Burrow, Rufus, Jr.
Presents views of Frederick Douglass, W. E. B. Du Bois, Malcolm X, and James Hal Cone (African-American male leaders) toward African-American women in the United States. Discusses the role of African-American men in addressing and eradicating sexism in African-American churches and the African-American community. (SLD)
Barnett-Johnson, Kim R.
The purpose of this case/phenomenological study was to examine a collegiate administrative search and selection process and the experience of an African American woman who was selected to the position of chancellor. A case concerning the search process of a regional campus of Ivy Tech Community College of Indiana was identified and chosen.…
This teacher's guide provides activities about the National Air and Space Museum (Washington, DC) for students to complete. The guide includes primary and secondary source materials for teachers to photocopy and use during their study of African Americans in aviation based on the exhibition "Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation."…
Ting, Simon Kang Seng; Benzinger, Tammie; Kepe, Vladimir; Fagan, Anne; Coppola, Giovanni; Porter, Verna; Hecimovic, Silva; Chakraverty, Suma; Alvarez-Retuerto, Ana Isabel; Goate, Alison; Ringman, John M
Mutations in PSEN1 are the most common cause of autosomal dominant familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD). We describe an African-American woman with a family history consistent with FAD who began to experience cognitive decline at age 50. Her clinical presentation, MRI, FDG-PET, and PIB-PET scan findings were consistent with AD and she was found to have a novel I238M substitution in PSEN1. As this mutation caused increased production of Aβ42 in an in vitro assay, was not present in two population databases, and is conserved across species, it is likely to be pathogenic for FAD.
Behar-Horenstein, Linda S.; West-Olatunji, Cirecie A.; Moore, Thomas E.; Houchen, Deidre F.; Roberts, Kellie W.
The purpose of this study was: 1) to explore the pre-tenure experiences of an African American female faculty member in a counselor education program; and 2) to compare the themes that ascended from a precursor study to the current one. By using critical ethnography and case study format, this research gave voice to the participant by prompting…
Jones, Jamill Ray
The superintendency is the most male-dominated position in education (Alston, 2000; Brunner, 2000). Although statistical data reveal the disproportion between males and women in superintendent positions, the data also report a greater discrepancy in the number of African American women who have obtained superintendent positions. This qualitative…
Davis, S P
This historical reconstruction of the experiences of African American women in America from slavery to the present exposes the prevailing and enduring system of White male domination. From White men having control of their reproductive choices, to conspiracy to withhold the right to vote, African American women were victims of both sexism and racism. Later, as a result of the myth conceived by White sociologists of the super African American woman, further divisiveness became apparent in the African American home. As African American women took advantage of educational opportunities only to find that there was a dearth of similarly educated African American males to marry, increasing numbers of African American men were reported as parties to violent acts, drugs or illness. All of these variables are conjectured as impacting on the African American woman's experience. Lastly, data were presented depicting the increasing trend of African American women marrying White men, and the emergence of a more diverse workforce. It was concluded that economics serve as a catalyst for this change in human relations.
Jones, Hendrée E; Berkman, Nancy D; Kline, Tracy L; Ellerson, Rachel Middlesteadt; Browne, Felicia A; Poulton, Winona; Wechsberg, Wendee M
African-American women who use crack are vulnerable to HIV because of the complex social circumstances in which they live. Drug-abuse treatment for these women during pregnancy may provide time for changing risk behaviors. This paper examines the initial 6-month feasibility of a women-focused HIV intervention, the Women's CoOp, adapted for pregnant women, relative to treatment-as-usual among 59 pregnant African-American women enrolled in drug-abuse treatment. At treatment entry, the women were largely homeless, unemployed, practicing unsafe sex, and involved in violence. Results indicated marked reductions in homelessness, use of cocaine and illegal drugs, involvement in physical violence, and an increase in knowledge of HIV from baseline to 6-month followup for both conditions. Findings suggest that the Women's CoOp intervention could be successfully adapted to treat this hard-to-reach population. Future studies should examine the efficacy of the pregnancy-adapted Women's CoOp for women not enrolled in drug-abuse treatment.
Talpade, Medha; Talpade, Salil
Early sexual maturation is associated with many high-risk behaviors and a prediction was made that food consumption may contribute to early onset of puberty. A comparison was made between the eating habits of several generations of African-American women. Girls today were found to consume more calcium, grains, and meat then older women did in…
Representations of breast cancer are examined in three popular women's periodicals targeting African American readers: Ebony, Essence, and Black Elegance. The researcher focuses specifically on representations that reflect certain ideas/ideals about the sharing and creating of information about the disease and related issues, such as health care and body image. Magazine selections are analyzed and critiqued according to the epistemological principles outlined by Patricia Hill Collins in Black Feminist Thought. The author calls for further research into how and why particular social and cultural groups consume information about health and illness in particular ways.
Kawai, Makoto; O'Hara, Ruth; Einen, Mali; Lin, Ling; Mignot, Emmanuel
Study Objectives: Although narcolepsy affects 0.02–0.05% of individuals in various ethnic groups, clinical presentation in different ethnicities has never been fully characterized. Our goal was to study phenotypic expression across ethnicities in the United States. Design/Setting: Cases of narcolepsy from 1992 to 2013 were identified from searches of the Stanford Center for Narcolepsy Research database. International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition diagnosis criteria for type 1 and type 2 narcolepsy were used for inclusion, but subjects were separated as with and without cataplexy for the purpose of data presentation. Information extracted included demographics, ethnicity and clinical data, HLA-DQB1*06:02, polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) data, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1 level. Patients: 182 African-Americans, 839 Caucasians, 35 Asians, and 41 Latinos with narcolepsy. Results: Sex ratio, PSG, and MSLT findings did not differ across ethnicities. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score was higher and age of onset of sleepiness earlier in African Americans compared with other ethnicities. HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity was higher in African Americans (91.0%) versus others (76.6% in Caucasians, 80.0% in Asians, and 65.0% in Latinos). CSF hypocretin-1 level, obtained in 222 patients, was more frequently low (≤ 110 pg/ml) in African Americans (93.9%) versus Caucasians (61.5%), Asians (85.7%) and Latinos (75.0%). In subjects with low CSF hypocretin-1, African Americans (28.3%) were 4.5 fold more likely to be without cataplexy when compared with Caucasians (8.1%). Conclusions: Narcolepsy in African Americans is characterized by earlier symptom onset, higher Epworth Sleepiness Scale score, higher HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity, and low cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 level in the absence of cataplexy. In African Americans, more subjects without cataplexy have type 1 narcolepsy. Citation: Kawai M, O'Hara R, Einen M, Lin L
Bates, Marcie Ann
Social challenges tear at the fabric of the African American family, revealing complexities that identify a de facto leader, the African American woman. She exists in a chasm of overt circumstances which heavily influences her successes. The purpose of this study is to identify factors that motivated seven female African American community college…
Newlin, Kelley; Knafl, Kathleen; Melkus, Gail D'Eramo
Culturally competent care for African Americans requires sensitivity to spirituality as a component of the cultural context. To foster understanding, measurement, and delivery of the spiritual component of culturally competent care, this article presents an evolutionary concept analysis of African-American spirituality. The analysis is based on a sample of multidisciplinary research studies reflecting spirituality of African Americans. Findings indicate that African-American spirituality involves quintessential, internal, external, consoling, and transformative attributive dimensions. Findings are considered in relation to previous conceptual analyses of spirituality and suggest that defining attributes of African-American spirituality are both global and culturally prominent. Implications for practice and research are discussed.
Suggests sources of information for African American History Month for library media specialists who work with students in grades four through eight. Gale Research's "African-American Reference Library," which includes "African-America Biography,""African-American Chronology," and "African-American Almanac,"…
Murry, Velma McBride; Berkel, Cady; Brody, Gene H.; Miller, Shannon J.; Chen, Yi-fu
Data obtained from two waves of a longitudinal study of 671 rural African American families, with an 11-year-old preadolescent, were examined to test pathways through which racial and ethnic socialization influence youth's self-presentation and academic expectation and anticipation through the enhancement of youth self-pride. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that racial and ethnic socialization was linked with youth's expectation and anticipation for academic success, through youth self-pride, including racial identity and self-esteem, and academic self-presentation. The results highlight the need to disaggregate racial and ethnic socialization in order to better understand how these parenting domains uniquely forecast youth self-pride, as well as their orientation to education and academic success. PMID:19209975
... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to a ... glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in African Americans. Half of those with glaucoma don't know ...
Rohrich, Rod J; Muzaffar, Arshad R
Because of the increasing popularity of rhinoplasty in the African-American patient, we delineate how a rhinoplasty surgeon can perform this challenging technique to obtain uniform and consistent results. First, we address how one can appreciate and analyze the various aesthetic concepts of beauty and the unique anatomic characteristics of the African-American nose. Second, we present a pragmatic, systematic analysis of the African-American nose. Last, we describe the techniques consistently used to modify the African-American nose while achieving or maintaining facial harmony using the open approach to rhinoplasty. Specific case analyses are presented to demonstrate utilization of the technique.
Lin, Xiaoping; Steinberg, Steven; Kandasamy, Suresh K; Afzal, Junaid; Mbiyangandu, Blaid; Liao, Susan E; Guan, Yufan; Corona-Villalobos, Celia P; Matkovich, Scot J; Epstein, Neal; Tripodi, Dotti; Huo, Zhaoxia; Cutting, Garry; Abraham, Theodore P; Fukunaga, Ryuya; Abraham, M Roselle
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are recognized as important regulators of cardiac development, hypertrophy and fibrosis. Recent studies have demonstrated that genetic variations which cause alterations in miRNA:target interactions can lead to disease. We hypothesized that genetic variations in miRNAs that regulate cardiac hypertrophy/fibrosis might be involved in generation of the cardiac phenotype in patients diagnosed with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). To investigate this question, we Sanger sequenced 18 miRNA genes previously implicated in myocyte hypertrophy/fibrosis and apoptosis, using genomic DNA isolated from the leukocytes of 199 HCM patients. We identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs6971711, C57T SNP) at the 17th position of mature miR-590-3p (= 57th position of pre-miR-590) that is common in individuals of African ancestry. SNP frequency was higher in African American HCM patients (n = 55) than ethnically-matched controls (n = 100), but the difference was not statistically significant (8.2% vs. 6.5%; p = 0.5). Using a cell culture system, we discovered that presence of this SNP resulted in markedly lower levels of mature miR-590-5p (39 ± 16%, p<0.003) and miR-590-3p (20 ± 2%, p<0.003), when compared with wild-type (WT) miR-590, without affecting levels of pri-miR-590 and pre-miR-590. Consistent with this finding, the SNP resulted in reduced target suppression when compared to WT miR-590 (71% suppression by WT vs 60% suppression by SNP, p<0.03). Since miR-590 can regulate TGF-β, Activin A and Akt signaling, SNP-induced reduction in miR-590 biogenesis could influence cardiac phenotype by de-repression of these signaling pathways. Since the SNP is only present in African Americans, population studies in this patient population would be valuable to investigate effects of this SNP on myocyte function and cardiac physiology.
Steinberg, Steven; Kandasamy, Suresh K.; Afzal, Junaid; Mbiyangandu, Blaid; Liao, Susan E.; Guan, Yufan; Corona-Villalobos, Celia P.; Matkovich, Scot J.; Epstein, Neal; Tripodi, Dotti; Huo, Zhaoxia; Cutting, Garry; Abraham, Theodore P.; Abraham, M. Roselle
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are recognized as important regulators of cardiac development, hypertrophy and fibrosis. Recent studies have demonstrated that genetic variations which cause alterations in miRNA:target interactions can lead to disease. We hypothesized that genetic variations in miRNAs that regulate cardiac hypertrophy/fibrosis might be involved in generation of the cardiac phenotype in patients diagnosed with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). To investigate this question, we Sanger sequenced 18 miRNA genes previously implicated in myocyte hypertrophy/fibrosis and apoptosis, using genomic DNA isolated from the leukocytes of 199 HCM patients. We identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs6971711, C57T SNP) at the 17th position of mature miR-590-3p (= 57th position of pre-miR-590) that is common in individuals of African ancestry. SNP frequency was higher in African American HCM patients (n = 55) than ethnically-matched controls (n = 100), but the difference was not statistically significant (8.2% vs. 6.5%; p = 0.5). Using a cell culture system, we discovered that presence of this SNP resulted in markedly lower levels of mature miR-590-5p (39 ± 16%, p<0.003) and miR-590-3p (20 ± 2%, p<0.003), when compared with wild-type (WT) miR-590, without affecting levels of pri-miR-590 and pre-miR-590. Consistent with this finding, the SNP resulted in reduced target suppression when compared to WT miR-590 (71% suppression by WT vs 60% suppression by SNP, p<0.03). Since miR-590 can regulate TGF-β, Activin A and Akt signaling, SNP-induced reduction in miR-590 biogenesis could influence cardiac phenotype by de-repression of these signaling pathways. Since the SNP is only present in African Americans, population studies in this patient population would be valuable to investigate effects of this SNP on myocyte function and cardiac physiology. PMID:27196440
Washington, Karla T.; Bickel-Swenson, Denise; Stephens, Nathan
The present review was undertaken to explore recent evidence in the professional literature pertaining to use of hospice services by African Americans. The article addresses the research methods that have been used to study African American hospice use, obstacles to African American participation in hospice that have been identified, and…
African American males face numerous challenges to their physical and psychological well-being. This project is a survey of the literature and trends relative to African American males from 1987 to the present. In reviewing the fifteen years since Parham and McDavis published their now famous article on African American men as an endangered…
Okwumabua, Theresa M.; Walker, Kristin M.; Hu, Xiangen; Watson, Andrea
The current work presents exploratory research findings concerning African American students' attitudes toward online learning. The Online Tutoring Attitudes Scale (OTAS; Graff, 2003) was administered to 124 African American students in a positive youth development program. Findings suggest that African American students' attitudes toward…
Bell, Edward Earl
The purpose of this study was to assess the socialization skills, self-esteem, and academic readiness of African American males in a school environment. Discussions with students and the School Perceptions Questionnaire provided data for this investigation. The intended targets for this investigation were African American students; however, there…
This collection for children tells the stories of 16 African Americans who helped make America what it is today. African Americans can take pride in the heritage of these contributors to society. Biographies are given for the following: (1) Sojourner Truth, preacher and abolitionist; (2) Frederick Douglass, abolitionist; (3) Harriet Tubman, leader…
Lamme, Linda Leonard; Astengo, Be; Lowery, Ruth McCoy; Masla, Diane; Russo, Roseanne; Savage, Debbie; Shelton, Nancy Rankie
Exciting stories about African Americans in recently published historical fiction books for children concern Pea Island Life-Station, a private school for African American girls, a biracial slave, a black woman who homesteads for land in 1889, and an orphan who travels on his own to Flint, Michigan, during the Depression. Much of this history…
Day-Vines, Norma L.; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl
Although there are various definitions of wellness, few conceptual definitions have addressed the contextual dimensions of wellness relative to African American counselors. The authors present an overview of generic models of wellness, discuss factors that both inhibit and promote wellness, offer some culture-specific models of wellness, and…
Evans, Kathy M.; Herr, Edwin L.
Combined effects of racism and sexism in the workplace subject African-American woman to more discrimination than either Black men or White women. Examines racism and sexism in employment practices and in the career development and aspirations of African-American women. Identifies coping system of African-American women who avoid career fields in…
There is a large disparity in the number of African American women leaders in higher education, specifically in the presidency. Much of the literature negates the experiences of the African American woman, often fusing their experiences with those of all women, or those of African American men, which often disregards the challenges and successes…
Ross, L J
The history of African-American women's efforts to control their fertility is largely unknown. From slavery to the present, the growth rate of the African-American population has been cut in half. Demographers and historians frequently attribute this change to external factors such as poverty, disease, and coerced birth control, rather than the deliberate agency of African-American women. This essay assembles a brief historical record of the ways African-American women have sought to control their fertility through the use of abortion and birth control. It also examines the activism of African-American women in the establishment of family planning clinics and in defense of abortion rights.
... and Management System Report to Congress Knowledge Center Capacity Building Information Services Events Calendar Resource Guide Justice ... Workforce Diversity Grants Youth Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Black/African American ...
Coombs, Catherine C; Falchi, Lorenzo; Weinberg, J Brice; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Lanasa, Mark C
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most prevalent leukemia in the United States with almost 4390 attributable deaths per year. Epidemiologic data compiled by the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program identifies important differences in incidence and survival for African Americans with CLL. Although the incidence of CLL is lower among African Americans than among Caucasians (4.6 and 6.2 per 100 000 men, respectively), age-adjusted survival is inferior. African American patients with CLL are almost twice as likely to die from a CLL-related complication in the first 5 years after diagnosis as are Caucasian patients with CLL. The biologic basis for these observations is almost entirely unexplored, and a comprehensive clinical analysis of African American patients with CLL is lacking. This is the subject of the present review.
Murrock, Carolyn J.; Gary, Faye A.
This article provides evidence of a culturally specific dance intervention to decrease obesity as measured by body fat and body mass index (BMI) in African American women. A community partnership was formed with two African American churches to develop an intervention to address the issue of obesity. The culturally specific dance intervention was delivered two times per week for 8 weeks, choreographed to gospel music selected by the experimental group participants, and taught by an African American woman. Body fat and BMI were assessed at three time points and revealed significant differences between the two groups. Attending a minimum of 7 classes was enough to show an observed dose effect and the intervention was found to be culturally specific by understanding their roles as African American women. This community partnership was an effective way to promote a church-based, culturally specific dance intervention to improve the health of African American women. PMID:19098267
... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...
Akhtar, Abbasi J; Akhtar, Aslam A; Padda, Manmeet S
Choledocholithiasis (CDL) usually presents with biliary pain. Painless CDL is also known to occur, especially in the elderly. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the mode of presentation (painful vs. painless) influences the clinical course and outcomes of CDL in African American and Hispanic patients. Ten years of admission and discharge records (January 1998-December 2007) were reviewed retrospectively, yielding 527 community hospital patients, aged 23-97 years, with the final diagnosis of CDL. Patients with painless presentation had higher odds of having comorbidities compared to patients presenting with pain. However, patients who presented with biliary pain were predominantly younger (mean age 34 years), and 59% were Hispanic females (p = 0.001). In our study painless CDL was associated with higher morbidity and mortality.
Bell, Edward E.
Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American…
Reviews the opportunities available in the field of agriculture for African American students and notes efforts of the 136 colleges of agriculture to publicize their offerings and recruit students. Profiles six black leaders in agriculture, highlighting their achievements in research and aid to developing countries. A table provides data on annual…
Stiff, MaNesha M.
The purpose of this study was to identify the dynamics of mentoring relationships among African American women within the higher education profession. Utilizing a phenomenological research design, this researcher conducted in-depth interviews with 10 African American women who are mentors and/or mentees of an African American woman in the higher…
Plowden, Keith O; Thompson Adams, Linda; Wiley, Dana
Depression is a common mental disorder affecting individuals. Although many strides have been made in the area of depression, little is known about depression in special populations, especially African American men. African American men often differ in their presentation of depression and are often misdiagnosed. African American men are at greater risk for depression, but they are less likely to participate in mental health care. This article explores depression in African American by looking at environmental factors, sigma, role, and other unique to this populations, such as John Henryism. Interventions to encourage early screening and participation in care are also discussed.
Blackett, P.R.; Altmiller, D.H.; Jelley, D.; Wilson, D.P.
A two-year-old African American boy presented with cutaneous xanthomata and extreme hypercholesterolemia. Subsequent studies revealed that the LDL-cholesterol was 1,001 mg/dl and apoB 507 mg/dl. LDL-receptor activity was almost undetectable, which is compatible with the finding of two newly described defective alleles on exon 4 of the LDL-receptor gene coding for part of the ligand-binding domain. One allele contained a 21 base-pair insertion from codon 200 to 207 whereas the other had a point mutation at codon 207. The rarity of genes for FH reported in individuals of African ancestry is discussed. 16 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.
Ruddy, Barbara E.; Mayer, Anita P.; Ko, Marcia G.; Labonte, Helene R.; Borovansky, Jill A.; Boroff, Erika S.; Blair, Janis E.
Coccidioidomycosis is caused by Coccidioides species, a fungus endemic to the desert regions of the southwestern United States, and is of particular concern for African Americans. We performed a PubMed search of the English-language medical literature on coccidioidomycosis in African Americans and summarized the pertinent literature. Search terms were coccidioidomycosis, Coccidioides, race, ethnicity, African, black, and Negro. The proceedings of the national and international coccidioidomycosis symposia were searched. All relevant articles and their cited references were reviewed; those with epidemiological, immunologic, clinical, and therapeutic data pertaining to coccidioidomycosis in African Americans were included in the review. Numerous studies documented an increased predilection for severe coccidioidal infections, coccidioidomycosis-related hospitalizations, and extrapulmonary dissemination in persons of African descent; however, most of the published studies are variably problematic. The immunologic mechanism for this predilection is unclear. The clinical features and treatment recommendations are summarized. Medical practitioners need to be alert to the possibility of coccidioidomycosis in persons with recent travel to or residence in an area where the disease is endemic. PMID:21193657
There is more to Black History Month than honoring Martin Luther King Jr. Black History Month is a time to honor the significant contributions of African-Americans throughout history. This article presents 20 super-achievers new generation of African-Americans heroes students should meet: (1) Kimberly Oliver; (2) John Lewis; (3) Rita Dove; (4)…
Intergenerational kinship and multigenerational families (three or more generations) have been a source of strength for African Americans. This article presents a culturally responsive intergenerational practice model for working with African American families that draws on this legacy. The model looks at intergenerational kinship and…
Smalls, Ruth R.
An academic achievement gap exists between European American and African American students in the United States elementary educational system. At present, the achievement gap is currently being measured by local, state, and national standardized assessments and reveals that there is a great disparity among African American and European American…
Johnson, James H., Jr.
Presents a geographical analysis of African American migration estimates compiled by the Census Bureau for the 1980-85 period. Argues that structural changes in employment opportunities and the housing affordability crisis in some of the nation's largest metropolitan areas are the dominant forces influencing current African American population…
Congressional Task Force on the Future of African-Americans, Washington, DC.
This study considers the present condition of African-Americans and makes projections for the year 2000, emphasizing the relative conditions of European-Americans and African-Americans, and considering the public and private policy implications of these projections. Section 1, an overview of the subject, covers the following topics: (1) "The…
Amankwaa, Linda Clark
The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the nature of postpartum depression (PPD) among African-American women. Twelve women, who had experienced PPD within the last three years, were interviewed for approximately one hour at two intervals. Nudist-4 software and the constant comparative method were used to analyze the data. Five themes "Stressing Out," "Feeling Down," "Losing It," "Seeking Help," and "Feeling Better" represented aspects of PPD as experienced by the participants. The last theme, "Dealing with It," represented the cultural ways in which African-American mothers managed their depression. These included Keeping the Faith, Trying to Be a Strong Black Woman, Living with Myths, and Keeping Secrets. Suggestions for future directions in nursing research are included.
Ferdinand, Keith C; Armani, Annemarie M
The prevalence of hypertension in blacks in the United States is among the highest in the world. Compared with whites, blacks develop hypertension at an earlier age, their average blood pressures are much higher and they experience worse disease severity. Consequently, blacks have a 1.3 times greater rate of nonfatal stroke, 1.8 times greater rate of fatal stroke, 1.5 times greater rate of heart disease death, 4.2 times greater rate of end-stage kidney disease, and a 50% higher frequency of heart failure; overall, mortality due to hypertension and its consequences is 4 to 5 times more likely in African Americans than in whites. The increased prevalence of hypertension and excessive target organ damage is due to a combination of genetic and, most likely, environmental factors. There are no clinical trial data at present to suggest that lower-than-usual BP targets should be set for high-risk demographic groups such as African Americans. The primary means of prevention and early treatment of hypertension in African Americans will be the appropriate use of lifestyle modification. The International Society of Hypertension in Blacks guidelines realize that most patients will require combination therapy, many of them first-line, to reach appropriate BP goals. Although certain classes and combinations of antihypertensive agents have been well-established to be effective, the choice of drugs for combination therapy in African American patients may be different. Within the African American group, the responsiveness to monotherapy with ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and beta blockers may be less than the responsiveness to diuretics and calcium channel blockers, but these differences are corrected when diuretics are added to the neurohormonal antagonists. Of note, African American patients with systolic BP >15 mm Hg or a diastolic BP >10 mm Hg above goal should be treated with first-line combination therapy.
Nasim, Aashir; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye; Utsey, Shawn O.; Fallah, Niloofar
The present study examined cultural orientation as a protective factor against tobacco and marijuana smoking for African American young women (ages 18 to 25). African American college students (N = 145) from a predominantly White university were administered subscales from the African American Acculturation Scale-Revised (AAAS-R); the shortened…
Chineworth, Mary Alice, Ed.
African-Americans have been present in Catholic schools since their beginnings in the United States. The six essays in this book examine Catholic education from the perspective of the African-American Catholic. The essays underscore the continued challenge for continuing Catholic schools in the African-American community. They include: (1) an…
Tauriac, Jesse J.; Scruggs, Natoschia
Perceptions of extreme, moderate, and mild forms of elder abuse among African-American women (n=25) and men (n=10) were examined. African-American respondents emphasized physical abuse when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Along with physical abuse, verbal abuse was the most frequently identified form of abuse, and was significantly…
Wright, Dianne; Taylor, Janice D.; Burrell, Charlotte; Stewart, Gregory
This article explores the issues of African American participation in the administrative ranks of the academy. The authors find that African Americans tend to hold positions that are marginal in academic organizations, lacking power and influence, and that not much has changed over recent decades. Forces influencing this condition are explored,…
Sigmon, Scott B.
To better serve people in a counseling relationship, it is useful to understand them not only culturally, but demographically as well. This paper traces historical, religious, demographic aspects and treatment of alcohol abuse in African Americans. Historically, alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence have varied for African Americans. During the…
Ragland, Tamra C.; Harkness, Shelly Sheats
In this article, the authors provide portraits of three mathematics teachers: one European American man, one African American man, and one Middle Eastern woman. All three taught in secondary schools with predominantly African American student populations. Semi-structured interviews and observations were conducted to create a comparative case study…
Chang, Edward Taehan
Presents a lesson plan that examines the economic, cultural, and ideological factors that influence Korean and African American relations. Discusses how the two groups perceive each other and situates the role of race and class in this relationship. Includes informational handouts and discussion questions. (MJP)
Despite a significant increase in scholarly interest for homeschooling, some of its most critical aspects, such as instructional daily practices, remain grossly understudied. This essay thus seeks to fill that void by presenting empirical evidence regarding the homeschooling practices of a specific group, African Americans. Most specifically, the…
Ghafoor, Asma; Jemal, Ahmedin; Cokkinides, Vilma; Cardinez, Cheryll; Murray, Taylor; Samuels, Alicia; Thun, Michael J
The American Cancer Society provides estimates on the number of new cancer cases and deaths, and compiles health statistics on African Americans in a biennial publication, Cancer Facts and Figures for African Americans. The compiled statistics include cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and lifestyle behaviors using the most recent data on incidence and survival from the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program, mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), and behavioral information from the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), and National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). It is estimated that 132,700 new cases of cancer and 63,100 deaths will occur among African Americans in the year 2003. Although African Americans have experienced higher incidence and mortality rates of cancer than whites for many years, incidence rates have declined by 2.7 percent per year in African-American males since 1992, while stabilizing in African-American females. During the same period, death rates declined by 2.1 percent and 0.4 percent per year among African-American males and females, respectively. The decrease in both incidence and death rates from cancer among African-American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. Nonetheless, African Americans still carry the highest cancer burden among US racial and ethnic groups. Most cancers detectable by screening are diagnosed at a later stage and survival rates are lower within each stage of disease in African Americans than in whites. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors is an active area of research.
Baharian, Soheil; Barakatt, Maxime; Gignoux, Christopher R; Shringarpure, Suyash; Errington, Jacob; Blot, William J; Bustamante, Carlos D; Kenny, Eimear E; Williams, Scott M; Aldrich, Melinda C; Gravel, Simon
We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West. Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. By contrast, short-range relatedness patterns suggest comparable mobility of ∼15-16km per generation for African-Americans and European-Americans, as estimated using a novel analytical model of isolation-by-distance.
Barakatt, Maxime; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Errington, Jacob; Blot, William J.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Kenny, Eimear E.; Williams, Scott M.; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Gravel, Simon
We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West. Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. By contrast, short-range relatedness patterns suggest comparable mobility of ∼15–16km per generation for African-Americans and European-Americans, as estimated using a novel analytical model of isolation-by-distance. PMID:27232753
Tan, Bowei; Abdelmalek, Cherif; O’Donnell, James E.; Toltaku, Thomas; Chaudhry, Rashid; Wang, Jen C.; Gotlieb, Vladimir
Patient: Male, 55 Final Diagnosis: Primary NK-T cell lymphoma • nasal type Symptoms: Fever • nasal bleeding • nasal mass • weight loss Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Chemotherapy×2 cycles • radiation therap Specialty: Oncology Objective: Rare disease Background: Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTCL) is generally an aggressive and rare non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It is most common in East Asians, Native Americans, and South Americans, but is rarely reported in blacks. Case Report: A 55-year-old African American male born in Grenada presented with a left nostril mass with facial swelling and biopsy subsequently confirmed a diagnosis of extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTCL). Immunochemistry was positive for CD2, cytoplasmic CD3, CD7, CD 43, CD 56, granzyme B, and TIA-1. In situ hybridization was positive for Epstein-Barr virus encoded ribonucleic acid (EBERs). Bone marrow aspiration did not show lymphoma involvement. The patient had progressive neutropenia upon presentation, with further investigations showing hepatomegaly, hyperferritinemia, and hemophagocytosis in the bone marrow. We reached a diagnosis of hemophagocytic syndrome. He was treated with a high-dose combination chemotherapy and radiation therapy; the neutropenia improved significantly with steroids as treatment for immune activation in the setting of hemophagocytic syndrome. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the only second report of extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type in a black patient, and it raises the awareness of early recognition of rare manifestations of NK/T-cell lymphoma such as hemophagocytic syndrome. PMID:28193996
... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of Alzheimer's, ... two times more likely to develop late-onset Alzheimer's disease than whites and less likely to have a ...
Saab, Sammy; Jackson, Christian; Nieto, Jose; Francois, Fritz
The care of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in African Americans represents an opportunity to address a major health disparity in medicine. In all facets of HCV infection, African Americans are inexplicably affected, including in the prevalence of the virus, which is higher among them compared with most of the racial and ethnic groups. Ironically, although fibrosis rates may be slow, hepatocellular carcinoma and mortality rates appear to be higher among African Americans. Sustained viral response (SVR) rates have historically significantly trailed behind Caucasians. The reasons for this gap in SVR are related to both viral and host factors. Moreover, low enrollment rates in clinical trials hamper the study of the efficacy of anti-viral therapy. Nevertheless, the gap in SVR between African Americans and Caucasians may be narrowing with the use of direct-acting agents. Gastroenterologists, hepatologists, primary care physicians, and other health-care providers need to address modifiable risk factors that affect the natural history, as well as treatment outcomes, for HCV among African Americans. Efforts need to be made to improve awareness among health-care providers to address the differences in screening and referral patterns for African Americans.
Rao, Deepa; Molina, Yamile; Lambert, Nina; Cohn, Susan E.
Purpose In the present study, we validated a culturally adapted stigma scale designed to assess stigma among African Americans living with HIV. Methods We collected data on the scale using an audio computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) format. We validated the scale with a sample of 62 African American participants living with HIV. Results Findings demonstrated that stigma can be measured succinctly and effectively in a 14-item scale with two subscales measuring enacted and internalized stigma. Discussion We identified many advantages to using the scale, which demonstrated good psychometric properties when used with an audio computer assisted self-interview format and with an African American sample. We recommend this scale’s use in both clinical practice and research study of HIV-stigma reduction interventions with African American populations. PMID:27761520
Mack McKinney, chief, program resources management at NASA and chairperson for African-American History Month, presents a plaque to Bhetty Waldron at the kick-off ceremony of African-American History Month on Feb. 3 at the NASA Training Auditorium. The award was given in thanks for Waldron's portrayal of Dr. Mary McLeod Bethune and Zora Neal Hurston during the ceremony. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.
Presents an interview with Dr. Joyce F. Brown, the first female and first African American president of the Fashion Institute of Technology in New York. Explores the intricacies of being a Black woman president, working in New York higher education systems, and training students for an industry not renowned for its diversity. (EV)
Greer, Tawanda M.; Laseter, Adrian; Asiamah, David
The present study tested gender as a moderator of the relationship between race-related stress and mental health symptoms among African American adults. Because African American women are exposed to stressors associated with race and gender, we hypothesized that African American women would have higher levels of race-related stress and more severe…
Williams, Monnica T; Beckmann-Mendez, Diana A; Turkheimer, Eric
Anxiety disorders are understudied, underdiagnosed, and undertreated in African Americans. Research focused on the phenomenology, etiology, and treatment of anxiety in African Americans has been hampered by lack of inclusion of this population in clinical research studies. The reason for exclusion is not well understood, although cultural mistrust has been hypothesized as a major barrier to research participation. This article reviews the relevant literature to date and examines the experience of 6 African American adults who participated in a larger clinical assessment study about anxiety. Drawing upon in-depth semistructured interviews about their subjective experiences, we examined participant perspectives about the assessment process, opinions about African American perception of anxiety studies, and participant-generated ideas about how to improve African American participation. Based on a qualitative analysis of responses, feelings of mistrust emerged as a dominant theme. Concerns fell under 6 categories, including not wanting to speak for others, confidentiality, self and group presentation concerns, repercussions of disclosure, potential covert purposes of the study, and the desire to confide only in close others. Suggestions for increasing African American participation are discussed, including assurances of confidentiality, adequate compensation, and a comfortable study environment.
Whitfield, Tracy N.
The qualitative research study explored the organizational characteristics necessary in addressing the low concentration of African American technical consultants employed in the information technology industry. Using research participants' professional experience, participants responded to a developed questionnaire. African American technical…
Yancy, Clyde W
The demographics of the United States are changing, and in the next few decades there will no longer be a racial/ethnic majority population. Increased awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in special populations is warranted as these populations increase. Heart failure carries a substantial burden on those affected, particularly African Americans, who have a disproportionate burden of heart disease. Current treatments for heart failure include angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers, angiotensin II-receptor antagonists, and vasodilating agents. This review discusses the unique characteristics of CVD in African Americans and addresses the need for targeted treatments to reduce the excess burden found in this population.
Johnson, Avonda C.
The purpose of the study was to examine and describe the lived experiences of the adult African American woman who had lived in multiple foster care placements. Eleven adult African American women ages 22-25 participated in semi-structured, face-to-face interviews to tell their stories and provide data of the memories of the experience. The…
Kelly, Sharon F.
Existing scholarship has no examination of attributing the discourse on vocational identity to African American women, which in this study, has been defined as what a woman ought to be and do. African American women have been a subject of scholarly inquiry on having the longest history of paid work. This qualitative dissertation contains their…
Peterson, Elizabeth A., Ed.
This book contains six chapters by various authors about the history of African Americans' contributions and participation in adult education. The book reports on how some African American leaders saw the connection between education and the eventual freedom or uplift of the African American people. Following a foreword (Phyllis M. Cunningham) and…
Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano
Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…
Much has been written concerning the challenges many teachers face in engaging African American males in reading practices. While much of this extant scholarship focuses on African American males at the pre-adolescent stage of development and beyond, little has been written regarding increasing reading engagement in African American boys in P-5…
Horsford, Sheena R; Parra-Cardona, José Rubén; Schiamberg, Larry; Post, Lori A
Despite the rapid growth of the elderly African American population in the U.S., elder abuse and neglect in African American families continue to be underdeveloped areas of study. This article presents an ecological and culturally informed framework for the study of elder abuse in African American populations. The model was developed based on Bronfenbrenner's Human Ecological Theory. The model identifies risk factors associated with different systems that have an influence on the lives of African American families. Cultural protective factors also are identified in the model. The model is intended to provide an understanding of elder abuse and neglect in African American families by considering the influence of contextual factors such as the legacy of slavery, social exclusion, and structural segregation and racism. Specific suggestions for practice are proposed according to cultural strengths of African American communities as well as the ecological premises of the model.
