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Sample records for african-american young adults

  1. African American Young Adult Smoking Initiation: Identifying Intervention Points and Prevention Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Marshall K.; Mansker, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans have one of the lowest smoking rates as teens yet have one of the highest smoking rates as adults. Approximately 40% of African Americans who have ever smoked started smoking between the ages of 18 and 21. Purpose: This study aimed to identify why African American young adults began smoking in young adulthood and what…

  2. The Black Arts Movement and African American Young Adult Literature: An Evaluation of Narrative Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Laretta

    2005-01-01

    In this article I question whether or not African American young adult literature serves as a primer for, and a version of, African American adult literature. Using the Black Aesthetic as my literary theory and the Coretta Scott King Award as the young adult canon, I note that while the content of adolescent literature is consistent with the…

  3. RELATIONAL SCHEMAS, HOSTILE ROMANTIC RELATIONSHIPS, AND BELIEFS ABOUT MARRIAGE AMONG YOUNG AFRICAN AMERICAN ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Ronald L.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Lei, Man Kit; Landor, Antoinette

    2011-01-01

    The present study tests a developmental model designed to explain the romantic relationship difficulties and reluctance to marry often reported for African Americans. Using longitudinal data from a sample of approximately 400 African American young adults, we examine the manner in which race-related adverse experiences during late childhood and early adolescence give rise to the cynical view of romantic partners and marriage held by many young African Americans. Our results indicate that adverse circumstances disproportionately suffered by African American youth (viz., harsh parenting, family instability, discrimination, criminal victimization, and financial hardship) promote distrustful relational schemas that lead to troubled dating relationships, and that these negative relationship experiences, in turn, encourage a less positive view of marriage. PMID:22328799

  4. Implementation of Evidence-Based HIV Interventions for Young Adult African American Women in Church Settings

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the barriers and facilitators to using African American churches as sites for implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions among young African American women. Design Mixed methods cross-sectional design. Setting African American churches in Philadelphia, PA. Participants 142 African American pastors, church leaders, and young adult women ages 18 to 25. Methods Mixed methods convergent parallel design. Results The majority of young adult women reported engaging in high-risk HIV-related behaviors. Although church leaders reported willingness to implement HIV risk-reduction interventions, they were unsure of how to initiate this process. Key facilitators to the implementation of evidence-based interventions included the perception of the leadership and church members that HIV interventions were needed and that the church was a promising venue for them. A primary barrier to implementation in this setting is the perception that discussions of sexuality should be private. Conclusion Implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions for young adult African American women in church settings is feasible and needed. Building a level of comfort in discussing matters of sexuality and adapting existing evidence-based interventions to meet the needs of young women in church settings is a viable approach for successful implementation. PMID:25139612

  5. Physiologic Responses to Racial Rejection Images among Young Adults from African-American Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Blumenthal, Terry D.; Carlson, Erika N.; Lawson, Yolanda N.; Shell, J. Clark

    2009-01-01

    Physiologic reactivity to racially rejecting images was assessed in 35 young adults (10 males, 25 female) from African-American backgrounds using the startle probe paradigm. In a laboratory setting, participants viewed 16 images depicting racial rejection, racial acceptance, nonracial negative, and nonracial positive themes. While viewing these…

  6. The Longitudinal Effect of Drug Use on Productivity Status of Nonmetropolitan African American Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roldós, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the longitudinal effect of marijuana and heavy alcohol use on the productivity status of nonmetropolitan African American young adults. This analysis was based on secondary data from the Family and Community Health Study. For alcohol, the study evaluated the effects on productivity status for…

  7. Longitudinal precursors of young adult light smoking among African Americans and Puerto Ricans

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Pebbles; Rubenstone, Elizabeth; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Studies have consistently documented the importance of examining light smoking among African American and Latino adolescent and adult smokers. Little is known, however, about the psychosocial antecedents of adolescent and young adult light smoking in these racial/ethnic minority groups. Methods: This study examined the longitudinal interrelationships and pathways leading to light smoking among African Americans (n = 288) and Puerto Ricans (n = 262). Specifically, we assessed parental factors, perceived discrimination, peer smoking, personality factors, and light smoking in late adolescence as precursors to light smoking among African American and Puerto Rican young adults. Results: The results of structural equation modeling showed that a history of greater parental smoking, less parental educational attainment, and more perceived discrimination were each mediated by peer smoking and the youth's maladaptive personality and behavior in late adolescence. The youth's maladaptive personality and behavioral characteristics and light smoking in late adolescence, in turn, predicted light smoking in young adulthood. There were no significant racial/ethnic or gender differences in the pathways to light smoking. Discussion: Findings highlight the longitudinal pathways to light smoking among African Americans and Puerto Ricans. The results suggest that effective prevention and cessation programs must address peer and parental social influences, perceived discrimination, and especially, emotional and behavioral problems in late adolescence to reduce light smoking among late adolescents and young adults in these racial/ethnic groups. PMID:19251769

  8. Young Adult, Rural, African American Stimulant Users: Antecedents and Vulnerabilities

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Teresa L.; Han, Xiaotong; Booth, Brenda M.

    2009-01-01

    Early initiation of substance use appears to be an alarming trend among rural minorities. This study focuses on 18–21 year old African American stimulant users in the Arkansas Mississippi Delta. Most participants had no high school diploma and were unemployed; 74.5% had already been arrested. Substance use was initiated early, and nearly all of the men and three quarters of the women already met criteria for lifetime abuse or dependence. Only 18% reported they had ever received substance abuse treatment. The results suggest that substance use interventions in rural communities will require multi-faceted strategies addressing economic, educational and healthcare disparities. PMID:20098663

  9. Text Messaging for Sexual Communication and Safety Among African American Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Broaddus, Michelle R.; Dickson-Gomez, Julia

    2014-01-01

    African American young adults are at high risk of HIV infection during their lifetimes, and the male condom remains the best method of prevention. Efforts to increase condom use should address the barrier of condom negotiation. We conducted a thematic analysis of qualitative, semi-structured interviews with African American young adults to examine their use of text messaging for requesting Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) or sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing and condom use within the larger context of general sexual communication using text messages. Text messaging gave participants a level of comfort and disinhibition to discuss sexual topics and negotiate sexual safety. Benefits of text messages included ease of communication, privacy, and increased ability to express condom desires. Difficulties reflected the potential relationship implications of suggesting HIV/STI testing and condom use. Condom negotiation strategies using text messages also mirrored those used found to be used in face-to-face communication. PMID:24045286

  10. Disability and Health: Exploring the Disablement Experience of Young Adult African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Tracie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to examine disablement as experienced by young adult African American men and women with permanent mobility impairment. Methods This study included a sample of 5 male and 5 female participants ranging in age from 22 to 39. An exploratory descriptive design and qualitative methods, including interviews and fieldnotes, were used. Interview data was analyzed using the process of inductive qualitative content analysis. Results Basic desires for independence, shared intimacy, and psychological and physical health were not diminished by physical limitations. The disablement experience of this group is reflected in the themes of “Cumulative Losses” and “Sustained Desires.” The findings of this study describe the high level of motivation that young adult African American men and women with disabilities have to improve levels of health and well-being within the context of their impairments. Conclusion This study provides a better understanding of the contextual factors and experiences that may contribute to the development of further disability and subsequent health-related problems over time. Increased knowledge of the disablement experience of these young men and women may assist health care entities and social service providers in improving health care and rehabilitation efforts targeting this group. PMID:23745770

  11. Racial identification, racial discrimination, and substance use vulnerability among African American young adults.

    PubMed

    Stock, Michelle L; Gibbons, Frederick X; Walsh, Laura A; Gerrard, Meg

    2011-10-01

    Two studies examined racial identity (RI) as a protective factor against substance use cognitions among African American young adults who either envisioned or experienced racial discrimination. In Study 1, participants envisioned a discrimination or nondiscrimination scenario, and then their willingness to use drugs and an indirect measure of substance use were assessed. Discrimination was associated with higher levels of use cognitions among participants with low levels of RI. In Study 2, participants were excluded or included in an online game (Cyberball) by White peers and then engaged in an RI-affirmation or control writing task. Participants attributed this exclusion to racial discrimination. Excluded participants who did not affirm their RI reported the highest levels of substance use cognitions, especially if they had engaged in higher levels of previous substance use. These findings highlight the importance of RI among Black young adults and the impact of discrimination on health behaviors. PMID:21628598

  12. Racial Identification, Racial Discrimination, and Substance Use Vulnerability Among African American Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stock, Michelle L.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Walsh, Laura A.; Gerrard, Meg

    2016-01-01

    Two studies examined racial identity (RI) as a protective factor against substance use cognitions among African American young adults who either envisioned or experienced racial discrimination. In Study 1, participants envisioned a discrimination or nondiscrimination scenario, and then their willingness to use drugs and an indirect measure of substance use were assessed. Discrimination was associated with higher levels of use cognitions among participants with low levels of RI. In Study 2, participants were excluded or included in an online game (Cyberball) by White peers and then engaged in an RI-affirmation or control writing task. Participants attributed this exclusion to racial discrimination. Excluded participants who did not affirm their RI reported the highest levels of substance use cognitions, especially if they had engaged in higher levels of previous substance use. These findings highlight the importance of RI among Black young adults and the impact of discrimination on health behaviors. PMID:21628598

  13. Model for Using Hip-Hop Music for Small Group HIV/AIDS Prevention Counseling with African American Adolescents and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Torrance; Braithwaite, Ronald L.; Taylor, Sandra E.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a HIV/AIDS preventive counseling protocol developed for use with African American young adults that makes use of hip-hop music. Contends that an increased understanding of the relationships that many African American young adults have with hip-hop music may be used by disease prevention personnel to educate these populations about…

  14. Acceptability and Preliminary Outcomes of a Peer-Led Depression Prevention Intervention for African American Adolescents and Young Adults in Employment Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tandon, Darius; Mendelson, Tamar; Mance, GiShawn

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the acceptability and preliminary outcomes from an open trial of a depression prevention intervention for low-income African American adolescents and young adults in employment training programs. The sample (N=42) consisted of predominately African American adolescents and young adults (mean age=19.1) exhibiting subclinical…

  15. African American parents' racial and emotion socialization profiles and young adults' emotional adaptation.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Angel S; Perry, Nicole B; Cavanaugh, Alyson M; Leerkes, Esther M

    2015-07-01

    The current study aimed to identify parents' profiles of racial and emotion socialization practices, to determine if these profiles vary as a function of family income and young adult child gender, and to examine their links with young adults' emotional adaptation. Participants included 192 African American young adults (70% women) who ranged in age from 18 to 24 years (M = 19.44 years). Four maternal profiles emerged: cultural-supportive (high cultural socialization and supportive responses to children's negative emotions), moderate bias preparation (moderate preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and nonsupportive responses to negative emotions), high bias preparation (high preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and nonsupportive responses), and low engaged (low across racial and socialization constructs). Three paternal profiles emerged: multifaceted (moderate across racial and emotion socialization constructs), high bias preparation, and low engaged. Men were more likely to have mothers in the high bias preparation and to have fathers in the multifaceted or high bias preparation profiles. Individuals with higher income were more likely to have mothers in the cultural-supportive profile and to have fathers in the multifaceted profile. Young adults whose mothers fit the cultural-supportive profile or the moderate bias preparation profile had lower levels of depressive symptoms than young adults whose mothers fit the high bias preparation profile. PMID:25090149

  16. Diabetes and obesity risks in African American young adult freshmen attending a historically black college/university.

    PubMed

    Owens, Chequita Smith

    2008-11-01

    Convincing African American and other young adults that obesity increases their risk for diabetes and its complications is challenging for health educators and clinicians. At a historically Black university (HBCU) this question was examined, Do overweight and obese African American freshmen have higher risks for diabetes through low physical activity or toning and poor nutritional habits? Survey data found 40% of the 101 respondents sampled there were obese (defined as body mass index of 30 or more kg/m2), which is a higher proportion of obesity than found in other college health surveys. Scores reflecting higher risks of diabetes mellitus were significantly related to higher BMI values and low aerobic physical activity. Students had low levels of physical activity and toning than reported in general college populations. To reduce diabetes-disparity risks and obesity-related behaviors, African American younger adult freshmen may benefit from effective intervention strategies targeting them. PMID:19029739

  17. 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in healthy young adult Anglo, Hispanic, and African-American subjects.

    PubMed

    Chase, H P; Garg, S K; Icaza, G; Carmain, J A; Walravens, C F; Marshall, G

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare office and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) values for adolescent and young adult males and females of Anglo, Hispanic, and African-American descent. One hundred and eighteen healthy subjects (62 females, 56 males) participated, with an ethnic distribution of 50 Anglo, 32 Hispanic, and 36 African-American subjects. All subjects came to the clinic for height, weight, sitting blood pressure (BP), and to begin 24-h ABP monitoring using the SpaceLabs model 90207 automatic noninvasive monitor. The monitor recorded readings every 0.5 h from 06:00 to 22:00 and every hour at night from 22:00 to 06:00. Office systolic and diastolic BP values were higher for all males compared to all females. Mean 24-h, nighttime, and daytime systolic ABP values were also significantly higher for males compared to females. The 24-h mean and daytime systolic ABP values were significantly different by ethnic groups. The African-American subjects always had the highest readings. Mean 24-h diastolic ABP was also significantly different by ethnic groups, with the African-American subjects being higher than the Anglos or the Hispanics. Diastolic ABP (24-h mean, daytime, and nighttime) values (for all subjects combined) increased gradually and varied significantly with age. This study provides preliminary normative data about ABP in an understudied population (ie, teenagers and young adults of different ethnic backgrounds). It also shows that higher blood pressures are present among males and among subjects of African-American descent in the teenage and young adult population. PMID:9008244

  18. A cultural model of infidelity among African American and Puerto Rican young adults.

    PubMed

    Macauda, Mark M; Erickson, Pamela I; Singer, Merrill C; Santelices, Claudia C

    2011-12-01

    Having concurrent sexual partners is a risk factor for STIs and HIV/AIDS, yet few studies have investigated the cultural meanings and functions of concurrency. A multi-method qualitative/quantitative study of sexual ideas, attitudes, and behaviors among inner-city Puerto Rican and African American emergent adults (age 18-25) in Hartford, Connecticut, USA, suggests that having concurrent partners is common in this population. Using data from 12 focus groups and 40 participants in systematic data collection techniques (e.g., pile sorts), the underlying cognitive structure of concurrency and cheating/infidelity are explored. Results suggest that participants are less tolerant of multiple partners in more committed relationships, but that very few relationships can be considered committed. Furthermore, participants see cheating as inevitable even in committed relationships. Sexual transgressions are considered the most severe form of cheating. Having an outside partner for emotional reasons or to have access to one's child were seen as more acceptable/forgivable than doing so for sexual satisfaction, social status or material goods. Multiple partnerships must be seen in the context of the inner city where resources and opportunities are scarce and young adults attempt to protect themselves from emotional injury. Documenting new and changing social constructions of infidelity is important for understanding the social context of sexual behavior in our global world and for designing culturally appropriate health interventions. PMID:22060128

  19. Linking parenting and informal mentor processes to depressive symptoms among rural African American young adult men.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Steven M; Brody, Gene H

    2010-07-01

    Little is known about the rates of depressive symptoms among rural African American men during young adulthood or the processes that predict those rates. Many rural African American men in the deep South confront difficult environments that provide minimal resources and diminishing social support to help them embark on beneficial life paths. A model of protective processes hypothesized to deter depression among this population was tested that included autonomy-promoting parenting, informal mentoring, and protective self-regulatory processes. Data from a Respondent-Driven Sampling study with 116 rural African American men age 18-21 were used to test study hypotheses. The unadjusted prevalence of clinically significant depression was 37.9%. As predicted, self-regulatory processes mediated the influence of autonomy-promoting parenting on depressive symptoms. Leaving the family home was associated negatively and educational attainment was associated positively with self-regulatory processes. Support from an informal mentor moderated the link between autonomy-promoting parenting and self-regulatory processes. Findings suggest malleable targets for intervention development with this population. PMID:20658872

  20. Urban African-American and Hispanic adolescents and young adults: who do they talk to about AIDS and condoms? What are they learning?

    PubMed

    Ford, K; Norris, A

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the first qualitative part of a study designed to investigate factors related to the use of condoms among African-American and Hispanic adolescents and young adults in Detroit. This paper describes who young, urban, African-American and Hispanic persons talk to about AIDS and condoms and what they are learning. The paper provides data on attitudes and beliefs about AIDS and condoms that are needed for further research and for prevention programs. PMID:1931424

  1. Outcomes of a Behavioral Intervention to Increase Condom Use and Reduce HIV Risk Among Urban African American Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Henry Akintobi, Tabia; Trotter, Jennie; Zellner, Tiffany; Lenoir, Shelia; Evans, Donoria; Rollins, Latrice; Miller, Assia

    2016-09-01

    African Americans comprise nearly half of people in the United States living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) but compose one tenth of the population. Infection rate among young African American adults is 11 times that of Whites. The Color It Real Program was a seven-session, weekly administered, age-specific, and culturally tailored intervention designed to provide HIV education and address behavioral motivations (risk awareness, decisional balance exercises, partner negotiation, and attitudes) associated with HIV risk among African Americans ages 18 to 24 years in Atlanta, Georgia. Effectiveness was assessed through a quasi-experimental study design that consisted of intervention (n = 88) and control (n = 52) groups completing a 45-item survey. When controlling for gender and education, repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that the intervention group had significant increases in HIV transmission knowledge (F = 4.84, p = .0305), condom use, and intentions to use condoms (F = 4.38, p = .0385). Risky sexual behavior means did not significantly differ between groups (F = 1.44, p = .2331). Results indicate the value of culturally tailored educational strategies toward improved HIV knowledge and adoption of risk reduction strategies. Future studies investigating the differential impact of programs by gender and sexual orientation are also critical. Continued innovation and tailoring of risk reduction strategies for minority young adults will contribute to reducing HIV incidence and prevalence over the life course. PMID:27216874

  2. Freedom Road: Adult Education of African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Elizabeth A., Ed.

    This book contains six chapters by various authors about the history of African Americans' contributions and participation in adult education. The book reports on how some African American leaders saw the connection between education and the eventual freedom or uplift of the African American people. Following a foreword (Phyllis M. Cunningham) and…

  3. Prosocial Involvement among African American Young Adults: Considering Racial Discrimination and Racial Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Johnson, Rhonda L.

    2012-01-01

    Prosocial involvement is conceptualized as support for or engaging in behaviors that contribute to or benefit African American communities. The current study examines the relationship between prosocial involvement and race-related factors among 303 African American college students. Using two underlying dimensions of prosocial involvement,…

  4. Attitudes and program preferences of African-American urban young adults about pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).

    PubMed

    Smith, Dawn K; Toledo, Lauren; Smith, Donna Jo; Adams, Mary Anne; Rothenberg, Richard

    2012-10-01

    We elicited attitudes about, and service access preferences for, daily oral antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) from urban, African-American young men and women, ages 18-24 years, at risk for HIV transmission through their sexual and drug-related behaviors participating in eight mixed-gender and two MSM-only focus groups in Atlanta, Georgia. Participants reported substantial interest in PrEP associated with its perceived cost, effectiveness, and ease of accessing services and medication near to their homes or by public transportation. Frequent HIV testing was a perceived benefit. Participants differed about whether risk-reduction behaviors would change, and in which direction; and whether PrEP use would be associated with HIV stigma or would enhance the reputation for PrEP users. This provides the first information about the interests, concerns, and preferences of young adult African Americans that can be used to inform the introduction of PrEP services into HIV prevention efforts for this critical population group. PMID:23016502

  5. Aerobic Exercise Attenuates an Exaggerated Exercise Blood Pressure Response in Normotensive Young Adult African-American Men

    PubMed Central

    BOND, VERNON; STEPHENS, QUIONA; ADAMS, RICHARD G.; VACCARO, PAUL; DEMEERSMAN, RONALD; WILLIAMS, DEBORAH; OBISESAN, THOMAS O.; FRANKS, B. DON; OKE, LUE M.; COLEMAN, BERNELL; BLAKELY, RAYMOND; MILLIS, RICHARD M.

    2011-01-01

    An exaggerated exercise blood pressure response (EEBPR) may be associated with an increased risk of hypertension. We hypothesized that aerobic exercise training can decrease EEBPR and the risk for hypertension by decreasing arterial resistance. We studied the effects of aerobic training on the submaximal exercise blood pressure (BP) of eight normotensive young adult African-American men with an EEBPR. Subjects were trained on a stationary bicycle at an intensity of 70% peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) for 30 min, three times per week, for 8 weeks. BP, heart rate, cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV) and total peripheral vascular resistance (TPR) were measured at rest and during submaximal exercise at a work intensity of 50% VO2peak. Significance of the training effects were evaluated by comparing the pre- and post-training measures (t-test, p < 0.05). A 15% post-training increase in VO2peak (34.6 ± 1.4 to 40 ± 1.4 ml/kg/min) and a 9.5 ml post-training increase in mean resting stroke volume were found. A 16.2 mmHg decrement in mean systolic BP, an 11.5 mmHg decrement in mean diastolic BP, a 120 dyne/s/cm5 decrement in TPR and a 1.2 l/min increase in CO were detected during the post-training submaximal exercise tests. These results suggest that reductions in TPR may attenuate the EEBPR of normotensive African-American males following an 8-week training regimen of stationary bicycling at 70% VO2peak. Aerobic exercise training may, therefore, reduce the risk of hypertension in normotensive African-American males by the mechanism of a reduction in TPR. Because of the limited number of subjects, the results of this study should be interpreted cautiously pending confirmation by a larger controlled trial. PMID:12361191

  6. The concrete jungle: city stress and substance abuse among young adult African American men.

    PubMed

    Seth, Puja; Murray, Colleen C; Braxton, Nikia D; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2013-04-01

    Substance use is prevalent among African American men living in urban communities. The impact of substance use on the social, psychological, and physical health of African American men has important public health implications for families, communities, and society. Given the adverse consequences of alcohol and drug abuse within communities of color, this study evaluated the relationship between city stress, alcohol consumption, and drug use among African American men. Eighty heterosexual, African American men, 18 to 29 years old, completed psychosocial risk assessments that assessed substance use and city stress. Multiple logistic regression analyses, controlling for age, indicated that participants reporting high levels of urban stress, relative to low levels of urban stress, were more likely to report a history of marijuana use (AOR = 5.19, p = .05), history of ecstasy and/or GHB use (AOR = 3.34, p = .04), having family/friends expressing strong concerns about their illicit drug use (AOR = 4.06, p = .02), and being unable to remember what happened the night before due to drinking (AOR = 4.98, p = .01). African American men living within the confines of a stressful urban environment are at increased risk for exposure to and utilization of illicit substances. Culturally competent public health interventions for substance use/abuse should address psychological factors, such as stress and neighborhood violence. PMID:22739803

  7. Why Take an HIV Test? Concerns, Benefits, and Strategies to Promote HIV Testing among Low-Income Heterosexual African American Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Scyatta A.; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Harris, Muriel J.; Townsend, Tiffany G.; Miller, Kim S.

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative study examined perceptions of HIV testing and strategies to enhance HIV testing among HIV-negative African American heterosexual young adults (ages 18-25 years). Twenty-six focus groups (13 male groups, 13 female groups) were conducted in two low-income communities (urban and rural). All sessions were audio-recorded and transcribed.…

  8. The Protective Role of Ethnic and Racial Identity and Aspects of an Africentric Orientation against Drug Use among African American Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Judith S.; Pahl, Kerstin

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined (a) the protective potential of multiple components of ethnic and racial identity and (b) the aspects of an Africentric orientation for moderating psychobehavioral risk and protective factors for drug use among a sample of 333 urban low-income African American young adults. Ethnic and racial identity and…

  9. Condom Use by Hispanic and African American Teens and Young Adults Who Use Hormonal Contraception: Implications for HIV Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roye, Carol F.

    1997-01-01

    Examined the relationship between young Hispanic and African American womens' hormonal contraceptive use and condom use. Surveys of women at an inner-city health clinic investigated demographics, contraceptive practices, sexual behavior, condom use, and communication skills. Hormonal contraceptive use related to decreased condom use. Discussion…

  10. Male Role Norms, Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perceptions of Colorectal Cancer Screening among Young Adult African American Men

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Charles R.; Goodson, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Racial disparities in health among African American men (AAM) in the United States are extensive. In contrast to their White counterparts, AAM have more illnesses and die younger. AAM have colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates 25% and 50% higher, respectively, than White men. Due to CRC’s younger age at presentation and high incidence among AAM, CRC screening (CRCS) is warranted at the age of 45 rather than 50, but little is known about younger AAM’s views of CRCS. Employing survey design, the purpose of the study was to describe the male role norms (MRN), knowledge, attitudes, perceived subjective norms, and perceived barriers associated with screening for CRC among a non-random sample of 157 young adult AAM (ages 19–45). Sixty-seven percent of the study sample received a passing knowledge score (85% or better), yet no significant differences were found among the three educational levels (i.e., low, medium, high). More negative attitudes toward CRCS correlated with the participants’ strong perceptions of barriers, but no extremely negative or positive MRN and perceived subjective norms were found. The factors significantly associated with attitudes were family history of cancer (unsure), work status, and perceived barriers. Findings from this study provide a solid basis for developing structured health education interventions that address the salient factors shaping young adult AAM’s view of CRC and early detection screening behaviors. PMID:25506049

  11. Relationships of posttraumatic stress symptoms and sleep measures to cognitive performance in young-adult African Americans.

