistical analyses included regression models controlling for sex, age, years of education, health rating, and body mass index using SAS PROC MIXED. A separate model was conducted for each measure of perceived church support and each type of healthy eating index. Perceived total church support and perceived written and spoken informational church support were associated with considerably higher fruit and vegetable intake and more favorable fiber-related behaviors, whereas only perceived total and perceived written informational support were associated with more low-fat dietary behaviors. Perceived instrumental church support was not associated with fruit and vegetable consumption. No sex differences were found. The social and physical church environment can be an important factor influencing the dietary habits of its members. Future faith-based interventions should further explore

  10. Condom use negotiation in heterosexual African American adults: responses to types of social power-based strategies.

    PubMed

    Otto-Salaj, Laura; Reed, Barbara; Brondino, Michael J; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Kelly, Jeffrey A; Stevenson, L Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    This study examined gender differences and preferences in the use of and response to six different styles of condom use negotiation with a hypothetical sexual partner of the opposite gender. Participants were 51 heterosexually active African American adults attending an inner-city community center. Participants completed a semistructured qualitative interview in which they were presented with six negotiation strategies based on Raven's 1992 Power/Interaction Model of Interpersonal Influence. Results showed that female participants responded best to referent, reward, and legitimate strategies, and worst to informational tactics. Male participants responded best to reward strategies, and worst to coercion to use condoms. Further, responses given by a subset of participants indicated that use of negotiation tactics involving coercion to use condoms may result in negative or angry reactions. Response to strategies may vary with the value of the relationship as viewed by the target of negotiation. Implications for HIV prevention efforts are discussed.

  11. Serious Psychological Distress Among African Americans: Findings from the National Survey of American Life.

    PubMed

    Mouzon, Dawne M; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Nguyen, Ann W; Chatters, Linda M

    2016-08-01

    Despite their low social standing, there remains a paucity of research on psychological distress among African Americans. We use data from the 2001-2003 National Survey of American Life to explore a wide array of social and economic predictors of psychological distress among African American adults ages 18 and older, including previous incarceration, history of welfare receipt, and having a family member who is either currently incarcerated or homeless. Younger age, lower income, lower educational attainment, and lower self-rated health and childhood health are associated with higher levels of psychological distress among African Americans. We also find a strong association between higher levels of material hardship, previous incarceration history, and the presence of a family member who is either incarcerated or homeless and higher levels of psychological distress. The findings highlight the importance of considering unique types of social disadvantage experienced by African Americans living in a highly stratified society.

  12. The Contribution of Community and Family Contexts to African American Young Adults' Romantic Relationship Health: A Prospective Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Steven M.; Lei, Man-Kit; Grange, Christina R.; Simons, Ronald L.; Brody, Gene H.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Chen, Yi-fu

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that African American men and women experience unique challenges in developing and maintaining stable, satisfying romantic relationships. Extant studies have linked relationship quality among African American couples to contemporaneous risk factors such as economic hardship and racial discrimination. Little research,…

  13. Effects of Ethnically Diverse Photographic Stimuli on Preference and Discourse Tasks in African American and Caucasian American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramkissoon, Ishara; Dagenais, Paul A.; Evans, Kelli J.; Camp, Travis J.; Ferguson, Neina N.

    2013-01-01

    This study determined whether using photographic stimuli displaying different ethnicity (African American vs. Caucasian American) influenced preference, word count, and number of content units produced by African American or Caucasian American participants. Six photograph pairs depicting common scenes were developed, differing only by model…

  14. Discrimination, internalized racism, and depression: A comparative study of African American and Afro-Caribbean adults in the US

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Kristine M.; James, Drexler

    2016-01-01

    Emerging research suggests that both perceptions of discrimination and internalized racism (i.e., endorsement of negative stereotypes of one’s racial group) are associated with poor mental health. Yet, no studies to date have examined their effects on mental health with racial/ethnic minorities in the US in a single study. The present study examined: (a) the direct effects of everyday discrimination and internalized racism on risk of DSM-IV criteria of past-year major depressive disorder (MDD); (b) the interactive effects of everyday discrimination and internalized racism on risk of past-year MDD; and (c) the indirect effect of everyday discrimination on risk of past-year MDD via internalized racism. Further, we examined whether these associations differed by ethnic group membership. We utilized nationally representative data of Afro-Caribbean (N = 1,418) and African American (N = 3,570) adults from the National Survey of American Life. Results revealed that experiencing discrimination was associated with increased odds of past-year MDD among the total sample. Moreover, for Afro-Caribbeans, but not African Americans, internalized racism was associated with decreased odds of meeting criteria for past-year MDD. We did not find an interaction effect for everyday discrimination by internalized racism, nor an indirect effect of discrimination on risk of past-year MDD through internalized racism. Collectively, our findings suggest a need to investigate other potential mechanisms by which discrimination impacts mental health, and examine further the underlying factors of internalized racism as a potential self-protective strategy. Lastly, our findings point to the need for research that draws attention to the heterogeneity within the U.S. Black population.

  15. Harvest Health: Translation of the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program for Older African Americans in a Senior Setting

    PubMed Central

    Gitlin, Laura N.; Chernett, Nancy L.; Harris, Lynn Fields; Palmer, Delores; Hopkins, Paul; Dennis, Marie P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We describe the translation of K. R. Lorig and colleagues’ Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) for delivery in a senior center and evaluate pre–post benefits for African American participants. Design and Methods Modifications to the CDSMP included a name change; an additional introductory session; and course augmentations involving culturally relevant foods, stress reduction techniques, and communicating with racially/ethnically diverse physicians. We recruited participants from senior center members, area churches, and word of mouth. We conducted baseline and 4-month post-interviews. Results A total of 569 African American elders attended an introductory session, with 519 (91%) enrolling in the 6-session program. Of the 519, 444 (86%) completed ≥4 sessions and 414 (79%) completed pre–post interviews. We found small but statistically significant improvements for exercise (p = .001), use of cognitive management strategies (p = .001), energy/fatigue (p = .001), self-efficacy (p = .001), health distress (p = .001), and illness intrusiveness in different life domains (probabilities from .001–.021). We found no changes for health utilization. Outcomes did not differ by gender, number of sessions attended, number and type of chronic conditions, facilitator, leader, or recruitment site. Implications The CDSMP can be translated for delivery by trained senior center personnel to African American elders. Participant benefits compare favorably to original trial outcomes. The translated program is replicable and may help to address health disparities. PMID:18981286

  16. Perceptions and Beliefs about the Role of Physical Activity and Nutrition on Brain Health in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Sara; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Mathews, Anna E.; Laditka, James N.; Laditka, Sarah B.; Logsdon, Rebecca G.; Sahyoun, Nadine; Robare, Joseph F.; Liu, Rui

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine older adults' perceptions of the link between physical activity (PA) and nutrition to the maintenance of cognitive health. Design and Methods: Forty-two focus groups (FGs) were conducted with 396 ethnically diverse (White, African American, American Indian, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Hispanic) community-dwelling older adults. FGs…

  17. A structural equation model analysis of perceived control and psychological distress on worry among African American and European American young adults.

    PubMed

    Chapman, L Kevin; Kertz, Sarah J; Woodruff-Borden, Janet

    2009-01-01

    Perceived control has been identified as an important factor in the development and maintenance of mood disorders, and worry has been shown to have a unique relationship with psychological distress associated with mood disorders. The relationships between these variables have received little attention in the literature, and even less in terms of the role racial status may serve. The current study investigated the structural relationship between psychological distress and perceived control in predicting self-reported worry as well as potential differences in paths to worry in African American and European American young adults using a structural equation model. One hundred twenty-one European American and 100 African American undergraduate students completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Anxiety Control Questionnaire (ACQ), and the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ). Results suggest that psychological distress and perceived control predict worry in both the African American and European American samples, however there were significant differences in terms of which construct contributed most. For African Americans, psychological distress contributed significantly more to worry than perceived control, whereas low perceived control contributed more to worry for European Americans. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  18. Perceived racism and suicide ideation: mediating role of depression but moderating role of religiosity among African American adults.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rheeda L; Salami, Temilola K; Carter, Sierra E; Flowers, Kelci

    2014-10-01

    Suicide is a public health problem for African Americans who are young and of working age. The purpose of this study was to examine mediated and moderated effects of perceived racism on suicide ideation in a community sample of 236 African American men and women. Measures of suicide ideation, depression symptoms, intrinsic/extrinsic religiosity, and perceived racism were administered. Perceived racial discrimination was directly and indirectly associated with suicide ideation. For participants who reported low levels of extrinsic religiosity, the mediated effect of perceived racism (via depression symptoms) was significant. These findings provide some insight into suicide vulnerability for specific subgroups of African Americans.

  19. Socioeconomic Position Is Positively Associated With Blood Pressure Dipping Among African-American Adults: The Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Hickson, DeMarc A; Diez Roux, Ana V; Wyatt, Sharon B; Gebreab, Samson Y; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Sarpong, Daniel F; Taylor, Herman A; Wofford, Marion R

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Blunted nocturnal blood pressure (NBP) dipping is a significant predictor of cardiovascular events. Lower socioeconomic position (SEP) may be an important predictor of NBP dipping, especially in African Americans (AA). However, the determinants of NBP dipping are not fully understood. METHODS The cross-sectional associations of individual and neighborhood SEP with NBP dipping, assessed by 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring, were examined among 837 AA adults (Mean age: 59.2 ± 10.7 years; 69.2% women), after adjustment for age, sex, hypertension status, body mass index (BMI), health behaviors, office, and 24-h systolic BP (SBP). RESULTS The mean hourly SBP was consistently lower among participants in the highest category of individual income compared to those in the lowest category, and these differences were most pronounced during sleeping hours. The odds of NBP dipping (defined as >10% decline in the mean asleep SBP compared to the mean awake SBP) increased by 31% (95% confidence interval: 13–53%) and 18% (95% confidence interval: 0–39%) for each s.d. increase in income and years of education, respectively, after multivariable adjustment. CONCLUSIONS NBP dipping is patterned by income and education in AA adults even after accounting for known risk factors. These results suggest that low SEP is a risk factor for insufficient NBP dipping in AA. PMID:21654853

  20. Relationship of childhood adversity and neighborhood violence to a proinflammatory phenotype in emerging adult African American men: An epigenetic link.

    PubMed

    Janusek, Linda Witek; Tell, Dina; Gaylord-Harden, Noni; Mathews, Herbert L

    2017-02-01

    African American men (AAM) who are exposed to trauma and adversity during their early life are at greater risk for poor health over their lifespan. Exposure to adversity during critical developmental windows may embed an epigenetic signature that alters expression of genes that regulate stress response systems, including those genes that regulate the inflammatory response to stress. Such an epigenetic signature may increase risk for diseases exacerbated by inflammation, and may contribute to health disparity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent to which exposure to early life adversity influences the psychological, cortisol, and proinflammatory response to acute stress (Trier Social Stress Test - TSST) in emerging adult AAM, ages 18-25years (N=34). Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine the cortisol and IL-6 pattern of response to the TSST with respect to childhood adversity factors and DNA methylation of the IL-6 promoter. Findings revealed that in response to the TSST, greater levels of childhood trauma and indirect exposure to neighborhood violence were associated with a greater TSST-induced IL-6 response, and a blunted cortisol response. Reduced methylation of the IL6 promoter was related to increased exposure to childhood trauma and greater TSST-induced IL-6 levels. These results support the concept that exposure to childhood adversity amplifies the adult proinflammatory response to stress, which is related to epigenetic signature.

  1. Male Role Norms, Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perceptions of Colorectal Cancer Screening among Young Adult African American Men

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Charles R.; Goodson, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Racial disparities in health among African American men (AAM) in the United States are extensive. In contrast to their White counterparts, AAM have more illnesses and die younger. AAM have colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates 25% and 50% higher, respectively, than White men. Due to CRC’s younger age at presentation and high incidence among AAM, CRC screening (CRCS) is warranted at the age of 45 rather than 50, but little is known about younger AAM’s views of CRCS. Employing survey design, the purpose of the study was to describe the male role norms (MRN), knowledge, attitudes, perceived subjective norms, and perceived barriers associated with screening for CRC among a non-random sample of 157 young adult AAM (ages 19–45). Sixty-seven percent of the study sample received a passing knowledge score (85% or better), yet no significant differences were found among the three educational levels (i.e., low, medium, high). More negative attitudes toward CRCS correlated with the participants’ strong perceptions of barriers, but no extremely negative or positive MRN and perceived subjective norms were found. The factors significantly associated with attitudes were family history of cancer (unsure), work status, and perceived barriers. Findings from this study provide a solid basis for developing structured health education interventions that address the salient factors shaping young adult AAM’s view of CRC and early detection screening behaviors. PMID:25506049

  2. Differences in Risk Factors for Suicidality between African American and White Patients Vulnerable to Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderwerker, Lauren C.; Chen, Joyce H; Charpentier, Peter; Paulk, Mary Elizabeth; Michalski, Marion; Prigerson, Holly G.

    2007-01-01

    Risk factors for suicidal ideation and attempts have been shown to differ between African Americans and Whites across the lifespan. In the present study, risk factors for suicidality were examined separately by race/ethnicity in a population of 131 older adult patients considered vulnerable to suicide due to substance abuse and/or medical frailty.…

  3. Depression in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickle, Fred; Onedera, Jill D.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to address selected aspects of depression in older adults. Specifically, symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, and interventions for depression in older adults are reviewed.

  4. The Effects of Alcohol, Relationship Power, and Partner Type on Perceived Difficulty Implementing Condom Use among African American Adults: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Woolf-King, Sarah E.; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    African American adults are disproportionately affected by HIV in the United States, underscoring the need for additional research on barriers to condom use. Guided by the theory of gender and power, this experimental study used a series of vignettes to test causal hypotheses regarding the influence of event-level alcohol use (present and absent), partner type (serious and casual), and relationship power (low and equal) on perceived difficulty implementing condom use. A total of 299 (151 women and 148 men) heterosexual African American adults indicated how “difficult” it would be to use a condom after reading 8 hypothetical sexual encounters, presented in a random order. A 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 repeated measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with one between subjects factor (gender) and one covariate (condom use self-efficacy) was used to estimate the effects of these variables on an index of perceived difficultly. The women in the study reported significantly higher ratings of difficulty implementing condom use in vignettes characterized by low relationship power (p < .001) and presence of alcohol use (p < .001); the manipulated independent variables did not produce any main effects for men. Both men and women’s ratings of perceived difficulty decreased as condom use self-efficacy increased (p < .001). This is the first study to use an experimental methodology to test hypotheses about barriers to condom use among a community-based sample of African American adults. These data can be used to enhance existing HIV prevention interventions. PMID:25277692

  5. The Moderating Role of Gender in the Relationship Between Tobacco Outlet Exposure and Tobacco Use Among African American Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Brown, Qiana; Milam, Adam J; Bowie, Janice V; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Gaskin, Darrell J; Furr-Holden, Debra

    2016-04-01

    Tobacco outlet exposure is a correlate of tobacco use with potential differences by gender that warrant attention. The aim of this study is to explore the moderating role of gender in the relationship between tobacco outlet exposure and past month tobacco use among African American young adults 21 to 24 years old. This cross-sectional study (n = 283) used geospatial methods to determine the number of tobacco outlets within walking distance (i.e., a quarter mile) of participants' homes and distance to the nearest outlet. Logistic regression models were used to test interactions between gender and tobacco outlet exposure (i.e., density and proximity). Tobacco outlets were classified based on whether or not they were licensed to sell tobacco only (TO outlets) or tobacco and alcohol (TA outlets). Neither density nor proximity was associated with past month tobacco use in the pooled models. However, gender modified the relationship between TO outlet density and tobacco use, and this relationship was significant only among women (OR = 1.02; p < 0.01; adjusted OR = 1.01; p < 0.05). This study underscores the importance of reducing tobacco outlet density in residential neighborhoods, especially TO outlets, as well as highlights potential gender differences in the relationship between tobacco outlet density and tobacco use.

  6. Qualitative developmental research among low income African American adults to inform a social marketing campaign for walking

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study describes the development of a social marketing campaign for increasing walking in a low income, high crime community as part of the Positive Action for Today’s Health (PATH) trial. Methods Focus groups were conducted with 52 African American adults (ages 18 to 65 yrs), from two underserved communities to develop themes for a social marketing campaign to promote walking. Participants responded to questions concerning social marketing principles related to product, price, place, promotion, and positioning for increasing neighbourhood walking. Results Focus group data informed the development of the campaign objectives that were derived from the “5 Ps” to promote physical and mental health, social connectedness, safety, and confidence in walking regularly. Focus group themes indicated that physical and mental health benefits of walking were important motivators. Walking for social reasons was also important for overcoming barriers to walking. Police support from trusted officers while walking was also essential to promoting safety for walking. Print materials were developed by the steering committee, with a 12-month calendar and door hangers delivered to residents’ homes to invite them to walk. Pride Stride walks empowered community walkers to serve as peer leaders for special walking events to engage new walkers. Conclusions Essential elements for developing culturally tailored social marketing interventions for promoting walking in underserved communities are outlined for future researchers. PMID:23497164

  7. Prevalence of child and adult sexual abuse and risk taking practices among HIV serodiscordant African-American couples.

    PubMed

    2010-10-01

    This study reports the prevalence of child (CSA) and adult (ASA) sexual abuse among 535 African American HIV serodiscordant couples from four major United State cities, and its relationship to personal and couple related vulnerabilities and HIV risk factors. As part of a randomized, clinical trial, CSA and ASA histories were obtained through face-to-face interviews. Results indicate that HIV positive women were significantly more likely to report one kind of abuse (32.32%), either before or since age 18 or both (32.6%). HIV-positive men (34.9%) were significantly more likely to report CSA than HIV-negative men (22.0%). Overall, 72% of couples reported that one or both had CSA histories. These findings underscore the heightened emotional vulnerability, and STI and HIV transmission risk taking practices, associated with sexual abuse. Sexual abuse histories among couples should be assessed to better understand how these histories may contribute to couples dynamics and risk-taking practices.

  8. Using Photovoice to Understand Barriers to and Facilitators of Cardiovascular Health Among African American Adults and Adolescents, North Carolina, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Woods-Jaeger, Briana; Lomas, Jesse; Taggart, Tamara; Thayer, Linden; Sutton, Sussie; Lightfoot, Alexandra F.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States, and mortality rates are higher among African Americans than among people of other races/ethnicities. We aimed to understand how African American adults and adolescents conceptualize cardiovascular health and perceive related barriers and facilitators. Methods This qualitative study was conducted as formative research for a larger study, Heart Healthy Lenoir, which aimed to reduce cardiovascular disease disparities among African Americans in eastern North Carolina, part of the widely-known “stroke belt” that runs through the southeastern United States. Using photovoice, a community-based participatory research method, we conducted eight 90-minute photovoice sessions with 6 adults and 9 adolescents in Lenoir County, North Carolina. Topics for each discussion were selected by participants and reflected themes related to cardiovascular health promotion. All sessions were transcribed and coded using a data-driven, inductive approach. Results Participants conceptualized cardiovascular health to have mental, spiritual, and social health dimensions. Given these broad domains, participants acknowledged many ecological barriers to cardiovascular health; however, they also emphasized the importance of personal responsibility. Facilitators for cardiovascular health included using social health (eg, family/community relationships) and spiritual health dimensions (eg, understanding one’s body and purpose) to improve health behaviors. Conclusion The perspectives of African American adults and adolescents elicited through this formative research provided a strong foundation for Heart Healthy Lenoir’s ongoing engagement of community members in Lenoir County and development and implementation of its intervention to prevent cardiovascular disease. PMID:26425868

  9. Understanding African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward Earl

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the socialization skills, self-esteem, and academic readiness of African American males in a school environment. Discussions with students and the School Perceptions Questionnaire provided data for this investigation. The intended targets for this investigation were African American students; however, there…

  10. 16 Extraordinary African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    This collection for children tells the stories of 16 African Americans who helped make America what it is today. African Americans can take pride in the heritage of these contributors to society. Biographies are given for the following: (1) Sojourner Truth, preacher and abolitionist; (2) Frederick Douglass, abolitionist; (3) Harriet Tubman, leader…

  11. Lift every voice: voices of African-American lesbian elders.

    PubMed

    Woody, Imani

    2015-01-01

    Old lesbians of African descent have experienced racism, heterosexism, homophobia, and ageism. This article explores the topics of aging, ageism, heterosexism, and minority stress among older African-American lesbians. The narratives and subsequent analysis offer significant contributions to the dialogue regarding Black aging lesbians in the aging and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities generally and in the African-American and African-American lesbian communities specifically.

  12. Partner influences and gender-related factors associated with noncondom use among young adult African American women.

    PubMed

    Wingood, G M; DiClemente, R J

    1998-02-01

    We examined the partner influences and gender-related correlates of noncondom use among African American women. The prevalence of noncondom use was 45.3%. Women whose sexual partners were noncondom users were four times more likely to believe that asking their partner to use a condom implied he was unfaithful, three times as likely to have a partner who resisted using condoms, three times more likely to receive AFDC, twice as likely to be sexually nonassertive, three times more likely to believe that it was not difficult to find an "eligible" African American man, and three times as likely to have had one sexual partner. HIV prevention tailored towards African American women should address these partner influences and gender-related factors.

  13. A Clinical Trial to Examine Disparities in Quitting between African American and White Adult Smokers: Design, Accrual, and Baseline Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Nollen, Nicole L.; Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Yu, Qing; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Scheuermann, Taneisha S.; Benowitz, Neal L.; Tyndale, Rachel F.; Mayo, Matthew S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND African Americans smoke fewer cigarettes per day than Whites but experience greater smoking attributable morbidity and mortality. African American-White differences may also exist in cessation but rigorously designed studies have not been conducted to empirically answer this question. METHODS/DESIGN Quit2Live is, to our knowledge, the first head-to-head trial designed with the primary aim of examining African American-White disparities in quitting smoking. Secondary aims are to identify mechanisms that mediate and/or moderate the relationship between race and quitting. The study is ongoing. Study aims are accomplished through a 5-year prospective cohort intervention study designed to recruit equal numbers of African Americans (n=224) and Whites (n=224) stratified on age (< 40, ≥ 40) and gender, key factors known to impact cessation, and all within a restricted income range (≤ 400% federal poverty level). All participants will receive 12 weeks of varenicline in combination smoking cessation counseling. The primary outcome is cotinine-verified 7-day point prevalence abstinence from smoking at week 26. Secondary outcomes are cotinine-verified 7-day point prevalence abstinence from smoking at weeks 4 and 12. DISCUSSION Findings from Quit2Live will not only address if African American-White disparities in quitting smoking exist but, more importantly, will examine mechanisms underlying the difference. Attention to proximal, modifiable mechanisms (e.g., adherence, response to treatment, depression, stress) maximizes Quit2Live’s potential to inform practice. Findings will provide an empirically-derived approach that will guide researchers and clinicians in identifying specific factors to address to improve cessation outcomes and reduce tobacco-related morbidity and mortality in African American and White smokers. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01836276 PMID:26667382

  14. Differences in risk factors for suicidality between African American and White patients vulnerable to suicide.

    PubMed

    Vanderwerker, Lauren C; Chen, Joyce H; Charpentier, Peter; Paulk, Mary Elizabeth; Michalski, Marion; Prigerson, Holly G

    2007-02-01

    Risk factors for suicidal ideation and attempts have been shown to differ between African Americans and Whites across the lifespan. In the present study, risk factors for suicidality were examined separately by race/ethnicity in a population of 131 older adult patients considered vulnerable to suicide due to substance abuse and/or medical frailty. In adjusted analyses, social support was significantly associated with suicidality in African American patients, while younger age and the presence of an anxiety disorder were significantly associated with suicidality in White patients. The results suggest that race/ethnicity-specific risk profiles may improve the detection of suicidality in vulnerable populations.

  15. Beliefs About Asthma and Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Low-Income Inner-City African-American Adults

    PubMed Central

    George, Maureen; Birck, Kathleen; Hufford, David J; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Weaver, Terri E

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND The gap in asthma prevalence, morbidity, and mortality is increasing in low-income racial/ethnic minority groups as compared with Caucasians. In order to address these disparities, alternative beliefs and behaviors need to be identified. OBJECTIVE To identify causal models of asthma and the context of conventional prescription versus complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in low-income African-American (AA) adults with severe asthma. DESIGN Qualitative analysis of 28 in-depth interviews. PARTICIPANTS Twenty-six women and 2 men, aged 21 to 48, who self-identified as being AA, low-income, and an inner-city resident. APPROACH Transcripts of semi-structured in-depth qualitative interviews were inductively analyzed using the constant comparison approach. RESULTS Sixty-four percent of participants held biologically correct causal models of asthma although 100% reported the use of at least 1 CAM for asthma. Biologically based therapies, humoral balance, and prayer were the most popular CAM. While most subjects trusted prescription asthma medicine, there was a preference for integration of CAM with conventional asthma treatment. Complementary and alternative medicine was considered natural, effective, and potentially curative. Sixty-three percent of participants reported nonadherence to conventional therapies in the 2 weeks before the research interview. Neither CAM nor nonmedical causal models altered most individuals (93%) willingness to use prescription medication. Three possibly dangerous CAM were identified. CONCLUSIONS Clinicians should be aware of patient-generated causal models of asthma and use of CAM in this population. Discussing patients' desire for an integrated approach to asthma management and involving social networks are 2 strategies that may enhance patient-provider partnerships and treatment fidelity. PMID:16995890

  16. Racial Identification, Racial Composition, and Substance Use Vulnerability Among African American Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stock, Michelle L.; Gerrard, Meg; Weng, Chih-Yuan; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Houlihan, Amy E.; Lorenz, Fred O.; Simons, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Two studies examined racial identity (RI) as a protective factor against substance-related cognitions and substance use among Black adolescents and young adults living in high versus low percentage Black social environments. Method Using structural equation modeling techniques, Study 1 examined longer term effects of RI on substance use cognitions and behaviors among 720 Black adolescents. Study 2 examined the impact of RI and percentage Black peer environment on alcohol use among 203 Black young adults. Results Study 1 revealed that RI was prospectively associated with lower levels of perceived friends’ use and lower favorability of the substance user prototype and, in turn, lower substance willingness and use, but only among Black adolescents in predominantly White neighborhoods. These adolescents also reported greater access to substances. In Study 2, low RI Black young adults who reported predominantly White peer environments reported the highest levels of alcohol use. Conclusions These findings highlight the importance of RI among Black youth and the impact of the social context on the health risk behaviors of adolescents and young adults. This research also demonstrates the utility of social psychological models, such as the prototype–willingness model, to examine mediating and moderating effects of individual differences and contextual factors on health risk cognitions and behavior. Theoretical and applied implications of the results are discussed. PMID:23088177

  17. Barriers to Participation in Adult Education for African Americans Attending a Christian Methodist Episcopal Church

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalmers, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Faith-based organizations, particularly churches, have embraced education. Historically, churches, synagogues, and temples have been the sites for educational programming. Yet, a great concern among religious institutions is participation in educational activities. Many studies have identified barriers to participation in adult education among…

  18. USE OF COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE THERAPIES BY RURAL AFRICAN AMERICANS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Randy A.; Utz, Sharon; Wenzel, Jennifer; Steeves, Richard; Hinton, Ivora; Andrews, Dana; Murphy, Alison; Oliver, Norman

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes among non-Hispanic African American adults aged 20 years and older is 11.4%, compared to 8.4% non-Hispanic whites. Given the high rate of diabetes in this population, it is important to determine whether African Americans use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), and if so, what kind. Such information is important to healthcare professionals who prescribe therapies and make self-care recommendations to those with diabetes. The use of CAM by African Americans with diabetes has not been well studied, however, particularly among those living in rural areas. This descriptive study was conducted in 2 rural communities in Central Virginia to explore the use of CAM therapies and the role of religion and spirituality in dealing with diabetes among adult African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Sixty-eight participants attended 1 of 8 focus group sessions in various community settings and described their use of alternative therapies. According to these sessions, the most common alternative therapies used are prayer, diet-based therapies, and natural products. The participants’ descriptions enhance our understanding of CAM use among rural African Americans with diabetes. PMID:17017753

  19. Ethnic Variation in Oral Health and Social Integration among Older Rural Adults

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Chen, Haiying; Savoca, Margaret R.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2011-01-01

    This analysis examines the associations of oral health with social integration among ethnically diverse (African American, American Indian, white) rural older adults. Data are from a cross-sectional survey of 635 randomly selected community-dwelling adults aged 60+. Measures include self-rated oral health, number of teeth, number of oral health problems, social engagement, and social network size. Minority elders have poorer oral health than do white older adults. Most rural elders have substantial social engagement and social networks. Better oral health (greater number of teeth) is directly associated with social engagement, while the relationship of oral health to social network size is complex. The association of oral health with social engagement does not differ by ethnicity. Poorer oral health is associated with less social integration among African American, American Indian and white elders. More research on the ways oral health affects the lives of older adults is warranted. PMID:23788829

  20. Ethnic variation in oral health and social integration among older rural adults.

    PubMed

    Arcury, Thomas A; Chen, Haiying; Savoca, Margaret R; Anderson, Andrea M; Leng, Xiaoyan; Bell, Ronny A; Quandt, Sara A

    2013-04-01

    This analysis examines the associations of oral health with social integration among ethnically diverse (African American, American Indian, White) rural older adults. Data are from a cross-sectional survey of 635 randomly selected community-dwelling adults aged 60+. Measures include self-rated oral health, number of teeth, number of oral health problems, social engagement, and social network size. Minority elders have poorer oral health than do White older adults. Most rural elders have substantial social engagement and social networks. Better oral health (greater number of teeth) is directly associated with social engagement, whereas the relationship of oral health to social network size is complex. The association of oral health with social engagement does not differ by ethnicity. Poorer oral health is associated with less social integration among African American, American Indian, and White elders. More research on the ways oral health affects the lives of older adults is warranted.

  1. Understanding Impediments and Enablers to Physical Activity among African American Adults: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddiqi, Zoveen; Tiro, Jasmin A.; Shuval, Kerem

    2011-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading cause of premature death, disability and numerous chronic diseases. Minority and underserved populations in the United States and worldwide have a higher prevalence of physical inactivity affecting their morbidity and mortality rates. In the United States, African Americans are less physically active and have a…

  2. The Effects of Mother's Marital Status on Adolescent and Young Adult Health and Economic Well-Being among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaVeist, Thomas A.; Zeno, Tia L.; Fesahazion, Ruth G.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the effects of being raised by married parents during childhood on health and well-being in adolescence and young adulthood in a longitudinal sample of African Americans. This study aims to address the following three questions: Does childhood with married parents lead to better health and well-being during adolescence? Does…

  3. Promoting Sexual Health Equity in the United States: Implications from Exploratory Research with African-American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Allison L.; Uhrig, Jennifer; Poehlman, Jon; Scales, Monica; Hogben, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to inform communication efforts to promote sexual health equity in the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sought to explore African-Americans' perceptions of the sexually transmitted disease (STD) problem in their communities, reactions to racially comparative STD data and opinions about dissemination of…

  4. Obesity and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Management System Report to Congress Knowledge Center Capacity Building Information Services Events Calendar Resource Guide Justice ... Workforce Diversity Grants Youth Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Black/African American ...