Newsome, Valerie; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O.
Although literature suggests that African American women are no more likely to engage in risky sex than their White counterparts, they are more likely to have sex partners with higher HIV risk. Thus, it is not solely an individual’s behavior that determines their risk, but also the behavior of their partner and their position within a sexual network. For this reason, it is important to consider the dynamics of heterosexual relationships in the African American community. An important area of concern regarding African American heterosexual relationships is that of partner availability. A shortage of available African American men for potential partnerships exists and is reportedly due to poorer health and higher mortality rates. Some have argued that gender-ratio imbalance may be responsible for increased HIV vulnerability for African American women. This article reviews the literature on gender ratio imbalance and HIV risk in the African American community, and presents implications and suggestions for future research and intervention. PMID:23041754
Gregory, S T
African American women have participated in higher education for well over a century. Although the journey has been difficult, significant achievements have been made. Today, fewer African American women doctoral recipients are choosing academic employment, and many of those who enter the academy later leave for employment in business, industry and the professions where salaries are often more attractive. Furthermore, the present decline of African American faculty women is expected to become more severe as the growth of the academic labor market levels off. If we are to successfully retain the pool of African American faculty women it is important to discover the reasons why an increasing number are voluntarily leaving the academy. This article is based on a cross-sectional study of 384 African American academic women which examines the primary barriers to faculty retention and offer suggestions to help prevent the further loss of African American women scholars.
Cuyjet, Michael J., Ed.
This book is a much-needed resource that includes examples of real-world programs and activities to enhance academic success in the college environment for African American men. The examples are collected from a variety of institutions across the country. With contributions from leading practitioners and scholars in the field, this book explores…
psychosocial, reproductive, genetic and lifestyles ) related to disease risk. Cases were matched by ethnicity and age to two cancer-free women participating in a...Breast Cancer; African American, Lifestyles , Psychosocial 24 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 19. SECURITY...have shown risk factors such as age; socio-economic class; race/ethnicity; lifestyle ; and reproductive factors increase a woman’s chance of developing
The combination of kidney disease and pregnancy has long been recognized as a high-risk situation. When renal disease is recognized for the first time during pregnancy, it presents unique problems for both the obstetric and the renal teams. Particularly difficult can be distinguishing preeclampsia from preexisting kidney disease in women presenting for the first time with hypertension, proteinuria, and reduced GFR during pregnancy. Decision-making regarding performing a kidney biopsy and treatment of glomerular disease during pregnancy is often much more complicated by safety concerns for both the mother and the developing fetus.
Robins, Edwin B; Blum, Steve
Anemia is prevalent among African American children. When evaluating pediatric patients for anemia, clinicians refer to the normative hematological reference values in reference textbooks. These reference values are used in spite of evidence that healthy African American people of all ages have average hemoglobin concentrations from 0.5 to 0.73 g/dl below those of Whites. In an earlier study, using samples from 2,161 healthy African American children from 2 to 18 years old, we found a statistically significant difference (P < 0.0001) in the mean hemoglobin value for each age group as compared to reference normative mean hemoglobin values. Here we present the results of a comparative analysis of the data set from our previous study and the data set from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys III (NHANES III) 1988-1994. We found no statistically significant difference between these data sets with respect to the hemoglobin values for any age or sex group, confirming that African American children and adolescents have lower mean hemoglobin values than do Whites. Use of the reference hemoglobin values presented here will help prevent the misdiagnosis of anemia in African American children and thereby minimize unnecessary hematological workups and treatment.
QaQa, Ashraf; Daoko, Joseph; Jallad, Nesreen; Aburomeh, Omar; Goldfarb, Irvin; Shamoon, Fayez
Objectives: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is a reversible cause of heart failure rarely described in African-American patients. This study aimed to compare and contrast the clinical characteristics of TTS in African-American (AA) and non-African-American (NAA) patients. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of eight patients (four AA and four NAA) diagnosed with TTS, between June 2006 and August 2008, in four different teaching hospitals: St Michael’s Medical Center, St Joseph’s Medical Center, Trinitas hospital and St Louis’ University Hospital. We compared the patients with regard to presenting symptoms, precipitating stressors, electrocardiographic findings, troponin levels, ejection fraction and in-hospital course. Results: All patients were females (mean age 64 for AA and 67 for NAA). All patients experienced chest pain and had elevated troponin levels. Two AA and three NAA patients had associated shortness of breath and one NAA had syncope. All AA and three NAA had T-wave inversions. Three NAA and one AA had ST segment elevation. Three patients in both groups developed prolongation of the QT interval. Coronary angiograms did not reveal any significant obstructive coronary artery disease. Three patients, all NAA, needed hemodynamic support during their hospital stay but none died. Conclusion: AA and NAA women with TTS have similar presenting symptoms but may differ in the electrocardiographic findings and in-hospital course of the disease. PMID:21691531
Disparities in asthma management are a burden on African American youth. The objective of this study is to describe and compare the discourses of asthma management disparities (AMDs) in African American adolescents in Seattle to existing youth-related asthma policies in Washington State. Adolescents participated in a three-session photovoice project and presented their phototexts to the Washington State asthma planning committee. Critical discourse analysis methodology was used to analyze adolescent phototexts and the State asthma plan. We found that the State plan did not address AMD in African American adolescents. Adolescents discussed more topics on AMD than the State plan presented, and they introduced new topics concerning residential mobility, poor nutrition, inadequate athletic opportunities, and schools with stairs. Current health policy may be constraining effective responses to asthma disparities in youth. School nursing leadership can use photovoice to advance youth voice in transforming structural inequities in urban school environments.
Bell, C. C.
Children exposed to traumatic stress are vulnerable to a variety of stress-related disorders other than classical post-traumatic stress disorder. Several case histories are presented to illustrate some of the diversity of how traumatic stress may manifest in children. African-American children are the main focus of this article as political, economic, social, and morbidity and mortality indicators suggest that African-American children are at high risk for exposure to potentially traumatic stressors. Different presentations of traumatic, stress are discussed in an effort to broaden our understanding of the outcome of traumatic stress to fully help traumatized children. PMID:9170834
Woods-Giscombé, Cheryl L.
Researchers have suggested that health disparities in African American women, including adverse birth outcomes, lupus, obesity, and untreated depression, can be explained by stress and coping. The Strong Black Woman/Superwoman role has been highlighted as a phenomenon influencing African American women’s experiences and reports of stress. The purpose of this study was to develop a preliminary conceptual framework for Superwoman Schema (SWS) by exploring women’s descriptions of the Superwoman role; perceptions of contextual factors, benefits, and liabilities; and beliefs in how it influences health. Analysis of eight focus group discussions with demographically diverse African American women yielded themes characterizing the Superwoman role and personal or sociohistorical contextual factors. Participants reported that the Superwoman role had benefits (preservation of self and family or community) and liabilities (relationship strain, stress-related health behaviors, and stress embodiment). The SWS framework might be used to enhance future research on stress and African American women’s health. PMID:20154298
Malpede, Christie Z; Greene, Lori E; Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L; Jefferson, Wendy K; Shewchuk, Richard M; Baskin, Monica L; Ard, Jamy D
This study examines African American and Caucasian women's perception of how race affects their weight. Structured focus groups that used the nominal group technique (NGT) were conducted with four groups of African American women (n = 30) and four groups of Caucasian women (n = 30). Participants generated responses to the question, "How does being a Black/White woman affect your weight?" The African American groups generated 48 unique ideas, including unhealthy food preparation, poor food selection habits, lack of exercise, stress, increased risk of chronic diseases, and associated medical costs; the Caucasian groups produced 32 responses, including distorted expectations of perfect body type, success depended on thinness and beauty, social pressures, media, and men's preferences. Results suggest that the African American women focused on food choices and health consequences while the Caucasian women emphasized body size and aesthetics. The observed differences support a need for culturally specific interventions that promote good eating patterns and healthy body shapes.
Hurd, Noelle M.; Sanchez, Bernadette; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.
The present study explored how relationships with natural mentors may contribute to African American adolescents' long-term educational attainment by influencing adolescents' racial identity and academic beliefs. This study included 541 academically at-risk African American adolescents transitioning into adulthood. The mean age of participants at…
Spencer, Natalie F.; Dowden, Angel Riddick
Gifted African American students are underrepresented and underserved in gifted education. The current article provides an overview of proper identification, racial identity development implications, psycho-social concerns and the importance of family involvement in the development of gifted African American students. A case study is presented to…
Critically examines the factors continuing to impede the integral presence of African American women in pivotal decision-making positions in colleges and universities. Interviews with three African American women who were among the first deans or associate deans of education at leading schools are presented, detailing their experiences and views…
Holland, Nicole E.
Engagement in and transitions between academic institutions may be enhanced for African American urban youth if we consider the role of religiosity, spirituality, and places of worship. This article presents the manner by which African American university students, who attended public high schools, conveyed the influence of their religious and…
Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2000
Presents statistics on the progress of African Americans in U.S. institutions of higher education, including data from the Black-White Higher Education Equality Index; statistics measuring the state of racial inequality in the United States; data ranking the nation's law schools according to percentages of African American students; and data on…
Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2002
Presents a statistical record of the progress of African Americans in U.S. higher education institutions, focusing on the black-white higher education equality index, statistics that measure the state of racial inequality, ranking the nation's law schools by percentages of black students, state-by-state review of African American enrollments in…
de la Garza, Rodolfo; Moghadam, Sepehr Hejazi
The purpose of this Tomas Rivera Policy Institute (TRPI) report is twofold: to provide an analysis of the enrollment trends for African American and Latino students among graduate professional programs in the fields of medicine, business, law, and public affairs, and to present other relevant data pertaining to African American and Latino students…
Wasserberg, Martin J.
This study investigated whether a diagnostic testing condition leads to stereotype threat effects for African American children (n = 198) at an urban elementary school. Results indicated that presenting a reading test as diagnostic of abilities hindered the performance of African American children aware of racial stereotypes but not of those…
Frazier, Kimberly N.
The author discusses the problem of retention of African American faculty due to tenure and promotion issues. The author outlines obstacles that African American face in the workplace while seeking tenure and promotion in academia. A case example is presented that illuminates how these stressors manifest in the academic setting and recommendations…
This article presents a study of African American youth resistance and activism. The data revealed that African American youth have a large capacity for activism and ability to resist. Early engagement on issues of social justice, equality and freedom by family, teachers, pastors and community leaders can help to shape political character and…
Le, Yen; Holmes, Nancy C.
We present an exploratory study of the recreational behaviors, preferences, and opinions of African Americans in the Columbia, South Carolina area and identify potential barriers to visiting Congaree National Park. Focus groups with African American residents of the Columbia South Carolina area revealed that inadequate information, detachment from…
The seventh module of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores communication issues pertinent to African Americans with cancer and their health care providers, discusses strategies for culturally sensitive communication, and presents the SPIKES protocol, a practical framework for effective communication.
Bonvillain, Jocelyn Freeman; Honora, Detris
The purpose of the present study was to explore the extent to which racial identity attitudes and self-esteem could predict academic performance for African American middle school students. A total of 175 African American adolescents in 7th grade attending one of two urban schools participated in the study. The Multi-Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM)…
Lyles, Lolita Laree
A qualitative grounded theory approach is utilized to study the academic and career trajectories of twenty African American male collegiate students living in San Bernardino, California. There is limited research that explores the positive educational experiences of young adult African American males. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to…
Rozie-Battle, Judith L
The research on the psychosocial development of African American girls is limited. Information that is available focuses on teen pregnancy and health issues such as nutrition and physical activity. African American girls are facing challenges, including poverty, crime, poor self-esteem, and peer pressure. Despite some of the negative characteristics attributed to African American girls, many are achieving some success. Policy makers and service providers need to recognize the resiliency and unique needs of African American girls and develop services that ensure their needs are being fully met.
Connor, Carol McDonald; Craig, Holly K.
Purpose: This study examined the relation between African American preschoolers' use of African American English (AAE) and their language and emergent literacy skills in an effort to better understand the perplexing and persistent difficulties many African American children experience learning to read proficiently. Method: African American…
Muhammad, Rhonda K.
This qualitative study examined the instructional practices of an experienced African American mathematics teacher to determine his perceived capabilities in augmenting academic proficiency for his African American male students. Provided in this descriptive case study are the lived experiences of an African American male teacher working to move…
Miller, Shannon J
Don't Ask, Don't Tell is gaining attention in family studies literature as a cultural specific context to understand lesbian, gay, and bisexual visibility in African-American families and communities. This policy suggests that sexual minorities are accepted within African-American families and communities as long as they do not label themselves or acknowledge publicly that they engage in same-sex relationships. The narratives of two African-American lesbians (aged 26 and 27 years) are chronicled in the present study to reveal their lesbian identity development, lesbian identity management, and how they defined and navigated Don't Ask, Don't Tell. They encountered challenges and successes in a quest to find communities that would embrace and affirm their multiple marginalized identities. Their stories are offered as a point of entry to further inquiry concerning African-American lesbian visibility and identity proclamation within African-American families and communities.
Davis, Dawnavan S.; Sbrocco, Tracy; Odoms-Young, Angela; Smith, Dionne M.
Traditional body image studies have been constrained by focusing on body thinness as the sole component of attractiveness. Evidence suggests that African American women may hold a multifactorial view of attractiveness that extends beyond size to include factors such as dress attire and race. The current study employed a culturally sensitive silhouette Model Rating Task (MRT) to examine the effects of attire, body size, and race on attractiveness. Unexpectedly, minimal differences on attractiveness ratings emerged by attire, body size, or model race between African American and Caucasian women. Overall, participants preferred the dressed, underweight, and African American models. Factors such as exposure to diverse groups and changes in African American culture may explain the present findings. Future studies to delineate the components of attractiveness for African American and Caucasian women using the MRT are needed to broaden our understanding and conceptualization of attractiveness across racial groups. PMID:19962117
Davis, Dawnavan S; Sbrocco, Tracy; Odoms-Young, Angela; Smith, Dionne M
Traditional body image studies have been constrained by focusing on body thinness as the sole component of attractiveness. Evidence suggests that African American women may hold a multifactorial view of attractiveness that extends beyond size to include factors such as dress attire and race. The current study employed a culturally sensitive silhouette Model Rating Task (MRT) to examine the effects of attire, body size, and race on attractiveness. Unexpectedly, minimal differences on attractiveness ratings emerged by attire, body size, or model race between African American and Caucasian women. Overall, participants preferred the dressed, underweight, and African American models. Factors such as exposure to diverse groups and changes in African American culture may explain the present findings. Future studies to delineate the components of attractiveness for African American and Caucasian women using the MRT are needed to broaden our understanding and conceptualization of attractiveness across racial groups.
This article examines Reading Recovery as a microcosm for issues related to race and access. Tenets of critical race theory are presented to explore how racial biases are systemic in our ways of being, teaching, and conducting research. Specifically, I present data for African American children involved in Reading Recovery in one Midwestern…
The present study linked gender and grade level to homework management strategies and homework completion behaviours. The participants were 685 African American students in the south-eastern USA, including 370 eighth graders and 315 eleventh graders. Gender appeared related to the majority of homework measures examined in the present study.…
Williams, Monnica T.; Malcoun, Emily; Sawyer, Broderick A.; Davis, Darlene M.; Bahojb Nouri, Leyla; Bruce, Simone Leavell
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a highly disabling disorder, afflicting African Americans at disproportionately higher rates than the general population. When receiving treatment, African Americans may feel differently towards a European American clinician due to cultural mistrust. Furthermore, racism and discrimination experienced before or during the traumatic event may compound posttrauma reactions, impacting the severity of symptoms. Failure to adapt treatment approaches to encompass cultural differences and racism-related traumas may decrease treatment success for African American clients. Cognitive behavioral treatment approaches are highly effective, and Prolonged Exposure (PE) in particular has the most empirical support for the treatment of PTSD. This article discusses culturally-informed adaptations of PE that incorporates race-related trauma themes specific to the Black experience. These include adding more sessions at the front end to better establish rapport, asking directly about race-related themes during the assessment process, and deliberately bringing to the forefront race-related experiences and discrimination during treatment when indicated. Guidelines for assessment and the development of appropriate exposures are provided. Case examples are presented demonstrating adaptation of PE for a survivor of race-related trauma and for a woman who developed internalized racism following a sexual assault. Both individuals experienced improvement in their posttrauma reactions using culturally-informed adaptations to PE. PMID:25379272
Jeffries, Rhonda Baynes
This paper discusses the role of matriarchs in African-American culture, explaining that traditionally, African-American matriarchs arise from a combination of African norms and American social positions that naturally forces them to assume leadership conditions. The roles these women assume are a response to the desire to survive in a society…
Harris, Violet J.
Traces and analyzes the history of African American children's literature defined as "culturally conscious," an authentic body of literature written about and for African American children. Discusses the current status of this literature and indicates a change in focus in the last century. Authors' perspectives, and the implications for…
This study examines the academic library experiences of African American undergraduates attending a research university in the Midwest. Data collection techniques included questionnaires and ethnographic observations. The results indicated that African American undergraduates are using the academic library primarily to read and to study with their…
Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.
Because the smoking behavior of African Americans differs considerably from that of other groups, researchers examined differences between African Americans who did and did not use the nicotine patch as an adjunct to counseling and education for smoking cessation. Results indicated the nicotine patch significantly improved six-month cessation…
Interpretations of the differences between the African American child and the Caucasian child in North America follow two major trends. In one the differences in the African American child are viewed as deviance from the Euro-American norm and therefore inferior or pathological. In the other, the differences are viewed as deviant but adaptive…
Cannon Dawson, Candice
This dissertation is a narrative inquiry research project that focuses on the collegiate experiences of African American students at both historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly white institutions (PWIs). I look at how African American college students who engage in race or culturally specific activities, the degree…
Green, Aundria Chephan
The purpose of this study was to explore the reasons that African-American alumni from a historically Black university (HBCU) and a predominantly White university (PWI) chose to attend, remain in, and graduate from college. The central research question was how do African Americans describe their college experiences? The secondary research…
Background/Context: Historical studies examine aspects of African American education in and out of school in detail (Woodson 1915, 1933, Bullock 1970, Anderson 1988, Morris 1982, Rachal 1986, Rose 1964, Webber 1978, Williams 2005). Scholars of African American literacy have noted ways that education intersects other arenas such as religion and…
Nash, Gary B.
Discusses five topics on African Americans that are essential to studying United States History in the years between 1760 and 1830: (1) African Americans in the Revolutionary War ; (2) the rise of free black communities; (3) early abolitionism; (4) the spread of slavery; and (5) black resistance to slavery. (CMK)
Hunn, Vanessa Lynn; Craig, Carlton David
The authors discuss depression in African American women from a sociocultural perspective, including aspects of oppression and racism that affect symptom manifestation. The authors highlight John Henryism as a coping mechanism, the history and continuing role of the African American church as a safe haven, and strategies for culturally competent…
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-11-1-0566 TITLE: Prostate Cancer Genetics in African Americans PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Henry T. Lynch, MD CONTRACTING...W81XWH-11-1-0566 November 2015 Final 15Aug2011 - 14Aug2015 Prostate Cancer Genetics in African Americans Henry T. Lynch Nothing listed 36
Mims, Adrian B.
This case study evaluated the significance of implementing an enrichment mathematics course during the summer to rising African American ninth graders entitled, "Geometry Honors Preview." In the past, 60 to 70 percent of African American students in this school district had withdrawn from Geometry Honors by the second academic quarter. This study…
Kersten, Andrew E.
Focuses on the experience of African Americans during World War II on the homefront and in the armed forces. States that African Americans not only fought fascism overseas but also apartheid in the United States, also known as the "Double V." (CMK)
Staples, Jeanine M.
In this article, and from the standpoint of an African American woman teacher/researcher, the author explores what happened when one African American adolescent boy known inside of school as a "severely disengaged" student cultivated literacy practices and events of his own volition in an after-school program. The author asks, how does race and…
Petersen, Amy J.
This study used qualitative research methods to explore the educational experiences of four African American women with disabilities, revealing how each participant developed a critical consciousness in response to the dominant ideology surrounding the discourses of African American, woman, and disabled. The development of a critical consciousness…
Hunter, Iris Renell
This research study examines nine African American women educators during the 1960s Civil Rights Movement in South Carolina. Additionally, the study conducts an analogous study of the lifeworks and contributions of Septima Clark, an African American woman educator who made significant community activist contributions during this period. For its…
South Carolina Univ., Columbia. McKissick Museum.
This guide is designed to help teachers incorporate African American history into the classroom curriculum. Designed to increase self-awareness and cultural sensitivity, the guide contains a variety of flexible lesson plans and activities for grades 3 through 12. The first section, "Teacher Background Information," presents introductory…
Palapattu, Anuradha G.; Kingery, Julie Newman; Ginsburg, Golda S.
The present study evaluated gender role theory as an explanation for the observed gender differences in anxiety symptoms among adolescents. Specifically, the relation between gender, gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity), self-esteem, and anxiety symptoms was examined in a community sample of 114 African Americans aged 14 to…
King, Susan E.
Case studies are presented of three African-American women who earned doctoral degrees in physical education and sport disciplines between 1971 and 1990. Personal interviews were conducted with the informants on issues related to the campus environment as well as financial and academic factors. The case studies are analyzed in terms of the women's…
Singer, John N.
This study presents narrative case study vignettes of three elite African American male football athletes at a major historically White institution of higher education with a big-time athletics department. More specifically, I draw from critical race theory to garner insight into their secondary schooling background, what education means to them,…
James, Joy, Ed.; Farmer, Ruth, Ed.
This volume presents the stories of 11 African American women working in higher education and confronting racist and sexist practices. The chapters have the following titles and authors: (1) "Mixed Blood, New Voices" (Kaylynn Sullivan Two Trees); (2) "Carrying On" (Joyce Scott); (3) "African Philosophy, Theory, and 'Living…
Metcalf, Doris Hunter
This resource book provides information and activity sheets on the achievements and contributions of exceptional African American women, past and present. The book contains six sections, thematically organized around the central issue(s) affecting the lives of the women featured. Introductory questions, biographical portraits and skill-building…
Presents an instructional resource that explores works of art by African Americans from the U.S. Civil War to the civil rights era (1859-1945). Includes reproductions and background information for each art work and artist along with questions and related art projects. (CMK)
Herman, Keith C.; Trotter, Reid; Reinke, Wendy M.; Ialongo, Nicholas
The present study used a person-centered latent variable approach to classify types of perfectionism among 6th-grade African American children living in an urban setting. In particular, the authors were interested in determining whether an adaptive subtype could be found and validated against external criteria. The authors also attempted to…
Campbell, Doris Williams; Sharps, Phyllis W; Gary, Faye A; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Lopez, Loretta M
Violence against African American women, specifically intimate partner abuse, has a significant impact on their health and well being. Intimate partner femicide and near fatal intimate partner femicide are the major causes of premature death and disabling injuries for African American women. Yet, despite this, there is a paucity of research and interventions specific and culturally relevant for these women. This article focuses on issues relevant to intimate partner violence and abuse against African American women by examining existing empirical studies of prevalence and health outcomes of intimate partner violence against women in general, plus what limited research there is about African American women, specifically. It includes a discussion of specific recommendations for research, practice, education, and policy to reduce and prevent intimate partner violence against African American women.
The African American community's response to the AIDS epidemic has reflected the profound mistrust of the medical establishment which many African Americans feel. Among African Americans, the belief that the epidemic originated in a genocidal plot is widespread. It is thought that organized medicine has been significantly involved in this plot. If we look at African Americans' historical relationship to the medical establishment from the era of slavery to the recent past, the suspicious attitudes which make such beliefs possible can be seen as an intelligible response to a new disease which disproportionately affects African Americans. Successful medical and public health responses to the epidemic have depended and will continue to depend upon overcoming the historical legacy of suspicion and gaining the trust of the community.
Briscoe, Forrest; Konrad, Thomas R.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the level and determinants of African-American physicians' employment in health maintenance organizations (HMOs), particularly early in their careers. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 1991 and 1996 Young Physicians Surveys to assess racial differences in the likelihood of HMO employment (n = 3,705). Using multinomial logistic regression, we evaluated four explanations for an observed relationship between African-American physicians and HMO employment: human capital stratification among organizations, race-based affinity between physicians and patients, financial constraints due to debt burden, and different organizational hiring practices. Using binomial logistic regression, we also evaluated differences in the odds of being turned down for a prior practice position, of subsequently leaving the current practice organization and of later having career doubts. RESULTS: Without any controls, African-American physicians were 4.52 times more likely to practice in HMOs than Caucasian physicians. After controlling for human capital stratification, racial concordance and financial constraints, African-American physicians remained 2.48 times more likely to practice in HMOs than Caucasian physicians. In addition, 19.2% of African-American physicians in HMOs reported being turned down for another job, far more than any other racial/ethnic group in the HMO setting and any racial/ethnic group, including African-American physicians in the non-HMO setting (including all other practice locations). Five years later, those same African-American physicians from HMOs also reported significantly more turnover (7.50 times more likely than non-HMO African-American physicians to leave their current practice) and doubt about their careers (2.17 times more likely than non-HMO African-American physicians to express serious career doubts). CONCLUSIONS: African-American physicians were disproportionately hired into HMO settings, impacting their subsequent careers. PMID
Estacion, Angela; Cherlin, Andrew
We investigate levels of generalized distrust of men among low-income African American, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Dominican, and non-Hispanic white women in a three-city survey. The results reveal substantial variation. We find Hispanics' overall levels of distrust to be higher than levels for either African Americans or whites. Among Hispanics, however, Dominicans are the most distrusting group followed by Puerto Ricans; whereas Mexicans report levels of distrust that are comparable to African Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Married women are less distrusting than cohabiting women who, in turn, are less distrusting than non-cohabiting women. Nevertheless, distrust is not a significant predictor of a woman's total number of lifetime marital and cohabiting relationships; and distrust only marginally predicts a woman's desire to be in a steady relationship. We suggest that studies of trust in this population should focus more on attitudes displayed in specific encounters than on overall, generalized attitudes about gender distrust.
Estacion, Angela; Cherlin, Andrew
We investigate levels of generalized distrust of men among low-income African American, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Dominican, and non-Hispanic white women in a three-city survey. The results reveal substantial variation. We find Hispanics' overall levels of distrust to be higher than levels for either African Americans or whites. Among Hispanics, however, Dominicans are the most distrusting group followed by Puerto Ricans; whereas Mexicans report levels of distrust that are comparable to African Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Married women are less distrusting than cohabiting women who, in turn, are less distrusting than non-cohabiting women. Nevertheless, distrust is not a significant predictor of a woman's total number of lifetime marital and cohabiting relationships; and distrust only marginally predicts a woman's desire to be in a steady relationship. We suggest that studies of trust in this population should focus more on attitudes displayed in specific encounters than on overall, generalized attitudes about gender distrust. PMID:21479146
Im, Eun-Ok; Lim, Hyun-Ju; Clark, Maresha; Chee, Wonshik
Although very little is known about African American cancer patients' pain experience, a few studies have indicated that their cancer pain experience is unique and somewhat different from that of other ethnic groups. The purpose of the study reported in this article was to explore African American cancer patients' pain experience using an online forum. This study was a qualitative online forum designed from a feminist perspective and conducted among 11 African American cancer patients who were recruited through both Internet and real settings. Nine online forum topics were used to administer the 6-month online forum, and the data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Four themes emerged through the data analysis process. First, participants viewed cancer as a challenge in life that they should fight against. Second, cancer pain was differentiated from ordinary pain because cancer was stigmatized in their culture. Third, participants viewed that African Americans, especially women, were culturally raised to be strong, and this African American cultural heritage inhibited cancer patients from expressing pain and seeking help for pain management. Finally, the findings indicated certain changes in perspectives among African American cancer patients during the disease process, which might make them tolerate pain through praying to God and reading the Bible. Based on the findings, we suggest further studies among diverse groups of African American cancer patients, with a focus on cultural attitudes toward cancer pain and influences of family on cancer pain experience.
Edwards, Lorece V.; Irving, Shalon M.; Hawkins, Anita S.
HIV/AIDS disease continues to be an escalating health problem, particularly among women. However, African American women are among the leading demographic groups for HIV prevalence in the United States. The typical woman with HIV/AIDS is young, in her late twenties, economically challenged, and of childbearing age. Participants were recruited from…
Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Gary, Tiffany L; Lancaster, Kristie J; Samuel-Hodge, Carmen D; Banks-Wallace, Joanne; Beech, Bettina M; Hughes-Halbert, Chanita; Karanja, Njeri; Odoms-Young, Angela M; Prewitt, T Elaine; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C
The longstanding high burden of obesity in African-American women and the more recent, steeper than average rise in obesity prevalence among African-American children constitute a mandate for an increased focus on obesity prevention and treatment research in African-American communities. The African-American Collaborative Obesity Research Network (AACORN) was formed to stimulate and support greater participation in framing and implementing the obesity research agenda by investigators who have both social and cultural grounding in African-American life experiences and obesity-related scientific expertise. AACORN's examination of obesity research agenda issues began in 2003 in conjunction with the Think Tank on Enhancing Obesity Research at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). The assessment was subsequently expanded to take into account the overall NIH strategic plan for obesity research, literature reviews, and descriptions of ongoing studies. In identifying priorities, AACORN members considered the quality, quantity, focus, and contextual relevance of published research relevant to obesity prevention and treatment in African-American adults or children. Fifteen recommended research priorities are presented in five categories adapted from the NHLBI Think Tank proceedings: health effects, social and environmental context, prevention and treatment, research methods, and research training and funding. These recommendations from an African-American perspective build on and reinforce certain aspects of the NHLBI and overall NIH research agendas by providing more specific rationale and directions on areas for enhancement in the type of research being done or in the conceptualization and implementation of that research.
Thomas, Shirley A; González-Prendes, A Antonio
African American women find themselves at a high risk of experiencing feelings of powerlessness associated with socioeconomic disparities rooted in a history of racism and sexism. The authors present a conceptual model that discusses powerlessness as a significant variable that contributes to the experience of anger and stress in African American women, and consequently to the adverse health consequences of such anger and stress. The authors review the current literature as well as census and health statistics to discern critical historical, social, and cognitive aspects of powerlessness and anger in African American women. Implications for practitioners are addressed.
Shambley-Ebron, Donna Z; Boyle, Joyceen S
African American women continue to experience disparities in health status when compared to their European American counterparts, yet, often their unique perspectives are not presented in the nursing literature. This article will discuss various theoretical frameworks arising from Black women's thought and reality that can be used to enhance and expand transcultural nursing knowledge. Historical, sociocultural, and literary perspectives will be used to illuminate the realities of African American women's lives. Selected frameworks arising from these realities will be discussed that recognize the impact of race, class, and gender on the lives of African American women and have the potential to guide nursing research and practice.
Greif, Geoffrey L
Friendships can lead to longer and healthier lives. Yet little is known about how older men, particularly African American men, define and carry out their friendships with other men. This article presents the findings from qualitative interviews with 23 African American and 23 White older men who were part of a larger study. The subjects were asked whether friendships are important; if they have enough male friends; how they define, carry out, and maintain their friendships; and the nature of their fathers' friendships. Comparisons are drawn between the African American and White men. Implications for social work practice are included.
Robinson, W. LaVome; Droege, Jocelyn R.; Case, Mary H.; Jason, Leonard A.
Evidenced-based and culturally adapted stress-reduction interventions for urban African American adolescents who are at risk for anxiety and other problems related to stress are needed. This study presents intervention components and preliminary outcome findings of a culturally adapted stress-reduction intervention for urban African American adolescents. Preliminary findings support the efficacy of the intervention to reduce anxiety and enhance general cognitive competencies, such as coping strategies, self-efficacy, and positive thinking, among participants, in comparison to controls. Clinical implications of the stress-reduction intervention for the prevention of psychopathology, particularly among African American adolescents, are discussed. PMID:27042702
Barnes, Lisa L; Bennett, David A
As the US elderly population continues to expand rapidly, Alzheimer's disease poses a major and increasing public health challenge, and older African Americans may be disproportionately burdened by the disease. Although African Americans were generally underincluded in previous research studies, new and growing evidence suggests that they may be at increased risk of the disease and that they differ from the non-Hispanic white population in risk factors and disease manifestation. This article offers an overview of the challenges of Alzheimer's disease in African Americans, including diagnosis issues, disparities in risk factors and clinical presentation of disease, and community-based recommendations to enhance research with this population.
Gullan, Rebecca Lakin; Hoffman, Beth Necowitz; Leff, Stephen S
Achievement of a coherent and strong sense of self is critical to positive academic outcomes for urban minority youth. The present study utilized a mixed-methods approach to explore key aspects of identity development for African American adolescents living in a high-poverty, urban neighborhood. Results suggest that efforts to develop a sense of oneself as an individual and in relation to the world are impeded by mixed messages on African American culture and achievement. Findings are discussed in the context of teaching and working with urban African American adolescents in a way that promotes positive identity development.
... person’s chance of getting or transmitting HIV. The poverty rate is higher among African Americans than other racial/ethnic groups. The socioeconomic issues associated with poverty—including limited access to high-quality health care, ...
Campbell, Patricia Shehan
Describes the role and influence of Mellonee Burnim on U.S. music education. Discusses the origins and impact of African American gospel music. Includes a list of selected resources and two lesson plans featuring gospel music. (CFR)
Pyne, John; Sesso, Gloria
Presents a high school history lesson based on the National Standards for United States History. Considers the effect of the American Revolution and the Declaration of Independence on free and enslaved African Americans. (CFR)
Harris, Yvette R.; Schroeder, Valarie M.
This focus of this paper is to present an overview of the current research which examines the language and literacy performance of African American children who speak African American Vernacular English (AAVE), as presented from a deficit versus difference perspective. Language and literacy and assessment and remediation of AAVE speakers are…
Robinson, W. LaVome; Case, Mary H.; Whipple, Christopher R.; Gooden, Adia S.; Lopez-Tamayo, Roberto; Lambert, Sharon F.; Jason, Leonard A.
Suicide is an often-overlooked manifestation of violence among African American youth that has become more prevalent in the last two decades. This article reports on the process used to culturally adapt a cognitive-behavioral coping with stress prevention intervention for African American adolescents. We implemented this adapted school-based suicide prevention intervention with 758 African American 9th, 10th and 11th grade students at four high schools in a large Midwestern city. The findings presented are preliminary. The adolescents in this sample endorsed high levels of suicide risk, with females endorsing significantly more suicide risk than males. Those receiving the prevention intervention evidenced an 86% relative suicide risk reduction, compared to the standard care control participants. The presented model of adaptation and resulting culturally-grounded suicide prevention intervention significantly reduced suicide risk among African American adolescents. Clinical, research and policy implications are discussed. PMID:27517094
Barnes, V; Schneider, R; Alexander, C; Staggers, F
This is a comprehensive and integrative review of multiple factors underlying the greater prevalence of hypertension in African Americans compared with whites. Evidence linking stress with hypertension and cardiovascular disease in African Americans is reviewed. A survey of mechanisms of hypertension in African Americans and existing behavioral strategies for the treatment of hypertension is presented. Given that the excess of hypertension may be mediated in part by behavioral factors operating through biological mechanisms, a case is presented for behavioral stress reduction measures. This review of stress reduction techniques especially the Transcendental Mediation program for the treatment of hypertension in African Americans highlights current issues facing the field. New information is provided to help direct future nonpharmacological research and practice in hypertension to prevent morbidity and premature mortality in this underserved population.
Barnes, V.; Schneider, R.; Alexander, C.; Staggers, F.