    PubMed

    Brownlow, Janeese A; Brown, Tyish S Hall; Mellman, Thomas A

    2014-04-01

    Disturbed sleep is a prominent feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD and disrupted sleep have been independently linked to cognitive deficits; however, synergistic effects of PTSD and poor sleep on cognition have not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of PTSD symptoms and objectively measured disruptions to sleep on cognitive function. Forty-four young-adult African American urban residents comprised the study sample. The Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS; Blake et al., 1995) was utilized to determine the severity of PTSD symptoms. Participants underwent 2 consecutive nights of polysomnography. The Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (Reeves, Winter, Bleiberg, & Kang, ) was utilized to assess sustained attention and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (Schmidt, ) was used to evaluate verbal memory. PTSD symptom severity, r(42) = .40, p = .007, was significantly associated with omission errors on the sustained attention task, and sleep duration, r(42) = .41, p = .006, and rapid eye movement sleep, r(42) = .43, p = .003, were positively correlated with verbal memory. There was an interaction of PTSD symptom severity and sleep duration on omission errors such that more than 7 hours 12 minutes of sleep mitigated attentional lapses that were associated with PTSD. PMID:24740871

  12. Pro-drinking messages and message environments for young adults: the case of alcohol industry advertising in African American, Latino, and Native American communities.

    PubMed

    Alaniz, M L; Wilkes, C

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines targeted alcohol advertising in three ethnic communities: African Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans in the U.S. We focus on the appropriation of cultural systems and the reinvention of them as commodities to consumers. We outline the specific strategies used in each ethnic community. For African Americans, there is an emphasis on selling malt liquor to young adults through the use of "power" and gang-related images. For Latinos, there is an appropriation of historical and cultural symbols such as the national flags and maps of Mexico and Central America. Native Americans have coalesced to keep the image of a chief and warrior, Crazy Horse, from being used to market malt liquor. Each of the ethnic groups is engaged in action to prevent alcohol-related problems in their communities. Generating and implementing solutions is a universal social responsibility. PMID:9922620

  13. Predictors and Profiles of Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence Among African American Adolescents and Young Adult Males Living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Gross, Israel Moses; Hosek, Sybil; Richards, Maryse Heather; Fernandez, M Isabel

    2016-07-01

    Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is crucial for thwarting HIV disease progression and reducing secondary HIV transmission, yet youth living with HIV (YLH) struggle with adherence. The highest rates of new HIV infections in the United States occur in young African American men. A sample of 387 HIV-positive young African American males on ART was selected from a cross-sectional assessment of (YLH) receiving medical care within the Adolescent Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions (ATN) from 2010 to 2012 (12-24 years old, median 22.00, SD 2.08). Participants completed self-reported adherence, demographic, health, and psychosocial measures. Sixty-two percent self-reported 100% ART adherence. Optimal data analysis identified frequency of cannabis use during the past 3 months as the strongest independent predictor of adherence, yielding moderate effect strength sensitivity (ESS) = 27.1, p < 0.001. Among participants with infrequent cannabis use, 72% reported full adherence; in contrast, only 45% of participants who used cannabis frequently reported full adherence. Classification tree analysis (CTA) was utilized to improve classification accuracy and to identify the pathways of ART adherence and nonadherence. The CTA model evidenced a 38% improvement above chance for correctly classifying participants as ART adherent or nonadherent. Participants most likely to be adherent were those with low psychological distress and minimal alcohol use (82% were adherent). Participants least likely to be adherent were those with higher psychological distress and engaged in weekly cannabis use (69% were nonadherent). Findings suggest multiple profiles of ART adherence for young African American males living with HIV and argue for targeted psychosocial interventions. PMID:27410496

  14. Distribution of Toenail Selenium Levels in Young Adult Caucasians and African Americans in the United States: The CARDIA Trace Element Study

    PubMed Central

    Xun, Pengcheng; Bujnowski, Deborah; Liu, Kiang; Morris, J. Steve; Guo, Zhongqin; He, Ka

    2011-01-01

    Background Data on selenium (Se) levels in American young adults, especially in African Americans, are lacking. Objective This study presented toenail Se distributions in American young adults of both genders, including both Caucasians and African Americans; and explored potential predictors of toenail Se levels. Data and Methods Data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study among 4252 American young adults, aged 20-32 in 1987 was used to examine toenail Se levels by instrumental neutron-activation analysis. The distribution of Se levels was described and multivariable linear regression was used to examine potential modifiers of toenail Se concentration within ethnicity-gender subgroups. Results The geometric mean of toenail Se in this cohort was 0.844 μg/g (95% CI, 0.840-0.849 μg/g) and the median was 0.837 μg/g (95% CI, 0.833-0.844 μg/g). Median levels from lowest to highest quintile were 0.691, 0.774, 0.838, 0.913 and 1.037 μg/g, respectively. Se levels varied geographically, and were generally in accordance with its concentrations in local soil. Males, African Americans, current smokers, heavy drinkers and less educated participants were more likely to have low Se levels. Conclusion This study suggests that toenail Se levels vary geographically depending on soil Se concentrations. In addition to gender, ethnicity and education level, smoking status and alcohol consumption are two important indicators of Se status since they are modifiable lifestyle factors. Findings from this study might aid public health professionals in identifying people at relatively high or low Se levels, so that chronic disease prevention efforts can be directed toward these subgroups. PMID:21316044

  15. How Do African American Young Adult Females (AAYAF) over 16 Years of Age Make Career Decisions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Nancy Mathea

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The overall purpose of the study was to describe the perceptions regarding how AAYAF over 16 years of age plan and make career decisions. The study participants included ten AAYAF over 16 years of age. The young women were interviewed fact-to-face using a semi-structured open-ended questionnaire. The questionnaire was…

  16. Stimulant Use by Young Adult African Americans in a Rural Community: A Pipeline to Prison?

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Teresa L.; Bell-Tolliver, LaVerne; Tripathi, Shanti P.; Booth, Brenda M.

    2012-01-01

    The association between stimulant use and legal outcomes was examined in rural adults 18–21 years (n=98) in the Mississippi River Delta of Arkansas from 2003 through 2008. Participants were interviewed at baseline and every six months for two years using the Substance Abuse Outcomes Module, Addiction Severity Index, Short-Form 8 Health Survey, Brief Symptom Inventory, Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Screen, and an abbreviated Antisocial Personality Disorder measure. More than three-quarters were arrested before baseline; 47 were arrested over the next two years. Early arrest but not substance use was related to subsequent arrest. Limitations and implications for interventions are discussed. PMID:21047150

  17. Distribution of toenail selenium levels in young adult Caucasians and African Americans in the United States: The CARDIA Trace Element Study

    SciTech Connect

    Xun, Pengcheng; Bujnowski, Deborah; Liu, Kiang; Steve Morris, J.; Guo, Zhongqin; He, Ka

    2011-05-15

    Background: Data on selenium (Se) levels in American young adults, especially in African Americans, are lacking. Objective: This study presented toenail Se distributions in American young adults of both genders, including both Caucasians and African Americans; and explored potential predictors of toenail Se levels. Data and methods: Data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study among 4252 American young adults, aged 20-32 in 1987 was used to examine toenail Se levels by instrumental neutron-activation analysis. The distribution of Se levels was described and multivariable linear regression was used to examine potential modifiers of toenail Se concentration within ethnicity-gender subgroups. Results: The geometric mean of toenail Se in this cohort was 0.844 {mu}g/g (95% CI, 0.840-0.849 {mu}g/g) and the median was 0.837 {mu}g/g (95% CI, 0.833-0.844 {mu}g/g). Median levels from lowest to highest quintile were 0.691, 0.774, 0.838, 0.913 and 1.037 {mu}g/g. Se levels varied geographically, and were generally in accordance with its concentrations in local soil. Males, African Americans, current smokers, heavy drinkers and less educated participants were more likely to have low Se levels. Conclusion: This study suggests that toenail Se levels vary geographically depending on soil Se concentrations. In addition to gender, ethnicity and education level, smoking status and alcohol consumption are two important indicators of Se status since they are modifiable lifestyle factors. Findings from this study might aid public health professionals in identifying people at relatively high or low Se levels, so that chronic disease prevention efforts can be directed toward these subgroups. - Research highlights: {yields} Average of toenail Se levels in this cohort was 0.844 {mu}g/g (95% CI, 0.840-0.849 {mu}g/g). {yields} Toenail Se levels vary geographically depending on soil Se concentrations. {yields} Males, African Americans and less educated participants have

  18. Strategies for Managing the Dual Risk of Sexually Transmitted Infections and Unintended Pregnancy Among Puerto Rican and African American Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hock-Long, Linda; Kraft, Joan Marie; Henry-Moss, Dare; Hatfield-Timajchy, Kendra; Singer, Merrill

    2012-01-01

    Although young adults in the United States are at increased risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancy, they do not report high rates of dual-method use (condoms plus other contraception) for prevention. We used prospective qualitative data from 69 urban Puerto Rican and African American individuals aged 18 to 25 years to determine how they managed these risks in their heterosexual relationships during a 4- to 8-week period. Hormonal or long-acting contraceptive use, condoms, and withdrawal were the most common unintended pregnancy prevention strategies; condoms, STI testing, and perceived fidelity were dominant among STI prevention strategies. We need to shift the focus from dual-method use toward a broader concept of dual protection to be more responsive to young adults’ concerns, perceptions, and priorities. PMID:22390507

  19. Interaction of African American Learners Online: An Adult Education Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Haijun; Yang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how various life factors and personal attributes affect African American adult learners' use of the three types of learning interaction-learner-content, learner-instructor, and learner-learner. Multivariate multiple regression analyses were used. The aggregate effect of life factors on African American adult learners' use of…

  20. Partner influences and gender-related factors associated with noncondom use among young adult African American women.

    PubMed

    Wingood, G M; DiClemente, R J

    1998-02-01

    We examined the partner influences and gender-related correlates of noncondom use among African American women. The prevalence of noncondom use was 45.3%. Women whose sexual partners were noncondom users were four times more likely to believe that asking their partner to use a condom implied he was unfaithful, three times as likely to have a partner who resisted using condoms, three times more likely to receive AFDC, twice as likely to be sexually nonassertive, three times more likely to believe that it was not difficult to find an "eligible" African American man, and three times as likely to have had one sexual partner. HIV prevention tailored towards African American women should address these partner influences and gender-related factors. PMID:9574497

  1. Clustering of Risk Behaviours among African American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baruth, M.; Addy, C. L.; Wilcox, S.; Dowda, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Individuals may engage in more than one risk behaviour at any given time. The extent to which risk behaviours cluster among African American adults has been largely unexplored. This study examined the prevalence and clustering of three risk behaviours among African American church members: smoking; low moderate-to-vigorous intensity…

  2. Ebony and Ivory: Relationship between African American Young Women's Skin Color and Ratings of Self and Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassar-McMillan, Sylvia; McFall-Roberts, Ebuni; Flowers, Claudia; Garrett, Michael T.

    2006-01-01

    Many individuals face discrimination because of their skin color; however, skin color of African American young adults has not been studied in detail. This study examines relationships between skin color and perceptions among African American college women. The study yielded a positive correlation between personal values and self-rated skin color …

  3. The social context and meaning of virginity loss among African American and Puerto Rican young adults in Hartford.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Pamela I; Badiane, Louise; Singer, Merrill

    2013-09-01

    We describe virginity loss experiences of inner-city minority youth to understand the meaning attributed to first sex and the social and structural factors that contribute to early sexual debut. We interviewed 62 18-25-year-old African American and Puerto Rican Hartford men and women about their sexual and romantic life histories. Transcripts were coded in ATLAS.ti and analyzed for themes about virginity and sexual debut. We found different conceptions of virginity as a stigma to be lost, a normal part of growing up, and a gift to be given. The normative experience was consensual, early, and unplanned sexual debut. Inner-city minority youth have similar feelings, motivations, and experiences of sexual debut as non-ethnic youth reported in the literature except they are far younger. We discuss structural factors that affect inner-city sexual scripts for early sexual debut and identify it as a health inequity. PMID:24105907

  4. Why take an HIV test? Concerns, benefits, and strategies to promote HIV testing among low-income heterosexual African American young adults.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Scyatta A; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Harris, Muriel J; Townsend, Tiffany G; Miller, Kim S

    2011-10-01

    A qualitative study examined perceptions of HIV testing and strategies to enhance HIV testing among HIV-negative African American heterosexual young adults (ages 18-25 years). Twenty-six focus groups (13 male groups, 13 female groups) were conducted in two low-income communities (urban and rural). All sessions were audio-recorded and transcribed. Data analysis was completed using AnSWR software. Many participants expressed that learning one's HIV status, regardless of the result, was a benefit of taking an HIV test because this was perceived to produce emotional relief. Additional benefits included the avoidance of unknowingly spreading the virus, being offered treatment access if HIV-positive, and taking time to assess and modify risky sexual behaviors if HIV-negative. If diagnosed HIV-positive, HIV testing concerns included the recognition of one's mortality, the experience of social stigma, and concerns about accessing affordable treatment. Recommended promotion strategies included the use of HIV-positive individuals, pop culture icons, and the media to promote HIV testing messages. PMID:21464204

  5. Racial and ethnic differences in HPV knowledge, attitudes, and vaccination rates among low-income African-American, Haitian, Latina and Caucasian young adult women

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Jack A.; Mercilus, Glory; Wilbur, MaryAnn B.; Figaro, Jean; Perkins, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine facilitators and barriers to HPV vaccine uptake in African-American, Haitian, Latina, and White women ages 18–22 and to determine vaccination completion rates among participants over 5 years. Design Using semi-structured interviews and medical record review, we assessed HPV knowledge and attitudes towards HPV vaccination among young women. We then determined their subsequent HPV vaccination initiation and completion rates. We used constructs from the Health Belief Model and methods based in grounded theory and content analysis to identify attitudes towards HPV vaccination cues to initiate vaccination, perception of HPV, and how communication about issues of sexuality may impact vaccine uptake. Participants We enrolled 132 African-American, Haitian, Latina, and White women aged 18–22 years who visited an urban academic medical center and two affiliated community health centers between the years 2007 and 2012. Main Outcome Measures Intent to vaccinate and actual vaccination rates Results Of 132 participants, 116 (90%) stated that they were somewhat or very likely to accept HPV vaccination if offered by their physician, but only 51% initiated the vaccination over the next 5 years. Seventy-eight percent of those who initiated vaccination completed the 3 doses of the HPV vaccine series. Forty-five percent (45%, n=50) of the adolescents who started the series completed three doses over a five year period: forty-two percent African-American (n=16), thirty-three percent Haitian (n=13), sixty-three percent Latina (n=10), and sixty-five White young women (n=11) completed the three-dose series. Despite low knowledge, they reported high levels of trust in physicians and were willing to vaccinate if recommended by their physicians. Conclusion Desire for HPV vaccination is high among older adolescents, physician recommendation and use of every clinic visit opportunity may improve vaccine uptake in young women. More White young women completed the HPV

  6. Vitamin D supplementation in young White and African American women.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, J Christopher; Jindal, Prachi S; Smith, Lynette M

    2014-01-01

    There is limited information on the effects of vitamin D on serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) in young people and none on African Americans. The main objective of this trial was to measure the effect of different doses of vitamin D3 on serum 25OHD and serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) in young women with vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25OHD ≤ 20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L). A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of vitamin D3 was conducted in young white and African American women, age 25 to 45 years. A total of 198 healthy white (60%) and African American (40%) women were randomly assigned to placebo, or to 400, 800, 1600, or 2400 IU of vitamin D3 daily. Calcium supplements were added to maintain a total calcium intake of 1000 to 1200 mg daily. The primary outcomes of the study were the final serum 25OHD and PTH levels at 12 months. The absolute increase in serum 25OHD with 400, 800, 1600, and 2400 IU of vitamin D daily was slightly greater in African American women than in white women. On the highest dose of 2400 IU/d, the mixed model predicted that mean 25OHD increased from baseline 12.4 ng/mL (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.2-15.7) to 43.2 ng/mL (95% CI, 38.2-48.1) in African American women and from 15.0 ng/mL (95% CI, 12.3-17.6) to 39.1 ng/mL (95% CI, 36.2-42.0) in white women. There was no significant effect of vitamin D dose on serum PTH in either race but there was a significant inverse relationship between final serum PTH and serum 25OHD. Serum 25OHD exceeded 20 ng/mL in 97.5% of whites on the 400 IU/d dose and between 800 and 1600 IU/d for African Americans. The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) suggested by the Institute of Medicine for young people is 600 IU daily. The increase in serum 25OHD after vitamin D supplementation was similar in young and old, and in white and African American women. PMID:23761326

  7. Exploration of the Lived Experiences of Illiterate African American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, LaTonya Michell

    2009-01-01

    This phenomenological study examined the stories of illiterate African American adults to determine the factors that led to their illiteracy. Narrative techniques were utilized to discern themes from narrative accounts of eight participants. The participants were enrolled in one of two adult basic education programs referred to as ABE I and ABE…

  8. Cultural Orientation as a Protective Factor against Tobacco and Marijuana Smoking for African American Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasim, Aashir; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye; Utsey, Shawn O.; Fallah, Niloofar

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined cultural orientation as a protective factor against tobacco and marijuana smoking for African American young women (ages 18 to 25). African American college students (N = 145) from a predominantly White university were administered subscales from the African American Acculturation Scale-Revised (AAAS-R); the shortened…

  9. African Americans in Adult Education: The Harlem Renaissance Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Bailey, Juanita

    2006-01-01

    This study examined a 25-year period of African Americans in adult education by accessing the archival holdings of three major data centers: the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, the Moorland-Spingarn Archives, and the Hollis Burke Frissell Library. The sociopolitical context of the data was analyzed using a Black feminist…

  10. The Contribution of Community and Family Contexts to African American Young Adults’ Romantic Relationship Health: A Prospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Steven M.; Lei, Man-Kit; Grange, Christina R.; Simons, Ronald L.; Brody, Gene H.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Chen, Yifu

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that African American men and women experience unique challenges in developing and maintaining stable, satisfying romantic relationships. Extant studies have linked relationship quality among African American couples to contemporaneous risk factors such as economic hardship and racial discrimination. Little research, however, has examined the contextual and intrapersonal processes in late childhood and adolescence that influence romantic relationship health among African American adults. We investigated competence-promoting parenting practices and exposure to community-related stressors in late childhood, and negative relational schemas in adolescence, as predictors of young adult romantic relationship health. Participants were 318 African American young adults (59.4% female) who had provided data at four time points from ages 10–22 years. Structural equation modeling indicated that exposure to community-related stressors and low levels of competence-promoting parenting contributed to negative relational schemas, which were proximal predictors of young adult relationship health. Relational schemas mediated the associations of competence-promoting parenting practices and exposure to community stressors in late childhood with romantic relationship health during young adulthood. Results suggest that enhancing caregiving practices, limiting youths’ exposure to community stressors, and modifying relational schemas are important processes to be targeted for interventions designed to enhance African American adults’ romantic relationships. PMID:23494451

  11. Meal patterns and food choices of young African American men: understanding eating within the context of daily life

    PubMed Central

    Flint, Tara L.; Morton, Tiffany B.; Johnson, Lakeisha T.; Bell, Nancy M.; Aronson, Robert E.; Wallace, Debra C.

    2011-01-01

    Although young African-American males are at particularly high risk of developing hypertension at an early age, dietary interventions that have successfully reduced blood pressure among African-American adults have not been translated into programs for this group. Life contexts such as school enrollment, competitive athletics, and employment influence the daily activities and meal patterns of African-American males. This study explored the activities of young African-American males to identify opportunities to increase healthful food choices. A purposive sample was recruited which included five groups of African-American males (15–22 years of age, n=106): high school athletes and non-athletes, college athletes and non-athletes, and non-students. A structured interview guided participants through a description of their activities, meal patterns, and food choices over the course of a typical weekday. Common elements emerged that provided a contextual view of the participant meal patterns and food choices. These elements were sports team participation, college employment, school as a food source, non-student status, and eating dinner at home. These findings suggest opportunities for the design of dietary interventions for young African-American males which take into consideration how school, athletics and employment may influence opportunities to eat regular meals that include healthful foods. PMID:21872697

  12. Home Remedy Use Among African American and White Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Sara A.; Sandberg, Joanne C.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Altizer, Kathryn P.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Home remedy use is an often overlooked component of health self-management, with a rich tradition, particularly among African Americans and others who have experienced limited access to medical care or discrimination by the health care system. Home remedies can potentially interfere with biomedical treatments. This study documented the use of home remedies among older rural adults, and compared use by ethnicity (African American and white) and gender. A purposeful sample of 62 community-dwelling adults ages 65+ from rural North Carolina was selected. Each completed an in-depth interview, which probed current use of home remedies, including food and non-food remedies, and the symptoms or conditions for use. Systematic, computer-assisted analysis was used to identify usage patterns. Five food and five non-food remedies were used by a large proportion of older adults. African American elders reported greater use than white elders; women reported more use for a greater number of symptoms than men. Non-food remedies included long-available, over-the-counter remedies (e.g., Epsom salts) for which “off-label” uses were reported. Use focused on alleviating common digestive, respiratory, skin, and musculoskeletal symptoms. Some were used for chronic conditions in lieu of prescription medications. Home remedy use continues to be a common feature of the health self-management of older adults, particularly among African Americans, though at lower levels than previously reported. While some use is likely helpful or benign, other use has the potential to interfere with medical management of disease. Health care providers should be aware of the use of remedies by their patients. PMID:26543255

  13. Health literacy, smoking, and health indicators in African American adults

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Diana W.; Vidrine, Jennifer I.; Shete, Sanjay; Spears, Claire A.; Cano, Miguel A.; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Wetter, David W.; McNeill, Lorna H.

    2015-01-01

    We examined cross-sectional associations of health literacy (HL) with smoking and other established health indicators among 1,467 African American adults. Data emanated from a longitudinal cohort study designed to investigate cancer risk factors among church-going African American adults. We conducted linear and logistic regression analyses to assess associations between HL and health indicators. HL was assessed using an established single-item screening question. Outcomes included indicators of poor physical (cigarette smoking, self-rated general and physical health) and mental health (self-rated mental health, depressive symptoms, perceived stress). Nearly 19% of participants had low HL. Low HL was significantly associated with current smoking, poorer self-rated general and physical health, and higher perceived stress (ps < .05) even after controlling for demographic variables (i.e., age, gender, relationship status) and indicators of socioeconomic status (i.e., education, income, insurance status). Low HL appears to be an independent risk factor for smoking and other indicators of poor physical and mental health in a large sample of African American adults. Future directions and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:26513028

  14. Health Literacy, Smoking, and Health Indicators in African American Adults.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Diana Stewart; Vidrine, Jennifer I; Shete, Sanjay; Spears, Claire A; Cano, Miguel A; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Wetter, David W; McNeill, Lorna H

    2015-01-01

    We examined cross-sectional associations of health literacy (HL) with smoking and other established health indicators among 1,467 African American adults. Data emanated from a longitudinal cohort study designed to investigate cancer risk factors among church-going African American adults. We conducted linear and logistic regression analyses to assess associations between HL and health indicators. HL was assessed using an established single-item screening question. Outcomes included indicators of poor physical health (cigarette smoking, self-rated general and physical health) and mental health (self-rated mental health, depressive symptoms, perceived stress). Nearly 19% of participants had low HL. Low HL was significantly associated with current smoking, poorer self-rated general and physical health, and higher perceived stress (ps < .05) even after we controlled for demographic variables (i.e., age, gender, relationship status) and indicators of socioeconomic status (i.e., education, income, insurance status). Low HL appears to be an independent risk factor for smoking and other indicators of poor physical and mental health in a large sample of African American adults. Future directions and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:26513028

  15. African-American adults' perceptions of guns and violence.

    PubMed Central

    Price, J. H.; Kandakai, T. L.; Casler, S.; Everett, S.; Smith, D.

    1994-01-01

    This study examined African-American adults' perceptions of guns and violence. Through a mall intercept type study, 347 adults, ages 20 to 75, responded to a 54-item questionnaire. One third of the respondents claimed they owned one or more types of guns, three fourths had personally known someone who had been shot, more than one third had actually seen someone shot, and one third had a gun pulled on them. While the vast majority (84%) believed guns are too easy to obtain, the majority (62%) also believed that having a gun at home would help protect them. There were no significant differences in perceptions of guns based on age, gender, level of education, or socioeconomic status. The results of this study tend to substantiate the concern and fear of personal harm that African Americans have to contend with on a regular basis. The results also suggest the need for some form of educational intervention and gun safety training in order to help reduce the risk of death and injury among African Americans. PMID:8078079

  16. Abnormal endothelial function in young African-American females: discordance with blood flow.

    PubMed Central

    Bransford, T. L.; St Vrain, J. A.; Webb, M.

    2001-01-01

    In this pilot study, we sought to compare the vasodilatory and hemodynamic properties of the peripheral vasculature in the forearms of young, healthy African-American females to similarly matched white females. We used high-resolution ultrasound of the brachial artery to evaluate 11 African-American females and 8 white females. When normalized to nitrate-induced dilation, endothelium-dependent dilation was reduced in young African American females compared to white females (0.6 in African American females compared to 1.0 in white females). These results indicate the need for a larger study to examine this phenomenon. PMID:12653397

  17. Developmental Trajectories of African American Adolescents' Family Conflict: Differences in Mental Health Problems in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Stoddard, Sarah A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    Family conflict is a salient risk factor for African American adolescents' mental health problems. No study we are aware of has estimated trajectories of their family conflict and whether groups differ in internalizing and externalizing problems during the transition to young adulthood, a critical antecedent in adult mental health and…

  18. Understanding Parenting Stress among Young, Low-Income, African-American, First-Time Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yiting; Fine, Mark A.; Ispa, Jean; Thornburg, Kathy R.; Sharp, Elizabeth; Wolfenstein, Miriam

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a theoretical model that examined the extent to which cognitive readiness to parent, perceived difficult child temperament, observed parenting behaviors, and positive coping styles predicted parenting stress among young, low-income, first-time, African-American mothers. One hundred and twenty African-American,…

  19. Contextual Influences on Gendered Racial Identity Development of African American Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Anita Jones; Hoxha, Denada; Hacker, Jason Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the contextual factors and socialization experiences most salient to the identity development of African American girls. Seventeen African American young women participated in dyadic focus groups. Themes that emerged included exposure to stereotypes, negative classroom environments, and parental and peer…

  20. Motivations for Sex among Low-Income African American Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deardorff, Julianna; Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff; Dal Santo, Teresa S.; Flythe, Michelle; Gurdin, J. Barry; Eyre, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    African American young women exhibit higher risk for sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS, compared with European American women, and this is particularly true for African American women living in low-income contexts. We used rigorous qualitative methods, that is, domain analysis, including free listing ("n" = 20),…

  1. Phonological Awareness Skills in Young African American English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitri, Souraya Mansour; Terry, Nicole Patton

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine African American children's performance on a phonological awareness task that included items reflecting differences between African American English (AAE) and mainstream American English. The relationship between spoken production of AAE forms and performance on phonological awareness, vocabulary, and…

  2. Social support among African-American adults with diabetes. Part 1: Theoretical framework.

    PubMed Central

    Ford, M. E.; Tilley, B. C.; McDonald, P. E.