  5. Relationships among Blood Pressure, Triglycerides and Verbal Learning in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Regina C.; Madhere, Serge; Gordon, Shalanda; Clark, Elijah; Abayomi, Kobi A.; Callender, Clive O.; Campbell, Alfonso L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Individuals at greater risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) display poorer cognitive functioning across various cognitive domains. This finding is particularly prevalent among older adults; however, few studies examine these relationships among younger adults or among African Americans. Purpose The objective was to examine the relationships among 2 cardiovascular risk factors, elevated blood pressure and elevated triglycerides, and verbal learning in a community-based sample of African Americans. Methods Measurements of blood pressure and triglycerides were obtained in 121 African-American adults and compared to performance on 3 domains of the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II). Results Blood pressure was not related to CVLT-II performance. Triglyceride levels were inversely related to CVLT-II performance. Higher triglyceride levels were associated with poorer immediate, short delay and long delay recall. Conclusions Consistent with studies involving older participants, the current investigation shows that in a nonelderly sample of African Americans, triglyceride levels may be related to cognitive functioning. Because early detection and intervention of vascular-related cognitive impairment may have a salutary effect, future studies should include younger adults to highlight the impact of cardiovascular risk on cognition. PMID:18942281

  6. An In-Depth Examination of Perceptions of Physical Activity in Regularly Active and Insufficiently Active Older African American Women: A Participatory Approach

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Despite considerable research and programmatic efforts to alleviate racial/ethnic disparities in physical activity (PA), disparities in PA among older minorities and major racial ethnic groups persist. This study explored perceptions of PA among regularly active (RA) and insufficiently active (IA) older African American women (AAW) and the factors that influence (positively and negatively) their physical participation in their socio-cultural environment. A total of 20 AAW aged 60 to 80 years participated in a cross-sectional mixed-methods study (i.e., qualitative and quantitative) employing participatory research approaches (i.e., photoelicitation) along with an objective assessment of PA. Nine women were considered RA and 11 IA according to current PA recommendations. RA and IA women held two major beliefs about the nature of PA (i.e., PA as a broadly defined construct that goes beyond traditional exercise routines; and PA and exercise are synonymous and can be used interchangeably) and had a good understanding of its benefits. Participants in both groups did not know about the importance of PA intensity for health benefits. Barriers and facilitator of PA were found to be similar among RA and IA participants. Special attention should be paid to providing access to no or low cost opportunities for PA participation in safe environments. PMID:26554842

  7. Smoking in young adulthood among African Americans: Interconnected effects of supportive parenting in early adolescence, proinflammatory epitype, and young adult stress.

    PubMed

    Beach, Steven R H; Lei, Man Kit; Brody, Gene H; Miller, Gregory E; Chen, Edith; Mandara, Jelani; Philibert, Robert A

    2016-10-20

    We examined two potentially interacting, connected pathways by which parental supportiveness during early adolescence (ages 1-13) may come to be associated with later African American young adult smoking. The first pathway is between parental supportiveness and young adult stress (age 19), with stress, in turn, predicting increased smoking at age 20. The second pathway is between supportive parenting and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) gene methylation (i.e., TNFm), a proinflammatory epitype, with low levels indicating greater inflammatory potential and forecasting increased risk for smoking in response to young adult stress. In a sample of 382 African American youth residing in rural Georgia, followed from early adolescence (age 10-11) to young adulthood (age 20), supportive parenting indirectly predicted smoking via associations with young adult stress, IE = -0.071, 95% confidence interval [-0.132, -0.010]. In addition, supportive parenting was associated with TNFm measured at age 20 (r = .177, p = .001). Further, lower TNFm was associated with a significantly steeper slope (b = 0.583, p = .003) of increased smoking in response to young adult stress compared to those with higher TNFm (b = 0.155, p = .291), indicating an indirect, amplifying role for supportive parenting via TNFm. The results suggest that supportive parenting in early adolescence may play a role in understanding the emergence of smoking in young adulthood.

  8. The effects of alcohol, relationship power, and partner type on perceived difficulty implementing condom use among African American adults: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Woolf-King, Sarah E; Maisto, Stephen A

    2015-04-01

    African American adults are disproportionately affected by HIV in the United States, underscoring the need for additional research on barriers to condom use. Guided by the theory of gender and power, this experimental study used a series of vignettes to test causal hypotheses regarding the influence of event-level alcohol use (present and absent), partner type (serious and casual), and relationship power (low and equal) on perceived difficulty implementing condom use. A total of 299 (151 women and 148 men) heterosexual African American adults indicated how "difficult" it would be to use a condom after reading 8 hypothetical sexual encounters, presented in a random order. A 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 repeated measures analysis of covariance with one between subjects factor (gender) and one covariate (condom use self-efficacy) was used to estimate the effects of these variables on an index of perceived difficulty. The women in the study reported significantly higher ratings of difficulty implementing condom use in vignettes characterized by low relationship power (p < .001) and presence of alcohol use (p < .001); the manipulated independent variables did not produce any main effects for men. Both men and women's ratings of perceived difficulty decreased as condom use self-efficacy increased (p < .001). This is the first study to use an experimental methodology to test hypotheses about barriers to condom use among a community-based sample of African American adults. These data can be used to enhance existing HIV prevention interventions.

  9. Distribution of toenail selenium levels in young adult Caucasians and African Americans in the United States: The CARDIA Trace Element Study

    SciTech Connect

    Xun, Pengcheng; Bujnowski, Deborah; Liu, Kiang; Steve Morris, J.; Guo, Zhongqin; He, Ka

    2011-05-15

    Background: Data on selenium (Se) levels in American young adults, especially in African Americans, are lacking. Objective: This study presented toenail Se distributions in American young adults of both genders, including both Caucasians and African Americans; and explored potential predictors of toenail Se levels. Data and methods: Data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study among 4252 American young adults, aged 20-32 in 1987 was used to examine toenail Se levels by instrumental neutron-activation analysis. The distribution of Se levels was described and multivariable linear regression was used to examine potential modifiers of toenail Se concentration within ethnicity-gender subgroups. Results: The geometric mean of toenail Se in this cohort was 0.844 {mu}g/g (95% CI, 0.840-0.849 {mu}g/g) and the median was 0.837 {mu}g/g (95% CI, 0.833-0.844 {mu}g/g). Median levels from lowest to highest quintile were 0.691, 0.774, 0.838, 0.913 and 1.037 {mu}g/g. Se levels varied geographically, and were generally in accordance with its concentrations in local soil. Males, African Americans, current smokers, heavy drinkers and less educated participants were more likely to have low Se levels. Conclusion: This study suggests that toenail Se levels vary geographically depending on soil Se concentrations. In addition to gender, ethnicity and education level, smoking status and alcohol consumption are two important indicators of Se status since they are modifiable lifestyle factors. Findings from this study might aid public health professionals in identifying people at relatively high or low Se levels, so that chronic disease prevention efforts can be directed toward these subgroups. - Research highlights: {yields} Average of toenail Se levels in this cohort was 0.844 {mu}g/g (95% CI, 0.840-0.849 {mu}g/g). {yields} Toenail Se levels vary geographically depending on soil Se concentrations. {yields} Males, African Americans and less educated participants have

  10. Variables affecting racial-identity salience among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Thompson, V L

    1999-12-01

    The author clarified the African American racial-group identification process by addressing the issue of salience and its relationship to racial-group attitudes. A sample of 409 African American adults responded to surveys pertaining to their racial-group salience, racial-group attitudes, racial socialization, racial-group interaction, political activism, experiences of discrimination, and demographic data (e.g., sex, age, and income). The author tested 3 hypotheses: (a) Racial socialization and interaction with other African Americans are predictive of African American racial-identity salience; (b) discriminatory experiences are predictive of African American racial-identity salience; and (c) racial-identity salience is a stronger predictor of African American racial-group identification than are previously identified predictive variables (D. H. Demo & H. Hughes, 1990; V. L. Thompson Sanders, 1991, 1995). The results supported the 1st and 3rd hypotheses.

  11. Social and Cultural Factors Influence African American Men's Medical Help Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Derek M.; Allen, Julie Ober; Gunter, Katie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the factors that influenced African American men's medical help seeking. Method: Thematic analysis of 14 focus groups with 105 older, urban African American men. Results: African American men described normative expectations that they did not go to the doctor and that they were afraid to go, with little explanation. When they…

  12. African American's Perceptions of Psychotherapy and Psychotherapists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Vetta L. Sanders; Akbar, Maysa D.; Bazile, Anita

    The attitudes and beliefs about utilization of mental health services of 201 African Americans, 18 years and older, are explored. One hundred and thirty-four females and 66 males participated in mixed sex focus groups conducted in an urban, Midwestern city. Discussion probes addressed participant perceptions of psychotherapists and psychotherapy,…

  13. Dietary patterns and diet quality among diverse older adults: The University of Alabama at Birmingham study of aging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives: To characterize dietary patterns among a diverse sample of older adults (= 65 years). Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Five counties in west central Alabama. Participants: Community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries (N=416; 76.8 ± 5.2 years, 56% female, 39% African American) in the Univer...

  14. Narcolepsy in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Makoto; O'Hara, Ruth; Einen, Mali; Lin, Ling; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Although narcolepsy affects 0.02–0.05% of individuals in various ethnic groups, clinical presentation in different ethnicities has never been fully characterized. Our goal was to study phenotypic expression across ethnicities in the United States. Design/Setting: Cases of narcolepsy from 1992 to 2013 were identified from searches of the Stanford Center for Narcolepsy Research database. International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition diagnosis criteria for type 1 and type 2 narcolepsy were used for inclusion, but subjects were separated as with and without cataplexy for the purpose of data presentation. Information extracted included demographics, ethnicity and clinical data, HLA-DQB1*06:02, polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) data, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1 level. Patients: 182 African-Americans, 839 Caucasians, 35 Asians, and 41 Latinos with narcolepsy. Results: Sex ratio, PSG, and MSLT findings did not differ across ethnicities. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score was higher and age of onset of sleepiness earlier in African Americans compared with other ethnicities. HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity was higher in African Americans (91.0%) versus others (76.6% in Caucasians, 80.0% in Asians, and 65.0% in Latinos). CSF hypocretin-1 level, obtained in 222 patients, was more frequently low (≤ 110 pg/ml) in African Americans (93.9%) versus Caucasians (61.5%), Asians (85.7%) and Latinos (75.0%). In subjects with low CSF hypocretin-1, African Americans (28.3%) were 4.5 fold more likely to be without cataplexy when compared with Caucasians (8.1%). Conclusions: Narcolepsy in African Americans is characterized by earlier symptom onset, higher Epworth Sleepiness Scale score, higher HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity, and low cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 level in the absence of cataplexy. In African Americans, more subjects without cataplexy have type 1 narcolepsy. Citation: Kawai M, O'Hara R, Einen M, Lin L

  15. Examining the psychometric validity of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R) in a community sample of African American and European American adults.

    PubMed

    Chakawa, Ayanda; Butler, Robert C; Shapiro, Steven K

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R), focusing on a sample drawn from a geographic region in the United States that has not been included in previously published research on the MEIM-R. Data were obtained from a community-based sample of 105 African American (AA) and 91 European American (EA) adults located in the state of Alabama. The MEIM-R was best represented by two constructs-exploration and commitment. AA adults reported higher levels of racial/ethnic identity exploration and commitment than EA adults. Differential item functioning was found among 1 of the exploration items. The current study provides additional support for the structural validity of the MEIM-R. Further research on the invariance of responses to the MEIM-R across a variety of sociodemographic factors is still necessary.

  16. Older Adults and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA ... are here Home » Alcohol & Your Health » Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders » Older Adults In this Section Underage ...

  17. Older Adults and Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... find more information? Reprints Share Older Adults and Depression Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... depression need treatment to feel better. Types of Depression There are several types of depression. The most ...

  18. Educating African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American…

  19. African Americans and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Joan

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the opportunities available in the field of agriculture for African American students and notes efforts of the 136 colleges of agriculture to publicize their offerings and recruit students. Profiles six black leaders in agriculture, highlighting their achievements in research and aid to developing countries. A table provides data on annual…

  20. An Intervention Study on Screening for Breast Cancer Among Single African-American Women Aged 65 and Older

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-07-01

    Improving the use of cancer screening for older women. Cancer 1993;72:1084-7. 2. Dewar MA, Hall K, Perchalski J. Cervical cancer screening: past...Brackbill RM, Bewerse BA, Sanderson LM. Cancer screening behaviors among U.S. women: breast cancer, 1987-1989, and cervical cancer , 1988-1989. MMWR...A nurse practionner intervention to increase breast and cervical cancer screening for poor, elderly black women. J Gen Intern Med 1993;8:173- 8. 31

  1. The Uses of Texting in Sexual Relationships Scale: Associations With Risky Sexual Behavior Among At-Risk African American Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Broaddus, Michelle; Dickson-Gomez, Julia

    2016-10-01

    Qualitative and quantitative research was used to create the Uses of Texting in Sexual Relationships scale. At-risk, predominantly African American emerging adults participated in qualitative interviews (N = 20) and quantitative surveys (N = 110) about their uses of text messaging within romantic and sexual relationships. Exploratory factor analysis of items generated from interviews resulted in four subscales: Sexting, Relationship Maintenance, Relationship Development, and Texting for Sexual Safety. Exploratory analyses indicated associations of Sexting with more instances of condomless sex, and Texting for Sexual Safety with fewer instances of condomless sex, which was moderated by relationship power. Further research on the connections between text messaging in relationships and sexual behavior among high-risk and minority young adults is warranted, and intervention efforts to decrease sexual risks need to incorporate these avenues of sexual communication.

  2. Innovative Care Delivery Model to Address Obesity in Older African American Women: Senior Wellness Initiative and TOPS Collaboration for Health (SWITCH)

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Nia S.; Polsky, Sarit

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Obesity is more prevalent among African American women (AAW) than any other group in the United States. Take Off Pounds Sensibly (TOPS) is a national, nonprofit, weight loss program where people have lost a clinically significant amount of weight. OBJECTIVES To determine the feasibility and acceptability of integrating TOPS into a community program that serves African Americans (AA) and determine weight change. DESIGN Single group pilot design. SETTING Denver, Colorado PARTICIPANTS Community dwelling participants aged 51 to 85 INTERVENTION Participants were recruited through a program that serves AAs and new TOPS chapters were started at a church, senior center, and senior residence for independent living. MEASUREMENTS Feasibility was measured by determining the ease of recruitment and acceptability was measured by the retention. The secondary outcome was weight change. RESULTS Sixty-four percent of people who were referred to the program or attended an information session participated in the study. The retention rate at 52 weeks was 79%. At 52 weeks, 16 of 48 participants lost 5% or more of their initial weight and 23 of 48 participants lost between 0 and 4.9% of their initial weight. CONCLUSIONS Recruiting African American women through the Center for African American Health was feasible and the program was acceptable. One-third of participants lost a clinically significant amount of weight. TOPS may be one way to combat the health disparity of obesity in African American Women. PMID:24219198

  3. Enhancing Older Adults' Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemper, Susan; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Investigates older adults' reading comprehension skills through syntactic measures and measures of sentence content. Analyzes the apparent reading difficulties of older adults. Provides guidelines for the preparation of prose materials for older readers. (HB)

  4. Depression in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fiske, Amy; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Gatz, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Depression is less prevalent among older adults than among younger adults but can have serious consequences. Over half of cases represent a first onset in later life. Although suicide rates in the elderly are declining, they are still higher than in younger adults and more closely associated with depression. Depressed older adults are less likely to endorse affective symptoms and more likely to display cognitive changes, somatic symptoms, and loss of interest than are younger adults. Risk factors leading to the development of late life depression likely comprise complex interactions among genetic vulnerabilities, cognitive diathesis, age-associated neurobiological changes, and stressful events. Insomnia is an often overlooked risk factor for late life depression. We suggest that a common pathway to depression in older adults, regardless of which predisposing risks are most prominent, may be curtailment of daily activities. Accompanying self-critical thinking may exacerbate and maintain a depressed state. Offsetting the increasing prevalence of certain risk factors in late life are age-related increases in psychological resilience. Other protective factors include higher education and socioeconomic status, engagement in valued activities, and religious or spiritual involvement. Treatments including behavioral therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive bibliotherapy, problem-solving therapy, brief psychodynamic therapy, and life review/reminiscence therapy are effective but too infrequently used with older adults. Preventive interventions including education for individuals with chronic illness, behavioral activation, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving skills training, group support, and life review have also received support. PMID:19327033

  5. Black-white unions: West Indians and African Americans compared.

    PubMed

    Model, S; Fisher, G

    2001-05-01

    In this research we use 1990 PUMS data to compare the propensity for unions between African Americans and native whites with the propensity for unions between British West Indians and native whites. In addition, we distinguish women and men. Descriptive statistics indicate that West Indians, with the exception of men who arrived as adults, are more likely than African Americans to have white partners. After the introduction of controls for several correlates of intermarriage, however, West Indian men of any generation have lower exogamy rates than African American men, while exogamy rates are higher among West Indian women who arrived as children or who were born in the United States than among African American women. Thus we find no consistent evidence of greater exogamy for British West Indians than for African Americans.

  6. End of life issues in a palliative care framework for a critically ill adult African American with cystic fibrosis: a case study.

    PubMed

    McNeal, Gloria J

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation, using case study methodology, was to explore the end of life issues and to give meaning to the biopsychosocial experiences of the study participant, an adult African American female patient diagnosed with Cystic Fibrosis. Two theoretical frameworks were used to guide the investigation of the study: Kubler-Ross Model of the Stages of Dying and the Conceptual Framework for Palliative Care Practice. Data analysis included review of medical records and patient journals, interviews, observations and clinical assessment. The findings indicated that end of life issues can be articulated within the context of a palliative care framework and that the biopsychosocial experiences of the dying person acquire meaning when situated within life history, ethical values and metaphysical belief systems.

  7. Poverty, safety net programs, and African Americans' mental health.

    PubMed

    Snowden, Lonnie R

    2014-11-01

    African Americans' poverty and deep-poverty rates are higher than those of Whites, and African Americans' poverty spells last longer. Furthermore, nonpoor African Americans are especially likely to slip into poverty, and over the course of a lifetime, very many African Americans will experience poverty. Accordingly, African Americans are disproportionately likely to be assisted by safety net programs providing income support and health and social assistance. When mental health-related outcomes are assessed, U.S.-focused and international studies of safety net programs sometimes find that adults and children show a decline in symptoms of mental illness after participating. All things being equal, these improvements can disproportionately benefit African Americans' mental health. Safety net programs' mental health-related impact should be routinely assessed when evaluating the programs' economic and social outcomes and the impact they have on African Americans' mental health. Policy research of this kind can help us to understand whether these very large interventions show society-wide mental health-related improvement in the disproportionately large number of African Americans who participate in them.

  8. Epidemiology of STD disparities in African American communities.

    PubMed

    Newman, Lori M; Berman, Stuart M

    2008-12-01

    This article reviews the epidemiology of sexually transmitted disease (STD) disparities for African American communities in the United States. Data are reviewed from a variety of sources such as national case reporting and population-based studies. Data clearly show a disproportionately higher burden of STDs in African American communities compared with white communities. Although disparities exist for both viral and bacterial STDs, disparities are greatest for bacterial STDs such as gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis. Gonorrhea rates among African Americans are highest for adolescents and young adults, and disparities are greatest for adolescent men. Although disparities for men who have sex with men (MSM) are not as great as for heterosexual populations, STD rates for both white and African American MSM populations are high, so efforts to address disparities must also include African American MSM. Individual risk behavior and sociodemographic characteristics of African Americans do not seem to account fully for increased STD rates for African Americans. Population-level determinants such as sexual networks seem to play an important role in STD disparities. An understanding of the epidemiology of STD disparities is critical for identifying appropriate strategies and tailoring strategies for African American communities. Active efforts are needed to reduce not only the physical consequences of STDs, such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic pain, newborn disease, and increased risk of HIV infection, but also the social consequences of STDs such as economic burden, shame, and stigma.

  9. Social support buffering of the relation between low income and elevated blood pressure in at-risk African-American adults.

    PubMed

    Coulon, S M; Wilson, D K

    2015-10-01

    Socioeconomic disadvantage has been linked to elevated blood pressure (BP), and the purpose of this study was to assess whether interpersonal social supports buffer these adverse relations in African-American adults. In three communities matched demographically, a subsample of participants (N = 204) of the Positive Action for Today's Health trial provided measures of perceived social support, annual household income, and BP. Multiple regression analyses with cross-product interactions were conducted using follow-up data. The sample had a mean age of 52.8 years (SD = 15.1), and was predominantly female (66 %) with a high body mass index (M = 33.5, SD = 14.7). Results indicated an inverse relation between social support and diastolic BP (B = -.178, p = .005), and also an interaction with income (p = .046), such that higher social support related to lower diastolic BP in the lowest-income individuals (B = -1.05). The same direct (B = -.141, p = .025) and interacting (B = -1.42, p = .040) social support effects were present for systolic BP, however the omnibus model for systolic BP was not significant, F(6, 196) = 1.80, p = .09. The hypothesized buffering effect of social support on the adverse relation of income to BP was partially supported in at-risk African-American adults. Future prevention efforts for reducing the impact of socioeconomic stress on BP may aim to increase perceptions of social support.

  10. Gene polymorphisms and gene scores linked to low serum carotenoid status and their associations with metabolic disturbance and depressive symptoms in African-American adults

    PubMed Central

    Beydoun, May A.; Nalls, Michael A.; Canas, J. Atilio; Evans, Michele K.; Zonderman, Alan B.

    2016-01-01

    Gene polymorphisms provide means to obtain unconfounded associations between carotenoids and various health outcomes. We tested whether gene polymophorisms and gene scores linked to serum carotenoid status are related to metabolic disturbance and depressive symptoms in African-American adults residing in Baltimore city, MD, using cross-sectional data from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhood of Diversity Across the Lifespan (HANDLS) study (Age range:30–64y, N=873–994). We examined 24 single nucleotide polymorphisms of various gene loci that were previously shown to be associated with low serum carotenoid status (SNPlcar). Genetic risk scores (5 low specific-carotenoid risk scores (LSCRS: α-carotene, β-carotene, lutein+zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene) and 1 low total-carotenoid risk score (LTCRS: total carotenoids)) were created. SNPlcar, LSCRS and LTCRS were entered as predictors for a number of health outcomes. Those included obesity, National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components, elevated homeostatic model assessment, Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), C-reactive protein (CRP), hyperuricemia and elevated depressive symptoms (EDS, Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) score≥16). Among key findings, SNPlcar were not associated with the main outcomes after correction for multiple testing. However, an inverse association was found between LTCRS and HDL-C dyslipidemia. Specifically, the α-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin LSCRS were associated with lower odds of HDL-C dyslipidemia. However, the β-cryptoxanthin LSCRS was linked to a higher odds of EDS, with a linear dose-response relationship. In sum, gene risk scores linked to low serum carotenoids had mixed effects on HDL-C dyslipidemia and EDS. Further studies using larger African-American samples are needed. PMID:25201307

  11. Does Racial/Ethnic Identity Influence the Effectiveness of a Community Health Worker Intervention for African American and Latino Adults With Type 2 Diabetes?

    PubMed

    Murayama, Hiroshi; Spencer, Michael S; Sinco, Brandy R; Palmisano, Gloria; Kieffer, Edith C

    2016-12-08

    Background Community health worker (CHW) interventions are known to be an effective strategy to improve health behaviors and outcomes in relation to diabetes, particularly for racial/ethnic communities. Although understanding the function of identity with same race/ethnicity among clients of CHW interventions could contribute to more effective program design, few studies have explored whether levels of racial/ethnic identity among participants can influence the effectiveness of CHW interventions. Aims We tested the relationship between level of racial/ethnic identity and changes in hemoglobin A1c and diabetes self-efficacy among low-income African American and Latino adults with type 2 diabetes who participated in a CHW intervention. Methods Data came from a randomized controlled trial of the CHW intervention with a 6-month delayed control group design for 164 African American and Latino adults in Detroit, Michigan. Racial/ethnic identity was created from two items and classified into high, moderate, and low. We combined the two arms (immediate and delayed) into one because there was no significant difference in baseline characteristics, other than age and postintervention self-efficacy, and multivariable linear regression models were applied in the analysis. Results Possession of high racial/ethnic identity was associated with greater improvement both in hemoglobin A1c and diabetes self-efficacy at 6 months. Moreover, among those with high hemoglobin A1c at preintervention, higher racial/ethnic identity had a greater impact on hemoglobin A1c improvement, compared with those with lower identity. Conclusions This study suggests the importance of considering racial/ethnic identity of the participants in designing and operating the CHW intervention for racial/ethnic minority population.

  12. Coccidioidomycosis in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Ruddy, Barbara E.; Mayer, Anita P.; Ko, Marcia G.; Labonte, Helene R.; Borovansky, Jill A.; Boroff, Erika S.; Blair, Janis E.

    2011-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is caused by Coccidioides species, a fungus endemic to the desert regions of the southwestern United States, and is of particular concern for African Americans. We performed a PubMed search of the English-language medical literature on coccidioidomycosis in African Americans and summarized the pertinent literature. Search terms were coccidioidomycosis, Coccidioides, race, ethnicity, African, black, and Negro. The proceedings of the national and international coccidioidomycosis symposia were searched. All relevant articles and their cited references were reviewed; those with epidemiological, immunologic, clinical, and therapeutic data pertaining to coccidioidomycosis in African Americans were included in the review. Numerous studies documented an increased predilection for severe coccidioidal infections, coccidioidomycosis-related hospitalizations, and extrapulmonary dissemination in persons of African descent; however, most of the published studies are variably problematic. The immunologic mechanism for this predilection is unclear. The clinical features and treatment recommendations are summarized. Medical practitioners need to be alert to the possibility of coccidioidomycosis in persons with recent travel to or residence in an area where the disease is endemic. PMID:21193657

  13. Storytelling Slide Shows to Improve Diabetes and High Blood Pressure Knowledge and Self-Efficacy: Three-Year Results among Community Dwelling Older African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertera, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    This study combined the African American tradition of oral storytelling with the Hispanic medium of "Fotonovelas." A staggered pretest posttest control group design was used to evaluate four Storytelling Slide Shows on health that featured community members. A total of 212 participants were recruited for the intervention and 217 for the…

  14. Recruiting and Retaining Older African American and Hispanic Boys in After-School Programs: What We Know and What We Still Need to Learn. GroundWork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauh, Tina J.

    2010-01-01

    With funding from the Collaborative for Building After-School Systems (CBASS)--through support from The Atlantic Philanthropies--Public/Private Ventures (P/PV) conducted a small study to begin identifying promising strategies currently used by after-school programs to recruit and retain middle- and high-school-aged African American and Hispanic…

  15. Cluster Randomized Trial of a Church-Based Peer Counselor and Tailored Newsletter Intervention to Promote Colorectal Cancer Screening and Physical Activity among Older African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone, Lucia A.; Allicock, Marlyn; Pignone, Michael P.; Walsh, Joan F.; Johnson, La-Shell; Armstrong-Brown, Janelle; Carr, Carol C.; Langford, Aisha; Ni, Andy; Resnicow, Ken; Campbell, Marci K.

    2016-01-01

    Action Through Churches in Time to Save Lives (ACTS) of Wellness was a cluster randomized controlled trial developed to promote colorectal cancer screening and physical activity (PA) within urban African American churches. Churches were recruited from North Carolina (n = 12) and Michigan (n = 7) and were randomized to intervention (n = 10) or…

  16. Sixteen-month evaluation of depressive symptomatology in older adults

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, Graham J; Morgan, Stephanie; Vaughan, Phillip W.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of depressive symptoms over time in a sample of community-residing older adults at baseline, two months, six months, and fourteen months. The nonprobability sample (N = 222), was 90% female, 87% Caucasian, 15% Hispanic, and 12% African-American with an average age of 75 years. If depressive symptoms had been measured at only one time, 19% of the sample would have scored above the cutoff, versus 39% scoring above the cutoff when measured at all four time periods. The findings provide evidence that depressive symptoms in older adults are variable and fluctuate over time. The significance of this research was the longitudinal evaluation of depressive symptoms in community-residing elders. PMID:22449566

  17. Influence of Reading Ability on Neuropsychological Performance in African American Elders

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Brooke C.; Lichtenberg, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    Use of normative data stratified by education may result in misclassification of African American older adults because reading ability, an estimate of educational attainment, is lower than reported years of education for some African American elders. This study examined the contribution of reading ability versus education to neuropsychological test performance in 86 community-dwelling African American elders ages 56–91 with 8–18 years of education. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that reading ability, but not education, was significantly associated with performances on the Trail Making Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Animal Naming, Digit Span, and the Stroop test. Reading ability was not significantly related to performances on measures of memory. Medium to large effect sizes (Cohen's d = 0.58–1.41) were found when comparing mean performances on neuropsychological measures in groups with low versus high reading scores. Results indicate that reading ability contributes beyond educational attainment to performances on some neuropsychological measures among African American elders. These findings have implications for reducing misclassification among minority populations through the use of appropriate normative data. PMID:21835850

  18. Associations between HDL-cholesterol and polymorphisms in hepatic lipase and lipoprotein lipase genes are modified by dietary fat intake in African American and White adults.

    PubMed

    Nettleton, Jennifer A; Steffen, Lyn M; Ballantyne, Christie M; Boerwinkle, Eric; Folsom, Aaron R

    2007-10-01

    Polymorphisms in genes involved in HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) metabolism influence plasma HDL-C concentrations. We examined whether dietary fat intake modified relations between HDL-C and polymorphisms in hepatic lipase (LIPC-514C-->T), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP TaqIB), and lipoprotein lipase (LPL S447X) genes. Diet (food frequency questionnaire), plasma lipids, and LIPC, CETP, and LPL genotypes were assessed in approximately 12,000 White and African American adults. In both races and all genotypes studied, minor allele homozygotes had highest HDL-C concentrations compared to the other genotypes (P<0.001). However, main effects were modified by usual dietary fat intake. In African Americans - women somewhat more strongly than men -LIPC TT homozygotes with fat intake >or=33.2% of energy had approximately 3-4 mg/dL higher HDL-C concentrations than CC and CT genotypes. In contrast, when fat intake was <33.2% of energy, TT homozygotes had HDL-C concentrations approximately 3.5mg/dL greater than those with the CC genotype but not different from those with the CT genotype (P(interaction)=0.013). In Whites, LPLGG homozygotes had greatest HDL-C at lower total, saturated, and monounsaturated fat intakes but lowest HDL-C at higher intakes of these fats (P(interaction)

  19. Older Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Jeffrey

    In an effort to improve the quality of life for area senior citizens, De Anza College has established an older adult education program which combines adaptive physical education with holistic health care principles to instruct students in relaxation, nutrition, and physical activity. Classes are held in convalescent hospitals, retirement homes,…

  20. Dance for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruett, Diane Milhan, Ed.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Dance programs for older adults that encourage exercise and socializing are described in six articles. Program guidelines of the American Alliance Committee on Aging are explained, and other articles emphasize a movement education approach that may involve intergenerational contact. A dance program held in a worship setting is also discussed. (PP)

  1. Newly Diagnosed: Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children Newly Diagnosed: Older Adults Related Topics on AIDS.gov Aging with HIV/AIDS National HIV/AIDS ... an Emerging Challenge Last revised: 07/10/2015 AIDS.gov HIV/AIDS Basics • Federal Resources • Using New ...

  2. Perceived racial discrimination, but not mistrust of medical researchers, predicts the heat pain tolerance of African Americans with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Quyen T.; Glover, Toni L.; Sotolongo, Adriana; King, Christopher D.; Sibille, Kimberly T.; Herbert, Matthew S.; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Sanden, Shelley H.; Staud, Roland; Redden, David T.; Bradley, Laurence A.; Fillingim, Roger B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Studies have shown that perceived racial discrimination is a significant predictor of clinical pain severity among African Americans. It remains unknown whether perceived racial discrimination also alters the nociceptive processing of painful stimuli, which, in turn, could influence clinical pain severity. This study examined associations between perceived racial discrimination and responses to noxious thermal stimuli among African Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Mistrust of medical researchers was also assessed given its potential to affect responses to the noxious stimuli. Method One hundred and thirty (52% African American, 48% non-Hispanic white) community-dwelling older adults with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis completed two study sessions. In session one, individuals provided demographic, socioeconomic, physical and mental health information. They completed questionnaires related to perceived lifetime frequency of racial discrimination and mistrust of medical researchers. In session two, individuals underwent a series of controlled thermal stimulation procedures to assess heat pain sensitivity, particularly heat pain tolerance. Results African Americans were more sensitive to heat pain and reported greater perceived racial discrimination as well as greater mistrust of medical researchers compared to non-Hispanic whites. Greater perceived racial discrimination significantly predicted lower heat pain tolerance for African Americans but not non-Hispanic whites. Mistrust of medical researchers did not significantly predict heat pain tolerance for either racial group Conclusion These results lend support to the idea that perceived racial discrimination may influence the clinical pain severity of African Americans via the nociceptive processing of painful stimuli. PMID:24219416

  3. Cancer prevention behaviors among African-American adults: a survey of wards 7 and 8 in Washington, DC.

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, S.; Kofie, V. Y.; Helzlsouer, K.; Rivo, M. L.; Bonney, G.