This is a comprehensive and integrative review of multiple factors underlying the greater prevalence of hypertension in African Americans compared with whites. Evidence linking stress with hypertension and cardiovascular disease in African Americans is reviewed. A survey of mechanisms of hypertension in African Americans and existing behavioral strategies for the treatment of hypertension is presented. Given that the excess of hypertension may be mediated in part by behavioral factors operating through biological mechanisms, a case is presented for behavioral stress reduction measures. This review of stress reduction techniques especially the Transcendental Mediation program for the treatment of hypertension in African Americans highlights current issues facing the field. New information is provided to help direct future nonpharmacological research and practice in hypertension to prevent morbidity and premature mortality in this underserved population. PMID:9220696
Robinson, W LaVome; Case, Mary H; Whipple, Christopher R; Gooden, Adia S; Lopez-Tamayo, Roberto; Lambert, Sharon F; Jason, Leonard A
Suicide is an often-overlooked manifestation of violence among African American youth that has become more prevalent in the last two decades. This article reports on the process used to culturally adapt a cognitive-behavioral coping with stress prevention intervention for African American adolescents. We implemented this adapted school-based suicide prevention intervention with 758 African American 9(th,) 10(th) and 11(th) grade students at four high schools in a large Midwestern city. The findings presented are preliminary. The adolescents in this sample endorsed high levels of suicide risk, with females endorsing significantly more suicide risk than males. Those receiving the prevention intervention evidenced an 86% relative suicide risk reduction, compared to the standard care control participants. The presented model of adaptation and resulting culturally-grounded suicide prevention intervention significantly reduced suicide risk among African American adolescents. Clinical, research and policy implications are discussed.
Born on January 26, 1892 in Atlanta, Texas to a family of sharecroppers, Bessie Coleman grew up in poverty. Her father abandoned the family when she was nine, and her elder brothers soon left as well, leaving her mother with the four youngest of her thirteen children. While taking care of her younger sisters, Bessie completed all eight available years of primary education, excelling in math. She enrolled at the Colored Agricultural and Normal University in Langston, Oklahoma in 1910, but lack of funds forced her to leave after only one term. Five years later, she left the South and moved to Chicago to join two of her brothers, Walter and John, where she worked as a beautician for several years. An avid reader, she learned about World War I pilots in the newspaper and became intrigued by the prospect of flying. As a black woman, she had no chance of acceptance at any American pilot school, so she moved to France in 1919 and enrolled at the Ecole d'Aviation des Freres Caudon at Le Crotoy. After returning briefly to the United States, she spent one more term in France practicing more advanced flying before finally settling back in her birth country. She did exhibition flying and gave lectures across the country from 1922 to 1926. While flying, she refused to perform unless the audiences were desegregated. She was test flying a new plane on April 30, 1926 when it malfunctioned, killing both her and the mechanic who was piloting it. Her career as the world's first African American pilot inspired many who followed.
Frisby, Cynthia M.
Using the theory of social comparison, the present research explores how exposure to idealized images of physically attractive Caucasian women affects and changes the self-reported esteem levels of African-American undergraduate students. Though research reveals that the number of portrayals of African-Americans in ads is growing, little if any…
Building on scholarship in African American rhetorics and African American language, an analysis of Walter Dean Myers's (2000) "The Blues of Flats Brown" is presented as a methodology for (re)imagining educational issues and research related to voice, agency, reading, and literacy in the face of racial oppression and subjugation. In the…
Chaney, Demetris; Hammond, Marie S.; Betz, Nancy E.; Multon, Karen D.
The present study, based on a sample of 220 African American college students, sought to examine the utility of the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale (CDSE) for African Americans. Values of coefficient alpha indicated reliability similar to that found in predominantly White samples. A four-factor structure best represented the data, with a large…
Koonce, Nicole M.
This research investigated the expository language of school-age speakers of African American English. Specifically, the study describes the language productivity, syntax, and pragmatic features present in expository language samples produced by African American children and compares their performance with White children in the extant literature.…
Johnson, C. Douglas; Eby, Lillian T.
The objectives of the present study were to identify the factors related to career success of college educated, African American men and to explore the relative importance of human capital, social capital, individual differences, and demographic attributes in predicting career success. Using a sample of 247 African American males, we found some…
Bethea, Sharon L.
The present investigation considers the program outcomes of one community youth project, Leadership Excellence Inc., Oakland Freedom Schools. Oakland Freedom Schools are culturally relevant 6-week summer Language Arts enrichment programs for primarily inner-city African American youth aged 5 to 14 years. In this study, 79 African American youth…
Frazier, Nicole Denise
The reading achievement of African American males might be impacted by a host of variables. This study was undertaken to determine if there was a difference in the culturally responsive characteristics present in the learning environment of a middle school and the reading achievement of middle school African American males. The purpose of this…
Thomson, Nicole Renick; Zand, Debra H.
The present study investigates whether the gender identities of African American adolescents mediate sex differences found in their multidimensional self-concepts. The sample included 174 African American adolescents who completed the 21-item Children's Personal Attributes Questionnaire and the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents. Results…
The United States of America has a long history in higher education, but one area of its history not exhausted through research involves higher education for African Americans. Specifically, higher education for African Americans in the area of theology or biblical studies presents numerous opportunities for further research. Soon after the…
Sanders, Kay E.; Deihl, Amy; Kyler, Amy
This paper presents a qualitative analysis concerning child care practices by six African American directors of subsidized child care centers located in a low-income, racial ethnic minority area of Los Angeles, California. These programs are traditionally African American programs that experienced an influx of Latino immigrant enrollment. Using…
Weis, Lois; Fine, Michelle
The divergent views of poor and working-class African-American and White men regarding the causes of their current condition are presented. Different "biographies of race" encourage African-American men to blame the economy and racism but White men to blame Black males for the economic plight of White men. The ways in which the two…
Goldstein, Sara E.; Malanchuk, Oksana; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.
The present research explores risk factors for, and longitudinal associations of, sexual harassment by peers during adolescence. Eight-hundred and seventy-two African American and European American adolescents (65.4% African American, 51.1% females) were assessed during the summer after the eighth grade (mean age=14.2 years) and then again in the…
Wells, Tesia Denis
This quantitative study sought to explore African American pastors' beliefs and actions regarding childhood incest in the African American community and their decisions to inform the proper authorities. This exploratory study was developed in order to draw both public and academic attention to the understudied phenomenon of childhood incest within…
Watkins, Audrey P.
This qualitative study of how parents teach their children to excel academically in the African American community seeks to establish the validity of the pedagogical practices of working class African American families by investigating the educational leadership of two families on Chicago's south side. The study acknowledges the significance of…
Robinson, Tommie L; Crowe, Thomas A
This article describes a clinical framework that may be used with African American children who stutter and their families. It includes discussion of the clinical importance of culture-based factors such as myths, oral presentation styles, narrative discourse styles, and cognitive learning styles, as well as rules for interaction and turn-taking. These factors are considered relative to the various clinical stages in the evaluation and treatment of stuttering in African Americans.
Simons, Ronald L.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Lei, Man Kit; Landor, Antoinette
The present study tests a developmental model designed to explain the romantic relationship difficulties and reluctance to marry often reported for African Americans. Using longitudinal data from a sample of approximately 400 African American young adults, we examine the manner in which race-related adverse experiences during late childhood and early adolescence give rise to the cynical view of romantic partners and marriage held by many young African Americans. Our results indicate that adverse circumstances disproportionately suffered by African American youth (viz., harsh parenting, family instability, discrimination, criminal victimization, and financial hardship) promote distrustful relational schemas that lead to troubled dating relationships, and that these negative relationship experiences, in turn, encourage a less positive view of marriage. PMID:22328799
Brittian, Aerika S.
This article examines the development of African American adolescents’ identity using a relational developmental systems theory framework, which led to the expectation that identity development is linked to both the reduction of risk behaviors and the promotion of African American adolescents’ healthy development. Different personological theories of identity development were discussed, including Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development and Marcia’s theory of identity statuses. Developmental systems theory was used to further the literature on African American adolescents’ identity development, by integrating various views of identity development as they pertain to these youth. Furthermore, the formation of many aspects of identity may be an important coping and resilience process for such youth. In addition, directions for future research are discussed, including a consideration of the complexity of diversity that exists within the African American adolescent population, and a call for more longitudinal assessments of identity development is presented. PMID:23243325
Hines, A M; Snowden, L R; Graves, K L
The present study examined the relationship between acculturation, alcohol consumption and AIDS-related risky sexual behavior in a national probability sample of 533 African American women. Results indicated that women who were the heaviest drinkers were also the least acculturated. However, women most likely to engage in risky sexual behavior, including having multiple partners, being nonmonogamous or in a nonmonogamous relationship, and being nonmonogamous or in a nonmonogamous relationship and not using a condom consistently, were high in acculturation rather than low. Alcohol use proved related to risky sexual behavior when considered in conjunction with respondents' level of acculturation. Women at risk for contracting AIDS were not low acculturated African American women who drank heavily, but high acculturated African American women. Findings from this study extend our understanding of risk and contain implications for research and prevention efforts in the area of alcohol use and AIDS-related sexual behavior among African American women.
Murry, V M; Bynum, M S; Brody, G H; Willert, A; Stephens, D
This paper presents a comprehensive review of research linking single-parent family structure to parenting processes, maternal well-being, and child developmental outcomes among African Americans. The approaches used to study these families, related methodological and conceptual concerns, and the factors linked to maternal well-being, effective parenting processes, family functioning, and child outcomes are addressed. Much work remains to be done on conceptualizing and assessing parenting processes among African Americans in general and single African American mothers in particular. Researchers must examine more carefully the circumstances that foster or impede successful parenting among these mothers. Studies also are needed to disentangle the interactions between economic stress and parenting behavior and to determine the extent to which the findings can be applied to middle-income single African American parents.
Vincent, Wilson; Peterson, John L.; Parrott, Dominic J.
The aim of the present study was to examine racial differences in women’s attitudes toward lesbians and gay men and to offer an understanding of these differences. Participants were 224 18–30 year old heterosexual African American (64%) and White (36%) female undergraduates from a large urban university in the southeastern United States. Participants completed measures of social demographics, sexual orientation, and sexual prejudice. Results showed that African American, relative to White, women endorsed more negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Also, unlike White women, African American women reported more negative attitudes toward gay men than lesbians. Implications are discussed regarding differences in cultural contexts that exist between African American and White women. PMID:20161368
Simons, Ronald L; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Lei, Man Kit; Landor, Antoinette
The present study tests a developmental model designed to explain the romantic relationship difficulties and reluctance to marry often reported for African Americans. Using longitudinal data from a sample of approximately 400 African American young adults, we examine the manner in which race-related adverse experiences during late childhood and early adolescence give rise to the cynical view of romantic partners and marriage held by many young African Americans. Our results indicate that adverse circumstances disproportionately suffered by African American youth (viz., harsh parenting, family instability, discrimination, criminal victimization, and financial hardship) promote distrustful relational schemas that lead to troubled dating relationships, and that these negative relationship experiences, in turn, encourage a less positive view of marriage.
Hankerson, Sidney H.; Suite, Derek; Bailey, Rahn K.
A decade has passed since the National Institute of Mental Health initiated its landmark Real Men Real Depression public education campaign. Despite increased awareness, depressed African American men continue to underutilize mental health treatment and have the highest all-cause mortality rates of any racial/ethnic group in the United States. We review a complex array of socio-cultural factors, including racism and discrimination, cultural mistrust, misdiagnosis and clinician bias, and informal support networks that contribute to treatment disparities. We identify clinical and community entry points to engage African American men. We provide specific recommendations for frontline mental health workers to increase depression treatment utilization for African American men. Providers who present treatment options within a frame of holistic health promotion may enhance treatment adherence. We encourage the use of multidisciplinary, community-based participatory research approaches to test our hypotheses and engage African American men in clinical research. PMID:25702724
Joyce, Jeneka A; O'Neil, Maya E; Stormshak, Elizabeth A; McWhirter, Ellen H; Dishion, Thomas J
This study sought to examine the relationship between coping strategies and prosocial and deviant peer associations for urban, African American adolescents. In addition, the study analyzed the mediating role of ethnic identity for coping strategies and peer associations. Results of the African American models were then compared with models for European American adolescents. Results indicated that African American and European American adolescents who reported using distraction coping strategies were more likely to associate with prosocial peers, and those who reported using self-destruction strategies were less likely to associate with prosocial peers. Adolescents who reported using distraction coping strategies were less likely to associate with deviant peers, and adolescents who reported using self-destruction strategies were more likely to associate with deviant peers. Ethnic identity mediated the relationship between coping and prosocial peer association for African American adolescents. Limitations of the study and future research directions are also presented.
Hankerson, Sidney H; Suite, Derek; Bailey, Rahn K
A decade has passed since the National Institute of Mental Health initiated its landmark Real Men Real Depression public education campaign. Despite increased awareness, depressed African American men continue to underutilize mental health treatment and have the highest all-cause mortality rates of any racial/ethnic group in the United States. We review a complex array of socio-cultural factors, including racism and discrimination, cultural mistrust, misdiagnosis and clinician bias, and informal support networks that contribute to treatment disparities. We identify clinical and community entry points to engage African American men. We provide specific recommendations for frontline mental health workers to increase depression treatment utilization for African American men. Providers who present treatment options within a frame of holistic health promotion may enhance treatment adherence. We encourage the use of multidisciplinary, community-based participatory research approaches to test our hypotheses and engage African American men in clinical research.
Neal-Barnett, Angela; Stadulis, Robert; Murray, Marsheena; Payne, Margaret Ralston; Thomas, Anisha; Salley, Bernadette B.
Research on anxiety treatment with African American women reveals a need to develop interventions that address factors relevant to their lives. Such factors include feelings of isolation, multiple roles undertaken by Black women, and faith. A recurrent theme across treatment studies is the importance of having support from other Black women. Sister circles are support groups that build upon existing friendships, fictive kin networks, and the sense of community found among African Americans females. Sister circles appear to offer many of the components Black women desire in an anxiety intervention. In this article, we explore sister circles as an intervention for anxious African American women. Culturally-infused aspects from our sister circle work with middle-class African American women are presented. Further research is needed. PMID:22081747
Daniels, Fernando; Moore, Wayne; Conti, Christopher; Norville Perez, Lucille C.; Gaines, Beverly M.; Hood, Rodney G.; Swain, Ian J. J.; Williams, Rudolph; Burgess, Chaka T.
disparities in traffic-related injury and death among African Americans, and the cultural, age and developmental appropriateness of existing safety campaigns. SUMMARY: Public information campaigns have successfully improved traffic safety practices among the general public but in large part have been unsuccessful among minority populations-including African Americans. This may be due to: A failure to use techniques and messages that are culturally sensitive to African Americans. Campaigns that have targeted geographic and social centers where African Americans are not broadly present. Lack of awareness of the disproportionate effect motor vehicle crashes are having on African Americans. Scientifically based, culturally appropriate intervention strategies need to be devised and implemented by African American institutions and organizations to improve traffic safety practices and reduce the high rate of traffic-related injury and deaths among African Americans. PMID:11858225
Black, Helen K.; White, Tracela; Hannum, Susan M.
Objectives This article focuses on the lived experience of depression in 20 elderly African American women. Methods Data on depression emerged from research that qualitatively explored experiences of depression, sadness, and suffering in 120 community-dwelling persons aged 80 and older, stratified by gender, ethnicity, and self-reported health. Results We placed women’s narratives under three general themes: Depression was (a) linked with diminishment of personal strength, (b) related to sadness and suffering, and (c) preventable or resolvable through personal responsibility. Brief accounts illustrate how themes emerged in women’s discussion of depression. Discussion African American women created a language for depression that was rooted in their personal and cultural history and presented in vivid vignettes through their life stories. Their belief systems and the language they used to describe depression are integral aspects of the lived experience of depression. PMID:18079427
Sutter, R E; Turley, P K
Previous studies suggest that esthetic Caucasian profiles exhibit fuller lips than the norm for their race, while esthetic African American profiles are similar to those of esthetic Caucasians. The present study was undertaken to compare the profiles of female Caucasian and African American models and their nonmodel counterparts. Four groups of 30 subjects were evaluated: Caucasian models [CM], Caucasian controls [CC], African American models [AM], and African American controls [AC]. The models' profiles were photographed from current fashion magazines, the photos were scanned, and 17 landmarks were digitized. Each profile was standardized for size and oriented along the N'-Sn' line on a Macintosh 6115CD computer. Control photographs were processed in a similar manner. Twenty-six variables were measured for each profile. Means, ranges, and standard deviations were computed along with unpaired, two-tailed Student's t-tests (p<0.05) to evaluate group differences. The results showed that for the AM and AC profiles, all but two of the 26 variable were similar. For the CM and CC profiles, eight variables demonstrated significant differences. Between-race comparisons demonstrated greater numbers of parameters that were significantly different: CM/AM with 18 and CM/AC, CC/AC, and CC/AM with 22 each. Most of the differences involved the lips. Vertical soft tissue proportions for the four groups did not follow a 40/20/40 ratio. Caucasian and African American models displayed significantly different profile characteristics. The African American models and controls showed similar profile features, whereas greater differences were observed between Caucasian models and controls. Based on our study, the African American profile currently presented in the mass media is not "Caucasian-like." In fact, it appears that Caucasian models display more ethnic features than African American models do Caucasian features, suggesting that previously held concepts of facial beauty may no
Scialla, Julia J; Astor, Brad C; Isakova, Tamara; Xie, Huiliang; Appel, Lawrence J; Wolf, Myles
CKD progresses more rapidly to ESRD among African Americans compared with Caucasians. Disordered mineral metabolism is more severe among African Americans with CKD, which might partially explain the accelerated progression of their kidney disease. Here, using data from the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension, we evaluated longitudinal changes in serum levels of fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), parathyroid hormone (PTH), phosphate, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a subset of 420 participants followed for a median of 4 years. We also examined the association of baseline levels of mineral metabolites with risk for ESRD or death in 809 participants. FGF23, PTH, and phosphate levels rose over time; participants with faster rates of decline in measured GFR had the greatest increases in these parameters (P<0.01 for each). Higher baseline levels of FGF23, PTH, and phosphate each associated with increased risk for ESRD or death independent of GFR. FGF23 exhibited a dose-response relationship with outcomes (HR=1.30 per doubling, 95% CI=1.15-1.47; HR=2.24 for highest compared with lowest quartile, 95% CI=1.39-3.60), whereas PTH and phosphate showed nonlinear relationships. Vitamin D insufficiency (<30 ng/ml) was present in 95% of participants, but lower levels did not independently associate with outcomes. Using death-censored ESRD as the outcome produced qualitatively similar results. In conclusion, abnormalities of mineral metabolism worsen with progressive CKD and associate with higher risk for ESRD among African Americans with hypertensive nephrosclerosis.
Dreer, Laura E; Weston, June; Owsley, Cynthia
The purpose of this study was to 1) describe a strategic plan for recruitment and retention used in conducting eye health education research with African-Americans living in urban and rural areas of Alabama and 2) characterize recruitment and retention patterns for this community-based project. We evaluated an eye health education program tailored specifically to older African Americans. InCHARGE© was designed to promote eye disease prevention by conveying the personal benefits of annual, dilated, comprehensive eye care and teaching strategies to minimize barriers to regular eye care. The InCHARGE© program or a social contact control program was delivered at 20 senior centers in predominately African American urban and rural communities. From pooled data across three studies, 380 African Americans completed a questionnaire about knowledge and attitudes/beliefs about eye disease and eye care before the program and by telephone at either 3 or 6 months after the presentation. The project consisted of 4 phases and a total of 10 strategic objectives for recruitment as well as retention of older African Americans that were implemented in a systematic fashion. Overall, retention rates for follow-up at either 3 or 6 months were 75% and 66% respectively. African Americans from rural areas were more likely to be lost to follow-up compared to those from urban areas. We discuss the benefits of utilizing a strategic plan that serves to address problems with underrepresentation of minorities in clinical research.
Dreer, Laura E.; Weston, June; Owsley, Cynthia
The purpose of this study was to 1) describe a strategic plan for recruitment and retention used in conducting eye health education research with African-Americans living in urban and rural areas of Alabama and 2) characterize recruitment and retention patterns for this community-based project. We evaluated an eye health education program tailored specifically to older African Americans. InCHARGE© was designed to promote eye disease prevention by conveying the personal benefits of annual, dilated, comprehensive eye care and teaching strategies to minimize barriers to regular eye care. The InCHARGE© program or a social contact control program was delivered at 20 senior centers in predominately African American urban and rural communities. From pooled data across three studies, 380 African Americans completed a questionnaire about knowledge and attitudes/beliefs about eye disease and eye care before the program and by telephone at either 3 or 6 months after the presentation. The project consisted of 4 phases and a total of 10 strategic objectives for recruitment as well as retention of older African Americans that were implemented in a systematic fashion. Overall, retention rates for follow-up at either 3 or 6 months were 75% and 66% respectively. African Americans from rural areas were more likely to be lost to follow-up compared to those from urban areas. We discuss the benefits of utilizing a strategic plan that serves to address problems with underrepresentation of minorities in clinical research. PMID:25346876
Brooks, T R
The Martin Luther King County General Hospital, Los Angeles, California, provides services for an equal number of Hispanics (most are recent immigrants from Mexico) and African Americans who have lived in the community since before the Watts riot in 1965. The hospital is staffed by a large percentage of foreign-trained doctors and other personnel who speak some English, but suffer from a lack of understanding of the Hispanic as well as the African-American patients. Very few trained interpreters are provided for the Spanish-speaking population, and no interpreters are provided for African Americans. A 100-question survey on common African-American expressions was conducted in the Department of Family Medicine, as well as an opinion poll to determine if adequate understanding existed between patients and providers. The data revealed that native African-American providers understood significantly more African-American expressions than foreign, white, and Hispanic providers. The opinion poll also revealed inadequate translation of medical complaints from patients through interpreters. In addition, the poll found that diagnoses and instructions were not adequately related to the patients. Furthermore, it was felt that trained interpreters should be provided for all patients who presented communication problems.
Raiford, Jerris Laverne; Seth, Puja; Braxton, Nikia D; DiClemente, Ralph J
Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been associated with adverse physical, psychoemotional, and sexual health, and African American women are at higher risk for experiencing IPV. Considering African American women predominantly have African American male partners, it is essential to identify factors associated with IPV perpetration among African American men. The present study examined attitudes toward IPV, ineffective couple conflict resolution, exposure to neighborhood violence, and the interplay of these factors as predictors of IPV perpetration. A community sample of 80 single, heterosexual, African American men between 18 and 29 years completed measures assessing sociodemographics, attitudes towards IPV, perceived ineffective couple conflict resolution, exposure to neighborhood violence, and IPV perpetration during the past 3 months. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses, with age, education, and public assistance as covariates, were conducted on 65 men who reported being in a main relationship. Couple conflict resolution and exposure to neighborhood violence moderated the relation between attitudes supporting IPV and IPV perpetration. Among men who reported high ineffective couple conflict resolution and high exposure to neighborhood violence, IPV perpetration increased as attitudes supporting IPV increased. The findings indicated that interpersonal- and community-level factors interact with individual level factors to increase the risk of recent IPV perpetration among African American men. While IPV prevention should include individual-level interventions that focus on skills building, these findings also highlight the importance of couple-, community-, and structural-level interventions.
Woods-Giscombé, Cheryl L.; Gaylord, Susan A.
African Americans experience a disproportionate rate of stress-related health conditions compared to European Americans. Mindfulness meditation has been shown to be effective for managing stress and various stress-related health conditions. This study explored the cultural relevance of mindfulness meditation training for African Americans adults. Fifteen African American adults with past or current experience with mindfulness meditation training were interviewed. Participants felt that mindfulness meditation helped them with enhanced stress management, direct health improvement, and enhanced self-awareness and purposefulness. They felt that they would recommend it and that other African Americans would be open to the practice but suggested that its presentation may need to be adapted. They suggested emphasizing the health benefits, connecting it to familiar spiritual ideology and cultural practices, supplementing the reading material with African American writers, increasing communication (education, instructor availability, “buddy system,” etc.), and including African Americans as instructors and participants. By implementing minor adaptations that enhance cultural relevance, mindfulness meditation can be a beneficial therapeutic intervention for this population. PMID:24442592
Sorvillo, F.; Smith, L.; Kerndt, P.; Ash, L.
Trichomonas vaginalis may be emerging as one of the most important cofactors in amplifying HIV transmission, particularly in African-American communities of the United States. In a person co-infected with HIV, the pathology induced by T. vaginalis infection can increase HIV shedding. Trichomonas infection may also act to expand the portal of entry for HIV in an HIV-negative person. Studies from Africa have suggested that T. vaginalis infection may increase the rate of HIV transmission by approximately twofold. Available data indicate that T. vaginalis is highly prevalent among African-Americans in major urban centers of the United States and is often the most common sexually transmitted infection in black women. Even if T. vaginalis increases the risk of HIV transmission by a small amount, this could translate into an important amplifying effect since Trichomonas is so common. Substantial HIV transmission may be attributable to T. vaginalis in African-American communities of the United States. PMID:11747718
Ward, Earlise C.; Mengesha, Maigenete; Issa, Fathiya
Little is known about older African American women’s lived experiences with depression. What does depression mean to this group? What are they doing about their depression? Unfortunately, these questions are unanswered. This study examined older African American women’s lived experiences with depression and coping behaviours. The common sense model provided the theoretical framework for present study. Thirteen community-dwelling African American women aged 60 and older (M =71 years) participated. Using qualitative phenomenological data analysis, results showed the women held beliefs about factors that can cause depression including experiences of trauma, poverty, and disempowerment. Results also indicated the women believed that depression is a normal reaction to life circumstances and did not see the need to seek professional treatment for depression. They coped by use of culturally-sanctioned behaviours including religious practices and resilience. It appears these women’s beliefs about depression and use of culturally-sanctioned coping behaviours might potentially be a barrier to seeking professional mental health care, which could result in missed opportunities for early diagnosis and treatment of depression among this group. Implications for research, educational and clinical interventions are discussed. PMID:23742034
Williams, Ellen P; Wyatt, Sharon B; Winters, Karen
Obesity continues to affect African Americans in epidemic proportions, particularly among women and adolescent females. Perceptions, beliefs, behaviors, and body sizes of adolescents are associated with those of their mothers, yet little is known about the transgenerational meanings and experiences of obese African American adolescent girls and their mothers. An interpretive phenomenological study was conducted with seven African American adolescents between the ages of 11 and 17, and their adult female caregivers. Audio-taped interviews were transcribed and analyzed by a multicultural interpretive team. Two constitutive patterns and associated themes were identified. One pattern, 'Framing: sizing it up; sizing it down', with its three associated themes is presented. Mothers and daughters are engaged in multiple common practices in which they self-define body size, while protecting their self-esteem and self-image. This pattern illustrates how the women and girls created an image of their bodies as they confronted and acknowledged their self-perceptions, compared themselves to others in their environment, and evaluated themselves against specific parameters of acceptable size.
DeSantis, Carol; Naishadham, Deepa; Jemal, Ahmedin
In this article, the American Cancer Society estimates the number of new cancer cases and deaths for African Americans and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and screening prevalence based upon incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. It is estimated that 176,620 new cases of cancer and 64,880 deaths will occur among African Americans in 2013. From 2000 to 2009, the overall cancer death rate among males declined faster among African Americans than whites (2.4% vs 1.7% per year), but among females, the rate of decline was similar (1.5% vs 1.4% per year, respectively). The decrease in cancer death rates among African American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. The reduction in overall cancer death rates since 1990 in men and 1991 in women translates to the avoidance of nearly 200,000 deaths from cancer among African Americans. Five-year relative survival is lower for African Americans than whites for most cancers at each stage of diagnosis. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors remains an active area of research. Overall, progress in reducing cancer death rates has been made, although more can and should be done to accelerate this progress through ensuring equitable access to cancer prevention, early detection, and state-of-the-art treatments.
Asogwa, Kenneth; Nisenoff, Carolina; Okudo, Jerome
Foreign Accent Syndrome (FAS) is a rare phenomenon where speech is characterized by a new accent to the patient's native language. More than 100 cases with the syndrome have been published, the majority of which were associated with observed insults of the speech center. Some other cases have been described without identifiable organic brain injury, especially in patients with psychiatric illness. This paper presents a patient with schizophrenia and FAS, without any evidence of organic brain injury. FAS recurred during psychotic exacerbation and did not reverse before transfer to a long-term psychiatric facility. The case is discussed in the context of a brief review of the syndrome. PMID:26925283
ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? The prevalence of high blood pressure in African Americans is among the highest in ...
Giurgescu, Carmen; Kavanaugh, Karen; Norr, Kathleen F.; Dancy, Barbara L.; Twigg, Naomi; McFarlin, Barbara L.; Engeland, Christopher G.; Hennessy, Mary Dawn; White-Traut, Rosemary C.
This research aimed to develop an initial understanding of the stressors, stress responses, and personal resources that impact African American women during pregnancy, potentially leading to preterm birth. Guided by the ecological model, a prospective, mixed-methods, complementarity design was used with 11 pregnant women and 8 of their significant others. Our integrated analysis of quantitative and qualitative data revealed 2 types of stress responses: high stress responses (7 women) and low stress responses (4 women). Patterns of stress responses were seen in psychological stress and cervical remodeling (attenuation or cervical length). All women in the high stress responses group had high depression and/or low psychological well-being and abnormal cervical remodeling at one or both data collection times. All but 1 woman had at least 3 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network). In contrast, 3 of the 4 women in the low stress responses group had only 2 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network) and 1 had none; these women also reported higher perceived support. The findings demonstrate the importance of periodically assessing stress in African American women during pregnancy, particularly related to their support network as well as the positive supports they receive. PMID:23360946
Brannon, Tiffany N; Markus, Hazel Rose; Taylor, Valerie Jones
African Americans can experience a double consciousness-the two-ness of being an American and an African American. The present research hypothesized that: (a) double consciousness can function as 2 self-schemas-an independent self-schema tied to mainstream American culture and an interdependent self-schema tied to African American culture, and (b) U.S. educational settings can leverage an interdependent self-schema associated with African American culture through inclusive multicultural practices to facilitate positive academic consequences. First, a pilot experiment and Studies 1 and 2 provided evidence that double consciousness can be conceptualized as 2 self-schemas. That is, African Americans shifted their behavior (e.g., cooperation) in schema-relevant ways from more independent when primed with mainstream American culture to more interdependent when primed with African American culture. Then, Studies 3 and 4 demonstrated that incorporating African American culture within a university setting enhanced African Americans' persistence and performance on academic-relevant tasks. Finally, using the Gates Millennium Scholars dataset (Cohort 1), Study 5 conceptually replicated Studies 3 and 4 and provided support for one process that underlies the observed positive academic consequences. Specifically, Study 5 provided evidence that engagement with African American culture (e.g., involvement with cultural events/groups) on college campuses makes an interdependent self-schema more salient that increases African American students' sense of academic fit and identification, and, in turn, enhances academic performance (self-reported grades) and persistence (advanced degree enrollment in a long-term follow-up). The discussion examines double consciousness as a basic psychological phenomenon and suggests the intra- and intergroup benefits of inclusive multicultural settings.
Dodd, Virginia J.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Choi, Youjin; Tomar, Scott L.; Logan, Henrietta L.
Objectives: To explore factors underlying African Americans' perceptions of oral cancer and the oral cancer exam. Study findings were used to guide development of oral cancer messages designed to increase oral cancer exams among African Americans. Methods: Focus groups were conducted to understand African Americans' attitudes and expectations…
Pope-Davis, Donald B.; Liu, William M.; Ledesma-Jones, Shannon; Nevitt, Jonathan
Examines the relationship between acculturation and racial identity among African Americans. One hundred eighty-seven African American students completed the Black Racial Identity Attitude Scale and the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS). Acculturation was associated with three of the five AAAS subscales: Dissonance, Immersion, and…
The marketing of alcohol products in African-American communities has, on occasion, stirred national controversy and met with fierce resistance from African Americans and others. Despite occasional media and community spotlights on the marketing of alcohol products in the African-American community, there has been no systematic review of the…
Pittman, Chavella T.
This study was an examination of how African American faculty discussed their coping with racially stressful classrooms. Despite aims for racial equality in higher education, the classroom has been a significant site of racial stressors for African American facility. Analysis of interviews with 16 (8 women, 8 men) African American faculty at a…
McNeal, CoSandra; Perkins, Isaac; Lyons, Shenia
Research on African American men's health is limited. Perception and knowledge of health may have a significant effect on health seeking behavior and self care. This study was designed to examine factors that may influence health perception and knowledge among African American males. This is a cross-sectional study of 343 African American males…
Bent-Goodley, Tricia B.
Although empirical research has accumulated over the past 20 years regarding African Americans and domestic violence, many questions remain about African American perceptions of domestic violence. This article explores African American women's perceptions about domestic violence through three focus groups held at a New York social services agency.…
Smith, Eva C.
African American educational leadership has long been part of American education and African American activism to resist oppression. However, the field of educational leadership has rarely included the contributions of African American leaders, particularly women leaders, into mainstream leadership theory and practices. This omission is difficult…
... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8776 of January 31, 2012 National African American History Month, 2012 By the... for the better. During National African American History Month, we celebrate the rich legacy of... African American women are not limited to those recorded and retold in our history books. Their impact...
... February 4, 2011 Part II The President Proclamation 8627--National African American History Month, 2011 #0..., 2011 National African American History Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A... breaking down barriers. During National African American History Month, we celebrate the vast...
This article discusses how Adlerian counseling can be used as a form of school counseling for African American adolescents. Moreover, school counseling for African American adolescents is discussed within the context of African American culture. Due to the strength-based nature of Adlerian approach, it can capitalize on African American…
Anderson Goins, Johnell Roxann
Retaining African American students, specifically African American males, is an issue that plagues the American higher education system. Research shows that African American male students are the lowest represented group in the gifted studies programs (Ford, 2010). Lockie and Burke (1999); Chen and DeJardins (2010) and Bell (2010a) found that…
Schocker, Jessica B.; Woyshner, Christine
This article addresses the dearth of African American women in high school U.S. history textbooks. The authors conducted a content analysis of the images in an African American history textbook and found that black women are underrepresented. Women are found in less than 15 percent of the images in the African American history text, while they…
Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl C.
Although the author wanted to read Bemak, Chung, and Siroskey-Sabdo's article in an objective sense, her response to their article is most likely influenced by her own experiences as an African American female and mother of an African American daughter. To her, the paramount issue facing African American females is the double and sometimes triple…
Byrd, Goldie S; Edwards, Christopher L; Kelkar, Vinaya A; Phillips, Ruth G; Byrd, Jennifer R; Pim-Pong, Dora Som; Starks, Takiyah D; Taylor, Ashleigh L; Mckinley, Raechel E; Li, Yi-Ju; Pericak-Vance, Margaret
The health and well-being of all individuals, independent of race, ethnicity, or gender, is a significant public health concern. Despite many improvements in the status of minority health, African American males continue to have the highest age-adjusted mortality rate of any race-sex group in the United States. Such disparities are accounted for by deaths from a number of diseases such as diabetes, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), cancer, and cardiovascular disease, as well as by many historical and present social and cultural constructs that present as obstacles to better health outcomes. Distrust of the medical community, inadequate education, low socioeconomic status, social deprivation, and underutilized primary health care services all contribute to disproportionate health and health care outcomes among African Americans compared to their Caucasian counterparts. Results of clinical research on diseases that disproportionately affect African American males are often limited in their reliability due to common sampling errors existing in the majority of biomedical research studies and clinical trials. There are many reasons for underrepresentation of African American males in clinical trials, including their common recollection and interpretation of relevant historical of biomedical events where minorities were abused or exposed to racial discrimination or racist provocation. In addition, African American males continue to be less educated and more disenfranchised from the majority in society than Caucasian males and females and their African American female counterparts. As such, understanding their perceptions, even in early developmental years, about health and obstacles to involvement in research is important. In an effort to understand perspectives about their level of participation, motivation for participation, impact of education, and engagement in research, this study was designed to explore factors that impact their willingness to participate. Our
Albright, Karen; Richardson, Terri; Kempe, Karin L; Wallace, Kristin
Introduction: Colorectal cancer screening rates are lower among African-American members of Kaiser Permanente Colorado (KPCO) than among members of other races and ethnicities. This study evaluated use of a linguistically congruent voice in interactive voice response outreach calls about colorectal cancer screening as a strategy to increase call completion and response. Methods: After an initial discussion group to assess cultural acceptability of the project, 6 focus groups were conducted with 33 KPCO African-American members. Participants heard and discussed recordings of 5 female voices reading the same segment of the standard-practice colorectal cancer message using interactive voice response. The linguistic palette included the voices of a white woman, a lightly accented Latina, and 3 African-American women. Results: Participants strongly preferred the African-American voices, particularly two voices. Participants considered these voices the most trustworthy and reported that they would be the most effective at increasing motivation to complete an automated call. Participants supported the use of African-American voices when designing outgoing automated calls for African Americans because the sense of familiarity engendered trust among listeners. Participants also indicated that effective automated messages should provide immediate clarity of purpose; explain why the issue is relevant to African Americans; avoid sounding scripted; emphasize that the call is for the listener’s benefit only; sound personable, warm, and positive; and not create fear among listeners. Discussion: Establishing linguistic congruence between African Americans and the voices used in automated calls designed to reach them may increase the effectiveness of outreach efforts. PMID:24867548
Zulu, Itibari M.