    1998-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus affects African Americans in disproportionate numbers relative to whites. Proper management of this disease is critical because of the increased morbidity and mortality associated with poor diabetes management. The role of social support in promoting diabetes management and improved glycemic control among African Americans is a little-explored area. This article, the first in a two-part series, provides a theoretical framework for examining the relationship between social support and glycemic control among African-American adults. PMID:9640907

  3. Evaluating the Orbach Mikulincer Mental Pain Scale among Late Adolescent and Early Adult African Americans: A Rasch Analysis.

    PubMed

    Trent Haines, R; Jackson, Avis D; Thomas, Erika L

    2015-01-01

    Although there are only a few psychometric investigations of mental pain measurement in the literature, there are no previous evaluations of mental pain scales among African Americans. The present study examined the Rasch measurement properties of the nine subscales contained in the Orbach-Mikulincer Mental Pain (OMMP) Scale among a sample of older adolescent and young adult African Americans. Results from the analyses suggest that three of the OMMP subscales meet the requirements of the Rasch model and hold promise for use in research and applied settings. Implications for further development and use of the remaining subscales are discussed. PMID:26514254

  4. Anxiety Psychopathology in African American Adults: Literature Review and Development of an Empirically Informed Sociocultural Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Lora Rose; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, the extant literature concerning anxiety psychopathology in African American adults is summarized to develop a testable, explanatory framework with implications for future research. The model was designed to account for purported lower rates of anxiety disorders in African Americans compared to European Americans, along with other…

  5. Institutional Barriers to Participation in Adult Education among African Americans within Religious Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac, Paulette; Rowland, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Examined institutional deterrents to participation in adult education among African American Christian church members. Focus group interview data highlighted six categories of deterrents: lack of relevance, programmatic, communication, individual/personal, instructional techniques, and interpersonal. Results suggest that African American Christian…

  6. Influences of Social and Style Variables on Adult Usage of African American English Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Holly K.; Grogger, Jeffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors examined the influences of selected social (gender, employment status, educational achievement level) and style variables (race of examiner, interview topic) on the production of African American English (AAE) by adults. Method: Participants were 50 African American men and women, ages 20-30 years. The authors…

  7. Factors Influencing Dating Experiences Among African American Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Naomi M.; Lee, Anna K.; Witherspoon, Daphne D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined sociocultural factors that impact dating and sexual experiences of heterosexual African American undergraduate college students attending a historically Black institution in the Southeastern United States. Specifically, mate availability and relationship involvement were analyzed to document students’ experiences, and how these influences may be associated with sexual decision making and behavior. Data from nine focus groups (N = 57) were aggregated and four subthemes were identified: competition among women, acceptability of mates, high prevalence of casual relationships, and lowered expectations for commitment. Power dynamics emerged as a contributing factor to the types of relationship involvement, sexual decision-making, and behavior among participants. The importance of prevention programs focusing on situational and cultural variables is highlighted. Additionally, implications for professionals working with emerging adults to consider the impact of the gender ratio imbalance, and perceived power distributions on perceptions of dating relationships, and sexual decision making and behavior are addressed. PMID:25530924

  8. Perceived Racism and Encouragement among African American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowles, Joanna; Duan, Changming

    2012-01-01

    Racial discrimination has negatively affected African Americans in the United States for centuries and produced one of the most publicly recognized histories of social oppression. Extensive research has shown the deleterious effects of racism on African American people and clearly demonstrated that perceived racism and discrimination may…

  9. Experiences of African American Young Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolo, Yovonda Ingram

    African American women are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields throughout the United States. As the need for STEM professionals in the United States increases, it is important to ensure that African American women are among those professionals making valuable contributions to society. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the experiences of African American young women in relation to STEM education. The research question for this study examined how experiences with STEM in K-10 education influenced African American young women's academic choices in their final years in high school. The theory of multicontextuality was used to provide the conceptual framework. The primary data source was interviews. The sample was composed of 11 African American young women in their junior or senior year in high school. Data were analyzed through the process of open coding, categorizing, and identifying emerging themes. Ten themes emerged from the answers to research questions. The themes were (a) high teacher expectations, (b) participation in extra-curricular activities, (c) engagement in group-work, (d) learning from lectures, (e) strong parental involvement, (f) helping others, (g) self-efficacy, (h) gender empowerment, (i) race empowerment, and (j) strategic recruitment practices. This study may lead to positive social change by adding to the understanding of the experiences of African American young women in STEM. By doing so, these findings might motivate other African American young women to pursue advanced STEM classes. These findings may also provide guidance to parents and educators to help increase the number of African American women in STEM.

  10. Young African American Boys Narrating Identities in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Justine M.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to bring the voices of African American boys front and center in science education research in an effort to strengthen our understandings of their experiences of school and science. Using an interpretivist perspective within a narrative inquiry approach, I focus on the student and science-student identities two African…

  11. Results of a Culturally Adapted Internet-Enhanced Physical Activity Pilot Intervention for Overweight and Obese Young Adult African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Rodney P.; Pekmezi, Dori; Dutton, Gareth R.; Cherrington, Andrea L.; Kim, Young-II; Allison, Jeroan J.; Durant, Nefertiti H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated a culturally relevant, social cognitive theory–based, Internet-enhanced physical activity (PA) pilot intervention developed for overweight/obese African American (AA) female college students. Design Using a 3-month, single group, pretest–posttest design, participants accessed a culturally relevant PA promotion website and engaged in four moderate-intensity PA sessions each week. Results Study completers (n = 25, mean age = 21.9 years) reported a decrease in sedentary screen time (p < .0001); however, no changes in moderate-to-vigorous PA were reported (p = .150). A significant increase in self-regulation for PA (p < .0001) and marginally significant increases in social support (p = .052) and outcome expectations (p = .057) for PA were observed. No changes in body mass index (p = .162), PA enjoyment (p = .151), or exercise self-efficacy (p = .086) were reported. Conclusions Findings of this exploratory study show some preliminary support for Internet-enhanced approaches to promote PA among overweight/obese AA women. Implications for Practice Future studies with larger samples are needed to further explore culturally relevant Internet-enhanced PA programs in this underserved population. PMID:24934566

  12. In and out of love with hip-hop: saliency of sexual scripts for young adult African American women in hip-hop and Black-oriented television.

    PubMed

    Coleman, M Nicole; Butler, Ebony O; Long, Amanda M; Fisher, Felicia D

    2016-10-01

    Hip-hop media and Black-oriented reality television are powerful mechanisms for conveying and promoting stereotypes of Black women. Black women's sexuality is frequently presented as highly-salient in each medium. However, little is known about the impact of those images on Black women's sexuality and identity. The current study uses focus-group methodology to engage young adult Black in critical discussion of two predominant sexual scripts found in hip-hop music and Black-oriented reality television - the Freak and the Gold Digger. Analyses revealed shared and distinct aspects of each sexual script represented in both media and the impact of those scripts on participants' experiences. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:27188876

  13. Kujichagalia! Self-Determination in Young African American Women with Disabilities during the Transition Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, La Tonya L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role that self-determination played in the transition process for young African American women with disabilities who exited high school with a special diploma and participated in a local transition program. Factors under study included the young women's autonomy, self-regulation, psychological…

  14. Morphosyntactic Forms of African American English Used by Young Children and Their Caregivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Julie A; Craig, Holly K.

    2002-01-01

    Explores differences between primary caregivers and their young children in dialect use across generations by directly examining dialectal variations apparent during play interactions between African American primary caregivers and their young children. Concludes that there is evidence in these interactions of differences between the child and…

  15. The Role of African American-Owned Radio in Health Promotion: Community Service Projects Targeting Young African American Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Phylis; Birk, Thomas A.

    1993-01-01

    Surveys African-American-owned radio stations to determine how effective they are in addressing health issues among African Americans. Responses from more than 50 stations indicate that they serve as change agents by encouraging community partnerships and emphasizing drug awareness, nonviolent behavior, education, and other health issues. (SLD)

  16. Protective Parenting, Relationship Power Equity, and Condom Use Among Rural African American Emerging Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Steven M.; Simons, Leslie G.; Chen, Yifu; Burwell, Stephanie; Brody, Gene H.

    2012-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections disproportionately affect African Americans, particularly young women. The influence of a set of interrelated protective parenting processes—instrumental and emotional support, sexual risk communication, and encouragement of goals for employment or education—on emerging adult women was examined. Parenting was hypothesized to affect consistent condom use through its association with women’s reports of power equity in their intimate relationships. Hypotheses were tested with 135 sexually active women 18 to 21 years of age living in rural southern communities. Structural equation modeling indicated that (a) parenting processes predicted women’s self-reported relationship power equity and consistent condom use, and (b) relationship power equity predicted consistent condom use. Limited support emerged for a mediational role of relationship power equity in explaining the influence of parenting on consistent condom use. Parental involvement and young women’s establishment of personal control in their intimate relationships are important goals for sexual risk reduction programs. PMID:23729949

  17. Glitch Game Testers: The Design and Study of a Learning Environment for Computational Production with Young African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSalvo, Elizabeth Betsy

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of a learning environment for young African American males, called the Glitch Game Testers, was launched in 2009. The development of this program was based on formative work that looked at the contrasting use of digital games between young African American males and individuals who chose to become computer science majors.…

  18. Motivations for sex among low-income African American young women.

    PubMed

    Deardorff, Julianna; Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff; Dal Santo, Teresa S; Flythe, Michelle; Gurdin, J Barry; Eyre, Stephen L

    2013-12-01

    African American young women exhibit higher risk for sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS, compared with European American women, and this is particularly true for African American women living in low-income contexts. We used rigorous qualitative methods, that is, domain analysis, including free listing (n = 20), similarity assessment (n = 25), and focus groups (four groups), to elicit self-described motivations for sex among low-income African American young women (19-22 years). Analyses revealed six clusters: Love/Feelings, For Fun, Curiosity, Pressured, For Money, and For Material Things. Focus groups explored how African American women interpreted the clusters in light of condom use expectations. Participants expressed the importance of using condoms in risky situations, yet endorsed condom use during casual sexual encounters less than half the time. This study highlights the need for more effective intervention strategies to increase condom use expectations among low-income African American women, particularly in casual relationships where perceived risk is already high. PMID:23372029

  19. Waiting to Exhale: African American Women and Adult Learning Through Movies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Elice E.

    Scholars have addressed adults and the impact of popular culture on adult learning, but little attention has been directed toward the relationship between adult learning and African Americans. Most specifically, minimal information is related to adult learning that evolves as a result of popular culture influences. Popular culture promotes…

  20. Working in High School and Adaptation in the Transition to Young Adulthood among African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauermeister, Jose A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2007-01-01

    Researchers have found mixed support for documenting whether work is protective or harmful during adolescence. This study examined the association between work and problem behaviors among African American youth (N = 592; 53% female; M = 14.8 years, SD = 0.60) followed from mid-adolescence to young adulthood over eight Waves (90% response rate over…

  1. Young African American Children's Representations of Self, Science, and School: Making Sense of Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varelas, Maria; Kane, Justine M.; Wylie, Caitlin Donahue

    2011-01-01

    We focused on young, low-income, African American children in first- to third-grade classrooms where they experienced varied forms of interactive, participatory, and dialogic pedagogy in the context of yearlong, integrated science-literacy instruction. Using conversations that started around children's own science journals, which were an important…

  2. Teacher and Observer Ratings of Young African American Children's Social and Emotional Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphries, Marisha L.; Keenan, Kate; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2012-01-01

    Children's social and emotional competence abilities have been linked to successful social interactions and academic performance. This study examined the teacher and observer ratings of social and emotional competence for 89 young (3- to 5-year-old), African American children from economically stressed urban environments. There was a specific…

  3. African Americans and Self-Help Education: The Missing Link in Adult Education. ERIC Digest No. 222.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Michael L.

    Self-help education and self-help literature is important in the lives of African American adults, but the basic models of learning, development, and program planning in adult education have often been developed with little concern for the unique needs of African Americans. In addition, current theories of adult learning often lack understanding…

  4. What Does Playing Cards Have to Do with Science? A Resource-Rich View of African American Young Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schademan, Alfred R.

    2011-01-01

    The study examines the resources related to science that African American young men learn and develop by playing a card game called Spades, a common cultural practice in African American communities that dates back to the Civil War Era. The qualitative study examines what the Spades players at a local high school consider when making decisions…

  5. Residential Segregation and Overweight/Obesity Among African-American Adults: A Critical Review.

    PubMed

    Corral, Irma; Landrine, Hope; Hall, Marla B; Bess, Jukelia J; Mills, Kevin R; Efird, Jimmy T

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between residential segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults remains unclear. Elucidating that relationship is relevant to efforts to prevent and to reduce racial disparities in obesity. This article provides a critical review of the 11 empirical studies of segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults. Results revealed that most studies did not use a valid measure of segregation, many did not use a valid measure of overweight/obesity, and many did not control for neighborhood poverty. Only four (36% of the) studies used valid measures of both segregation and overweight/obesity and also controlled for area-poverty. Those four studies suggest that segregation contributes to overweight and obesity among African-American adults, but that conclusion cannot be drawn with certainty in light of the considerable methodologic problems in this area of research. Suggestions for improving research on this topic are provided. PMID:26191522

  6. Barriers to Persistence in Adult Basic Education: The Experiences of African American Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Simone

    2011-01-01

    One of the most pervasive issues facing educators and administrators in Adult Basic Education (ABE) is student persistence. The purposes of this qualitative study were 1) to identify the experiences that African American adult learners associated with their decisions to leave ABE programs; 2) to ascertain the impact of participants'…

  7. Patterns of resistance: African American mothers and adult children with HIV illness.

    PubMed

    Boyle, J S; Hodnicki, D R; Ferrell, J A

    1999-01-01

    Although the research on caregiving and caregivers has been extensive, there have been few studies on the cultural context and meaning of African American caregiving in relation to HIV illness. Many Black feminists have argued that African American women experience a world different from those who are not Black and that failure to take account of race, class, and gender is paramount in an attempt to authentically portray the lives of African American women. This study argues that rural African American culture and experiences of racism and discrimination in the rural South shaped the responses of mothers when their adult children developed HIV illness. The study employed the ethnographic techniques of participant observation and in-depth interviews with 14 rural, poor, African American mothers who cared for adult children with HIV illness. Analysis of the data identified patterns of resistance that mothers employed throughout the caregiving experience. Mothers resisted labels and other controlling images that they believed marginalized them and negated what was happening to their children. Mothers used culturally patterned behaviors to protect their families and resist the stigma of HIV/AIDS. PMID:10530083

  8. Probing the Paradoxical Pattern of Cigarette Smoking among African-Americans: Low Teenage Consumption and High Adult Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feigelman, William; Lee, Julia

    1995-01-01

    Based on secondary analysis of the 1990 California Tobacco Survey of 24,296 adult and 7,767 adolescent respondents, this study investigates enigmatic results established by past research of comparatively low smoking prevalence rates among African American adolescents and high use patterns for African American adults. Findings support hypothesis…

  9. The Lived Experience of the Adult African American Female Who Has Lived in Multiple Foster Care Placements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Avonda C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine and describe the lived experiences of the adult African American woman who had lived in multiple foster care placements. Eleven adult African American women ages 22-25 participated in semi-structured, face-to-face interviews to tell their stories and provide data of the memories of the experience. The…

  10. Non-supportive Parenting Affects Telomere Length in Young Adulthood Among African Americans: Mediation through Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Beach, Steven R. H.; Lei, Man Kit; Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Philibert, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Telomere length (TL) is an indicator of age related changes at the cellular level associated with heightened mortality risk. The effect of non-supportive parenting (NSP) during late adolescence and young adulthood on TL 5 years later was examined in a sample of N = 183 young adult African Americans to determine if effects of NSP on TL were mediated by substance use. Results indicated that the effect of caregiver reported NSP on diminished TL was mediated by escalation of drinking and smoking in young adulthood, even after controlling effects of socioeconomic status risk, gender, BMI, young adult stress, and intervention status. Results suggest that prevention of NSP may influence later physical health consequences by influencing substance use trajectory. PMID:25485673

  11. Recommendations for a Culturally Relevant Internet-Based Tool to Promote Physical Activity Among Overweight Young African American Women, Alabama, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Rodney P.; Cherrington, Andrea; Cuffee, Yendelela; Knight, BernNadette; Lewis, Dwight; Allison, Jeroan J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Innovative approaches are needed to promote physical activity among young adult overweight and obese African American women. We sought to describe key elements that African American women desire in a culturally relevant Internet-based tool to promote physical activity among overweight and obese young adult African American women. Methods A mixed-method approach combining nominal group technique and traditional focus groups was used to elicit recommendations for the development of an Internet-based physical activity promotion tool. Participants, ages 19 to 30 years, were enrolled in a major university. Nominal group technique sessions were conducted to identify themes viewed as key features for inclusion in a culturally relevant Internet-based tool. Confirmatory focus groups were conducted to verify and elicit more in-depth information on the themes. Results Twenty-nine women participated in nominal group (n = 13) and traditional focus group sessions (n = 16). Features that emerged to be included in a culturally relevant Internet-based physical activity promotion tool were personalized website pages, diverse body images on websites and in videos, motivational stories about physical activity and women similar to themselves in size and body shape, tips on hair care maintenance during physical activity, and online social support through social media (eg, Facebook, Twitter). Conclusion Incorporating existing social media tools and motivational stories from young adult African American women in Internet-based tools may increase the feasibility, acceptability, and success of Internet-based physical activity programs in this high-risk, understudied population. PMID:24433625

  12. Elevated sexual risk behaviors among postincarcerated young African American males in the South.

    PubMed

    Ricks, JaNelle M; Crosby, Richard A; Terrell, Ivy

    2015-03-01

    The dramatic racial disparities in the rates of HIV/STIs(sexually transmitted infections) among African Americans make understanding broader structural factors that increase the risk for HIV/STIs crucial. The current study of young 564 African American men attending STI clinics investigated whether those who had ever been incarcerated reported recent sexual behaviors relatively more risky than their counterparts who had never been incarcerated. Participants were recruited from clinics treating STIs in three southern U.S. cities. Males 15 to 23 years of age who identified as Black/African American and reported recent (past 2 months) sexual activity were eligible. Linear mixed-effects models and generalized estimating equation models were used to assess associations between baseline incarceration history and sexual risk behavior over a 6-month follow-up period. Mean age was 19.6 years (SD = 1.87). At baseline, 240 (42.6%) men reported history of incarceration. Incarceration history predicted several risk behaviors over a 6-month follow-up period. Compared with those with no incarceration history, men previously incarcerated reported a desire to conceive a pregnancy (β = .40, p = .02), were less likely to have used a condom at last sex act (odds ratio = .91, p = .02) and were more likely to have used drugs and alcohol before sex in the past 2 months (β = .69, p < .001; β = .41, p < .001). A history of incarceration may influence the sexual risk behavior of young African American males. Prevention programs and interventions should intensify support for postincarceration African American males to help mitigate this behavior. PMID:24794821

  13. Do the adult criminal careers of African Americans fit the “facts”?

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Elaine Eggleston; Ensminger, Margaret E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose A major gap in the criminal career research is our understanding of offending among African Americans, especially beyond early adulthood. In light of this gap, this study describes the criminal career patterns of a cohort of African American males and females. Methods This paper uses official criminal history data spanning ages 17 to 52 from the Woodlawn Study, a community cohort of 1,242 urban African American males and females. We use basic descriptive statistics as well as group-based modeling to provide a detailed description of the various dimensions of their adult criminal careers. Results We find cumulative prevalence rates similar to those for African Americans from national probability sample estimates, yet participation in offending extends farther into midlife than expected with a substantial proportion of the cohort still engaged in offending into their 30s. Conclusions The descriptive analyses contribute to the larger body of knowledge regarding the relationship between age and crime and the unfolding of the criminal career for African American males and females. The applicability of existing life course and developmental theories is discussed in light of the findings. PMID:25605979

  14. Concepts of Infidelity among African American Emerging Adults: Implications for HIV/STI Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyre, Stephen L.; Flythe, Michelle; Hoffman, Valerie; Fraser, Ashley E.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used an exploratory methodology to determine what cultural models African American emerging adults use to understand infidelity/cheating. Cultural models are defined as "cognitive schema[s] that [are] intersubjectively shared by a social group" (D'Andrade, 1987, p. 112). We interviewed 144 participants ages 19-22 from three…

  15. Black Greek-Letter Organizations: A Legacy of African American Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Keiwana O'Neal

    2012-01-01

    The education of African American adults evolved in response to the changing social, economic, and political needs of the Black community. To address these needs, Black Greek-Letter Organizations (BGLOs) created and implemented initiatives at the local, national, and international levels using education as a catalyst to change aspects of African…

  16. Literacy and Identity: Reflections of Six African American Males in an Adult Literacy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drayton, Brendaly Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This multiple case study explored how the literate experiences of six African American men influenced their perceptions of and engagement with a community-based adult basic education and literacy (ABEL) program in a large northeastern city. The theoretical framework included a social practices view of literacy and a constructivist view of…

  17. Buffering Effects of a Family-Based Intervention for African American Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Smith, Karen; Brown, Anita C.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on the buffering effects of Adults in the Making (AIM), a family-centered preventive intervention, on the link between life stress and increases in risk behaviors among 347 rural, southern African Americans as they left high school. Of the families, 174 were assigned to the prevention condition and 173 to a control condition.…

  18. Adult Social Behavioral Effects of Heavy Adolescent Marijuana Use among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kerry M.; Ensminger, Margaret E.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of heavy adolescent marijuana use on employment, marriage, and family formation and tested both dropping out of high school and adult marijuana use as potential mediators of these associations among a community sample of African Americans followed longitudinally from age 6 to age 32-33. They used propensity …

  19. Inconsistencies in the Literature on Collegiate Adult Children of Alcoholics: Factors to Consider for African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodney, H. Elaine

    1996-01-01

    Several inconsistencies in literature on adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) were found. This paper emphasizes that clinicians and those developing prevention programs should stop believing that certain characteristics are typical of all ACOAs. It makes recommendations for factors to be considered in programs for African American collegiate…

  20. Caregiver Acceptability and Preferences for Preventive Dental Treatments for Young African American Children

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Sally H.; Rowe, Corie R.; Gansky, Stuart A.; Cheng, Nancy F.; Barker, Judith C.; Hyde, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Our prior research focused on parental treatment acceptability (TA) and preferences (TP) for preventive dental treatments for young Hispanic children. We adapted the interview for administration to parents of young African American children. Objective In a sample of African American parents, determine parental TA and TP for 5 dental treatments to prevent early childhood caries. Methods Interviewed 48 parents/caregivers of African American children attending Head Start, assessing TA and TP for 3 treatments for children: toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste (TB), fluoride varnish (FV), and xylitol in food (XF); and 2 treatments for mothers: xylitol gum (XG) and chlorhexidine (CHX) rinse. The interview included verbal information, illustrated treatment cards, photos/video clips, and samples. Parents provided TA of each treatment (1–5 scale), TP between each of 10 pairs of the 5 treatments, and open-ended reasons for their preferences. TP were summed (0–4) to create overall preference. Results All treatments were acceptable (means 4.4–4.9). TB was more acceptable than FV and XF (p<0.05). Summed TP revealed a strong preference for TB (mean 3.1) above other treatments (all p<0.01). Primary reasons for preferring TB were: promotes healthy habits; child-focused; and effectiveness. Conclusions All treatments were acceptable, however, parents/guardians strongly preferred TB. Parents’ emphasis on healthy habits and child-focused treatment supports efforts for oral health education programs in early childhood settings. Some parents expressed concerns about FV, XF, and CHX. Results may be useful in planning prevention programs for young children in African American communities. PMID:22506551

  1. Attitudes of Young African American Fathers Toward Early Childbearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Susan L.; Dix, Emily S.; Rhodes, Scott D.; Harrington, Kathleen F.; Frison, Sonja; Willis, Leigh

    2004-01-01

    Objective : To qualitatively examine the perceptions of young fathers toward issues related to early childbearing. Methods : Focus groups were held with male partners of adolescent females who had become pregnant while participating in an HIV-prevention trial. Results : Primary domains that emerged included young male's desire for pregnancy, their…

  2. Food choices of young African-American and Latino adolescents: where do parents fit in?

    PubMed

    O'Dougherty, Maureen; Story, Mary; Lytle, Leslie

    2006-11-01

    To gain insight into parents' perceptions of the food preferences of their young adolescents, and their negotiating and decision-making strategies around food purchasing and meals, four focus groups were held with 32 African-American parents and three focus groups with 14 Spanish-dominant, first-generation immigrant Latina mothers. Most participants were of low socioeconomic status and were single parents. Many African-American parents emphasized children's growing appetites and preferences for fast food. Many reported making weekday dinner decisions jointly with the child or allowing the child to eat a lunch-like alternative, and allowing serve-yourself meals on weekends. A few prepared traditional ethnic foods. Latina parents reported that their children liked ethnic foods and fast/junk foods. They emphasized buying foods their children wanted, making no eating restrictions, and preparing traditional ethnic dinners without alternatives. African-American and Latina parents displayed concern over whether to place restrictions on young adolescents' eating. Further research is needed on the ways in which socioeconomic inequalities compound barriers to healthful eating, with particular attention to low income and immigrant populations. PMID:17081835

  3. Education Desegregation and Cognitive Change in African American Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gamaldo, Alyssa A.; Sims, Regina C.; Allaire, Jason C.; Whitfield, Keith E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The present study examined the relationship between desegregated schooling and cognitive change in a sample of 420 community-dwelling African American elders (mean age = 68.6; SD = 9.1). Method. Participants were recruited for the Baltimore Study of Black Aging—Patterns of Cognitive Aging. Cognitive measures from six domains of function were administered at baseline and follow-up 33 months later. Repeated measures multivariate analysis of covariance was conducted; the between subjects factors were schooling type and age cohort, and the within subjects factor was time. Analyses controlled for age, years of education, and sex, and follow-up univariate analyses were used to determine which individual cognitive scores drove the multivariate effects. Results. There were significant multivariate within-group, between-group, and interaction effects (p < .05). Univariate analyses indicated that the desegregated schooling group scored significantly better on Language and Perceptual Speed (p < .01), and the youngest age cohort (50- to 59-year-olds) performed better on measures of Perceptual Speed. There were no significant univariate interactions between schooling group or age cohort and cognitive change over time. Discussion. Overall, these findings suggest a slight advantage of desegregated schooling for cognitive performance, but no advantage of desegregated schooling on the rate of cognitive change over time in this sample. PMID:25361918

  4. Major salivary gland flow rates in young and old, generally healthy African Americans and whites.

    PubMed

    Jones, R E; Ship, J A

    1995-02-01

    Saliva is essential to maintain and preserve oral health. Previous studies of primarily white populations demonstrated that salivary gland flow rates are age-stable in healthy adults, but there are little data on African Americans of different ages. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between age, gender, and race in unstimulated and stimulated parotid and submandibular salivary gland flow rates and to evaluate subjective responses to questions regarding salivary dysfunction. Sixty generally healthy, middle socioeconomic class African Americans and whites between the ages of 20 to 40 and 60 to 80 years were evaluated. The results indicate, in general, that objective and subjective measurements of major salivary gland flow rates are independent of age, gender, and race. Further studies are required using larger populations. These results suggest that signs and symptoms of dry mouth in the elderly regardless of race or gender should not be considered a normal sequela of aging. PMID:7897685

  5. Factors linking childhood experiences to adult romantic relationships among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L; Landor, Antoinette M; Bryant, Chalandra M; Beach, Steven R H

    2014-06-01

    It is well known that a high-quality relationship with a romantic partner is related to a variety of positive outcomes associated with health and well-being. Establishing such relationships is an important developmental task for young adults, and past research indicates that there is a link between experiences in the family of origin and the success of later intimate relationships. It has been suggested that this association can be explained by the acquisition of social competencies (e.g., emotions, schemas, traits) that are acquired during childhood in the family of origin and, in turn, influence interaction with adult romantic partners. The current study builds on this foundation by identifying particular competencies expected to explain the association between childhood exposure to supportive and harsh parenting and later patterns of interaction with romantic partners. Specifically, we examine anger management, attachment style, hostile attribution bias, and self-control as potential mediators using prospective, longitudinal data from a sample of 345 African American young adults. Results from structural equation modeling indicate that each of the mediators in our study accounts for a significant portion of the effect of parenting on the quality of adult romantic relationships, although the constructs linking parenting to warm interactions with romantic partners are somewhat different from those that link parenting to hostile interactions with romantic partners. Even after accounting for the effect of the mediators, there is still a direct effect of parenting on both warm/loving and hostile/aggressive interactions with romantic partner. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:24730381

  6. Factors Linking Childhood Experiences to Adult Romantic Relationships among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.; Landor, Antoinette M.; Bryant, Chalandra M.; Beach, Steven R.H.