    1995-01-01

    A telephone survey of knowledge, attitude, and health practices regarding cancer was undertaken in wards 7 and 8, Washington, DC in 1988. These wards have the highest cancer rates in the city and are predominantly African American. Of the 670 randomly selected persons over 18 years of age, 243 were males and 427 were females. Among females, 84% believed cigarette smoking causes cancer, and 48% thought alcohol causes cancer; 31% smoked cigarettes and 38% consumed alcoholic beverages. Among males, 91% and 52% thought cigarettes and alcohol causes cancer respectively; 41% smoked and 54% consumed alcoholic beverages. Only 6% of the males over age 40 practiced all eight recommended cancer prevention behaviors, while 2% of the females over age 40 practiced all preventive health behaviors. Cancer preventive behavior was examined in relation to socioeconomic status. This study indicates that preventive health behaviors were not associated with socioeconomic status. Data suggest that cancer prevention and control programs and services targeted to this Washington, DC population should be increased and intensified. PMID:7869405

  4. Effectiveness of Diabetes Prevention Program translations among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Samuel-Hodge, C D; Johnson, C M; Braxton, D F; Lackey, M

    2014-10-01

    The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) demonstrated risk reduction for incident diabetes through weight loss among all participants, including African Americans. Several DPP translations have been conducted in less controlled settings, including primary care practices and communities; however, there is no detailed compilation of how effective these translations have been for African Americans. This systematic literature review evaluated DPP translations from 2003 to 2012. Eligible records were retrieved using a search strategy of relevant databases and gray literature. Retrieved records (n=1,272) were screened using a priori criteria, which resulted in 21 full-text studies for review. Seventeen studies were included in the full-text qualitative synthesis. Seven studies had 100% African American samples and 10 studies had mixed samples with African American subgroups. African American participants' average weight loss was roughly half of that achieved in the DPP intervention. However, with few higher-quality studies, small sample sizes and differences in intervention designs and implementation, comparisons across interventions were difficult. The suboptimal effectiveness of DPP translations among African American adults, particularly women, signals the need for enhancements to existing evidence-based interventions and more high-quality research that includes other at-risk African American subgroups such as men and younger adults of lower socioeconomic status.

  5. Model for using hip-hop music for small group HIV/AIDS prevention counseling with African American adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Stephens, T; Braithwaite, R L; Taylor, S E

    1998-10-01

    Currently little attention has been directed, with the exception of peer education efforts, to constructively develop new and innovative ways to promote HIV/AIDS primary prevention among African American (AA) adolescents and young adults. With this in mind, the aim of this conceptual effort is to present a HIV/AIDS preventive counseling protocol developed for use with AA young adults that makes use of hip-hop music, a form of music popularized by young AAs. The author contend that an increased understanding of the relationships that many AA young adults have with hip-hop music may be used by disease prevention personnel to educate these populations about protective factors for HIV. Making use of hip-hop music is one strategy for integrating counseling in prevention and health maintenance. The overall implications of using hip-hop music in health promotion are unlimited. First, this method makes use of cultural relevant materials to address the educational and health needs of the target community. Second, it is grounded in an approach that serves to stimulate cooperative learning based on peer developed content. Moreover, the use of this medium can be applied to other health promotion activities such as violence/harm reduction and substance abuse prevention, upon reviews of songs for appropriate content. The authors contend that such an approach holds heuristic value in dealing with HIV/AIDS prevention among AA young adults. Additional testing of the intervention is warranted in the refinement of this innovative intervention.

  6. A Multidimensional Look at Religious Involvement and Psychological Well Being among Urban Elderly African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Charlotte; Mintz, Laurie B.; Mobley, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Although the importance of religion in the lives of older African Americans is well documented, this is the 1st study to examine the relations between religious involvement and psychological well-being among a sample comprised exclusively of older African Americans. Eighty six participants completed multidimensional measures of religious…

  7. The Association of Health and Functional Status with Private and Public Religious Practice among Rural, Ethnically Diverse, Older Adults with Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Bell, Ronny A.; Golden, Shannon L.; Snively, Beverly M.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This analysis describes the association of health and functional status with private and public religious practice among ethnically diverse (African American, Native American, white) rural older adults with diabetes. Methods: Data were collected using a population-based, cross-sectional, stratified, random sample survey of 701…

  8. Elder Abuse among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauriac, Jesse J.; Scruggs, Natoschia

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of extreme, moderate, and mild forms of elder abuse among African-American women (n=25) and men (n=10) were examined. African-American respondents emphasized physical abuse when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Along with physical abuse, verbal abuse was the most frequently identified form of abuse, and was significantly…

  9. African American Administrators and Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Dianne; Taylor, Janice D.; Burrell, Charlotte; Stewart, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the issues of African American participation in the administrative ranks of the academy. The authors find that African Americans tend to hold positions that are marginal in academic organizations, lacking power and influence, and that not much has changed over recent decades. Forces influencing this condition are explored,…

  10. African-Americans and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigmon, Scott B.

    To better serve people in a counseling relationship, it is useful to understand them not only culturally, but demographically as well. This paper traces historical, religious, demographic aspects and treatment of alcohol abuse in African Americans. Historically, alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence have varied for African Americans. During the…

  11. Feasibility of Ecological Momentary Assessment of Daily Sexting and Substance Use Among Young Adult African American Gay and Bisexual Men: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Elmasry, Hoda; Webb Hooper, Monica; Niaura, Raymond S; Hamilton, Alison B; Milburn, Norweeta G

    2017-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that sexualized text communication (“sexting”) is associated with substance use and sexual risk behaviors among young adults, yet little is known about this relationship among young adult African American gay and bisexual men, a population disproportionately impacted by HIV in the United States. Rapid advances in mobile phone technology indicate a clear need for research using mobile health (mHealth) methods such as ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to serve as a viable counterpart to retrospective evaluation methods by using real-time data collection to assess sexting and substance use among this population. Objective The objective of this pilot study was to (1) describe the EMA study design and protocol, (2) characterize the study population, and (3) assess the feasibility of a random prompt text message-based thrice-daily EMA over 14 days, as a means of prospectively studying sexting, marijuana, and alcohol use among a sample of young adult African American gay and bisexual men ages 21 to 25. Methods Participants were recruited through flyers and snowball sampling during spring and summer 2015 at a community-based HIV/AIDS prevention, care, and support organization in Washington, DC. Eligible participants were enrolled in a one-time in-person study visit that consisted of informed written consent to participate in the study, a self-administered survey, a semi-structured interview, and enrollment and training in EMA data collection. Commencing the day after the study visit, a random prompt survey was texted to participants on their personal mobile phones 3 times a day over a 14-day data collection period assessing mood, texts sent, texts received, sexts sent, sexts received, marijuana want, marijuana use, and alcohol use. Results EMA feasibility was tested with 25 self-identified African American gay (n=16) and bisexual (n=9) men (mean age of 23.48 years, SD 1.5). Each random prompt survey had 8 questions with responses

  12. Cancer statistics for African Americans.

    PubMed

    Ghafoor, Asma; Jemal, Ahmedin; Cokkinides, Vilma; Cardinez, Cheryll; Murray, Taylor; Samuels, Alicia; Thun, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    The American Cancer Society provides estimates on the number of new cancer cases and deaths, and compiles health statistics on African Americans in a biennial publication, Cancer Facts and Figures for African Americans. The compiled statistics include cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and lifestyle behaviors using the most recent data on incidence and survival from the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program, mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), and behavioral information from the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), and National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). It is estimated that 132,700 new cases of cancer and 63,100 deaths will occur among African Americans in the year 2003. Although African Americans have experienced higher incidence and mortality rates of cancer than whites for many years, incidence rates have declined by 2.7 percent per year in African-American males since 1992, while stabilizing in African-American females. During the same period, death rates declined by 2.1 percent and 0.4 percent per year among African-American males and females, respectively. The decrease in both incidence and death rates from cancer among African-American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. Nonetheless, African Americans still carry the highest cancer burden among US racial and ethnic groups. Most cancers detectable by screening are diagnosed at a later stage and survival rates are lower within each stage of disease in African Americans than in whites. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors is an active area of research.

  13. Love and hooking up in the new millennium: communication technology and relationships among urban African American and Puerto Rican young adults.

    PubMed

    Bergdall, Anna R; Kraft, Joan Marie; Andes, Karen; Carter, Marion; Hatfield-Timajchy, Kendra; Hock-Long, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Communication technology is a central feature of young people's lives, but its role in romantic and sexual relationships has not been thoroughly examined. This article describes how young adults use communication technology for partnering across relationship stages (formation, maintenance, and dissolution) and types (serious/casual), and proposes implications of usage in relationships. This study analyzed qualitative data from a five-week, prospective, coital diary method with related debriefing interviews (N = 70) of African American and Puerto Rican men and women aged 18 to 25 years in Hartford and Philadelphia. Cell phones, including calls, text messaging, and mobile Internet, were the most common forms of communication technology used for partnering goals. Participants reported using cell phones to pursue partnering goals across all relationship stages, including formation (meeting, screening, and getting to know new partners), maintaining existing relationships, and breaking up. Cell phone uses depended on the type of relationship (serious/casual) and the participants' intentions and desires. Results indicated that cell phones are an important element of communication among young adults in romantic and sexual relationships. Specific features of cell phone communication shape the process and context of partnering. Future research should explore emerging communication technologies and implications for psychosocial development, dating violence, and sexual behavior.

  14. Death anxiety and attitudes toward the elderly among older adults: the role of gender and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Depaola, Stephen J; Griffin, Melody; Young, Jennie R; Neimeyer, Robert A

    2003-05-01

    The article investigated the relationship between death anxiety, attitudes toward older adults, and personal anxiety toward one's own aging in a group of 197 older men and women. As predicted, negative attitudes toward other older adults were predicted by personal anxieties about aging and death, and, more specifically, fear of the unknown. In addition, several distinctive anxieties were noted for particular subgroups of respondents. Older women scored higher on the Fear of the Dead subscale of the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale (MFODS) than did men. Caucasian participants displayed higher Fear of the Dying Process than did older African American participants. Lastly, older African American participants reported higher levels of death anxiety on 3 of the subscales of the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale (Fear of the Unknown, Fear of Conscious Death, and Fear for the Body after Death) when compared with older Caucasian participants and also tended to accord less social value to the elderly. These findings are interpreted in terms of patterns of socialization, and their implications for end-of-life care preferences are noted.

  15. Self-reported antidepressant use among depressed, low-income homebound older adults: class, type, correlates, and perceived effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Choi, Namkee G; Bruce, Martha L; Sirrianni, Leslie; Marinucci, Mary Lynn; Kunik, Mark E

    2012-03-01

    Little research has been done on the use of antidepressants among homebound older adults, especially low-income homebound older adults, and their perceptions of the effectiveness of their medication. The purposes of this study were to examine self-reported use of antidepressants among depressed homebound older adults, class and type of antidepressants used, individual-level correlates of antidepressant use, and users' perceptions of the effectiveness of antidepressants. Data on self-reported use of antidepressants were obtained as part of a feasibility study of short-term telehealth problem-solving therapy for depressed low-income homebound adults (n = 162) aged 50 or older. The 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD) was used to assess depression severity. The findings show that about half of the study participants were taking antidepressants, with 26.6% of those on antidepressants rating their medications very effective and 21.5% rating them effective. Female gender was positively, but older age and being Black/African American were negatively associated with the likelihood of antidepressant use. Perceived effectiveness of antidepressants was negatively associated with older age and the HAMD score. The findings suggest that personalized approaches to depression management may be needed in subgroups of depressed older adults, including culturally tailored medication counseling in Black/African-American older adults.

  16. Self-reported antidepressant use among depressed, low-income homebound older adults: class, type, correlates, and perceived effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Namkee G; Bruce, Martha L; Sirrianni, Leslie; Marinucci, Mary Lynn; Kunik, Mark E

    2012-01-01

    Little research has been done on the use of antidepressants among homebound older adults, especially low-income homebound older adults, and their perceptions of the effectiveness of their medication. The purposes of this study were to examine self-reported use of antidepressants among depressed homebound older adults, class and type of antidepressants used, individual-level correlates of antidepressant use, and users’ perceptions of the effectiveness of antidepressants. Data on self-reported use of antidepressants were obtained as part of a feasibility study of short-term telehealth problem-solving therapy for depressed low-income homebound adults (n = 162) aged 50 or older. The 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD) was used to assess depression severity. The findings show that about half of the study participants were taking antidepressants, with 26.6% of those on antidepressants rating their medications very effective and 21.5% rating them effective. Female gender was positively, but older age and being Black/African American were negatively associated with the likelihood of antidepressant use. Perceived effectiveness of antidepressants was negatively associated with older age and the HAMD score. The findings suggest that personalized approaches to depression management may be needed in subgroups of depressed older adults, including culturally tailored medication counseling in Black/African-American older adults. PMID:22574284

  17. Association between childhood maltreatment and adult emotional dysregulation in a low-income, urban, African American sample: moderation by oxytocin receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Bekh; Westen, Drew; Mercer, Kristina B; Binder, Elisabeth B; Jovanovic, Tanja; Crain, Daniel; Wingo, Aliza; Heim, Christine

    2011-05-01

    The ability to effectively regulate emotions and a secure attachment style are critical for maintaining mental health across the life span. The experience of childhood maltreatment interferes with normal development of emotional regulation and dramatically increases risk for a wide range of psychiatric disorders in adulthood. The central nervous system oxytocin systems are critically involved in mediating social attachment and buffering psychophysiological responses to stress. We therefore investigated the impact of childhood maltreatment and an oxytocin receptor (OXTR) single nucleotide polymorphism (rs53576) and their interaction on emotional dysregulation and attachment style in adulthood in a sample of low-income, African American men and women recruited from primary care clinics of an urban, public hospital. Consistent with prior research, we found that the severity of childhood maltreatment was associated with increased levels of emotional dysregulation in adulthood. Childhood maltreatment was also positively associated with ratings of disorganized/unresolved adult attachment style and negatively associated with ratings of secure adult attachment style. There was no direct association between rs53576 and emotional dysregulation or ratings of adult attachment style. However, there were significant interactions between rs53576 and childhood maltreatment in predicting level of adult emotional dysregulation and attachment style. Specifically, G/G genotype carriers were at risk for increased emotional dysregulation when exposed to three or more categories of childhood abuse. In addition, G/G genotype carriers exhibited enhanced disorganized adult attachment style when exposed to severe childhood abuse compared to A/A and A/G carriers. Our findings suggest that A allele carriers of OXTR rs53576 are resilient against the effects of severe childhood adversity, by protection against emotional dysregulation and disorganized attachment.

  18. Promoting diabetes self-management among African Americans: an educational intervention.

    PubMed

    Walker, Eleanor A; Stevens, Karen A; Persaud, Sabita

    2010-08-01

    Diabetes is a major national health problem that affects African Americans more seriously than other population groups. The purpose of this project was to increase knowledge and self-management of diabetes among African American adults 40 years of age and older diagnosed with type II diabetes. A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test comparison group design was used. Three educational sessions were provided to participants in the intervention group. Content included information about diabetes and its complications, risk factors, proper diet, recommendations for exercise, medications, and monitoring blood glucose. Teaching strategies included discussion, games, and demonstrations. Patient navigators provided follow-up by phone at the scheduled intervals. Preliminary results indicated significantly increased knowledge among intervention group participants between the pre- and post-test and the pre-test and follow-up. Findings for HbA1c values, body mass index, and weight were not significant.

  19. Gender as a Moderator of the Relation between Race-Related Stress and Mental Health Symptoms for African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Tawanda M.; Laseter, Adrian; Asiamah, David

    2009-01-01

    The present study tested gender as a moderator of the relationship between race-related stress and mental health symptoms among African American adults. Because African American women are exposed to stressors associated with race and gender, we hypothesized that African American women would have higher levels of race-related stress and more severe…

  20. Quitting Smoking for Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quitting Smoking for Older Adults Quitting When You’re Older If you’re older, you may wonder if it’s too late ... it can be challenging to quit when you're older, there are proven ways to do it. ...

  1. Differential Effects of Self-Reported Lifetime Marijuana Use on Interleukin-1 Alpha and Tumor Necrosis Factor in African American Adults

    PubMed Central

    Keen, Larry; Turner, Arlener D.; Callender, Clive; Campbell, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    It is unknown how lifetime marijuana use affects different proinflammatory cytokines. The purpose of the current study is to explore potential differential effects of lifetime marijuana use on interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in a community based sample. Participants included 168 African American adults (51% female, median age= 47 years). Upon study entry, blood was drawn and the participants completed questions regarding illicit drug use history whose answers were used to create three groups: lifetime non-drug users (n= 77), lifetime marijuana only users (n= 46) and lifetime marijuana and other drug users (n= 45). In the presence of demographic and physiological covariates, non-drug users were approximately two times more likely (AOR= 2.73, CI= 1.18, 6.31; p= .03) to have higher TNF levels than marijuana only users. Drug use was not associated with IL-1α. The influence of marijuana may be selective in nature, potentially localizing around innate immunity and the induction of cellular death. PMID:25731665

  2. Review: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sachil

    2012-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) affects 5,700 000 people in the United States, with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) being responsible for between 30%-50% of acute admissions. Epidemiological studies and HF registries have found HFPEF patients to be older, hypertensive and to have a history of atrial fibrillation. These findings, however, may not be fully applicable to African Americans, as they have been poorly studied making up only a minority of the test subjects. This review article is intended to discuss the pathophysiology and epidemiology of HFPEF within African Americans, highlight the differences compared to Caucasian populations and review current treatment guidelines. Studies looking at African Americans in particular have shown them to be younger, female and have worse diastolic dysfunction compared to Caucasian populations. African Americans also have been shown to have a worse mortality outcome especially in patients without coronary artery disease. The treatment of HFPEF is primarily symptomatic with no survival benefit seen in randomized controlled trials. Mechanisms postulated for the worse prognosis in African Americans with HFPEF include: greater incidence of hypertension and diastolic dysfunction, undefined race-driven genetic predispositions or relative resistance to medications that treat HF in general. The biological predispositions may also be compounded by inequality of healthcare access; something still felt to exist today. Prospective studies and randomized controlled trials need to be conducted with particular emphasis on African American populations to fully elucidate this disease and to formulate race specific treatment outcomes for the future.

  3. Hip Fractures among Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... training for health care providers. Learn More Hip Fractures Among Older Adults Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... older. What You Can Do to Prevent Hip Fractures You can prevent hip fractures by taking steps ...

  4. Older Adults and Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Resources Clinical Trials Share Older Adults and Mental Health Overview It’s just as important for an older ... this helpline, sponsored by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), to receive immediate counseling. Calling ...

  5. A Qualitative Analysis of the Use of Financial Services and Saving Behavior Among Older African Americans and Latinos in the Los Angeles Area.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Luisa R; Ponce, Maria; Gongora, Arturo; Duru, O Kenrik

    2015-01-01

    For this study, we conducted seven focus groups in the Los Angeles area with a total of 70 participants (42 Latinos and 28 African Americans) recruited from three senior centers and a church. There was a wide variety of responses in relation to the usage of financial services among participants. We found that although some participants seem to participate more in the formal financial sector and show a higher level of sophistication when managing their finances, other participants' use of formal financial institutions is minimal. Among African American participants, we found several instances in which individuals feel very comfortable using banks. Lower levels of participation in the formal financial sector were found among the lower income Latino participants. In relation to barriers to participate in the financial sector, supply was not an issue, but demand and behavioral factors seem more important. Overall, no participants saved very much on a regular basis. We also find that participants in general do not want to ask their children for money, and also do not want to save and accumulate wealth to leave to their children.

  6. A Qualitative Analysis of the Use of Financial Services and Saving Behavior Among Older African Americans and Latinos in the Los Angeles Area

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Luisa R.; Ponce, Maria; Gongora, Arturo; Duru, O. Kenrik

    2015-01-01

    For this study, we conducted seven focus groups in the Los Angeles area with a total of 70 participants (42 Latinos and 28 African Americans) recruited from three senior centers and a church. There was a wide variety of responses in relation to the usage of financial services among participants. We found that although some participants seem to participate more in the formal financial sector and show a higher level of sophistication when managing their finances, other participants’ use of formal financial institutions is minimal. Among African American participants, we found several instances in which individuals feel very comfortable using banks. Lower levels of participation in the formal financial sector were found among the lower income Latino participants. In relation to barriers to participate in the financial sector, supply was not an issue, but demand and behavioral factors seem more important. Overall, no participants saved very much on a regular basis. We also find that participants in general do not want to ask their children for money, and also do not want to save and accumulate wealth to leave to their children. PMID:26064788

  7. Food Label Knowledge, Usage and Attitudes of Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Jackey, Beverly A; Cotugna, Nancy; Orsega-Smith, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Few recent studies have investigated food label practices in older adults. This cross-sectional study surveyed adults, 60 years and older in Delaware (n = 100, 82% female, 74% between 60 and 79 years, 49% Caucasian, 45% African Americans) to examine associations between food label knowledge, attitudes, and usage patterns. A 28-item questionnaire assessed knowledge, attitudes, usage, and demographic information. Bivariate analysis results showed food label knowledge was associated with education and monthly income. Those reporting a high school education or less incorrectly identified calorie (P < 0.05) and carbohydrate information (P < 0.03). Monthly income ≤$2000 was associated with incorrectly interpreting carbohydrate information (P < 0.03). Label usage was associated with being female (P < 0.001), having a high school education or less (P < 0.000), being 70 years or older (P < 0.05), and having a monthly income ≤$2000 (P < 0.001). Respondent's usage and perceived label comprehension was high; however less than half could correctly interpret label information. When shown samples of the US Food and Drug Administration's proposed new labels, subjects had a very favorable attitude toward the new changes. Increasing nutrition knowledge through education interventions appropriate for older adult consumers may improve comprehension of information on the food labels.

  8. Sedentary and physically active behavior patterns among low-income African-American and white adults living in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Sarah S; Matthews, Charles E; Signorello, Lisa B; Schlundt, David G; Blot, William J; Buchowski, Maciej S

    2013-01-01

    Increased sedentary behavior and lack of physical activity are associated with increased risk for many chronic diseases. Differences in leisure-time physical activity between African American and white adults have been suggested to partially explain racial disparities in chronic disease outcomes, but expanding the definition of physical activity to include household and occupational activities may reduce or even eliminate racial differences in total physical activity. The objective of this study was to describe patterns of active and sedentary behaviors in black and white adults and to examine these behaviors across demographic measures. Sedentary and physically active behaviors were obtained from a validated physical activity questionnaire in 23,021 black men, 9,899 white men, 32,214 black women, and 15,425 white women (age 40-79) at enrollment into the Southern Community Cohort Study. Descriptive statistics for sedentary time; light, moderate, and vigorous household/occupational activity; sports/exercise; total activity; and meeting current physical activity recommendations via sports/exercise were examined for each race-sex group. Adjusted means were calculated using multiple linear regression models across demographic measures. Study participants spent approximately 60% of waking time in sedentary behaviors. Blacks reported more television viewing time than whites (45 minutes for females, 15 minutes for males), but when sitting time was expressed as a proportion of overall awake time, minimal racial differences were found. Patterns of light, moderate, and vigorous household/occupational activity were similar in all race/sex groups. 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans were followed by 16% of women and 25% of men independent of race. Overall, black and white men and women in this study spent the majority of their daily time in sedentary behaviors and less than one-fourth followed current guidelines for physical activity. These results indicate that

  9. Short sleep duration is associated with higher energy intake and expenditure among African-American and non-Hispanic white adults.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Ruth E; Emond, Jennifer A; Natarajan, Loki; Wesseling-Perry, Katherine; Kolonel, Laurence N; Jardack, Patricia; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Arab, Lenore

    2014-04-01

    Habitual short sleep duration appears to increase the risk of obesity. The objective of this paper is to investigate the association of habitual sleep duration with objective measures of energy balance. One hundred twelve African-American and 111 non-Hispanic whites aged 21-69 y participated in a cross-sectional study of dietary assessment and biomarkers. Participants reported the mean number of hours per day spent sleeping over the past year. Short sleep duration was defined as ≤6 h/d of sleep. Energy intake (kilocalories) was objectively assessed using the 2-point doubly labeled water technique to determine total energy expenditure, which is approximately equal to energy intake. Physical activity energy expenditure (kilocalories) was estimated as total energy expenditure minus each participant's calculated basal metabolic rate and the thermogenic effect of food. Compared with participants who slept ≤6 h, individuals who slept 8 h were significantly less likely to be obese (OR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.79). However, this association was not linear across 6-9 h of sleep (P-trend = 0.16). There was an inverse association between sleep and energy intake (P-trend = 0.07): compared with ≤6 h/d, adults who reported ≥9 h sleep consumed 178 fewer kcal/d. There was also an inverse association between sleep and physical activity (P-trend = 0.05): compared with ≤6 h/d of sleep, adults who reported 9 h of usual sleep expended 113 fewer kcal/d in physical activity. These data indicate that, compared with longer sleep duration, adults who report habitual short sleep duration have somewhat higher physical activity energy expenditure but considerably higher energy intake. Habitual short sleep duration appears to be 1 of the facets of modern life leading to a mismatch between energy intake and physical activity.

  10. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    MedlinePlus

    ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of Alzheimer's, ... two times more likely to develop late-onset Alzheimer's disease than whites and less likely to have a ...

  11. Differential Predictors of Medication Adherence in HIV: Findings from a Sample of African American and Caucasian HIV-Positive Drug-Using Adults

    PubMed Central

    Moizel, Jennifer; Panos, Stella E.; Patel, Sapna M.; Byrd, Desiree A.; Myers, Hector F.; Wyatt, Gail E.; Hinkin, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Modest or even occasional nonadherence to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) can result in adverse clinical outcomes. African Americans demonstrate lower rates of adherence than Caucasians or Latinos. Identifying factors that influence medication adherence among African Americans is a critical step toward reducing HIV/AIDS disease progression and mortality. In a sample of 181 African American (n=144) and Caucasian (n=37) HIV-positive drug-using individuals [age (M=42.31; SD=6.6) education (M=13.41; SD=2.1)], we examined the influence of baseline drug use, literacy, neurocognition, depression, treatment-specific social support, and patient satisfaction with health care provider on medication adherence averaged over the course of 6 months (study dates 2002–2006). Our findings suggest differential baseline predictors of medication adherence for African Americans and Caucasians, such that patient satisfaction with provider was the strongest predictor of follow-up medication adherence for African Americans whereas for Caucasians depressive symptoms and treatment-specific social support were predictive of medication adherence (after controlling for duration of drug use). PMID:22889235

  12. Fecal incontinence in older adults.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Syed H

    2007-11-01

    Fecal incontinence is an underreported and underappreciated problem in older adults. Although fecal incontinence is more common in women than in men, this difference narrows with aging. Risk factors that lead to the development of fecal incontinence include dementia, physical disability, and fecal impaction. Treatment options include medical or conservative therapy for older adults who have mild incontinence, and surgical options can be explored in selected older adults if surgical expertise is available.

  13. Use of Complementary Therapies for Health Promotion Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Nguyen, Ha T.; Sandberg, Joanne C.; Neiberg, Rebecca H.; Altizer, Kathryn P.; Bell, Ronny A.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Lang, Wei; Quandt, Sara A.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the types of complementary therapies used by older adults for health promotion, and delineates the predisposing, enabling, and need factors associated with their use. One-hundred ninety-five African American and White participants (age 65+) completed a baseline interview and up to six sets of three daily follow-up interviews at monthly intervals. Complementary therapies for health promotion included home remedies, specific foods or beverages, herbs, supplements, vitamins, over-the-counter (OTC) medicine, prayer, exercise, and being active. Although gender, ethnicity, education, and trust in doctors were associated with the use of complementary therapies for health promotion, health information seeking was the predisposing factor most often associated. The enabling factors were also associated with their use. Health information seeking, which reflects a wellness lifestyle, had the most consistent associations with complementary therapy use for health promotion. This health self-management for health promotion may have positive effects on future medical expenditures. PMID:24652893

  14. Use of Complementary Therapies for Health Promotion Among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Arcury, Thomas A; Nguyen, Ha T; Sandberg, Joanne C; Neiberg, Rebecca H; Altizer, Kathryn P; Bell, Ronny A; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Lang, Wei; Quandt, Sara A

    2015-08-01

    This article describes the types of complementary therapies used by older adults for health promotion, and delineates the predisposing, enabling, and need factors associated with their use. One-hundred ninety-five African American and White participants (age 65+) completed a baseline interview and up to six sets of three daily follow-up interviews at monthly intervals. Complementary therapies for health promotion included home remedies, specific foods or beverages, herbs, supplements, vitamins, over-the-counter (OTC) medicine, prayer, exercise, and being active. Although gender, ethnicity, education, and trust in doctors were associated with the use of complementary therapies for health promotion, health information seeking was the predisposing factor most often associated. The enabling factors were also associated with their use. Health information seeking, which reflects a wellness lifestyle, had the most consistent associations with complementary therapy use for health promotion. This health self-management for health promotion may have positive effects on future medical expenditures.

  15. Hepatitis C in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Saab, Sammy; Jackson, Christian; Nieto, Jose; Francois, Fritz

    2014-10-01

    The care of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in African Americans represents an opportunity to address a major health disparity in medicine. In all facets of HCV infection, African Americans are inexplicably affected, including in the prevalence of the virus, which is higher among them compared with most of the racial and ethnic groups. Ironically, although fibrosis rates may be slow, hepatocellular carcinoma and mortality rates appear to be higher among African Americans. Sustained viral response (SVR) rates have historically significantly trailed behind Caucasians. The reasons for this gap in SVR are related to both viral and host factors. Moreover, low enrollment rates in clinical trials hamper the study of the efficacy of anti-viral therapy. Nevertheless, the gap in SVR between African Americans and Caucasians may be narrowing with the use of direct-acting agents. Gastroenterologists, hepatologists, primary care physicians, and other health-care providers need to address modifiable risk factors that affect the natural history, as well as treatment outcomes, for HCV among African Americans. Efforts need to be made to improve awareness among health-care providers to address the differences in screening and referral patterns for African Americans.

  16. Epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of BMI, BMI change and waist circumference in African American adults identifies multiple replicated loci.

    PubMed

    Demerath, Ellen W; Guan, Weihua; Grove, Megan L; Aslibekyan, Stella; Mendelson, Michael; Zhou, Yi-Hui; Hedman, Åsa K; Sandling, Johanna K; Li, Li-An; Irvin, Marguerite R; Zhi, Degui; Deloukas, Panos; Liang, Liming; Liu, Chunyu; Bressler, Jan; Spector, Tim D; North, Kari; Li, Yun; Absher, Devin M; Levy, Daniel; Arnett, Donna K; Fornage, Myriam; Pankow, James S; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is an important component of the pathophysiology of chronic diseases. Identifying epigenetic modifications associated with elevated adiposity, including DNA methylation variation, may point to genomic pathways that are dysregulated in numerous conditions. The Illumina 450K Bead Chip array was used to assay DNA methylation in leukocyte DNA obtained from 2097 African American adults in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Mixed-effects regression models were used to test the association of methylation beta value with concurrent body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and BMI change, adjusting for batch effects and potential confounders. Replication using whole-blood DNA from 2377 White adults in the Framingham Heart Study and CD4+ T cell DNA from 991 Whites in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network Study was followed by testing using adipose tissue DNA from 648 women in the Multiple Tissue Human Expression Resource cohort. Seventy-six BMI-related probes, 164 WC-related probes and 8 BMI change-related probes passed the threshold for significance in ARIC (P < 1 × 10(-7); Bonferroni), including probes in the recently reported HIF3A, CPT1A and ABCG1 regions. Replication using blood DNA was achieved for 37 BMI probes and 1 additional WC probe. Sixteen of these also replicated in adipose tissue, including 15 novel methylation findings near genes involved in lipid metabolism, immune response/cytokine signaling and other diverse pathways, including LGALS3BP, KDM2B, PBX1 and BBS2, among others. Adiposity traits are associated with DNA methylation at numerous CpG sites that replicate across studies despite variation in tissue type, ethnicity and analytic approaches.