Examines and describes 30 African-American centered quotation and motivational books, all but one of which were published between 1993 and 1997. The books articulate a diversity of genres and themes. Annotations are divided into: (1) general quotation; (2) daily words and meditation/motivation sources; (3) religion and theology; and (4)…
Braithwaite, Harold, Jr.; And Others
Focuses on how African American students define self-concept, and whether there is a specific black self-concept. Questionnaires completed by 60 undergraduates at a historically black college provide insight into student self-esteem and support the existence of a specific black self-concept. (SLD)
Thompson, Vetta L. Sanders; Akbar, Maysa D.; Bazile, Anita
The attitudes and beliefs about utilization of mental health services of 201 African Americans, 18 years and older, are explored. One hundred and thirty-four females and 66 males participated in mixed sex focus groups conducted in an urban, Midwestern city. Discussion probes addressed participant perceptions of psychotherapists and psychotherapy,…
Irvine, Jacqueline Jordan, Ed.; Foster, Michele, Ed.
Contributors to this volume use their own stories to demonstrate success of one institution, the Catholic school system, in educating many African Americans who have gone on to make important contributions to the community. Their own experiences are the starting points for their reflections on the historical and sociological treatment of the…
Williams, Renee; White, Pascale; Nieto, Jose; Vieira, Dorice; Francois, Fritz; Hamilton, Frank
This review is an update to the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) Committee on Minority Affairs and Cultural Diversity's paper on colorectal cancer (CRC) in African Americans published in 2005. Over the past 10 years, the incidence and mortality rates of CRC in the United States has steadily declined. However, reductions have been strikingly much slower among African Americans who continue to have the highest rate of mortality and lowest survival when compared with all other racial groups. The reasons for the health disparities are multifactorial and encompass physician and patient barriers. Patient factors that contribute to disparities include poor knowledge of benefits of CRC screening, limited access to health care, insurance status along with fear and anxiety. Physician factors include lack of knowledge of screening guidelines along with disparate recommendations for screening. Earlier screening has been recommended as an effective strategy to decrease observed disparities; currently the ACG and American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopists recommend CRC screening in African Americans to begin at age 45. Despite the decline in CRC deaths in all racial and ethnic groups, there still exists a significant burden of CRC in African Americans, thus other strategies including educational outreach for health care providers and patients and the utilization of patient navigation systems emphasizing the importance of screening are necessary. These strategies have been piloted in both local communities and Statewide resulting in notable significant decreases in observed disparities. PMID:27467183
Marion, Michelle S.; Range, Lillian M.
To examine the relationships buffers may have with suicide ideation, 300 African American female college students completed measures of suicide ideation and buffers. Three variables accounted for a significant and unique portion of the variance in suicide ideation: family support, a view that suicide is unacceptable, and a collaborative religious…
Knowles, Debora; Bryant, Rhonda M.
Given their tremendous professional responsibilities, professional counselors face daunting challenges to remaining healthy and avoiding role stress and overload. This article explores the intersection of race, gender, wellness, and spirituality in the self-care of African American women counselors. The authors give particular attention to…
In the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex, Dr. Julian M. Earls (left), deputy director for Operations, Glenn Research Center, receives a plaque from astronaut Joan Higginbotham (right) during the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon. Dr. Earls was guest speaker at the luncheon.
In the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex, the planning committee for the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon gather in the lobby. At the far left is Mack McKinney, chief, Programs Resources Management, who was chairperson for the event.
Mack McKinney (left), chief, Programs Resources Management, and Delores Abraham (right), with the Astronaut office, flank one of the posters decorating the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex for the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon. McKinney is chairperson for the event.
Explores the development of behaviors by using Erik Erikson's psychosocial developmental theory, with emphasis on adolescents. Examines factors, such as identity versus identity diffusion, that may be contributing to increasing acts of violence by African American adolescents. Other factors are examined that may contribute to increased violence.…
Johnson, Bernadeia H.
Six African American female superintendents who had served as superintendents in at least 2 school districts were interviewed to understand ways in which they responded to barriers and adversity in their roles, with a particular emphasis on issues related to sexism and racism. Study participants shared that they work to engage the community and…
Green, Robert L.
This paper analyzes the relationship between levels of educational attainment and outcomes for African American males, in particular the likelihood of conflict with the criminal justice system. The analysis begins with a look at society's belief system and political and economic forces, and argues that these have combined to promote failure among…
The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among African American children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted. Multiple…
Allen, William D.; Olson, David H.
Developed a marital typology based on a nonrandom, national sample of 415 African American couples who took the Enriching Relationship Issues, Communication and Happiness (ENRICH) marital assessment inventory. Five marriage types were labeled as vitalized; harmonious; traditional; conflicted; and devitalized. Results were similar to findings in…
Cazers, Gunars; Curtner-Smith, Matthew
Purpose: The purpose was to reconstruct the historical and legendary contribution of one exemplary African American physical education teacher educator who lived and worked in the Deep South prior to and immediately following the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education court case. The following questions guided data collection and analysis: To what…
Proctor, Adele; Yairi, Ehud; Duff, Melissa C.; Zhang, Jie
Purpose: In this study, the authors sought to determine the prevalence of stuttering in African American (AA) 2- to 5-year-olds as compared with same-age European Americans (EAs). Method: A total of 3,164 children participated: 2,223 AAs and 941 EAs. Data were collected using a 3-pronged approach that included investigators' individual…
Discusses the lack of African American biographies for elementary school libraries and reports the results of a study that surveyed publishers from the Children's Book Council. Examines book reviews, discusses the number of sports figures included, and considers problems with a lack of appropriate materials to support the curriculum. (LRW)
Green, Lisa J.
How do children acquire African American English? How do they develop the specific language patterns of their communities? Drawing on spontaneous speech samples and data from structured elicitation tasks, this book explains the developmental trends in the children's language. It examines topics such as the development of tense/aspect marking,…
Beale, Tyson J.
This study explored the family dynamics of persistent African American college men. These students were typical Black males, not those pre-categorized as high-achieving or unprepared for college. The stories of participants revealed their strength, ambition, and intentions to successfully gain a baccalaureate degree. In general Black males are…
Brown, Anthony L.
Drawing from ethnographic data, this paper explores how African American male teachers working with African American male students performed their pedagogy. This paper highlights how teachers' understanding of African American males social and educational needs shaped their pedagogical performance. Interestingly however, teachers' performance was…
Cowdery, Randi S; Scarborough, Norma; Knudson-Martin, Carmen; Seshadri, Gita; Lewis, Monique E; Mahoney, Anne Rankin
When race and gender intersect, understanding gendered power may be complicated. The authors first describe the historical context that serves as important background for understanding gender and power in heterosexual African American relationships. Then they show how family solidarity in the face of social injustices often overrides gender equality as a goal for middle class African American couples with young children. The findings illustrate pragmatic equality within couple relationships and the willful suspension of gender roles for the well-being of the family as a whole. However, gendered power impacts couples in a variety of ways. Sometimes a woman's fear that the man might leave, for example, diminished her power in the relationship. Often a woman accommodated a man's greater power in the family because of her perception that he was often denied power in the larger society. Societal discrimination of women was less visible to couples. Implications for practice are provided.
Not even the first lady of the most powerful nation in the world is immune to stereotypes that have plagued Black women since first setting foot on American soil. Stereotypes of being the "angry Black woman" and curiosity about differences in appearance still persist from the academy to 1600 Pennsylvania Ave. As African-American women rise in…
Bhanumathi, V; Balkishan, B; Masood, S V
Wandering spleen is a very rare condition, it is characterized by the absence or weakness of one or more of the ligaments that hold the spleen in its normal position in the left hypochondrium. The disorder is not genetic in origin. Instead of ligaments, the spleen is attached by a stalk-like tissue supplied with blood vessels (vascular pedicle). If the pedicle is twisted in the course of the movement of the spleen, the blood supply may be interrupted or blocked (ischemia) to the point of severe damage to the blood vessels (infarction). Because there is little or nothing to hold it in place the spleen "wanders" in the lower abdomen or pelvis where it may be mistaken for an unidentified abdominal mass. "Acquired" wandering spleen may occur during adulthood due to injuries or other underlying conditions that may weaken the ligaments that hold the spleen in its normal position (e.g., connective tissue disease or pregnancy). We here report a case of 40-year-old woman presented to the surgical emergency department, with complaints of colicky abdominal pain of 8 h duration with increasing severity and bilious vomiting. On examination, the patient well built, nourished, conscious, and coherent with profuse sweating. Vital signs were normal excepting high pulse rate of 120/min with blood pressure of 100/60. On examination, she has a central abdominal distention shifting to different quadrants with colicky pain with vague tender firm mass. Abdominal ultrasonography showed ectopic spleen around the umbilicus with variable echos and whorled appearance of the splenic vessels. The patient was prepared for emergency laparotomy. At laparotomy, the spleen was found just below the umbilicus and it was dusky enlarged with infarction with four anticlockwise twists of the long splenic pedicle in the central quadrant of the abdomen. Splenectomy was carried out as there was clear evidence of splenic ischemia after detorsion of the spleen.
Jackson, Allesa P
Review of the current literature confirms that African American women as a group are underdiagnosed and undertreated for psychiatric disorders. Hence, much effort is targeted towards awareness, screening, and improving access to health care for this population. However, once an African American woman is diagnosed with a major mental health disorder, determining the optimal course of treatment is a process that must be approached carefully because of gender and racial/ethnic differences in response and metabolism of psychiatric medications. African American women fall into both of these understudied categories. Given the small numbers of African American women represented in the clinical trials on which clinical practice is based, one must consider the limitations of current knowledge regarding psychoactive medications in this population. Culturally based attitudes or resistance to pharmacotherapy can complicate the use of psychoactive medicines, often a first-line approach in primary care clinics. Communication with patients is key, as well as openness to patient concerns and tolerance of these medications.
Objectives. Using African American women's insights on their own health experiences, we explored how their daily life management was linked to the “strong Black woman” (SBW) script, and the health implications of that script. Methods. Using the search term “strong Black woman,” we identified 20 articles from African American women's magazines and 10 blog sites linked to the SBW script and analyzed their content. We created thematic categories (role management, coping, and self-care) and extracted issues relevant to African American women's health. Results. Adherence to the SBW script was linked to women's daily life management and health experiences. Themes such as self-sacrificial role management (“please the masses”), emotional suppression (“game face”), and postponement of self-care (“last on the list”) incited internal distress and evinced negative health consequences. Conclusions. Scientists, activists, and health care professionals would be aided in forming initiatives aimed at reducing health disparities among African American women by heeding the insights on their health experiences that they express in popular media sources. PMID:21088274
Bentley, Margaret E; Dee, Deborah L; Jensen, Joan L
Breastfeeding rates among African-American women lag behind all other ethnic groups. National data show that only 45% of African-American women reported ever breastfeeding compared to 66 and 68% of Hispanic and white women, respectively. Of African-American women who do choose to breastfeed, duration is short, with many discontinuing in the first days after birth. This report applies a social ecological framework to breastfeeding to investigate macrolevel-microlevel linkages. We posit that macrolevel factors, such as the media, aggressive marketing of breastmilk substitutes, welfare reform, hospital policy and breastfeeding legislation, interact with microlevel factors to influence a woman's decision to breastfeed. These microlevel factors include features of the community, neighborhoods, workplaces that support or discourage breastfeeding, social and personal networks and cultural norms and individual beliefs about breastfeeding. The report discusses how power operates at each level to influence women's choices and also emphasizes the value of ethnographic data in breastfeeding studies. Through a case study of a sample of low income, African-American women living in Baltimore, MD, where breastfeeding role models are few, beliefs that discourage breastfeeding are many, and where everyday life is full of danger and fear, it is understandable that breastfeeding is not considered practical. The narrative data provide important information that can be used to enhance intervention efforts. To reach the Surgeon General's Healthy People 2010 breastfeeding goals requires a shift in cultural norms and structures at all levels that will support breastfeeding for all women.
Watkins, Daphne C.
Rarely are within-group differences among African American men explored in the context of mental health and well-being. Though current conceptual and empirical studies on depression among African American men exists, these studies do not offer a framework that considers how this disorder manifests over the adult life course for African American men. The purpose of this article is to examine the use of an adult life course perspective in understanding the complexity of depression for African American men. The proposed framework underscores six social determinants of depression (socioeconomic status, stressors, racial and masculine identity, kinship and social support, self-esteem and mastery, and access to quality health care) to initiate dialogue about the risk and protective factors that initiate, prolong, and exacerbate depression for African American men. The framework presented here is meant to stimulate discussion about the social determinants that influence depression for African American men to and through adulthood. Implications for the utility and applicability of the framework for researchers and health professionals who work with African American men are discussed. PMID:22105067
Sharpe, Tanya L
The disproportionate representation of African American survivors of homicide victims places them at greater risk for compromised mental health. However, an examination of factors that influence how this population copes with this traumatic event is absent from the literature. This article elucidates the importance of sociocultural factors that influence coping resources and strategies for African Americans surviving the homicide of a loved one. A socioculturally responsive model of coping is presented that can be utilized in furthering the development of research and practice that is culturally responsive to the needs of African American survivors of homicide victims.
Ard, Jamy D; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Chen, Chuhe; Aickin, Mikel; Svetkey, Laura P
Acculturation has been associated with health-related behaviors in African Americans. We sought to determine if there is a relationship between acculturation and dietary intake in African Americans. African Americans in the PREMIER trial completed the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS) and 2 nonconsecutive 24-h dietary recalls (n = 238). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and canonical correlation were used to assess relationships between acculturation and dietary intakes. Canonical correlation (p = 0.05) showed that traditional African Americans had lower intakes of fruits/vegetables and milk/dairy with higher intakes of fats, meat, and nuts. This pattern was supported by differences in the ANOVA. African American acculturation is related to dietary intake. These findings have implications for the design of cancer-related public health messages targeted to African Americans.
DAVIS, RACHEL E.; ALEXANDER, GWEN; CALVI, JOSEPHINE; WIESE, CHERYL; GREENE, SARAH; NOWAK, MIKE; CROSS, WILLIAM E.; RESNICOW, KEN
Many health communications target African Americans in an attempt to remediate race-based health disparities. Such materials often assume that African Americans are culturally homogeneous; however, research indicates that African Americans are heterogeneous in their attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs. The Black Identity Classification Scale (BICS) was designed as a telephone-administered tool to segment African American audiences into 16 ethnic identity types. The BICS was pretested using focus groups, telephone pretests, and a pilot study (n=306). The final scale was then administered to 625 Black adults participating in a dietary intervention study, where it generally demonstrated good internal consistency reliability. The construct validity of the BICS was also explored by comparing participants’ responses to culturally associated survey items. The distribution of the 16 BICS identity types in the intervention study is presented, as well as select characteristics for participants with core identity components. Although additional research is warranted, these findings suggest that the BICS has good psychometric properties and may be an effective tool for identifying African American audience segments. PMID:20677057
Prather, Cynthia; Fuller, Taleria R; Marshall, Khiya J; Jeffries, William L
African American women are disproportionately affected by multiple sexual and reproductive health conditions compared with women of other races/ethnicities. Research suggests that social determinants of health, including poverty, unemployment, and limited education, contribute to health disparities. However, racism is a probable underlying determinant of these social conditions. This article uses a socioecological model to describe racism and its impact on African American women's sexual and reproductive health. Although similar models have been used for specific infectious and chronic diseases, they have not described how the historical underpinnings of racism affect current sexual and reproductive health outcomes among African American women. We propose a socioecological model that demonstrates how social determinants grounded in racism affect individual behaviors and interpersonal relationships, which may contribute to sexual and reproductive health outcomes. This model provides a perspective to understand how these unique contextual experiences are intertwined with the daily lived experiences of African American women and how they are potentially linked to poor sexual and reproductive health outcomes. The model also presents an opportunity to increase dialog and research among public health practitioners and encourages them to consider the role of these contextual experiences and supportive data when developing prevention interventions. Considerations address the provision of opportunities to promote health equity by reducing the effects of racism and improving African American women's sexual and reproductive health.
Benítez, Carlos I. Pérez; Sibrava, Nicholas J.; Wood, Laura Kohn; Bjornsson, Andri S.; Zlotnick, Caron; Weisberg, Risa; Keller, Martin B.
The present study was a prospective, naturalistic, longitudinal investigation of the two year course of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of African Americans with anxiety disorders. The study objectives were to examine the two year course of PTSD and to evaluate differences between African Americans with PTSD and anxiety disorders and African Americans with anxiety disorders but no PTSD with regard to comorbidity, psychosocial impairment, physical and emotional functioning, and treatment participation. The participants were 67 African Americans with PTSD and 98 African Americans without PTSD (mean age 41.5 years, 67.3% female). Individuals with PTSD were more likely to have higher comorbidity, lower functioning, and they were less likely to seek treatment than those with other anxiety disorders but no PTSD. The rate of recovery from PTSD over two years was .10 and recovery from comorbid Major Depressive Disorder was .55. PTSD appears to be persistent over time in this populattion. The rates of recovery were lower than what has been reported in previous longitudinal studies with predominantly non-Latino Whites. It is imperative to examine barriers to treatment and factors related to treatment engagement for this population. PMID:25086766
Prather, Cynthia; Fuller, Taleria R.; Marshall, Khiya J.; Jeffries, William L.
African American women are disproportionately affected by multiple sexual and reproductive health conditions compared with women of other races/ethnicities. Research suggests that social determinants of health, including poverty, unemployment, and limited education, contribute to health disparities. However, racism is a probable underlying determinant of these social conditions. This article uses a socioecological model to describe racism and its impact on African American women’s sexual and reproductive health. Although similar models have been used for specific infectious and chronic diseases, they have not described how the historical underpinnings of racism affect current sexual and reproductive health outcomes among African American women. We propose a socioecological model that demonstrates how social determinants grounded in racism affect individual behaviors and interpersonal relationships, which may contribute to sexual and reproductive health outcomes. This model provides a perspective to understand how these unique contextual experiences are intertwined with the daily lived experiences of African American women and how they are potentially linked to poor sexual and reproductive health outcomes. The model also presents an opportunity to increase dialog and research among public health practitioners and encourages them to consider the role of these contextual experiences and supportive data when developing prevention interventions. Considerations address the provision of opportunities to promote health equity by reducing the effects of racism and improving African American women’s sexual and reproductive health. PMID:27227533
Friedman, Steven; Paradis, Cheryl
While attention has been paid to the study of panic disorder (PD) with or without agoraphobia among Caucasians, surprisingly little empirical research within the United States has looked at the phenomenology of PD among minority groups. In this paper we present data we have collected and review other research on the phenomenology, social supports, and coping behavior among African-Americans with panic disorder. Our studies indicate that, in comparison to Caucasians, African-Americans with PD reported more intense fears of dying or going crazy, as well as higher levels of numbing and tingling in their extremities. African-Americans reported higher rates of comorbid post traumatic disorder and more depression. African-Americans also used somewhat different coping strategies (such as religiosity and counting one's blessings), less self-blame, and were somewhat more dissatisfied with social supports. The incidence of isolated sleep paralysis was, as per previous reports, higher in African-Americans. These findings, results of other research, and the implications for assessment and treatment are discussed within a semantic network analysis of panic (Hinton and Hinton 2002, this issue).
Lara-Castro, Cristina; Hunter, Gary R; Lovejoy, Jennifer C; Gower, Barbara A; Fernández, José R
To determine the association between the -265 T to C substitution in the apolipoprotein A-II (APOA-II) gene and levels of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in a group of premenopausal African-American and white women, we genotyped 237 women (115 African-American and 122 white) for this polymorphism. Body composition was assessed by DXA, and VAT was determined from a single computed tomography scan. In addition to VAT, we examined the association between the polymorphism and other phenotypes (total body fat, total abdominal adipose tissue, and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue). The mutant C allele in the APOA-II gene was less frequent in African-American compared with white women, 23% vs. 36%, respectively (p < 0.01). VAT was significantly higher in carriers of the C allele compared with noncarriers after adjustment for total body fat (p < 0.05). When separate analyses by ethnic group were conducted, the association between the polymorphism and VAT was observed in white (p < 0.05) but not African-American (p = 0.57) women. There was no association between the polymorphism and the other phenotypes. These results indicate a significant association between the T265C APOA-II polymorphism and levels of VAT in premenopausal women. This association is present in white but not African-American women.
Waite, Roberta; Killian, Priscilla
Depression is a costly illness, with broad social, economic and personal consequences. It affects many black women, yet only 7% of them receive traditional treatment. Given the chronic nature of depression and its broad impact on women's wellness, there is a need for more research examining both the conceptualization and the interpretation of depression within a socio-cultural context. This qualitative descriptive study used Kleinman's explanatory framework to capture focus group data from 14 African-American women recruited from a primary care center. Data was organized and managed with Atlas/ti 5.12, while content analysis was used to disclose the relevant themes presented in the paper.
grant from the U.S. Department of Defense to study the role heredity plays in prostate cancer among African Americans. "Prostate cancer is the...visit our website at: www.creighton.edu. Creighton gets grant to study heredity -cancer link - Houston Chronicle Coogle offers Google Offers Deals on...traffic Nahan & world Politics Health News bizarre Deaths Hurncanes Creighton gets grant to study heredity -cancer link Published 04 :40a.m., Monday
Wayland, J; Rawlins, R
The purpose of this study was to describe the childbearing African American teens' perceptions of parenting based on their own experiences. Focus group discussions were held with 17 teens in their school setting for 50 minutes each week. Group discussions were audiotaped, tapes were transcribed, and then analyzed for common themes. The unmarried teens ranged in age from 15 to 18 years. Findings indicated that the teens depended on grandmothers to provide child care and for information about parenting. The teens identified parenting problems including crying, discipline, and conflicts dealing with grandmothers and the child's father. Teens wanted more information about breastfeeding and minor childhood diseases. The researchers identified that teens lacked information about their children's growth and development and safety issues. Findings have implications for nurses who care for childbearing teens and their children; and those involved in planning and implementing parent education programs for African American teen mothers and their families. Further research is indicated with larger samples of African American teens; and to explore the context of family relationships in which teen mothers and grandmothers share parenting for the teens' children.
Lampley-Dallas, V. T.
Neuropsychological tests are instruments used to diagnose a variety of cognitive conditions. This article will review a few of the brief scales commonly used in screening for dementia. It will also discuss the properties of and problems with some of the brief scales that are commonly used to screen African Americans for dementia, highlighting the various biases. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is the most widely known and utilized cognitive impairment instrument in the United States. Whether or not it is biased to race after adjusting the scores for educational attainment remains controversial. The Blessed Information-Memory-Concentration Test (BIMC), Blessed Orientation-Memory-Concentration Test (BOMC), Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ), and Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (NCSE) are other screening tests used to diagnose dementia. Some of these tests have been found to misclassify many more African Americans as demented compared to the proportion of whites that are misclassified. The Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG) is the only brief neuropsychological scale designed to actually diagnose early dementia, but it is not known if it is biased for African Americans. PMID:11560287
Funnyé, Allen S; Akhtar, Abbasi J; Biamby, Gisele
The purpose of this study was to determine if older African Americans are disproportionately affected by acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and to review the clinical impact of AIDS and the importance of prevention and treatment efforts. A review of the literature and statistics was obtained using Medline and the AIDS Public Information Data Set offered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Twenty-seven percent of the U.S. population is above the age of 50, and the number of AIDS cases in this group is growing, with African Americans accounting for the highest proportion of cases and deaths. Testing for HIV may be delayed and symptoms attributed to other illnesses. Though 5% of new cases occur in those over 50, prevention programs, testing, and the perception of risk by providers may be insufficient. There are few research studies on HIV treatment in older patients and no specific guidelines for antiretroviral treatments available. Although death rates for AIDS has been declining, adults over 50 still have the highest mortality rate. Co-morbid conditions, such as heart disease and hypertension, may require taking multiple drugs, which may complicate treatment. Increasing heterosexual transmission rates and a lack of information on HIV reinforces the need for specific prevention programs targeted toward older African Americans.
Chen, Edith; Miller, Gregory E.; Yu, Tianyi; Brody, Gene H.
In the present study, we investigated associations of macro-economic conditions - the Great Recession - with cellular epigenetic aging, allostatic load, and self-reported health, in a group that experiences significant health disparities, African Americans. A sample of 330 African American adolescents in Georgia was followed from pre-recession (2007, M age=16.6) to post-recession (2010, M age=19.3). Economic data were collected in both 2007 and 2010. Three groups were formed to represent economic trajectories across the period of the Great Recession (stable low economic hardship, downward mobility, and stable high economic hardship). At age 19, measures of cellular epigenetic aging (derived from leukocyte DNA methylation profiles, reflecting the disparity between a person’s biological and chronological age), allostatic load (composite of blood pressure, C reactive protein, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and body mass index), and adolescent self-report of health were obtained. Linear trend analyses documented significant differences across all outcomes. The more time adolescents spent under economic hardship, the higher their epigenetic aging [estimate=1.421, se=0.466, p=.002] and allostatic load [estimate=1.151, se=0.375, p=.002] scores, and the worse their self-report of health [estimate=4.957, se=1.800, p=.006]. Specific group comparisons revealed that adolescents in the downward mobility group had higher levels of allostatic load than adolescents in the stable low hardship group [p<.05]. Overall, these findings suggest that the health profiles of African American youth may in part be shaped by environmental macro-economic societal conditions, and that effects on biological markers can be detected relatively early in life. PMID:26718449
Assistance from informal caregivers such as family members, friends, or neighbors is crucial to adequately managing the complex care of heart failure (HF) patients. This study examined the lived experience of African American caregivers caring for African American patients with HF. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 10 participants who were formally interviewed. The interviews, analyzed using Colaizzi's steps, revealed six themes: layers of support, realization of self-neglect, experiencing the "blues," connecting with healthcare providers, unmet financial needs, and perception of nonadherence. The information regarding the experience of African American caregivers of HF patients obtained through this research will inform the delivery of culturally competent support to caregivers, thereby improving quality of life for both the HF patients and their caregivers.
Brown, Danice L; White-Johnson, Rhonda L; Griffin-Fennell, Felicia D
The historical image of the Black Jezebel - a hypersexual, seductive and manipulative slave woman - has been one of the most pervasive and evolving images influencing the sexual socialization and perceptions of African American women today. This preliminary study examined generational differences in the endorsement of modern depictions of the Jezebel, as well as the relationship between racial-ethnic esteem and endorsement of this sexualised image. A total of 249 African American women completed an online, self-report questionnaire assessing study variables. Results suggested that younger women (aged 18-34) may exhibit higher endorsement of the modern Jezebel depictions. Additionally, aspects of racial-ethnic esteem may be linked to lower endorsement of modern Jezebel depictions among younger and older (55 years and older) African American women. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed.
Zhang, Amy Y.; Gary, Faye; Zhu, Hui
Background Accurately assessing depression in African American cancer patients is difficult because of the similarities of physical symptoms observed in cancer and depression. Aim To identify universal and distinctive depressive symptoms in African American cancer patients. Methods Seventy-four cancer patients (34 depressed and 23 nondepressed African Americans, and 17 depressed Whites) were interviewed. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted. Results Compared to nondepressed African Americans, depressed African Americans reported irritability, social isolation, insomnia, fatigue, and crying (p ≤ .05) more frequently over time. Compared to depressed Whites, they reported sadness, frustration, and intrusive thoughts less frequently (p ≤ .05), but insomnia and fatigue more frequently (p ≤ .05) during cancer treatment. There was little racial difference at the time of interview. Conclusion Depressed African American cancer patients may benefit from more culturally sensitive depression measures that consider symptoms of irritability, social isolation, and altered expressions of depressive mood. PMID:25564890
Thompson, V L
The author clarified the African American racial-group identification process by addressing the issue of salience and its relationship to racial-group attitudes. A sample of 409 African American adults responded to surveys pertaining to their racial-group salience, racial-group attitudes, racial socialization, racial-group interaction, political activism, experiences of discrimination, and demographic data (e.g., sex, age, and income). The author tested 3 hypotheses: (a) Racial socialization and interaction with other African Americans are predictive of African American racial-identity salience; (b) discriminatory experiences are predictive of African American racial-identity salience; and (c) racial-identity salience is a stronger predictor of African American racial-group identification than are previously identified predictive variables (D. H. Demo & H. Hughes, 1990; V. L. Thompson Sanders, 1991, 1995). The results supported the 1st and 3rd hypotheses.
Smith, W; Burns, C
In Africa, the ancestral home of most African Americans, hair is viewed as the epitome of beauty. However, when Africans were brought to America as slaves, they were unable to care for their hair and skin adequately and were exposed to the predominant white culture, which valued straight hair and light skin. As a result, many African Americans lost self-esteem because of the characteristics of their hair and skin. In this article we examine the anatomic and physiologic features of African American hair and skin and typical African American hair and skin care practices. Common African American hair and skin disorders and their management are discussed. The goal of this article is to help primary care providers understand the special hair and skin care required for African American children (as well as other dark-skinned patients). With good patient education, understanding one's own hair and skin characteristics can also support positive self-esteem.
The increased prevalence of obesity among African-American women makes it likely that they bear a disproportionate burden of comorbidities attributable to obesity, such as diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipemia. These observations suggest that intensive efforts to prevent obesity should be directed at this group. This presentation provides a summary of the findings of focus groups that convened prior to the Sisters Together, Move More, Eat Better campaign in Boston. This pilot campaign was designed to increase awareness of the importance of healthy eating and physical activity among young adult African-American women. In addition, data collected by the Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provide additional information about attitudes toward diet and physical activity among African American youth. Such data are essential to understand the attitudinal changes necessary to prevent obesity in these vulnerable populations.
Hong, Jun Sung; Voisin, Dexter R; Cho, Sujung; Smith, Douglas C; Resko, Stella M
Urban African-American youth residing in poorly resourced communities are at a heightened risk of peer victimization, which consequently increases their likelihood of risky behaviors such as substance use. The present study examined whether there was a direct relationship between peer victimization and substance use and whether it was mediated by negative peer norms, internalizing problems, and bullying perpetration. African-American youth (n = 638) completed a self-administered questionnaire on age, biological sex, socioeconomic status, lifetime substance use, peer victimization and bullying perpetration, negative peer norms, and internalizing problems. There were no direct effects between peer victimization and substance use. However, negative peer norms and bullying were both independently associated with substance use, although internalizing problems were not significant. In addition, peer victimization increased the odds of internalizing problems. Social services must be expended in low-income communities to effectively address peer victimization and substance use among urban African-American youth. (PsycINFO Database Record
Gaskin-Wasson, Ashly L; Calamaras, Martha R; LoParo, Devon; Goodnight, Bradley L; Remmert, Brittany C; Salami, Temilola; Mack, Sallie; Kaslow, Nadine J
There is evidence that individuals emotionally abused as children endorse more hopelessness, a precursor of suicidal behavior in adulthood. However, there has been little focus on this association among African-Americans or on factors that may mediate the childhood emotional abuse (CEA) - adult hopelessness link. The present study examined whether CEA is linked to hopelessness in adulthood in African-American women suicide attempters and if adult self and other attachment models mediate this association. Participants included 116 African-American women recruited from a large, urban hospital. Results revealed that CEA had no direct effect on hopelessness in adulthood, but did have an indirect effect on hopelessness through attachment models. Bootstrapping analyses showed that higher levels of CEA were related to more negative self and other attachment models, which were then linked to higher levels of hopelessness. Implications for targeting attachment in suicide intervention programs are discussed.
Barr, Ashley B; Simons, Ronald L; Simons, Leslie Gordon
Cohabitation has become increasingly widespread over the past decade. Such trends have given rise to debates about the relation between cohabitation and marriage, in terms of what cohabitation means for individual relationship trajectories and for the institution of marriage more generally. Using recent data from a sample of almost 800 African Americans and fixed effects modeling procedures, in the present study the authors shed some light on these debates by exploring the extent to which cohabitation, relative to both singlehood and dating, was associated with within-individual changes in African Americans' marital beliefs during the transition to adulthood. The findings suggest that cohabitation is associated with changes in marital beliefs, generally in ways that repositioned partners toward marriage, not away from it. This was especially the case for women. These findings suggest that, for young African American women, cohabitation holds a distinct place relative to dating and, in principle if not practice, relative to marriage.
Dawson-Andoh, Nana A; Gray, James J; Soto, José A; Parker, Scott
Depictions of Caucasian women in the mainstream media have become increasingly thinner in size and straighter in shape. These changes may be inconsistent with the growing influence of African American beauty ideals, which research has established as more accepting of larger body sizes and more curvaceous body types than Caucasians. The present study looked at trends in the portrayal of African American women featured in JET magazine from 1953 to 2006. Beauty of the Week (BOW) images were collected and analyzed to examine body size (estimated by independent judges) and body shape (estimated by waist-to-hip ratio). We expected body sizes to increase and body shapes to become more curvaceous. Results revealed a rise in models' body size consistent with expectations, but an increase in waist-to-hip ratio, contrary to prediction. Our findings suggest that the African American feminine beauty ideal reflects both consistencies with and departures from mainstream cultural ideals.
This paper reports baseline behavioral and biological data collected from a cohort of 535 African American HIV serodiscordant couples enrolled in the Eban study across four urban metro areas. Data were collected on (1) the prevalence of risky sexual behaviors that occur within a couple and with concurrent sexual partners, (2) the STD prevalence for each member of the couple and (3) the correlates of STDs in the male partner as well as in the female partner. Presentation of the sociodemographic characterization and HIV risk behavior profiles of African American HIV serodiscordant couples represents an important initial description of a hidden, vulnerable population. Future research should be conducted with diverse samples of African American couples (i.e., younger couples, non-stable couples) to explore other potential correlates of STD prevalence. PMID:20499152
This paper reports baseline behavioral and biological data collected from a cohort of 535 African American HIV serodiscordant couples enrolled in the Eban study across four urban metro areas. Data were collected on (1) the prevalence of risky sexual behaviors that occur within a couple and with concurrent sexual partners, (2) the STD prevalence for each member of the couple and (3) the correlates of STDs in the male partner as well as in the female partner. Presentation of the sociodemographic characterization and HIV risk behavior profiles of African American HIV serodiscordant couples represents an important initial description of a hidden, vulnerable population. Future research should be conducted with diverse samples of African American couples (i.e., younger couples, non-stable couples) to explore other potential correlates of STD prevalence.
Hilton, Claudia L.; Fitzgerald, Robert T.; Jackson, Kelley M.; Maxim, Rolanda A.; Bosworth, Christopher C.; Shattuck, Paul T.; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Constantino, John N.
African American children with autism are seriously under-represented in existing genetic registries and biomedical research studies of autism. We estimated the number of African American children with autism in the St. Louis region using CDC surveillance data and present the outcomes of a concerted effort to enroll approximately one-third of that…
Cullen, Karen Weber; Thompson, Debbe; Chen, Tzu-An
This article presents the results of a randomized clinical trial evaluating the eight-session "Family Eats" web-based intervention promoting healthy home food environments for African American families. African American families (n = 126) with 8- to 12-year-old children completed online baseline questionnaires and were randomized into…
This article presents the results of a randomized clinical trial evaluating the eight-session Family Eats web-based intervention promoting healthy home food environments for African American families. African American families (n=126) with 8- to 12-year-old children completed online baseline questio...