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that a high quality relationship with a romantic partner is related to a variety of positive outcomes associated with health and well-being. Establishing such relationships is an important developmental task for young adults and past research indicates that there is a link between experiences in the family of origin and the success of later intimate relationships. It has been suggested that this association can be explained by the acquisition of social competencies (e.g., emotions, schemas, traits) that are acquired during childhood in the family of origin and, in turn, influence interaction with adult romantic partners. The current study builds on this foundation by identifying particular competencies expected to explain the association between childhood exposure to supportive and harsh parenting and later patterns of interaction with romantic partners. Specifically, we examine anger management, attachment style, hostile attribution bias, and self-control as potential mediators using prospective, longitudinal data from a sample of 345 African American young adults. Results from structural equation modeling indicate that each of the mediators in our study accounts for a significant portion of the effect of parenting on the quality of adult romantic relationships although the constructs linking parenting to warm interactions with romantic partners are somewhat different from those that link parenting to hostile interactions with romantic partners. Even after accounting for the effect of the mediators, there is still a direct effect of parenting on both warm/loving and hostile/aggressive interactions with romantic partner. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:24730381

  7. Association Between Adolescent Drinking and Adult Violence: Evidence From a Longitudinal Study of Urban African Americans*

    PubMed Central

    Green, Kerry M.; Doherty, Elaine E.; Zebrak, Katarzyna A.; Ensminger, Margaret E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between adolescent alcohol use and adult violence from a developmental perspective, specifically whether frequent adolescent drinking predicts adult violence once shared risk factors are taken into account through propensity score matching. The research considered multiple types of violence, including assault, robbery, and suicidal behavior, as well as other types of offending. It tested whether educational attainment and adult alcohol use and problems contribute to the adolescent drinking–adult violence relationship. Method: Data came from a longitudinal epidemiological study of a community cohort of urban African Americans followed from age 6 to 42 (N = 702; 51% female). Frequent adolescent drinking was operationalized as 20 times or more by age 16. Data on violent arrests and offenses were collected throughout adulthood from self-reports and official criminal records. Matching variables came from childhood and adolescence and included such shared risk factors as childhood externalizing behaviors, school achievement, and family functioning. Results: Adjusted logistic regression analyses on the sample matched on childhood and adolescent risk factors showed that frequent adolescent drinking was associated with an increased risk of violence in young adulthood (in particular assault) but not with other types of crime, self-directed violence, or violence in midlife. Findings varied by gender. Heavy episodic drinking in adulthood seemed to account for some of the association between frequent adolescent drinking and adult assault. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that preventing frequent adolescent drinking could potentially decrease adult assault. This study adds to the growing body of literature suggesting long-term negative consequences of adolescent alcohol use. PMID:21906497

  8. Perceived racism and suicide ideation: mediating role of depression but moderating role of religiosity among African American adults.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rheeda L; Salami, Temilola K; Carter, Sierra E; Flowers, Kelci

    2014-10-01

    Suicide is a public health problem for African Americans who are young and of working age. The purpose of this study was to examine mediated and moderated effects of perceived racism on suicide ideation in a community sample of 236 African American men and women. Measures of suicide ideation, depression symptoms, intrinsic/extrinsic religiosity, and perceived racism were administered. Perceived racial discrimination was directly and indirectly associated with suicide ideation. For participants who reported low levels of extrinsic religiosity, the mediated effect of perceived racism (via depression symptoms) was significant. These findings provide some insight into suicide vulnerability for specific subgroups of African Americans. PMID:24690042

  9. Health status attributes of older African-American adults with hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Kenneth C

    2004-06-01

    This article describes a study that examined hearing loss and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) attributes of 71 African-American older adults ranging in age from 60 to 89 years. Demographic profiles were used to obtain pertinent case histories, audiometric testing was used to obtain estimates of peripheral hearing sensitivity, and middle-ear integrity was assessed via tympanometry. The health status (i.e., HRQoL) attributes were determined via self-report scores on the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Results from bivariate analyses determined statistically significant correlations between hearing loss and lower SF-36 scores across subscales. Multivariate regression models revealed a statistically significant impact between hearing loss and lower SF-36 scores across subscales, even after controlling for experimental confounds. These findings suggest that hearing loss is capable of contributing to HRQoL deficits in African-American older adults. The importance of these data in terms of pre-existing attitudes of African-American older adults towards hearing healthcare services and long-term effects of untreated hearing loss are considered. PMID:15233487

  10. Provider Types Utilized and Recency of Mental Health Service Use among African American Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Sha-Lai

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examined factors associated with mental health service utilization among African American emerging adults, specifically, when services were used (recency) and the types of providers utilized (mental health/non-mental health). Methods Guided by the Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations, secondary analysis of the National Survey of American Life (2001-2003) was conducted. A nationally representative sample of African American emerging adults, ages 18-29 (n=806), were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. “Evaluated need” was determined by endorsement for one of four DSM-IV diagnosis types (mood, anxiety, substance use, impulse control). Respondents who reported a need for services for emotional/substance use problems were considered to have a “perceived need”. Those who reported voluntary use of mental health/health services to address these problems were considered to have utilized services. Results 25%of the sample utilized services in their lifetime, while 9% utilized services in the past 12 months. Females were more likely than males to utilize services in three of the four service use categories (lifetime, mental health sector, and non-mental health sector).Respondents with an evaluated need for services were 2-12 times more likely to have utilized services compared to those without a need. Conclusions Little is known about why African American emerging adults underutilize mental health services. These findings indicate that being female and having an evaluated need for services were associated with greater odds of service use among this sample. This suggests the need for additional examination of gender differences in service utilization and greater mental health outreach/education among African American males. PMID:24981778

  11. A cascade model connecting life stress to risk behavior among rural African American emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Brody, Gene H; Chen, Yi-Fu; Kogan, Steven M

    2010-08-01

    A three-wave cascade model linking life stress to increases in risk behavior was tested with 347 African American emerging adults living in the rural South. Data analyses using structural equation modeling and latent growth curve modeling demonstrated that life stress was linked to increases in risk behavior as African Americans transitioned out of secondary school. The cascade model indicated that life stress fostered increases in negative emotions. Negative emotions, in turn, were linked to increases in affiliations with deviant peers and romantic partners; this forecast increases in risk behavior. The findings supported a stress proliferation framework, in which primary stressors affect increases in secondary stressors that carry forward to influence changes in risk behaviors that can potentially compromise mental health. PMID:20576186

  12. The Adults in the Making Program: Long-Term Protective Stabilizing Effects on Alcohol Use and Substance Use Problems for Rural African American Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Smith, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This report addresses the long-term efficacy of the Adults in the Making (AIM) prevention program on deterring the escalation of alcohol use and development of substance use problems, particularly among rural African American emerging adults confronting high levels of contextual risk. Method: African American youths (M age, pretest =…

  13. Adolescent risk factors for late-onset smoking among African American young men.

    PubMed

    White, Helene Raskin; Violette, Nancy M; Metzger, Lisa; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2007-01-01

    This study examined adolescent risk factors for late-onset cigarette smoking among African American males. Data came from the Pittsburgh Youth Study, a longitudinal study of young men followed from age 13 to age 25. Individuals who began smoking at age 17 or older were compared with those who began smoking by age 16 and with those who never smoked in terms of risk factors measured in middle (at age 16) and late adolescence (from age 17 to 19). The study included 281 African American young men. A total of 18 psychological, behavioral, and environmental risk factors were measured at age 16, and 19 risk factors were measured between ages 17 and 19. Several risk factors at age 16 differed between early-onset and late-onset smokers or nonsmokers; however, in multivariate analyses, only peer drug use and truancy were significant. Among the age 16 risk factors, only truancy differentiated late-onset smokers from nonsmokers. Late adolescence behavioral risk factors were significantly related to late-onset smoking. However, only smoking marijuana and highest grade completed differentiated late-onset smokers from nonsmokers in multivariate analyses. Well-established predictors of cigarette smoking assessed in middle adolescence could identify individuals who already smoked but could not distinguish between those who would and would not begin smoking later. Late adolescence life transitions were not related to late-onset smoking. More research is needed to examine contextual factors in late adolescence and early adulthood that protect against and precipitate late-onset of smoking for African Americans. PMID:17365746

  14. Financial Exploitation and Psychological Mistreatment Among Older Adults: Differences Between African Americans and Non-African Americans in a Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Beach, Scott R.; Schulz, Richard; Castle, Nicholas G.; Rosen, Jules

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine racial differences in (a) the prevalence of financial exploitation and psychological mistreatment since turning 60 and in the past 6 months and (b) the experience—perpetrator, frequency, and degree of upset—of psychological mistreatment in the past 6 months. Design and methods: Random digit dial telephone recruitment and population-based survey (telephone and in-person) of 903 adults aged 60 years and older in Allegheny County (Pittsburgh), Pennsylvania (693 non-African American and 210 African American). Covariates included sex, age, education, marital status, household composition, cognitive function, instrumental activities of daily living/activities of daily living difficulties, and depression symptoms. Results: Prevalence rates were significantly higher for African Americans than for non-African Americans for financial exploitation since turning 60 (23.0% vs. 8.4%) and in the past 6 months (12.9% vs. 2.4%) and for psychological mistreatment since turning 60 (24.4% vs. 13.2%) and in the past 6 months (16.1% vs. 7.2%). These differences remained once all covariates were controlled in logistic regression models. There were also racial differences in the experience of psychological mistreatment in the past 6 months. Risk for clinical depression was also a consistent predictor of financial exploitation and psychological mistreatment. Implications: Although the results will need to be replicated in national surveys, the study suggests that racial differences in elder mistreatment are a potentially serious issue deserving of continued attention from researchers, health providers, and social service professionals. PMID:20650947

  15. Stigma and Sexual Health Risk in HIV-Positive African American Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Doty, Nathan; Hawkins, Linda A.; Gaskins, Clare S.; Beidas, Rinad; Rudy, Bret J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Understanding the multiple forms of stigma experienced by young HIV-positive African American men who have sex with men and how they relate to sexual risk behaviors is essential to design effective HIV prevention programs. This study of 40 African American young MSM found that 90% of those surveyed experienced sexual minority stigma, 88% experienced HIV stigma, and 78% experienced dual stigma. Sexual minority stigma was characterized by experiences of social avoidance, and HIV stigma, by shame. Individuals with high HIV stigma were significantly more likely to engage in unprotected sex while high or intoxicated. Associations between stigma and sexual practices were examined; youth endorsing higher levels of sexual minority stigma engaged in less insertive anal intercourse. Individuals endorsing more HIV stigma reported more receptive anal intercourse. These findings support the development of stigma-informed secondary prevention interventions for African American HIV-positive young MSM. PMID:20673080

  16. What does playing cards have to do with science? A resource-rich view of African American young men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schademan, Alfred R.

    2011-06-01

    The study examines the resources related to science that African American young men learn and develop by playing a card game called Spades, a common cultural practice in African American communities that dates back to the Civil War Era. The qualitative study examines what the Spades players at a local high school consider when making decisions about what cards to play. A significant finding is that the players use, learn and develop resources such as the ability to make observations, draw inferences, and use empirical data to inform future actions and decisions. Such reasoning bears a resemblance to central practices of science and challenges long held deficit views of African American young men. Implications of the research findings are discussed.

  17. Infected Lives: Lived Experiences of Young African American HIV-Positive Women.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Jill N; Domian, Elaine W; Teel, Cynthia S

    2016-02-01

    This hermeneutic phenomenological study explored the lived experiences of young African American HIV-infected women. Eleven women between the ages of 21 and 35 participated. One pattern, Infected Lives, and three themes--Living Alone With HIV, Living With Unresolved Conflicts, and Living With Multiple Layers of Betrayal--emerged. The pattern and themes portray the very complex and challenging experiences faced by these young women living with HIV infection. They have experienced isolation, abandonment, betrayal, and discrimination in their interpersonal and social systems. They often dealt with conflicts of hope and anguish in the relationships with their children, and portraying strength, while feeling fragile. These complexities negatively influence the ability to fully engage in self-care activities. Implications for future research include further investigation about the experiences of psychological distress experienced post-diagnosis, development and evaluation of holistic nursing interventions, and evaluative research on mass media educational campaigns to reduce HIV-related stigma. PMID:25239137

  18. Butterfly Girls; promoting healthy diet and physical activity to young African American girls online: Rationale and design

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Young African American girls have a high risk of obesity. Online behavior change programs promoting healthy diet and physical activity are convenient and may be effective for reducing disparities related to obesity. This report presents the protocol guiding the design and evaluation of a culturally ...

  19. African American Mothers' Socialization Beliefs and Goals with Young Children: Themes of History, Education, and Collective Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Robinson, Courtney; Pahlke, Erin

    2008-01-01

    Although research on African American family socialization is increasing, little is known about the beliefs, goals, and strategies of middle-class parents of young children. This study's aim was to address this research gap by examining three key aspects of parental socialization. First, the authors investigated whether and how African American…

  20. Ways of Examining Speech Acts in Young African American Children: Considering Inside-Out and Outside-In Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJarnette, Glenda; Rivers, Kenyatta O.; Hyter, Yvette D.

    2015-01-01

    To develop a framework for further study of pragmatic behavior in young children from African American English (AAE) speaking backgrounds, one aspect of pragmatic behavior is explored in this article, specifically, speech acts. The aims of this article are to (1) examine examples of how external taxonomies (i.e., an "etic" or…

  1. Obesity and Body Ideals in the Media: Health and Fitness Practices of Young African-American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Margaret Carlisle; Robinson, T. Tavita

    2004-01-01

    This study explores the female body ideal and its implications for health and fitness practices in African-American culture. Employing Patricia Hill Collins's (1986) notion of the "outsider-within," we analyze a focus group discussion on women's body ideals, exercise, and fitness. Our group comprises 9 young, college-educated African-American…

  2. Health Information-Seeking Practices of African American Young Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, India D.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Spencer, S. Melinda; Annang, Lucy; Lindley, Lisa L.

    2016-01-01

    The current study used a qualitative, phenomenological approach to investigate the health information-seeking practices of African American young men who have sex with men (AAYMSM). Forty-two self-identified AAYMSM, aged 18 to 21, residing in a Southeastern U.S. city participated in a qualitative focus group or face-to-face interview to examine…

  3. Project Bridge: Preparing African-American Teachers To Work with Young Children with Disabilities and Their Families. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Marie

    This final report describes the activities and outcomes of a federally funded project that was designed to prepare African-American students at the graduate level as teachers in Early Childhood Special Education (ECSE), who would be capable of meeting the special education needs of young children with disabilities, ages birth through five, and…

  4. Evaluation of the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program with low-income, urban, African American older adults.

    PubMed

    Rose, Molly A; Arenson, Christine; Harrod, Pamela; Salkey, Robyn; Santana, Abbie; Diamond, James

    2008-01-01

    A 1-group pretest-posttest design to assess for changes in outcomes at 10 weeks and 6 months was the method used to evaluate the standardized 6-session Chronic Disease Self Management Program (CDSMP) with low income, urban African American older adults. Participants included 153 older adults (primarily African American) with 1 or more chronic health conditions. Classes were provided in the community at senior citizen centers, senior housing, and churches. Significant improvements were noted in selected areas at 10 weeks and 6 months after the program completion. The CDSMP was feasible and well-received with the older adults who participated in the study. PMID:18979330

  5. Project genesis: self-reported religiosity and spirituality and sexual risk-taking in young African-American women attending a historically African-American college.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Tami L; Freeman, Arin

    2011-07-01

    This pilot study explored the relationship between self-reported religiosity, spirituality, and sexual risk-taking. The participants were a convenience sample of (N = 100) female students attending a historically African-American college (HBCU) in the south. On this predominantly female campus, students completed an anonymous health-risk survey, plus additional items, to measure their religiosity and spirituality. Correlation analysis revealed that although these students reported a high degree of religiosity and spirituality, these characteristics did not predict a decrease in sexual risk-taking behavior. Over six million new cases of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including the human papilloma virus (HPV), are projected in young Americans despite primary prevention measures. Although no predictive relationships were noted, self-reported spirituality or religiosity were not protective factors against high-risk sexual behavior. These findings are relevant to developing effective interventions in this population in order to decrease STI/HPV rates. PMID:21888148

  6. Natural mentoring processes deter externalizing problems among rural African American emerging adults: a prospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Steven M; Brody, Gene H; Chen, Yi-Fu

    2011-12-01

    A 3-wave model linking natural mentoring relationships to externalizing behavior was tested with 345 rural African American emerging adults in their final year of high school. Structural equation models were executed linking multi-informant reports of mentor-emerging adult relationship quality with youths' externalizing behavior 18 months later. Consistent with our primary hypotheses, emerging adults whose relationships with their natural mentors were characterized by instrumental and emotional support and affectively positive interactions reported lower levels of anger, rule-breaking behavior, and aggression. These effects emerged independent of the influences of family support and youth gender. Two intrapersonal processes, a future orientation and self-regulation, emerged as mediators of the influence of natural mentoring relationships. The influence of natural mentors was most pronounced for emerging adults experiencing high levels of life stress. PMID:21293917

  7. Personality Assessment Screener, Childhood Abuse, and Adult Partner Violence in African American Women Using Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Porcerelli, John H; Hurrell, Kristen; Cogan, Rosemary; Jeffries, Keturah; Markova, Tsveti

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the relationship between psychopathology with the Personality Assessment Screener (PAS) and childhood physical and sexual abuse and adult physical and sexual partner violence in a primary care sample of 98 urban-dwelling African American women. Patients completed the PAS, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The PAS total score significantly correlated with all measures of childhood and adult abuse. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that PAS element scores of Suicidal Thinking and Hostile Control significantly predicted a history of childhood physical abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Hostile Control, and Acting Out significantly predicted a history of childhood sexual abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Negative Affect, and Alienation significantly predicted current adult partner physical violence; and Psychotic Features, Alcohol Problems, and Anger Control significantly predicted current adult sexual partner violence. The PAS appears to be a useful measure for fast-paced primary care settings for identifying patients who need a more thorough assessment for abuse. PMID:26374084

  8. Natural Mentoring Processes Deter Externalizing Problems Among Rural African American Emerging Adults: A Prospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Steven M.; Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-fu

    2011-01-01

    A 3-wave model linking natural mentoring relationships to externalizing behavior was tested with 345 rural African American emerging adults in their final year of high school. Structural equation models were executed linking multi-informant reports of mentor-emerging adult relationship quality with youths’ externalizing behavior 18 months later. Consistent with our primary hypotheses, emerging adults whose relationships with their natural mentors were characterized by instrumental and emotional support and affectively positive interactions reported lower levels of anger, rule-breaking behavior, and aggression. These effects emerged independent of the influences of family support and youth gender. Two intrapersonal processes, a future orientation and self-regulation, emerged as mediators of the influence of natural mentoring relationships. The influence of natural mentors was most pronounced for emerging adults experiencing high levels of life stress. PMID:21293917

  9. Prediction of HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Disadvantaged African American Adults Using a Syndemic Conceptual Framework.

    PubMed

    Nehl, Eric J; Klein, Hugh; Sterk, Claire E; Elifson, Kirk W

    2016-02-01

    The focus of this paper is on HIV sexual risk taking among a community-based sample of disadvantaged African American adults. The objective is to examine multiple factors associated with sexual HIV risk behaviors within a syndemic conceptual framework. Face-to-face, computer-assisted, structured interviews were conducted with 1535 individuals in Atlanta, Georgia. Bivariate analyses indicated a high level of relationships among the HIV sexual risks and other factors. Results from multivariate models indicated that gender, sexual orientation, relationship status, self-esteem, condom use self-efficacy, sex while the respondent was high, and sex while the partner was high were significant predictors of condomless sex. Additionally, a multivariate additive model of risk behaviors indicated that the number of health risks significantly increased the risk of condomless sex. This intersection of HIV sexual risk behaviors and their associations with various other behavioral, socio-demographic, and psychological functioning factors help explain HIV risk-taking among this sample of African American adults and highlights the need for research and practice that accounts for multiple health behaviors and problems. PMID:26188618

  10. Young African American children constructing identities in an urban integrated science-literacy classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, Justine M.