  17. Using IT to improve access, communication, and asthma in African American and Hispanic/Latino Adults: Rationale, design, and methods of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Apter, Andrea J; Bryant-Stephens, Tyra; Morales, Knashawn H; Wan, Fei; Hardy, Sharmaine; Reed-Wells, Shakira; Dominguez, Maria; Gonzalez, Rodalyn; Mak, NaDea; Nardi, Alyssa; Park, Hami; Howell, John T; Localio, Russell

    2015-08-08

    Asthma morbidity is high among inner-city minority adults. Improving access to care and patient-provider communication are believed essential for improving outcomes. Access and communication in turn increasingly rely on information technology including features of the Electronic Health Record. Its patient portal offers web-based communication with providers and practices. How patients with limited resources and educational opportunities can benefit from this portal is unclear. In contrast, home visits by community health workers (CHWs) have improved access to care for asthmatic children and promoted caretaker-clinician communication. We describe the planning, design, and methodology of an ongoing randomized controlled trial for 300 adults, predominantly African American and Hispanic/Latino, with uncontrolled asthma recruited from low income urban neighborhoods who are directed to the most convenient internet access and taught to use the portal, with and without home visits from a CHW. The study 1) compares the effects of the 1-year interventions on asthma outcomes (improved asthma control, quality of life; fewer ED visits and hospitalizations for asthma or any cause), 2) evaluates whether communication (portal use) and access (appointments made/kept) mediate the interventions' effects on asthma outcomes, and 3) investigates effect modification by literacy level, primary language, and convenience of internet access. In home visits, CHWs 1) train patients to competency in portal use, 2) enhance care coordination, 3) communicate the complex social circumstances of patients' lives to providers, and 4) compensate for differences in patients' health literacy skills. The practical challenges to design and implementation in the targeted population are presented.

  18. Cultural barriers to African American participation in anxiety disorders research.

    PubMed

    Williams, Monnica T; Beckmann-Mendez, Diana A; Turkheimer, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are understudied, underdiagnosed, and undertreated in African Americans. Research focused on the phenomenology, etiology, and treatment of anxiety in African Americans has been hampered by lack of inclusion of this population in clinical research studies. The reason for exclusion is not well understood, although cultural mistrust has been hypothesized as a major barrier to research participation. This article reviews the relevant literature to date and examines the experience of 6 African American adults who participated in a larger clinical assessment study about anxiety. Drawing upon in-depth semistructured interviews about their subjective experiences, we examined participant perspectives about the assessment process, opinions about African American perception of anxiety studies, and participant-generated ideas about how to improve African American participation. Based on a qualitative analysis of responses, feelings of mistrust emerged as a dominant theme. Concerns fell under 6 categories, including not wanting to speak for others, confidentiality, self and group presentation concerns, repercussions of disclosure, potential covert purposes of the study, and the desire to confide only in close others. Suggestions for increasing African American participation are discussed, including assurances of confidentiality, adequate compensation, and a comfortable study environment.

  19. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  20. Dehydration in the Older Adult.

    PubMed

    Miller, Hayley J

    2015-09-01

    Dehydration affects 20% to 30% of older adults. It has a greater negative outcome in this population than in younger adults and increases mortality, morbidity, and disability. Dehydration is often caused by water deprivation in older adults, although excess water loss may also be a cause. Traditional markers for dehydration do not take into consideration many of the physiological differences present in older adults. Clinical assessment of dehydration in older adults poses different findings, yet is not always diagnostic. Treatment of dehydration should focus on prevention and early diagnosis before it negatively effects health and gives rise to comorbidities. The current article discusses what has most thoroughly been studied; the best strategies and assessment tools for evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of dehydration in older adults; and what needs to be researched further. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 41(9), 8-13.].

  1. Global Sensory Impairment among Older Adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wroblewski, Kristen E.; Huisingh-Scheetz, Megan; Kern, David W.; Chen, Rachel C.; Schumm, L. Philip; Dale, William; McClintock, Martha K.; Pinto, Jayant M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Age-related decline of the five classical senses (vision, smell, hearing, touch, and taste) poses significant burdens on older adults. The co-occurrence of multiple sensory deficits in older adults is not well characterized and may reflect a common mechanism resulting in global sensory impairment. Design, Setting, and Participants The National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, a representative, population-based study of community dwelling older US adults (57-85 years of age), collected biomarkers, social and health history, and other physiological measures, including sensory function. Measurements We estimated the frequency with which impairment co-occurred across the five senses as an integrated measure of sensory aging. We hypothesized that multisensory deficits would be common and reflect global sensory impairment which would largely explain the effects of age, gender, and race on sensory dysfunction. Results Two thirds (67%) of the older US population suffer from two or more sensory deficits, 27% from just one, and only 6% had none. Impairment of the sense of taste was the most common (74%); 70% had a poor sense of touch; 22% had poor sense of smell; 20% had impaired corrected vision; and 18% had poor corrected hearing. Older adults, men, African Americans, and Hispanics had greater multisensory impairment (all P<0.01). Global sensory impairment largely accounted for the effects of age, gender, and race on the likelihood of impairment of each of the five senses. Conclusion Multisensory impairment is prevalent in older US adults. These data support the concept of a common process that underlies sensory aging across the five senses. Clinicians assessing patients with a sensory deficit should consider further evaluation for additional cooccurring sensory deficits. PMID:26889840

  2. Ethnic Disparities in Glycemic Control Among Rural Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Sara A.; Bell, Ronny A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Smith, Shannon L.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Wetmore, Lindsay K.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2006-01-01

    Glycemic control is a predictor of diabetes-related morbidity and mortality. However, little is known about how well older adults in rural communities, with limited access to self-care resources and specialty care practitioners, control their diabetes. Even less is known about whether minority, older, rural adults are at increased risk for poor glycemic control. We analyzed data from a cross-sectional survey of randomly selected older (≥65 years) adults with type 2 diabetes in rural North Carolina. Participants (N=693) were men and women from three ethnic groups: African American, Native American, and White. Capillary blood samples were collected for HbA1C analysis. HbA1C levels (<7%, 7%–<8%, and ≥8%) were compared across ethnic and gender groups. Two multiple logistic regression models (model 1: personal characteristics; model 2: personal and health characteristics) were used to evaluate potential predictors of HbA1C ≥7%. Overall, 36.4% had HbA1C ≥7%. Native Americans and African-American men had the highest proportion at levels of poor glycemic control (≥7%), and African-American women and White men had the lowest. In bivariate analysis, ethnicity, living arrangements, use of medications for diabetes, having a diabetes-related healthcare visit in the past year, and duration of diabetes were significantly associated with glycemic control. In multivariate analysis (model 1), being Native American, having low income without Medicaid, and being married were associated with poor glycemic control. Adding health characteristics (model 2), longer diabetes duration and diabetes medication therapy were significant predictors. These data indicate that older ethnic minorities in rural communities are at increased risk for diabetes complications and need diabetes management strategies to improve glycemic control. PMID:16259490

  3. Clinical Interviewing with Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohlman, Jan; Sirota, Karen Gainer; Papp, Laszlo A.; Staples, Alison M.; King, Arlene; Gorenstein, Ethan E.

    2012-01-01

    Over the next few decades the older adult population will increase dramatically, and prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders are also expected to increase in the elderly cohort. These demographic projections highlight the need for diagnostic instruments and methods that are specifically tailored to older adults. The current paper discusses the…

  4. Respondent-Driven Sampling with Hard-to-Reach Emerging Adults: An Introduction and Case Study with Rural African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Steven M.; Wejnert, Cyprian; Chen, Yi-fu; Brody, Gene H.; Slater, LaTrina M.

    2011-01-01

    Obtaining representative samples from populations of emerging adults who do not attend college is challenging for researchers. This article introduces respondent-driven sampling (RDS), a method for obtaining representative samples of hard-to-reach but socially interconnected populations. RDS combines a prescribed method for chain referral with a…

  5. Adult Development and Learning of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Donald N., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    This summary of adult development covers a wide range of authors. Adult development is one way of understanding how the internal and external changes in our lives have an impact on learning. Of particular importance in this work are the developmental issues of older adults. I present various theories of adult development such as linear and…

  6. Knowledge about type 2 diabetes risk and prevention of African-American and Hispanic adults and adolescents with family history of type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to assess type 2 diabetes knowledge, perceptions, risk factor awareness, and prevention practices among African-American and Hispanic families with a history of diabetes. Ninth and tenth grade Houston area students who had a parent who spoke English or Spanish and had a...

  7. "That was grown folks' business": narrative reflection and response in older adults' family health history communication.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Jill; Hovick, Shelly R

    2015-01-01

    Given the importance of family health history and the pivotal role of older adults in communicating it, this study examines how African American older adults (a) characterize their understandings of health-related conditions in their family histories and (b) rationalize their motivations and constraints for sharing this information with current family members. Using narrative theory as a framework, we illustrate how the participants reflect on prior health-related experiences within the family to respond to moral and practical calls for communicating family health information to current relatives. Specifically, our analysis highlights how storied family secrets--as constructed by 28 participants in group and individual interviews--reveal and inform shifting cultural and generational practices that shape the lived health behaviors and communication of older adults at greater risk for health disparities.

  8. Knowledge and Attitudes about Colon Cancer Screening among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Aimee S.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To explore knowledge and attitudes about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African American patients age 45 and older at a community health center serving low-income and uninsured patients. Methods: We conducted 7 focus groups and 17 additional semistructured interviews. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed…

  9. Technical Consulting: The African-American Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Tracy N.

    2010-01-01

    The qualitative research study explored the organizational characteristics necessary in addressing the low concentration of African American technical consultants employed in the information technology industry. Using research participants' professional experience, participants responded to a developed questionnaire. African American technical…

  10. Heart failure in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Yancy, Clyde W

    2005-10-10

    The demographics of the United States are changing, and in the next few decades there will no longer be a racial/ethnic majority population. Increased awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in special populations is warranted as these populations increase. Heart failure carries a substantial burden on those affected, particularly African Americans, who have a disproportionate burden of heart disease. Current treatments for heart failure include angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers, angiotensin II-receptor antagonists, and vasodilating agents. This review discusses the unique characteristics of CVD in African Americans and addresses the need for targeted treatments to reduce the excess burden found in this population.

  11. Age and HIV Risk and Protective Behaviors among African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corneille, Maya A.; Zyzniewski, Linda E.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2008-01-01

    Though HIV prevention efforts have focused on young adult women, women of all ages may engage in HIV risk behaviors and experience barriers to condom use. This article examines the effect of age on sexual risk and protective attitudes and behaviors among African American women. Unmarried heterosexual African American women between the ages of 18…

  12. Smoking, Social Support, and Hassles in an Urban African-American Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Patrick S.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A random household survey of 569 African-American adults in Oakland and 568 in San Francisco (California) indicates a high prevalence of smoking (41.9 percent), with smoking more likely by those reporting high stress. Stressful environment may contribute to high-risk smoking behavior among urban African Americans. (SLD)

  13. Perceptions and Beliefs about Exercise, Rest, and Health among African-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Airhihenbuwa, Collins O.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Focus group interviews assessed African American teens' and adults' (ages 13 to 65-plus) perceptions and beliefs about exercise. Many subjects believed that African Americans performed physical labor at work and needed rest rather than exercise during free time. Many considered exercise a physical stressor and believed friends had the greatest…

  14. The Role of Public Schools in HIV Prevention: Perspectives from African Americans in the Rural South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Stacey W.; Ferguson, Yvonne Owens; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Ellison, Arlinda; Blumenthal, Connie; Council, Barbara J.; Youmans, Selena; Muhammad, Melvin R.; Wynn, Mysha; Adimora, Adaora; Akers, Aletha

    2012-01-01

    Though African-American youth in the South are at high risk for HIV infection, abstinence until marriage education continues to be the only option in some public schools. Using community-based participatory research methods, we conducted 11 focus groups with African-American adults and youth in a rural community in North Carolina with high rates…

  15. Straight Talk: HIV Prevention for African-American Heterosexual Men--Theoretical Bases and Intervention Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Victoria; Bonner, Sebastian; Williams, Kim; Henny, Kirk; Bond, Keosha; Lucy, Debbie; Cupid, Malik; Smith, Stephen; Koblin, Beryl A.

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, racial disparities in HIV/AIDS are stark. Although African Americans comprise an estimated 14% of the U.S. population, they made up 52% of new HIV cases among adults and adolescents diagnosed in 2009. Heterosexual transmission is now the second leading cause of HIV in the United States. African Americans made up a full…

  16. Heritability of Lipid Phenotypes among African-Americans: Jackson Heart Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determinants of serum lipid levels include both genetic and non-genetic components. More research is needed to determine the role each plays in serum lipid levels of African-Americans. The Jackson Heart Study Family Sub-Study (JHS, FSS) represents a cohort of African-American adults for which both ...

  17. Academic and Career Trajectories of African American Males in San Bernardino

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyles, Lolita Laree

    2013-01-01

    A qualitative grounded theory approach is utilized to study the academic and career trajectories of twenty African American male collegiate students living in San Bernardino, California. There is limited research that explores the positive educational experiences of young adult African American males. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to…

  18. Depression and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... in daily life and can even lead to suicide. A common myth about depression is that it is “normal” for certain people to feel depressed—older people, teenagers, new mothers, menopausal women, or those with a ...

  19. Engaging African Americans in Smoking Cessation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…

  20. Increasing Reading Engagement in African American Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husband, Terry

    2014-01-01

    Much has been written concerning the challenges many teachers face in engaging African American males in reading practices. While much of this extant scholarship focuses on African American males at the pre-adolescent stage of development and beyond, little has been written regarding increasing reading engagement in African American boys in P-5…

  1. Diabetes: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stroke Urinary Incontinence Related Documents PDF Choosing Wisely: Diabetes Tests and Treatments Download Related Video Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Diabetes Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ...

  2. Osteoporosis: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... of fractures if needed annual flu shots. Protein-Calorie Malnutrition Many older adults living at home eat ... so serious that a condition known as protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM) develops. Sometimes, PCM occurs after a ...

  3. Depression Interventions among Racial and Ethnic Minority Older Adults: A Systematic Review across 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Dahlia; Aranda, María P.

    2012-01-01

    While there is strong evidence in support of geriatric depression treatments, much less is available with regard to older U.S. racial and ethnic minorities. The objectives of this review are to identify and appraise depression treatment studies tested with samples of U.S. racial and ethnic minority older adults. We include an appraisal of sociocultural adaptations made to the depression treatments in studies meeting our final criteria. Systematic search methods were utilized to identify research published between 1990 and 2010 that describe depression treatment outcomes for older adults by racial/ethnic group, or for samples of older adults that are primarily (i.e., >50%) racial/ethnic minorities. Twenty-three unduplicated articles included older adults and seven met all inclusion criteria. Favorable depression treatment effects were observed for older minorities across five studies based on diverse settings and varying levels of sociocultural adaptations. The effectiveness of depression care remains mixed although collaborative or integrated care shows promise for African Americans and Latinos. The degree to which the findings generalize to non-English-speaking, low acculturated, and low income older persons, and to other older minority groups (i.e., Asian and Pacific Islanders, and American Indian and Alaska Natives) remains unclear. Given the high disease burden among older minorities with depression, it is imperative to provide timely, accessible, and effective depression treatments. Increasing their participation in behavioral health research should be a national priority. PMID:22828202

  4. Traditional and commercial herb use in health self- management among rural multiethnic older adults.

    PubMed

    Altizer, Kathryn P; Quandt, Sara A; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Bell, Ronny A; Sandberg, Joanne C; Arcury, Thomas A

    2013-06-01

    This study analyzes the role of traditional and commercial herbs in older adults’ health self-management based on Leventhal’s Self-Regulatory Model conceptual framework. Sixty-two African American and White adults age 65 and older completed qualitative interviews describing the forms of herbs currently being used, sources of information about them, interpretations of health (acute symptoms or chronic conditions) that led to their use, and the initiation and suspension of use. Traditional herbs are native to the region or have been traditionally cultivated, usually taken raw or boiled to produce tea, and used for treating mild symptoms. Commercial herbs are prepared as pills, extracts, or teas; they are purchased at local stores or ordered by catalog or Internet and used for health promotion, illness prevention, or treatment of chronic conditions. Herbs are widely used among older adults; this analysis differentiates the types of herbs they use and their reasons for herbs use.

  5. Wellness among African American Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day-Vines, Norma L.; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    Although there are various definitions of wellness, few conceptual definitions have addressed the contextual dimensions of wellness relative to African American counselors. The authors present an overview of generic models of wellness, discuss factors that both inhibit and promote wellness, offer some culture-specific models of wellness, and…

  6. African American Men in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuyjet, Michael J., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This book is a much-needed resource that includes examples of real-world programs and activities to enhance academic success in the college environment for African American men. The examples are collected from a variety of institutions across the country. With contributions from leading practitioners and scholars in the field, this book explores…

  7. Does Gender Influence Participation? Predictors of Participation in a Community Health Worker Diabetes Management Intervention with African-American and Latino Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Jaclynn; Kieffer, Edith; Sinco, Brandy; Spencer, Michael; Anderson, Michael; Rosland, Ann-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of gender on participation in a community-based, culturally tailored diabetes lifestyle intervention, led by trained community health workers (CHW), and conducted with African Americans and Latinos with type 2 diabetes. Methods This study utilized data collected from 180 participants. Multivariable binary and cumulative logistic regression models were used to analyze associations between gender and race/ethnicity with study completion and participation in three aspects of the intervention: group classes, CHW home visits, and CHW-accompanied doctor visits. Results Among Latinos, men were less likely than women to complete the study, attend >x classes, and complete # CHW home visits. There were no gender differences in participation seen among African-Americans. Conclusions Diabetes management interventions may need to adapt their designs to optimize retention and participation of Latino men. Among African American men, the CHW model may be promising. Reasons for low participation among Latino men should receive more study. Future studies should assess whether similar findings apply in other communities and populations. PMID:23859885

  8. African-American spirituality: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Newlin, Kelley; Knafl, Kathleen; Melkus, Gail D'Eramo

    2002-12-01

    Culturally competent care for African Americans requires sensitivity to spirituality as a component of the cultural context. To foster understanding, measurement, and delivery of the spiritual component of culturally competent care, this article presents an evolutionary concept analysis of African-American spirituality. The analysis is based on a sample of multidisciplinary research studies reflecting spirituality of African Americans. Findings indicate that African-American spirituality involves quintessential, internal, external, consoling, and transformative attributive dimensions. Findings are considered in relation to previous conceptual analyses of spirituality and suggest that defining attributes of African-American spirituality are both global and culturally prominent. Implications for practice and research are discussed.

  9. Sexual health communication within religious African-American families.

    PubMed

    Williams, Terrinieka T; Pichon, Latrice C; Campbell, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    While research suggests youth prefer parents and family members to serve as the primary sources of sexual health information, fear and discomfort around discussing sex with their parents may leave youth misinformed and underinformed. This study explored sexual heath communication within religious African-American families. Thirty adolescents participated in four focus groups, and 19 adults and 30 adolescents participated in six focus groups, at two predominantly African-American Christian churches in Flint, MI. All data were analyzed inductively using a constant comparison approach. Nearly all participants reported attending church weekly. Three themes emerged and are described: initiating sex talks, using mistakes as teaching tools, and clarifying prevention messages. Participants highlighted the need for religious parents to offer both religious and practical guidance to adolescents about sexual health. Findings from this study may be used to inform future sexual health promotion interventions for religious African-American families.

  10. Severe sepsis in older adults.

    PubMed

    Umberger, Reba; Callen, Bonnie; Brown, Mary Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Severe sepsis may be underrecognized in older adults. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to review special considerations related to early detection of severe sepsis in older adults. Normal organ changes attributed to aging may delay early detection of sepsis at the time when interventions have the greatest potential to improve patient outcomes. Systems are reviewed for changes. For example, the cardiovascular system may have a limited or absent compensatory response to inflammation after an infectious insult, and the febrile response and recruitment of white blood cells may be blunted because of immunosenescence in aging. Three of the 4 hallmark responses (temperature, heart rate, and white blood cell count) to systemic inflammation may be diminished in older adults as compared with younger adults. It is important to consider that older adults may not always manifest the typical systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Atypical signs such as confusion, decreased appetite, and unsteady gait may occur before sepsis related organ failure. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria and a comparison of organ failure criteria were reviewed. Mortality rates in sepsis and severe sepsis remain high and are often complicated by multiple organ failures. As the numbers of older adults increase, early identification and prompt treatment is crucial in improving patient outcomes.

  11. African American College Students: Literacy of Depression and Help Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansbury, Kim L.; Wimsatt, Maureen; Simpson, Gaynell Marie; Martin, Fayetta; Nelson, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Depression is a serious public health concern in the United States affecting almost 18.8 million adults. It is a common mental disorder in college students, with estimates of 1 in 4 "experiencing an episode by age 24." African American college students are at an elevated risk for depression due to racism, stress, sleep deprivation, and lack of…

  12. Fostering Healthy Lifestyles in the African American Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murimi, Mary; Chrisman, Matthew S.; McAllister, Tiffany; McDonald, Olevia D.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 8.3% of the U.S. population (25.8 million people) is affected by type 2 diabetes. The burden of diabetes is disproportionately greater in the African American community. Compared with non-Hispanic Caucasian adults, the risk of diagnosed type 2 diabetes was 77% higher among non-Hispanic Blacks, who are 27% more likely to die of…

  13. Cardiac Rehabilitation in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Schopfer, David W; Forman, Daniel E

    2016-09-01

    The biology of aging and the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD) overlap, with the effect that CVD is endemic in the growing population of older adults. Moreover, CVD in older adults is usually complicated by age-related complexities, including multimorbidity, polypharmacy, frailty, and other intricacies that add to the risks of ambiguous symptoms, deconditioning, iatrogenesis, falls, disability, and other challenges. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a comprehensive lifestyle program that can have particular benefit for older patients with cardiovascular conditions. Although CR was originally designed primarily as an exercise training program for younger adults after a myocardial infarction or coronary artery bypass surgery, it has evolved as a comprehensive lifestyle program (promoting physical activity as well as education, diet, risk reduction, and adherence) for a broader range of CVD (coronary heart disease, heart failure, and valvular heart disease). It provides a valuable opportunity to address and moderate many of the challenges pertinent for the large and growing population of older adults with CVD. Cardiac rehabilitation promotes physical function (cardiorespiratory fitness as well as strength and balance) that helps overcome disease and deconditioning as well as related vulnerabilities such as disability, frailty, and falls. Similarly, CR facilitates education, monitoring, and guidance to reduce iatrogenesis and promote adherence. Furthermore, CR fosters cognition, socialization, and independence in older patients. Yet despite all its conceptual benefits, CR is significantly underused in older populations. This review discusses benefits and the paradoxical underuse of CR, as well as evolving models of care that may achieve greater application and efficacy.

  14. Weight Management in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Lydia E.; Bartels, Stephen J.; Batsis, John A.

    2017-01-01

    As the number of older adults increases rapidly, the national epidemic of obesity is also affecting our aging population. This is particularly concerning given the numerous health risks and increased costs associated with this condition. Weight management is extremely important for older adults given the risks associated with abdominal adiposity, which is a typical fat redistribution during aging, and the prevalence of comorbid conditions in this age group. However, approaches to weight loss must be considered critically given the dangers of sarcopenia (a condition that occurs when muscle mass and quality is lost), the increase risk of hip fracture with weight loss, and the association between reduced mortality and increased BMI in older adults. This overview highlights the challenges and implications of measuring adiposity in older adults, the dangers and benefits of weight loss in this population, and provides an overview of the new Medicare Obesity Benefit. In addition we provide a summary of outcomes from successful weight loss interventions for older adults and discuss implications for advancing clinical practice. PMID:26627496

  15. Characterizing the learning styles and testing the science-related attitudes of African American middle school students: Implications for the underrepresentation of African Americans in the sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perine, Donald Ray

    African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans and women are underrepresented among the population of scientists and science teachers in the United States. Specifically, the shortage of African Americans teaching math and science at all levels of the educational process and going into the many science-related fields is manifested throughout the entire educational and career structure of our society. This shortage exists when compared to the total population of African Americans in this country, the population of African American students, and to society's demand for more math and science teachers and professionals of all races. One suggestion to address this problem is to update curricular and instructional programs to accommodate the learning styles of African Americans from elementary to graduate school. There is little in the published literature to help us understand the learning styles of African American middle school students and how they compare to African American adults who pursue science careers. There is also little published data to help inform us about the relationship between learning styles of African American middle school students and their attitudes toward science. The author used a learning styles inventory instrument to identify the learning style preferences of the African American students and adults. The preferences identified describe how African American students and African American adult science professionals prefer to function, learn, concentrate, and perform in their educational and work activities in the areas of: (a) immediate environment, (b) emotionality, (c) sociological needs, and (d) physical needs. The learning style preferences for the students and adults were not significantly different in key areas of preference. A Test of Science-Related Attitudes (TOSRA) was used to measure seven distinct science-related attitudes of the middle school students. A comparison of the profile of the mean scores for the students in this study

  16. Infant-feeding practices among African American women: social-ecological analysis and implications for practice.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Elizabeth A; Woods-Giscombé, Cheryl L

    2015-05-01

    Despite extensive evidence supporting the health benefits of breastfeeding, significant disparities exist between rates of breastfeeding among African American women and women of other races. Increasing rates of breastfeeding among African American women can contribute to the improved health of the African American population by decreasing rates of infant mortality and disease and by enhancing cognitive development. Additionally, higher rates of breastfeeding among African American women could foster maternal-child bonding and could contribute to stronger families, healthier relationships, and emotionally healthier adults. The purpose of this article is twofold: (a) to use the social-ecological model to explore the personal, socioeconomic, psychosocial, and cultural factors that affect the infant feeding decision-making processes of African American women and (b) to discuss the implications of these findings for clinical practice and research to eliminate current disparities in rates of breastfeeding.

  17. Perceived value in food selection when dining out: comparison of African Americans and Euro-Americans.

    PubMed

    Vinci, Debra M; Philipp, Steven F

    2007-06-01

    This descriptive study compares African Americans' and Euro-Americans' perceived value of food selection pertaining to cost, portion size, and meal satisfaction when eating away from home. A stratified sample was drawn from a southern U.S. metropolitan area (N= 1,011; 486 African American, 525 Euro-American). Analysis showed no difference between African-American and Euro-American adults by sex or how often they dined out. These two groups significantly differed across years of education, age, and answering 14 of 18 rated statements on value perceptions. African-Americans' value perceptions were influenced more by lower cost foods and larger portion sizes than those of Euro-Americans. For meal satisfaction, African Americans were more likely to agree with statements that indicate preferring foods high in energy and low in essential micronutrient density. This study supports the need for more investigation.

  18. Racial bias in the assessment of cognitive functioning of older adults.

    PubMed

    Jones, R N

    2003-03-01

    This study was undertaken to determine if the difference in assessed cognition between Black/African-American and White older adults was due differential item functioning (DIF) and/or differences in the effect of background variables. Participants were 15257 adults aged 50 and older surveyed in the Study of Asset and Health Dynamics of the Oldest Old (AHEAD) and Health and Retirement Study (HRS). The cognitive measure was a modified telephone interview for cognitive status. The analytic strategy was a multiple group structural equation model grounded in item response theory. Results suggest that most (89%) of the group difference could be attributed to measurement or structural differences, the remainder being not significantly different from zero (p=0.193). Most items displayed racial DIF, accounting for most of the group difference. After controlling for DIF, the group difference that remained could be attributed to heterogeneity in the effect of background variables. For example, low education was more deleterious for Black/African-Americans, and high income conferred an advantage only for Whites. These findings underscore the importance of efforts to generate culture-fair measurement devices. However, culture-fair assessments may attenuate, but not eliminate, group differences in assessed cognition due to the incommensurate action of background variables

  19. Knowledge about HIV in a Community Sample of Urban African Americans in the South

    PubMed Central

    Klein, H; Sterk, CE; Elifson, KW

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Race and HIV are intertwined in complex ways. African Americans, particularly those residing in the southern United States, are at great risk for contracting and subsequently transmitting HIV. Research on the extent to which members of this population understand the risks associated with engaging in specific behaviors is limited. This paper examines HIV knowledge among at-risk adult African American men and women and the factors associated with levels of HIV knowledge. Methods Based on a conceptual model derived from Social Disorganization Theory and Syndemics Theory, interviews were conducted between 2009 and 2011. Questionnaire-based interviews were conducted with 1,864 respondents from 80 strategically-chosen census block groups in Atlanta, Georgia. An innovative approach to assessing amount of HIV knowledge was implemented, to derive better estimates of the extent of knowledge. Results Overall, HIV knowledge was low (average=43.5% correct answers). Seven factors were identified as contributing uniquely to having higher levels of knowledge about HIV transmission: (1) younger age, (2) being educated beyond the high school level, (3) being gay, lesbian or bisexual, (4) experiencing sexual abuse during childhood and/or adolescence, (5) drinking alcohol less frequently, (6) knowing a larger number of HIV-infected persons and (7) knowing anyone currently living with “full blown” AIDS. Conclusion HIV educational and intervention programs targeting at-risk African American adults need to develop effective ways of bolstering a solid understanding of how HIV is/not transmitted. In particular, efforts need to be targeted toward older adults, those with lower levels of educational attainment and persons who are not acquainted with anyone who is HIV-infected. PMID:27891291

  20. Health Literacy and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chesser, Amy K.; Keene Woods, Nikki; Smothers, Kyle; Rogers, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this review was to assess published literature relating to health literacy and older adults. Method: The current review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses. Results: Eight articles met inclusion criteria. All studies were conducted in urban settings in the United States. Study sample size ranged from 33 to 3,000 participants. Two studies evaluated health-related outcomes and reported significant associations between low health literacy and poorer health outcomes. Two other studies investigated the impact of health literacy on medication management, reporting mixed findings. Discussion: The findings of this review highlight the importance of working to improve health care strategies for older adults with low health literacy and highlight the need for a standardized and validated clinical health literacy screening tool for older adults. PMID:28138488

  1. Stepped-Care, Community Clinic Interventions to Promote Mammography Use among Low-Income Rural African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Delia Smith; Greene, Paul; Pulley, LeaVonne; Kratt, Polly; Gore, Stacy; Weiss, Heidi; Siegfried, Nicole

    2004-01-01

    Few studies have investigated community clinic-based interventions to promote mammography screening among rural African American women. This study randomized older low-income rural African American women who had not participated in screening in the previous 2 years to a theory-based, personalized letter or usual care; no group differences in…

  2. Young, black, and connected: Facebook usage among African American college students.

    PubMed

    Lee, E Bun

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the extent and intensity of Facebook usage among African American college students and investigates their reasons for using Facebook. As expected, 98% of students in the survey had a Facebook account, and a large number of Facebook “friends.” Younger users spent significantly more time on Facebook than older ones. Our findings underscore the importance of cultural influence for African American online users. Displaying photographs and personal interests on Facebook signals racial identity among African American college students. Personality traits, such as self-esteem, trust in people, satisfaction with university life, and racial identity, were not significant predictors on the time spent on Facebook.

  3. Alzheimer's disease in African Americans: risk factors and challenges for the future.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Lisa L; Bennett, David A

    2014-04-01

    As the US elderly population continues to expand rapidly, Alzheimer's disease poses a major and increasing public health challenge, and older African Americans may be disproportionately burdened by the disease. Although African Americans were generally underincluded in previous research studies, new and growing evidence suggests that they may be at increased risk of the disease and that they differ from the non-Hispanic white population in risk factors and disease manifestation. This article offers an overview of the challenges of Alzheimer's disease in African Americans, including diagnosis issues, disparities in risk factors and clinical presentation of disease, and community-based recommendations to enhance research with this population.