Hill, Natashia J.
Presently the paucity of scholarship available is often unitary in nature and usually focuses on the lived experiences of African Americans principals in a predominately African American urban context and as well as emphasizes the necessity of same race principals for the purpose of mentorship and racial representation. Race and cultural identity…
Clothed in her traditional African garb, Michelle Amos, mistress of ceremonies, welcomes the audience on Feb. 3 at the kick-off of African-American History Month. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.
Michelle Amos, mistress of ceremonies for the kick-off of African-American History Month, works with the audience to assist them in the pronunciation of a few token words in native Swahili. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.
cancer syndromes that are prevalent among African Americans? Little information exists about other familial cancer syndromes unique to African...Americans but two African-American families with Cowden’s syndrome have been reported (Fackenthal et al, 2000). The same germline p53 coding mutation and...familial syndromes based on pedigree analysis, calculation of risk estimates, and effective communication of risk status at a level that the patient can
Old lesbians of African descent have experienced racism, heterosexism, homophobia, and ageism. This article explores the topics of aging, ageism, heterosexism, and minority stress among older African-American lesbians. The narratives and subsequent analysis offer significant contributions to the dialogue regarding Black aging lesbians in the aging and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities generally and in the African-American and African-American lesbian communities specifically.
English, Devin; Lambert, Sharon F; Ialongo, Nicholas S
Although the United States faces a seemingly intractable divide between white and African American academic performance, there remains a dearth of longitudinal research investigating factors that work to maintain this gap. The present study examined whether racial discrimination predicted the academic performance of African American students through its effect on depressive symptoms. Participants were a community sample of African American adolescents (N=495) attending urban public schools from grade 7 to grade 9 (Mage=12.5). Structural equation modeling revealed that experienced racial discrimination predicted increases in depressive symptoms 1year later, which, in turn, predicted decreases in academic performance the following year. These results suggest that racial discrimination continues to play a critical role in the academic performance of African American students and, as such, contributes to the maintenance of the race-based academic achievement gap in the United States.
Lucas, John A; Ivnik, Robert J; Smith, Glenn E; Ferman, Tanis J; Willis, Floyd B; Petersen, Ronald C; Graff-Radford, Neill R
Historically, neuropsychological measures such as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) have yielded unacceptably high rates of misdiagnosis of impairment among cognitively normal African Americans, primarily due to poor test specificity and inadequate representation of ethnic minorities in the normative sample. In this report, we briefly review these issues and describe efforts by investigators in Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies (MOAANS) to develop more appropriate norms for African American elders on the WAIS-R. During MOAANS data collection, the third edition of the WAIS (WAIS-III) was introduced with updated representation of ethnic minorities in the normative database. More recently, specific demographic corrections for African Americans have been derived for WAIS-III subtest scores and indices. As such, WAIS-R normative estimates are not presented here. Interested readers who wish to obtain a full set of MOAANS WAIS-R norms, however, are invited to contact the authors for these data.
Tariq, Khurram; Latif, Naeem; Zaiden, Robert; Jasani, Nick; Rana, Fauzia
Breast cancer is a commonly diagnosed malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer-related death among American women today. Despite the lower incidence of breast cancer among African American women, they are more likely to die from the disease each year than their white counterparts. We present a retrospective cohort study of the tumor registry data from electronic medical records of patients diagnosed with breast cancer at the University of Florida Health, Jacksonville from 2000 to 2005. A total of 907 patients were diagnosed with breast cancer; 445 patients with invasive breast cancer had complete medical records and were selected for this review. Much like previously published research, we found that African American patients presented with a more advanced stage and aggressive subtype of breast cancer than white patients, and were less likely to have health insurance. However, we have yet to determine if universal health care insurance can lead to improved health care access, better breast cancer awareness, and an enhanced attitude toward breast cancer screenings. Such factors would ultimately lead to an earlier diagnosis and better outcomes in both African American and white patients. We plan to investigate this critical issue in a follow-up study (BRCA-2; Breast Cancer and Racial Disparity Between Caucasian and African American Women, Part 2), which will begin a few years after the complete implementation of the universal health care law enacted by President Obama in 2010. The higher frequency of aggressive tumor subtypes in African American women warrants more attention. We suggest further research to determine whether decreasing the initial age for screening or increasing the frequency of mammograms in African American women would improve breast cancer outcomes. This study underscores the importance of identifying and preventing obstacles in routine breast cancer screening, as well as increasing breast cancer awareness.
Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Meyer, Ilan H
Recent theoretical and empirical studies of the social determinants of health inequities have shown that economic deprivation, multiple levels of racism, and neighborhood context limit African American health chances and that African Americans' poor health status is predicated on unequal opportunity to achieve the American Dream. President Obama's election has been touted as a demonstration of American meritocracy-the belief that all may obtain the American Dream-and has instilled hope in African Americans. However, we argue that in the context of racism and other barriers to success, meritocratic ideology may act as a negative health determinant for African Americans.
Bender, Melinda; Clark, Maresha; Guevara, Enrique; Chee, Wonshik; Im, Eun-Ok
Health care inequities continue to plague African Americans. For African American cancer patients these inequities include access to health care, availability of treatment modalities, support groups, and participation in nursing cancer research. A support group setting is better for recruitment than a clinical setting. Referrals to the researcher from individuals who personally know the African American cancer patients generated the best response rates. If the researcher has no previous connection with the potential participant, interest in the study may be generated but recruitment is minimal or absent. Ethnically sensitive recruitment of African American cancer patients is therefore essential to improving participatory responses in cancer nursing research.
Payton, Erica; Thompson, Amy; Price, James H; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Dake, Joseph A
Firearm mortality is the leading cause of death for young African American males, however, few studies have focused on racial/ethnic minority populations and firearm violence. The National Black Caucus of State Legislators advocates for legislation that promotes the health of African Americans. Thus, the purpose of this study was to collect baseline data on African American legislators' perceptions regarding firearm violence in the African American community. A cross-sectional study of African American legislators (n = 612) was conducted to investigate the research questions. Of the 612 questionnaires mailed, 12 were not deliverable, and 170 were returned (28%). Utilizing a three wave mailing process, African American legislators were invited to participate in the study. The majority (88%) of respondents perceived firearm violence to be very serious among African Americans. Few (10%) legislators perceived that addressing legislative issues would be an effective strategy in reducing firearm violence among African Americans. The majority (72%) of legislators perceived the most effective strategy to reducing firearm violence in the African American community should focus on addressing societal issues (e.g. crime and poverty). After adjusting for the number of perceived barriers, the number of perceived benefits was a significant predictor of legislators' perceived effectiveness of firearm violence prevention legislation for 8 of the 24 potential firearm violence prevention legislative bills.
Guda, Kishore; Veigl, Martina L.; Varadan, Vinay; Nosrati, Arman; Ravi, Lakshmeswari; Lutterbaugh, James; Beard, Lydia; Willson, James K. V.; Sedwick, W. David; Wang, Zhenghe John; Molyneaux, Neil; Miron, Alexander; Adams, Mark D.; Elston, Robert C.; Markowitz, Sanford D.; Willis, Joseph E.
We used whole-exome and targeted sequencing to characterize somatic mutations in 103 colorectal cancers (CRC) from African Americans, identifying 20 new genes as significantly mutated in CRC. Resequencing 129 Caucasian derived CRCs confirmed a 15-gene set as a preferential target for mutations in African American CRCs. Two predominant genes, ephrin type A receptor 6 (EPHA6) and folliculin (FLCN), with mutations exclusive to African American CRCs, are by genetic and biological criteria highly likely African American CRC driver genes. These previously unsuspected differences in the mutational landscapes of CRCs arising among individuals of different ethnicities have potential to impact on broader disparities in cancer behaviors. PMID:25583493
Wahab, Stéphanie; Trimble, Jammie; Mejia, Angie; Mitchell, S. Renee; Thomas, Mary Jo; Timmons, Vanessa; Waters, A. Star; Raymaker, Dora; Nicolaidis, Christina
This article focuses on design, training, and delivery of a culturally-tailored, multi-faceted intervention which used motivational interviewing (MI) and case management to reduce depression severity among African American survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV). We present the details of the intervention and discuss its implementation as a means of creating and providing culturally appropriate depression and violence services to African American women. We used a CBPR approach to develop and evaluate the multi-faceted intervention. As part of the evaluation, we collected process measures about the use of MI, assessed MI fidelity, and interviewed participants about their experiences with the program. PMID:24857557
Moering, Robert G; Schinka, John A; Mortimer, James A; Graves, Amy Borenstein
The Stroop Color and Word Test is a measure of executive function that is commonly used in neuropsychological evaluations, but for which there are currently no normative date for elderly African American individuals. The present investigation examined the influence of demographic characteristics on this measure in a community-dwelling sample of 236 elderly African American adults (60-84 years of age). Age, education, gender, and the education by gender interaction were found to affect performance on the Stroop Color and Word Test tasks. Based on these results, normative tables for Stroop Color and Word Test scores, stratified by age and with score adjustments for education and gender, are provided.
Vanderwerker, Lauren C; Chen, Joyce H; Charpentier, Peter; Paulk, Mary Elizabeth; Michalski, Marion; Prigerson, Holly G
Risk factors for suicidal ideation and attempts have been shown to differ between African Americans and Whites across the lifespan. In the present study, risk factors for suicidality were examined separately by race/ethnicity in a population of 131 older adult patients considered vulnerable to suicide due to substance abuse and/or medical frailty. In adjusted analyses, social support was significantly associated with suicidality in African American patients, while younger age and the presence of an anxiety disorder were significantly associated with suicidality in White patients. The results suggest that race/ethnicity-specific risk profiles may improve the detection of suicidality in vulnerable populations.
Goodson, Patricia; Foster, Margaret J.
Of cancers affecting both men and women, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cancer killer among African Americans in the U.S. Compared to White men, African American men have incidence and mortality rates 25% and 50% higher from CRC. Despite the benefits of early detection and the availability of effective screening, most adults over age 50 have not undergone testing, and disparities in colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) persist. Owing to CRC’s high incidence and younger age at presentation among African American men, CRCS is warranted at age 45 rather than 50. However, the factors influencing young adult (i.e., age < 50) African American men’s intention to screen and/or their CRCS behaviors has not been systematically assessed. To assess whether the factors influencing young adult African American men’s screening intentions and behaviors are changeable through structured health education interventions, we conducted a systematic review, with the two-fold purpose of: (1) synthesizing studies examining African American men's knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors regarding CRCS; and (2) assessing these studies’ methodological quality. Utilizing Garrard’s Matrix Method, a total of 28 manuscripts met our inclusion/exclusion criteria: 20 studies followed a non-experimental research design, 4 comprised a quasi-experimental design, and 4, an experimental design. Studies were published between 2002 and 2012; the majority, between 2007 and 2011. The factors most frequently assessed were behaviors (79%), beliefs (68%), and knowledge (61%) of CRC and CRCS. Six factors associated with CRC and CRCS emerged: previous CRCS, CRC test preference, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, CRC/CRCS knowledge, and physician support/recommendation. Studies were assigned a methodological quality score (MQS – ranging from 0 to 21). The mean MQS of 10.9 indicated these studies were, overall, of medium quality and suffered from specific flaws. Alongside a call for more
Joseph, Nancy; Watson, Natalie N; Wang, Zhenni; Case, Andrew D; Hunter, Carla D
The cultural context in the United States is racialized and influences Black Caribbean immigrants' acculturation processes, but what role it plays in Black Caribbean immigrants' acculturation into specific facets of American society (e.g., African American culture) has been understudied in the field of psychology. The present study extends research on Black Caribbean immigrants' acculturative process by assessing how this group's experience of the racial context (racial public regard, ethnic public regard, and cultural race-related stress) influences its engagement in African American culture (i.e., adoption of values and behavioral involvement). Data were collected from 93 Black participants of Caribbean descent, ranging in age from 13 to 45 and analyzed using a stepwise hierarchical regression. The findings highlighted that when Black Caribbean-descended participants perceived that the public held a favorable view of their racial group they were more likely to engage in African American culture. In contrast, when participants perceived that the public held a favorable view of their ethnic group (e.g., Haitian) they were less likely to engage in African American culture. Furthermore, among participants experiencing low levels of cultural race-related stress, the associations between racial public regard and engagement with African American culture were amplified. However, for participants experiencing high cultural race-related stress, their engagement in African American culture did not change as a function of racial public regard. These findings may suggest that, for Black Caribbean immigrants, the experience of the racial context influences strategies that serve to preserve or bolster their overall social status and psychological well-being in the United States.
Gerber, Ben S; Schiffer, Linda; Brown, Allison A; Berbaum, Michael L; Rimmer, James H; Braunschweig, Carol L; Fitzgibbon, Marian L
We evaluated the effect of home telehealth on weight maintenance after a group-based weight loss programme. The home telehealth intervention comprised telephone counselling and home Internet-enabled digital video recorders (DVRs) with three channels of video programmes. The video content provided reinforcement and support to promote problem solving, prevent relapse and sustain motivation. Eighty-eight obese or overweight African-American women were randomized to receive monthly telephone counselling (control) or the home telehealth intervention. The weight change during maintenance was not significant in either group (0.6 kg in the intervention group, 0.0 kg in the control group), and there was no significant difference between them. Changes in diet, physical activity, social support and self-efficacy during the maintenance period did not differ significantly between groups. DVR use was low: during the intervention, the number of valid DVR viewings ranged from zero to 42 per person. DVR use was positively associated with previous attendance at the weight loss classes. Home video-based telehealth is a new method of delivering a weight loss maintenance intervention to African-American women. It had no effect on weight maintenance in the present study.
McCord, Laneshia R
Understanding sexual-risk behaviours as defined by a culture presents new challenges for human service professionals. Older African American women constitute the fastest growing group of new cases of HIV in the USA. With heterosexual sex as the primary mode of transmission among this group, there exist minimal programmes that are culture and age-specific in terms of primary and secondary prevention. In an attempt to address this gap in knowledge, this study examined how a group of older African American women defined sexual-risk behaviour. A focus group was conducted with seven women age 45 and older, who were recruited from a community centre. This paper examines the way that sexual-risk behaviour was defined through thematic analysis and conceptualises the locus of sexual risk behaviour as defined by the participants. The major theme of the study was social prescription, how to behave sexually as an ageing adult. Underlying ideas that arose were that unprotected sex occurred out of habit, that impulsivity was associated with risky sex and that older women needed to be aware of warning signs and behaviours of potential mates. Micro- and macro-level implications for human service professionals are discussed.
Walcott-McQuigg, J A; Zerwic, J J; Dan, A; Kelley, M A
Physical activity in women has assumed increasing significance as a policy issue as a result of the release of the 1996 Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health. This report revealed that women in the United States were less likely than men to adhere to the recommended guidelines for physical activity. African American women are less likely than white women to participate in leisure time physical activity across age, occupational, and income groups. The purpose of this study was to use the Ecological Model of Health Promotion to explore policy, environmental, and individual factors influencing physical activity of middle- to older-aged African American women in a mixed income community in a large midwestern city. Focus group discussions were held with 3 groups of women -- administrators/community leaders, exercisers, and nonexercisers. Thirty-three women between the ages of 40 and 78 participated in the study. The women identified 6 themes influencing physical activity: perceptions of physical activity and exercise; perceived barriers to exercise; perceived benefits of and motivators to exercise; past and present opportunities for exercise; factors that enhance the successful delivery of an exercise program; and coalition building to deliver an exercise program to women in the community. The results of this study reveal that to successfully increase physical activity in an ethnic urban community, researchers and other concerned individuals need to collaborate at multiple ecological levels, with an initial emphasis on establishing coalitions between institutions, community groups, policy makers, and individuals.
Hankerson, Sidney H.; Lee, Young A; Brawley, David K.; Braswell, Kenneth; Wickramaratne, Priya J.; Weissman, Myrna M.
Introduction Substantial racial/ethnic disparities exist in the identification and management of major depression.1 Faith-Based Health Promotion interventions reduce disparities in health screenings for numerous medical conditions.2 However, the feasibility of systematically screening for depression in faith-based settings has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of using a validated instrument to screen for depression in African American churches. Methods Participants were recruited between October and November 2012 at three predominantly African American churches in New York City. A participatory research approach was used to determine screening days. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was administered to 122 participants. Positive depression screen was defined as a PHQ-9 score ≥10. Descriptive statistics were used to report sample characteristics, prevalence of participants who screened positive, and history of help seeking. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the association of positive depression screen and sociodemographic characteristics. Initial analyses were conducted in 2013, with additional analyses in 2014. Results The prevalence estimate for positive depression screen was 19.7%. More men (22.5%) screened positive than women (17.7%). Total household income was inversely related to positive depression screen. A similar percentage of respondents had previously sought help from primary care providers as from clergy. Conclusions It was feasible to screen for depression with the PHQ-9 in African American churches. The prevalence of positive depression screen was high, especially among black men. Churches may be an important setting in which to identify depressive symptoms in this underserved population. PMID:26232907
Willie, Charles V., Ed.; Garibaldi, Antoine M., Ed.; Reed, Wornie L., Ed.
In 1987 a project was undertaken to assess the status of African Americans in the United States in the topical areas to be addressed by the National Research Council's Study Committee on the Status of Black Americans: education, employment, income and occupations, political participation and the administration of justice, social and cultural…
Anthony, Jean Spann; Morris, Edith; Collins, Charles W; Watson, Albert; Williams, Jennifer E; Ferguson, Bʼnai; Ruhlman, Deborah L
Many African Americans (AAs) use clergy as their primary source of help for depression, with few being referred to mental health providers. This study used face-to-face workshops to train AA clergy to recognize the symptoms and levels of severity of depression. A pretest/posttest format was used to test knowledge (N = 42) about depression symptoms. Results showed that the participation improved the clergy's ability to recognize depression symptoms. Faith community nurses can develop workshops for clergy to improve recognition and treatment of depression.
Brim, Hassan; Ashktorab, Hassan
Genome-wide studies are increasingly becoming a must, especially for complex diseases such as cancer where multiple genes and diverse molecular mechanisms are known to be involved in genes’ function alteration. In this review, we report our latest genomic and epigenomic findings in African-American colorectal cancer patients. This population suffers a higher burden of the disease and most investigators in this field are looking for the underlying genetic and epigenetic targets that might be responsible for this disparity. We here report genome-wide copy number variations, single nucleotide mutations and DNA methylation findings that might be specific to this population. PMID:27917406
Presents findings from interviews conducted with 18 African American women living with HIV/AIDS. Presents their perceptions of ways in which their families function as a source of support and as a source of stress in their dealings with HIV/AIDS issues. Provides information on supportive aspects provided by family in emotional, concrete, and…
Dunkel, Stephanie B.; Kistner, Janet A.; David-Ferdon, Corinne
The present study investigated possible ethnic contributions to overly positive self-perceptions in middle childhood. The goals of this study were threefold. First, the present study sought to replicate the intriguing findings reported by Zakriski and Coie that African American children overestimate their acceptance, and European American children…
Ferdinand, Keith C; Serrano, Claudia C; Ferdinand, Daphne P
Heart failure is a substantial cause of increased morbidity and mortality in the African-American population, with poorer prognosis versus white patients. Systolic heart failure is predominantly caused by poorly controlled hypertension in African-Americans. Overall, African-Americans remain underrepresented in morbidity and mortality heart failure trials, and further data are needed to confirm the potential benefit of present therapies and newer approaches to heart failure in African-Americans. Intensive blood pressure control and control of other risk factors, along with the appropriate application of evidence-based therapies including angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and approved beta-blockers, are required to decrease racial disparities. Although some data suggest that contemporary treatment with ACE inhibitors and beta-blockers may be less effective in African-Americans in terms of reducing heart failure morbidity and mortality, there is not adequate evidence to support a unique strategy for this population. The use of evidence-based therapies should be equally applied to African-Americans as well as to other ethnic groups while awaiting further studies.
Ruehlman, Linda S.; Karoly, Paul; Newton, Craig
Objectives To ascertain whether non-Hispanic African American and Caucasian chronic pain sufferers differ or converge in their self-reports of pain experience and pain adjustment. Research Design A telephone survey of U.S. English-speaking adults selected via random-digit dialing procedures and constrained to locate persons with chronic pain within selected gender by age groupings. Subjects A national sample of 2,407 participants contained a total of 214 non-Hispanic African Americans. A sample of 214 non-Hispanic Caucasians was randomly selected from the larger set of 1,935 Caucasian participants to serve as a comparison group for the present study. Measures Participants provided responses to interviewer questions that assessed pain experience (severity, interference, and emotional burden) and psychosocial outcomes (coping, attitudes and beliefs, catastrophizing, social support and hindrance, pain’s interference with daily life activities, treatment status, and medication taking). Results Although African American and Caucasian adults with chronic pain did not differ significantly in pain severity, interference, emotional burden, or current treatment status, multivariate analyses revealed differences in several domains of psychosocial functioning. Compared to Caucasians, African Americans reported greater pain-related interference with daily living, deficiencies in coping, and counterproductive attitudes and beliefs. African Americans also reported greater impatience and insensitivity from the most important person in their lives. Conclusions Psychosocial dimensions of chronic pain differed between community-residing African American and Caucasian adults surveyed as part of a national sample. PMID:15669950
Ijaduola, T. G.; Smith, E. B.
This study reviews the current understanding of the pattern of breast cancer among whites, African Americans, and West Africans who have never immigrated to the US to find better ways of improving the prevention, early detection, and care of breast cancer world-wide. In the United States, the behavior pattern of breast cancer in African-American women differs from that of white women. Among the three populations, breast cancer appears to be least common in nonimmigrant West-African women. The peak incidence in African Americans and West Africans occurs around the premenopausal period while it occurs postmenopausal period in whites. Also, unlike white women, West-African and African-American women present late for treatment with a greater cancer burden and consequently lower survival rates. The predominant histological type is infiltrating ductal carcinoma in the three groups but the highest percentage (33%) of infiltrating poorly differentiated anaplastic carcinoma occurs in West Africans. Menstrual and obstetric history, obesity, and high body mass index status appear to be greater specific risk factors among African Americans than among West Africans. African Americans and West Africans have three "Ls" in common: late stage in seeking treatment, lower age at peak incidence with severe tumor burden, and consequently lower survival rates. There is a need for more detailed population-based research at molecular levels to elucidate the basis for some of these features. PMID:9770955
Twenty-two short stories and seven novels, each with a woman journalist as a major character, were used in an analysis of the image of the woman journalist in four time periods (1890-1920, 1920-1940, 1940-1945, and 1945 to the present). The themes of the stories changed over time, often reflecting the prevailing cultural attitudes about working…
Fossett, Judith Jackson, Ed.; Tucker, Jeffrey A., Ed.
This collection of essays represents new scholarship in African American studies, drawing lessons from the past and providing insights into current intellectual trends. Topics such as the culture of America as a culture of race, legacies of slavery and colonialism, crime and welfare politics, and African American cultural studies are addressed.…
Watkins, Daphne C.; Hudson, Darrell L.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Siefert, Kristine; Jackson, James S.
Purpose: This study examines the influence of discrimination and mastery on depressive symptoms for African American men at young (18-34), middle (35-54), and late (55+) adulthood. Method: Analyses are based on responses from 1,271 African American men from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Results: Discrimination was significantly…
Fergus, Stevenson; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.
Little is known of smoking trajectories or of the correlates of smoking trajectories among African American youth. Ninth-grade African American adolescents (n = 566) were interviewed in Year 1 and then were subsequently interviewed annually for 3 additional years. Five trajectories of cigarette smokers were identified: abstainers,…
Jones, Martin H.; Mueller, Christian E.; Royal, Kenneth D.; Shim, Sungok Serena; Hart, Caroline O.
Little extant research attempts to understand why rural African Americans engage in social relationships with peers in school. This is somewhat surprising as rural students' peer interactions often affect their scholastic desires, and peers can alter African Americans' academic performance. Hence, the current study examined both the presence and…
Baruth, M.; Addy, C. L.; Wilcox, S.; Dowda, M.
Objectives: Individuals may engage in more than one risk behaviour at any given time. The extent to which risk behaviours cluster among African American adults has been largely unexplored. This study examined the prevalence and clustering of three risk behaviours among African American church members: smoking; low moderate-to-vigorous intensity…
Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane
Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…
Rivers, Celeste A.
For many decades, society has struggled with academic underachievement, particularly among African American males. Although a myriad of studies have identified significant causal factors of African American academic underachievement from the perspectives and circumstances of the student, limited studies focus on this problem from the perspective…
Moore-Thomas, Cheryl; Day-Vines, Norma L.
Religion and spirituality are deeply rooted in traditional African American culture. Data suggest that African American adolescents maintain higher baseline rates of religious activities and beliefs than their peers (Bachman, Johnston, & O'Malley, 2005; Smith, Faris, Denton, & Regnerus, 2003). Recognizing these data, this article examines…
The education of African American ministers in the United States has been little researched. Numerous books address the profession of ministry and the education of Blacks in general, but most do not specifically address issues pertaining to the professional education of Black ministers. The majority of the hurdles African Americans faced were…
Discusses an interview in which Marcyliena Morgan elaborates on the necessity to analyze both microlinguistic issues of grammar and phonology as well as larger issues of discourse pragmatics and language ideology. The interview touches on African American poetry, the convergence of African American and standard English, and oases and indirectness.…
Rowles, Joanna; Duan, Changming
Racial discrimination has negatively affected African Americans in the United States for centuries and produced one of the most publicly recognized histories of social oppression. Extensive research has shown the deleterious effects of racism on African American people and clearly demonstrated that perceived racism and discrimination may…
Adenika-Morrow, T. Jean
Two reasons African American females do not pursue science careers are the need for immediate employment and lack of tools to negotiate the racism and sexism that undermine their aspirations for success. This article describes intervention strategies in an Afrocentric school and a medical magnet school that encourage African American girls to…
Love, Keisha McGhee
African American college students attending predominately White institutions often encounter stressors that their Caucasian peers do not experience. Because of these unique stressors, African American students are more prone to experience psychological distress. Identifying factors that counteract psychological distress among these students is…
Boyd-Franklin, Nancy; Franklin, A. J.
This guide to rearing African American boys offers simple and effective strategies for problem-solving, improving communication, and instilling a positive racial identity. The book draws on strong African American family values and cultural and spiritual strengths. The chapters are: (1) "You Must Act As If It Is Impossible To Fail: Challenges…
McGee, Zina T.
Reviews types of reported problems among African American youth exposed to violence and victimization. A substantial number of African American youth reported being exposed to direct victimization while in transit to and from school. Discusses the impact of violence on mental health status, in that subjects exposed to violence exhibited…
Mwachofi, Ari K.
The purpose of this study was to determine changes in African Americans' access to occasional rehabilitation (VR) services subsequent to landmark legislative and judicial antidiscrimination provisions of the mid-20th century. This study compared African American VR access before the antidiscrimination legislation in 1937 and after the legislation…
Moore, Penelope J.; Hazell, LaVone V.; Honeyghan, Edna M.
Bereavement educators, counselors, clergy, and other specialists have observed that African Americans tend to under-utilize end-of-life palliative care services and general bereavement resources. The literature suggests that involving clergy in outreach to the African American community may be a viable strategy for developing bereavement supports.…
Pringle, Beverley E.; Lyons, James E.; Booker, Keonya C.
African American high school students are performing behind their White classmates regardless of whether they are in majority or minority populations at school. Teacher expectations, among school-related factors that can impact the academic achievement of African American high school students, are the focus of this study. Interviews were conducted…
Ryujin, Donald H.; Abitia, Fred B.
Self-esteem may be an issue for certain minority groups more than others. In particular, given their long and difficult history, this issue may be of more relevance to minorities of African-American descent. To assess whether renewed signs of racism at a college were negatively affecting the self-esteem of African-American students the Race…
Day-Vines, Norma L.; Barto, Heather H.; Booker, Beverly L.; Smith, Kim V.; Barna, Jennifer; Maiden, Brian S.; Zegley, Linda; Felder, Monique T.
African American English (AAE) refers to the systematic, rule-governed linguistic patterns of found among African Americans. This article provides an overview of AAE. More specifically, the article enumerates the historical underpinnings associated with AAE, identifies a representative set of AAE characteristics, reviews relevant research, and…
Hunter, Herbert M.
Examines African American employment trends compared with increases or decreases in economic growth and Federal welfare spending during the 1970s and 1980s, focusing primarily on unemployment and labor force participation rates among African American youth. Studies the impact of structural unemployment, racial discrimination, and immigration on…
Griffin, Tiffany Monique; Chavous, Tabbye; Cogburn, Courtney; Branch, LaToya; Sellers, Robert
Drawing from existing literature, the authors conceptualized a two-dimensional framework of African American students' academic contingencies of self-worth. The results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses with a sample of African American college freshmen (N = 330) supported this prediction. Self-Worth Dependent academic…
Sapp, Marty; Hitchcock, Kim
The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of the General Dissociation Scale with African American college students, and provide additional data on how to assess hypnotizability with these students. Two-hundred and two undergraduate African American college students participated in this study. Students completed the HGSHS:A, a measure…
Shropshire, Delia F. B.
The purpose of the study was to determine to what extent teaching style relates to third grade African American male academic achievement. The problem in this study addressed the factors affecting the academic achievement of the African American third grade male. This problem led the researcher to investigate the teaching styles of the…
The first plenary of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the many factors that lead to inequalities in cancer care outcomes for African Americans.
The sixteenth module of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the importance of spirituality in the lived experience of most African Americans, and how they utilize spirituality and religion to cope with serious stressors such as life-threatening illness.
Kang, Haijun; Yang, Yang
This study examines how various life factors and personal attributes affect African American adult learners' use of the three types of learning interaction-learner-content, learner-instructor, and learner-learner. Multivariate multiple regression analyses were used. The aggregate effect of life factors on African American adult learners' use of…
Watson, Jeffrey A.; Randolph, Suzanne M.; Lyons, James L.
More than 18,000 adolescents die each year in the United States from bicycle, motorcycle, car, and truck accidents. This study sought to understand the role of African-American grandmothers as prevention-oriented health educators in the family. Full Model Fitted Regression Analyses were conducted on a sample of African-American grandmothers (N =…
The long road of slavery from generation to generation has left a legacy in the mind of African American students that has impacted their achievements in schools. In this project, the struggle of African American students in the public school education will be analyzed from the historical standpoint of view and its impact on their achievements.…
Marbley, Aretha Faye; Rouson, Leon
For the African-American family, life ain't been no crystal stair. The African-American family has trotted for over 400 years through a wilderness of racism, poverty, discrimination of all kinds, crossing seas of monsters and forests of demons. Yet, despite the numerous obstacles and attacks that society has mounted against it since slavery, the…
When the author proposed a spring course on major topics in African-American history, drawing a large enrollment was her chief concern. She had previously taught the course under a different title at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, a campus with a sizable African-American presence among students and faculty members. She now teaches…
Snowden, Lonnie R
African Americans' poverty and deep-poverty rates are higher than those of Whites, and African Americans' poverty spells last longer. Furthermore, nonpoor African Americans are especially likely to slip into poverty, and over the course of a lifetime, very many African Americans will experience poverty. Accordingly, African Americans are disproportionately likely to be assisted by safety net programs providing income support and health and social assistance. When mental health-related outcomes are assessed, U.S.-focused and international studies of safety net programs sometimes find that adults and children show a decline in symptoms of mental illness after participating. All things being equal, these improvements can disproportionately benefit African Americans' mental health. Safety net programs' mental health-related impact should be routinely assessed when evaluating the programs' economic and social outcomes and the impact they have on African Americans' mental health. Policy research of this kind can help us to understand whether these very large interventions show society-wide mental health-related improvement in the disproportionately large number of African Americans who participate in them.
President Obama signed the "White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for African Americans" on July 26, 2012. This executive order recognizes that many "African Americans lack equal access to highly effective teachers and principals, safe schools, and challenging college preparatory classes, and disproportionately experience…
Newman, Lori M; Berman, Stuart M
This article reviews the epidemiology of sexually transmitted disease (STD) disparities for African American communities in the United States. Data are reviewed from a variety of sources such as national case reporting and population-based studies. Data clearly show a disproportionately higher burden of STDs in African American communities compared with white communities. Although disparities exist for both viral and bacterial STDs, disparities are greatest for bacterial STDs such as gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis. Gonorrhea rates among African Americans are highest for adolescents and young adults, and disparities are greatest for adolescent men. Although disparities for men who have sex with men (MSM) are not as great as for heterosexual populations, STD rates for both white and African American MSM populations are high, so efforts to address disparities must also include African American MSM. Individual risk behavior and sociodemographic characteristics of African Americans do not seem to account fully for increased STD rates for African Americans. Population-level determinants such as sexual networks seem to play an important role in STD disparities. An understanding of the epidemiology of STD disparities is critical for identifying appropriate strategies and tailoring strategies for African American communities. Active efforts are needed to reduce not only the physical consequences of STDs, such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic pain, newborn disease, and increased risk of HIV infection, but also the social consequences of STDs such as economic burden, shame, and stigma.
Combs, Dennis R.; Penn, David L.; Cassisi, Jeffrey; Michael, Chris; Wood, Terry; Wanner, Jill; Adams, Scott
Recent theoretical models suggest that perceived racism acts as a stressor for African Americans and may be associated with a variety of negative psychological consequences, notably paranoia. Paranoia among African Americans is believed to reflect the lower end of the paranoia continuum based on experiences with racism. Thus, it may be beneficial…
Thomas, Janet L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Lynam, Ian M.; Daley, Christine M.; Befort, Christie; Scherber, Robyn M.; Mercurio, Andrea E.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.
Objectives: To examine social support needs of obese and overweight African American women for weight loss. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with overweight and obese African American women. Data were analyzed using standard grounded theory text analysis. Results: Our middle-aged (45.7 years; SD = 12.6) women (N = 66) were interested in…
Kim, Kwang Chung, Ed.
The essays in this collection examine relationships between the Korean American and African American communities in Los Angeles, Chicago, and New York. The contrast between the economic power and lack of political power of Korean Americans and the political power and lack of economic power of African Americans is traced. Essays 2-5 cover Los…
Ratute, Ashley; Marcketti, Sara B.
Educating students to embrace diversity and value all people is a core value of educators in family and consumer sciences (FCS). For instructors in FCS, integrating the contributions of African Americans--particularly in textiles and clothing--can be an inclusive learning opportunity. The authors compiled resources on African Americans and…
This paper describes an effort to provide prospective teachers opportunities to better understand African American male students and better focus on how they learn mathematics. Prospective teachers spent 15 hours over an eight week span mentoring and tutoring African American males without the guise of practicing teachers. Qualitative data drawn…
... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8930 of January 31, 2013 National African American History Month, 2013 By the... beginnings or the circumstances of your birth, you can make it if you try. Yet, for many and for much of our Nation's history, that dream has gone unfulfilled. For African Americans, it was a dream denied until...
Jackson, Sondra, Ed.; Brissett-Chapman, Sheryl, Ed.
This collection brings together articles by African American authors who are committed to research, policies, and programs affecting African American children and families. The articles are grouped into sections on policy, research, and practice issues; clinical techniques and treatment models; and new perspectives in child welfare. The following…
Keyes, Angela W.; Smyke, Anna T.; Middleton, Melissa; Black, Corey L.