    This is a qualitative study of identities constructed and enacted by four 3rd-grade African American children (two girls and two boys) in an urban classroom that engaged in a year-long, integrated science-literacy project. Juxtaposing narrative and discursive identity lenses, coupled with race and gender perspectives, I examined the ways in which the four children saw and performed themselves as students and as science students in their classroom. Interview data were used for the narrative analysis and classroom Discourse and artifacts were used for the discursive analysis. A constructivist grounded theory framework was adopted for both analyses. The findings highlight the diversity and richness of perspectives and forms of engagement these young children shared and enacted, and help us see African American children as knowers, doers, and talkers of science individually and collectively. In their stories about themselves, all the children identified themselves as smart but they associated with smartness different characteristics and practices depending on their strengths and preferences. Drawing on the children's social, cultural, and ethnolinguistic resources, the dialogic and multimodal learning spaces facilitated by their teacher allowed the children to explore, negotiate, question, and learn science ideas. The children in this study brought their understandings and ways of being into the "lived-in" spaces co-created with classmates and teacher and influenced how these spaces were created. At the same time, each child's ways of being and understandings were shaped by the words, actions, behaviors, and feelings of peers and teacher. Moreover, as these four children engaged with science-literacy activities, they came to see themselves as competent, creative, active participants in science learning. Although their stories of "studenting" seemed dominated by following rules and being well-behaved, their stories of "sciencing" were filled with exploration, ingenuity

  11. Educating Out and Giving Back: Adults' Conceptions of Successful Outcomes of African American High School Students from Impoverished Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Dadisman, Kimberly; Latendresse, Shawn J.; Thompson, Jana; Irvin, Matthew J.; Zhang, Lei

    2006-01-01

    This study examined community adults' conceptions of successful early adult outcomes for rural African American adolescents from 2 low-resource communities in the Deep South. Focus groups were conducted with parents, teachers, and community leaders. Parents also completed semistructured phone interviews. The focus groups identified 2 general types…

  12. Photovoice as a Tool to Adapt an HIV Prevention Intervention for African American Young Men who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Kubicek, Katrina; Beyer, William; Weiss, George; Kipke, Michele D.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives HIV rates for African American young men who have sex with men (AAYMSM) have reached as much as 14.7%, compared to 2.5% and 3.5% among Caucasian and Latino YMSM. However, there remains a lack HIV prevention interventions for this population. This study describes the use of Photovoice in the adaptation process of an evidence-based intervention (Adult Identity Mentoring) to make it developmentally and culturally appropriate for AAYMSM. Methods Thirty-six AAYMSM (ages 18–24) participated in weekly working group sessions to conduct a community, youth and data-driven adaptation process. Photovoice was used as a technique to facilitate guided discussions on topics that were identified for the new curriculum. Results Through Photovoice discussions, we identified a new focus for the adapted intervention, Young Men’s Adult Identity Mentoring (YM-AIM): development and maintenance of healthy intimate relationships. This new focus and resulting curriculum are rooted in the voices and perceptions of the target population. Conclusions Including youth was integral to the adaptation process and the use of techniques such as Photovoice helped ensure that the resulting adaptation was relevant to the target population. PMID:21460254

  13. Buffering Effects of a Family-Based Intervention for African American Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Smith, Karen; Brown, Anita C.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on the buffering effects of Adults in the Making (AIM), a family-centered preventive intervention, on the link between life stress and increases in risk behaviors among 347 rural, southern African Americans as they left high school. Of the families, 174 were assigned to the prevention condition and 173 to a control condition. Emerging adults reported risk behaviors at pretest, posttest (7 months after pretest), and long-term follow-up (10 months after posttest). A significant Life stress × Prevention condition interaction emerged: Increases in risk behaviors were significantly greater among emerging adults in the control condition who experienced high stress levels than among those in the prevention condition who experienced equally high stress levels. PMID:20976130

  14. Correlates of Concurrent Sexual Partnerships Among Young, Rural African American Men

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Junhan; Barnum, Stacey C.; Brown, Geoffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We investigated the social, behavioral, and psychological factors associated with concurrent (i.e., overlapping in time) sexual partnerships among rural African American young men with a primary female partner. Methods We recruited 505 men in rural areas of southern Georgia from January 2012 to August 2013 using respondent-driven sampling; 361 reported having a primary female partner and participating only in heterosexual sexual activity. Men provided data on their demographic characteristics and HIV-related risk behaviors, as well as social, behavioral, and psychological risk factors. Results Of the 361 men with a primary female partner, 164 (45.4%) reported concurrent sexual partners during the past three months. Among the 164 men with a concurrent sexual partner, 144 (92.9%) reported inconsistent condom use with their primary partners, and 68 (41.5%) reported using condoms inconsistently with their concurrent partners. Having concurrent sexual partnerships was associated with inconsistent condom use, substance use before sex, and self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Bivariate correlates of concurrent sexual partnerships included incarceration, substance use, early onset of sexual activity, impulsive decision-making, and masculinity attitudes (i.e., men's adherence to culturally defined standards for male behavior). In a multivariate model, both masculinity ideology and impulsive decision-making independently predicted concurrent sexual partnerships independent of other risk factors. Conclusion Masculinity attitudes and impulsive decision-making are independent predictors of concurrent sexual partnerships among rural African American men and, consequently, the spread of HIV and other STIs. Developing programs that target masculinity attitudes and self-regulatory skills may help to reduce concurrent sexual partnerships. PMID:26345725

  15. Glitch game testers: The design and study of a learning environment for computational production with young African American males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiSalvo, Elizabeth Betsy

    The implementation of a learning environment for young African American males, called the Glitch Game Testers, was launched in 2009. The development of this program was based on formative work that looked at the contrasting use of digital games between young African American males and individuals who chose to become computer science majors. Through analysis of cultural values and digital game play practices, the program was designed to intertwine authentic game development practices and computer science learning. The resulting program employed 25 African American male high school students to test pre-release digital games full-time in the summer and part-time in the school year, with an hour of each day dedicated to learning introductory computer science. Outcomes for persisting in computer science education are remarkable; of the 16 participants who had graduated from high school as of 2012, 12 have gone on to school in computing-related majors. These outcomes, and the participants' enthusiasm for engaging in computing, are in sharp contrast to the crisis in African American male education and learning motivation. The research presented in this dissertation discusses the formative research that shaped the design of Glitch, the evaluation of the implementation of Glitch, and a theoretical investigation of the way in which participants navigated conflicting motivations in learning environments.

  16. African American Males. A Critical Link in the African American Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dionne J., Ed.

    African Americans are experiencing extreme stress in the United States, and African-American males appear to suffer the most. The chapters in this volume examine some of the issues confronting African-American men today. They include: (1) "Introduction" (Dionne J. Jones); (2) "Reaffirming Young African American Males: Mentoring and Community…

  17. Influences on Young Gifted African Americans' School Success: Implications for Elementary School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henfield, Malik S.; Owens, Delila; Moore, James L., III

    2008-01-01

    Too often, African American elementary school students, including the gifted, disengage academically and underachieve in public schools. Increased research on the underachievement and low achievement of African American students in gifted education programs has suggested that an array of educational, personal/social, and familial factors (e.g.,…

  18. Cardiac Reactivity and Elevated Blood Pressure Levels among Young African Americans: The Importance of Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Ivor Lensworth; Marshall, Ronald J.

    1990-01-01

    Explores the racial differences in elevated arterial blood pressure between African American youth, especially adolescents, and their White counterparts. Argues that African American adolescents' perception of day-to-day stress is an important contributor to this condition. Considers a conceptual model of the sociopsychophysiological stress…

  19. Polytobacco use and multiple-product smoking among a random community sample of African-American adults

    PubMed Central

    Corral, Irma; Landrine, Hope; Simms, Denise Adams; Bess, Jukelia J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Little is known about polytobacco use among African-American adults. This study is the first to explore this among a random, statewide, community sample of African-American adults. Setting Community-based sampling obtained a random, household-probability sample of African-American adults from California, surveyed door to door in randomly selected census tracts statewide. Participants Participants were a statewide, random-household sample of N=2118 African-American adults from California who completed a survey on past 30-day smoking of cigarettes, blunts, bidis, kreteks, cigarillos, marijuana and cigars. Results Almost half (49.3%) of the African-American cigarette-smokers and 14.9% of the cigarette non-smokers had smoked at least one non-cigarette product in the past 30 days. Smokers had a substantial prevalence of smoking cigarillos (28.7%) and blunts (27.7%). Logistic regressions revealed that the odds of smoking most of the non-cigarette products were higher for cigarette smokers and men, inversely related to age, and unrelated to socioeconomic status. However, smoking of blunts, bidis and kreteks was not predicted by cigarette smoking. Conclusions Smoking of cigarillos (eg, Phillies, Black & Mild) and blunts may be prevalent among African-American cigarette-smokers and non-smokers alike, but such products are not examined in most population-level smoking research. Smoking of these products should be included in surveillance studies, in cancer prevention programmes and in healthcare provider-assessment of smoking, and addressed in smoking cessation programmes as well. PMID:24334154

  20. Influences of Social and Style Variables on Adult Usage of African American English Features

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Holly K.; Grogger, Jeffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In this study, the authors examined the influences of selected social (gender, employment status, educational achievement level) and style variables (race of examiner, interview topic) on the production of African American English (AAE) by adults. Method Participants were 50 African American men and women, ages 20–30 years. The authors used Rapid and Anonymous Survey (RAS) methods to collect responses to questions on informal situational and formal message-oriented topics in a short interview with an unacquainted interlocutor. Results Results revealed strong systematic effects for academic achievement, but not gender or employment status. Most features were used less frequently by participants with higher educational levels, but sharp declines in the usage of 5 specific features distinguished the participants differing in educational achievement. Strong systematic style effects were found for the 2 types of questions, but not race of addressee. The features that were most commonly used across participants—copula absence, variable subject–verb agreement, and appositive pronouns—were also the features that showed the greatest style shifting. Conclusions The findings lay a foundation with mature speakers for rate-based and feature inventory methods recently shown to be informative for the study of child AAE and demonstrate the benefits of the RAS. PMID:22361105

  1. Using adult learning theory concepts to address barriers to cancer genetic risk assessment in the African American community.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Jeff; Kendall, Colleen; Catts, Zohra Ali-Khan; Radford, Cristi; Dasch, Kimberly

    2007-06-01

    Utilization of cancer genetic risk assessment can be profoundly influenced by an individuals' knowledge of risk assessment, attitudes regarding illness and healthcare, and affective reactions derived from social norms. Race and ethnicity play a powerful role in the development of an individual's attitudes and should be considered when attempting to understand a person's openness to cancer genetic risk assessment (Lannin et al., 1998). Until recently, however, cancer screening and prevention programs have been primarily based on data from studies conducted with the Caucasian population, yielding data that are not fully applicable to the African American community. In the last several years, research findings regarding African American's knowledge, attitudes, and feelings about genetic counseling and testing have grown (Matthews et al., 2000; Singer et al., 2004; Thompson et al., 2003). However, to the authors' knowledge, these data have yet to be presented in a manner that both summarizes the barriers that African Americans have reported regarding cancer genetic risk assessment, while at the same time suggesting methods individual genetic counselors can utilize during community presentations to help address these barriers. This article will first summarize previous empirical findings regarding African Americans' knowledge, attitudes, and feelings about cancer genetic risk assessment. The article will then apply adult learning theory to those findings to provide genetic counselors with practical, theory based techniques to apply toward community based educational programs with African American groups. PMID:17473964

  2. Exploring the relationship of conspiracy beliefs about HIV/AIDS to sexual behaviors and attitudes among African-American adults.

    PubMed

    Bogart, Laura M; Bird, Sheryl Thorburn

    2003-11-01

    Conspiracy beliefs about HIV/AIDS have been endorsed by significant percentages of African Americans in prior research. However, almost no research has investigated the relationship of such beliefs to behaviors and attitudes relevant to HIV risk. In the present exploratory study, 71 African-American adults (aged 18-45; 61% female) in the United States participated in a national, cross-sectional telephone survey examining the relationship of HIV/AIDS conspiracy beliefs to sexual attitudes and behaviors. Results indicated significant associations between endorsement of a general HIV/AIDS government conspiracy and negative beliefs regarding condoms and greater numbers of sexual partners. Endorsement of HIV/AIDS treatment conspiracies was related to positive attitudes about condoms and greater condom use intentions. Findings suggest that conspiracy beliefs have implications for HIV prevention in African-American communities. PMID:14651372

  3. Pathways to Adult Marijuana and Cocaine Use: A Prospective Study of African Americans from Age 6 to 42

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fothergill, Kate E.; Ensminger, Margaret E.; Green, Kerry M.; Robertson, Judith A.; Juon, Hee Soon

    2009-01-01

    This study examines pathways to adult marijuana and cocaine use in a cohort of African Americans from Woodlawn, an inner city community in Chicago. Assessments were conducted in first grade (age 6), adolescence (age 16), early adulthood (age 32), and in mid-adulthood (age 42). The "social adaptation life course" framework guided the focus on…

  4. A church-based pilot study designed to improve dietary quality for rural, Lower Mississippi Delta, African American Adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To assess the feasibility of implementing a six-month, church-based, dietary, pilot intervention, called Delta Body and Soul (DBS), for African American (AA) adults in the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) region of Mississippi. Effectiveness of the intervention to improve diet quality [measured using t...

  5. Young, black, and connected: Facebook usage among African American college students.

    PubMed

    Lee, E Bun

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the extent and intensity of Facebook usage among African American college students and investigates their reasons for using Facebook. As expected, 98% of students in the survey had a Facebook account, and a large number of Facebook “friends.” Younger users spent significantly more time on Facebook than older ones. Our findings underscore the importance of cultural influence for African American online users. Displaying photographs and personal interests on Facebook signals racial identity among African American college students. Personality traits, such as self-esteem, trust in people, satisfaction with university life, and racial identity, were not significant predictors on the time spent on Facebook. PMID:22536626

  6. Differential impact of cumulative SES risk on methylation of protein-protein interaction pathways as a function of SLC6A4 genetic variation in African American young adults.

    PubMed

    Beach, Steven R H; Dogan, Meeshanthini V; Brody, Gene H; Philibert, Robert A

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to cumulative SES risk in childhood may interact with variability at the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5HTTLPR) to alter DNA methylation across interacting sets of proteins. DNA was obtained from 388 African Americans at age 19. Genotype at the 5HTTLPR was determined, and methylation ratios for C-phosphate-G (CpG) residues were assessed. Exposure to cumulative SES risk was determined using repeated parental reports at ages 11-13. At high SES risk, CpG methylation patterns indicated altered cellular stress response in women, but not men, who carried a short allele at the 5HTTLPR. These changes in methylation patterns may lead to increases in mental and physical health risks. No genotype effect emerged for either women or men at low SES risk. Methylation patterns provide guidance in identifying pathways by which genetic susceptibility is transformed into adverse outcomes years later. PMID:24192273

  7. Academic and Career Trajectories of African American Males in San Bernardino

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyles, Lolita Laree

    2013-01-01

    A qualitative grounded theory approach is utilized to study the academic and career trajectories of twenty African American male collegiate students living in San Bernardino, California. There is limited research that explores the positive educational experiences of young adult African American males. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to…

  8. Age and HIV Risk and Protective Behaviors among African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corneille, Maya A.; Zyzniewski, Linda E.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2008-01-01

    Though HIV prevention efforts have focused on young adult women, women of all ages may engage in HIV risk behaviors and experience barriers to condom use. This article examines the effect of age on sexual risk and protective attitudes and behaviors among African American women. Unmarried heterosexual African American women between the ages of 18…

  9. Faith-Based Adult Learning Initiatives for Diabetes Education in the African American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaillard, Trudy

    2006-01-01

    Historically, religion and spirituality have been major influences in the social, cultural, and political lives of African Americans. Spirituality is deeply embedded into their rich cultural heritage, and it is intertwined into all aspects of their life, including beliefs about health and illness. For African Americans, health and illness are a…

  10. The Chicago Parent Program: Comparing 1-Year Outcomes for African American and Latino Parents of Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Breitenstein, Susan M.; Gross, Deborah; Fogg, Louis; Ridge, Alison; Garvey, Christine; Julion, Wrenetha; Tucker, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Data were merged from two prevention randomized trials testing 1-year outcomes of a parenting skills program, the Chicago Parent Program (CPP), and comparing its effects for African-American (n=291) versus Latino (n=213) parents and their preschool children. Compared to controls, intervention parents had improved self-efficacy, used less corporal punishment and more consistent discipline, and demonstrated more positive parenting. Intervention children had greater reductions in behavior problems based on parent-report, teacher-report, and observation. Although improvements from CPP were evident for parents in both racial/ethnic groups, Latino parents reported greater improvements in their children’s behavior and in parenting self-efficacy but exhibited greater decreases in praise. Findings support the efficacy of the CPP for African American and Latino parents and young children from low-income urban communities. PMID:22622598

  11. The Chicago Parent Program: comparing 1-year outcomes for African American and Latino parents of young children.

    PubMed

    Breitenstein, Susan M; Gross, Deborah; Fogg, Louis; Ridge, Alison; Garvey, Christine; Julion, Wrenetha; Tucker, Sharon

    2012-10-01

    Data were merged from two prevention randomized trials testing 1-year outcomes of a parenting skills program, the Chicago Parent Program (CPP) and comparing its effects for African-American (n = 291) versus Latino (n = 213) parents and their preschool children. Compared to controls, intervention parents had improved self-efficacy, used less corporal punishment and more consistent discipline, and demonstrated more positive parenting. Intervention children had greater reductions in behavior problems based on parent-report, teacher-report, and observation. Although improvements from the CPP were evident for parents in both racial/ethnic groups, Latino parents reported greater improvements in their children's behavior and in parenting self-efficacy but exhibited greater decreases in praise. Findings support the efficacy of the CPP for African American and Latino parents and young children from low-income urban communities. PMID:22622598

  12. APOL1 Risk Alleles Are Associated with Exaggerated Age-Related Changes in Glomerular Number and Volume in African-American Adults: An Autopsy Study.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Wendy E; Hughson, Michael D; Kopp, Jeffrey B; Mott, Susan A; Bertram, John F; Winkler, Cheryl A

    2015-12-01

    APOL1 genetic variants contribute to kidney disease in African Americans. We assessed correlations between APOL1 profiles and renal histological features in subjects without renal disease. Glomerular number (N glom) and mean glomerular volume (V glom) were measured by the dissector/fractionator method in kidneys of African-American and non-African-American adults without renal disease, undergoing autopsies in Jackson, Mississippi. APOL1 risk alleles were genotyped and the kidney findings were evaluated in the context of those profiles. The proportions of African Americans with none, one, and two APOL1 risk alleles were 38%, 43%, and 19%, respectively; 38% of African Americans had G1 allele variants and 31% of African Americans had G2 allele variants. Only APOL1-positive African Americans had significant reductions in N glom and increases in V glom with increasing age. Regression analysis predicted an annual average loss of 8834 (P=0.03, sex adjusted) glomeruli per single kidney over the first 38 years of adult life in African Americans with two risk alleles. Body mass index above the group medians, but below the obesity definition of ≥ 30 kg/m(2), enhanced the expression of age-related changes in N glom in African Americans with either one or two APOL1 risk alleles. These findings indicate that APOL1 risk alleles are associated with exaggerated age-related nephron loss, probably decaying from a larger pool of smaller glomeruli in early adult life, along with enlargement of the remaining glomeruli. These phenomena might mark mechanisms of accentuated susceptibility to kidney disease in APOL1-positive African Americans. PMID:26038529

  13. Perceptions of Physical Activity and Influences of Participation in Young African-American Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Shannon; Knight, Candace; Crew-Gooden, Annette

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore African-American adolescent girls' perceptions of physical activity participation, examine how physical activity is defined and identify the most preferred forms of physical activity. Qualitative focus group interviews of a convenience sample (N = 30; Mean age = 14.3 years) were used to identifyfactors that influence African-American girls' physical activity participation as well as to explore how physical activity is defined within this population. Four themes emerged: (a) benefits and motivation to engage in physical activity, (b) behaviors consistent with perceived physical activity, (c) most enjoyable physical activity/activities, and (d) barriers to physical activity. Physical activities that promoted normative adolescent development (i.e., autonomy) were perceived as most beneficial, desirable, and most likely to be sustained. Implications of these findings highlight the importance of the incorporation of socialization and peer engagement in physical activity programs designed for African-American adolescent girls. PMID:27045157

  14. Effectiveness of oral self-care among adult Gullah-speaking African Americans with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Hon K.; Tress, Mary E.; Salinas, Carlos F.; Slate, Elizabeth H.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the efficacy of plaque removal after an oral self-care demonstration among adult Gullah-speaking African Americans with diabetes. Fiftyfour adults with diabetes completed an observed, uninstructed oral self-care demonstration with their normal mode of oral self-care. Before and after the oral self-care demonstration, the plaque levels of six test teeth were assessed using the Plaque Index. The mean percentage of plaque removal after the oral self-care demonstration was 27.4%. The mandibular teeth and the lingual surface had less plaque removal compared with the maxillary teeth and buccal surfaces. Only approximately 10% of participants achieved 50% or more plaque removal after the oral self-care demonstration. Thus, the majority of the participants did not achieve an acceptable level of plaque removal. Dental health professionals should emphasize better oral home care for people with diabetes and teach them how to access the lingual surfaces, especially of the mandibular teeth. PMID:19938252

  15. Adult Perspectives on Behavior and Emotional Problems in African American Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Michael Canute; Puig, Marieva; Lyubansky, Mikhail; Rowan, George T.; Winfrey, Tyrone

    2001-01-01

    Using vignettes describing African American children with internalizing versus externalizing problems, parents, teachers, and clinicians judged problem seriousness, prognosis, etiology, referral, and intervention needs. Opinions differed widely among groups, particularly on judgements about children with externalizing problems. More clinicians…

  16. Comprehensive long-term management program for asthma: effect on outcomes in adult African-Americans.

    PubMed

    Kelso, T M; Abou-Shala, N; Heilker, G M; Arheart, K L; Portner, T S; Self, T H

    1996-06-01

    To determine if a comprehensive long-term management program, emphasizing inhaled corticosteroids and patient education, would improve outcomes in adult African-American asthmatics a nonrandomized control trial with a 2-year intervention was performed in a university-based clinic. Inclusion criteria consisted of (> or = 5) emergency department (ED) visits or hospitalizations (> or = 2) during the previous 2 years. Intervention patients were volunteers; a comparable control group was identified via chart review at hospitals within the same area and time period as the intervention patients. Individualized doses of beclomethasone with a spacer, inhaled albuterol "as needed," and crisis prednisone were the primary therapies. Environmental control, peak flow monitoring, and a partnership with the patient were emphasized. Detailed patient education was an integral part of management. Control patients received usual care from local physicians. ED visits and hospitalizations for 2 years before and 2 years during the intervention period were compared. Quality of life (QOL) measurements were made at baseline and every 6 months in the intervention group. Study group (n = 21) had a significant reduction in ED visits (2.3 +/- 0.2 pre-intervention versus 0.6 +/- 0.2 post-intervention; P = 0.0001). Control group (n = 18) did not have a significant change in ED visits during the 2-year post-intervention period (2.6 +/- 0.2 pre-intervention versus 2.0 +/- 0.2 post-intervention; P = 0.11). Both groups had significant reductions in hospitalizations, but the study group had a greater reduction. Sixty-two percent of study patients had complete elimination of ED visits and hospitalizations, whereas no control patients had total elimination of the need for institutional acute care. QOL in the study patients revealed significant improvements for most parameters. A comprehensive long-term management program emphasizing inhaled corticosteroids combined with other state-of-the-art management

  17. The Gender Role and Contraceptive Attitudes of Young Men: Implications for Future African American Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Bruce H.

    1993-01-01

    Reports the contraceptive and gender role attitudes of 60 working class African-American youth in Atlanta (Georgia). Most were close to both parents and received parental support, but only half received adequate contraceptive information from parents. Cultural contributions to attitudes about sexuality and pregnancy are discussed. (SLD)

  18. Asthma Management among Low-Income Latino and African American Families of Infants and Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Karel; Chesla, Catherine A.

    2004-01-01

    To discover the underlying understandings that organize how low-income Latino and African American parents of infants and toddlers with severe persistent asthma manage symptoms in their children, 11 families with children 12-48 months old and recently hospitalized with asthma were interviewed over 3-6 months. Interpretive phenomenology was used to…

  19. Factors Related to the Achievement and Adjustment of Young African American Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Tom; McAdoo, Harriette Pipes

    1994-01-01

    Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth were used to examine factors related to the achievement and adjustment of 378 African American children in the early elementary grades. Consistent with past research, there was a positive relationship between the number of risk factors children were exposed to and the probability that they were…

  20. Young African American Children Constructing Identities in an Urban Integrated Science-Literacy Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Justine M.

    2009-01-01

    This is a qualitative study of identities constructed and enacted by four 3rd-grade African American children (two girls and two boys) in an urban classroom that engaged in a year-long, integrated science-literacy project. Juxtaposing narrative and discursive identity lenses, coupled with race and gender perspectives, I examined the ways in which…

  1. Kids Explore America's African-American Heritage. Westridge Young Writers Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson County School District R-1, Denver, CO.

    This book was written by 86 students in grades 3-8 at Westridge Elementary School (Littleton, Colorado) during a summer enrichment class. The book is for anyone who wants to learn about African-American culture and heritage. Chapter 1 gives an overview of African history before American contact, the introduction of slavery into America, the road…

  2. Differential Item Functioning of the Boston Naming Test in Cognitively Normal African American and Caucasian Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pedraza, Otto; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Smith, Glenn E.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Willis, Floyd B.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Lucas, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Scores on the Boston Naming Test (BNT) are frequently lower for African American when compared to Caucasian adults. Although demographically-based norms can mitigate the impact of this discrepancy on the likelihood of erroneous diagnostic impressions, a growing consensus suggests that group norms do not sufficiently address or advance our understanding of the underlying psychometric and sociocultural factors that lead to between-group score discrepancies. Using item response theory and methods to detect differential item functioning (DIF), the current investigation moves beyond comparisons of the summed total score to examine whether the conditional probability of responding correctly to individual BNT items differs between African American and Caucasian adults. Participants included 670 adults age 52 and older who took part in Mayo's Older Americans and Older African Americans Normative Studies. Under a 2-parameter logistic IRT framework and after correction for the false discovery rate, 12 items where shown to demonstrate DIF. Six of these 12 items (“dominoes,” “escalator,” “muzzle,” “latch,” “tripod,” and “palette”) were also identified in additional analyses using hierarchical logistic regression models and represent the strongest evidence for race/ethnicity-based DIF. These findings afford a finer characterization of the psychometric properties of the BNT and expand our understanding of between-group performance. PMID:19570311

  3. Young Adult Smoking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Methods Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18–25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Results Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR= 4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Conclusions Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking. PMID:19269128

  4. Developmental and ethnic issues experienced by emerging adult African American women related to developing a mature love relationship.