  4. Defining Physiologically “Normal” Vitamin D in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Nicole C.; Chen, Lang; Niu, Jingbo; Neogi, Tuhina; Javiad, Kassim; Nevitt, Michael A.; Lewis, Cora E.; Curtis, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Vitamin D levels ≥30 ng/ml are commonly considered “normal” based upon maximal suppression of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH); however, this has recently been challenged and the optimal 25(OH)D level among non-Caucasians is unclear. We evaluated the cross-sectional relationship between serum 25(OH)D and iPTH in a sample of Caucasian and African American adults. Method We used baseline serum samples of participants from the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study (MOST) for this analysis, and used three methods to model the relationship between 25(OH)D and iPTH: ordinary least squares regression (OLS), segmented regression, and Helmert contrasts. Results Among Caucasians (n=1,258), 25(OH)D and iPTH ranged from 4-51 ng/ml and 2-120 pg/ml and from 3-32 ng/ml and 3-119 pg/ml in African Americans (n=423). We observed different thresholds between African Americans and Caucasians using each analytic technique. Using 25(OH)D as a categorical variable in OLS, iPTH was statistically higher at lower 25(OH)D categories than the 24-32 ng/ml referent group among Caucasians. However, in African Americans, the mean iPTH was only significantly higher at 25(OH)D levels below 15 ng/ml. Using segmented regression, iPTH appeared to stabilize at a lower 25(OH)D level in African Americans (19-23 ng/ml) compared to in Caucasians (>32 ng/ml). Helmert contrasts also revealed a lower threshold in African Americans than Caucasians. Conclusion Among MOST participants, the 25(OH)D thresholds at which no further change in iPTH was observed was approximately 20 ng/ml in African Americans versus approximately 30 ng/ml in Caucasians, suggesting optimal vitamin D levels in Caucasians may not be applicable to African Americans. PMID:22189572

  5. Cultural variation in the social organization of problem solving among African American and European American siblings.

    PubMed

    Budak, Daniel; Chavajay, Pablo

    2012-07-01

    This study examined the social organization of a problem-solving task among 15 African American and 15 European American sibling pairs. The 30 sibling pairs between the ages of 6 and 12 were video recorded constructing a marble track together during a home visit. African American siblings were observed to collaborate more often than European American siblings who were more likely to divide up the labor and direct each other in constructing the marble track. In addition, older European American siblings made more proposals of step plans than older African American siblings. The findings provide insights into the cultural basis of the social organization of problem solving across African American and European American siblings.

  6. Obesity differences between African-American men and women.

    PubMed

    Shankar, S; Nanda, J P; Bonney, G; Kofie, V

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the socio-demographic and behavioral differences related to obesity between African-American men and women. Obesity was defined as a body mass index of greater than 27.3 kg/m2 for women and 27.8 kg/m2 for men. Data were collected from 661 African-Americans, 418 women and 243 men, residing in wards 7 and 8 in Washington, DC through telephone interviews. Obesity was prevalent among 38.3% of the women and 20.1% of the men (p < 0.01). For women age 55 or older, annual income over $20K, having less than a high school education, and alcohol and tobacco consumption were associated with being overweight in the initial bivariate analysis (p < 0.05). For men, being 35 years or older and unemployment were significant factors associated with obesity. Our final analysis, when known dietary risk factors were adjusted, revealed that in women, obesity was associated with age, hard liquor consumption and non use of tobacco. For men, older age was a primary association. We concluded that gender, with increasing age, plays a significant role in predicting obesity, as defined by concurrent national standards. African American men 55 years of age or older are the most likely group to be overweight even after predisposing and behavioral risk factors are considered.

  7. Multicultural voices: Attitudes of older adults in the United States about elder mistreatment.

    PubMed

    Enguidanos, Susan; DeLiema, Marguerite; Aguilar, Iris; Lambrinos, Jorge; Wilber, Kathleen

    2014-05-01

    Despite international growth in policies to increase the identification and response to elder abuse and neglect, there remain considerable barriers to treating the problem. Some of these barriers may be attributed to how older adults from different racial/ethnic backgrounds define, experience, and seek to remedy elder mistreatment. Using focus group discussions based on case vignettes, this paper examines how older adults from different racial and ethnic backgrounds in the United States perceive elder mistreatment. Five focus groups were conducted with African Americans, English-speaking Latinos, Spanish-speaking Latinos, non-Latino Whites and African American caregivers for older adults. While similar definitions and meanings of elder abuse were expressed across the different racial/ethnic groups, Latino participants introduced additional themes of machismo, respect, love, and early intervention to stop abuse, suggesting that perceptions/beliefs about elder mistreatment are determined by culture and degree of acculturation in addition to race/ethnicity. Most differences in attitudes occurred within groups, demonstrating that perceptions vary by individual as well as by culture. In identifying scenarios that constitute elder mistreatment, some participants felt that certain cases of abuse are actually the persistence of intimate partner violence into old age. Participants also indicated that victims may prefer to tolerate mistreatment in exchange for other perceived benefits (e.g., companionship, security); and out of fear that they could be placed in an institution if mistreatment is reported. Findings suggest the need for person-centred intervention and prevention models that integrate the cultural background, care needs, and individual preferences of older adults.

  8. Some African American Males' Perspectives on the Black Woman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrow, Rufus, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Presents views of Frederick Douglass, W. E. B. Du Bois, Malcolm X, and James Hal Cone (African-American male leaders) toward African-American women in the United States. Discusses the role of African-American men in addressing and eradicating sexism in African-American churches and the African-American community. (SLD)

  9. Catastrophic events and older adults.

    PubMed

    Cloyd, Elizabeth; Dyer, Carmel B

    2010-12-01

    The plight of older adults during catastrophic events is a societal concern. Older persons have an increased prevalence of cognitive disorders, chronic illnesses, and mobility problems that limit their ability to cope. These disorders may result in a lack of mental capacity and the ability to discern when they should evacuate or resolve problems encountered during a catastrophe. Some older persons may have limited transportation options, and many of the elderly survivors are at increased risk for abuse, neglect, and exploitation. Recommendations for future catastrophic events include the development of a federal tracking system for elders and other vulnerable adults, the designation of separate shelter areas for elders and other vulnerable adults, and involvement of gerontological professionals in all aspects of emergency preparedness and care delivery, including training of frontline workers. Preparation through preevent planning that includes region-specific social services, medical and public health resources, volunteers, and facilities for elders and vulnerable adults is critical. Elders need to be protected from abuse and fraud during catastrophic events. A public health triage system for elders and other vulnerable populations in pre- and postdisaster situations is useful, and disaster preparedness is paramount. Communities and members of safety and rescue teams must address ethical issues before an event. When older adults are involved, consideration needs to be given to triage decision making, transporting those who are immobile, the care of older adults who receive palliative care, and the equitable distribution of resources. Nurses are perfectly equipped with the skills, knowledge, and training needed to plan and implement disaster preparedness programs. In keeping with the tradition of Florence Nightingale, nurses can assume several crucial roles in disaster preparedness for older adults. Nurses possess the ability to participate and lead community

  10. Depression - older adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... slowly than in younger adults. To better manage depression at home: Exercise regularly, if the provider says it is OK. Surround yourself with caring, positive people and do fun activities. ... signs of depression, and know how to react if these occur. ...

  11. A Multivariate Test of an Expanded Andersen Health Care Utilization Model for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Use in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Barner, Jamie; Bohman, Tom; Richards, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The objectives of this study were (1) to determine which Andersen Model variables [predisposing, enabling, and need (PEN)] are related to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use by African Americans in the past 12 months; and (2) to determine whether the addition of disease states to the Model will explain significant variation in CAM use in the past 12 months. Design The 2002 National Health Interview Survey was used with 4256 African American adults (n = 23,828,268 weighted) selected as the study population. The dependent variable, CAM Past 12 Months, represented participants' use of at least 1 of 17 CAM modalities during the past 12 months. The Andersen Model variables [predisposing (e.g., age); enabling (e.g., insurance); and need (e.g., medical conditions)] and prevalent disease states (≥10%) comprised the independent variables. Logistic regression analyses, incorporating the sampling weights, were employed. Results Among predisposing factors, CAM use was associated with middle-aged to older, more educated, and female African Americans. Region (Northeast less likely than South) was the only significant enabling factor. Need factors had the most frequent relationships, with more medical conditions, more physician visits, better health status, prescription and over-the-counter medication use, more frequent exercise, and having activities of daily living limitations being associated with CAM use. After adjusting for PEN factors, the disease states of pain/aching joints, recurring pain, and migraine were related to CAM use. Conclusions African American CAM users are middle-aged to older, female, educated, and have more medical conditions (especially pain-related). Users report higher utilization of “traditional” care (e.g., physician visits), indicating that CAM is likely a complement to conventional treatment in this population. Health care providers should use these factors as prompts for inquiring about CAM use in African

  12. Walking Tips for Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most ppular form of exercise among older adults and it's a great choice. What can walking do for you? strengthen muscles help prevent weight gain lower risks of heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and osteoporosis improve balance lower the likelihood of falling If ...

  13. Visuomotor Binding in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloesch, Emily K.; Abrams, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Action integration is the process through which actions performed on a stimulus and perceptual aspects of the stimulus become bound as a unitary object. This process appears to be controlled by the dopaminergic system in the prefrontal cortex, an area that is known to decrease in volume and dopamine functioning in older adults. Although the…

  14. Cancer Screening in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Wingfield, Sarah A; Heflin, Mitchell T

    2016-02-01

    Cancer screening is an important tool for reducing morbidity and mortality in the elderly. In this article, performance characteristics of commonly used screening tests for colorectal, lung, prostate, breast, and cervical cancers are discussed. Guidelines are emphasized and key issues to consider in screening older adults are highlighted.

  15. The Older Adult and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiemstra, Roger

    According to recent census figures, 10% of today's population are over 65 years old. It has often been stated that individual learning needs and capabilities decline with age. To challenge this idea, a study was conducted to gather information about older adults, their learning interests, activities, and obstacles. Four hypotheses were tested…

  16. Faith Development in Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulik, Richard N.

    1988-01-01

    Introduces the faith development paradigm of James Fowler, describing six stages of faith development: intuitive-projective faith, mythic-literal faith, synthetic-conventional faith, individuating-reflective faith, conjunctive faith, and universalizing faith. Reviews one research project in which Fowler's paradigm was applied to older adults.…

  17. African American girls and the challenges ahead.

    PubMed

    Rozie-Battle, Judith L

    2002-01-01

    The research on the psychosocial development of African American girls is limited. Information that is available focuses on teen pregnancy and health issues such as nutrition and physical activity. African American girls are facing challenges, including poverty, crime, poor self-esteem, and peer pressure. Despite some of the negative characteristics attributed to African American girls, many are achieving some success. Policy makers and service providers need to recognize the resiliency and unique needs of African American girls and develop services that ensure their needs are being fully met.

  18. Rhinoplasty in the African-American patient.

    PubMed

    Rohrich, Rod J; Muzaffar, Arshad R

    2003-03-01

    Because of the increasing popularity of rhinoplasty in the African-American patient, we delineate how a rhinoplasty surgeon can perform this challenging technique to obtain uniform and consistent results. First, we address how one can appreciate and analyze the various aesthetic concepts of beauty and the unique anatomic characteristics of the African-American nose. Second, we present a pragmatic, systematic analysis of the African-American nose. Last, we describe the techniques consistently used to modify the African-American nose while achieving or maintaining facial harmony using the open approach to rhinoplasty. Specific case analyses are presented to demonstrate utilization of the technique.

  19. An intersectional approach to social determinants of stress for African American men: men's and women's perspectives.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Derek M; Ellis, Katrina R; Allen, Julie Ober

    2013-07-01

    Stress is a key factor that helps explain racial and gender differences in health, but few studies have examined gendered stressors that affect men. This study uses an intersectional approach to examine the sources of stress in African American men's lives from the perspectives of African American men and important women in their lives. Phenomenological analysis was used to examine data from 18 exploratory focus groups with 150 African American men, ages 30 years and older, and eight groups with 77 African American women. The two primary sources of stress identified were seeking to fulfill socially and culturally important gender roles and being an African American man in a racially stratified society. A central focus of African American men's daily lives was trying to navigate chronic stressors at home and at work and a lack of time to fulfill roles and responsibilities in different life domains that are traditionally the responsibility of men. Health was rarely mentioned by men as a source of stress, though women noted that men's aging and weathering bodies were a source of stress for men. Because of the intersection of racism and economic and social stressors, men and women reported that the stress that African American men experienced was shaped by the intersection of race, ethnicity, age, marital status, and other factors that combined in unique ways. The intersection of these identities and characteristics led to stressors that were perceived to be of greater quantity and qualitatively different than the stress experienced by men of other races.

  20. African American Preschoolers' Language, Emergent Literacy Skills, and Use of African American English: A Complex Relation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Craig, Holly K.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relation between African American preschoolers' use of African American English (AAE) and their language and emergent literacy skills in an effort to better understand the perplexing and persistent difficulties many African American children experience learning to read proficiently. Method: African American…

  1. Investigating Instructional Practices of an African American Male Mathematics Teacher with Underachieving African American Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammad, Rhonda K.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the instructional practices of an experienced African American mathematics teacher to determine his perceived capabilities in augmenting academic proficiency for his African American male students. Provided in this descriptive case study are the lived experiences of an African American male teacher working to move…

  2. Disease management to promote blood pressure control among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Troyen; Spettell, Claire; Villagra, Victor; Ofili, Elizabeth; McMahill-Walraven, Cheryl; Lowy, Elizabeth J; Daniels, Pamela; Quarshie, Alexander; Mayberry, Robert

    2010-04-01

    African Americans have a higher prevalence of hypertension and poorer cardiovascular and renal outcomes than white Americans. The objective of this study was to determine whether a telephonic nurse disease management (DM) program designed for African Americans is more effective than a home monitoring program alone to increase blood pressure (BP) control among African Americans enrolled in a national health plan. A prospective randomized controlled study (March 2006-December 2007) was conducted, with 12 months of follow-up on each subject. A total of 5932 health plan members were randomly selected from the population of self-identified African Americans, age 23 and older, in health maintenance organization plans, with hypertension; 954 accepted, 638 completed initial assessment, and 485 completed follow-up assessment. The intervention consisted of telephonic nurse DM (intervention group) including educational materials, lifestyle and diet counseling, and home BP monitor vs. home BP monitor alone (control group). Measurements included proportion with BP < 120/80, mean systolic BP, mean diastolic BP, and frequency of BP self-monitoring. Results revealed that systolic BP was lower in the intervention group (adjusted means 123.6 vs. 126.7 mm Hg, P = 0.03); there was no difference for diastolic BP. The intervention group was 50% more likely to have BP in control (odds ratio [OR] = 1.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.997-2.27, P = 0.052) and 46% more likely to monitor BP at least weekly (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.07-2.00, P = 0.02) than the control group. A nurse DM program tailored for African Americans was effective at decreasing systolic BP and increasing the frequency of self-monitoring of BP to a greater extent than home monitoring alone. Recruitment and program completion rates could be improved for maximal impact.

  3. How Can Older Adults Prevent Falls?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Talk to your doctor about whether you have osteoporosis. Read More "Preventing Falls" Articles Preventing Falls / Great Help for Older Adults / How Can Older Adults Prevent Falls? / Home Improvements ...

  4. African American men's perspectives on promoting physical activity: "We're not that difficult to figure out!".

    PubMed

    Friedman, Daniela B; Hooker, Steven P; Wilcox, Sara; Burroughs, Ericka L; Rheaume, Carol E

    2012-01-01

    African American men report poorer health than do White men and have significantly greater odds for developing chronic diseases partly because of limited physical activity. Understanding how to encourage healthy behaviors among African American men will be critical in the development of effective physical activity messages and programs. Guided by principles of cultural sensitivity and social marketing, this research examined middle-aged and older African American men's recommended strategies for promoting physical activity to African American men of their age. The authors report results from 49 interviews conducted with middle-aged (45-64 years) and older (65-84 years) African American men in South Carolina. Four groups of African American men were recruited: middle-aged active men (n = 17), middle-aged inactive men (n = 12), older active men (n = 10), older inactive men (n = 10). Themes related to marketing and recruitment strategies, message content, and spokesperson characteristics emerged and differed by age and physical activity level. Recommended marketing strategies included word of mouth; use of mass media; partnering with churches, businesses, and fraternities; strategic placement of messages; culturally appropriate message framing; and careful attention to selection of program spokespersons. Findings will help in the marketing, design, implementation, and evaluation of culturally appropriate interventions to encourage physical activity among middle-aged and older African American men in the South.

  5. Depression and Cognitive Impairment Are Associated with Low Education and Literacy Status and Smoking but Not Caffeine Consumption in Urban African Americans and White Adults.

    PubMed

    Kuczmarski, Andrew V; Cotugna, Nancy; Mason, Marc A; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2015-03-01

    Background: Recent research has linked caffeine consumption with a lower risk for depression and cognitive decline. However, no studies have examined the relationship in an African American compared to a white, socioeconomically diverse representative urban sample. Methods: Data from a cross-sectional study were used to determine the associations of caffeine use with depressive symptomatology and cognition in a sample of 1,724 participants in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study. The United States Department of Agriculture's Automated Multiple Pass Method was used by trained interviewers to collect two, in-person 24-hour dietary recalls. Depressive symptoms and global cognition were assessed using two well-validated measures: the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depressive Scale (CES-D) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), respectively. Usual caffeine intake was based on both recalls. Data were analyzed with t- and chi-square tests, correlation analysis, and ordinal logistic regression. Results: African Americans consumed significantly less caffeine than did whites (89.0±3.2 and 244.0±8.7 mg respectively). Caffeine consumption was not associated with depressive symptomatology or global cognition. Age, less than 5th grade literacy, and less than high school education were significantly associated with both depressive symptoms and cognitive function. Smokers had a 43% greater risk for depression but only a 3% higher risk for cognitive impairment. Conclusion: The low level of dietary caffeine intake in combination with smoking among HANDLS study participants may have influenced the lack of association with depressive symptomatology or global cognition. For this sample, low literacy and education appear more highly associated with depressive symptoms and cognitive function than caffeine intake.

  6. Depression and Cognitive Impairment Are Associated with Low Education and Literacy Status and Smoking but Not Caffeine Consumption in Urban African Americans and White Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kuczmarski, Andrew V.; Mason, Marc A.; Evans, Michele K.; Zonderman, Alan B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent research has linked caffeine consumption with a lower risk for depression and cognitive decline. However, no studies have examined the relationship in an African American compared to a white, socioeconomically diverse representative urban sample. Methods: Data from a cross-sectional study were used to determine the associations of caffeine use with depressive symptomatology and cognition in a sample of 1,724 participants in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study. The United States Department of Agriculture's Automated Multiple Pass Method was used by trained interviewers to collect two, in-person 24-hour dietary recalls. Depressive symptoms and global cognition were assessed using two well-validated measures: the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depressive Scale (CES-D) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), respectively. Usual caffeine intake was based on both recalls. Data were analyzed with t- and chi-square tests, correlation analysis, and ordinal logistic regression. Results: African Americans consumed significantly less caffeine than did whites (89.0±3.2 and 244.0±8.7 mg respectively). Caffeine consumption was not associated with depressive symptomatology or global cognition. Age, less than 5th grade literacy, and less than high school education were significantly associated with both depressive symptoms and cognitive function. Smokers had a 43% greater risk for depression but only a 3% higher risk for cognitive impairment. Conclusion: The low level of dietary caffeine intake in combination with smoking among HANDLS study participants may have influenced the lack of association with depressive symptomatology or global cognition. For this sample, low literacy and education appear more highly associated with depressive symptoms and cognitive function than caffeine intake. PMID:25785235

  7. Religiosity and Risky Sexual Behaviors among an African American Church-based Population

    PubMed Central

    Hawes, Starlyn M.; Berkley-Patton, Jannette Y.

    2014-01-01

    African Americans are disproportionately burdened by STDs and HIV in the US. This study examined the relationships between demographics, religiosity, and sexual risk behaviors among 255 adult African American church-based participants. Although participants were highly religious, they reported an average of seven lifetime sex partners and most inconsistently used condoms. Several demographic variables and religiosity significantly predicted lifetime HIV-related risk factors. Taken together, findings indicated that this population is at risk for HIV. Future research should continue to identify correlates of risky sexual behavior among African American parishioners to facilitate the development of HIV risk reduction interventions in their church settings. PMID:23054481

  8. Older Adults and Gambling: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses the social cognitive theory model to review the literature on older adult gambling, and related personal and environment characteristics. Results show that lottery is the kind of gambling most frequently played by older adults, followed by casino games. Older adults take trips to casinos to socialize, find excitement, and win…

  9. Nutrition Goals for Older Adults: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwath, Caroline C.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses specific goals of nutrition education for older adults and high-risk groups within the elderly population through review of three crucial areas: current knowledge of eating patterns, nutrient intake, and supplement use of older adults; existing information on multiple influences on eating habits of older adults; and potential benefits…

  10. Vestibular rehabilitation of older adults with dizziness.

    PubMed

    Alrwaily, Muhammad; Whitney, Susan L

    2011-04-01

    The role of rehabilitation for treatment of older adults with dizziness and balance disorders is reviewed. Theories related to functional recovery from peripheral and central vestibular disorders are presented. Suggestions on which older adults might benefit from vestibular rehabilitation therapy are presented. Promising innovative rehabilitation strategies and technologies that might enhance recovery of the older adult with balance dysfunction are discussed.

  11. Changing Medical Students' Attitudes toward Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Ernest; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Gilbert, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Given the growth in the number of older adults and the ageist attitudes many in the health care profession hold, interventions aimed at improving health professionals' attitudes toward older adults are imperative. Vital Visionaries is an intergenerational art program designed to improve medical students' attitudes toward older adults. Participants…

  12. A Dietary Intervention in Urban African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Edgar R.; Cooper, Lisa A.; Carson, Kathryn A.; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Appel, Lawrence J.; Gayles, Debra; Charleston, Jeanne; White, Karen; You, Na; Weng, Yingjie; Martin-Daniels, L. Michelle; Bates-Hopkins, Barbara; Robb, Inez; Franz, Whitney K.; Brown, Emily L.; Halbert, Jennifer P.; Albert, Michael C.; Dalcin, Arlene T.; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Unhealthy diets, often low in potassium, likely contribute to racial disparities in blood pressure. We tested the effectiveness of providing weekly dietary advice, assistance with selection of higher potassium grocery items, and a $30 per week food allowance on blood pressure and other outcomes in African American adults with hypertension. Design We conducted an 8-week RCT with two parallel arms between May 2012 and November 2013. Setting/participants We randomized 123 African Americans with controlled hypertension from an urban primary care clinic in Baltimore, Maryland and implemented the trial in partnership with a community supermarket and the Baltimore City Health Department. Mean (SD) age was 58.6 (9.5) years, 71% were female, blood pressure was 131.3 (14.7)/77.2 (10.5) mmHg, BMI was 34.5 (8.2) kg/m2, and 28% had diabetes. Intervention Participants randomized to the active intervention group (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension [DASH]-Plus) received coach-directed dietary advice and assistance with weekly online ordering and purchasing of high-potassium foods ($30/week) delivered by a community supermarket to a neighborhood library. Participants in the control group received a printed DASH diet brochure along with debit account of equivalent value to that of the DASH-Plus group. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was blood pressure change. Analyses were conducted in January to October 2014. Results Compared with the control group, the DASH-Plus group increased self-reported consumption of fruits and vegetables (mean=1.4, 95% CI=0.7, 2.1 servings/day), estimated intake of potassium (mean=0.4, 95% CI=0.1, 0.7 grams/day), and urine potassium excretion (mean=19%, 95% CI=1%, 38%). There was no significant effect on blood pressure. Conclusions A program providing dietary advice, assistance with grocery ordering, and $30/week of high-potassium foods in African American patients with controlled hypertension in a community-based clinic did not

  13. Cochlear implantation in older adults.

    PubMed

    Lin, Frank R; Chien, Wade W; Li, Lingsheng; Clarrett, Danisa M; Niparko, John K; Francis, Howard W

    2012-09-01

    Cochlear implants allow individuals with severe to profound hearing loss access to sound and spoken language. The number of older adults in the United States who are potential candidates for cochlear implantation (CI) is approximately 150,000 and will continue to increase with the aging of the population. Should CI be routinely recommended for these older adults, and do these individuals benefit from CI? We reviewed our 12-year experience with CI in adults aged ≥60 years (n = 445) at Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions to investigate the impact of CI on speech understanding and to identify factors associated with speech performance. Complete data on speech outcomes at baseline and 1 year post-CI were available for 83 individuals. Our results demonstrate that CI in adults aged ≥60 years consistently improved speech understanding scores, with a mean increase of 60.0% (SD 24.1) on HINT (Hearing in Noise Test) sentences in quiet. The magnitude of the gain in speech scores was negatively associated with age at implantation, such that for every increasing year of age at CI the gain in speech scores was 1.3 percentage points less (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.6-1.9) after adjusting for age at hearing loss onset. Conversely, individuals with higher pre-CI speech scores (HINT scores between 40% and 60%) had significantly greater post-CI speech scores by a mean of 10.0 percentage points (95% CI, 0.4-19.6) than those with lower pre-CI speech scores (HINT <40%) after adjusting for age at CI and age at hearing loss onset. These results suggest that older adult CI candidates who are younger at implantation and with higher preoperative speech scores obtain the highest speech understanding scores after CI, with possible implications for current United States Medicare policy. Finally, we provide an extended discussion of the epidemiology and impact of hearing loss in older adults. Future research of CI in older adults should expand beyond simple speech outcomes to take

  14. Community Interventions to Improve Glycemic Control in African Americans With Type 2 Diabetes: A Systemic Review

    PubMed Central

    Smalls, Brittany L.; Walker, Rebekah J.; Bonilha, Heather S.; Campbell, Jennifer A.; Egede, Leonard E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of published community interventions to evaluate different components of community interventions and their ability to positively impact glycemic control in African Americans with T2DM. Methods: Medline, PsychInfo, and CINAHL were searched for potentially eligible studies published from January 2000 through January 2012. The following inclusion criteria were established for publications: (1) describe a community intervention, not prevention; (2) specifically indicate, in data analysis and results, the impact of the community intervention on African American adults, 18 years and older; (3) measure glycemic control (HbA1C) as an outcome measure; and (4) involve patients in a community setting, which excludes hospitals and hospital clinics. Results: Thirteen studies out of 9,233 articles identified in the search met the predetermined inclusion criteria. There were 5 randomized control trials and 3 reported improved glycemic control in the intervention group compared to the control group at the completion of the study. Of the 8 studies that were not randomized control trials, 6 showed a statistically significant change in HbA1C. Conclusion: In general, the community interventions assessed led to significant reductions in HbA1C in African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Community health workers did not have a greater impact on glycemic control in this sample. The findings of this study provides insight for designing community-based interventions in the future, such as including use of multiple delivery methods, consideration of mobile device software, nutritionist educator, and curriculum-based approaches. PMID:26156923

  15. Coping with obesity stigma affects depressed mood in African-American and white candidates for bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Fettich, Karla C; Chen, Eunice Y

    2012-05-01

    Depressed mood in severely obese, bariatric surgery-seeking candidates is influenced by obesity stigma, yet the strategies for coping with this stigma are less well understood. This study hypothesized that coping strategies are significantly associated with depressed mood above and beyond demographic factors and frequency of weight-related stigma, with specific coping strategies differing between racial groups. Severely obese, bariatric surgery-seeking adults (N = 234; 91 African Americans) completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Stigmatizing Situations Inventory (SSI). Two hierarchical linear regressions were conducted separately for African Americans and whites. For both racial groups, age, sex, BMI, years overweight, annual income, and education level did not account for a significant portion of the variance in BDI scores. The frequency of stigmatizing situations and coping strategies significantly explained 16.4% and 33.2%, respectively, of the variance for whites, and 25.9% and 25%, respectively, for African Americans (P < 0.001). Greater depressed mood in whites was associated with older age, lower education, fewer positive self-statements, and less self-love and more crying; while in African Americans greater depressed mood was associated only with ignoring the situation (P < 0.05). The study found that regardless of race, depressed mood in severely obese, bariatric surgery-seeking clients is related to the frequency of stigmatizing experiences and associated coping strategies. This suggests that efforts to reduce the deleterious effects of weight-related stigma need to focus both on reducing the frequency of stigmatization and on teaching effective coping strategies. These efforts also need to take into account the client's racial background.

  16. Vision Loss in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Allen L; Rojas-Roldan, Ledy; Coffin, Janis

    2016-08-01

    Vision loss affects 37 million Americans older than 50 years and one in four who are older than 80 years. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force concludes that current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for impaired visual acuity in adults older than 65 years. However, family physicians play a critical role in identifying persons who are at risk of vision loss, counseling patients, and referring patients for disease-specific treatment. The conditions that cause most cases of vision loss in older patients are age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, ocular complications of diabetes mellitus, and age-related cataracts. Vitamin supplements can delay the progression of age-related macular degeneration. Intravitreal injection of a vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor can preserve vision in the neovascular form of macular degeneration. Medicated eye drops reduce intraocular pressure and can delay the progression of vision loss in patients with glaucoma, but adherence to treatment is poor. Laser trabeculoplasty also lowers intraocular pressure and preserves vision in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma, but long-term studies are needed to identify who is most likely to benefit from surgery. Tight glycemic control in adults with diabetes slows the progression of diabetic retinopathy, but must be balanced against the risks of hypoglycemia and death in older adults. Fenofibrate also slows progression of diabetic retinopathy. Panretinal photocoagulation is the mainstay of treatment for diabetic retinopathy, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors slow vision loss resulting from diabetic macular edema. Preoperative testing before cataract surgery does not improve outcomes and is not recommended.

  17. African American Teaching and the Matriarchal Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffries, Rhonda Baynes

    This paper discusses the role of matriarchs in African-American culture, explaining that traditionally, African-American matriarchs arise from a combination of African norms and American social positions that naturally forces them to assume leadership conditions. The roles these women assume are a response to the desire to survive in a society…

  18. Multicultural Curriculum: African American Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Violet J.

    1991-01-01

    Traces and analyzes the history of African American children's literature defined as "culturally conscious," an authentic body of literature written about and for African American children. Discusses the current status of this literature and indicates a change in focus in the last century. Authors' perspectives, and the implications for…

  19. African American Undergraduates and the Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmire, Ethelene

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the academic library experiences of African American undergraduates attending a research university in the Midwest. Data collection techniques included questionnaires and ethnographic observations. The results indicated that African American undergraduates are using the academic library primarily to read and to study with their…

  20. Smoking Cessation in African-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    1996-01-01

    Because the smoking behavior of African Americans differs considerably from that of other groups, researchers examined differences between African Americans who did and did not use the nicotine patch as an adjunct to counseling and education for smoking cessation. Results indicated the nicotine patch significantly improved six-month cessation…

  1. Cultural Expressions of the African American Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akbar, Na'im

    Interpretations of the differences between the African American child and the Caucasian child in North America follow two major trends. In one the differences in the African American child are viewed as deviance from the Euro-American norm and therefore inferior or pathological. In the other, the differences are viewed as deviant but adaptive…

  2. A Mirror Image African American Student Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon Dawson, Candice

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a narrative inquiry research project that focuses on the collegiate experiences of African American students at both historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly white institutions (PWIs). I look at how African American college students who engage in race or culturally specific activities, the degree…

  3. Experiences of African American College Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Aundria Chephan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the reasons that African-American alumni from a historically Black university (HBCU) and a predominantly White university (PWI) chose to attend, remain in, and graduate from college. The central research question was how do African Americans describe their college experiences? The secondary research…

  4. Hidden Education among African Americans during Slavery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundaker, Grey

    2007-01-01

    Background/Context: Historical studies examine aspects of African American education in and out of school in detail (Woodson 1915, 1933, Bullock 1970, Anderson 1988, Morris 1982, Rachal 1986, Rose 1964, Webber 1978, Williams 2005). Scholars of African American literacy have noted ways that education intersects other arenas such as religion and…

  5. African Americans in the Early Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Gary B.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses five topics on African Americans that are essential to studying United States History in the years between 1760 and 1830: (1) African Americans in the Revolutionary War ; (2) the rise of free black communities; (3) early abolitionism; (4) the spread of slavery; and (5) black resistance to slavery. (CMK)

  6. Depression, Sociocultural Factors, and African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunn, Vanessa Lynn; Craig, Carlton David

    2009-01-01

    The authors discuss depression in African American women from a sociocultural perspective, including aspects of oppression and racism that affect symptom manifestation. The authors highlight John Henryism as a coping mechanism, the history and continuing role of the African American church as a safe haven, and strategies for culturally competent…

  7. Prostate Cancer Genetics in African Americans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-11-1-0566 TITLE: Prostate Cancer Genetics in African Americans PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Henry T. Lynch, MD CONTRACTING...W81XWH-11-1-0566 November 2015 Final 15Aug2011 - 14Aug2015 Prostate Cancer Genetics in African Americans Henry T. Lynch Nothing listed 36

  8. Improving African American Achievement in Geometry Honors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mims, Adrian B.