The legacy of slavery in the United States has impacted generations of African Americans, especially parents who must prepare their children to face the challenges associated with being a person of color in this country. The authors explore aspects of racism, White privilege, racial socialization, and African American parents' fears as they equip…
Mazama, Ama; Lundy, Garvey
Homeschooling, and academic interest in this phenomenon, have increased tremendously over the last decade. The surge of African American involvement in the homeschool movement has also become noticeable. However, there continues to be a general paucity of research on the motivations of African American parents that choose homeschooling. In order…
Black Issues in Higher Education, 2004
African Americans have a significantly lower response rate to treatment for chronic hepatitis C than non-Hispanic Whites, according to a new study led by Duke University Medical Center researchers. Some African Americans--19 percent--did respond to the drug combination of peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin. But in non-Hispanic Whites with the…
Scott, Kimberly Ann
For an African American female researcher whose race, class, and gender work as oppressive intersecting units shaping my contextualized experiences, meaning-making, and self-definition, the implications of my work with African American communities are complicated. In this article, I draw on culturally sensitive research practices, critical race…
Clardy, Pauline; Cole-Robinson, Cynthia; Jones, Terrence O'C.; Michie, Gregory
In studying urban schools, researchers have identified several critical curriculum issues related to the miseducation and alienation of African American students. This paper looks at three such issues: the disconnection between the school curriculum and African American students' cultural backgrounds and environments (e.g., black dialect versus…
Although academic performance is a concern, African American students represent less than 8 percent of California's K-12 students, and at times get lost in California policy debates about improving student performance. Findings of this study indicate that: (1) California's African American students are concentrated in relatively few counties and…
Dickens, Manuel Dewayne
The purpose of this qualitative case study that consists of six African American male participants is to examine, describe, and analyze African American male persistence factors at a community college in the midwest of the United States. The study uses qualitative content analysis as a research method that provides a systematic and objective means…
... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8832 of June 1, 2012 African-American Music... piece of American culture, music offers a vibrant soundtrack to the story of our people and our Union... tradition, and during African-American Music Appreciation Month, we pay special tribute to...
... June 6, 2013 Part III The President Proclamation 8992--African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013... May 31, 2013 African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013 By the President of the United States of... lasting freedom. Through every generation, music has reflected and renewed our national...
...#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8684 of May 31, 2011 African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation The music of our...-American Music Appreciation Month, we honor the rich musical traditions of African-American musicians...
...#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8527 of May 28, 2010 African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Music can tell a story..., music unites individuals through a shared heritage. During African-American Music Appreciation Month,...
Mitri, Souraya Mansour; Terry, Nicole Patton
The purpose of this study was to examine African American children's performance on a phonological awareness task that included items reflecting differences between African American English (AAE) and mainstream American English. The relationship between spoken production of AAE forms and performance on phonological awareness, vocabulary, and…
Early laws prohibited African Americans from learning to read and write in the United States. The right to an education has produced a significant number of African American women acquiring higher education. Racial and gender diversity at the presidential level in higher education 4-year institutions appears to be changing rapidly. The data…
Ennis, Willie, Jr.; Ennis, Willie, III; Durodoye, Beth A.; Ennis-Cole, Demetria; Bolden, Vernie L.
In this article the authors describe a model counseling ministry within an African American church and discuss how the larger body of professional counselors can interface with similar programs and institutions that are a source of strength for many African Americans. Implications of the model for professional counselors are also discussed. The…
relationship between affective eating and depressive symptoms  has been found in Caucasian females. Cultural dietary practices, body weight ideals, and...dissatisfaction among Caucasian compared to African American college students ; however, African American subsamples including postpartum [16...reported history of heart disease, uncontrolled hypertension, thyroid disease, diabetes, tobacco use, mental health disorder diagnosis, anti- depressant
Schiele, Jerome H.
Surveyed 300 African-American social work faculty concerning their scholarly productivity in terms of published journal articles. Found that African-American social work doctorates publish just as much as do other social work doctorates and that younger age (31-40) for receiving the doctorate is associated with higher publication rates. (KS)
Disparities in asthma management are a burden on African American youth. The objective of this study is to describe and compare the discourses of asthma management disparities (AMDs) in African American adolescents in Seattle to existing youth-related asthma policies in Washington State. Adolescents participated in a three-session photovoice…
Kusimo, Patricia S.
This paper examines the interests, perceptions, and participation of 16 African American girls in a program designed to improve girls' persistence in science, mathematics, and technology (SMT). The girls are among 33 African American and 73 total original participants in "Rural and Urban Images: Voices of Girls in Science, Mathematics, and…
Goodman, Diane J.
Focuses on the experiences of African-American women; and considers the interaction of sex and race in the development of sense of self, sense of self in relation to others, and ontology through interviews with 12 African-American women. Similarities among women across race are suggested. (SLD)
Examines pressures facing the African American press by focusing on its coverage of the 1991 nomination of Clarence Thomas to the United States Supreme Court. Discusses the dilemma these newspapers faced in choosing between supporting African Americans and supporting civil rights, with their mixed coverage of the story reflecting this dilemma. (SR)
Bell, N H
Important differences exist in the metabolism of bone and mineral and the vitamin D endocrine system between whites and African Americans and include rate o f skeletal remodeling, bone mass, and vitamin D metabolism. A higher bone mineral density (BMD) in African Americans is associated with a diminished incidence o f osteoporosis and fractures. Serum 17beta-estradiol and the rate of GH secretion are higher in black than in white men, but there is no racial difference in women in this regard. The mechanisms for reduced rate o f skeletal remodeling and for greater BMD in blacks are not known, but diminished rate of skeletal remodeling could be a contributing factor for greater bone mass. Reduction in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in blacks is attributed to increased skin pigment and to diminished dermal production of vitamin D(3) and consequent decreased hepatic synthesis o f the metabolite. There is no evidence that alteration of the vitamin D endocrine system contributes to or is responsible for racial differences in skeletal remodeling and bone mass. Black infants, however, are at risk for developing vitamin D-deficient rickets, particularly when breast-fed.
Morales, Dawn A.; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; St. Lawrence, Janet
Sexual schemas are cognitive representations of oneself as a sexual being and aid in the processing of sexually relevant information. We examined the relationship between sociosexuality (attitudes about casual sex), masculine ideology (attitudes toward traditional men and male roles), and cultural centrality (strength of identity with racial group) as significant psychosocial and sociocultural predictors in shaping young, heterosexual African American men's sexual schemas. A community sample (n=133) of men in a southeastern city of the United States completed quantitative self-report measures examining their attitudes and behavior related to casual sex, beliefs about masculinity, racial and cultural identity, and self-views of various sexual aspects of themselves. Results indicated that masculine ideology and cultural centrality were both positively related to men's sexual schemas. Cultural centrality explained 12 % of the variance in level of sexual schema, and had the strongest correlation of the predictor variables with sexual schema (r=.36). The need for more attention to the bidirectional relationships between masculinity, racial/cultural identity, and sexual schemas in prevention, intervention, and public health efforts for African American men is discussed. PMID:24031118
Seaton, Eleanor K.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Sellers, Robert M.; Jackson, James S.
The present study examined ethnic, gender, and age differences in perceived discrimination and the association between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being in a nationally representative sample of Black adolescents. Data are from the National Survey of African Life (NSAL), which includes 810 African American and 360 Caribbean…
Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 1999
Presents the results of a survey of readers' opinions about African Americans who made the greatest contributions to American society during the 20th century. Martin Luther King, Jr., received the most votes by a large margin, followed by Thurgood Marshall, W.E.B. Du Bois, and Malcolm X. Discusses survey results by various categories. (SM)
Gullan, Rebecca Lakin; Hoffman, Beth Necowitz; Leff, Stephen S.
Achievement of a coherent and strong sense of self is critical to positive academic outcomes for urban minority youth. The present study utilized a mixed-methods approach to explore key aspects of identity development for African American adolescents living in a high-poverty, urban neighborhood. Results suggest that efforts to develop a sense of…
Busby, Danielle R.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.
African American adolescents are exposed disproportionately to community violence, increasing their risk for emotional and behavioral symptoms that can detract from learning and undermine academic outcomes. The present study examined whether aggressive behavior and depressive and anxious symptoms mediated the association between exposure to…
Majied, Kamilah F.
This article discusses sexual orientation and gender expression bias as they impact the educational experience of African American students. Sexual orientation and gender expression bias have a unique presentation in Black educational settings. The climate in such settings can be metagrobolized by the combination of distorted notions of Black…
Flowers, Lamont A.; Pascarella, Ernest T.
This book presents the results and implications of a major new national study exploring the effects of institutional racial composition on African American students' development and their educational outcomes, taking into account individuals' background characteristics, their perceptions of the institutional environment, and their experiences in…
Wolfe, Brandon L.; Dilworth, Paulette Patterson
In this article, we present findings from a review and synthesis of historical and contemporary research to examine the concept of diversity leadership in higher education as it pertains to African American administrators at predominantly White colleges and universities. Through the use of critical race theory, we first argue that to understand…
Nettles, Michael T.; Perna, Laura W.; Freeman, Kimberley Edelin
This report presents findings of a study on the higher education progress of African Americans in the nation and by region, including both private and public sectors, two-year and four-year colleges and universities, historically black colleges and universities, and traditionally white institutions. Overall findings indicate steady progress by…
Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2003
Presents a statistical record of African Americans' progress in U.S. higher education institutions, discussing: the black-white higher education equality index; statistics that measure racial inequality; ranking law schools by percentage of black students; black enrollments at the nation's highest-ranked universities and highest-ranked liberal…
Vanderwerker, Lauren C.; Chen, Joyce H; Charpentier, Peter; Paulk, Mary Elizabeth; Michalski, Marion; Prigerson, Holly G.
Risk factors for suicidal ideation and attempts have been shown to differ between African Americans and Whites across the lifespan. In the present study, risk factors for suicidality were examined separately by race/ethnicity in a population of 131 older adult patients considered vulnerable to suicide due to substance abuse and/or medical frailty.…
Sato, Takahiro; Fisette, Jennifer; Walton, Theresa
Presently, most physical education teachers in the United States are White Americans and from middle class families. In fact, 83% of all teachers in public schools are White Americans, whereas approximately 10% of all African American teachers are representative of all teachers in the United States. A student might feel cultural dissonance that…
This dissertation presents the design, development and short-term evaluation of an embodied conversational agent designed to mentor human users. An embodied conversational agent (ECA) was created and programmed to mentor African American computer science majors on their decision to pursue graduate study in computing. Before constructing the ECA,…
Hunter, Jaimie C.; Vines, Anissa I.; Carlisle, Veronica
Background: In 2012, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force released a hotly debated recommendation against prostate-specific antigen testing for all men. The present research examines African Americans' beliefs about their susceptibility to prostate cancer (PCa) and the effectiveness of prostate-specific antigen testing in the context of the…
McLoyd, Vonnie C., Ed.; Hill, Nancy E., Ed.; Dodge, Kenneth A., Ed.
This volume brings together leading experts from different disciplines to offer new perspectives on contemporary African American families. A wealth of knowledge is presented on the heterogeneity of Black family life today; the challenges and opportunities facing parents, children, and communities; and the impact on health and development of key…
Czujko, Roman; Ivie, Rachel; Stith, James H.
This paper presents data covering the representation of African Americans among physics and geoscience degree recipients at each stage of the educational system. The data were collected by several statistical agencies and are here provided in far more detail than has ever been available before. By placing all the data in one place, this paper…
Harper, Gary W.; Dolcini, M. Margaret; Benhorin, Shira; Watson, Susan E.; Boyer, Cherrie B.
This article presents findings from a qualitative evaluation of an HIV/STI (sexually transmitted infection) prevention intervention for urban African American youth (Project ÒRÉ), which was delivered to groups of 3 to 8 adolescents who were members of the same friendship network. Sixteen focus groups (N = 63) were conducted with youth following…
Robicheau, Jerry; Krull, Melissa
In this article, the authors describe the use of phenomenology and thematic analysis to interpret raw data from interviews about the lived experiences of urban and suburban school African American administrators aspiring to the superintendency or another advanced school administrative position. The authors present overarching themes that capture…
White, Nathan J.; Rayle, Andrea Dixon
This article describes the school-based, small group adaptation of the existing Strong Teens Curriculum (STC) for African American male adolescents in high schools. The STC was created to equip adolescents with skills that promote more effective social interaction and enhance personal emotional and psychological wellness. The authors present a…
Brown, Danice L.; Segrist, Daniel
The present study examined the relative influence of aspects of internalized racism on the career aspirations of a sample of African American adults. Participants (N = 315), ranging in age from 18 to 62 years, completed measures of internalized racism and career aspirations online. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted to…
Christie-Mizell, C. Andre; Pryor, Erin M.; Grossman, Elizabeth R. B.
Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Mother and Child samples, we explored the relationships among child and adolescent depressive symptoms, spanking, and emotional support offered to youth. We present cross-sectional and change models for both African Americans and European Americans. Findings showed that regardless of race,…
Seaton, Eleanor K.; Neblett, Enrique W., Jr.; Cole, Daphne J.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.
Perceptions of racial discrimination constitute significant risks to the psychological adjustment of minority youth. The present study examined the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and peer nominations of victimization among 173 (55% female) African American, European American and Latino youth. All respondents completed peer…
Ford, Kahlil R.; Hurd, Noelle M.; Jagers, Robert J.; Sellers, Robert M.
The present study examined the effect of caregivers' experiences of racial discrimination on their adolescent children's psychological functioning among a sample of 264 African American dyads. Potential relations between caregiver discrimination experiences and a number of indicators of adolescents' (aged 12-17) psychological functioning over time…
Seaton, Eleanor K.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Sellers, Robert M.; Jackson, James S.
The present study examined discrimination attributions in the psychological well-being of Black adolescents. Findings are based on a representative sample of 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth, aged 13-17, who participated in the National Survey of American Life. Youth completed measures of perceived discrimination, discrimination…
of Physical Activity on an Exaggerated Blood Pressure Response to Exercise in Normotensive Young Adult African- American Women Presented at the 2004...medical history questionnaire 3) Completion of psychosocial questionnaires 4) Completion of a physical activity questionnaire 5) Treadmill exercise ...genetic factors. The environmental factor of concern and the primary focus of this research is physical activity . Currently, no other research has
Smith, Kalynda; Craig-Henderson, Kellina
The present study investigated the effect of cognitive distraction on the endorsement of gender role stereotypes in one sample of African American female participants. Participants' awareness and endorsement of gender role stereotypes for male and females was assessed. Following random assignment to distraction or no distraction conditions, they…
Becton, Alicia B.; Foster, Amanda L.; Chen, Roy K.
Being a part of an ethnic minority group and a student with a disability (SWD) often presents as a barrier to college retention and graduation rates among members of this marginalized group. Purpose: To examine educators' awareness of racial and institutional influences that impact African American SWD. Method: Data for this study were gathered…
Chung, He Len; Probert, Stephanie
The present study examined civic engagement--volunteering and political activism--among 129 African American young adults from an urban community. The proposed model considered factors that motivate young adults to participate in civic activities as well as barriers that might inhibit involvement. Drawing upon social cognitive theory, this study…
Evans, Stephanie Y.
EIn this article, the author presents a little-known but detailed history of Black women's tradition of study abroad. Specifically, she situates Dr. Anna Julia Cooper within the landscape of historic African American students who studied in Japan, Germany, Jamaica, England, Italy, Haiti, India, West Africa, and Thailand, in addition to France. The…
Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Jiao, Qun G.
The present study examined the relationship between reading ability (i.e., reading comprehension and reading vocabulary) and academic procrastination among 120 African American graduate students. A canonical correlation analysis revealed statistically significant and practically significant multivariate relationships between these two reading…
Jackson, Kara; Remillard, Janine T.
This article presents initial findings from a study that examined how African American mothers from a low-income neighborhood conceptualized their roles in their children's mathematics learning. Based on interviews and observations focusing on ten mothers' involvement in their children's education, we offer a framework that expands typical…
Larnell, Gregory V.; Boston, Denise; Bragelman, John
The purpose of this article is to shed light on scenarios in which threatening stereotypes unfold, specifically in an institutional context in which African Americans are overrepresented. Drawing on data and findings from a recent study examining mathematics learning and identity in non-credit-bearing remedial math courses, we present three…
Murry, Velma McBride; Brody, Gene H.; Simons, Ronald L.; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.
This study will address the initial question: Are there ethnic differences in parenting that remain when contextual variables are controlled "and" are related to culture, focusing on two samples of rural African American families. This study is part of a series of coordinated studies presented in this special issue (Le et al., 2008).…
Chesmore, Ashley A.; Winston, Willie, III; Brady, Sonya S.
A social support and coping framework informed the present research on children's academic behavior and performance. Forty-six African American children aged 8-12 years were recruited from the 2011/2012 enrollment list of a partnering school. Data on children's resources for resilience (e.g., coping skills, perceived support from caregivers) were…
Loder, Tondra L.
Emphasizing the salience of social and historical contexts in understanding contemporary urban school leadership, this article presents reflections from a subset of African American women principals who came of age during the Civil Rights era and assumed leadership subsequent to the enactment of the Chicago School Reform Act of 1988. The main…
Robinson, Tommie L., Jr.; Crowe, Thomas A.
Describes a clinical service delivery model for use with African-American children who stutter and their families. The model emphasizes the clinical importance of culture-based factors such as myths, oral presentation styles, narrative discourse styles, and cognitive learning styles, as well as rules for interaction and turn-taking. (Author/DB)
Wiggins, David K.
Of all the issues raised by Karla A. Henderson in her presentation, it is the intervention strategies and suggestions to improve the research dealing with African American women and physical activity and leisure pursuits that the author finds most intriguing and valuable. He could not agree more that investigators need to be aware that African…
Mendez, Julia L.; McDermott, Paul; Fantuzzo, John
Presents multiple constructs that play a role in understanding African American preschool children's social competence. Findings support the importance of considering both children's developmental stage and their gender when evaluating aspects of social competence, particularly temperament and interactive peer play abilities. Discusses…
Kellow, J. Thomas; Jones, Brett D.
"Stereotype threat" refers to the risk associated with confirming a negative stereotype based on group membership. We examined this effect in a sample of African-American high school students. Stereotype threat was manipulated by presenting a visual spatial reasoning test as (a) diagnostic of mathematical ability or (b) a culture and…
Manley, Anita, Ed.; O'Neill, Cecily, Ed.
This book shows how children and teachers from diverse backgrounds can become, through powerful imaginings, informed participants in the fight for social justice. It addresses significant African American themes, introducing models of excellence in multicultural teaching and presenting creative teachers at work in authentic classrooms. The dramas…
Kutenplon, Deborah; Olmstead, Ellen
This bibliography presents annotations and critical appraisals of all fiction titles published between 1968 and 1993 by African American authors and targeting young adult readers--166 titles by 57 authors. Only works of fiction--historical fiction, modern realistic fiction, fantasy and science fiction, and mystery and suspense--by African American…
Szpara, Michelle Y.; Wylie, E. Caroline
Differential performance results occur when a specific population subgroup achieves a passing rate which is significantly lower than that of the normative reference group. African Americans do less well, in general, on all types of assessments, including constructed-response tests. The present study examined the writing styles of African American…
Bloome, Deirdre; Muller, Christopher
The pervasiveness of tenancy in the postbellum South had countervailing effects on marriage between African Americans. Tenancy placed severe constraints on African American women's ability to find independent agricultural work. Freedwomen confronted not only planters' reluctance to contract directly with women but also whites' refusal to sell land to African Americans. Marriage consequently became one of African American women's few viable routes into the agricultural labor market. We find that the more counties relied on tenant farming, the more common was marriage among their youngest and oldest African American residents. However, many freedwomen resented their subordinate status within tenant marriages. Thus, we find that tenancy contributed to union dissolution as well as union formation among freedpeople. Microdata tracing individuals' marital transitions are consistent with these county-level results.
Model, S; Fisher, G
In this research we use 1990 PUMS data to compare the propensity for unions between African Americans and native whites with the propensity for unions between British West Indians and native whites. In addition, we distinguish women and men. Descriptive statistics indicate that West Indians, with the exception of men who arrived as adults, are more likely than African Americans to have white partners. After the introduction of controls for several correlates of intermarriage, however, West Indian men of any generation have lower exogamy rates than African American men, while exogamy rates are higher among West Indian women who arrived as children or who were born in the United States than among African American women. Thus we find no consistent evidence of greater exogamy for British West Indians than for African Americans.
Lehto, Rebecca H; Song, Lixin; Stein, Karen F; Coleman-Burns, Patricia
African American men have the highest prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates worldwide, but have lower screening rates compared with Caucasian men. The purpose of the study was to identify social ecological factors that affect screening behaviors in African American men, knowledge that could be integral to the design of culturally appropriate interventions. The exploratory study included 60 African American males recruited from the greater Detroit metropolitan area. Social ecological variables examined included age, marital status, presence of health insurance, education, health values and behaviors, physician trust, and perceived stress coping (John Henryism). Analyses included descriptives, chi-square tests, one-way ANOVAs, and logistic regression. Findings concluded that a parsimonious model consisting of two variables (age and health values) was predictive. African American males, > or =50 years, with higher positive health values were more likely to obtain screening. Findings imply the importance of health values and targeted educational and screening interventions for younger African American men.
Williams, Sandra F; Nicholas, Susanne B; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Norris, Keith C
African Americans have exceptionally high rates of hypertension and hypertension related complications. It is commonly reported that the blood pressure lowering efficacy of renin angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors is attenuated in African Americans due to a greater likelihood of having a low renin profile. Therefore these agents are often not recommended as initial therapy in African Americans with hypertension. However, the high prevalence of comorbid conditions, such as diabetes, cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease makes treatment with RAS inhibitors more compelling. Despite lower circulating renin levels and a less significant fall in blood pressure in response to RAS inhibitors in African Americans, numerous clinical trials support the efficacy of RAS inhibitors to improve clinical outcomes in this population, especially in those with hypertension and risk factors for cardiovascular and related diseases. Here, we discuss the rationale of RAS blockade as part of a comprehensive approach to attenuate the high rates of premature morbidity and mortality associated with hypertension among African Americans. PMID:25276290
Bloome, Deirdre; Muller, Christopher
The pervasiveness of tenancy in the postbellum South had countervailing effects on marriage between African Americans. Tenancy placed severe constraints on African American women’s ability to find independent agricultural work. Freedwomen confronted not only planters’ reluctance to contract directly with women but also whites’ refusal to sell land to African Americans. Marriage consequently became one of African American women’s few viable routes into the agricultural labor market. We find that the more counties relied on tenant farming, the more common was marriage among their youngest and oldest African American residents. However, many freedwomen resented their subordinate status within tenant marriages. Thus, we find that tenancy contributed to union dissolution as well as union formation among freedpeople. Microdata tracing individuals’ marital transitions are consistent with these county-level results. PMID:26223562
Palmer, Robert T.; Maramba, Dina C.
Although African Americans continue to demonstrate a desire for education, Black male enrollment and completion rates in higher education are dismal when compared to other ethnic groups. Researchers and scholars have noted various theories and philosophies responsible for the academic disengagement of African American men in higher education. This…
Clark, Lawrence M.; Jones Frank, Toya; Davis, Julius
Background/Context: Historians and researchers have documented and explored the work and role of African American teachers in the U.S. educational system, yet there has been limited attention to the specific work, role, and experiences of African American mathematics teachers. To meaningfully and responsibly conceptualize the role of African…
Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Sharma, Sakshi; Knighton, Joi Sheree’; Oser, Carrie B.; Leukefeld, Carl G.
African American women are at a greater risk for exposure to multiple traumatic events and are less likely to seek mental health services than White women. Many women report avoidant and passive coping strategies placing them at an increased risk for lower psychological adjustment. Thus, the purpose of the current study is to examine the role of culturally relevant factors such as spirituality, self-esteem, and social support as significant correlates of John Henryism Active Coping among African American female trauma survivors. The study utilized secondary data from the B-WISE project (Black Women in a Study of Epidemics) with a sample of 161 community-based African American women with a self-reported history of trauma. Results indicate that participants with higher self-esteem and existential well-being were more likely to cope actively with daily life stressors. However, socio-demographics were not significant correlates of John Henryism Active Coping at the multivariate level. Implications for clinical practice are discussed along with the Strong Black Woman (SBW) ideology, which may explain over-reporting of positive attributes such as self-esteem and existential well-being. Limitations of the study and directions of future research are also discussed. PMID:25180071
Johnson, Angela; Kirk, Rosalind; Rosenblum, Katherine Lisa
Abstract The goals of this article are to provide a review of key interventions and strategies that impact initiation and duration of breastfeeding with particular focus on low-income African American mothers' maternal psychological vulnerabilities during the early postpartum period using a social ecological perspective as a guiding framework. Although modest gains have been achieved in breastfeeding initiation rates in the United States, a projected gap remains between infant feeding practices and national Healthy People breastfeeding goals set for 2020, particularly among African Americans. These disparities raise concerns that socially disadvantaged mothers and babies may be at increased risk for poor postnatal outcomes because of poorer mental health and increased vulnerability to chronic health conditions. Breastfeeding can be a protective factor, strengthening the relationship between mother and baby and increasing infant health and resilience. Evidence suggests that no single intervention can sufficiently address the multiple breastfeeding barriers faced by mothers. Effective intervention strategies require a multilevel approach. A social ecological perspective highlights that individual knowledge, behavior, and attitudes are shaped by interactions between the individual woman, her friends and family, and her wider historical, social, political, economic, institutional, and community contexts, and therefore effective breastfeeding interventions must reflect all these aspects. Current breastfeeding interventions are disjointed and inadequately meet all African American women's social and psychological breastfeeding needs. Poor outcomes indicate a need for an integrative approach to address the complexity of interrelated breastfeeding barriers mothers' experience across layers of the social ecological system. PMID:25423601
Menard, Laurence C.; Habte, Sium; Gonsiorek, Waldemar; Lee, Deborah; Banas, Dana; Holloway, Deborah A.; Cunningham, Mark; Stetsko, Dawn; Casano, Francesca; Kansal, Selena; Davis, Patricia M.; Carman, Julie; Zhang, Clarence K.; Abidi, Ferva; Furie, Richard; Nadler, Steven G.; Suchard, Suzanne J.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex systemic autoimmune disease driven by both innate and adaptive immune cells. African Americans tend to present with more severe disease at an earlier age compared with patients of European ancestry. In order to better understand the immunological differences between African American and European American patients, we analyzed the frequencies of B cell subsets and the expression of B cell activation markers from a total of 68 SLE patients and 69 normal healthy volunteers. We found that B cells expressing the activation markers CD86, CD80, PD1, and CD40L, as well as CD19+CD27–IgD– double-negative B cells, were enriched in African American patients vs. patients of European ancestry. In addition to increased expression of CD40L, surface levels of CD40 on B cells were lower, suggesting the engagement of the CD40 pathway. In vitro experiments confirmed that CD40L expressed by B cells could lead to CD40 activation and internalization on adjacent B cells. To conclude, these results indicate that, compared with European American patients, African American SLE patients present with a particularly active B cell component, possibly via the activation of the CD40/CD40L pathway. These data may help guide the development of novel therapies. PMID:27699274
Cattalani, Andrea; Turpini, Elena; Custodi, Viola Marta; Pagella, Fabio; Carena, Paolo; Lovati, Elisabetta; Lucotti, Pietro; Gaetani, Paolo
Objective. Craniopharyngioma is a rare tumour, and, consequently, acute clinical presentation and diagnosis, during pregnancy, of this pathology are quite difficult to find. Only few cases are reported in the literature, and no one describes these two conditions in association. Methods. We report a particular case of craniopharyngioma presenting both of the above conditions. Results. The patient was successfully operated with endoscopic technique. Conclusions. Rare and difficult cases, created by the superposition of different clinical conditions, need multidisciplinary management, with collaboration, integration, and cooperation between different medical specialists. PMID:25161785
Miller, Edgar R.; Cooper, Lisa A.; Carson, Kathryn A.; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Appel, Lawrence J.; Gayles, Debra; Charleston, Jeanne; White, Karen; You, Na; Weng, Yingjie; Martin-Daniels, L. Michelle; Bates-Hopkins, Barbara; Robb, Inez; Franz, Whitney K.; Brown, Emily L.; Halbert, Jennifer P.; Albert, Michael C.; Dalcin, Arlene T.; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh
Introduction Unhealthy diets, often low in potassium, likely contribute to racial disparities in blood pressure. We tested the effectiveness of providing weekly dietary advice, assistance with selection of higher potassium grocery items, and a $30 per week food allowance on blood pressure and other outcomes in African American adults with hypertension. Design We conducted an 8-week RCT with two parallel arms between May 2012 and November 2013. Setting/participants We randomized 123 African Americans with controlled hypertension from an urban primary care clinic in Baltimore, Maryland and implemented the trial in partnership with a community supermarket and the Baltimore City Health Department. Mean (SD) age was 58.6 (9.5) years, 71% were female, blood pressure was 131.3 (14.7)/77.2 (10.5) mmHg, BMI was 34.5 (8.2) kg/m2, and 28% had diabetes. Intervention Participants randomized to the active intervention group (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension [DASH]-Plus) received coach-directed dietary advice and assistance with weekly online ordering and purchasing of high-potassium foods ($30/week) delivered by a community supermarket to a neighborhood library. Participants in the control group received a printed DASH diet brochure along with debit account of equivalent value to that of the DASH-Plus group. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was blood pressure change. Analyses were conducted in January to October 2014. Results Compared with the control group, the DASH-Plus group increased self-reported consumption of fruits and vegetables (mean=1.4, 95% CI=0.7, 2.1 servings/day), estimated intake of potassium (mean=0.4, 95% CI=0.1, 0.7 grams/day), and urine potassium excretion (mean=19%, 95% CI=1%, 38%). There was no significant effect on blood pressure. Conclusions A program providing dietary advice, assistance with grocery ordering, and $30/week of high-potassium foods in African American patients with controlled hypertension in a community-based clinic did not
Holliday, Bertha Garrett
The author describes the multiple pathways of events and strategies that served to nurture African American psychology in the United States. Special attention is given to strategies for inclusion and empowerment used in 4 psychological professional and scholarly associations: the American Counseling Association, the American Psychological Association, the Association of Black Psychologists, and the Society for Research in Child Development. In addition, the author describes 4 major intellectual traditions that informed not only the strategies of inclusion but also the theoretical, research, and intervention perspectives and other professional and academic efforts of African American psychologists. Those perspectives are the Afrocentric/African-centered tradition derived from longstanding nationalist/Pan-African and culturally centered traditions within African American communities; the social contextual/multidisciplinary research tradition of the University of Chicago School of Social Science; the empirical social science research tradition of the University of Michigan; and the Black scholar/activist tradition of Howard University. This article also presents a chronological timeline of major events in the history of African American psychology.
Bynum, Mia Smith; Burton, E Thomaseo; Best, Candace
Previous research has documented the negative effects of racism on the psychological health of African Americans. However, consideration of racial socialization as a potential buffer against racism experiences has received limited attention. The present study investigated whether two types of parental racial socialization messages reduced the impact of racism on psychological functioning in a sample of 247 African American college freshmen (M=18.30). Results indicated that students who reported more racism experiences also had poorer levels of psychological functioning as indicated by higher levels of psychological stress and psychological distress. Parental messages emphasizing the use of African American cultural resources to cope with racism reduced the impact of racism on psychological stress only. Cultural pride messages predicted less psychological distress while messages emphasizing the use of cultural resources predicted greater psychological distress. However, neither message type moderated the relationship between racism experiences and psychological distress. These results suggest that racial socialization messages have complex relations to psychological functioning in African American college students.
Henry, Jessica S; Lambert, Sharon F; Smith Bynum, Mia
Urban African American youth's disproportionate exposure to community violence and increased risk for its adverse consequences have heightened interest in identifying protective factors that mitigate the effects of community violence exposure for these youth. Thus, the present study examined whether maternal racial socialization messages protect African American adolescents against the adverse effects of community violence exposure. Participants were a community sample of African American adolescents (N = 106; mean age = 15.41 years) and their female guardians. For community-violence-exposed youth, maternal racial socialization messages protected against aggressive behaviors and depressive symptoms, such that maternal messages about cultural pride attenuated the association between community violence exposure and parent-reported aggressive behaviors, and cultural appreciation of legacy messages attenuated the association between community violence exposure and adolescent-reported depressive symptoms. Findings highlight the need to integrate race-relevant factors into preventive interventions targeting African American youth at risk for or exposed to community violence, and suggest that family interventions promoting parents' efficacy to implement racial socialization practices are useful for youth exposed to violence.
Molina, Yamile; Hempstead, Bridgette H.; Thompson-Dodd, Jacci; Weatherby, Shauna Rae; Dunbar, Claire; Hohl, Sarah D.; Malen, Rachel C.; Ceballos, Rachel M.
African American women experience disproportionately adverse outcomes relative to non-Latina White women after an abnormal mammogram result. Research has suggested medical advocacy and staff support may improve outcomes among this population. The purpose of the study was to understand reasons African American women believe medical advocacy to be important and examine if and how staff can encourage and be supportive of medical advocacy. A convenience-based sample of 30–74 year old women who self-identified as African American/Black/of African descent and who had received an abnormal mammogram result was recruited from community-based organizations, mobile mammography services, and the local department of health. This qualitative study included semi-structured interviews. Patients perceived medical advocacy to be particularly important for African Americans, given mistrust and discrimination present in medical settings and their own familiarity with their bodies and symptoms. Respondents emphasized staff can encourage medical advocacy through offering information in general in a clear, informative, and empathic style. Cultural competency interventions that train staff how to foster medical advocacy may be a strategy to improve racial disparities following an abnormal mammogram. PMID:25270556
Mickens, Lavonda; Ameringer, Katie; Brightman, Molly; Leventhal, Adam M.
Tobacco smoking is a national public health problem that has been associated with numerous adverse health effects, including increased disease and cancer rates. Previous review articles on smoking in specific demographic populations have focused on smoking in women and on smoking in African Americans, but have not considered the dual roles of ethnicity and gender in smoking behavior. African American women (AAW) are an important subgroup to study because they are distinct from non-AAW and their male African American counterparts on biosychosocial factors that are relevant to smoking behavior. The purpose of the present review paper is to integrate and summarize the current literature on the epidemiology, determinants, and consequences of cigarette smoking among AAW, by contrasting them to relevant comparison groups (non-AAW and African American men). Evidence suggests that AAW are generally more likely to be light smokers and initiate smoking later. The prevalence rates of AAW smokers have decreased over the past 25 years, yet AAW are disproportionately affected by several smoking-related illnesses when compared to their ethnic and gender comparison groups. AAW smokers are distinct from relevant comparison groups in metabolic sensitivity to nicotine, aspects of smoking topography, and several psychosocial factors that influence smoking. Although a small literature on smoking in AAW is emerging, further empirical research of AAW smokers could inform the development of tailored interventions for AAW. PMID:20061090
Molina, Yamile; Hempstead, Bridgette H; Thompson-Dodd, Jacci; Weatherby, Shauna Rae; Dunbar, Claire; Hohl, Sarah D; Malen, Rachel C; Ceballos, Rachel M
African-American women experience disproportionately adverse outcomes relative to non-Latina White women after an abnormal mammogram result. Research has suggested medical advocacy and staff support may improve outcomes among this population. The purpose of the study was to understand reasons African-American women believe medical advocacy to be important and examine if and how staff can encourage and be supportive of medical advocacy. A convenience-based sample of 30-74-year-old women who self-identified as African-American/Black/of African descent and who had received an abnormal mammogram result was recruited from community-based organizations, mobile mammography services, and the local department of health. This qualitative study included semi-structured interviews. Patients perceived medical advocacy to be particularly important for African-Americans, given mistrust and discrimination present in medical settings and their own familiarity with their bodies and symptoms. Respondents emphasized that staff can encourage medical advocacy through offering information in general in a clear, informative, and empathic style. Cultural competency interventions that train staff how to foster medical advocacy may be a strategy to improve racial disparities following an abnormal mammogram.
Rogers, Charles R; Mitchell, Jamie A; Franta, Gabriel J; Foster, Margaret J; Shires, Deirdre
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is highly preventable when CRC screening is utilized, yet CRC screening completion among African American men is relatively low and their mortality rates remain 50% higher juxtaposed to their White counterparts. Since a growing body of literature indicates masculinity, racism, and social support each have strong influences on CRC screening uptake, this systematic review examined the connections between these three sociocultural factors and CRC screening uptake among African American men. Potential studies were retrieved from MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and PsycINFO. Cited reference searching for the final sample was employed to identify and assess additional studies for inclusion using Scopus. The methodological quality of the reviewed evidence was also evaluated. Nineteen studies met inclusion/exclusion criteria. Thirteen studies employed nonexperimental research designs; a quasi-experimental design was present in four, and two utilized experimental designs. Studies were published between 2000 and 2014; the majority between 2009 and 2013. Social support was most frequently addressed (84%) while masculinity and racism were equally studied with paucity (11%) for their influence on CRC screening. After evaluating conceptual and methodological characteristics of the studies, 42% fell below average in quality and rigor. The need for increased attention to the sociocultural correlates of CRC screening for African American men are highlighted in this systematic review, and important recommendations for research and practice are provided. Alongside a call for more rigorous research, further research examining the influence of masculinity and racism on CRC screening completion among African American men is warranted.