    PubMed

    Tyson, Sheryl Y

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored perspectives of emerging adult African American women on the development of mature love relationships. Inductive analysis of focus group interviews, conducted with a purposive sample of 31 African American women, yielded themes related to relationship goals and characteristics, and interpersonal and societal challenges to finding the right partner and developing a mature love relationship. Core categories that emerged from analysis of the discussions were (1) age and relationship goal differences within the emerging adult group, (2) mature love relationship goals and characteristics, (3) interpersonal obstacles to finding the right partner, and (4) societal obstacles to finding the right partner. Two approaches-black womanist/feminist thought (Collins, 2000 ; Walker, 1983 ) and relationship maturity theory (Paul & White, 1990 )-were then combined to explain the influence of historic and contemporary interpersonal and societal factors on developmental and ethnic issues that challenge positive gender identity formation, hasten intimacy maturity, and hinder the development of mature love relationships among emerging adult African American women. For these women, premature responsibility, especially early caregiver burden, was related to the early development of intimacy capacity and the desire for a mature love relationship, to be protected, and to have someone to help carry the load. Interracial dating, negative stereotypic images of African American women, and even positive images of enduring black love relationships posed difficult challenges to positive identity formation and intimacy maturity. A primary challenge was to counteract negative stereotypic images, so that they could develop their own self-identities as women and as relationship partners. PMID:22224965

  5. Self-perceived loss of control and untreated dental decay in African American adults with and without sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Laurence, Brian; Woods, Dexter; George, David; Onyekwere, Onyinye; Katz, Ralph; Lanzkron, Sophie; Diener-West, Marie; Powe, Neil

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between self-perceived loss of control as measured by dental external locus of control summary scores, with the amount of untreated dental decay in African American adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) and African Americans adults without SCD. The sample included 102 subjects with SCD and 103 subjects without SCD matched on age, sex, and recruitment location (mean age of all subjects 35.4 years, 55.6% female). Subjects with SCD in the highest quartile for dental external locus of control summary scores had 2.58-fold (CI 1.05, 6.34) as much untreated decay as those in the lowest quartile (p<.05) in multivariable analysis using the negative binomial regression model. For subjects without SCD, those in the highest quartile for dental external locus of control summary scores had 3.00-fold (CI 1.38, 6.49) as much untreated decay as those in the lowest quartile (p<.05) using similar analysis. This study showed that higher dental external locus of control is associated with increased untreated tooth decay, both for African Americans with and without SCD and that the magnitude of the association did not differ across groups. PMID:16960327

  6. Whole-exome imputation of sequence variants identified two novel alleles associated with adult body height in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Du, Mengmeng; Auer, Paul L.; Jiao, Shuo; Haessler, Jeffrey; Altshuler, David; Boerwinkle, Eric; Carlson, Christopher S.; Carty, Cara L.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Curtis, Keith; Franceschini, Nora; Hsu, Li; Jackson, Rebecca; Lange, Leslie A.; Lettre, Guillaume; Monda, Keri L.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Reiner, Alex P.; Rich, Stephen S.; Rosse, Stephanie A.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Willer, Cristen J.; Wilson, James G.; North, Kari; Kooperberg, Charles; Heard-Costa, Nancy; Peters, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    Adult body height is a quantitative trait for which genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous loci, primarily in European populations. These loci, comprising common variants, explain <10% of the phenotypic variance in height. We searched for novel associations between height and common (minor allele frequency, MAF ≥5%) or infrequent (0.5% < MAF < 5%) variants across the exome in African Americans. Using a reference panel of 1692 African Americans and 471 Europeans from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's (NHLBI) Exome Sequencing Project (ESP), we imputed whole-exome sequence data into 13 719 African Americans with existing array-based GWAS data (discovery). Variants achieving a height-association threshold of P < 5E−06 in the imputed dataset were followed up in an independent sample of 1989 African Americans with whole-exome sequence data (replication). We used P < 2.5E−07 (=0.05/196 779 variants) to define statistically significant associations in meta-analyses combining the discovery and replication sets (N = 15 708). We discovered and replicated three independent loci for association: 5p13.3/C5orf22/rs17410035 (MAF = 0.10, β = 0.64 cm, P = 8.3E−08), 13q14.2/SPRYD7/rs114089985 (MAF = 0.03, β = 1.46 cm, P = 4.8E−10) and 17q23.3/GH2/rs2006123 (MAF = 0.30; β = 0.47 cm; P = 4.7E−09). Conditional analyses suggested 5p13.3 (C5orf22/rs17410035) and 13q14.2 (SPRYD7/rs114089985) may harbor novel height alleles independent of previous GWAS-identified variants (r2 with GWAS loci <0.01); whereas 17q23.3/GH2/rs2006123 was correlated with GWAS-identified variants in European and African populations. Notably, 13q14.2/rs114089985 is infrequent in African Americans (MAF = 3%), extremely rare in European Americans (MAF = 0.03%), and monomorphic in Asian populations, suggesting it may be an African-American-specific height allele. Our findings demonstrate that whole-exome imputation of sequence variants can identify low

  7. Improving asthma self-efficacy: Developing and testing a pilot community-based asthma intervention for African American adults

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Molly A.; Catrambone, Catherine D.; Kee, Romina A.; Evans, Arthur T.; Sharp, Lisa K.; Lyttle, Christopher; Rucker-Whitaker, Cheryl; Weiss, Kevin B.; Shannon, John Jay

    2009-01-01

    Background Low-income African American adults in Chicago have disproportionately high asthma morbidity and mortality rates. Interventions that improve asthma self-efficacy for appropriate self-management behaviors may ultimately improve asthma control in this population. Objective To pilot test an intervention to improve asthma self-efficacy for appropriate self-management behaviors. Methods Participants for this trial were recruited through two primary care clinics located in the largest African American community in Chicago. Participants were then randomized into two groups. The control group received mailed asthma education. The intervention group was offered 4 group sessions lead by a community social worker and 6 home visits by community health workers. Telephone interviews were conducted at baseline (pre-intervention), 3 months (post-intervention), and 6 months (maintenance). Results The 42 participants were predominantly African American, low income, and had poorly controlled persistent asthma. The intervention group had significantly higher asthma self-efficacy at 3 months (p<0.001) after the completion of the intervention. Asthma action plans were more common in the intervention group at 3 months (p=0.06). At 6 months, the intervention group had improved asthma quality of life (p=0.002), and improved coping (p=0.01) compared to controls. Trends in behavioral and clinical outcomes favored the intervention group but were not statistically significant. Conclusions This community-based asthma intervention improved asthma self-efficacy, self-perceived coping skills, and asthma quality of life for low income African American adults. Larger trials are needed to test the efficacy of this intervention to reduce asthma morbidity in similar high-risk populations. PMID:19130936

  8. David Haynes: Chronicler of the African American Middle Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Ronald

    1997-01-01

    Profiles writer David Haynes, and discusses his four novels (an award-winning young adult book and three novels for the adult market). Concludes that Haynes' success as a novelist is due to his characters, a healthy dose of humor, and his realistic depiction of a wide range of African American characters without resorting to sensationalism or…

  9. Loneliness and substance use: the influence of gender among HIV+ Black/African American adults 50.

    PubMed

    Mannes, Zachary L; Burrell, Larry E; Bryant, Vaughn E; Dunne, Eugene M; Hearn, Lauren E; Whitehead, Nicole Ennis

    2016-05-01

    Estimates suggest 30% of adults report the highest levels of loneliness. Though men are more likely than women to use illicit substances and engage in heavy drinking, the prevalence of substance use in women is growing and their escalation toward dependence occurs more rapidly. Loneliness and substance use have greater relevance within the HIV+ population, with higher rates of substance misuse than the general population. However, the association between loneliness and substance use within HIV+ individuals remains understudied. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that there would be an association between loneliness and substance moderated by gender in HIV+ older adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2013 and January 2014. Study participants included 96 HIV-positive Black/African American men and women recruited through the University of Florida Center for HIV/AIDS Research, Education and Service (UF CARES) in Jacksonville, Florida. Participants completed an interviewer-administered assessment examining mental and behavioral health. Pearson correlations examined associations between loneliness and substance use. Binary logistic regression analyses stratified by gender examined the association between loneliness and substance use while controlling for covariates. Among women, loneliness was associated with illicit drug use, AOR = 3.37, 95% CI: 1.23-9.21, p = .018 and heavy drinking, AOR = 2.47, 95% CI: 1.07-5.71, p = .033. No significant associations were found between loneliness and illicit drug use, and heavy drinking in men. Substance use among women in this population may be linked to loneliness. Interventions should be gender specific. Further research into this association is necessary as it will likely have important clinical implications for this population. PMID:26654243

  10. Butterfly Girls; promoting healthy diet and physical activity to young African American girls online: rationale and design

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Young African American girls have a high risk of obesity. Online behavior change programs promoting healthy diet and physical activity are convenient and may be effective for reducing disparities related to obesity. This report presents the protocol guiding the design and evaluation of a culturally and developmental appropriate online obesity prevention program for young African American girls. Methods/Design The Butterfly Girls and the Quest for Founder’s Rock is an 8-episode online program delivered as an animated, interactive comic. The program promotes healthy diet and physical activity and is specifically designed for 8–10 year old African American girls. Girls, parents, and community representatives provided formative feedback on cultural relevance and developmental appropriateness. A three-group (treatment, comparison, wait-list control) randomized design (n = 390 parent/child dyads) is employed, with child as the unit of assignment. Change in body mass index is the primary outcome; change in fruit and vegetable consumption, water, and physical activity are secondary outcomes. Data collection occurs at baseline, approximately 3 months after baseline (i.e., completion of the online program), and approximately three months later (i.e., maintenance assessment). Two dietary recalls are collected at each data collection period by trained interviewers using the Nutrient Data System for Research (NDSR 2012) system. Physical activity is objectively measured by seven days of accelerometry. Psychosocial and process data are also collected. Girls in the treatment and comparison groups will be interviewed at post 1 to obtain information on personal reactions to the program. Discussion This research will develop and evaluate the efficacy of an online program for reducing obesity risk among girls at risk of obesity and related diseases. Online programs offer the potential for wide dissemination, thus reducing disparities related to obesity. Trial

  11. Neighborhood Factors Relevant for Walking in Older, Urban, African American Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Nancy Ambrose; Gretebeck, Kimberlee A.; Robinson, Jennifer C.; Torres, Elisa R.; Murphy, Susan L.; Martyn, Kristy K.

    2010-01-01

    Focus-group and photo-voice methodology were used to identify the salient factors of the neighborhood environment that encourage or discourage walking in older, urban African Americans. Twenty-one male (n = 2) and female (n = 19) African Americans age 60 years and older (M = 70 ± 8.7, range = 61–85) were recruited from a large urban senior center. Photographs taken by the participants were used to facilitate focus-group discussions. The most salient factors that emerged included the presence of other people, neighborhood surroundings, and safety from crime, followed by sidewalk and traffic conditions, animals, public walking tracks and trails, and weather. Future walking interventions for older African Americans should include factors that encourage walking, such as the presence of other friendly or active people, attractive or peaceful surroundings, and a sense of safety from crime. PMID:20181997

  12. Views of Young, Rural African Americans of the Role of Community Social Institutions' in HIV Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Youmans, Selena; Lloyd, Stacy W.; Coker-Appiah, Dionne S.; Banks, Bahby; Blumenthal, Connie; Albritton, Tashuna; Ellison, Arlinda; Smith, Giselle Corbie; Adimora, Adaora A.

    2010-01-01

    Background We explored rural African American youths' perceptions about the role of community social institutions in addressing HIV. Methods We conducted four focus groups with African Americans aged 16 to 24 years in two rural counties in North Carolina. Groups were stratified by gender and risk status. We used a grounded theory approach to content analysis. Results Participants identified four social institutions as primary providers of HIV-related health promotion efforts: faith organizations, schools, politicians, and health agencies. They reported perceiving a lack of involvement in HIV prevention by faith-based organizations, constraints of abstinence-based sex education policies, politicians' lack of interest in addressing broader HIV determinants, and inadequacies in health agency services, and viewed all of these as being counter-productive to HIV prevention efforts. Conclusions youth have important insights about local social institutions that should be considered when designing HIV prevention interventions that partner with local organizations. PMID:20453373

  13. Streaming weekly soap opera video episodes to smartphones in a randomized controlled trial to reduce HIV risk in young urban African American/black women.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rachel; Lacroix, Lorraine J

    2012-07-01

    Love, Sex, and Choices is a 12-episode soap opera video series created as an intervention to reduce HIV sex risk. The effect on women's HIV risk behavior was evaluated in a randomized controlled trial in 238 high risk, predominately African American young adult women in the urban Northeast. To facilitate on-demand access and privacy, the episodes were streamed to study-provided smartphones. Here, we discuss the development of a mobile platform to deliver the 12-weekly video episodes or weekly HIV risk reduction written messages to smartphones, including; the technical requirements, development, and evaluation. Popularity of the smartphone and use of the Internet for multimedia offer a new channel to address health disparities in traditionally underserved populations. This is the first study to report on streaming a serialized video-based intervention to a smartphone. The approach described here may provide useful insights in assessing advantages and disadvantages of smartphones to implement a video-based intervention. PMID:22430640

  14. Influences on HIV Testing among Young African-American Men Who Have Sex with Men and the Moderating Effect of the Geographic Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashburn, Andrew J.; Peterson, John L.; Bakeman, Roger; Miller, Robin L.; Clark, Leslie F.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the influence of demographic characteristics, risk behaviors, knowledge, and psychosocial variables on HIV testing among a sample (n = 551) of young African-American men who have sex with men (MSM) from three cities--Atlanta (n = 241), Birmingham (n = 174), and Chicago (n = 136). Among the entire sample of young men, age,…

  15. Obesity and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  16. Impact of Adult Sons' Incarceration on African American Mothers' Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kerry M.; Ensminger, Margaret E.; Robertson, Judith A.; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the effect of sons' incarceration on their mothers' psychological distress. Interviews were conducted over the life course with a community cohort of African American mothers who had children in first grade in 1966-1967 when the study began ("N"=615). Thirty years later, their sons had significant rates of…

  17. An Analysis of Adult-Child Conversation Patterns in Diverse African American Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolson, Timothy F. J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines familial conversation patterns of African American families during evening meals, using a social interaction analysis. Found that family size had a pervasive impact on familial interaction, and that although mothers were the clear focus of mealtime interactions, the increased number of children necessitated that fathers take a more direct…

  18. Longitudinal associations between social support and physical and mental health in African American adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African Americans report a greater number of modifiable risk factors, such as overweight/obesity, physical inactivity and poor dietary habits, putting them at increased risk of developing and dying from chronic diseases. These risk factors are also associated with poorer health-related quality of li...

  19. The effect of partner characteristics on HIV infection among African American men who have sex with men in the Young Men's Survey, Los Angeles, 1999-2000.

    PubMed

    Bingham, Trista A; Harawa, Nina T; Johnson, Denise F; Secura, Gina M; MacKellar, Duncan A; Valleroy, Linda A

    2003-02-01

    Previous studies have documented disparities in HIV prevalence by race among men who have sex with men (MSM), even after adjusting for traditional risk factors. In this analysis of data collected for the 1999-2000 Los Angeles Young Men's Survey, a cross-sectional venue-based survey of MSM aged 23-29, we investigated whether information on male sex-partner characteristics accounts for some of the racial/ethnic differences in HIV prevalence. In this sample of survey participants, we observed that African American MSM reported similar or lower levels of HIV risk behaviors compared with White MSM but much higher HIV prevalence (26% vs. 7.4%, respectively). In an unadjusted logistic regression model, African American participants had 4.4 times higher odds of HIV infection compared with White participants. In a multiple logistic regression model adjusting for participant behaviors, we observed elevation of the relative odds of HIV infection for African Americans compared with Whites (odds ratio [OR] = 6.9, 95% confidence limits [CL] = 2.5, 19). In a fully adjusted model, controlling for the effects of having older partners and more African American partners, we observed a 20% reduction in the relative odds of HIV for African American participants compared with White participants (OR = 5.5, 95% CL = 1.8, 17). Our findings suggest that differences in male partner types, namely older and African American partners, may account for some of the observed racial disparity in HIV infection, especially for African American MSM compared with White MSM in Los Angeles. PMID:12630598

  20. Language Use in Multiethnic Literature For Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christianson, Darcy

    This study analyzed ethnic authenticity with regard to language use in 16 books for children and young adults used in Central Michigan University's English 582 course, "Cultural Pluralism in Children and Young Adult Literature." Four ethnic groups were included: Native American, African American, Asian American, and Hispanic American. To evaluate…

  1. Values important to terminally ill African American older adults in receiving hospice care.

    PubMed

    Noh, Hyunjin

    2014-01-01

    While racial disparity in the use of hospice care by older African Americans is widely acknowledged, little is known about the values that they consider as important in receiving health care services along with direct experiences with having these values respected by hospice care providers. Using individual, face-to-face interviews, data were collected directly from 28 African American hospice patients about their experiences in hospice care. Content analysis was used to identify and categorize themes from multiple readings of the qualitative data. Resulting themes included: dying at home, open communications, independent decision-making, autonomy in daily life, unwillingness to be a burden, and relationships. Through the initial assessment, value preferences can be explored and then shared with hospice team members to ensure that services are provided in such a way that their values and preferences are respected. PMID:25494930

  2. Cognitive testing of PAINReportIt in adult African Americans with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Jha, Aruna; Suarez, Marie L; Ferrans, Carol E; Molokie, Robert; Kim, Young Ok; Wilkie, Diana J

    2010-01-01

    PAINReportIt, a computerized version of the McGill Pain Questionnaire (Pain. 1975, 1:277-299), presents pain measurement items to responders in serial display screens accompanied by pop-up screens. In this study, we used cognitive interviews to examine further validity of PAINReportIt with 25 African Americans with sickle cell disease. The specific aims were to determine if the questions in the PAINReportIt program were relevant to and understood by African Americans with sickle cell disease and to describe the nature of the pain they experienced. Most study participants were enthusiastic and able to use the tool as intended and appreciated the comprehensiveness, detail, and multidimensionality of its pain data. For some screens, two to six participants' responses suggested some question understanding and interpretation issues, inability to retrieve the requested information, or technical issues. Their responses indicated that screens lacked sufficient specificity for the temporal nature of pain recurrence over a lifetime. The program captured both nociceptive and neuropathic aspects of sickle cell pain and provided detailed information on the location, intensity, quality, and pattern of pain experienced by participants. We recommend that future revisions to the PAINReportIt program address the temporal issues of measuring recurrent pain, resolve technological issues related to pop-ups, and simplify difficult words to better match the typical health literacy levels of patients. These revisions could further enhance the technological aspects, usability, and cultural appropriateness of the tool for African Americans with sickle cell disease. PMID:20431356

  3. Cognitive Testing of PAINReportIt® in Adult African Americans with Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Aruna; Suarez, Marie L.; Ferrans, Carol E.; Molokie, Robert; Kim, Young Ok; Wilkie, Diana J.

    2013-01-01

    PAINReportIt,® a computerized version of Melzack’s (© 1970) McGill Pain Questionnaire, presents pain measurement items to responders in serial display screens accompanied by pop-up screens. In this study, we used cognitive interviews to examine further validity of PAINReportIt® with 25 African Americans with sickle cell disease. The specific aims were to determine if the questions in the PAINReportIt® program were relevant to and understood by African Americans with SCD and to describe the nature of the pain they experienced. Most study participants were enthusiastic and able to use the tool as intended, appreciated the comprehensiveness, detail, and multidimensionality of its pain data. For some screens, two to six participants’ responses suggested some question understanding and interpretation issues, inability to retrieve the requested information, or technical issues. Their responses indicated that screens lacked sufficient specificity for the temporal nature of pain recurrent over a lifetime. The program captured both nociceptive and neuropathic aspects of sickle cell pain, and provided detailed information on the location, intensity, quality and pattern of pain experienced by participants. We recommend that future revisions to the PAINReportIt® program address the temporal issues of measuring recurrent pain, resolve technological issues related to pop-ups, and simplify difficult words to better match the typical health literacy levels of patients. These revisions could further enhance the technological aspects, usability, and cultural appropriateness of the tool for African Americans with SCD. PMID:20431356

  4. Cultural Attitudes and Body Dissatisfaction: Morgan State Researchers Find that Perceptions of Body Image among Young African Americans May Be Life Threatening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, B. Denise

    2005-01-01

    Young African Americans don't appear to perceive obesity in the way the medical community does, putting them at greater risk for developing chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and cancer, says a first-ever study led by researchers at the Morgan State University Prevention Sciences Research Center. The pilot study, which provides a rare…

  5. Exploring Why Young African American Women Do Not Change Condom-Use Behavior Following Participation in an STI/HIV Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, J. M.; DiClemente, R. J.; Davis, T. P.; Sullivan, S.

    2012-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) interventions can significantly reduce risky sexual behaviors among vulnerable populations. However, not everyone exposed to an intervention will reduce their sexual risk behavior. This qualitative study sought to identify factors associated with young African American females' lack of increase in condom use…

  6. Vitamin D3 supplementation for 16 weeks improves flow-mediated dilation in overweight African American adults

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Ryan A; Pedersen-White, Jennifer; Guo, De-Huang; Stallmann-Jorgensen, Inger S.; Keeton, Daniel; Huang, Ying; Shah, Yashesh; Zhu, Haidong; Dong, Yanbin

    2013-01-01

    Background A growing body of evidence has linked vitamin D deficiency to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Vitamin D deficiency is also more common in African Americans for whom an increased cardiovascular disease risk exists. This study sought to test the hypothesis that 16 weeks of 60,000 IU monthly supplementation of oral vitamin D3 would improve flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in African Americans, whereas no change would be observed in the placebo group. Methods A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial was conducted. Fifty-seven African American adults were randomly assigned to either the placebo group or vitamin D group. Results Following 16 weeks of placebo (n=23; mean age 31±2 years) or 60,000 IU monthly oral vitamin D3 (n=22; mean age 29±2 years), serum concentrations of 25 hydroxyvitamin D increased from 38.2±3.0 nmol/L to 48.7±3.2 nmol/L and 34.3±2.2 nmol/L to 100.9±6.6 nmol/L, respectively. No changes in serum parathyroid hormone, serum calcium, or urine calcium/creatinine were observed following either treatment. Following 16 weeks of treatment, significant improvements in FMD were only observed in the vitamin D group (1.8±1.3%), whereas the placebo group had no change (-1.3±0.6%). Similarly, the vitamin D group exhibited an increase in absolute change in diameter (0.005±0.004 cm) and FMD/shear (0.08±0.04 %/s-1, AUC × 103) following treatment, whereas no change (-0.005±0.002 cm and -0.02±0.02 %/s-1, AUC, respectively) was observed following placebo. Conclusions Supplementation of 60,000 IU monthly oral vitamin D3 (~2000 IU per day) for 16 weeks is effective at improving vascular endothelial function in African American adults. PMID:21311504

  7. Joint trajectories of victimization and marijuana use and their health consequences among urban African American and Puerto Rican young men.

    PubMed

    Pahl, Kerstin; Brook, Judith S; Lee, Jung Yeon

    2013-06-01

    We examined the joint trajectories of violent victimization and marijuana use from emerging adulthood to the early thirties and their health consequences in the early thirties among urban African American and Puerto Rican men. Data were collected from a community sample of young men (N = 340) when they were 19, 24, 29, and 32 years old. The joint trajectories of violent victimization and marijuana use were extracted using growth mixture modeling. Three distinct joint trajectory groups of violent victimization and marijuana use were identified: high violent victimization/consistently high marijuana use; low violent victimization/increasingly high marijuana use, and low violent victimization/low marijuana use. Group comparisons using regression analyses showed that men who had experienced high levels of violent victimization and were high frequency marijuana over time users experienced the most adverse psychological and physical health outcomes, including more health problems, psychological maladjustment, and substance use disorders. PMID:22532191

  8. Joint Trajectories of Victimization and Marijuana Use and Their Health Consequences Among Urban African American and Puerto Rican Young Men

    PubMed Central

    Pahl, Kerstin; Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon

    2012-01-01

    We examined the joint trajectories of violent victimization and marijuana use from emerging adulthood to the early thirties and their health consequences in the early thirties among urban African American and Puerto Rican men. Data were collected from a community sample of young men (N=340) when they were 19, 24, 29, and 32 years old. The joint trajectories of violent victimization and marijuana use were extracted using growth mixture modeling. Three distinct joint trajectory groups of violent victimization and marijuana use were identified: high violent victimization/consistently high marijuana use; low violent victimization/increasingly high marijuana use, and low violent victimization/low marijuana use. Group comparisons using regression analyses showed that men who had experienced high levels of violent victimization and were high frequency marijuana over time users experienced the most adverse psychological and physical health outcomes, including more health problems, psychological maladjustment, and substance use disorders. PMID:22532191

  9. Childhood sexual abuse severity and disclosure as predictors of depression among adult African American and Latina women

    PubMed Central

    Sciolla, Andres; Glover, Dorie A.; Loeb, Tamra B.; Zhang, Muyu; Myers, Hector F.; Wyatt, Gail E.

    2011-01-01

    A history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with adult depression, but data on abuse severity and disclosure are scant, particularly among low income ethnic minorities. CSA often co-occurs with other adversities, which also increase the risk of depression. This study examined the peri-trauma variable of abuse severity and the post-trauma variables of disclosure and self-blame as predictors of current depression symptoms in 94 low-income African American and Latina women with histories of CSA. After controlling for non-sexual childhood adversity and adult burden (i.e., chronic stress), severe CSA overall was associated with higher depression scores, especially among Latinas who disclosed their abuse. Depression symptoms among African American women were highest in those who disclosed and reported high levels of self-blame at the time of the incident. The link between depression and specific peri- and post-CSA factors in minority women may help guide future interventions. PMID:21716061

  10. Pathways to Adult Marijuana and Cocaine Use: A Prospective Study of African Americans from Age 6 to 42*

    PubMed Central

    Fothergill, Kate E.; Ensminger, Margaret E.; Green, Kerry; Robertson, Judith A.; Juon, Hee Soon

    2009-01-01

    This study examines pathways to adult marijuana and cocaine use in a cohort of African Americans from Woodlawn, an inner city community in Chicago. Assessments were conducted in first grade (age 6), adolescence (age 16), early adulthood (age 32), and in mid adulthood (age 42). The Social Adaptation Life Course Framework guided the focus on social adaptation, social bonds, and economic resources as predictors of adult drug use. Results indicate that more frequent substance use in adolescence and lower income and less frequent church attendance in early adulthood increase the risk of midlife drug use. Shyness in first grade related inversely to later cocaine use and marijuana use (marginally significant). Indirect pathways to drug use also were identified. Gender differences were not significant. The findings show continuities in social maladaptation over time and the importance of social integration and economic resources in the early adult years. PMID:19413135

  11. The St. Louis African American health-heart study: methodology for the study of cardiovascular disease and depression in young-old African Americans

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Depression has complex bidirectional adverse associations with CAD, although the mechanisms mediating these relationships remain unclear. Compared to European Americans, African Americans (AAs) have higher rates of morbidity and mortality from CAD. Although depression is common in AAs, its role in the development and features of CAD in this group has not been well examined. This project hypothesizes that the relationships between depression and CAD can be explained by common physiological pathways and gene-environment interactions. Thus, the primary aims of this ongoing project are to: a) determine the prevalence of CAD and depression phenotypes in a population-based sample of community-dwelling older AAs; b) examine the relationships between CAD and depression phenotypes in this population; and c) evaluate genetic variants from serotoninP and inflammatory pathways to discover potential gene-depression interactions that contribute significantly to the presence of CAD in AAs. Methods/design The St. Louis African American Health (AAH) cohort is a population-based panel study of community-dwelling AAs born in 1936–1950 (inclusive) who have been followed from 2000/2001 through 2010. The AAH-Heart study group is a subset of AAH participants recruited in 2009–11 to examine the inter-relationships between depression and CAD in this population. State-of-the-art CAD phenotyping is based on cardiovascular characterizations (coronary artery calcium, carotid intima-media thickness, cardiac structure and function, and autonomic function). Depression phenotyping is based on standardized questionnaires and detailed interviews. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of selected genes in inflammatory and serotonin-signaling pathways are being examined to provide information for investigating potential gene-depression interactions as modifiers of CAD traits. Information from the parent AAH

  12. Intervention Induced Changes on Parenting Practices, Youth Self-Pride and Sexual Norms to Reduce HIV-Related Behaviors among Rural African American Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murry, Velma McBride; Berkel, Cady; Chen, Yi-fu; Brody, Gene H.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg

    2011-01-01

    AIDS is the leading killer of African Americans between the ages of 25 and 44, many of whom became infected when they were teenagers or young adults. The disparity in HIV infection rate among African Americans youth residing in rural Southern regions of the United States suggests that there is an urgent need to identify ways to promote early…

  13. Social Environment and Sexual Risk-Taking among Gay and Transgender African American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Robin; Bernadini, Stephen; Jemmott, John B.