    2010-01-01

    This case study evaluated the significance of implementing an enrichment mathematics course during the summer to rising African American ninth graders entitled, "Geometry Honors Preview." In the past, 60 to 70 percent of African American students in this school district had withdrawn from Geometry Honors by the second academic quarter. This study…

  9. African Americans and World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersten, Andrew E.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the experience of African Americans during World War II on the homefront and in the armed forces. States that African Americans not only fought fascism overseas but also apartheid in the United States, also known as the "Double V." (CMK)

  10. Sexuality in Nigerian older adults

    PubMed Central

    Olatayo, Adeoti Adekunle; Kubwa, Ojo Osaze; Adekunle, Ajayi Ebenezer

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Oftentimes the older adults are assumed to be asexual as few studies explore into the sexuality of this age group worldwide and even in Nigeria. It is an important aspect of quality of life which is often neglected by people in this age group, attending physicians and the society as a whole. The study was aimed at determining the perception of older adults about sexuality, identify the factors that could militate against sexuality and fill any void in information in this regard. Methods Descriptive study conducted in one hundred older adults. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to consenting participants between 1st of September 2013 and 31st of March 2014. Results Mean age of respondents was 66.42± 5.77 years. Seventy-eight percent of the male respondents considered engaging in sexual activity as safe compared to 45.8% of the female respondents. More of the women (33.3%) regarded sexuality in the older adults as a taboo when compared to the men (5.4%). However, the men were more favourably disposed to discussing sexual problems than the women with their spouses (42% vs 20%) and Physicians (23.2% vs 0.0%). Major factors responsible for sexual inactivity were participants’ medical ailments (65%), partners’ failing health (15%) as well as anxiety about sexual performance (25%) in the men and dyspareunia (25%) in women. Conclusion There is an urgent need to correct the misconception about sexuality in this age group especially among the women and for the physicians to explore the sexual history of every patient. PMID:26977224

  11. Achieving healthy weight in African-American communities: research perspectives and priorities.

    PubMed

    Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Gary, Tiffany L; Lancaster, Kristie J; Samuel-Hodge, Carmen D; Banks-Wallace, Joanne; Beech, Bettina M; Hughes-Halbert, Chanita; Karanja, Njeri; Odoms-Young, Angela M; Prewitt, T Elaine; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C

    2005-12-01

    The longstanding high burden of obesity in African-American women and the more recent, steeper than average rise in obesity prevalence among African-American children constitute a mandate for an increased focus on obesity prevention and treatment research in African-American communities. The African-American Collaborative Obesity Research Network (AACORN) was formed to stimulate and support greater participation in framing and implementing the obesity research agenda by investigators who have both social and cultural grounding in African-American life experiences and obesity-related scientific expertise. AACORN's examination of obesity research agenda issues began in 2003 in conjunction with the Think Tank on Enhancing Obesity Research at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). The assessment was subsequently expanded to take into account the overall NIH strategic plan for obesity research, literature reviews, and descriptions of ongoing studies. In identifying priorities, AACORN members considered the quality, quantity, focus, and contextual relevance of published research relevant to obesity prevention and treatment in African-American adults or children. Fifteen recommended research priorities are presented in five categories adapted from the NHLBI Think Tank proceedings: health effects, social and environmental context, prevention and treatment, research methods, and research training and funding. These recommendations from an African-American perspective build on and reinforce certain aspects of the NHLBI and overall NIH research agendas by providing more specific rationale and directions on areas for enhancement in the type of research being done or in the conceptualization and implementation of that research.

  12. Ebony and Ivory: Relationship between African American Young Women's Skin Color and Ratings of Self and Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassar-McMillan, Sylvia; McFall-Roberts, Ebuni; Flowers, Claudia; Garrett, Michael T.

    2006-01-01

    Many individuals face discrimination because of their skin color; however, skin color of African American young adults has not been studied in detail. This study examines relationships between skin color and perceptions among African American college women. The study yielded a positive correlation between personal values and self-rated skin color …

  13. Knowledge, Beliefs and Behaviours Related to STD Risk, Prevention, and Screening among a Sample of African American Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhrig, Jennifer D.; Friedman, Allison; Poehlman, Jon; Scales, Monica; Forsythe, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Current data on sexually transmitted disease (STD) among African Americans show significant racial/ethnic disparities. The purpose of this study was to explore knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours related to STD risk, prevention, and testing among African American adults to help inform the development of a health communication…

  14. Catatonia in Older Adult Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    White, Megan; Maxwell, Edward; Milteer, Warren E.; de Leon, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Catatonia has been described in children with intellectual disabilities (IDs). These are the first three published cases of catatonia in adults older than 50 years of age with IDs. They were followed using the KANNER scale and, in one case, creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) monitoring. Case 1 is a 67-year-old Caucasian who probably had been having intermittent episodes of undiagnosed catatonia withdrawal for many years. His episodes of agitation and withdrawal behavior responded to lorazepam up to 8 mg/day. Case 2 is a 63-year-old Caucasian male who had probably had undiagnosed catatonic episodes since age 25. An agitation episode that rated 88 on Part 2 of the KANNER scale ended within minutes after he received 1 mg of intramuscular lorazepam. He had no symptom relapses for 4 years after getting stable oral lorazepam doses (3–8.5 mg/day). Case 3 is a 55-year-old African-American male with severe ID and bradycardia (with a pacemaker). He had been “institutionalized” since age 22 and his undiagnosed catatonic episodes appeared to have been intermittently present for at least the last ten years. As he became tolerant and experienced symptom relapse, oral lorazepam was slowly increased (1.5–18 mg/day). Electroconvulsive therapy was ruled out due to his pacemaker. PMID:26495148

  15. The Senior WISE study: Improving everyday memory in older adults

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, Graham J.; Becker, Heather; Pituch, Keenan; Acee, Taylor W.; Vaughan, Phillip W.; Delville, Carol L.

    2009-01-01

    We tested whether at-risk older adults receiving memory training showed better memory self-efficacy, metamemory, memory performance, and function in instrumental activities of daily living than participants receiving a health promotion training comparison condition. We followed participants for 26 months. The sample was mostly female (79%) and Caucasian (71%), with 17% Hispanics, and 12% African Americans; average age was 75 years and average education was 13 years. The memory training group made greater gains on global cognition and had fewer memory complaints, but both groups generally maintained their performance on the other cognitive measures and IADLs throughout the 24-month study period. Black and Hispanic participants made greater gains than Whites did on some memory performance measures but not on memory self-efficacy. The unexpected finding that minority elders made the largest gains merits further study. This study contributed to the knowledge base of geropsychiatric nursing by providing evidence for an effective psychosocial intervention that could be delivered by advanced practice nurses. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00094731 PMID:20851321

  16. Health seeking behaviors of African Americans: implications for health administration.

    PubMed

    Hewins-Maroney, Barbara; Schumaker, Alice; Williams, Ethel

    2005-01-01

    Disparities in health care and good health between African Americans and other populations while established in the literature are traditionally based on socioeconomic measures of race, income, age, and education (Bailey, 2000; Lillie-Blanton, Brodie, Rowland, Altman and McIntosh, 2000; Ren and Amick, 1996; Watson, 2001; Weinick, Zuvekas, and Cohen, 2000). This study broadens the scope by exploring how sociocultural (poverty, racism, prejudice, and discrimination) and psychosocial factors (perceived health status, the lack of personal efficacy in contributing to decisions about health care. feelings of helplessness, and the lack of trust in the health care providers) relate to health-seeking behaviors of African Americans (Bailey, 1991; Ren and Amick, 1996, Watson, 2001). Interviews were conducted with 111 African American adult patients at a community health center, focusing on health-seeking behaviors, and sociocultural and psychosocial factors. Results suggest that when these negative factors are removed, the health seeking behaviors of African Americans closely mirror the behaviors of the majority population. Subjects did not view themselves in poorer health, fail to seek medical attention when needed, or distrust their primary health care providers. In general, fears associated with health care were attributed to illness rather than health care providers, although a weak linkage was found between patient self-esteem and fear or dislike of future treatment by physicians (adj R2= .362, S.E. =15, F=21, sig. <.001). The study highlights the need for further study in two areas: cultural competency of health care providers, especially those from Asia and Africa who are often assigned to community health centers, and the impact of an accessible community health center on the health seeking behaviors and health status of predominately African American communities.

  17. Intimate partner violence in African American women.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Doris Williams; Sharps, Phyllis W; Gary, Faye A; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Lopez, Loretta M

    2002-01-01

    Violence against African American women, specifically intimate partner abuse, has a significant impact on their health and well being. Intimate partner femicide and near fatal intimate partner femicide are the major causes of premature death and disabling injuries for African American women. Yet, despite this, there is a paucity of research and interventions specific and culturally relevant for these women. This article focuses on issues relevant to intimate partner violence and abuse against African American women by examining existing empirical studies of prevalence and health outcomes of intimate partner violence against women in general, plus what limited research there is about African American women, specifically. It includes a discussion of specific recommendations for research, practice, education, and policy to reduce and prevent intimate partner violence against African American women.

  18. African Americans and the medical establishment.

    PubMed

    Smith, C

    1999-09-01

    The African American community's response to the AIDS epidemic has reflected the profound mistrust of the medical establishment which many African Americans feel. Among African Americans, the belief that the epidemic originated in a genocidal plot is widespread. It is thought that organized medicine has been significantly involved in this plot. If we look at African Americans' historical relationship to the medical establishment from the era of slavery to the recent past, the suspicious attitudes which make such beliefs possible can be seen as an intelligible response to a new disease which disproportionately affects African Americans. Successful medical and public health responses to the epidemic have depended and will continue to depend upon overcoming the historical legacy of suspicion and gaining the trust of the community.

  19. HMO employment and African-American physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Briscoe, Forrest; Konrad, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the level and determinants of African-American physicians' employment in health maintenance organizations (HMOs), particularly early in their careers. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 1991 and 1996 Young Physicians Surveys to assess racial differences in the likelihood of HMO employment (n = 3,705). Using multinomial logistic regression, we evaluated four explanations for an observed relationship between African-American physicians and HMO employment: human capital stratification among organizations, race-based affinity between physicians and patients, financial constraints due to debt burden, and different organizational hiring practices. Using binomial logistic regression, we also evaluated differences in the odds of being turned down for a prior practice position, of subsequently leaving the current practice organization and of later having career doubts. RESULTS: Without any controls, African-American physicians were 4.52 times more likely to practice in HMOs than Caucasian physicians. After controlling for human capital stratification, racial concordance and financial constraints, African-American physicians remained 2.48 times more likely to practice in HMOs than Caucasian physicians. In addition, 19.2% of African-American physicians in HMOs reported being turned down for another job, far more than any other racial/ethnic group in the HMO setting and any racial/ethnic group, including African-American physicians in the non-HMO setting (including all other practice locations). Five years later, those same African-American physicians from HMOs also reported significantly more turnover (7.50 times more likely than non-HMO African-American physicians to leave their current practice) and doubt about their careers (2.17 times more likely than non-HMO African-American physicians to express serious career doubts). CONCLUSIONS: African-American physicians were disproportionately hired into HMO settings, impacting their subsequent careers. PMID

  20. The Lived Experience of Depression in Elderly African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Black, Helen K.; White, Tracela; Hannum, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This article focuses on the lived experience of depression in 20 elderly African American women. Methods Data on depression emerged from research that qualitatively explored experiences of depression, sadness, and suffering in 120 community-dwelling persons aged 80 and older, stratified by gender, ethnicity, and self-reported health. Results We placed women’s narratives under three general themes: Depression was (a) linked with diminishment of personal strength, (b) related to sadness and suffering, and (c) preventable or resolvable through personal responsibility. Brief accounts illustrate how themes emerged in women’s discussion of depression. Discussion African American women created a language for depression that was rooted in their personal and cultural history and presented in vivid vignettes through their life stories. Their belief systems and the language they used to describe depression are integral aspects of the lived experience of depression. PMID:18079427

  1. Factors influencing enrollment of African Americans in the Look AHEAD trial

    PubMed Central

    Mount, David L; Davis, Cralen; Kennedy, Betty; Raatz, Susan; Dotson, Kathy; Gary-Webb, Tiffany L; Thomas, Sheikilya; Johnson, Karen C; Espeland, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    Background Many factors have been identified that influence the recruitment of African Americans into clinical trials; however, the influence of eligibility criteria may not be widely appreciated. We used the experience from the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) trial screening process to examine the differential impact eligibility criteria had on the enrollment of African Americans compared to other volunteers. Methods Look AHEAD is a large randomized clinical trial to examine whether assignment to an intensive lifestyle intervention designed to produce and maintain weight loss reduces the long-term risk of major cardiovascular events in adults with type 2 diabetes. Differences in the screening, eligibility, and enrollment rates between African Americans and members of other racial/ethnic groups were examined to identify possible reasons. Results Look AHEAD screened 28,735 individuals for enrollment, including 6226 (21.7%) who were self-identified African Americans. Of these volunteers, 12.9% of the African Americans compared to 19.3% of all other screenees ultimately enrolled (p < 0.001). African Americans no more often than others were lost to follow-up or refused to attend clinic visits to establish eligibility. Furthermore, the enrollment rates of individuals with histories of cardiovascular disease and diabetes therapy did not markedly differ between the ethnic groups. Higher prevalence of adverse levels of blood pressure, heart rate, HbA1c, and serum creatinine among African American screenees accounted for the greater proportions excluded (all p < 0.001). Conclusions Compared to non-African Americans, African American were more often ineligible for the Look AHEAD trial due to comorbid conditions. Monitoring trial eligibility criteria for differential impact, and modifying them when appropriate, may ensure greater enrollment yields. PMID:22064686

  2. Both young and older adults discount suggestions from older adults on a social memory test.

    PubMed

    Davis, Sara D; Meade, Michelle L

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, we examined the impacts of participant age and confederate age on social memory processes. During a collaborative recall phase, young and older adult participants were exposed to the erroneous memory reports of a young or an older adult confederate. On a subsequent individual recall test, young and older adult participants were equally likely to incorporate the confederates' erroneous suggestions into their memory reports, suggesting that participant age had a minimal effect on social memory processes. However, confederate age did have a marked effect: Young adult participants were less likely to incorporate misleading suggestions from older adult confederates and less likely to report "remembering" items suggested by older adult confederates. Critically, older adult participants were also less likely to incorporate misleading information from fellow older adult confederates. Both young and older adult participants discounted older adult confederates' contributions to a memory test.

  3. Prostate-specific antigen test use and digital rectal examinations among African-American men, 2002-2006.

    PubMed

    Ross, Louie E; Meade, Shelly-Ann; Powe, Barbara D; Howard, Daniel L

    2009-07-01

    African-American men experience greater incidence and mortality from prostate cancer compared to White men as well as men from other groups. Few studies have examined prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and digital rectal examination (DRE) use in African-American men. This study examined use of the PSA test and DRE among African-American men over time and identified correlates associated with the use of these procedures. Overall trends for years 2002-2006 showed a significant decrease in recent PSA test use and DRE among African-American men in 2004 and 2006 compared to year 2002. Recent PSA test use and DRE were associated with several factors including older ages, being married, higher levels of education and income, and overweight and obese body mass index (BMI). PSA test use and DRE among African-American men should be monitored over time to find out if this pattern continues.

  4. African-American community attitudes and perceptions toward schizophrenia and medical research: an exploratory study.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Lynnae A.; Aliyu, Muktar H.; Lyons, Paul D.; May, Roberta; Swanson, Charlie L.; Savage, Robert; Go, Rodney C. P.

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Ensuring adequate representation of all demographic groups in medical research is necessary in order to ensure that the benefits associated with participation are equitably shared. Mental health research is unique in that the stigma associated with mental illness, such as schizophrenia, further hinders participation. Using focus groups, we set out to explore the attitudes and views of African Americans with regard to schizophrenia and medical research. METHODS: Four focus group discussions were conducted, with 23 participants divided into two groups of working and retired adults, and two groups of full- and part-time students selected from inner-city residents of Birmingham, AL, and surrounding counties. Data obtained were analyzed using the content analysis method. RESULTS: Diverse views were expressed about the cause of mental illness, and much of this was influenced by cultural beliefs. There was considerable misunderstanding of schizophrenia, and the majority of participants described the disease in terms of positive symptoms only. Whereas for older participants the Tuskegee syphilis study experience was an important factor in their reluctance to participate in medical research, younger participants expressed no knowledge of the study. Among younger participants an assumed level of social distrust was evident, with prominent fear of participating in research that employs physically intrusive methods. CONCLUSION: The provision of accurate information through trusted community sources and open dialogue will help to dispel myths, correct faulty assumptions and increase African-American participation in schizophrenia research. PMID:16532974

  5. Healthy Eating and Risks of Total and Cause-Specific Death among Low-Income Populations of African-Americans and Other Adults in the Southeastern United States: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Danxia; Sonderman, Jennifer; Buchowski, Maciej S.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Steinwandel, Mark; Signorello, Lisa B.; Zhang, Xianglan; Hargreaves, Margaret K.; Blot, William J.; Zheng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background A healthy diet, as defined by the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA), has been associated with lower morbidity and mortality from major chronic diseases in studies conducted in predominantly non-Hispanic white individuals. It is unknown whether this association can be extrapolated to African-Americans and low-income populations. Methods and Findings We examined the associations of adherence to the DGA with total and cause-specific mortality in the Southern Community Cohort Study, a prospective study that recruited 84,735 American adults, aged 40–79 y, from 12 southeastern US states during 2002–2009, mostly through community health centers that serve low-income populations. The present analysis included 50,434 African-Americans, 24,054 white individuals, and 3,084 individuals of other racial/ethnic groups, among whom 42,759 participants had an annual household income less than US$15,000. Usual dietary intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Adherence to the DGA was measured by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), 2010 and 2005 editions (HEI-2010 and HEI-2005, respectively). During a mean follow-up of 6.2 y, 6,906 deaths were identified, including 2,244 from cardiovascular disease, 1,794 from cancer, and 2,550 from other diseases. A higher HEI-2010 score was associated with lower risks of disease death, with adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.73–0.86) for all-disease mortality, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.70–0.94) for cardiovascular disease mortality, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.69–0.95) for cancer mortality, and 0.77 (95% CI, 0.67–0.88) for other disease mortality, when comparing the highest quintile with the lowest (all p-values for trend < 0.05). Similar inverse associations between HEI-2010 score and mortality were observed regardless of sex, race, and income (all p-values for interaction > 0.50). Several component scores in the HEI-2010, including whole grains, dairy, seafood and plant proteins, and ratio

  6. Results of a Culturally Adapted Internet-Enhanced Physical Activity Pilot Intervention for Overweight and Obese Young Adult African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Rodney P.; Pekmezi, Dori; Dutton, Gareth R.; Cherrington, Andrea L.; Kim, Young-II; Allison, Jeroan J.; Durant, Nefertiti H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated a culturally relevant, social cognitive theory–based, Internet-enhanced physical activity (PA) pilot intervention developed for overweight/obese African American (AA) female college students. Design Using a 3-month, single group, pretest–posttest design, participants accessed a culturally relevant PA promotion website and engaged in four moderate-intensity PA sessions each week. Results Study completers (n = 25, mean age = 21.9 years) reported a decrease in sedentary screen time (p < .0001); however, no changes in moderate-to-vigorous PA were reported (p = .150). A significant increase in self-regulation for PA (p < .0001) and marginally significant increases in social support (p = .052) and outcome expectations (p = .057) for PA were observed. No changes in body mass index (p = .162), PA enjoyment (p = .151), or exercise self-efficacy (p = .086) were reported. Conclusions Findings of this exploratory study show some preliminary support for Internet-enhanced approaches to promote PA among overweight/obese AA women. Implications for Practice Future studies with larger samples are needed to further explore culturally relevant Internet-enhanced PA programs in this underserved population. PMID:24934566

  7. Changing medical students' attitudes toward older adults.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Ernest; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Gilbert, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Given the growth in the number of older adults and the ageist attitudes many in the health care profession hold, interventions aimed at improving health professionals' attitudes toward older adults are imperative. Vital Visionaries is an intergenerational art program designed to improve medical students' attitudes toward older adults. Participants met for four 2-hour sessions at local art museums to create and discuss art. Three hundred and twenty-eight individuals (112 treatment group, 96 comparison, 120 older adults) in eight cities participated in the program and evaluation. Participants completed pre-and postsurveys that captured their attitude toward older adults, perception of commonality with older adults, and career plans. Findings suggest that medical students' attitudes toward old adults were positive at pretest. However, Vital Visionary students became more positive in their attitudes toward older adults at posttest (p < .001), with a moderate effect size, G = .60, and they felt they had more in common with older adults at posttest (p < .001), with a moderate effect size, G = .64. The program did not influence their career plans (p = .35). Findings from this demonstration project suggest that socializing medical students with healthy older adults through art programs can foster positive attitudes and enhance their sense of commonality with older adults.

  8. Young Adult Utilization of a Smoking Cessation Website: An Observational Study Comparing Young and Older Adult Patterns of Use

    PubMed Central

    Ilakkuvan, Vinu; Graham, Amanda L; Richardson, Amanda; Xiao, Haijun; Mermelstein, Robin J; Curry, Susan J; Sporer, Amy K; Vallone, Donna M

    2016-01-01

    (18-24 years: AOR 0.61, 95% CI 0.48-0.79, P<.001; 25-34 years: AOR 0.73, 95% CI 0.60-0.88, P<.001), or utilize Separation Exercises (18-24 years: AOR 0.68, 95% CI 0.51-0.89, P<.01; 25-34 years: AOR 0.77, 95% CI 0.63-0.94, P<.01). Gender differences in utilization were more pronounced among young adults compared with older adults, with lower levels of utilization among young men than young women. For all age groups, utilization was higher among whites and African Americans than among Hispanics and other racial minorities, with one exception—BecomeAnEX.org community utilization was significantly higher among Hispanic young adults compared with white and African American young adults. Conclusions Results point to important areas of inquiry for future research and development efforts. Research should focus on enhancing demand and increasing engagement among younger adults and men, examining strategies for capitalizing on young adult developmental needs, and increasing utilization of effective site features among diverse young adult users. PMID:27401019

  9. African American cancer patients' pain experience.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Lim, Hyun-Ju; Clark, Maresha; Chee, Wonshik

    2008-01-01

    Although very little is known about African American cancer patients' pain experience, a few studies have indicated that their cancer pain experience is unique and somewhat different from that of other ethnic groups. The purpose of the study reported in this article was to explore African American cancer patients' pain experience using an online forum. This study was a qualitative online forum designed from a feminist perspective and conducted among 11 African American cancer patients who were recruited through both Internet and real settings. Nine online forum topics were used to administer the 6-month online forum, and the data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Four themes emerged through the data analysis process. First, participants viewed cancer as a challenge in life that they should fight against. Second, cancer pain was differentiated from ordinary pain because cancer was stigmatized in their culture. Third, participants viewed that African Americans, especially women, were culturally raised to be strong, and this African American cultural heritage inhibited cancer patients from expressing pain and seeking help for pain management. Finally, the findings indicated certain changes in perspectives among African American cancer patients during the disease process, which might make them tolerate pain through praying to God and reading the Bible. Based on the findings, we suggest further studies among diverse groups of African American cancer patients, with a focus on cultural attitudes toward cancer pain and influences of family on cancer pain experience.

  10. Strategies for research recruitment and retention of older adults of racial and ethnic minorities.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Graham J; Simpson, Gaynell; Friend, Mary Louanne

    2015-05-01

    racial and ethnic minorities in cognitive aging research. DISCLOSURE STATEMENT Neither the planners nor the authors have any conflicts of interest to disclose. The numbers of Hispanic and African American older adults in the United States are expected to increase by 86% and more than 31%, respectively. African American and Hispanic American individuals are more likely than Caucasian individuals to have chronic health conditions, and researchers have argued that these health disparities may contribute to their higher rates of dementia-related illnesses. The current article explores strategies to improve participation in cognitive aging research by older adults, particularly minority older adults. The cultural aspects of cognitive aging are examined, especially the role of stigma and stereotype threat. The perceptions of cognitive aging of African American and Hispanic older adults are also described. Specific strategies are presented that have been successfully implemented to improve recruitment and retention in research targeting minority older adults. Strategies that yielded retention of minority older adults included advertising and marketing a randomized clinical trial, media relations, intervention tailoring, and adaptation of psychometric instruments.

  11. Social Environment and Sexual Risk-Taking among Gay and Transgender African American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Robin; Bernadini, Stephen; Jemmott, John B.

    2014-01-01

    More prevention effort is required as the HIV epidemic increases among gay and transgender African American youth. Using ecological systems theory and an integrative model of behaviour change, this study examines the sexual behaviour of gay and transgender African American young people as embedded within the unique social and structural environments affecting this population. Also examined is the important role played by mobile technology in the social and sexual lives of individuals. Seven focus groups were conducted with 54 African American young adults in a northeastern U.S. city. The findings provide a rich examination of the social and sexual lives of gay and transgender African American youth, focusing on the social environment and the impact of the environment on sexual risk behaviour. PMID:23889233

  12. Marriage and Health in the Transition to Adulthood: Evidence for African Americans in Add Health.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Lee, Hedwig; Deleone, Felicia Yang

    2010-08-01

    This paper examines the relationship between early marriage (before age 26), cohabitation, and health for African Americans and whites during the transition to adulthood using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). We examine three categories of health outcomes relevant to young adulthood: physical health, mental health, and health risk behaviors. Lagged dependent variable models are used to examine the health effects of early marriage and cohabitation accounting for potential health selection into unions. Our results indicate that early marriage by young adults does not have protective effects for African Americans, and finds more negative effects for African American men than women. There are mixed results for whites with some protective effects of marriage for binge drinking. Early marriage for both African Americans and whites is associated with increased Body Mass Index (BMI). Cohabitation is uniformly associated with negative health outcomes for all race and sex groups.

  13. Social environment and sexual risk-taking among gay and transgender African American youth.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Robin; Bernadini, Stephen; Jemmott, John B

    2013-01-01

    More prevention effort is required as the HIV epidemic increases among gay and transgender African American youth. Using ecological systems theory and an integrative model of behaviour change, this study examines the sexual behaviour of gay and transgender African American young people as embedded within the unique social and structural environments affecting this population. Also examined is the important role played by mobile technology in the social and sexual lives of individuals. Seven focus groups were conducted with 54 African American young adults in a northeastern US city. The findings provide a rich examination of the social and sexual lives of gay and transgender African American youth, focusing on the social environment and the impact of the environment on sexual-risk behaviour.

  14. Underactive Bladder in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Yao-Chi; Plata, Mauricio; Lamb, Laura E; Chancellor, Michael B

    2015-11-01

    Overactive bladder is one of the most common bladder problems, but an estimated 20 million Americans have underactive bladder (UAB), which makes going to the bathroom difficult, increases the risk of urinary tract infections, and even leads to institutionalization. This article provides an overview of UAB in older adults, and discusses the prevalence, predisposing factors, cause, clinical investigations, and treatments. At present, there is no effective therapy for UAB. A great deal of work still needs to be done on understanding the pathogenesis and the development of effective therapies.

  15. Research Lumbar Punctures among African Americans and Caucasians: Perception Predicts Experience

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Jennifer C.; Parker, Monica W.; Watts, Kelly D.; Kollhoff, Alexander; Tsvetkova, Dobromira Z.; Hu, William T.

    2016-01-01

    African Americans are under-represented in Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-related biomarker studies, and it has been speculated that mistrust plays a major factor in the recruitment of African Americans for studies involving invasive procedures such as the lumbar puncture (LP). We set out to determine factors associated with non-participation in a biomarker study aiming to explore cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AD biomarker differences between older African Americans and Caucasians. We also surveyed participants’ procedure-related perception (a standard medical procedure vs. a frightening invasive procedure) and reluctance, as well as the rate and type of post-procedure discomfort and complications. Among 288 subjects approached for study participation, 145 (50.3%) refused participation with concerns over LP being the most commonly reported reason. Relatively more African Americans than Caucasians reported concerns over LP as the main reason for non-participation (46% vs. 25%, p = 0.03), but more African Americans also did not provide a specific reason for non-participation. Among those who completed study participation (including the LP), African Americans and Caucasians were similar in pre-LP perceptions and reluctance, as well as post-LP rates of discomfort or complication. Perceiving LP as a frightening invasive procedure, not race, is associated with increased likelihood of post-LP discomfort or complication (RR 6.2, 95% confidence interval 1.1–37.0). Our results indicate that LP is a well perceived procedure in a cohort of African American and Caucasian research participants, and is associated with few serious complications. The pre-procedure perception that the LP is a frightening invasive procedure significantly increases the risk of self-reported discomfort of complications, and African Americans may be more likely to turn down study participation because of the LP. Future studies will need to address factors associated with negative LP perceptions to further

  16. The Cultural Relevance of Mindfulness Meditation as a Health Intervention for African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Woods-Giscombé, Cheryl L.; Gaylord, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    African Americans experience a disproportionate rate of stress-related health conditions compared to European Americans. Mindfulness meditation has been shown to be effective for managing stress and various stress-related health conditions. This study explored the cultural relevance of mindfulness meditation training for African Americans adults. Fifteen African American adults with past or current experience with mindfulness meditation training were interviewed. Participants felt that mindfulness meditation helped them with enhanced stress management, direct health improvement, and enhanced self-awareness and purposefulness. They felt that they would recommend it and that other African Americans would be open to the practice but suggested that its presentation may need to be adapted. They suggested emphasizing the health benefits, connecting it to familiar spiritual ideology and cultural practices, supplementing the reading material with African American writers, increasing communication (education, instructor availability, “buddy system,” etc.), and including African Americans as instructors and participants. By implementing minor adaptations that enhance cultural relevance, mindfulness meditation can be a beneficial therapeutic intervention for this population. PMID:24442592

  17. Heart Failure in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Butrous, Hoda; Hummel, Scott L

    2016-09-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a leading cause of morbidity, hospitalization, and mortality in older adults and a growing public health problem placing a huge financial burden on the health care system. Many challenges exist in the assessment and management of HF in geriatric patients, who often have coexisting multimorbidity, polypharmacy, cognitive impairment, and frailty. These complex "geriatric domains" greatly affect physical and functional status as well as long-term clinical outcomes. Geriatric patients have been under-represented in major HF clinical trials. Nonetheless, available data suggest that guideline-based medical and device therapies improve morbidity and mortality. Nonpharmacologic strategies, such as exercise training and dietary interventions, are an active area of research. Targeted geriatric evaluation, including functional and cognitive assessment, can improve risk stratification and guide management in older patients with HF. Clinical trials that enroll older patients with multiple morbidities and HF and evaluate functional status and quality of life in addition to mortality and cardiovascular morbidity should be encouraged to guide management of this age group.

  18. Modified MyPyramid for Older Adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1999 we proposed a Modified Food Guide Pyramid for 70+ Adults. It has been extensively used in a variety of settings and formats to highlight the unique dietary challenges of older adults. We now propose a Modified MyPyramid for Older Adults in a format consistent with the MyPyramid graphic. I...

  19. Mediterranean Diet and Depressive Symptoms Among Older Adults Over Time

    PubMed Central

    Skarupski, K.A.; Tangney, C.C.; Li, H.; Evans, D.A.; Morris, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine whether adherence to a Mediterranean-based dietary pattern is predictive of depressive symptoms among older adults. Design Generalized estimating equation models were used to test the association between a Mediterranean-based dietary pattern and depressive symptoms over time. Models were adjusted for age, sex, race, education, income, widowhood, antidepressant use, total calorie intake, body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, number of self-reported medical conditions, cognitive function, and physical disability. Setting Chicago, Illinois. Participants Community-dwelling participants (n=3502) of the Chicago Health and Aging Project aged 65+ years (59% African American) who had no evidence of depression at the baseline. Measurements Adherence to a Mediterranean-based dietary pattern was assessed by the MedDietScore. Dietary evaluation was performed with a food frequency questionnaire at baseline and related to incident depression as measured by the presence of four or more depressive symptoms from the 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Results Over an average follow-up of 7.2 years, greater adherence to a Mediterranean-based diet was associated with a reduced number of newly occurring depressive symptoms (parameter estimate = -0.002, standard error = 0.001; p = 0.04). The annual rate of developing depressive symptoms was 98.6% lower among persons in the highest tertile of a Mediterranean-based dietary pattern compared with persons in the lowest tertile group. Conclusion Our results support the hypothesis that adherence to a diet comprised of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, fish, and legumes may protect against the development of depressive symptoms in older age. PMID:23636545

  20. Prescription use disorders in older adults.

    PubMed

    Kalapatapu, Raj K; Sullivan, Maria A

    2010-01-01

    The number of older adults needing substance abuse treatment is projected to rise significantly in the next few decades. This paper will focus on the epidemic of prescription use disorders in older adults. Particular vulnerabilities of older adults to addiction will be considered. Specifically, the prevalence and patterns of use of opioids, stimulants, and benzodiazepines will be explored, including the effects of these substances on morbidity and mortality. Treatment intervention strategies will be briefly discussed, and areas for future research are suggested.