Kato, Ikuko; Cichon, Michelle; Yee, Cecilia L.; Land, Susan; Korczak, Jeannette F.
Background African American women more often present with more aggressive types of breast cancer than Caucasian women, but little is known whether genetic polymorphisms specific to or disproportionate in African Americans are associated with their risk of breast cancer. Methods A population-based case-control study was conducted including 194 cases identified through the Metropolitan Detroit Cancer Surveillance System and 189 controls recruited through random digit dialing to examine polymorphisms in genes involved in estrogen metabolism and action. Results The African American-specific CYP1A1 5639C allele was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (odds ratio(OR)=2.34, 95%confidence interval (CI): 1.23–4.44) and this association with the CYP1A1 5639 locus was dependent on another polymorphism in the CYP3A4 gene (P=0.043 for the interaction). In addition, African American-predominant CYP1B1 432 Val allele was significantly more often found in the cases than in the controls overall and the HSD17B1 312 Gly allele was specifically associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk (OR=3.00, 95% CI: 1.29–6.99). Conclusion These observations need to be confirmed in larger studies due to the limited statistical power of the study based on a small number of cases. PMID:19679043
Magnusson, Cecilia; Magnusson, Tomas
The aim of this study was to examine contemporary human skull material for possible differences between Caucasians and African-Americans in respect to size and form of the temporomandibular condyles. The material consisted of a total of 129 Caucasian skulls (94 males and 35 females) and 76 African-American skulls (40 males and 36 females). Their mean age at death was 46 years for the Caucasians (range: 19-89 years) and 37 years for the African-Americans (range: 18-70 years). The mediolateral and anteroposterior dimensions of the 410 condyles were measured, and the condylar form was estimated using both anterior and superior views. No statistically significant differences could be found between Caucasians and African-Americans for any of the recorded variables. In conclusion, the present results lend no support for the existence of ethnic differences between the two groups examined in respect of temporomandibular joint size and form. It is likely that other factors such as evolution, overall cranial size, dietary differences, and genetic factors, irrespective of ethnicity, can explain the differences found in different skull samples.
Smith, Tyler K; Tandon, S Darius; Bair-Merritt, Megan H; Hanson, Janice L
Fathers play a critical role in children's development; similarly, fatherhood positively affects men's health. Among the larger population of fathers relatively little is known about the parenting knowledge of urban, African American fathers. Focusing on urban, African American fathers, the objectives of this study were to (1) understand the primary sources from which fathers learn about parenting, (2) determine where and how fathers prefer to receive future parenting education, and (3) explore the information perceived as most valuable to fathers and how this compares with the recommended anticipatory guidance (Bright Futures-based) delivered during well visits. Five focus groups, with a total of 21 participants, were conducted with urban fathers at a community-based organization. Study eligibility included being more than 18 years old, English speaking, and having at least one child 0 to 5 years old. During the focus groups, fathers were asked where they received parenting information, how and where they preferred to receive parenting information, and what they thought about Bright Futures parenting guidelines. Fathers most commonly described receiving parenting information from their own relatives rather than from their child's health care provider. Most fathers preferred to learn parenting from a person rather than a technology-based source and expressed interest in learning more about parenting at community-based locations. Although fathers viewed health care providers' role as primarily teaching about physical health, they valued Bright Futures anticipatory guidance about parenting. Fathers valued learning about child rearing, health, and development. Augmenting physician counseling about Bright Futures with community-based parenting education may be beneficial for fathers.
Halbert, Chanita Hughes; McDonald, Jasmine; Vadaparampil, Susan; Rice, LaShanta; Jefferson, Melanie
Importance Precision medicine is an approach to detecting, treating, and managing disease that is based on individual variation in genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Precision medicine is expected to reduce health disparities, but this will be possible only if studies have adequate representation of racial minorities. Objective It is critical to anticipate the rates at which individuals from diverse populations are likely to participate in precision medicine studies as research initiatives are being developed. We evaluated the likelihood of participating in a clinical study for precision medicine. Design, Setting, Participants Observational study conducted between October 2010 and February 2011 in a national sample of African Americans. Main Outcome Measure Intentions to participate in a government sponsored study that involves providing a biospecimen and generates data that could be shared with other researchers to conduct future studies. Results One third of respondents would participate in a clinical study for precision medicine. Only gender had a significant independent association with participation intentions. Men had a 1.86 (95% CI = 1.11, 3.12, p = 0.02) increased likelihood of participating in a precision medicine study compared to women in the model that included overall barriers and facilitators. In the model with specific participation barriers, distrust was associated with a reduced likelihood of participating in the research described in the vignette (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.34, 0.96, p = 0.04). Conclusion and Relevance African Americans may have low enrollment in PMI research. As PMI research is implemented, extensive efforts will be needed to ensure adequate representation. Additional research is needed to identify optimal ways of ethically describing precision medicine studies to ensure sufficient recruitment of racial minorities. PMID:27441706
Worrall, Bradford B.; Johnston, Karen C.; Kongable, Gail; Hung, Elena; Richardson, DeJuran; Gorelick, Philip B.
Background and Purpose If sex differences in stroke risk factor profiles exist among African Americans in the United States, prevention strategies will need to reflect those differences. African Americans and women have been underrepresented in stroke prevention studies. The purpose of this study was to determine whether medical and lifestyle factors differ among women and men who have enrolled in the African-American Antiplatelet Stroke Prevention Study (AAASPS). Methods We performed a planned exploratory analysis of differences in baseline characteristics and risk factors between women and men enrolled in AAASPS, a double-blind, randomized, multicenter, controlled trial. Frequencies of vascular risk factors and related conditions, medical therapies, stroke subtypes, and vascular territories were compared between women and men by 1-way ANOVA and Fisher’s exact test where appropriate. Results A total of 1087 African American patients (574 women, 513 men) enrolled between December 1995 and June 1999. Women had higher rates of hypertension, diabetes, family history of stroke, and no reported leisure exercise. Men had higher rates of smoking and heavy alcohol use. Few differences were noted in proportions of stroke subtype or proportions receiving preventive therapy. Conclusions AAASPS represents the largest enrollment of African American women in a recurrent stroke prevention study. Our data suggest that African American women in a clinical trial differ from men in the frequency of key vascular risk factors. Although limited, these data provide an important first characterization of sex differences in African Americans with stroke. PMID:11935036
Samuel-Hodge, C D; Johnson, C M; Braxton, D F; Lackey, M
The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) demonstrated risk reduction for incident diabetes through weight loss among all participants, including African Americans. Several DPP translations have been conducted in less controlled settings, including primary care practices and communities; however, there is no detailed compilation of how effective these translations have been for African Americans. This systematic literature review evaluated DPP translations from 2003 to 2012. Eligible records were retrieved using a search strategy of relevant databases and gray literature. Retrieved records (n=1,272) were screened using a priori criteria, which resulted in 21 full-text studies for review. Seventeen studies were included in the full-text qualitative synthesis. Seven studies had 100% African American samples and 10 studies had mixed samples with African American subgroups. African American participants' average weight loss was roughly half of that achieved in the DPP intervention. However, with few higher-quality studies, small sample sizes and differences in intervention designs and implementation, comparisons across interventions were difficult. The suboptimal effectiveness of DPP translations among African American adults, particularly women, signals the need for enhancements to existing evidence-based interventions and more high-quality research that includes other at-risk African American subgroups such as men and younger adults of lower socioeconomic status.
Jones, Keith Wayne
The purpose of this study was to determine if there is adequate documentation of an historical role of African and African American involvement in science, engineering, and technology. Through the use of history of science and technology research methodology, along with an examination of the sociological and economic impacts of adequately accredited innovations and inventions contributed by Africans and African Americans, the researcher investigated their contributions to the following areas of science and technology: life science, physical sciences and chemistry, engineering, and science education. In regard to the timeframe for this study, the researcher specifically investigated African and African American involvement in science and technology that includes periods prior to black enslavement, scientific racism and colonialism, as well as during and after those periods. This research study reveals that there are adequate historical data regarding African and African American contributions to science, engineering, and technology. The data reveals that for many millennia African peoples have been continually involved in science and world science histories. The data further show that the numbers of African Americans acquiring BS, MS, Ph.D., Doctor of Science and Doctor of Engineering degrees in science and engineering disciplines are increasing. That these increases are not happening at a rate representative of the present or future African American percentages of the population. Consequently, because of future changes in our nation's demographics, increasing the numbers of people from under-represented groups who pursue scientific and engineering professions has become a matter of national security at the highest levels of government. Moreover, African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans are not pursuing careers or taking courses in science and engineering at a rate high enough to fulfill the prospective needs for the United States' industries, government
Milam, Adam J; Furr-Holden, C Debra; Whitaker, Damiya; Smart, Mieka; Leaf, Philip; Cooley-Strickland, Michele
This study examines gender differences in the association between environment and internalizing problems in a sample of predominately African American schoolchildren. Internalizing problems was assessed using the Youth Self Report. Violence and alcohol and other drug (AOD) exposure subscales were created using observational assessments of neighborhood blocks. Logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between neighborhood environment and internalizing problems. For each AOD item present on the block the odds of internalizing problems among girls increased by 17% (OR = 1.17, CI: 1.01, 1.35, P = 0.039). The relationship was not significant among boys. Violence exposure did not predict internalizing problems in boys or girls. These preliminary findings suggest that primary school-aged girls' emotional well-being is more negatively impacted by deleterious environments. Future investigations will examine the relationship between deleterious neighborhood environments and internalizing problems as the children age into adolescence.
Holbrook, Jarita C.
The question of how to increase the number of women and minorities in astronomy has been approached from several directions in the United States including examination of admission policies, mentoring, and hiring practices. These point to departmental efforts to improve conditions for some of the students which has the overall benefit of improving conditions for all of the students. However, women and minority astronomers have managed to obtain doctorates even within the non-welcoming environment of certain astronomy and physics departments. I present here six strategies used by African American men and women to persevere if not thrive long enough to earn their doctorate. Embedded in this analysis is the idea of `astronomy culture' and experiencing astronomy culture as a cross-cultural experience including elements of culture shock. These survival strategies are not exclusive to this small subpopulation but have been used by majority students, too.
Rozie-Battle, Judith L
African American youth continue to be overrepresented in the juvenile justice system. As a result of the current political environment and the perceived increase in crime among young people, the nation has moved away from rehabilitation and toward harsher treatment of delinquents. The African American community must encourage policy makers and community leaders to continue to address the disproportionate representation of African American youth in the system. Current policing and prosecutorial policies must also be examined and challenged to end the perception of an unjust system.
Gamble, V N
The Tuskegee Syphilis Study continues to cast its long shadow on the contemporary relationship between African Americans and the biomedical community. Numerous reports have argued that the Tuskegee Syphilis Study is the most important reason why many African Americans distrust the institutions of medicine and public health. Such an interpretation neglects a critical historical point: the mistrust predated public revelations about the Tuskegee study. This paper places the syphilis study within a broader historical and social context to demonstrate that several factors have influenced--and continue to influence--African American's attitudes toward the biomedical community. PMID:9366634
Peckmann, Tanya R; Meek, Susan; Dilkie, Natasha; Mussett, Michelle
Teeth are often recovered in forensic cases due to their postmortem longevity. The goal of the present research was to investigate the degree of sexual dimorphism in the permanent molars of African Americans using crown and cervical diagonal diameters. Discriminant functions developed from a modern Greek population were tested for accuracy of sex estimation in an African American population. One hundred and three (53 males and 50 females) individuals ranging in age from 16 years to 66 years old were used from the Robert J. Terry Anatomical Skeletal Collection. Four diagonal diameter measurements were taken for each of the left mandibular and maxillary molars: mesiobuccal-distolingual crown diameter, mesiolingual-distobuccal crown diameter, mesiobuccal-distolingual cervical diameter, and mesiolingual-distobuccal cervical diameter. The overall percentage of accuracy of the modern Greek discriminant functions when applied to the African American sample was between 53.8% and 63.6%. Males were more accurately classified (93.6%-100%) than females (0%-18.2%). The African American population specific direct discriminant functions showed accuracy rates from 72.6% to 100% for the original data and 40%-72.3% for the cross-validated data. The African American stepwise discriminant functions showed accuracy rates from 63.9% to 77.6% for the original and cross-validated data. Comparisons to other populations were made. The results suggest that, in teeth, there is variation in the degree of sexual dimorphism between populations and discriminant functions for sex estimation in dentition are population specific.
Freeman, Kassie, Ed.
Fifteen papers examine the cultural context and history of African Americans in higher education research and practice. Papers are grouped in three parts: African American culture in higher education research; African American higher education research issues and paradigms; and African American culture and higher education policy and practice.…
Poplack, Shana, Ed.
Essays on the history of African American Vernacular English (AAVE) include: an introduction to the evolution of AAVE within the African American diaspora (Shana Poplack); "Rephrasing the Copula: Contraction and Zero in Early African American English" (James A. Walker); "Reconstructing the Source of Early African American English…
McMillian, M. Monique
To improve achievement among African American students, education professionals must pay special attention to African American male achievement and reframe the academic achievement gap as a treatment gap. Engagement studies suggest that African American students, and African American boys in particular, are susceptible to academic disengagement.…
Sherman, Kerry A; Miller, Suzanne M; Shaw, Laura-Kate; Cavanagh, Karen; Sheinfeld Gorin, Sherri
Breast cancer is a significant health concern for African American women. Nonetheless, uptake of genetic risk assessment (including both genetic counseling and testing) for breast cancer gene mutations among these populations remains low. This paper systematically reviews cognitive (i.e., beliefs) and affective (i.e., emotions) factors influencing BRCA1/2 genetic risk assessment among African American women as well as psychosocial interventions to facilitate informed decision making in this population. A systematic search of CINAHL, PubMed, and PsycINFO was undertaken, yielding 112 published studies. Of these, 18 met the eligibility criteria. African American woman are likely to participate in genetic risk assessment if they are knowledgeable about cancer genetics, perceive a high risk of developing breast cancer, have low expectancies of stigmatization from medical professionals, view themselves as independent from family, and have fatalistic beliefs and a future temporal orientation. Anticipated negative affective responses, such as an inability to "handle" the results of testing, are barriers to uptake. Specific perceptions, beliefs, and emotional factors are associated with genetic risk assessment among African American women. Understanding these factors is key in the development of interventions to facilitate informed decision making in this population.
Rickford, John R.; Duncan, Greg J.; Gennetian, Lisa A.; Gou, Ray Yun; Greene, Rebecca; Katz, Lawrence F.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Kling, Jeffrey R.; Sanbonmatsu, Lisa; Sanchez-Ordoñez, Andres E.; Sciandra, Matthew; Thomas, Ewart; Ludwig, Jens
African-American Vernacular English (AAVE) is systematic, rooted in history, and important as an identity marker and expressive resource for its speakers. In these respects, it resembles other vernacular or nonstandard varieties, like Cockney or Appalachian English. But like them, AAVE can trigger discrimination in the workplace, housing market, and schools. Understanding what shapes the relative use of AAVE vs. Standard American English (SAE) is important for policy and scientific reasons. This work presents, to our knowledge, the first experimental estimates of the effects of moving into lower-poverty neighborhoods on AAVE use. We use data on non-Hispanic African-American youth (n = 629) from a large-scale, randomized residential mobility experiment called Moving to Opportunity (MTO), which enrolled a sample of mostly minority families originally living in distressed public housing. Audio recordings of the youth were transcribed and coded for the use of five grammatical and five phonological AAVE features to construct a measure of the proportion of possible instances, or tokens, in which speakers use AAVE rather than SAE speech features. Random assignment to receive a housing voucher to move into a lower-poverty area (the intention-to-treat effect) led youth to live in neighborhoods (census tracts) with an 11 percentage point lower poverty rate on average over the next 10–15 y and reduced the share of AAVE tokens by ∼3 percentage points compared with the MTO control group youth. The MTO effect on AAVE use equals approximately half of the difference in AAVE frequency observed between youth whose parents have a high school diploma and those whose parents do not. PMID:26351663
Rickford, John R; Duncan, Greg J; Gennetian, Lisa A; Gou, Ray Yun; Greene, Rebecca; Katz, Lawrence F; Kessler, Ronald C; Kling, Jeffrey R; Sanbonmatsu, Lisa; Sanchez-Ordoñez, Andres E; Sciandra, Matthew; Thomas, Ewart; Ludwig, Jens
African-American Vernacular English (AAVE) is systematic, rooted in history, and important as an identity marker and expressive resource for its speakers. In these respects, it resembles other vernacular or nonstandard varieties, like Cockney or Appalachian English. But like them, AAVE can trigger discrimination in the workplace, housing market, and schools. Understanding what shapes the relative use of AAVE vs. Standard American English (SAE) is important for policy and scientific reasons. This work presents, to our knowledge, the first experimental estimates of the effects of moving into lower-poverty neighborhoods on AAVE use. We use data on non-Hispanic African-American youth (n = 629) from a large-scale, randomized residential mobility experiment called Moving to Opportunity (MTO), which enrolled a sample of mostly minority families originally living in distressed public housing. Audio recordings of the youth were transcribed and coded for the use of five grammatical and five phonological AAVE features to construct a measure of the proportion of possible instances, or tokens, in which speakers use AAVE rather than SAE speech features. Random assignment to receive a housing voucher to move into a lower-poverty area (the intention-to-treat effect) led youth to live in neighborhoods (census tracts) with an 11 percentage point lower poverty rate on average over the next 10-15 y and reduced the share of AAVE tokens by ∼3 percentage points compared with the MTO control group youth. The MTO effect on AAVE use equals approximately half of the difference in AAVE frequency observed between youth whose parents have a high school diploma and those whose parents do not.
Squires, Stephanie Michelle
This study examined the lived experiences of African American women (AAW) who completed doctoral degrees in a STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) discipline in the United States. This study sought to fill the gap in the literature by examining how AAW described and made meaning of lived STEM educational experiences during doctoral degree completion in the context of the intersection of being African American and a woman. This study utilized a theoretical perspective based upon three theories: (a) critical race theory as a framework to gather AAW's narratives about STEM doctorate education, (b) Black feminist thought as a framework to view the intersection of being African American and a woman in the United States, and (c) the science identity model as a framework to view how women of color successfully complete scientific graduate degrees. Participants revealed that being an African American and a woman in a STEM doctoral program often complicated an already difficult process of completing the doctoral degree. The participants described the educational experience as challenging, particularly the writing of the dissertation. The challenges that the participants faced were due to various factors such as difficult advisor/advisee relationships, tedious writing and revision processes, politics, and lack of information regarding the doctoral degree process. The findings suggested that AAW participants confronted intrinsic bias while completing STEM doctoral degrees, which led to isolation and feelings of being an impostor---or feelings of not belonging in scientific studies. The findings also indicated that the women in this study ascribed success in dissertation writing and degree completion to one or more of the following attributes: (a) having a clear plan, (b) taking ownership of the writing process, (c) having an engaged advisor, (d) learning the writing style of the advisor, (e) understanding the temperament of the advisor, (f) personal will
.... Structural inequalities--from disparities in education and health care to the vicious cycle of poverty--still... Economic Empowerment,'' calls upon us to honor the African Americans who overcame injustice and...
Cooper, Hannah L. F.; Osborne, Andrew H.
HIV continues to be transmitted at unacceptably high rates among African Americans, and most HIV-prevention interventions have focused on behavioral change. To theorize additional approaches to HIV prevention among African Americans, we discuss how sexual networks and drug-injection networks are as important as behavior for HIV transmission. We also describe how higher-order social structures and processes, such as residential racial segregation and racialized policing, may help shape risk networks and behaviors. We then discuss 3 themes in African American culture—survival, propriety, and struggle—that also help shape networks and behaviors. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of how these perspectives might help reduce HIV transmission among African Americans. PMID:19372519
Pinderhughes, Elaine B
It is not possible to understand African American marriages fully without attention to the social, economic, racial, and historical factors that have stressed male-female relationships beyond those stresses experienced by majority couples. I propose that the societal projection process (Bowen, 1978) has entrapped African Americans in ways that have continually and severely strained their marital and couple relationships. These experiences, and the ways in which African Americans have responded to them, have created a vulnerability that is compounded by societal shifts and changes, and is manifest in the precipitous decline of marriages at a rate higher than that found in all other racial groups in the U.S. I will examine the state of African American marriages in this cultural context, with specific attention to the effects of the unequal sex ratio, socioeconomic conditions, and overstressed male-female relationships. I will then discuss implications and offer suggestions for therapists who work with this population.
Dillon, Patrick J; Roscoe, Lori A
Recent studies suggest that terminally ill African Americans' care is generally more expensive and of lower quality than that of comparable non-Hispanic white patients. Scholars argue that increasing hospice enrollment among African Americans will help improve end-of-life care for this population, yet few studies have examined the experiences of African American patients and their loved ones after accessing hospice care. In this article, we explore how African American patients and lay caregivers evaluated their hospice experiences. Drawing from 39 in-depth interviews with 26 participants, we use a modified version of Bute and Jensen's (2011) narrative typology to organize patients' and caregivers' stories into three general categories: narratives of satisfaction, narratives of regret, and narratives of ambivalence. Building from these categories, we discuss the implications of this research for understanding hospice experiences, promoting hospice access, and improving end-of-life care for marginalized populations.
Spencer, Becky; Wambach, Karen; Domain, Elaine Williams
The low rate of breastfeeding among African American women in the United States is a poorly understood, persistent disparity. Our purpose in this study was to gain an understanding of how African American women experience breastfeeding in the context of their day-to-day lives. The Sequential-Consensual Qualitative Design (SCQD), a 3-stage qualitative methodology aimed at exploring the cultural, personal, and political context of phenomena, was used to explore the experiences of African American women who felt successful with breastfeeding. An integration of qualitative content analysis and Black feminist theory was used to analyze the data. Themes that emerged from Stage-2 data analysis included self-determination, spirituality and breastfeeding, and empowerment. In Stage 3 of the study, participant recommendations regarding breastfeeding promotion and support initiatives for African American breastfeeding were categorized into three themes, including engaging spheres of influence, sparking breastfeeding activism, and addressing images of the sexual breast vs. the nurturing breast.
Mast, B T; Fitzgerald, J; Steinberg, J; MacNeill, S E; Lichtenberg, P A
Relatively little data exist concerning the utility of brief cognitive measures to detect dementia among African Americans. The current study evaluated the clinical utility of the Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE) and the Fuld Object Memory Evaluation (FOME) in detecting Alzheimer's disease (AD) among both African American and European American older adults. One hundred and forty geriatric patients from a large urban academic medical center were examined. Overall, the FOME appeared to be more effective in detecting AD than was the MMSE (93% sensitivity vs. 75% sensitivity, respectively), although both measures suffered from relatively low specificity (63.5) in the full sample. The FOME demonstrated exceptional clinical utility among African American patients (sensitivity 98.3%; specificity = 64.5; positive predictive power 83.8%; negative predictive power 95.2%). The results of this study support the use of the FOME among older African Americans to detect dementia.
Goosby, Bridget J.; Heidbrink, Chelsea
Disparities in African American health remain pervasive and persist transgenerationally. There is a growing consensus that both structural and interpersonal racial discrimination are key mechanisms affecting African American health. The Biopsychosocial Model of Racism as a Stressor posits that the persistent stress of experiencing discrimination take a physical toll on the health of African Americans and is ultimately manifested in the onset of illness. However, the degree to which the health consequences of racism and discrimination can be passed down from one generation to the next is an important avenue of exploration. In this review, we discuss and link literature across disciplines demonstrating the harmful impact of racism on African American physical health and the health of their offspring. PMID:24855488
African American women. J Couns Dev 1992;71: 184–90.  Myers LJ. Understanding an Afrocentric worldview: introduction to an optimal psychology Dubuque...this study is to develop a Culturally Tailored Genetic Counseling (CTGC) protocol for African American women and evaluate its impact on psychological ...prophylactic surgery. Reductions in psychological distress will be mediated by increased use of spiritual coping strategies. Secondary Aim To identify
genetic testing in African Americans must include the entire coding and flanking non-coding regions of the BRCA2 gene . "* It is noteworthy that BRCA ...Over 80% of inherited breast cancer is due to mutations in the breast cancer predisposing genes BRCA ] and BRCA2. In one of the largest studies of high...population 25-27,32. Therefore, genetic testing in African Americans must include complete sequencing of both BRCA 1 and BRCA2 genes . Familial cancer
Hypertension is a highly prevalent risk factor for vascular disease, particularly among African Americans. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) study demonstrated that providing diets with 8-10 fruits and vegetables and 2-3 low-fat dairy foods per day significantly lowered blood pressure. A recent reanalysis showed even stronger effects for African Americans. Studies are needed to translate these findings into methods of effecting dietary change in high-risk populations.
analysis of DNAs and RNAs from cancer and benign tissues from African American men with prostate followed by an in depth analysis of the 4p16.3 region...Cancer Tissue Bank. Samples will be from African American (AA) men undergoing radical prostatectomy for treatment of prostate cancer and were...collected with informed consent. Prostate cancer (PCa) samples will have 80% tumor and will have a matched benign tissue available from the same patient
Contreras, G; Lenz, O; Pardo, V; Borja, E; Cely, C; Iqbal, K; Nahar, N; de La Cuesta, C; Hurtado, A; Fornoni, A; Beltran-Garcia, L; Asif, A; Young, L; Diego, J; Zachariah, M; Smith-Norwood, B
Poor outcomes have been reported in African Americans and Hispanics compared to Caucasians with lupus nephritis. The purpose of this retrospective analysis was to identify independent predictors of outcomes in African Americans and Hispanics with lupus nephritis. In total, 93 African Americans, 100 Hispanics, and 20 Caucasians with a mean age of 28 +/- 13 years and an annual household income of 32.9 +/- 17.3 (in 1000 US dollars) were studied. World Health Organization (WHO) lupus nephritis classes II, III, IV, and V were seen in 9, 13, 52, and 26%, respectively. Important baseline differences were higher mean arterial pressure (MAP) in African Americans compared to Hispanics and Caucasians (107 +/- 19, 102 +/- 15, and 99 +/- 13 mmHg, P < 0.05), and higher serum creatinine (1.66 +/- 1.3, 1.25 +/- 1.0, and 1.31 +/- 1.0 mg/dl, P < 0.025). African Americans had lower hematocrit compared to Hispanics and Caucasians (29 +/- 5, and 31 +/- 6, and 32 +/- 7%, P < 0.05), and lower annual household income (30.8 +/- 14.9, 33.1 +/- 15.9, and 42.2 +/- 29.3 in 1000 US dollars; P < 0.05). Lower prevalence of WHO class IV was seen in Caucasians (30%) compared to Hispanics (57%, P = 0.03) and African Americans (51%, P = 0.09). Development of doubling creatinine or end-stage renal disease was higher in African Americans and Hispanics than in Caucasians (31, 18, and 10%; P < 0.05), as was the development of renal events or death (34, 20, and 10%; P < 0.025). Our results suggest that both biological factors indicating an aggressive disease and low household income are common in African Americans and Hispanics with lupus nephritis, and outcomes in these groups are worse than in Caucasians.
Sabir, Myra G; Pillemer, Karl A
Well-known trust-building methods are routinely used to recruit and retain older African Americans into scientific research studies, yet the quandary over how to overcome this group's hesitance to participate in research remains. We present two innovative and testable methods for resolving the dilemma around increasing older African Americans' participation in scientific research studies. Certain specific and meaningful experiential similarities between the primary researcher and the participants, as well as clear recognition of the elders' worth and dignity, improved older African Americans' willingness to adhere to a rigorous research design. Steps taken in an intervention study produced a potentially replicable strategy for achieving strong results in recruitment, retention and engagement of this population over three waves of assessment. Sixty-two (n=62) older African Americans were randomized to treatment and control conditions of a reminiscence intervention. Sensitivity to an African American cultural form of respect for elders (recognition of worth and dignity), and intersections between the lived experience of the researcher and participants helped dispel this population's well-documented distrust of scientific research. Results suggest that intentional efforts to honor the worth and dignity of elders through high level hospitality and highlighting meaningful experiential similarities between the researcher and the participants can improve recruitment and retention results. Experiential similarities, in particular, may prove more useful to recruitment and retention than structural similarities such as age, race, or gender, which may not in themselves result in the trust experiential similarities elicit.
Jarvis, G Eric
This article explored the origins and implications of the underdiagnosis of affective disorders in African-Americans. MEDLINE and old collections were searched using relevant key words. Reference lists from the articles that were gathered from this procedure were reviewed. The historical record indicated that the psychiatric perception of African-Americans with affective disorders changed significantly during the last 200 years. In the antebellum period, the mental disorders of slaves mostly went unnoticed. By the early 20th century, African-Americans were reported to have high rates of manic-depressive disorder compared with whites. By the mid-century, rates of manic-depressive disorder in African-Americans plummeted, whereas depression remained virtually nonexistent. In recent decades, diagnosed depression and bipolar disorder, whether in clinical or research settings, were inexplicably low in African-Americans compared with whites. Given these findings, American psychiatry needs to appraise the deep-seated effects of historical stereotypes on the diagnosis and treatment of African-Americans.
Heart failure (HF) affects 5,700 000 people in the United States, with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) being responsible for between 30%-50% of acute admissions. Epidemiological studies and HF registries have found HFPEF patients to be older, hypertensive and to have a history of atrial fibrillation. These findings, however, may not be fully applicable to African Americans, as they have been poorly studied making up only a minority of the test subjects. This review article is intended to discuss the pathophysiology and epidemiology of HFPEF within African Americans, highlight the differences compared to Caucasian populations and review current treatment guidelines. Studies looking at African Americans in particular have shown them to be younger, female and have worse diastolic dysfunction compared to Caucasian populations. African Americans also have been shown to have a worse mortality outcome especially in patients without coronary artery disease. The treatment of HFPEF is primarily symptomatic with no survival benefit seen in randomized controlled trials. Mechanisms postulated for the worse prognosis in African Americans with HFPEF include: greater incidence of hypertension and diastolic dysfunction, undefined race-driven genetic predispositions or relative resistance to medications that treat HF in general. The biological predispositions may also be compounded by inequality of healthcare access; something still felt to exist today. Prospective studies and randomized controlled trials need to be conducted with particular emphasis on African American populations to fully elucidate this disease and to formulate race specific treatment outcomes for the future.
Coughlin, Steven S.; Yoo, Wonsuk; Whitehead, Mary S.; Smith, Selina A.
Purpose Advances have occurred in breast cancer survivorship but, for many African American women, challenges and gaps in relevant information remain. Methods This article identifies opportunities to address disparities in breast cancer survival and quality of life, and thereby to increase breast cancer survivorship among African American women. Results For breast cancer survivors, common side effects, lasting for long periods after cancer treatment, include fatigue, loss of strength, difficulty sleeping, and sexual dysfunction. For addressing physical and mental health concerns, a variety of interventions have been evaluated, including exercise and weight training, dietary interventions, yoga and mindfulness-based stress reduction, and support groups or group therapy. Obesity has been associated with breast cancer recurrence and poorer survival. Relative to white survivors, African American breast cancer survivors are more likely to be obese and less likely to engage in physical activity, although exercise improves overall quality of life and cancer-related fatigue. Considerable information exists about the effectiveness of such interventions for alleviating distress and improving quality of life among breast cancer survivors, but few studies have focused specifically on African American women with a breast cancer diagnosis. Studies have identified a number of personal factors that are associated with resilience, increased quality of life, and positive adaptation to a breast cancer diagnosis. Conclusions There is a need for a better understanding of breast cancer survivorship among African American women. Additional evaluations of interventions for improving the quality of life and survival of African American breast cancer survivors are desirable. PMID:26303657
Yerger, V; Malone, R
Background: Among all racial and ethnic groups in the USA, African Americans bear the greatest burden from tobacco related disease. The tobacco industry has been highly influential in the African American community for decades, providing funding and other resources to community leaders and emphasising publicly its support for civil rights causes and groups, while ignoring the negative health effects of its products on those it claims to support. However, the industry's private business reasons for providing such support were unknown. Objective: To understand how and for what purposes the tobacco industry sought to establish and maintain relationships with African American leaders. Methods: Review and analysis of over 700 previously secret internal tobacco industry documents available on the internet. Results: The tobacco industry established relationships with virtually every African American leadership organisation and built longstanding social connections with the community, for three specific business reasons: to increase African American tobacco use, to use African Americans as a frontline force to defend industry policy positions, and to defuse tobacco control efforts. Conclusion: As the tobacco industry expands its global reach, public health advocates should anticipate similar industry efforts to exploit the vulnerabilities of marginalised groups. The apparent generosity, inclusion, and friendship proffered by the industry extract a price from groups in the health of their members. Helping groups anticipate such efforts, confront industry co-optation, and understand the hidden costs of accepting tobacco industry largesse should be part of worldwide tobacco control efforts. PMID:12432159
Paradis, C M; Friedman, S; Hatch, M
Isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) was assessed in African Americans and Whites diagnosed with panic disorder and other anxiety disorders. Participants were recruited from an outpatient clinic where they were diagnosed with panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social phobia, and simple phobia. Control groups of volunteers without a history of psychiatric disorder were included. All research participants completed a questionnaire to assess for ISP. Group differences were analysed through a series of chi-square analyses. The incidence of recurrent ISP was significantly higher in African Americans with panic disorder (59.6%) as compared with African Americans with other anxiety disorders (11.1%), African American control group participants (23%), Whites with panic disorder (7.5%), Whites with other anxiety disorders (0%), and White control group participants (6%). Recurrent ISP was found to be more common among African American participants, particularly for those with panic disorder. African Americans with panic disorder may experience recurrent ISP as a feature of their disorder.
Bland, Vanessa; Sharma, Manoj
Background: African American women are at high risk of acquiring chronic diseases due to sedentary lifestyles. This objective of this article was to perform a narrative systematic review of physical activity interventions among African American women published between 2009 and 2015. Methods: A review of literature in following databases: Academic Search Premier, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health), ERIC (Education Resources Information Center), MEDLINE, PsychInfo, and SPORTDiscus was performed to locate interventions promoting physical activity among African American women. Results: The search yielded 13 interventions. All the studies were conducted within the United States. It was found that walking coupled with healthy food choices were salient strategies in the interventions. Studies using social support along with healthy diet were found to be more efficacious in fostering physical activity among African American women. Conclusion: Walking, social support and a healthy diet were found to be significant strategies promoting physical activity in African American women. Physical activity for African American women must build on the constructs of healthier food choices and social support. PMID:28326284
Laurie, Anna; Neimeyer, Robert A
Few empirical studies have explored the grieving process among different ethnic groups within the United States, and very little is known about how African Americans and Caucasians may differ in their experience of loss. The purpose of this study was to examine the African-American experience of grief, with particular emphasis on issues of identity change, interpersonal dimensions of the loss, and continuing attachments with the deceased. Participants were 1,581 bereaved college students (940 Caucasians and 641 African Americans) attending classes at a large southern university. Each participant completed the Inventory of Complicated Grief-Revised, the Continuing Bonds Scale, and questions regarding the circumstances surrounding his or her loss. Results revealed that African Americans experienced more frequent bereavement by homicide, maintenance of a stronger continuing bond with the deceased, greater grief for the loss of extended kin beyond the immediate family, and a sense of support in their grief, despite their tendency to talk less with others about the loss or seek professional support for it. Overall, African Americans reported higher levels of complicated grief symptoms than Caucasians, especially when they spent less time speaking to others about their loss experience. Implications of these findings for bereavement support services for African Americans were briefly noted.