    2014-01-01

    More prevention effort is required as the HIV epidemic increases among gay and transgender African American youth. Using ecological systems theory and an integrative model of behaviour change, this study examines the sexual behaviour of gay and transgender African American young people as embedded within the unique social and structural environments affecting this population. Also examined is the important role played by mobile technology in the social and sexual lives of individuals. Seven focus groups were conducted with 54 African American young adults in a northeastern U.S. city. The findings provide a rich examination of the social and sexual lives of gay and transgender African American youth, focusing on the social environment and the impact of the environment on sexual risk behaviour. PMID:23889233

  14. Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD): An Evaluation of a Semistructured Reading Discussion Group for African American Female Adult-Literacy Students with Histories of Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jayatta D.

    2012-01-01

    Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD), a reading discussion group geared toward African American female adult-literacy students with self-defined histories of trauma, was an outgrowth of research identifying links between trauma, women's struggles with literacy, and the need to be conscious of emotional health…

  15. Every Voice Counts... Proceedings [of] the Annual African American and Latino/a American Adult Education Research Symposium (10th, Chicago, Illinois, April 21, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garth, Phyllis Ham, Ed.

    This symposium publication consists of 26 presentations. Papers are "'How to Eat an Oreo': Using African American Research through Personal Narrative To Analyze Ethnic Dysmorphic Phenomenon" (Ashford); "Authentic Members: Uncovering Adult Children" (Barnes); "What Good Is Government? Assessment of Government Official Impact on Black Businesses"…

  16. Associations among environmental supports, physical activity, and blood pressure in African-American adults in the PATH trial.

    PubMed

    Coulon, Sandra M; Wilson, Dawn K; Egan, Brent M

    2013-06-01

    High blood pressure disproportionately affects African-American adults and is a leading cause of stroke and heart attack. Engaging in recommended levels of physical activity reduces blood pressure, and social and physical environmental supports for physical activity may increase engagement in physical activity. Based on social cognitive theory within a bioecological framework, the present study tested hypotheses that perceived peer social support for physical activity and neighborhood walkability would be positively associated with physical activity, and that physical activity would mediate their relation with blood pressure. Baseline data were collected with 434 African-American adults in underserved communities (low income, high crime) participating in the Positive Action for Today's Health (PATH) trial. Perceived peer social support for physical activity and neighborhood walkability were measured with validated surveys. Physical activity was assessed with 7-day accelerometry (moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, min/day) and with a 4-week recall of walking. Three blood pressure assessments were taken by trained staff using standard protocols, with values from the second and third assessments averaged. The sample was predominantly female (63%), overweight (mean body mass index = 30.9, SD = 8.4), and had slightly elevated blood pressures with a mean systolic blood pressure of 132.4 (SD = 17.9) and a mean diastolic blood pressure of 81.4 (SD = 11.0). Results demonstrated that peer social support for physical activity (B = 2.43, p = .02) and neighborhood walkability (B = 2.40, p = .046) were significantly related to average daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Neighborhood walkability was also significantly associated with self-reported average daily walking (B = 8.86, p = .02). Physical activity did not mediate their relation with blood pressure and no significant direct effects of these variables on blood pressure were found. The positive influence of

  17. Daily dynamics in sleep and behavior of young African-American children: A convoluted dyad?!

    PubMed

    Spruyt, Karen; Alaribe, Calista U; Nwabara, Odochi U

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has provided evidence that in children sleep and behavior are related. We aimed to determine the association between naturalistic daily variations in sleep and behavioral functioning. African American children, 5.4±1.7years old, living on the south side of Chicago participated in a repeated measures study to assess this sleep-behavior link. Data was obtained from three separate two-week periods of 24-hour actigraphy and the parental version of the Behavioral Assessment System for Children. Canonical correlations analyses were applied to investigate the relation between individual changes in sleep and behavior. After 1-month, weekday average sleep duration primarily related to internalizing behaviors, while within-child variability of sleep related to behavioral changes which may involve internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Week-weekend differences in sleep associated with maladaptive social skills. Over a 6-week period, sleep onset latency and sleep offset latency related to behavioral symptoms and maladaptive skills. Over a period of 3-months, sleep associated with symptomatic behaviors while the adverse impact of within-child variability of sleep attenuated. Alternatively, the week-weekend differences in bedtime, wake-up time, wake after sleep onset and sleep onset latency in particular related to internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Findings showed that poor sleep related to dysfunctional behaviors. While maladaptive at the beginning, they may develop into symptomatic behaviors with potentially internalizing characteristics. As time goes on, individual changes in sleep onset and offset might be important clinical markers of a chronic 'social dysregulation'. Continued sufficient and regular sleep may improve daytime and nighttime behavioral regulation in early childhood. PMID:26548618

  18. Art therapy: Using the creative process for healing and hope among African American older adults.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Carol M; Sullivan-Marx, Eileen M

    2006-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the field of art therapy and the potential it can offer to address the emotional needs of the frail elderly. Two case studies are discussed, and examples of artwork are provided. The case studies and artwork were created under the guidance of an art therapist at a Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE) site in an urban African American community. This article explores how art making addresses the specific developmental tasks of the elderly in a culturally competent manner. Included are practical considerations in the choice of art media and directives for working with elderly clients, as well as resources for further information on the use of art in therapy. PMID:17045130

  19. Anticipated HIV Vaccine Acceptability among Sexually Active African-American Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Painter, Julia; Cene-Kush, Clare; Conner, Alaina; Cwiak, Carrie; Haddad, Lisa; Mulligan, Mark; DiClemente, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    An HIV vaccine, once it becomes available, could reduce vulnerability to HIV among African-American women. The purpose of this study was to assess determinants of HIV vaccine acceptability among African-American women across hypothetical levels of vaccine efficacy. Participants were recruited from a hospital-based family planning clinic in Atlanta, GA serving low-income patients (N = 321). Data were collected from audio-computer assisted surveys administered in the clinic waiting room. Psychosocial survey items were guided by Risk Homeostasis Theory (RHT) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify determinants of acceptability for two hypothetical HIV vaccines with 50% and 90% efficacy. Overall, 63% of participants would accept a vaccine with 50% efficacy and 85% would accept a vaccine with 90% efficacy. In multivariate analyses, odds of acceptability for a vaccine with 50% efficacy were higher among participants with greater perceived HIV vaccine benefits (AOR = 1.13, p < 0.001) and lower among participants with more than high school education (AOR = 0.47, p = 0.033) and greater perceived costs of HIV vaccination (AOR = 0.95, p = 0.010). Odds of acceptability for a vaccine with 90% efficacy were higher among participants with greater perceived costs of unprotected sex (AOR = 1.08, p = 0.026), HIV vaccine benefits (AOR = 1.23, p < 0.001) and self-efficacy for sex refusal (AOR = 1.11, p = 0.044). HIV vaccine acceptability was high, particularly for a vaccine with 90% efficacy. Findings suggest that demographic and psychosocial factors may impact acceptability of an eventual HIV vaccine. Once an HIV vaccine is available, interventions to maximize uptake may benefit from using RHT and SCT constructs to target relevant psychosocial factors, such as perceived benefits and perceived costs of vaccination. PMID:26343960

  20. Beating the Odds: Raising Academically Successful African American Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrabowski, Freemen A., III; Maton, Kenneth I.; Greif, Geoffrey L.

    This book on African American males presents the first step in an ongoing exploration of the relationship between parenting and academic achievement among African American children. Subjects of the study were high-achieving members of the Meyerhoff Scholars, young African Americans distinguished for their achievement. The Meyerhoff Scholar program…

  1. Asthma 1-2-3: a low literacy multimedia tool to educate African American adults about asthma.

    PubMed

    Sobel, Rina M; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Waite, Katherine R; Rittner, Sarah S; Wilson, Elizabeth A H; Wolf, Michael S

    2009-08-01

    Asthma 1-2-3 is a newly-developed low-literacy multimedia education tool designed to promote asthma self-care concepts among African American adults. An expert panel (n = 10) informed content development for the tool. The video script and storyboard imagery were shown to 30 African Americans recruited from the American Lung Association, whose reactions and comments guided further revisions. The final version was pilot tested in three diverse community settings in Chicago to determine the efficacy of Asthma 1-2-3 at improving patient understanding of asthma and its symptoms. In all, 130 adults participated in the pilot test. Knowledge scores significantly improved from pretest to posttest following presentation of the developed tool for subjects across all literacy levels (Pretest: Mean = 4.2 [SD = 1.6]; Posttest: M = 6.8 [SD = 2.0], P < 0.001). Symptom pathophysiology concepts were the least understood. Individuals with low literacy had less total knowledge score gains compared to those with marginal and adequate literacy (1.8, 2.6, and 3.2 respectively; P = 0.002). The multimedia tool significantly improved understanding of asthma. Individuals with limited literacy may require additional instruction, repeated viewing, or added tangible cues (i.e. supplementary print materials) to support knowledge retention. In general, feedback from the target population was particularly helpful in the development of the tool and its initial evaluation, and should be considered as a necessary step in the creation of other patient education materials. PMID:19353250

  2. Vitamin D and African Americans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin D insufficiency is more prevalent among African Americans than other Americans and, in North America, most young, healthy blacks do not achieve optimal 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations at any time of the year. This is primarily due to the fact that pigmentation reduces vitamin D...

  3. Effects of Ethnically Diverse Photographic Stimuli on Preference and Discourse Tasks in African American and Caucasian American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramkissoon, Ishara; Dagenais, Paul A.; Evans, Kelli J.; Camp, Travis J.; Ferguson, Neina N.

    2013-01-01

    This study determined whether using photographic stimuli displaying different ethnicity (African American vs. Caucasian American) influenced preference, word count, and number of content units produced by African American or Caucasian American participants. Six photograph pairs depicting common scenes were developed, differing only by model…

  4. Comparison of African American and Afro-Caribbean Older Adults' Self-Reported Health Status, Function, and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keane, Florence; Tappen, Ruth M.; Williams, Christine L.; Rosselli, Monica

    2009-01-01

    African American and Afro-Caribbean elders differ in regard to ethnic group membership, place of birth, and years of residence in the United States. In this study, the authors compare self-rated health status, function, and reports of substance use in these two groups. Fifty low-income African American and fifty low-income Afro-Caribbean adults…

  5. “Mama just won’t accept this”: Adult Perspectives on Engaging Depressed African American Teens in Clinical Research and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Carl C.; Burriss, Antoinette

    2013-01-01

    This manuscript focuses on qualitative data collected for AAKOMA Project, a 2-phase treatment engagement intervention trial for depressed African American adolescents and families. Data are presented from our phase I study of adult perspectives on African American adolescent depression, depression treatment, and research engagement. The research team conducted four focus groups (N = 24) and generated major themes from the data including ideas regarding the manifestations of depression in African American youth and psychosocial barriers to participation in depression research and treatment. Findings indicate that success in recruiting and retaining African American youth in depression research and treatment may include using innovative means to overcome the culturally embedded attributions of depression to non-biological causes, beliefs about the cultural insensitivity of treatments and challenges in the logistics of obtaining care. Adults report that encouraging youth and familial involvement in treatments and research should include targeted, community-partnered activities involving diverse staff in leadership roles and including community members as equal partners. PMID:21512751

  6. A systematic review of physical activity interventions among African American adults: evidence from 2009 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Whitt-Glover, M C; Keith, N R; Ceaser, T G; Virgil, K; Ledford, L; Hasson, R E

    2014-10-01

    This review extends findings from four previous reviews of physical activity (PA) interventions among African Americans (AA) and includes papers published between January 2009 and August 2013. Eligible papers were retrieved using strategies employed in previous reviews. Overall, 16 relevant papers were identified, including four pilot studies and 12 full trials. Interventions were based on a variety of behavioural sciences theories. The most common setting for interventions was churches. Most interventions lasted >6 months; few interventions included >6 months of post-intervention follow-up. Overall, studies identified within-group differences showing positive improvements in PA, and most studies showed statistically significant between-group differences in at least one measure of PA. A quality score was used to rate various elements of the studies and provide a numerical assessment of each paper; scores ranged from 3 to 10 out of 13 possible points. The current review indicates a continued need for studies that use objective PA measures, assess long-term intervention impact, provide specific PA goals for interventions, include more attention to strategies that can increase retention and adherence among AA study participants, include AA men and determine the independent and synergistic effects of individual and environmental (socio-cultural and built) change strategies. PMID:25196410

  7. The Effects of Alcohol, Relationship Power, and Partner Type on Perceived Difficulty Implementing Condom Use among African American Adults: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Woolf-King, Sarah E.; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    African American adults are disproportionately affected by HIV in the United States, underscoring the need for additional research on barriers to condom use. Guided by the theory of gender and power, this experimental study used a series of vignettes to test causal hypotheses regarding the influence of event-level alcohol use (present and absent), partner type (serious and casual), and relationship power (low and equal) on perceived difficulty implementing condom use. A total of 299 (151 women and 148 men) heterosexual African American adults indicated how “difficult” it would be to use a condom after reading 8 hypothetical sexual encounters, presented in a random order. A 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 repeated measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with one between subjects factor (gender) and one covariate (condom use self-efficacy) was used to estimate the effects of these variables on an index of perceived difficultly. The women in the study reported significantly higher ratings of difficulty implementing condom use in vignettes characterized by low relationship power (p < .001) and presence of alcohol use (p < .001); the manipulated independent variables did not produce any main effects for men. Both men and women’s ratings of perceived difficulty decreased as condom use self-efficacy increased (p < .001). This is the first study to use an experimental methodology to test hypotheses about barriers to condom use among a community-based sample of African American adults. These data can be used to enhance existing HIV prevention interventions. PMID:25277692

  8. ‘Their Type of Drugs: ’ Perceptions of Substance Use, Sex, and Social Boundaries among Young African American and Latino Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Tara; McDavitt, Bryce; George, Sheba; Mutchler, Matt G.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of sexuality have increasingly shifted their attention towards understanding the social contexts that inform and organise sexual behaviour. Building on this work, we examine how substance use and sex are socially organised and meaningful activities for young African American and Latino gay and bisexual men who use substances with sex. Drawing on 30 qualitative interviews in Los Angeles and New York, we identify the ways in which social boundaries inform substance use among these young men. We find that many of them view the gay and racial/ethnic communities they belong to as differentiated by patterns of substance use. Further, they see these communities as actively constructing group boundaries through substance use, sanctioning the use of particular substances while simultaneously discouraging the use or discussion of others. For these young men, racial/ethnic and gay communities provide salient contexts in which the use of certain substances and not others is socially meaningful. Findings demonstrate the important and heretofore unrecognised ways that perceived social boundaries inform these young men’s use of substances. As both protective and marginalising influences, perceptions of communities and social identities have real consequences for the sexual health of young African American and Latino gay and bisexual men. PMID:23013278

  9. Prevalence of Child and Adult Sexual Abuse and Risk Taking Practices Among HIV Serodiscordant African-American Couples

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the prevalence of child (CSA) and adult (ASA) sexual abuse among 535 African American HIV serodiscordant couples from four major United State cities, and its relationship to personal and couple related vulnerabilities and HIV risk factors. As part of a randomized, clinical trial, CSA and ASA histories were obtained through face-to-face interviews. Results indicate that HIV positive women were significantly more likely to report one kind of abuse (32.32%), either before or since age 18 or both (32.6%). HIV-positive men (34.9%) were significantly more likely to report CSA than HIV-negative men (22.0%). Overall, 72% of couples reported that one or both had CSA histories. These findings underscore the heightened emotional vulnerability, and STI and HIV transmission risk taking practices, associated with sexual abuse. Sexual abuse histories among couples should be assessed to better understand how these histories may contribute to couples dynamics and risk-taking practices. PMID:20499150

  10. Qualitative developmental research among low income African American adults to inform a social marketing campaign for walking

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study describes the development of a social marketing campaign for increasing walking in a low income, high crime community as part of the Positive Action for Today’s Health (PATH) trial. Methods Focus groups were conducted with 52 African American adults (ages 18 to 65 yrs), from two underserved communities to develop themes for a social marketing campaign to promote walking. Participants responded to questions concerning social marketing principles related to product, price, place, promotion, and positioning for increasing neighbourhood walking. Results Focus group data informed the development of the campaign objectives that were derived from the “5 Ps” to promote physical and mental health, social connectedness, safety, and confidence in walking regularly. Focus group themes indicated that physical and mental health benefits of walking were important motivators. Walking for social reasons was also important for overcoming barriers to walking. Police support from trusted officers while walking was also essential to promoting safety for walking. Print materials were developed by the steering committee, with a 12-month calendar and door hangers delivered to residents’ homes to invite them to walk. Pride Stride walks empowered community walkers to serve as peer leaders for special walking events to engage new walkers. Conclusions Essential elements for developing culturally tailored social marketing interventions for promoting walking in underserved communities are outlined for future researchers. PMID:23497164

  11. Cognitive Skill, Skill Demands of Jobs, and Earnings among Young European American, African American, and Mexican American Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farkas, George; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Analyses of National Longitudinal Survey data indicate that cognitive skill level affects access to high-skill occupations and earnings. Lower cognitive skill levels for African Americans and U.S.-born Mexican Americans explain a substantial proportion of income differences between these groups and European Americans but not the gender gap in pay…

  12. Social Support Factors as Moderators of Community Violence Exposure Among Inner-City African American Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammack, Phillip L.; Richards, Maryse H.; Luo, Zupei; Edlynn, Emily S.; Roy, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    Using both surveys and the experience sampling method (ESM), community violence exposure, social support factors, and depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed longitudinally among inner-city African American adolescents. Moderator models were tested to determine protective factors for youth exposed to community violence. Several social…

  13. Using Photovoice to Understand Barriers to and Facilitators of Cardiovascular Health Among African American Adults and Adolescents, North Carolina, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Woods-Jaeger, Briana; Lomas, Jesse; Taggart, Tamara; Thayer, Linden; Sutton, Sussie; Lightfoot, Alexandra F.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States, and mortality rates are higher among African Americans than among people of other races/ethnicities. We aimed to understand how African American adults and adolescents conceptualize cardiovascular health and perceive related barriers and facilitators. Methods This qualitative study was conducted as formative research for a larger study, Heart Healthy Lenoir, which aimed to reduce cardiovascular disease disparities among African Americans in eastern North Carolina, part of the widely-known “stroke belt” that runs through the southeastern United States. Using photovoice, a community-based participatory research method, we conducted eight 90-minute photovoice sessions with 6 adults and 9 adolescents in Lenoir County, North Carolina. Topics for each discussion were selected by participants and reflected themes related to cardiovascular health promotion. All sessions were transcribed and coded using a data-driven, inductive approach. Results Participants conceptualized cardiovascular health to have mental, spiritual, and social health dimensions. Given these broad domains, participants acknowledged many ecological barriers to cardiovascular health; however, they also emphasized the importance of personal responsibility. Facilitators for cardiovascular health included using social health (eg, family/community relationships) and spiritual health dimensions (eg, understanding one’s body and purpose) to improve health behaviors. Conclusion The perspectives of African American adults and adolescents elicited through this formative research provided a strong foundation for Heart Healthy Lenoir’s ongoing engagement of community members in Lenoir County and development and implementation of its intervention to prevent cardiovascular disease. PMID:26425868

  14. Sexual Decision Making in the Absence of Choice: The African American Female Dating Experience

    PubMed Central

    Andrasik, Michele P.; Nguyen, Hong V.; George, William H.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2016-01-01

    Although links between low mate availability and increased HIV and STI risk for African American women have been documented in the literature, we know little about the impact of limited mate choices on the quality of relationships between Black men and women and how these relationship dynamics impact risk for young Black women. We conducted a qualitative study with African American female young adults (N=12) to explore the perceived impact of structural forces on African American female young adults’ dating and sexual behavior. Participants reported (1) perceptions of Black men as untrustworthy and manipulative, (2) the limited and often negative roles for Black men in the larger Black community, and (3) heterosexual relationships in the Black community as increasingly influenced by economics and commerce. Recommendations for HIV prevention interventions that include micro and macro level approaches are discussed. PMID:27182463

  15. 16 Extraordinary African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    This collection for children tells the stories of 16 African Americans who helped make America what it is today. African Americans can take pride in the heritage of these contributors to society. Biographies are given for the following: (1) Sojourner Truth, preacher and abolitionist; (2) Frederick Douglass, abolitionist; (3) Harriet Tubman, leader…

  16. Diabetes in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, M

    2005-01-01

    African Americans have a high risk for type 2 diabetes. Genetic traits, the prevalence of obesity, and insulin resistance all contribute to the risk of diabetes in the African American community. African Americans have a high rate of diabetic complications, because of poor glycaemic control and racial disparities in health care in the USA. African Americans with diabetes may have an atypical presentation that simulates type 1 diabetes, but then their subsequent clinical course is typical of type 2 diabetes. Culturally sensitive strategies, structured disease management protocols, and the assistance of nurses, diabetic educators, and other health care professionals are effective in improving the outcome of diabetes in the African American community. PMID:16344294

  17. The Future of Adult Education in the Urban African American Church

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac, E. Paulette

    2005-01-01

    Throughout societal transformations and trends, adult education has been available, providing relevant and personal learning needs for adult learners. Such has been the case in urban communities. However, our urban communities have experienced a transformation of sorts. Once thriving with numerous businesses and churches, they no longer enjoy the…

  18. Life-Space and Cognitive Decline in a Community-Based Sample of African American and Caucasian Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, Michael; Andel, Ross; Wadley, Virginia G.; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.; Sawyer, Patricia; Allman, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Life-space, a measure of movement through one’s environment, may be viewed as one aspect of environmental complexity for older adults. We examined the relationship between life-space and subsequent change in cognitive function. Methods Participants were 624 community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries (49% African American) who completed in-home assessments at baseline and follow-up 4 years later. The Life-Space Assessment was used at baseline to measure extent, frequency, and independence of participants’ movement within and outside the home. Cognitive decline was measured with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Results In a regression model adjusted for baseline MMSE, age, gender, race, residence (rural/urban), and education, greater life-space at baseline predicted reduced cognitive decline (β = −.177, p < .001). This association remained statistically significant in subsequent models that examined what proportion of the observed association was explained by baseline physical activity, physical function, vascular risk factors, comorbidity, and psychosocial factors. Physical function accounted for the largest proportion (37.3%) of the association between life-space and cognitive decline. There was no significant interaction between life-space and race, gender, or age in predicting cognitive decline. In a logistic regression analysis, participants in the highest quartile of life-space had 53% reduced odds of substantial cognitive decline (≥4 points on MMSE) compared to those in the lowest quartile. Conclusions These preliminary findings suggest that life-space may be a useful identifier of older adults at risk for cognitive decline. Future research should investigate the potential reciprocal relationship between life-space and cognitive function as well as the interrelationship between these factors and physical function. PMID:19038840

  19. Efficacy of the Chicago Parent Program with Low-Income African American and Latino Parents of Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Deborah; Garvey, Christine; Julion, Wrenetha; Fogg, Louis; Tucker, Sharon; Mokros, Hartmut

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the efficacy of a 12-session parent training program, the Chicago Parent Program (CPP), which was developed in collaboration with African American and Latino parents. Using growth curve modeling, data were analyzed from 253 parents (58.9% African American, 32.8% Latino) of 2–4 year old children enrolled in 7 day care centers serving low-income families. Day care centers were matched and randomly assigned to intervention and waiting-list control conditions. At 1-year follow-up, intervention group parents used less corporal punishment and issued fewer commands with their children. Intervention children exhibited fewer behavior problems during observed play and clean-up sessions than controls. Additional group differences were observed when dose was included in the analytic model. Parents who participated in at least 50% of CPP sessions also reported greater improvements in parenting self-efficacy, more consistent discipline, greater warmth, and a decline in child behavior problems when compared to reports from controls. The implications of these results for preventive parent training with low-income African American and Latino parents and the role of intervention dose on parent-child outcomes are discussed. PMID:19067166

  20. Efficacy of the Chicago parent program with low-income African American and Latino parents of young children.

    PubMed

    Gross, Deborah; Garvey, Christine; Julion, Wrenetha; Fogg, Louis; Tucker, Sharon; Mokros, Hartmut

    2009-03-01

    This study tested the efficacy of a 12-session parent training program, the Chicago Parent Program (CPP), which was developed in collaboration with African American and Latino parents. Using growth curve modeling, data were analyzed from 253 parents (58.9% African American, 32.8% Latino) of 2-4 year old children enrolled in seven day care centers serving low-income families. Day care centers were matched and randomly assigned to intervention and waiting-list control conditions. At 1-year follow-up, intervention group parents used less corporal punishment and issued fewer commands with their children. Intervention children exhibited fewer behavior problems during observed play and clean-up sessions than controls. Additional group differences were observed when dose was included in the analytic model. Parents who participated in at least 50% of CPP sessions also reported greater improvements in parenting self-efficacy, more consistent discipline, greater warmth, and a decline in child behavior problems when compared to reports from controls. The implications of these results for preventive parent training with low-income African American and Latino parents and the role of intervention dose on parent-child outcomes are discussed. PMID:19067166

  1. The STD and HIV Epidemics in African American Youth: Reconceptualizing Approaches to Risk Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kim S.; Boyer, Cherrie B.; Cotton, Garnette

    2004-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), disproportionately affect African American adolescents and young adults. Many of our current strategies and approaches have been inadequate in the promotion of risk reduction among youth and need to be reconceptualized. This article identifies issues that may guide…

  2. Project-Based Learning about Nutrition with Technology in an African-American Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Sibyl

    2010-01-01

    In the last few years, there has been a growing problem with the prevalence of being overweight. This is becoming an accepted lifestyle in the African American community, and has begun to impact not just adults, but also adolescents and young children. There are problems associated with being overweight or obese that could have lifetime…

  3. Barriers to Participation in Adult Education for African Americans Attending a Christian Methodist Episcopal Church

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalmers, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Faith-based organizations, particularly churches, have embraced education. Historically, churches, synagogues, and temples have been the sites for educational programming. Yet, a great concern among religious institutions is participation in educational activities. Many studies have identified barriers to participation in adult education among…

  4. Beliefs About Asthma and Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Low-Income Inner-City African-American Adults

    PubMed Central

    George, Maureen; Birck, Kathleen; Hufford, David J; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Weaver, Terri E

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND The gap in asthma prevalence, morbidity, and mortality is increasing in low-income racial/ethnic minority groups as compared with Caucasians. In order to address these disparities, alternative beliefs and behaviors need to be identified. OBJECTIVE To identify causal models of asthma and the context of conventional prescription versus complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in low-income African-American (AA) adults with severe asthma. DESIGN Qualitative analysis of 28 in-depth interviews. PARTICIPANTS Twenty-six women and 2 men, aged 21 to 48, who self-identified as being AA, low-income, and an inner-city resident. APPROACH Transcripts of semi-structured in-depth qualitative interviews were inductively analyzed using the constant comparison approach. RESULTS Sixty-four percent of participants held biologically correct causal models of asthma although 100% reported the use of at least 1 CAM for asthma. Biologically based therapies, humoral balance, and prayer were the most popular CAM. While most subjects trusted prescription asthma medicine, there was a preference for integration of CAM with conventional asthma treatment. Complementary and alternative medicine was considered natural, effective, and potentially curative. Sixty-three percent of participants reported nonadherence to conventional therapies in the 2 weeks before the research interview. Neither CAM nor nonmedical causal models altered most individuals (93%) willingness to use prescription medication. Three possibly dangerous CAM were identified. CONCLUSIONS Clinicians should be aware of patient-generated causal models of asthma and use of CAM in this population. Discussing patients' desire for an integrated approach to asthma management and involving social networks are 2 strategies that may enhance patient-provider partnerships and treatment fidelity. PMID:16995890

  5. Total a-Tocopherol Intakes Are Associated with Serum a-Tocopherol Concentrations in African American Adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African Americans in the southern United State have a high prevalence of chronic disease. Tocopherol intake and status have been associated with protection against several chronic diseases. Our objectives were, therefore, to examine the association between tocopherol intakes as measured by 2 regiona...