  1. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Coombs, Catherine C; Falchi, Lorenzo; Weinberg, J Brice; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Lanasa, Mark C

    2012-11-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most prevalent leukemia in the United States with almost 4390 attributable deaths per year. Epidemiologic data compiled by the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program identifies important differences in incidence and survival for African Americans with CLL. Although the incidence of CLL is lower among African Americans than among Caucasians (4.6 and 6.2 per 100 000 men, respectively), age-adjusted survival is inferior. African American patients with CLL are almost twice as likely to die from a CLL-related complication in the first 5 years after diagnosis as are Caucasian patients with CLL. The biologic basis for these observations is almost entirely unexplored, and a comprehensive clinical analysis of African American patients with CLL is lacking. This is the subject of the present review.

  2. HIV/AIDS among African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... person’s chance of getting or transmitting HIV. The poverty rate is higher among African Americans than other racial/ethnic groups. The socioeconomic issues associated with poverty—including limited access to high-quality health care, ...

  3. Mellonee Burnim on African American Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Patricia Shehan

    1995-01-01

    Describes the role and influence of Mellonee Burnim on U.S. music education. Discusses the origins and impact of African American gospel music. Includes a list of selected resources and two lesson plans featuring gospel music. (CFR)

  4. Pulmonary issues in the older adult.

    PubMed

    Frederick, Delia E

    2014-03-01

    This article elicits why critical care nurses need to become aware of the pulmonary issues of older adults. The population of older adults is increasing. Older adults undergo anatomic and physiologic changes of the protective mechanisms of the pulmonary system. These changes alter the rate and effort of breathing. Speech is slowed because of expiratory strength effort. Cognition changes may be the only indication of impaired oxygenation. Bedside nursing care provides protection from pulmonary complications. Health behaviors of smoking cessation, oral hygiene, and exercise promote pulmonary health even in older adults.

  5. Religious involvement, beliefs about God, and the sense of mattering among older adults.

    PubMed

    Schieman, Scott; Bierman, Alex; Ellison, Christopher G

    2010-01-01

    Using data from a 2001–2002 sample of adults aged 65 and older living in the Washington, DC metropolitan area, we examine the associations among religious involvement (as measured by the frequency of attendance at religious services and praying), the belief in divine control, and the sense of mattering—a key component of the self-concept. We also assess the extent to which these patterns vary by gender, race, and education. Findings indicate indirect effects of religious attendance on mattering through divine control beliefs and the frequency of social contact. Praying increases mattering indirectly only through divine control beliefs. Moreover, divine control beliefs are more strongly associated with mattering among women, African Americans, and individuals with less education. We discuss the contribution of these findings for theory about the links between religious involvement, beliefs about God, and psychosocial resources, and the influence of core dimensions of social status and stratification.

  6. Comparison of baseline characteristics and one-year outcomes between African-Americans and Caucasians undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Leborgne, Laurent; Cheneau, Edouard; Wolfram, Roswitha; Pinnow, Ellen E; Canos, Daniel A; Pichard, Augusto D; Suddath, William O; Satler, Lowell F; Lindsay, Joseph; Waksman, Ron

    2004-02-15

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether there are race-based differences in baseline characteristics and in short- or long-term outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). African-Americans have a higher incidence of coronary artery disease but are less likely to undergo coronary revascularization than Caucasians. Little is known about the profiles and outcomes of African-Americans who undergo PCI. Consecutive series of 1,268 African-Americans and 10,561 Caucasians with symptomatic coronary artery disease who underwent PCI between January 1994 and June 2001 were analyzed. Patients hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction were excluded. African-Americans were older, were more likely to be women, and had more co-morbid baseline conditions compared with Caucasians. Preprocedure lesion characteristics were similar with regard to vessel size, length, and complexity. The rate of clinical success did not differ between the groups. African-Americans experienced more in-hospital combined events of death and Q-wave myocardial infarction (p = 0.03). After propensity score adjustment, African-American race was not an independent predictor for in-hospital events. At 1 year, African-Americans had a slightly lower rate of target lesion revascularization and a 50% higher rate of death (9.8% vs. 6.4%, p <0.001), with a relative risk of 1.52 (95% confidence interval 1.22 to 1.89). In multivariate analysis, African-American race remained a significant predictor of increased 1-year mortality (hazard ratio 1.35, 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 1.71, p = 0.01). African-Americans undergoing angioplasty have more co-morbid baseline conditions than Caucasians. Despite similar clinical success, 1-year outcomes are impaired in African-Americans.

  7. Framing body size among African American women and girls.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ellen P; Wyatt, Sharon B; Winters, Karen

    2013-09-01

    Obesity continues to affect African Americans in epidemic proportions, particularly among women and adolescent females. Perceptions, beliefs, behaviors, and body sizes of adolescents are associated with those of their mothers, yet little is known about the transgenerational meanings and experiences of obese African American adolescent girls and their mothers. An interpretive phenomenological study was conducted with seven African American adolescents between the ages of 11 and 17, and their adult female caregivers. Audio-taped interviews were transcribed and analyzed by a multicultural interpretive team. Two constitutive patterns and associated themes were identified. One pattern, 'Framing: sizing it up; sizing it down', with its three associated themes is presented. Mothers and daughters are engaged in multiple common practices in which they self-define body size, while protecting their self-esteem and self-image. This pattern illustrates how the women and girls created an image of their bodies as they confronted and acknowledged their self-perceptions, compared themselves to others in their environment, and evaluated themselves against specific parameters of acceptable size.

  8. Engaging Older Adults in High Impact Volunteering that Enhances Health: Recruitment and Retention in the Experience Corps® Baltimore

    PubMed Central

    Frick, Kevin; Glass, Thomas A.; Carlson, Michelle; Tanner, Elizabeth; Ricks, Michelle; Fried, Linda P.

    2006-01-01

    Engagement in social and generative activities has benefits for the well-being of older adults; hence, methods for broadly engaging them in such activities are desired. Experience Corps Baltimore, a social model for health promotion for older adult volunteers in public schools, offers insight to such successful recruitment and retention. We report on data over a 4-year period in Baltimore City, Maryland, and describe a five-stage screening process implemented to recruit a diverse group of senior volunteers who would remain in the program for at least 1 year. The sample consisted of 443 older adults expressing an interest in and screened for volunteering. Comparisons were made with Chi-square and Fisher’s t-test between those who entered the program and those who did not and those who were retained in the program. Gender, race, age group, and prior volunteering were significant in ultimate volunteer service in the schools. Overall, 38% of 443 persons recruited entered the schools; 94% of participants were over 60 years (p = 0.05) with a mean age of 69 years; 90% were women (p = 0.03), and 93% African-American (p = 0.005); 57% had not volunteered in the past year (p = 0.004). Ninety-two percent were retained in the first year; 80% returned a second year. Among the latter, 83% had <12 years of education (p = 0.001). Participants remained in the program for a second year of volunteering regardless of baseline MMSE score, self-reported health, and motivation for volunteering. In conclusion, it is possible to recruit and retain a diverse pool of older adults to participate in a high-intensity volunteer program, including non-traditional volunteers. Of special note is the success in recruiting African-American women and those with lower education, who may particularly benefit from health promotion. PMID:16758336

  9. Engaging older adults in high impact volunteering that enhances health: recruitment and retention in The Experience Corps Baltimore.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Iveris L; Frick, Kevin; Glass, Thomas A; Carlson, Michelle; Tanner, Elizabeth; Ricks, Michelle; Fried, Linda P

    2006-09-01

    Engagement in social and generative activities has benefits for the well-being of older adults; hence, methods for broadly engaging them in such activities are desired. Experience Corps Baltimore, a social model for health promotion for older adult volunteers in public schools, offers insight to such successful recruitment and retention. We report on data over a 4-year period in Baltimore City, Maryland, and describe a five-stage screening process implemented to recruit a diverse group of senior volunteers who would remain in the program for at least 1 year. The sample consisted of 443 older adults expressing an interest in and screened for volunteering. Comparisons were made with Chi-square and Fisher's t-test between those who entered the program and those who did not and those who were retained in the program. Gender, race, age group, and prior volunteering were significant in ultimate volunteer service in the schools. Overall, 38% of 443 persons recruited entered the schools; 94% of participants were over 60 years (p = 0.05) with a mean age of 69 years; 90% were women (p = 0.03), and 93% African-American (p = 0.005); 57% had not volunteered in the past year (p = 0.004). Ninety-two percent were retained in the first year; 80% returned a second year. Among the latter, 83% had <12 years of education (p = 0.001). Participants remained in the program for a second year of volunteering regardless of baseline MMSE score, self-reported health, and motivation for volunteering. In conclusion, it is possible to recruit and retain a diverse pool of older adults to participate in a high-intensity volunteer program, including non-traditional volunteers. Of special note is the success in recruiting African-American women and those with lower education, who may particularly benefit from health promotion.

  10. African American Pastors' Beliefs and Actions Regarding Childhood Incest in the African American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Tesia Denis

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study sought to explore African American pastors' beliefs and actions regarding childhood incest in the African American community and their decisions to inform the proper authorities. This exploratory study was developed in order to draw both public and academic attention to the understudied phenomenon of childhood incest within…

  11. The Pedagogy of African American Parents: Learning from Educational Excellence in the African American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Audrey P.

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study of how parents teach their children to excel academically in the African American community seeks to establish the validity of the pedagogical practices of working class African American families by investigating the educational leadership of two families on Chicago's south side. The study acknowledges the significance of…

  12. Marketing Public Health Through Older Adult Volunteering: Experience Corps as a Social Marketing Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Elizabeth K.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Xue, Qian-Li; Rebok, George W.; Frick, Kevin D.; Carlson, Michelle C.; Wang, Tao; Piferi, Rachel L.; McGill, Sylvia; Whitfield, Keith E.; Fried, Linda P.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We present a social marketing conceptual framework for Experience Corps Baltimore City (EC) in which the desired health outcome is not the promoted product or behavior. We also demonstrate the feasibility of a social marketing–based recruitment campaign for the first year of the Baltimore Experience Corps Trial (BECT), a randomized, controlled trial of the health benefits of EC participation for older adults. Methods. We recruited older adults from the Baltimore, MD, area. Participants randomized to the intervention were placed in public schools in volunteer roles designed to increase healthy behaviors. We examined the effectiveness of a recruitment message that appealed to generativity (i.e., to make a difference for the next generation), rather than potential health benefits. Results. Among the 155 participants recruited in the first year of the BECT, the average age was 69 years; 87% were women and 85% were African American. Participants reported primarily generative motives as their reason for interest in the BECT. Conclusions. Public health interventions embedded in civic engagement have the potential to engage older adults who might not respond to a direct appeal to improve their health. PMID:20167888

  13. Mentor relationships and the career development of pregnant and parenting African-American teenagers.

    PubMed

    Klaw, E L; Rhodes, J E

    1995-12-01

    This study examined data from an alternative school among African-American pregnant and parenting teenagers in order to gauge the extent to which mentors were associated with positive educational and career outcomes. Interviews were conducted during 1992-93 among most who were attending the school at that time. The study included 204 African-American adolescents aged 11-19 years. 61% were expecting their first birth, 34% had a child already, and 5% had 2 or more prior children. No one was ever married. 66.2% lived on welfare benefits. A mentor is one who was an older adult, who was someone the child could count on, who believed or cared deeply about the child, who inspired the child to do the best, and the relationship affected the choices made. Mentors are looked up to as role models for the kind of person one would like to be or for the kind of career one would like to have. Study participants rated mentors on a scale of 1-5 on each characteristic. Other measures include the occupational aspiration-expectation gap, career related activities, opportunity structure beliefs, and life optimism. Findings show that 57.8% had adult mentors, and 46.3% knew their mentors for at least 15 years or more. 80% expected to maintain their relationship with the mentor indefinitely. 32% nominated aunts, and 25.7% nominated grandmothers. 47.7% reported seeing mentors daily. 48% saw their mentors at least once a week. 66% reported expectations that were equal to aspirations. The path analysis indicates that all paths between career activities, beliefs about opportunities, and life optimism were significantly associated with mentor support. The model suggests that increased life optimism from mentor support may directly and indirectly lead to beliefs in education as an opportunity structure and career related activities. The authors suggest encouraging adolescents to reach out to supportive adults.

  14. Exploring Older Adults' Health Information Seeking Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manafo, Elizabeth; Wong, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore older adults' (55-70 years) health information-seeking behaviors. Methods: Using a qualitative methodology, based on grounded theory, data were collected using in-depth interviews. Participants were community-living, older adults in Toronto, Canada who independently seek nutrition and health information. Interview transcripts…

  15. Health Contract with Sedentary Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, David; Rhodes, Darson

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Health educators used health contracts with sedentary older adults for the purpose of increasing exercise or physical activity. Design and Methods: Two health educators helped 25 sedentary older adults complete health contracts, and then they conducted follow-up evaluations. The percentage of scheduled exercise sessions successfully…

  16. Older Adults Have Difficulty in Decoding Sarcasm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Louise H.; Allen, Roy; Bull, Rebecca; Hering, Alexandra; Kliegel, Matthias; Channon, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    Younger and older adults differ in performance on a range of social-cognitive skills, with older adults having difficulties in decoding nonverbal cues to emotion and intentions. Such skills are likely to be important when deciding whether someone is being sarcastic. In the current study we investigated in a life span sample whether there are…

  17. Saskatchewan Older Adult Literacy Survey. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regina Univ. (Saskatchewan). Univ. Extension. Seniors Education Centre.

    The Saskatchewan Older Adult Literacy Survey involved 16 literacy programs offered by the regional colleges, public libraries, and technical institutes throughout the province of Saskatchewan, Canada. The 2-month survey acquired information for an overview of the current state of older adults and literacy in Saskatchewan through mailed…

  18. Bender Gestalt Performance of Normal Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacks, Patricia; Storandt, Martha

    1982-01-01

    Provides normative data on the Bender Gestalt Test (BGT) with a sample of 334 normal older adults. Showed that these older adults do not perform on the BGT in a manner that can be called brain damaged. Use of the cut-off score developed with younger persons appears appropriate. (Author)

  19. Older Adults' Acceptance of Information Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lin; Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick; Salvendy, Gavriel

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated variables contributing to older adults' information technology acceptance through a survey, which was used to find factors explaining and predicting older adults' information technology acceptance behaviors. Four factors, including needs satisfaction, perceived usability, support availability, and public acceptance, were…

  20. Textile Recycling, Convenience, and the Older Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domina, Tanya; Koch, Kathryn

    2001-01-01

    Results of a study to examine the recycling practices and needs of older adults (n=217) indicated that older adults do recycle traditional materials, but need accommodations for physical limitations. They report textile recycling as time consuming and difficult and used donations to religious organizations as their principal means of textile…

  1. Changing Students' Stereotypes of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurtele, Sandy K.; Maruyama, LaRae

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that university students tend to hold negative attitudes about older adults. However, there is some evidence to suggest that these ageist attitudes can be challenged and changed through curricular intervention. The current study was designed to determine whether the "Activities of Older Adults" exercise as part of a…

  2. Older Adult Women Learners in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Mary Alice

    2009-01-01

    This chapter examines the potential for personal growth, development, and learning of older adult women who will have many productive years in the workforce. What implications are there for adult education communities who will interact with these older women? How do they adapt to the educational environment, and what social support will enable…

  3. Death, Suicide, and the Older Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastenbaum, Robert

    1992-01-01

    Notes characteristics of older adults at high risk for suicide (male, living alone, living in low-income transient urban area, depression). Provides converging perspectives on death and suicide from standpoints of external observer and older adult. Interprets statistical pattern and critiques current policy proposals for limiting society's…

  4. Education: A Possibility for Empowering Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kump, Sonja; Krasovec, Sabina Jelenc

    2007-01-01

    Educating older adults (in the so-called third age) is becoming an increasingly important activity for the elderly, above all because it empowers them, while at the same time reducing their social exclusion. The aim of this paper is to closely examine the actual state of affairs and the education possibilities for older adults in Slovenia. The…

  5. Scoping review report: obesity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Decaria, J E; Sharp, C; Petrella, R J

    2012-09-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk for early death, heart disease and stroke, disability and several other comorbidities. Although there is concern about the potential burden on health-care services with the aging demographic and the increasing trend of obesity prevalence in older adults, evidence on which to base management strategies is conflicting for various reasons. The analytic framework for this review is based on a scoping review methodology, and was conducted to examine what is known about the diagnosis, treatment and management of obesity in older adults. A total of 492 relevant research articles were identified using PubMed, Scirus, EBSCO, Clinicaltrials.gov, Cochrane Reviews and Google Scholar. The findings of this review indicate that the current WHO (World Health Organization)-recommended body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio obesity thresholds for the general adult population may not be appropriate for older adults. Alternatively, weight change or physical fitness may be more useful measures of mortality and health risk in obese older adults. Furthermore, although obesity in older adults is associated with several disorders that increase functional disability, epidemiological evidence suggests that obesity is protective against mortality in seniors. Consequently, the trend toward increasing prevalence of obesity in older adults will lead to an increase in unhealthy life years and health-care costs. The findings from this review also suggest that treatment strategies for obese older adults should focus on maintaining body weight and improving physical fitness and function rather than weight loss, and that a combination of aerobic and resistance exercise appears to be the most effective strategy. In conclusion, this review demonstrates the need for more research to clarify the definition of obesity in older adults, to establish criteria for evaluating when to treat older adults for obesity, and to develop effective

  6. Evaluating brief cognitive impairment screening instruments among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Kiddoe, Jared M; Whitfield, Keith E; Andel, Ross; Edwards, Christopher L

    2008-07-01

    This article compared and contrasted the Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status (TICS) to the racially-sensitive Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ). The empirical questions addressed was whether the TICS over-represented African American (AA) cognitive impairment (CI) relative to the SPMSQ, if there were age differences in CI prevalence between younger subjects (ages 50-64) and older ones (>64 years) and on accuracy to detect CI in individuals with higher levels of educations (> or =13 years) versus those with lower education levels (<13 years). A secondary data analysis was performed on 396 AA participants from the Carolina African American Twin Study on Aging (CAATSA). The SPMSQ measured CI prevalence at 10.3% and the TICS at 45.0%. Within the younger group, TICS and CI prevalence was 49.3 and 80% among the older group. Within the younger group SPMSQ and CI prevalence was 14.5 and 53.8% among the older group. Within the higher educated group, TICS and CI prevalence was 36.7 and 51.4% among the lower educated. Within the higher educated group, SPMSQ and CI prevalence was 7.7 and 14.5% among the lower educated. Findings are consistent with our hypotheses that the TICS would be a less accurate assessor of CI among AAs.

  7. Epidemiology of anemia in older adults.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kushang V

    2008-10-01

    Anemia is a common, multifactorial condition among older adults. The World Health Organization (WHO) definition of anemia (hemoglobin concentration <12 g/dL in women and <13 g/dL in men) is most often used in epidemiologic studies of older adults. More than 10% of community-dwelling adults age 65 years and older has WHO-defined anemia. After age 50 years, prevalence of anemia increases with advancing age and exceeds 20% in those 85 years and older. In nursing homes, anemia is present in 48% to 63% of residents. Incidence of anemia in older adults is not well characterized. Among older adults with anemia, approximately one third have evidence of iron, folate, and/or vitamin B(12) deficiency, another third have renal insufficiency and/or chronic inflammation, and the remaining third have anemia that is unexplained. Several studies demonstrate that anemia is associated with poorer survival in older adults. This review details the distribution and consequences of anemia in older adults and identifies future epidemiologic research needs.

  8. Aging out: a qualitative exploration of ageism and heterosexism among aging African American lesbians and gay men.

    PubMed

    Woody, Imani

    2014-01-01

    African Americans elders, like their non-African American counterparts, are not a homogeneous group; however an early characteristic placed on all African Americans is in their shared history in the United States. As members of multiple minority groups, older lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people of African descent have survived racism, heterosexism, homophobia, and now ageism. This article describes a qualitative study grounded in Black feminist and minority stress theories that explored the issues of perceived social discrimination and alienation of 15 older African American lesbians and gay males whose lived experiences were captured using in-depth, face-to-face interviews. Several themes were identified in the study, including (a) Sense of Alienation in the African American Community, (b) Deliberate Concealment of Sexual Identity and Orientation, (c) Aversion to LGBT Labels, (d) Perceived Discrimination and Alienation From Organized Religion, (e) Feelings of Grief and Loss Related to Aging, (f) Isolation, and (g) Fear of Financial and Physical Dependence. The implication of the findings suggests that the ethos and needs of older African American lesbian women and gay men need to be addressed to eliminate potential barriers to successful aging for this cohort.

  9. Awareness of sickle cell among people of reproductive age: Dominicans and African Americans in northern Manhattan.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Saira; Schunk, Kelly; Batista, Milagros; Adames, Francisca; Ayala, Peggy; Stix, Benjamin; Rodriguez, Jacqueline; McCord, Mary; Green, Nancy S

    2012-02-01

    Sickle cell disease is a chronic condition that is characterized by severe anemia, painful crises, and organ dysfunction. In the U.S.A., sickle cell is a health burden typically associated with African Americans. Dominicans constitute the largest Latino group in New York City (N.Y.C.) and have the second overall highest prevalence of sickle trait-one in 20 births, compared to one in 12 African American births. We aimed to document the prevalence of sickle within the largely Dominican and African American community of Northern Manhattan (Washington Heights, Inwood, Harlem), assess and compare knowledge about sickle disease and carrier status in young adults of reproductive age between African Americans and Dominicans, and elicit preferred sources of health information. N.Y. State Newborn Screening data in Northern Manhattan were analyzed by zip code. A brief oral survey was administered to 208 parents of young children-150 Dominicans and 58 African Americans. Significant differences were seen in knowledge about sickle-27% of Dominican parents surveyed correctly defined sickle cell disease as an inherited blood disorder, compared to 76% of African Americans (p < 0.001). Only 7% of African Americans did not know their own trait status, compared to 43% of Dominicans (p < 0.001). Parents were better informed if they or family members were affected by sickle conditions. Participants from both groups prefer receiving information from doctors and online. A separate group of 168 predominantly Dominican youth, ages 14-24, demonstrated knowledge levels similar to that of Dominican parents. These results suggest that many of reproductive age in a N.Y.C. community affected by sickle conditions frequently lack basic relevant information, with larger information gaps among Dominicans. Expanded efforts are warranted to inform young adults of diverse affected communities.

  10. Men on the Move-Nashville: Feasibility and Acceptability of a Technology-Enhanced Physical Activity Pilot Intervention for Overweight and Obese Middle and Older Age African American Men.

    PubMed

    Dean, Donnatesa A L; Griffith, Derek M; McKissic, Sydika A; Cornish, Emily K; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki

    2016-04-19

    Men on the Move-Nashvillewas a quasi-experimental, 10-week pilot physical activity intervention. A total of 40 overweight or obese African American men ages 30 to 70 (mean age = 47) enrolled in the intervention. Participants attended 8 weekly, 90-minute small group sessions with a certified personal trainer. Each session consisted of discussions aimed to educate and motivate men to be more physically active, and an exercise component aimed to increase endurance, strength, and flexibility. Throughout each week, men used wearable activity trackers to promote self-monitoring and received informational and motivational SMS text messages. Of the 40 enrolled men, 85% completed the intervention, and 80% attended four or more small group sessions. Additionally, 70% of participants successfully used the activity tracker, but only 30% of men utilized their gym memberships. Participants benefited from both the small group discussions and activities through increasing social connection and guidance from their trainer and group members. These African American men reported being motivated to engage in physical activity through each of these technologies. Men reported that the activity trackers provided an important extension to their social network of physically active people. The intervention resulted in significant increases in men's self-reported levels of light, moderate, vigorous, and sports-related physical activities, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and significant decreases in weight and body fat percentage with small, moderate and large effects shown. Including technology and didactic components in small group-based interventions holds promise in motivating African American men to increase their physical activity.

  11. A Community-Driven Intervention for Prostate Cancer Screening in African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Kushal; Ukoli, Flora; Liu, Jianguo; Beech, Derrick; Beard, Katina; Brown, Byron; Sanderson, Maureen; Kenerson, Donna; Cooper, Leslie; Canto, Marie; Blot, Bill; Hargreaves, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of an educational intervention on prostate cancer screening behavior and knowledge. Participants were 104 African American men, 45 years and older, who had not been screened for prostate cancer with a prostate-specific antigen and/or digital rectal exam within the past year. All participants…

  12. Mothers' and Fathers' Racial Socialization in African American Families: Implications for Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Burton, Linda M.; Davis, Kelly D.; Dotterer, Aryn M.; Swanson, Dena P.

    2006-01-01

    Mothers' and fathers' cultural socialization and bias preparation with older (M=13.9 years) and younger (M=10.31 years) siblings were studied in 162 two-parent, African American families. Analyses examined whether parental warmth and offspring age and gender were linked to parental practices and whether parents' warmth, spouses' racial…

  13. Training lay volunteers to promote health in central-city African American churches.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Julie L; Morzinski, Jeffrey A

    2013-01-01

    In a nation plagued by skyrocketing healthcare costs, is there an affordable way to address health needs of older African Americans in medically underserved areas? The Milwaukee, Wisconsin's Elder Community Health Upholder (ECHU) project indicates yes, we can. The key: A partnership that guides committed volunteers focused on establishing and sustaining health initiatives in faith-based settings.

  14. Early Puberty in African-American Girls: Nutrition Past and Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talpade, Medha; Talpade, Salil

    2001-01-01

    Early sexual maturation is associated with many high-risk behaviors and a prediction was made that food consumption may contribute to early onset of puberty. A comparison was made between the eating habits of several generations of African-American women. Girls today were found to consume more calcium, grains, and meat then older women did in…

  15. Systems of Social Support in Families Who Care for Dependent African American Elders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Sharon Wallace; Dilworth-Anderson, Peggye

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined connections (linking, compensatory, or none) between three systems of social support (informal, church, and formal). Predictors of each system were also examined. Design and Methods: A community sample of 187 caregivers who provided care to older African American participants in the Duke Established Populations for…

  16. Pubertal Development and Parent-Child Conflict in Low-Income, Urban, African American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagrestano, Lynda M.; McCormick, Sheila H.; Paikoff, Roberta L.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.

    1999-01-01

    Examined associations between pubertal development and parent-adolescent conflict in urban, low-income African-American adolescents. Found that parents reported more verbal aggression with sons during midpuberty than early or late puberty, more violent tactics with younger than older daughters, and more "hot" discussions with early-…

  17. African American Men’s Perspectives on Promoting Physical Activity: “We’re Not That Difficult to Figure out!”

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Daniela B.; Hooker, Steven P.; Wilcox, Sara; Burroughs, Ericka L.; Rheaume, Carol E.

    2012-01-01

    African American men report poorer health than do White men and have significantly greater odds for developing chronic diseases partly because of limited physical activity. Understanding how to encourage healthy behaviors among African American men will be critical in the development of effective physical activity messages and programs. Guided by principles of cultural sensitivity and social marketing, this research examined middle-aged and older African American men’s recommended strategies for promoting physical activity to African American men of their age. The authors report results from. 49 interviews conducted with middle-aged (45–64 years) and older (65–84 years) African American men in South Carolina. Four groups of African American men were recruited; middle-aged active men (n = 17), middle-aged inactive men (n = 12), older active men (n = 10), older inactive men (n = 10). Themes related to marketing and recruitment strategies, message content, and spokesperson characteristics emerged and differed by age and physical activity level. Recommended marketing strategies included word of mouth; use of mass media; partnering with churches, businesses, and fraternities; strategic placement of messages; culturally appropriate message framing; and careful attention to selection of program spokespersons. Findings will help in the marketing, design, implementation, and evaluation of culturally appropriate interventions to encourage physical activity among middle-aged and older African American men in the South. PMID:22808914

  18. Racial Differences in Suicidality in an Older Urban Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Carl I.; Colemon, Yolonda; Yaffee, Robert; Casimir, Georges J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study used epidemiological data of older African Americans and Caucasians living in an urban community to compare those factors associated with active or passive suicidal ideation in each racial group. Design and Methods: Using 1990 census data for Brooklyn, New York, we attempted to interview all cognitively intact adults aged 55 or…

  19. Perceptions of technology among older adults.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Melinda; Martin, Peter; Margrett, Jennifer A; Yearns, Mary; Franke, Warren; Yang, Hen-I; Wong, Johnny; Chang, Carl K

    2013-01-01

    Changes and advancements in technology have the potential to benefit older adults by promoting independence and increasing the ability to age in place. However, older adults are less likely to adopt new technology unless they see benefits to themselves. This study assessed the perceptions of 30 older adults in the Midwest concerning technology via three separate focus groups (i.e., independent apartment complex, a rural community, exercise program participants), which addressed a need in the literature (i.e., inclusion of oldest-old and rural individuals). The focus group questions included items such as what technology older adults currently used, desired improvements in technology, and the greatest challenges participants were facing or would face in the future. Overall, older adults were enthusiastic about learning new forms of technology that could help them maintain their independence and quality of life. Five themes emerged from all three focus groups: (a) Frustrations, Limitations, and Usability Concerns; (b) Transportation; (c) Help and Assistance; (d) Self-Monitoring; and (e) Gaming. The themes have important implications for future technology developed for older adults; in particular, older adults were willing and eager to adopt new technology when usefulness and usability outweighed feelings of inadequacy.

  20. Differential Benefits of Memory Training for Minority Older Adults in the SeniorWISE Study

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, Graham J.; Becker, Heather; Pituch, Keenan; Acee, Taylor W.; Vaughan, Phillip W.; Delville, Carol L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Cognitive training improves mental abilities in older adults, but the benefit to minority elders is unclear. We conducted a subgroup analysis of subjects in the SeniorWISE (Wisdom Is Simply Exploration) trial to examine this issue. Design and Methods: SeniorWISE was a Phase 3 randomized trial that enrolled 265 nondemented community-dwelling older adults aged 65 years and older between 2001 and 2006. Participants were randomly assigned to 12 hr of either memory or health training. Results: The sample was 79% female, 71% Caucasian, 17% Hispanic, and 12% African American. On the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test (RBMT), 28% of the sample scored normal, 47% scored poor, and 25% impaired. Memory performance changed differently over time depending on the demographic characteristics of participants. Both Hispanics and Blacks performed better than Whites on visual memory, and Blacks performed better over time on instrumental activities of daily living. On all performance measures, lower pretest scores were associated with relatively greater improvements over time. Implications: Our analyses suggested that minority participants received differential benefits from the memory training; however, this remains speculative because the 3 ethnic groups in the sample were not equivalent in size. The question of why Black and Hispanic participants often made greater improvements needs further exploration. PMID:20203096

  1. Trichomonas vaginalis, HIV, and African-Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Sorvillo, F.; Smith, L.; Kerndt, P.; Ash, L.

    2001-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis may be emerging as one of the most important cofactors in amplifying HIV transmission, particularly in African-American communities of the United States. In a person co-infected with HIV, the pathology induced by T. vaginalis infection can increase HIV shedding. Trichomonas infection may also act to expand the portal of entry for HIV in an HIV-negative person. Studies from Africa have suggested that T. vaginalis infection may increase the rate of HIV transmission by approximately twofold. Available data indicate that T. vaginalis is highly prevalent among African-Americans in major urban centers of the United States and is often the most common sexually transmitted infection in black women. Even if T. vaginalis increases the risk of HIV transmission by a small amount, this could translate into an important amplifying effect since Trichomonas is so common. Substantial HIV transmission may be attributable to T. vaginalis in African-American communities of the United States. PMID:11747718

  2. Human immunodeficiency virus-related risk behavior among African-American females.

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, L. J.; Okundaye, J. N.; Manning, M. C.