Hinch, Anjali G.; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Song, Yunli; Rohland, Nadin; Palmer, Cameron D.; Chen, Gary K.; Wang, Kai; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Akylbekova, Meggie; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J.; Bock, Cathryn H.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cai, Qiuyin; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Deming, Sandra L.; Diver, W. Ryan; Divers, Jasmin; Fornage, Myriam; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Glessner, Joseph; Harris, Curtis C.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ingles, Sue A.; Isaacs, Williams; John, Esther M.; Kao, W. H. Linda; Keating, Brendan; Kittles, Rick A.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Larkin, Emma; Le Marchand, Loic; McNeill, Lorna H.; Millikan, Robert C.; Murphy, Adam; Musani, Solomon; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Papanicolaou, George J.; Press, Michael F.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Reiner, Alex P.; Rich, Stephen S.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S.; Thun, Michael J.; Tucker, Margaret A.; Wang, Zhaoming; Wiencke, John K.; Witte, John S.; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A.; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G.; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Redline, Susan; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Henderson, Brian E.; Taylor, Herman A.; Price, Alkes L.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Chanock, Stephen J.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Wilson, James G.; Reich, David; Myers, Simon R.
Recombination, together with mutation, is the ultimate source of genetic variation in populations. We leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing-over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated African Americans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantly, and we identify about 2,500 recombination hotspots that are active in people of West African ancestry but nearly inactive in Europeans. The probability of a crossover at these hotspots is almost fully controlled by the alleles an individual carries at PRDM9 (P<10−245). We identify a 17 base pair DNA sequence motif that is enriched in these hotspots, and is an excellent match to the predicted binding target of African-enriched alleles of PRDM9. PMID:21775986
Hinch, Anjali G; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Song, Yunli; Rohland, Nadin; Palmer, Cameron D; Chen, Gary K; Wang, Kai; Buxbaum, Sarah G; Akylbekova, Ermeg L; Aldrich, Melinda C; Ambrosone, Christine B; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V; Berndt, Sonja I; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J; Bock, Cathryn H; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cai, Qiuyin; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Cupples, L Adrienne; Deming, Sandra L; Diver, W Ryan; Divers, Jasmin; Fornage, Myriam; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Glessner, Joseph; Harris, Curtis C; Hu, Jennifer J; Ingles, Sue A; Isaacs, William; John, Esther M; Kao, W H Linda; Keating, Brendan; Kittles, Rick A; Kolonel, Laurence N; Larkin, Emma; Le Marchand, Loic; McNeill, Lorna H; Millikan, Robert C; Murphy, Adam; Musani, Solomon; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Papanicolaou, George J; Press, Michael F; Psaty, Bruce M; Reiner, Alex P; Rich, Stephen S; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Rotter, Jerome I; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Schwartz, Ann G; Signorello, Lisa B; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S; Thun, Michael J; Tucker, Margaret A; Wang, Zhaoming; Wiencke, John K; Witte, John S; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Redline, Susan; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Henderson, Brian E; Taylor, Herman A; Price, Alkes L; Hakonarson, Hakon; Chanock, Stephen J; Haiman, Christopher A; Wilson, James G; Reich, David; Myers, Simon R
Recombination, together with mutation, gives rise to genetic variation in populations. Here we leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated African Americans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantly, and we identify about 2,500 recombination hotspots that are active in people of West African ancestry but nearly inactive in Europeans. The probability of a crossover at these hotspots is almost fully controlled by the alleles an individual carries at PRDM9 (P value < 10(-245)). We identify a 17-base-pair DNA sequence motif that is enriched in these hotspots, and is an excellent match to the predicted binding target of PRDM9 alleles common in West Africans and rare in Europeans. Sites of this motif are predicted to be risk loci for disease-causing genomic rearrangements in individuals carrying these alleles. More generally, this map provides a resource for research in human genetic variation and evolution.
Soto, José A; Dawson-Andoh, Nana A; BeLue, Rhonda
The present study examined the relationship between frequency of race based and non-race based discrimination experiences and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) in a sample of 3570 African Americans, 1438 Afro Caribbeans, and 891 non-Hispanic Whites from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Because GAD and the experience of racial discrimination are both associated with symptoms of worry and tension, we expected race based discrimination to predict GAD prevalence for African Americans, but not other groups. We did not expect non-race based discrimination to predict GAD. Results showed that while more frequent experiences of non-race based discrimination predicted GAD for all groups, experiencing race based discrimination was associated with significantly higher odds of endorsing lifetime GAD for African Americans only. Results are interpreted in light of the different contexts that these three ethnic groups represent relative to their history within the United States as well as their present day circumstances.
Daniels, Byron L.
The home and the public school classroom have been key environments in the African American community and have been instrumental in developing identity and encouraging academic progress. Despite this, the dropout rates of African American males in secondary grades have increased, while academic achievement scores of African American males in the…
Stewart, April E.
The purpose of this correlational study was to investigate the influence of perceived and desired paternal involvement of the African American father on his African American daughter. The research problem is how father involvement may influence self-efficacy, career achievements, and aspirations of African American females. This study sought to…
Vaughn, Michael G; Wallace, John M; Davis, Larry E; Fernandes, Giselle T; Howard, Matthew O
The incarceration of young people is a growing national problem. Key correlates of incarceration among American youth include mental health problems, substance use, and delinquency. The present study uses a statewide sample of incarcerated youth to examine racial differences in African American and Caucasian juvenile offenders' outcomes related to mental health, substance use, and delinquency. The data indicate that relative to Caucasian offenders, African American offenders report lower levels of mental health problems and substance use but higher levels of delinquent behavior such as violence, weapon carrying, and gang fighting. The data further reveal that African American offenders are more likely than Caucasian offenders to be victims of violence and to experience traumatic events such as witnessing injury and death. Recognition of these patterns may help to improve postrelease services by tailoring or adapting preexisting programs to patterns of risk factors and their relative magnitudes of effect.
Winbush, Greta Berry; McDougle, Leon; Labranche, Lynda; Khan, Sidra; Tolliver, Sophia
Responding to health and digital inequities among older African Americans, a customized web-based mobile health information intervention is being developed for this vulnerable group and their doctors as part of the Health Empowerment Technologies (HET) Project. The belief is an empowered patient-doctor relationship leads to more improved health outcomes than patient empowerment alone. Using health information technology to empower both older African Americans and their doctors by increasing health literacy and computer capacities of both is the major HET study aim. A focus group of older African American patients and one of their doctors yielded data to help build the HET. Thematic analysis of opinions and preferences about the content and structure of the HET revealed concordance and asymmetry among the patients and doctors. While challenges prevail in its construction, building this ethnicity-specific web-based health information technology presents the opportunity to integrate health information technology in clinical encounters for every patient.
Windsor, Liliane Cambraia; Dunlap, Eloise; Golub, Andrew
Powerful controlling images perpetuate misguided messages about impoverished African American women that contribute to the oppression these women endure. These images inform policies and behavior that create and maintain structural barriers such as lack of access to education and meaningful employment further marginalizing oppressed individuals. This article uses in-depth interview data to analyze interlocking oppressions in the lived experience of impoverished African American women. The authentic women’s voices presented serve as a counter narrative of resistance. Our larger goal in writing this paper is to encourage the public, policy makers, service providers and impoverished African American women themselves to fight against controlling images by deconstructing personal biases, educating the public, and developing culturally congruent interventions to social problems. PMID:23555317
In June, The Center for Research on Parallel Computation (CRPC), an NSF-funded Science and Technology Center, hosted the 4th Annual Conference for African-American Reserachers in the Mathematical Sciences (CAARMS4) at Rice University. The main goal of this conference was to highlight current work by African-American researchers and graduate students in mathematics. This conference strengthened the mathematical sciences by encouraging the increased participation of African-American and underrepresented groups into the field, facilitating working relationships between them and helping to cultivate their careers. In addition to the talks there was a graduate student poster session and tutorials on topics in mathematics and computer science. These talks, presentations, and discussions brought a broader perspective to the critical issues involving minority participation in mathematics.
Stewart, Jennifer M.
The African American church has promoted the health of African Americans through supporting interventions that target a wide variety of diseases, and it is a crucial community partner in the development of HIV prevention interventions. Although research has described the development of church-based HIV interventions, there is a significant lack of frameworks and approaches available to guide the implementation and maintenance of HIV interventions within church-based settings. A developing framework of a comprehensive church-based intervention, derived from an ethnographic study about the development, implementation, and maintenance of an HIV/AIDS Ministry within an African American church is presented. This approach can provide guidance to support the development, implementation, and maintenance of HIV interventions in faith settings. PMID:25702738
Breaking the Silence: A Candid Discussion on the Disproportionality of African American Children in Out-of-Home Placement. Proceedings of the Gamble-Skogmo Lecture and Issues Forum (Minnesota, November 1, 2000).
Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Center for Advanced Studies in Child Welfare.
This paper presents proceedings of a 2000 conference on the disproportionate number of African American children in out-of-home placements. The objectives of the lecture and issues forum were to provide a forum where people concerned with the welfare of African American children and families in Minnesota could discuss concerns; to promote…
Essien, E James; Meshack, Angela F; Peters, Ronald J; Ogungbade, GO; Osemene, Nora I
Background African-American women are disproportionately affected by HIV, accounting for 60% of all cases among women in the United States. Although their race is not a precursor for HIV, the socioeconomic and cultural disparities associated with being African American may increase their risk of infection. Prior research has shown that interventions designed to reduce HIV infection among African-American women must address the life demands and social problems they encounter. The present study used a qualitative exploratory design to elicit information about strategies to prevent HIV transmission among young, low-income African-American women. Methods Twenty five low income African American women, ages 18–29, participated in five focus groups of five women each conducted at a housing project in Houston, Texas, a large demographically diverse metropolitan area that is regarded as one of the HIV/AIDS epicenters in the United States. Each group was audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using theme and domain analysis. Results The participants revealed that they had most frequently placed themselves at risk for HIV infection through drugs and drinking and they also reported drug and alcohol use as important barriers to practicing safer sex. The women also reported that the need for money and having sex for money to buy food or drugs had placed them at risk for HIV transmission. About one-third of the participants stated that a barrier to their practicing safe sex was their belief that there was no risk based on their being in a monogamous relationship and feeling no need to use protection, but later learning that their mate was unfaithful. Other reasons given were lack of concern, being unprepared, partner's refusal to use a condom, and lack of money to buy condoms. Finally, the women stated that they were motivated to practice safe sex because of fear of contracting sexually transmitted diseases and HIV, desire not to become pregnant, and personal experience with
Aminimoghaddam, Soheila; Mazloomi, Maryam; Rahimi, Maryam
Hypothyroidism is a common health issue worldwide with varying clinical manifestations. We report a woman who experienced an incomplete abortion and undiagnosed hypothyroidism who was referred to the oncologist with the suspicion of metastatic gestational trophoblastic neoplasm (GTN). A 29-year-old woman with incomplete abortion was referred to an oncologist for possible GTN due to persistent active vaginal bleeding, an elevated beta human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), abnormal cervical inspection exam, abnormal liver function tests, ovarian enlargement, ascites, and a pleural effusion. She was found to have hypothyroidism in further work-up. She was managed with thyroid hormone replacement therapy and her condition improved after 6 weeks. Complete resolution of the ovarian mass and pericardial and pleural effusion was achieved. This case describes an important experience; hypothyroidism should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any woman with an incomplete abortion presenting with an ovarian mass. Evaluation and correct diagnosis are important to prevent mismanagement. PMID:27034864
Cano, Miguel A.; Heppner, Whitney L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Li, Yisheng; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Wetter, David W.
Mindfulness-based strategies have received empirical support for improving coping with stress and reducing alcohol use. The present study presents a moderated mediation model to explain how mindfulness might promote healthier drinking patterns. This model posits that mindfulness reduces perceived stress, leading to less alcohol use, and also weakens the linkage between stress and alcohol use. African American smokers (N = 399, 51% female, Mage = 42) completed measures of dispositional mindfulness, perceived stress, quantity of alcohol use, frequency of binge drinking, and alcohol use disorder symptoms. Participants with higher levels of dispositional mindfulness reported less psychosocial stress and lower alcohol use on all measures. Furthermore, mindfulness moderated the relationship between perceived stress and quantity of alcohol consumption. Specifically, higher perceived stress was associated with increased alcohol use among participants low, but not high, in mindfulness. Mindfulness may be one strategy to reduce perceived stress and associated alcohol use among African American smokers. PMID:25848408
Halbert, Chanita Hughes; Kessler, Lisa Jay; Mitchell, Edith
As genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutations is increasingly integrated into the clinical management of high-risk women, it will be important to understand barriers and motivations for genetic counseling among women from underserved minority groups to ensure equitable access to these services. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to synthesize literature on knowledge and attitudes about genetic counseling and testing for inherited breast cancer risk in African Americans. We also review studies that evaluated genetic testing intentions in this population. We conducted a search of the PubMed database to identify studies related to BRCA1/2 testing in African Americans that were published between 1995 and 2003. Overall, studies have evaluated ethnic differences in knowledge and attitudes about genetic testing or have compared African American and Caucasian women in terms of genetic testing intentions. These studies have shown that knowledge about breast cancer genetics and exposure to information about the availability of testing is low among African Americans, whereas expectations about the benefits of genetic testing are endorsed highly. However, much less is known about the psychological and behavioral impact of genetic testing for BRCA1/2 mutations in African Americans. Additional research is needed to understand barriers and motivations for participating in genetic testing for inherited cancer risk in African Americans. The lack of studies on psychological functioning, cancer surveillance, and preventive behaviors following testing is a significant void; however, for these studies to be conducted, greater access to genetic counseling and testing in African Americans will be needed.
Lukwago, S N; Kreuter, M W; Bucholtz, D C; Holt, C L; Clark, E M
This article describes the development and pilot-testing of brief scales to measure four cultural constructs prevalent in urban African American women. Internal consistency and temporal stability were assessed in two convenience samples (n=47 and n=25) of primarily lower-income African American women. All scales performed well: collectivism alpha=.93, r=.85, p<.001); religiosity (alpha=.88, r=.89, p<.001); racial pride (alpha=.84, r=.52, p<.001); present time orientation (alpha=.73, r=.52, p<.01) and future time orientation (alpha=.72, r=.54, p=.07).
Bates, D Dionne
This study explored identity development and the coming-out process of once-married African-American lesbians and bisexual women. Participants (n = 12) were all African-American and identified as lesbian or bisexual and had been legally married at least once. Data was collected via interviews using open-ended questions that addressed issues concerning sexual development and awareness and coming out as lesbian or bisexual. Data was then transcribed verbatim and analyzed using the grounded theory method. Hence, reemerging significant themes were observed and categorized. A total of seven significant themes were discerned from the data presented. The implications for treatment with this population were also discussed.
Schinke, Steven P.; Orlandi, Mario A.
The spread of the acquired immunodeficiency virus (AIDS) virus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, is increasingly evident. Despite the attention that HIV infection has received, few effective prevention strategies have been developed. The present paper reviews the epidemiology of AIDS among African-American and Hispanic adolescents. From epidemiological data, the authors argue for preventive approaches to reduce the risks of HIV transmission among African-American and Hispanic adolescents. Emphasizing culturally sensitive prevention strategies, the authors describe an intervention for these adolescents that combines skills-based and interactive computer approaches. PMID:20589223
Schinke, Steven P; Orlandi, Mario A
The spread of the acquired immunodeficiency virus (AIDS) virus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, is increasingly evident. Despite the attention that HIV infection has received, few effective prevention strategies have been developed. The present paper reviews the epidemiology of AIDS among African-American and Hispanic adolescents. From epidemiological data, the authors argue for preventive approaches to reduce the risks of HIV transmission among African-American and Hispanic adolescents. Emphasizing culturally sensitive prevention strategies, the authors describe an intervention for these adolescents that combines skills-based and interactive computer approaches.
Jordan, Eleanor H; Smisson, Cassandra P; Burke, Kevin L; Joyner, A Barry; Czech, Daniel R
Many studies have examined sex differences in social physique anxiety; however, few researchers have examined possible perceptual differences in such anxiety based on ethnicity. The present purpose was to examine social physique anxiety among college-age women of Euro-American and African-American descent. Participants (N = 91) from physical activity classes at a university located in the southeastern United States completed the Social Physique Anxiety Scale. The participants were 67 Euro-Americans and 24 African Americans. An independent t test yielded a significant difference (p =.01) between groups on Eklund's scale, which supports the hypothesis.
genes has begun and the initial data is presented here. After months of testing, we determined that the ethidium bromide methodology for generating...susceptibility. Several nuclear genes and chromosomal regions have been linked to prostate cancer; however, many studies have not included African American men...1,000 samples and determine whether particular mitochondrial variants, genes or haplogroups are associated with markers of aggressive disease (age
Sussman, S; Parker, V C; Lopes, C; Crippens, D L; Elder, P; Scholl, D
Two studies are described which provide evaluations for two brief videotapes developed as supplemental materials in the prevention of tobacco use among African-American adolescents. One videotape (the "soap opera") provides a more general audience-oriented presentation of prevention material and it was filmed primarily at a shopping mall, whereas the other videotape (the "rap") provides a "hip-hop generation" presentation, and it was filmed primarily at an outdoor hangout. The first study compared the two videotapes against each other. The second study compared the two videotapes combined in the same presentation, controlling for order of presentation, against a discussion group control. The results of the two studies indicated few differences in receptivity to the two videotapes among primarily African-American and Latino young adolescents. The rap videotape was rated as more accurate in its depiction of the African-American lifestyle, although both videotapes were equally liked. When shown together, the videotapes were not found to be superior in decreasing behavioral intention to smoke compared to a discussion group control. No change in trial of smoking was observed within or across conditions measured over a pre-post summer interval. These data suggest that "culturally sensitive" videotapes have no more of a short-term effect on youth than do other types of brief interventions which involve minority implementers.
Dumas, Nicole A; He, Dongning; Frost, Andra R; Falany, Charles N
Breast cancer (BC) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among American women; however, the development of post-menopausal BC is significantly lower in African Americans as compared to Caucasians. Hormonal stimulation is important in BC development and differences in the conversion of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) into estrogens may be involved in the lower incidence of post-menopausal BC in African American women. DHEA sulfation by sulfotransferase 2B1b (SULT2B1b) is important in regulating the conversion of DHEA into estrogens in tissues. SULT2B1b is localized in both cytosol and nuclei of some tissues including cancerous and associated-normal breast tissue. Immunohistochemical staining was used to evaluate the total expression and subcellular localization of SULT2B1b in African American and Caucasian breast tissues. Cell fractionation, immunoblot analysis and sulfation assays were used to characterize the subcellular expression and activity of SULT2B1b in BC tissues and T-47D breast adenocarcinoma cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of SULT2B1b showed that African Americans had a significantly greater amount of SULT2B1b in epithelial cells of associated-normal breast tissue as compared to Caucasians. Also, more SULT2B1b in African American associated-normal breast epithelial cells was localized in the nuclei than in Caucasians. Equivalent levels of SULT2B1b were detected in breast adenocarcinoma tissues from both African American and Caucasian women. Nuclei isolation and immunoblot analysis of both BC tissue and human T-47D breast adenocarcinoma cells demonstrated that SULT2B1b is present in nuclei and cytoplasm.
Barr, Ashley B.; Simons, Ronald L.; Simons, Leslie Gordon
Cohabitation has become increasingly widespread over the past decade. Such trends have given rise to debates about the relation between cohabitation and marriage, in terms of what cohabitation means for individual relationship trajectories and for the institution of marriage more generally. Using recent data from a sample of almost 800 African Americans and fixed effects modeling procedures, in the present study the authors shed some light on these debates by exploring the extent to which cohabitation, relative to both singlehood and dating, was associated with within-individual changes in African Americans’ marital beliefs during the transition to adulthood. The findings suggest that cohabitation is associated with changes in marital beliefs, generally in ways that repositioned partners toward marriage, not away from it. This was especially the case for women. These findings suggest that, for young African American women, cohabitation holds a distinct place relative to dating and, in principle if not practice, relative to marriage. PMID:26560129
Billingsley, Katrina L; Posadas, Jeff B; Moulds, Joann M; Gaur, Lakshmi K
The Jknun (Jk-3) phenotype, attributable to null or silenced alleles, has predominantly been found in persons of Polynesian descent. With the increased use of molecular genotyping, many new silencing mutations have been identified in persons of other ethnic backgrounds. To date, only two JK null alleles have been reported in African Americans, JK*01N.04 and JK*OlN.OS.A comparative study was undertaken to determine whether JK mutations were present in the regional African American population. Results of donor genotyping were compared with previously recorded results of serologic tests, and discrepant results were investigated. Although the two previously identified polymorphisms were not detected in the discrepant samples, a novel allele (191G>A) was identified and was assigned the ISBT number JK*02N.09. This study illustrates a limitation of using single-nucleotide polymorphisms for prediction of blood group antigens.
During Reconstruction, which is often called the most progressive period in American history, African Americans made great strides. By 1868 African American men constituted a majority of registered voters in South Carolina and Mississippi, and by 1870 eighty-five percent of Mississippi's black jurors could read and write. However, Reconstruction was followed by approximately one hundred years of Jim Crow laws, lynching, disenfranchisement, sharecropping, unequal educational resources, terrorism, racial caricatures, and convict leasing. The Civil Rights Revolution finally ended that period of despair, but the era of mass incarceration can be understood as a reaction to the Civil Rights Movement. This article attempts to understand the persistence of racism in the United States from slavery's end until the present.
Senteio, Charles; Veinot, Tiffany
Adherence to treatment recommendations for chronic diseases is notoriously low across all patient populations. But African American patients, who are more likely to live in low-income neighborhoods and to have multiple chronic conditions, are even less likely to follow medical recommendations. Yet we know little about their contextually embedded, adherence-related experiences. We interviewed individuals (n = 37) with at least two of the following conditions: hypertension, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. Using an "invisible work" theoretical framework, we outline the adherence work that arose in patients' common life circumstances. We found five types: constantly searching for better care, stretching medications, eating what I know, keeping myself alive, and trying to make it right. Adherence work was effortful, challenging, and addressed external contingencies present in high-poverty African American neighborhoods. This work was invisible within the health care system because participants lacked ongoing, trusting relationships with providers and rarely discussed challenges with them.
Estrada-Martinez, Lorena; Colin, Rosa J.; Jones, Brittni D.
Little scholarship explores how adolescents’ beliefs about school and peers influence the academic outcomes of African American boys and girls. The sample included 612 African American boys (N=307, Mage=16.84) and girls (N=305, Mage=16.79). Latent class analysis (LCA) revealed unique patterns for African American boys and girls. Findings indicate that for African American boys, school attachment was protective, despite having peers who endorsed negative achievement values. Furthermore, socio-economic (SES) status was associated with higher grade point averages (GPA) for African American girls. Overall, these findings underscore the unique role of school, peer, and gendered experiences in lives of African American adolescents. PMID:26277404
Background Little is known regarding the types of information African American and non-African American patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and their families need to inform renal replacement therapy (RRT) decisions. Methods In 20 structured group interviews, we elicited views of African American and non-African American patients with CKD and their families about factors that should be addressed in educational materials informing patients’ RRT selection decisions. We asked participants to select factors from a list and obtained their open-ended feedback. Results Ten groups of patients (5 African American, 5 non-African American; total 68 individuals) and ten groups of family members (5 African American, 5 non-African American; total 62 individuals) participated. Patients and families had a range (none to extensive) of experiences with various RRTs. Patients identified morbidity or mortality, autonomy, treatment delivery, and symptoms as important factors to address. Family members identified similar factors but also cited the effects of RRT decisions on patients’ psychological well-being and finances. Views of African American and non-African American participants were largely similar. Conclusions Educational resources addressing the influence of RRT selection on patients’ morbidity and mortality, autonomy, treatment delivery, and symptoms could help patients and their families select RRT options closely aligned with their values. Including information about the influence of RRT selection on patients’ personal relationships and finances could enhance resources’ cultural relevance for African Americans. PMID:23317336
Signorello, Lisa B.; Han, Xijing; Cai, Qiuyin; Cohen, Sarah S.; Cope, Elizabeth L.; Zheng, Wei; Blot, William J.
The beneficial biologic effects attributed to vitamin D suggest a potential to influence overall mortality. Evidence addressing this hypothesis is limited, especially for African Americans who have a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency. The authors conducted a nested case-control study within the prospective Southern Community Cohort Study to relate baseline serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) with subsequent mortality. Cases were 1,852 participants who enrolled from 2002 to 2009 and died >12 months postenrollment. Controls (n = 1,852) were matched on race, sex, age, enrollment site, and blood collection date. The odds ratios for quartile 1 (<10.18 ng/mL) versus quartile 4 (>21.64 ng/mL) levels of 25(OH)D were 1.60 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20, 2.14) for African Americans and 2.11 (95% CI: 1.39, 3.21) for non-African Americans. The effects were strongest for circulatory disease death, where quartile 1 versus quartile 4 odds ratios were 2.53 (95% CI: 1.44, 4.46) and 3.25 (95% CI: 1.33, 7.93) for African Americans and non-African Americans, respectively. The estimated odds of total mortality were minimized in the 25(OH)D range of 35–40 ng/mL. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that vitamin D status may have an important influence on mortality for both African Americans and non-African Americans. PMID:23125439
Signorello, Lisa B; Han, Xijing; Cai, Qiuyin; Cohen, Sarah S; Cope, Elizabeth L; Zheng, Wei; Blot, William J
The beneficial biologic effects attributed to vitamin D suggest a potential to influence overall mortality. Evidence addressing this hypothesis is limited, especially for African Americans who have a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency. The authors conducted a nested case-control study within the prospective Southern Community Cohort Study to relate baseline serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) with subsequent mortality. Cases were 1,852 participants who enrolled from 2002 to 2009 and died >12 months postenrollment. Controls (n = 1,852) were matched on race, sex, age, enrollment site, and blood collection date. The odds ratios for quartile 1 (<10.18 ng/mL) versus quartile 4 (>21.64 ng/mL) levels of 25(OH)D were 1.60 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20, 2.14) for African Americans and 2.11 (95% CI: 1.39, 3.21) for non-African Americans. The effects were strongest for circulatory disease death, where quartile 1 versus quartile 4 odds ratios were 2.53 (95% CI: 1.44, 4.46) and 3.25 (95% CI: 1.33, 7.93) for African Americans and non-African Americans, respectively. The estimated odds of total mortality were minimized in the 25(OH)D range of 35-40 ng/mL. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that vitamin D status may have an important influence on mortality for both African Americans and non-African Americans.
Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A.; Aloia, John F.; Dugas, Lara R.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Shoham, David A.; Bertino, Anne-Marie; Yeh, James K.; Cooper, Richard S.; Luke, Amy
Objectives African Americans have substantially lower levels of circulating 25(OH)D than whites. We compared population-based samples of 25(OH)D in women of African descent from Nigeria and metropolitan Chicago. Methods 100 Women of Yoruba ethnicity from southwest Nigeria and 94 African American women from metropolitan Chicago were recruited and compared using a standardized survey protocol and the same laboratory assay for 25(OH)D. Results Mean 25(OH)D levels were 64 nmol/L among the Nigerians and 29 nmol/L among the African Americans. Only 10% of the values were shared in common between the groups, and 76% of the Nigerians were above the currently defined threshold for adequate circulating 25(OH)D compared to 5% of the African Americans. Modest associations were seen between 25(OH)D and measures of obesity, although adjustment for these traits did not materially affect the group differences. Conclusion These data support the presumption that skin color is an adaptive trait which has evolved in part to regulate 25(OH)D. It remains undetermined, however, whether lower values observed in African Americans have negative health consequences. PMID:23559500
Kalu, Nnenna; Kwagyan, John; Marshall, Vanessa J.; Ewing, Altovise T.; Bland, Walter P.; Hesselbrock, Victor; Taylor, Robert E.; Scott, Denise M.
Background and Objectives Numerous factors contribute to underrepresentation of African-Americans in medical research, including beliefs, historical events, structural, and health access obstacles. This study examined beliefs about medical research and the types of study methods preferred among potential African-American research participants. Methods A sample of 304 African-American participants from the Washington, DC Metropolitan area, completed a survey evaluating beliefs about medical research and preferred research study methods. Multiple Regression analyses were performed to examine how age, gender, and education may influence these beliefs and preferences for research study methods. Results The beliefs and preferences surveyed did not differ by age, gender, or educational attainment. There was an overwhelmingly favorable belief (90 %) that medical research was necessary and assists in finding a cure for a disease. Most respondents preferred participating in research related to issues with which they were familiar (e.g., diabetes, hypertension) or working with researchers of a similar ethnic background to themselves. Interestingly, though nonsignificant, those with higher levels of educational trended toward the belief that participation in research was risky. Conclusion The findings of this study indicate that certain beliefs about medical research participation and preferred study methodologies reported by African-Americans did not differ by age, gender, or level of education. This information about African-American’s beliefs and preferences regarding medical research should lead to an awareness of potential gains in African-American participation through the development of culturally sensitive medical research studies and methodologies. PMID:26896107
Doyle, Otima; Clark, Trenette T.; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana; Nebbitt, Von E.; Goldston, David B.; Estroff, Sue E.; Magan, Ifrah
Researchers have called for qualitative investigations into African American fathers’ parenting practices that consider their social context and identify specific practices. Such investigations can inform the way we conceptualize African American fathers’ parenting practices, which can in turn contribute to prevention interventions with at-risk youth. We conducted semi-structured, qualitative interviews about parenting with 30 self-identified, African American, biological fathers of pre-adolescent sons at-risk for developing aggressive behaviors, depressive symptoms, or both. Fathers provided descriptions of their parenting practices, which were at times influenced by their environmental context, fathers’ residential status, and masculine ideologies. Our systematic analysis revealed four related themes that emerged from the data: managing emotions, encouragement, discipline, and monitoring. Of particular note, fathers in the current sample emphasized the importance of teaching their sons to manage difficult emotions, largely utilized language consistent with male ideologies (i.e., encouragement rather than love or nurturance), and engaged in high levels of monitoring and discipline in response to perceived environmental challenges and the developmental needs of their sons. The findings provide deeper insight into the parenting practices of African American fathers who are largely understudied, and often misunderstood. Further, these findings highlight considerations that may have important implications for father-focused prevention interventions that support African American fathers, youth, and families. PMID:26366126
Lucas-Wright, Anna; Bazargan, Mohsen; Jones, Loretta; Vadgama, Jaydutt V.; Vargas, Roberto; Sarkissyan, Marianna; Smith, James; Yazdanshenas, Hamed; Maxwell, Annette E.
Background There are differences in cancer-risk perception among racial/ethnic groups that may affect health risk behaviors. Methods Using a community partnered-participatory research approach, we conducted a survey on cancer screening, risk behaviors, and related knowledge/attitudes within 11 churches in South Los Angeles with predominantly African-American parishioners. This analysis examines correlates of perceived risk of developing cancer among 755African American adults. Results Almost 15% of participants indicated higher perceived risk for cancer compared to the average man/woman of the same age, 38% indicated same risk, whereas 48% perceived lower risk. Sixty-nine individuals (9%) reported a cancer history and 63% reported at least one blood relative with cancer. Controlling for demographic characteristics and healthcare access, participants who reported higher risk of cancer had higher level of cancer-related knowledge; were current and ex-smokers; had poorer health status; had a blood relative with cancer; had a cancer history; and had discussed their risk of cancer with their doctor. The bivariate association between high perceived cancer risk and lack of exercise and obesity disappeared after adjusting for demographic characteristics and perceived health status. Conclusions Our data suggest that a substantial proportion of African Americans in South Los Angeles may underestimate their cancer risk. Additionally, lack of exercise and obesity are not recognized as independent cancer risk factors as much as smoking and personal and family history of cancer. Next steps will be to inform participating churches about our findings and explore their interest in taking steps to reduce health risk behaviors among their parishioners. PMID:24026303
Lucas-Wright, Anna; Bazargan, Mohsen; Jones, Loretta; Vadgama, Jaydutt V; Vargas, Roberto; Sarkissyan, Marianna; Smith, James; Yazdanshenas, Hamed; Maxwell, Annette E
There are differences in cancer-risk perception among racial/ethnic groups that may affect health risk behaviors. Using a community partnered-participatory research approach, we conducted a survey on cancer screening, risk behaviors, and related knowledge/attitudes within 11 churches in South Los Angeles with predominantly African-American parishioners. This analysis examines correlates of perceived risk of developing cancer among 755 African American adults. Almost 15 % of participants indicated higher perceived risk for cancer compared to the average man/woman of the same age, 38 % indicated same risk, whereas 48 % perceived lower risk. Sixty-nine individuals (9 %) reported a cancer history and 63 % reported at least one blood relative with cancer. Controlling for demographic characteristics and healthcare access, participants who reported higher risk of cancer had higher level of cancer-related knowledge; were current and ex-smokers; had poorer health status; had a blood relative with cancer; had a cancer history; and had discussed their risk of cancer with their doctor. The bivariate association between high perceived cancer risk and lack of exercise and obesity disappeared after adjusting for demographic characteristics and perceived health status. Our data suggest that a substantial proportion of African Americans in South Los Angeles may underestimate their cancer risk. Additionally, lack of exercise and obesity are not recognized as independent cancer risk factors as much as smoking and personal and family history of cancer. Next steps will be to inform participating churches about our findings and explore their interest in taking steps to reduce health risk behaviors among their parishioners.
The average birth weight in the contemporary African-American population is about 250 g lower than the average birth weight of European Americans. Differences in genetic and socioeconomic factors present between these two groups can explain only part of birth weight variation. I propose a hypothesis that the low birth weight of contemporary African Americans not only results from the difference in present exposure to lifestyle factors known to affect fetal development but also from conditions experienced during the period of slavery. Slaves had poor nutritional status during all stages of life because of the inadequate dietary intake accompanied by high energetic costs of physical work and infectious diseases. The concept of "fetal programming" suggests that physiology and metabolism including growth and fat accumulation of the developing fetus, and, thus its birth weight, depend on intergenerational signal of environmental quality passed through generations of matrilinear ancestors. I suggest that several generations that have passed since the abolition of slavery in the United States (1865) has not been enough to obliterate the impact of slavery on the current biological and health condition of the African-American population.
Carter, James H
There is an astonishing diversity of religious beliefs and practices in the history of African Americans that influences the presentation, diagnosis, and management of both physical and mental disorders. The majority of African Americans, however, are evangelical Christians with religious experiences originating in the regions of ancient Africa (Cush, Punt, and to a great extent, Egypt), as well as black adaptation of Hebraic, Jewish, Christian, and Islamic beliefs and rituals. Consequently, more than 60 of the nation's 125 medical schools offer classes in spirituality and health. Although there is a lack of empirical evidence that religion improves health outcomes, physicians should understand patients as a biopsychosocial-spiritual whole. Asking about religion/spirituality during a health assessment can help the physician determine whether religious/spiritual factors will influence the patient's medical decisions and compliance. Two psychiatric case histories of African Americans are presented in which religion/spirituality significantly influenced treatment decisions and results. Neither of these patients suffered major debilitating medical comorbidity.
Hankerson, Sidney H.; Weissman, Myrna M.
Objective African Americans, compared to White Americans, underutilize traditional mental health services. A systematic review is presented of studies involving church-based health promotion programs (CBHPP) for mental disorders among African Americans to assess the feasibility of utilizing such programs to address racial disparities in mental health care. Methods A literature review of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and ATLA Religion databases was conducted to identify articles published between January 1, 1980 and December 31, 2009. Inclusion criteria included the following: studies were conducted in a church; primary objective(s) involved assessment, perceptions/attitudes, education, prevention, group support, or treatment for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV mental disorders or their correlates; number of participants was reported; qualitative and/or quantitative data were reported; and African Americans were the target population. Results Of 1,451 studies identified, 191 studies were eligible for formal review. Only eight studies met inclusion criteria for this review. The majority of studies focused on substance related disorders (n=5), were designed to assess the effects of a specific intervention (n=6), and targeted adults (n=6). One study focused on depression and was limited by a small sample size of seven participants. Conclusion Although CBHPP have been successful in addressing racial disparities for several chronic medical conditions, the published literature on CBHPP for mental disorders is extremely limited. More intensive research is needed to establish the feasibility and acceptability of utilizing church-based health programs as a possible resource for screening and treatment to improve disparities in mental health care for African Americans. PMID:22388529