    2000-01-01

    This study draws attention to the demographic shift in the population of HIV-infected African Americans from young, low-income, unmarried homosexual, and injecting drug users to female, heterosexual, higher income, and older persons. We used data from the 1995 Survey of Family Growth, sponsored by the National Center for Health Statistics, to examine the patterns of HIV-related risk behavior (consistent condom use, number of sexual partners, sex education in birth control methods) among African-American females. We found that only 33.3% of the African-American females had indicated that their partners always used condoms; 23.8% had seven or more lifetime sexual partners; and nearly 30% did not have any sex education in birth control methods, sexually transmitted diseases, or abstinence. In addition, African-American females who had partners who had not used condoms in the last 12 months were less likely than those who reported occasional condom use to perceive that they were infected with HIV (21.1% vs. 33.1%). These risk factors were prevalent among low-income African-American females with low socioeconomic status (SES) as well as black women with higher SES who lived in smaller cities and suburbs. These results highlight the need for HIV prevention strategies that cut across socioeconomic class, gender, sexual orientation, and place of residence. PMID:10976175

  3. Physician-patient discussions with african american men about prostate cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Ross, Louie E; Powe, Barbara D; Taylor, Yhenneko J; Howard, Daniel L

    2008-06-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cancer killer in men. Men in general and African American men in particular face crucial decisions regarding prostate cancer screening and perhaps treatment for this disease. Major health organizations agree that men should discuss prostate cancer screening with their physicians or other health care professionals. The purpose of the study was to examine sociodemographic and other correlates of physician-patient discussions regarding the advantages and disadvantages of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test among African American men aged 40 or older. A majority of African American men reported having discussed the advantages and disadvantages of prostate cancer screening and/or testing with their physicians before ordering it, and physician-patient discussions about the PSA test were associated with increased screening in African American men. Inasmuch as African American men have greater prostate cancer incidence and mortality over other groups, future attempts should be made to find meaningful correlates of PSA screening and test use to help reduce the burden of this disease.

  4. Risk Factors for Nonelective Hospitalization in Frail and Older Adult, Inner-City Outpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damush, Teresa M.; Smith, David M.; Perkins, Anthony J.; Dexter, Paul R.; Smith, Faye

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: In our study, we sought to improve the accuracy of predicting the risk of hospitalization and to identify older, inner-city patients who could be targeted for preventive interventions. Design and Methods: Participants (56% were African American) in a randomized trial were from a primary care practice and included 1,041 patients living in…

  5. The Minority Aging Research Study: ongoing efforts to obtain brain donation in African Americans without dementia.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Lisa L; Shah, Raj C; Aggarwal, Neelum T; Bennett, David A; Schneider, Julie A

    2012-07-01

    The Minority Aging Research Study (MARS) is a longitudinal, epidemiologic cohort study of decline in cognitive function and risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in older African Americans, with brain donation after death added as an optional component for those willing to consider organ donation. In this manuscript, we first summarize the study design and methods of MARS. We then provide details of ongoing efforts to achieve neuropathologic data on over 100 African Americans participating in MARS and in three other clinical-pathologic cohort studies at Rush University Medical Center. The results examine strategies for recruiting and consenting African Americans without dementia; (2) efforts to maintain high rates of follow-up participation; (3) strategies for achieving high rates of agreement to brain donation; and (4) the methodology of obtaining rapid brain autopsy at death. The implications of these efforts are discussed.

  6. Factors influencing Breast Cancer Screening in Low-Income African Americans in Tennessee

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kushal; Kanu, Mohamed; Liu, Jianguo; Bond, Brea; Brown, Elizabeth; Williams, Elizabeth; Theriot, Rosemary; Bailey, Stephanie; Sanderson, Maureen; Hargreaves, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    This study examined demographic and lifestyle factors that influenced decisions and obstacles to being screened for breast cancer in low-income African Americans in three urban Tennessee cities. As part of the Meharry Community Networks Program (CNP) needs assessment, a 123-item community survey was administered to assess demographic characteristics, health care access and utilization, and screening practices for various cancers in low-income African Americans. For this study, only African American women 40 years and older (n=334) were selected from the Meharry CNP community survey database. There were several predictors of breast cancer screening such as marital status and having health insurance (P< .05). Additionally, there were associations between obstacles to screening and geographic region such as transportation and not having enough information about screenings (P< .05). Educational interventions aimed at improving breast cancer knowledge and screening rates should incorporate information about obstacles and predictors to screening. PMID:24554393

  7. Factors influencing breast cancer screening in low-income African Americans in Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kushal; Kanu, Mohamed; Liu, Jianguo; Bond, Brea; Brown, Elizabeth; Williams, Elizabeth; Theriot, Rosemary; Bailey, Stephanie; Sanderson, Maureen; Hargreaves, Margaret

    2014-10-01

    This study examined demographic and lifestyle factors that influenced decisions and obstacles to being screened for breast cancer in low-income African Americans in three urban Tennessee cities. As part of the Meharry Community Networks Program (CNP) needs assessment, a 123-item community survey was administered to assess demographic characteristics, health care access and utilization, and screening practices for various cancers in low-income African Americans. For this study, only African American women 40 years and older (n = 334) were selected from the Meharry CNP community survey database. There were several predictors of breast cancer screening such as marital status and having health insurance (P < .05). Additionally, there were associations between obstacles to screening and geographic region such as transportation and not having enough information about screenings (P < .05). Educational interventions aimed at improving breast cancer knowledge and screening rates should incorporate information about obstacles and predictors to screening.

  8. Cancer statistics for African Americans, 2013.

    PubMed

    DeSantis, Carol; Naishadham, Deepa; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2013-05-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society estimates the number of new cancer cases and deaths for African Americans and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and screening prevalence based upon incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. It is estimated that 176,620 new cases of cancer and 64,880 deaths will occur among African Americans in 2013. From 2000 to 2009, the overall cancer death rate among males declined faster among African Americans than whites (2.4% vs 1.7% per year), but among females, the rate of decline was similar (1.5% vs 1.4% per year, respectively). The decrease in cancer death rates among African American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. The reduction in overall cancer death rates since 1990 in men and 1991 in women translates to the avoidance of nearly 200,000 deaths from cancer among African Americans. Five-year relative survival is lower for African Americans than whites for most cancers at each stage of diagnosis. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors remains an active area of research. Overall, progress in reducing cancer death rates has been made, although more can and should be done to accelerate this progress through ensuring equitable access to cancer prevention, early detection, and state-of-the-art treatments.

  9. The management of hypertension in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, Keith C; Armani, Annemarie M

    2007-06-01

    The prevalence of hypertension in blacks in the United States is among the highest in the world. Compared with whites, blacks develop hypertension at an earlier age, their average blood pressures are much higher and they experience worse disease severity. Consequently, blacks have a 1.3 times greater rate of nonfatal stroke, 1.8 times greater rate of fatal stroke, 1.5 times greater rate of heart disease death, 4.2 times greater rate of end-stage kidney disease, and a 50% higher frequency of heart failure; overall, mortality due to hypertension and its consequences is 4 to 5 times more likely in African Americans than in whites. The increased prevalence of hypertension and excessive target organ damage is due to a combination of genetic and, most likely, environmental factors. There are no clinical trial data at present to suggest that lower-than-usual BP targets should be set for high-risk demographic groups such as African Americans. The primary means of prevention and early treatment of hypertension in African Americans will be the appropriate use of lifestyle modification. The International Society of Hypertension in Blacks guidelines realize that most patients will require combination therapy, many of them first-line, to reach appropriate BP goals. Although certain classes and combinations of antihypertensive agents have been well-established to be effective, the choice of drugs for combination therapy in African American patients may be different. Within the African American group, the responsiveness to monotherapy with ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and beta blockers may be less than the responsiveness to diuretics and calcium channel blockers, but these differences are corrected when diuretics are added to the neurohormonal antagonists. Of note, African American patients with systolic BP >15 mm Hg or a diastolic BP >10 mm Hg above goal should be treated with first-line combination therapy.

  10. Prescription Use Disorders in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    The number of older adults needing substance abuse treatment is projected to rise significantly in the next few decades. This article will focus on the epidemic of prescription use disorders in older adults. Particular vulnerabilities of older adults to addiction will be considered. Specifically, the prevalence and patterns of use of opioids, stimulants, and benzodiazepines will be explored, including the effects of these substances on morbidity and mortality. Treatment intervention strategies will be briefly discussed, and areas for future research are suggested. PMID:20958847

  11. What about African Americans and High Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? The prevalence of high blood pressure in African Americans is among the highest in ...

  12. Regional, racial, and gender differences in colorectal cancer screening in middle-aged African-Americans and Whites.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Phyllis M; Suzuki, Rie

    2012-12-01

    African-Americans have higher incidence and mortality from colorectal cancer than non-African-Americans. Early detection with colorectal cancer (CRC) screening reduces untimely death because the test can detect abnormalities and precancerous polyps in the colon and rectum. However, African-Americans aged 50 and older continue to have low CRC screening adherence. A retrospective analysis was conducted on data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey to examine trends in self-reported CRC screening by geographic region, race, and gender. African-Americans, particularly men, were less likely to have been screened for colon cancer compared to all races and genders in this study. Individuals in the south were more likely to receive CRC screening than other regions. Colon cancer education and interventions are needed among low-adherent groups to promote the benefits of early detection with CRC screening.

  13. Childhood emotional abuse, self/other attachment, and hopelessness in African-American women.

    PubMed

    Gaskin-Wasson, Ashly L; Calamaras, Martha R; LoParo, Devon; Goodnight, Bradley L; Remmert, Brittany C; Salami, Temilola; Mack, Sallie; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2017-02-01

    There is evidence that individuals emotionally abused as children endorse more hopelessness, a precursor of suicidal behavior in adulthood. However, there has been little focus on this association among African-Americans or on factors that may mediate the childhood emotional abuse (CEA) - adult hopelessness link. The present study examined whether CEA is linked to hopelessness in adulthood in African-American women suicide attempters and if adult self and other attachment models mediate this association. Participants included 116 African-American women recruited from a large, urban hospital. Results revealed that CEA had no direct effect on hopelessness in adulthood, but did have an indirect effect on hopelessness through attachment models. Bootstrapping analyses showed that higher levels of CEA were related to more negative self and other attachment models, which were then linked to higher levels of hopelessness. Implications for targeting attachment in suicide intervention programs are discussed.

  14. Effects of Economic Disruptions on Alcohol Use and Problems: Why Do African Americans Fare Worse?

    PubMed Central

    Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.; Zemore, Sarah E.; Mulia, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study tested a model of the effects of recession-related job loss on alcohol use disorder (AUD) and examined why African Americans who lost their jobs during the 2008–2009 recession were at increased risk for AUD relative to Whites. We hypothesized that (a) job loss would be positively associated with psychological distress (i.e., higher levels of depressive symptoms) and increased drunkenness, and (b) low levels of family social support and experiences of racial stigma would exacerbate the effects of job loss on distress, especially among African Americans and Hispanics. Method: Data were drawn from the 2010 U.S. National Alcohol Survey (NAS), a cross-sectional survey of the U.S. general population. Using data from the 2010 NAS (telephone survey of 1,111 African American, 964 Hispanic, and 3,133 White adults), we conducted simultaneous path modeling in Mplus to test mediation and moderation hypotheses. Our key outcome was AUD as measured by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Results: Recession-related job loss was significantly associated with AUD through its effects on increased drunkenness, and the associations were positive for Whites, stronger for African Americans than Whites, and nonexistent for Hispanics. Job loss was associated with distress in the overall sample, and distress was positively associated with drunkenness among African Americans only, suggesting that distress is another pathway by which job loss affects AUD among African Americans. Higher levels of family social support mitigated the effects of job loss on psychological distress, and this relationship did not differ by race/ethnicity. Conclusions: During economic downturns, increased stress and heavy drinking are important pathways through which recession-related job loss can lead to greater AUD among African Americans relative to Whites. PMID:26997184

  15. African-American students' perceptions of their majors, future professions, and the dietetics major and profession: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Felton, Teena M; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M; Serrano, Elena; Hosig, Kathy W

    2008-07-01

    African-American professionals are underrepresented in the profession of dietetics. This preliminary qualitative study identified African-American students' perceptions of their majors, future professions, and the dietetics major/profession to understand why they did or did not enter dietetics. It was hypothesized that dietetics students chose dietetics primarily for altruistic reasons, whereas students in other fields of study did not choose dietetics due to lack of awareness of dietetics. To learn students' views, African-American college students engaged in elicitation interviews or focus group discussions. Twenty-eight women and 12 men participated. Phenomenologic analysis identified common themes and meanings: African-American students selected their majors for a variety of reasons, including desire to help people, interest in the field, recommendation from an adult, and family influence. African-American students in fields of study other than dietetics believed that the dietetics major was not selected due to lack of awareness about dietetics. Both dietetics students and students in other fields of study perceived versatility, ability to work with/help people, and to have an influence as positive qualities about their future professions. Advanced degree and training requirements, lack of diversity, and low salary were identified as negative qualities about future professions. African-American students in fields of study other than dietetics had not been exposed to the dietetics major, careers, and profession. Recruitment efforts should begin early to increase the number of African-American students in dietetics.

  16. Promoting African American women and sexual assertiveness in reducing HIV/AIDS: an analytical review of the research literature.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Bernice Roberts; Jenkins, Chalice C

    2011-01-01

    African American women, including adolescents and adults, are disproportionately affected by the transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). HIV/AID is a health disparity issue for African American females in comparison to other ethnic groups. According to data acquired from 33 states in 2005, 64% of women who have HIV/ AIDS are African American women. It is estimated that during 2001-2004, 61% of African Americans under the age of 25 had been living with HIV/AIDS. This article is an analytical review of the literature emphasizing sexual assertiveness of African American women and the gap that exists in research literature on this population. The multifaceted model of HIV risk posits that an interpersonal predictor of risky sexual behavior is sexual assertiveness. The critical themes extracted from a review of the literature reveal the following: (a) sexual assertiveness is related to HIV risk in women, (b) sexual assertiveness and sexual communication are related, and (c) women with low sexual assertiveness are at increased risk of HIV As a result of this comprehensive literature, future research studies need to use models in validating sexual assertiveness interventions in reducing the risk of HIV/AIDS in African American women. HIV/AIDs prevention interventions or future studies need to target reducing the risk factors of HIV/AIDS of African Americans focusing on gender and culture-specific strategies.

  17. Intervention Induced Changes on Parenting Practices, Youth Self-Pride and Sexual Norms to Reduce HIV-Related Behaviors among Rural African American Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murry, Velma McBride; Berkel, Cady; Chen, Yi-fu; Brody, Gene H.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg

    2011-01-01

    AIDS is the leading killer of African Americans between the ages of 25 and 44, many of whom became infected when they were teenagers or young adults. The disparity in HIV infection rate among African Americans youth residing in rural Southern regions of the United States suggests that there is an urgent need to identify ways to promote early…

  18. Sarcopenia, Frailty, and Diabetes in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Populations are aging and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing tremendously. The number of older people with diabetes is increasing unexpectedly. Aging and diabetes are both risk factors for functional disability. Thus, increasing numbers of frail or disabled older patients with diabetes will increase both direct and indirect health-related costs. Diabetes has been reported as an important risk factor of developing physical disability in older adults. Older people with diabetes have lower muscle mass and weaker muscle strength. In addition, muscle quality is poorer in diabetic patients. Sarcopenia and frailty have a common soil and may share a similar pathway for multiple pathologic processes in older people. Sarcopenia is thought to be an intermediate step in the development of frailty in patients with diabetes. Thus, early detection of sarcopenia and frailty in older adults with diabetes should be routine clinical practice to prevent frailty or to intervene earlier in frail patients. PMID:27098509

  19. Paucity of HLA-identical unrelated donors for African-Americans with hematologic malignancies: the need for new donor options.

    PubMed

    Dew, Alexander; Collins, Demetria; Artz, Andrew; Rich, Elizabeth; Stock, Wendy; Swanson, Kate; van Besien, Koen

    2008-08-01

    Identification of an HLA identical donor/recipient pair using high-resolution techniques at HLA A, B, C, and DRB1 optimizes survival after adult unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplant. It has been estimated that roughly 50% of African-Americans have suitable unrelated donors based on serologic typing, but there is little information on the likelihood of identifying an HLA-identical unrelated donor using molecular techniques. From February 2002 to May 2007, we performed 51 unrelated donor searches for African-American patients using the National Marrow Donor Program and found HLA identical unrelated donors for only 3. By contrast, 50 (98%) had at least 1, and often multiple, appropriately matched cord blood units available. Very few African-American recipients have HLA-identical unrelated donors. To allow more African-American patients to proceed to transplant, innovative donor strategies, including adult cord blood transplantation, haploidentical transplant, or the identification of permissive mismatches should be investigated.

  20. Oral Cancer in African Americans: Addressing Health Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Virginia J.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Choi, Youjin; Tomar, Scott L.; Logan, Henrietta L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To explore factors underlying African Americans' perceptions of oral cancer and the oral cancer exam. Study findings were used to guide development of oral cancer messages designed to increase oral cancer exams among African Americans. Methods: Focus groups were conducted to understand African Americans' attitudes and expectations…

  1. African American Acculturation and Black Racial Identity: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope-Davis, Donald B.; Liu, William M.; Ledesma-Jones, Shannon; Nevitt, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    Examines the relationship between acculturation and racial identity among African Americans. One hundred eighty-seven African American students completed the Black Racial Identity Attitude Scale and the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS). Acculturation was associated with three of the five AAAS subscales: Dissonance, Immersion, and…

  2. Exposure of African-American Youth to Alcohol Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The marketing of alcohol products in African-American communities has, on occasion, stirred national controversy and met with fierce resistance from African Americans and others. Despite occasional media and community spotlights on the marketing of alcohol products in the African-American community, there has been no systematic review of the…

  3. Exploring How African American Faculty Cope with Classroom Racial Stressors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Chavella T.

    2010-01-01

    This study was an examination of how African American faculty discussed their coping with racially stressful classrooms. Despite aims for racial equality in higher education, the classroom has been a significant site of racial stressors for African American facility. Analysis of interviews with 16 (8 women, 8 men) African American faculty at a…

  4. African-American Males' Health Perceptions and Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeal, CoSandra; Perkins, Isaac; Lyons, Shenia

    2006-01-01

    Research on African American men's health is limited. Perception and knowledge of health may have a significant effect on health seeking behavior and self care. This study was designed to examine factors that may influence health perception and knowledge among African American males. This is a cross-sectional study of 343 African American males…

  5. Perceptions of Domestic Violence: A Dialogue with African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bent-Goodley, Tricia B.

    2004-01-01

    Although empirical research has accumulated over the past 20 years regarding African Americans and domestic violence, many questions remain about African American perceptions of domestic violence. This article explores African American women's perceptions about domestic violence through three focus groups held at a New York social services agency.…

  6. African American Educational Leadership in the School Superintendency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Eva C.

    2013-01-01

    African American educational leadership has long been part of American education and African American activism to resist oppression. However, the field of educational leadership has rarely included the contributions of African American leaders, particularly women leaders, into mainstream leadership theory and practices. This omission is difficult…

  7. 77 FR 5375 - National African American History Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8776 of January 31, 2012 National African American History Month, 2012 By the... for the better. During National African American History Month, we celebrate the rich legacy of... African American women are not limited to those recorded and retold in our history books. Their impact...

  8. 76 FR 6519 - National African American History Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... February 4, 2011 Part II The President Proclamation 8627--National African American History Month, 2011 #0..., 2011 National African American History Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A... breaking down barriers. During National African American History Month, we celebrate the vast...

  9. From Crisis to Empowerment: African American Women in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Marcie Ann

    2012-01-01

    Social challenges tear at the fabric of the African American family, revealing complexities that identify a de facto leader, the African American woman. She exists in a chasm of overt circumstances which heavily influences her successes. The purpose of this study is to identify factors that motivated seven female African American community college…

  10. Barriers to Hospice Use among African Americans: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Karla T.; Bickel-Swenson, Denise; Stephens, Nathan

    2008-01-01

    The present review was undertaken to explore recent evidence in the professional literature pertaining to use of hospice services by African Americans. The article addresses the research methods that have been used to study African American hospice use, obstacles to African American participation in hospice that have been identified, and…

  11. School Counseling for African American Adolescents: The Alfred Adler Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Marty

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses how Adlerian counseling can be used as a form of school counseling for African American adolescents. Moreover, school counseling for African American adolescents is discussed within the context of African American culture. Due to the strength-based nature of Adlerian approach, it can capitalize on African American…

  12. Persistence among African American Males in the Honors College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson Goins, Johnell Roxann

    2014-01-01

    Retaining African American students, specifically African American males, is an issue that plagues the American higher education system. Research shows that African American male students are the lowest represented group in the gifted studies programs (Ford, 2010). Lockie and Burke (1999); Chen and DeJardins (2010) and Bell (2010a) found that…

  13. African American Males in Counseling: Who's Pulling the Trigger Now?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethea-Whitfield, Patricia

    African American males face numerous challenges to their physical and psychological well-being. This project is a survey of the literature and trends relative to African American males from 1987 to the present. In reviewing the fifteen years since Parham and McDavis published their now famous article on African American men as an endangered…

  14. Representing African American Women in U.S. History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schocker, Jessica B.; Woyshner, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the dearth of African American women in high school U.S. history textbooks. The authors conducted a content analysis of the images in an African American history textbook and found that black women are underrepresented. Women are found in less than 15 percent of the images in the African American history text, while they…

  15. Empowerment Groups for Urban African American Girls: A Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl C.

    2005-01-01

    Although the author wanted to read Bemak, Chung, and Siroskey-Sabdo's article in an objective sense, her response to their article is most likely influenced by her own experiences as an African American female and mother of an African American daughter. To her, the paramount issue facing African American females is the double and sometimes triple…

  16. An Exploration of African American Students' Attitudes toward Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okwumabua, Theresa M.; Walker, Kristin M.; Hu, Xiangen; Watson, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The current work presents exploratory research findings concerning African American students' attitudes toward online learning. The Online Tutoring Attitudes Scale (OTAS; Graff, 2003) was administered to 124 African American students in a positive youth development program. Findings suggest that African American students' attitudes toward…

  17. Medication Adherence among Older Adults with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Leutwyler, Heather C.; Fox, Patrick J.; Wallhagen, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Older adults with schizophrenia are a growing segment of the population yet their physical and mental health status is extremely poor. The paper presents findings from a qualitative study that explored the understanding older adults with schizophrenia have of their physical health status. The study was conducted among 28 older adults with schizophrenia from a variety of settings using semi-structured interviews and participant observation. Self-management of psychiatric and non-psychiatric medications and its affect on their health status was one of the central themes that emerged from the study. Different styles of medication adherence were identified and factors associated with each style are presented. The findings provide insights into the design of clinical interventions aimed at promoting medication adherence among older adults with schizophrenia. PMID:23327119

  18. Collaborative Strategic Planning for Older Adult Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muzzarelli, Robert; Young, William H.

    1992-01-01

    Given the implications of current trends showing the aging of the population, continuing education programs for older adults should focus on "retirement employment." A strategic planning approach can incorporate forecasting into program development. (SK)

  19. Older Adults' Knowledge of Internet Hazards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Galen A.; Hough, Michelle G.; Mazur, Elizabeth; Signorella, Margaret L.

    2010-01-01

    Older adults are less likely to be using computers and less knowledgeable about Internet security than are younger users. The two groups do not differ on trust of Internet information. The younger group shows no age or gender differences. Within the older group, computer users are more trusting of Internet information, and along with those with…

  20. Older Students in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clennell, Stephanie, Ed.; And Others

    British students 60 years and older in 1985-86 were studied in order to learn about their age, sex, marital status, employment background, the subjects they study, their reasons for studying, how they study, and what they think about their studies. Considered by the researchers to be the largest survey of older students, the study involved 2,254…

  1. Social Relationships in the Church during Late Life: Assessing Differences between African Americans, Whites, and Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Neal; Bastida, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to see if there are differences in the social relationships that older African Americans, older whites, and older Mexican Americans form with the people where they worship. Data from two nationwide surveys are pooled to see if race differences emerge in eleven different measures of church-based social relationships. These measures assess social relationships with rank-and-file church members as well as social relationships with members of the clergy. The findings reveal that older African Americans tend to have more well-developed social relationships in the church than either older whites or older Mexican Americans. This is true with respect to relationships with fellow church members as well as relationships with the clergy. In contrast, relatively few differences emerged between older Americans of European descent and older Mexican Americans. However, when differences emerged in the data, older whites tend to score higher on the support measures than older Mexican Americans. PMID:21998489

  2. Perceptions, Motivations and Barriers of Earning a High School Diploma and Achieving Higher Education among African American and Latino Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fears-Hackett, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes the motivations, perspectives, and barriers of adult learners returning to school to receive a high school diploma after previously dropping out of a traditional high school setting. Specifically, this study explored the backgrounds, discrimination factors, income variables, perspectives, and environmental and emotional…

  3. Adherence to Exercise Prescription and Improvements in the Clinical and Vascular Health of African Americans

    PubMed Central

    BABBITT, DIANNE M.; PERKINS, AMANDA M.; DIAZ, KEITH M.; FEAIRHELLER, DEBORAH L.; STURGEON, KATHLEEN M.; VEERABHADRAPPA, PRAVEEN; WILLIAMSON, SHEARA T.; KRETZSCHMAR, JAN; LING, CHENYI; LEE, HOJUN; GRIM, HEATHER; BROWN, MICHAEL D.

    2017-01-01

    Improvements in indices of vascular health and endothelial function have been inversely associated with hypertension, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (e.g., myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure), renal failure, and mortality. Aerobic exercise training (AEXT) has been positively associated with improvements in clinical health values, as well as vascular health biomarkers, and endothelial function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether measures of exercise adherence were related to clinical outcome measures and indices of vascular health subsequent to a 6-month AEXT intervention in a middle-to-older aged African American cohort. Following dietary stabilization, sedentary, apparently healthy, African American adults (40 – 71 y/o) underwent baseline testing including blood pressure, flow-mediated dilation (FMD) studies, fasting blood sampling, and graded exercise testing. Upon completion of a supervised 6-month AEXT intervention, participants repeated all baseline tests. Exercise adherence was measured three ways: exercise percentage, exercise volume, and exercise score. There were no significant correlations between the changes in the vascular health biomarkers of the participants and any of the adherence measures. In addition, there were no significant correlations between any of the adherence measures and the clinical values of the participants that had been significantly changed pre-post-AEXT. Participants improved their clinical and vascular health and decreased risk factors for hypertension and cardiovascular disease regardless of their level of adherence to AEXT. Future studies should continue to accurately quantify adherence in order to assess the exercise dose for improvements in vascular and clinical health. PMID:28344738

  4. Toward Understanding Korean and African American Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Edward Taehan

    1996-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that examines the economic, cultural, and ideological factors that influence Korean and African American relations. Discusses how the two groups perceive each other and situates the role of race and class in this relationship. Includes informational handouts and discussion questions. (MJP)

  5. African-American Axioms and Maxims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zulu, Itibari M.

    1998-01-01

    Examines and describes 30 African-American centered quotation and motivational books, all but one of which were published between 1993 and 1997. The books articulate a diversity of genres and themes. Annotations are divided into: (1) general quotation; (2) daily words and meditation/motivation sources; (3) religion and theology; and (4)…

  6. Reconceptualization of African American Self-Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braithwaite, Harold, Jr.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Focuses on how African American students define self-concept, and whether there is a specific black self-concept. Questionnaires completed by 60 undergraduates at a historically black college provide insight into student self-esteem and support the existence of a specific black self-concept. (SLD)

  7. Growing Up African American in Catholic Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, Jacqueline Jordan, Ed.; Foster, Michele, Ed.

    Contributors to this volume use their own stories to demonstrate success of one institution, the Catholic school system, in educating many African Americans who have gone on to make important contributions to the community. Their own experiences are the starting points for their reflections on the historical and sociological treatment of the…

  8. Colorectal Cancer in African Americans: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Renee; White, Pascale; Nieto, Jose; Vieira, Dorice; Francois, Fritz; Hamilton, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This review is an update to the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) Committee on Minority Affairs and Cultural Diversity's paper on colorectal cancer (CRC) in African Americans published in 2005. Over the past 10 years, the incidence and mortality rates of CRC in the United States has steadily declined. However, reductions have been strikingly much slower among African Americans who continue to have the highest rate of mortality and lowest survival when compared with all other racial groups. The reasons for the health disparities are multifactorial and encompass physician and patient barriers. Patient factors that contribute to disparities include poor knowledge of benefits of CRC screening, limited access to health care, insurance status along with fear and anxiety. Physician factors include lack of knowledge of screening guidelines along with disparate recommendations for screening. Earlier screening has been recommended as an effective strategy to decrease observed disparities; currently the ACG and American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopists recommend CRC screening in African Americans to begin at age 45. Despite the decline in CRC deaths in all racial and ethnic groups, there still exists a significant burden of CRC in African Americans, thus other strategies including educational outreach for health care providers and patients and the utilization of patient navigation systems emphasizing the importance of screening are necessary. These strategies have been piloted in both local communities and Statewide resulting in notable significant decreases in observed disparities. PMID:27467183

  9. African American College Women's Suicide Buffers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion, Michelle S.; Range, Lillian M.

    2003-01-01

    To examine the relationships buffers may have with suicide ideation, 300 African American female college students completed measures of suicide ideation and buffers. Three variables accounted for a significant and unique portion of the variance in suicide ideation: family support, a view that suicide is unacceptable, and a collaborative religious…

  10. African American Women Counselors, Wellness, and Spirituality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Debora; Bryant, Rhonda M.

    2011-01-01

    Given their tremendous professional responsibilities, professional counselors face daunting challenges to remaining healthy and avoiding role stress and overload. This article explores the intersection of race, gender, wellness, and spirituality in the self-care of African American women counselors. The authors give particular attention to…

  11. 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex, Dr. Julian M. Earls (left), deputy director for Operations, Glenn Research Center, receives a plaque from astronaut Joan Higginbotham (right) during the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon. Dr. Earls was guest speaker at the luncheon.

  12. 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex, the planning committee for the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon gather in the lobby. At the far left is Mack McKinney, chief, Programs Resources Management, who was chairperson for the event.

  13. 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Mack McKinney (left), chief, Programs Resources Management, and Delores Abraham (right), with the Astronaut office, flank one of the posters decorating the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex for the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon. McKinney is chairperson for the event.

  14. Violent Behaviors among African-American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Darhyl

    1995-01-01

    Explores the development of behaviors by using Erik Erikson's psychosocial developmental theory, with emphasis on adolescents. Examines factors, such as identity versus identity diffusion, that may be contributing to increasing acts of violence by African American adolescents. Other factors are examined that may contribute to increased violence.…

  15. African American Female Superintendents: Resilient School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bernadeia H.

    2012-01-01

    Six African American female superintendents who had served as superintendents in at least 2 school districts were interviewed to understand ways in which they responded to barriers and adversity in their roles, with a particular emphasis on issues related to sexism and racism. Study participants shared that they work to engage the community and…

  16. African-American Males: Education or Incarceration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Robert L.

    This paper analyzes the relationship between levels of educational attainment and outcomes for African American males, in particular the likelihood of conflict with the criminal justice system. The analysis begins with a look at society's belief system and political and economic forces, and argues that these have combined to promote failure among…

  17. Promotive Parenting Practices among African American Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among African American children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted. Multiple…

  18. Five Types of African-American Marriages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, William D.; Olson, David H.

    2001-01-01

    Developed a marital typology based on a nonrandom, national sample of 415 African American couples who took the Enriching Relationship Issues, Communication and Happiness (ENRICH) marital assessment inventory. Five marriage types were labeled as vitalized; harmonious; traditional; conflicted; and devitalized. Results were similar to findings in…

  19. African American Homeschooling Practices: Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazama, Ama

    2016-01-01

    Despite a significant increase in scholarly interest for homeschooling, some of its most critical aspects, such as instructional daily practices, remain grossly understudied. This essay thus seeks to fill that void by presenting empirical evidence regarding the homeschooling practices of a specific group, African Americans. Most specifically, the…

  20. Legacy of a Pioneer African American Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cazers, Gunars; Curtner-Smith, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to reconstruct the historical and legendary contribution of one exemplary African American physical education teacher educator who lived and worked in the Deep South prior to and immediately following the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education court case. The following questions guided data collection and analysis: To what…