  6. Validity and calibration of Food Frequency Questionnaires used with African American adults in the Jackson Heart Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper details the calibration process and validity of two Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs) developed for use in investigating diet disease relationships existing within the African American population. A calibration design was used which included comparison of mean nutrient intakes from fo...

  7. Promoting Sexual Health Equity in the United States: Implications from Exploratory Research with African-American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Allison L.; Uhrig, Jennifer; Poehlman, Jon; Scales, Monica; Hogben, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to inform communication efforts to promote sexual health equity in the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sought to explore African-Americans' perceptions of the sexually transmitted disease (STD) problem in their communities, reactions to racially comparative STD data and opinions about dissemination…

  8. Understanding Impediments and Enablers to Physical Activity among African American Adults: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddiqi, Zoveen; Tiro, Jasmin A.; Shuval, Kerem

    2011-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading cause of premature death, disability and numerous chronic diseases. Minority and underserved populations in the United States and worldwide have a higher prevalence of physical inactivity affecting their morbidity and mortality rates. In the United States, African Americans are less physically active and have a…

  9. A Contextualized Approach to Faith-Based HIV Risk Reduction for African American Women.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Jennifer M; Rogers, Christopher K; Bellinger, Dawn; Thompson, Keitra

    2016-07-01

    HIV/AIDS has a devastating impact on African Americans, particularly women and young adults. We sought to characterize risks, barriers, and content and delivery needs for a faith-based intervention to reduce HIV risk among African American women ages 18 to 25. In a convergent parallel mixed methods study, we conducted four focus groups (n = 38) and surveyed 71 young adult women. Data were collected across four African American churches for a total of 109 participants. We found the majority of women in this sample were engaged in behaviors that put them at risk for contracting HIV, struggled with religiously based barriers and matters of sexuality, and had a desire to incorporate their intimate relationships, parenting, and financial burdens into faith-based HIV risk-reduction interventions. Incorporating additional social context-related factors into HIV risk-reduction interventions for young African American women is critical to adapting and developing HIV interventions to reduce risk among young adult women in faith settings. PMID:26879828

  10. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Seroprevalence and Ultrasound-Diagnosed Uterine Fibroids in a Large Population of Young African-American Women.

    PubMed

    Moore, Kristen R; Smith, Jennifer S; Cole, Stephen R; Schoenbach, Victor J; Schlusser, Katherine; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Baird, Donna D

    2016-06-01

    For decades reproductive tract infections (RTIs) have been hypothesized to play a role in uterine fibroid development. The few previous studies conducted used self-reported history of RTIs and had inconsistent findings. We investigated this hypothesis further using serological analysis, an immunological measure of past exposure. We focused on herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) because prior published data have suggested a possible association with fibroids, and serology for HSV-2 is much more sensitive than self-report. We used cross-sectional enrollment data from African-American women enrolled in a prospective study of fibroid incidence and growth (recruited 2010-2012) in the Detroit, Michigan, area. The women were aged 23-34 years and were screened for fibroids using a standardized ultrasound examination at their enrollment. Age- and multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios. Of 1,696 participants, 1,658 had blood samples and HSV-2 serology results; 22% of participants with serology results had fibroids. There was no significant association between HSV-2 seropositivity and the presence of fibroids (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio = 0.94, 95% confidence interval: 0.73, 1.20), nor were there any associations with size of the largest fibroid, number of fibroids, or total fibroid volume. Our data provide no evidence for an influence of HSV-2 exposure on fibroid risk in young African-American women. Further study of other serologically measured RTIs is warranted. PMID:27188945

  11. A prospective study of the effects of marital status and family relations on young children's adjustment among African American and European American families.

    PubMed

    Shaw, D S; Winslow, E B; Flanagan, C

    1999-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of divorce and family relations on young children's development prospectively, using an ethnically diverse sample of approximately 300 low-income families. We also were able to examine the moderating effects of ethnicity on child adjustment in always two-parent, to-be-divorced, already-divorced, and always single-parent families. Results indicated that to-be-divorced European American and African American families demonstrated higher rates of preschool-age behavior problems, and already-divorced families showed similar trends. Parental conflict and behavior problems accounted for predivorce differences in child behavior problems, whereas rejecting parenting accounted for differences in problem behavior between always single-parent and always two-parent families. The results are discussed in terms of the importance of ethnicity in influencing young, low-income children's adjustment to different family structures. PMID:10368919

  12. Factors Associated with Colorectal Cancer Screening among Younger African American Men: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Goodson, Patricia; Foster, Margaret J.

    2015-01-01

    Of cancers affecting both men and women, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cancer killer among African Americans in the U.S. Compared to White men, African American men have incidence and mortality rates 25% and 50% higher from CRC. Despite the benefits of early detection and the availability of effective screening, most adults over age 50 have not undergone testing, and disparities in colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) persist. Owing to CRC’s high incidence and younger age at presentation among African American men, CRCS is warranted at age 45 rather than 50. However, the factors influencing young adult (i.e., age < 50) African American men’s intention to screen and/or their CRCS behaviors has not been systematically assessed. To assess whether the factors influencing young adult African American men’s screening intentions and behaviors are changeable through structured health education interventions, we conducted a systematic review, with the two-fold purpose of: (1) synthesizing studies examining African American men's knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors regarding CRCS; and (2) assessing these studies’ methodological quality. Utilizing Garrard’s Matrix Method, a total of 28 manuscripts met our inclusion/exclusion criteria: 20 studies followed a non-experimental research design, 4 comprised a quasi-experimental design, and 4, an experimental design. Studies were published between 2002 and 2012; the majority, between 2007 and 2011. The factors most frequently assessed were behaviors (79%), beliefs (68%), and knowledge (61%) of CRC and CRCS. Six factors associated with CRC and CRCS emerged: previous CRCS, CRC test preference, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, CRC/CRCS knowledge, and physician support/recommendation. Studies were assigned a methodological quality score (MQS – ranging from 0 to 21). The mean MQS of 10.9 indicated these studies were, overall, of medium quality and suffered from specific flaws. Alongside a call for more

  13. Migration and unemployment duration among young adults.

    PubMed

    Bailey, A J

    1994-07-01

    "The relationship between migration and unemployment duration is examined. Standard job search predictors of spell length (replacement income, labor force experience, personal characteristics and economic conditions) are included as control variables alongside measures of migration in a Weibull hazard model. The model is estimated using data from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Young adults who migrated while unemployed had longer durations of unemployment than those who did not migrate. The rate at which they found jobs was also linked to how long they had been unemployed, to being laid off, being African American, to going to college, having a mortgage and to national unemployment conditions." PMID:12292534

  14. Discrimination, Mastery, and Depressive Symptoms among African American Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Daphne C.; Hudson, Darrell L.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Siefert, Kristine; Jackson, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the influence of discrimination and mastery on depressive symptoms for African American men at young (18-34), middle (35-54), and late (55+) adulthood. Method: Analyses are based on responses from 1,271 African American men from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Results: Discrimination was significantly…

  15. Exploring Gender Differences in the Association Between Young African American Mothers’ Reports of Preschoolers’ Violence Exposure and Problem Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Stephanie J.; Lewin, Amy; Joseph, Jill G.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of children’s violence exposure, particularly among ethnic minorities living in urban areas, is troubling. Gender differences in the rates and effects of violence exposure on behavior have been found for older children, and the current study extends this research to preschool-age children. We draw on data collected from a sample of 3- to 5-year-olds born to 230 adolescent African American mothers living in Washington, DC. Girls and boys were exposed to comparable levels of witnessed and directly experienced violence. In contrast to findings from studies of older children, preschool-age boys’ and girls’ externalizing and internalizing behavior were comparably associated with directly experienced and witnessed violence. These findings highlight the importance of further developmental research to differentiate the effects of violence exposure as children grow older. PMID:20183643

  16. Common genetic influences on the timing of first use for alcohol, cigarettes, and cannabis in young African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Sartor, Carolyn E.; Agrawal, Arpana; Lynskey, Michael T.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    The risks associated with early age at initiation for alcohol, cigarette, and cannabis use are well documented, yet the timing of first use has rarely been studied in genetically informative frameworks, leaving the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to age at initiation largely unknown. The current study assessed overlap in heritable and environmental influences on the timing of initiation across these three substances in African-American women, using a sample of 462 female twins (100 monozygotic and 131 dizygotic pairs) from the Missouri Adolescent Female Twin Study. Mean age at the time of interview was 25.1 years. Ages at first use of alcohol, cigarettes, and cannabis were gathered in diagnostic interviews administered over the telephone. Standard genetic analyses were conducted with substance use initiation variables categorized as never, late, and early onset. Variance in the timing of first use was attributable in large part to genetic sources: 44% for alcohol, 62% for cigarettes, and 77% for cannabis. Genetic correlations across substances ranged from 0.25 to 0.70. Shared environmental influences were modest for alcohol (10%) and absent for cigarettes and cannabis. Findings contrast with reports from earlier studies based on primarily Caucasian samples, which have suggested a substantial role for shared environment on substance use initiation when measured as lifetime use. By characterizing onset as timing of first use, we may be tapping a separate construct. Differences in findings may also reflect a distinct etiological pathway for substance use initiation in African-American women that could not be detected in previous studies. PMID:19261395

  17. African American legislators' perceptions of firearm violence prevention legislation.

    PubMed

    Payton, Erica; Thompson, Amy; Price, James H; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Dake, Joseph A

    2015-06-01

    Firearm mortality is the leading cause of death for young African American males, however, few studies have focused on racial/ethnic minority populations and firearm violence. The National Black Caucus of State Legislators advocates for legislation that promotes the health of African Americans. Thus, the purpose of this study was to collect baseline data on African American legislators' perceptions regarding firearm violence in the African American community. A cross-sectional study of African American legislators (n = 612) was conducted to investigate the research questions. Of the 612 questionnaires mailed, 12 were not deliverable, and 170 were returned (28%). Utilizing a three wave mailing process, African American legislators were invited to participate in the study. The majority (88%) of respondents perceived firearm violence to be very serious among African Americans. Few (10%) legislators perceived that addressing legislative issues would be an effective strategy in reducing firearm violence among African Americans. The majority (72%) of legislators perceived the most effective strategy to reducing firearm violence in the African American community should focus on addressing societal issues (e.g. crime and poverty). After adjusting for the number of perceived barriers, the number of perceived benefits was a significant predictor of legislators' perceived effectiveness of firearm violence prevention legislation for 8 of the 24 potential firearm violence prevention legislative bills. PMID:25301589

  18. Examining the psychometric validity of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R) in a community sample of African American and European American adults.

    PubMed

    Chakawa, Ayanda; Butler, Robert C; Shapiro, Steven K

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R), focusing on a sample drawn from a geographic region in the United States that has not been included in previously published research on the MEIM-R. Data were obtained from a community-based sample of 105 African American (AA) and 91 European American (EA) adults located in the state of Alabama. The MEIM-R was best represented by two constructs-exploration and commitment. AA adults reported higher levels of racial/ethnic identity exploration and commitment than EA adults. Differential item functioning was found among 1 of the exploration items. The current study provides additional support for the structural validity of the MEIM-R. Further research on the invariance of responses to the MEIM-R across a variety of sociodemographic factors is still necessary. PMID:25642783

  19. Narcolepsy in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Makoto; O'Hara, Ruth; Einen, Mali; Lin, Ling; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Although narcolepsy affects 0.02–0.05% of individuals in various ethnic groups, clinical presentation in different ethnicities has never been fully characterized. Our goal was to study phenotypic expression across ethnicities in the United States. Design/Setting: Cases of narcolepsy from 1992 to 2013 were identified from searches of the Stanford Center for Narcolepsy Research database. International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition diagnosis criteria for type 1 and type 2 narcolepsy were used for inclusion, but subjects were separated as with and without cataplexy for the purpose of data presentation. Information extracted included demographics, ethnicity and clinical data, HLA-DQB1*06:02, polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) data, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1 level. Patients: 182 African-Americans, 839 Caucasians, 35 Asians, and 41 Latinos with narcolepsy. Results: Sex ratio, PSG, and MSLT findings did not differ across ethnicities. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score was higher and age of onset of sleepiness earlier in African Americans compared with other ethnicities. HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity was higher in African Americans (91.0%) versus others (76.6% in Caucasians, 80.0% in Asians, and 65.0% in Latinos). CSF hypocretin-1 level, obtained in 222 patients, was more frequently low (≤ 110 pg/ml) in African Americans (93.9%) versus Caucasians (61.5%), Asians (85.7%) and Latinos (75.0%). In subjects with low CSF hypocretin-1, African Americans (28.3%) were 4.5 fold more likely to be without cataplexy when compared with Caucasians (8.1%). Conclusions: Narcolepsy in African Americans is characterized by earlier symptom onset, higher Epworth Sleepiness Scale score, higher HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity, and low cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 level in the absence of cataplexy. In African Americans, more subjects without cataplexy have type 1 narcolepsy. Citation: Kawai M, O'Hara R, Einen M, Lin L

  20. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  1. African American Males' Success in Completing High School: The Impact of Mentoring Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins-Williams, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Within a local school district, the dropout rate among African American males is among the highest in the United States. There is ample research on these dropout rates among African American males; however, what remains understudied are the experiences of young African American males who have successfully negotiated 4 years of high school to…

  2. Psychological Misdiagnosis of African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garretson, Deborah J.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews historical and current problems with making accurate psychological diagnoses of African Americans. Suggests that misdiagnosis is strongly related to pathologization of African-American culture itself. Explores diagnostic process, stereotypes of African-American psychopathology, cultural differences in values and life stressors, and…

  3. The Other African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matory, J. Lorand

    Black North America is ethnically and culturally diverse. It contains many groups who do not call themselves or have not always called themselves "Negro,""Black,""African-American," and so forth, such as Louisiana Creoles of color and many of the Indian tribes east of the Mississippi. There are also numerous North American ethnic groups of African…

  4. Educating African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American…

  5. Early community contexts, race/ethnicity and young adult CVD risk factors: the protective role of education.

    PubMed

    Wickrama, K A S; O'Neal, Catherine Walker; Lott, Ryan E

    2012-08-01

    Using a sample of 13,500 adolescents (53% female and 47% male) who participated in all four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study used multilevel regression to examine the influence of early structural community adversity (as measured by rates of community poverty, single-parent headed families, and two indicators of employment) and racial/ethnic status on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors of young adults (systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mean arterial pressure). The moderating role of youth's socioeconomic attainment was also examined. Results indicate that early community adversity and African American racial status place young adults at risk for CVD. Youth's socioeconomic attainment does not erase the persistent influences of early community adversity and African American racial status on CVD risk. However, the level of education attained can protect African American young adults and those experiencing early community adversity from CVD risk factors. PMID:22101680

  6. Saving Our Sons: The Impact of a Single Gender Public School on the Social, Emotional and Academic Progress of Young African American Males from Low Socioeconomic Urban Neighborhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    African American males consistently perform at significantly lower academic levels, than their peers, at every age level and on almost every national assessment (Lewis, Simon, Uzzell, Horwitz, & Casserly, 2010; Harvey, 2010; Tsoi-A-Fatt, 2010; Fergus & Noguera, 2010), and of all racial/ethnic and gender groups, African American males…

  7. An exploratory study of sexual assertiveness and characteristics of African American women in negotiating condom use at an HBCU.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Chalice C; Kennedy, Bernice Roberts

    2013-01-01

    The transmission of HIV/AIDS among African American women through heterosexual sex is an epidemic. Critical themes extracted from the HIV/AIDS sexual assertiveness literature revealed that: (a) sexual assertiveness is related to HIV risk, (b) sexual assertiveness is related to communication, and (c) women with low sexual assertiveness are at risk for HIV. This descriptive study sought to answer the following research question: What do young adult college attending African American women self-report about asking information about their partner's sexual history? The multifaceted model of HIV risk is the theoretical framework which guided this descriptive study. A basic tenet of the multifaceted model of HIV risk is that there is no single predictor of women's HIV risk behavior. Results revealed that 104 young adult college attending African American women who volunteered to attend a one day HIV prevention training overall scored high on a Sexual Assertive Scale on subscales of Information Communication, Refusal, and Pregnancy/STD Prevention Subscale, and scored in the medium range on the Initiation Subscales. The Information Communication and Pregnancy/ STD Prevention Subscale received the highest scores. More research is needed targeting diverse African American females with different socioeconomic status, various locations, and educated to determine their sexual assertiveness with partners which are essential in developing specific programs for diverse groups of African American females. PMID:24279130

  8. School Programs for African American Males. ERIC CUE Digest No. 72.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascher, Carol

    New educational programs are attempting to meet the needs of male African American students. The new programs vary widely in approach, scope, content, and targeted age group. However, they all focus on helping African American male youth develop productive behaviors and values by bringing them into contact with African American male adults. The…

  9. Heterogeneity in Patterns of Sexual Risk Behaviors among African-American Youth: Associations with General and Race-Specific Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrow, Anthony L.; Tubman, Jonathan G.; Gil, Andres G.

    2007-01-01

    This descriptive study employed a within-groups analytic approach to examine patterns of sexual risk behavior and co-occurring general and race/ethnicity-specific risk and protective factors in a community sample of African-American youth (n = 436). Cluster analysis was used to classify young adults by levels of self-reported past year sexual risk…

  10. Race, Gender, and Critique: African-American Women, White Women, and Domestic Violence in the 1980s and 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Lois

    2001-01-01

    Focusing on young adult working class and poor African American women and white women, who currently live in a largely inhospitable economy, this paper examines where these women lodge social critique (where they place the cause and imagine the remedy for their troubles). Data from indepth interviews indicate that respondents see the world with a…

  11. Violence Exposure and Depressive Symptoms among Adolescents and Young Adults Disconnected from School and Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelson, Tamar; Turner, Alezandria K.; Tandon, S. Darius

    2010-01-01

    The psychological effects of exposure to different types of violence among urban adolescents and young adults are not yet well understood. This study investigated exposure to neighborhood violence, relationship violence, and forced sex among 677 urban African Americans aged 16-23 enrolled at an employment and training center. We assessed…

  12. Abuse Impedes Prevention: The Intersection of Intimate Partner Violence and HIV/STI Risk Among Young African American Women.

    PubMed

    Seth, Puja; Wingood, Gina M; Robinson, LaShun S; Raiford, Jerris L; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2015-08-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with risky sexual behavior and STIs among diverse groups of women. IPV was examined as a moderator of efficacy for an HIV/STI intervention. 848 African American women, 18-29, were randomly assigned to an HIV/STI intervention or control condition. Participants completed measures on sociodemographics, IPV, risky sexual behavior and received STI testing. IPV predicted inconsistent condom use and a risky sexual partner over 12-month follow-up. A significant interaction indicated that among women who experienced IPV, those in the intervention were more likely to test positive for Trichomonas vaginalis (TV). Among intervention participants, those who experienced IPV were more likely to test TV-positive than those who did not. In an HIV intervention that did not specifically address IPV, women in the control condition were less likely to acquire TV than those in the intervention. Consideration of contextual/interpersonal factors is essential when developing HIV intervention programs. PMID:25399033

  13. A Longitudinal Examination of Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Drug Use and Unsafe Sex among Young African American Females

    PubMed Central

    Voisin, Dexter R.; Hotton, Anna; Tan, Kevin; DiClemente, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    This study prospectively examined associations among multiple theoretically informed risk (e.g., depression, sexual sensation seeking, and risky peers norms) and protective factors (e.g., social support, STI knowledge, and refusal to have sex self efficacy) on unsafe sex among 715 African American adolescent females aged 15–21 who participated in an STI/HIV prevention intervention. Generalized estimating equation models were used to assess associations between baseline characteristics and sexual risk over a 12-month follow up period. Overall risk in this population was high: at baseline, nearly a third of women reported sex under the influence of alcohol or substances; ≥ 2 partners for vaginal sex, and casual sex partners in the 60 days prior to baseline, and nearly 75% of those reporting vaginal sex used condoms inconsistently. In multivariable analysis, when risk and protective factors were simultaneously considered, higher levels of sexual sensation seeking were associated with having multiple sex partners and inconsistent condom use. Greater perception of risky peer norms was associated with a higher risk of having sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs. In addition, higher sex refusal self-efficacy was protective against having multiple; casual; and concurrent sex partners. Incorporating these salient factors into prevention programs may be critical to the development of targeted interventions for this population. PMID:23935234

  14. A Longitudinal Examination of Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Drug Use and Unsafe Sex among Young African American Females.

    PubMed

    Voisin, Dexter R; Hotton, Anna; Tan, Kevin; Diclemente, Ralph

    2013-09-01

    This study prospectively examined associations among multiple theoretically informed risk (e.g., depression, sexual sensation seeking, and risky peers norms) and protective factors (e.g., social support, STI knowledge, and refusal to have sex self efficacy) on unsafe sex among 715 African American adolescent females aged 15-21 who participated in an STI/HIV prevention intervention. Generalized estimating equation models were used to assess associations between baseline characteristics and sexual risk over a 12-month follow up period. Overall risk in this population was high: at baseline, nearly a third of women reported sex under the influence of alcohol or substances; ≥ 2 partners for vaginal sex, and casual sex partners in the 60 days prior to baseline, and nearly 75% of those reporting vaginal sex used condoms inconsistently. In multivariable analysis, when risk and protective factors were simultaneously considered, higher levels of sexual sensation seeking were associated with having multiple sex partners and inconsistent condom use. Greater perception of risky peer norms was associated with a higher risk of having sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs. In addition, higher sex refusal self-efficacy was protective against having multiple; casual; and concurrent sex partners. Incorporating these salient factors into prevention programs may be critical to the development of targeted interventions for this population. PMID:23935234

  15. Adolescent Self-Control Predicts Joint Trajectories of Marijuana Use and Depressive Mood into Young Adulthood Among Urban African Americans and Puerto Ricans

    PubMed Central

    Pahl, Kerstin; Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have identified an association between depressive mood and marijuana use. We examined adolescent self-control as a predictor of membership in joint developmental trajectories of depressive mood and marijuana use from adolescence to young adulthood. Urban African Americans and Puerto Ricans (N=838) were sampled when participants were on average 14, 19, 24, and 29 years old. Using growth mixture modeling, four joint trajectory groups of depressive mood and marijuana use were established: low marijuana use/low depressive mood, low marijuana use/intermediate depressive mood, high marijuana use/low depressive mood, and high marijuana use/high depressive mood. Weighted logistic regression analysis showed that self-control at age 14 distinguished the high marijuana use/high depressive mood group and the low marijuana use/low depressive mood group from each of the other groups. Findings show that the co-occurrence of high levels of marijuana use and depressive mood from adolescence into young adulthood is predicted by low levels of self-control in adolescence. On the other hand, high selfcontrol is associated with low marijuana use and low levels of depression over time. Thus, while deficits in self-control in adolescence constitute a significant risk for maladjustment over time, high self-control exerts a protective factor with regard to marijuana use and depressive mood into young adulthood. PMID:23670644

  16. People of Color Rising up and Speaking out: Oppression and Knowledge Production. Proceedings for the Annual African American & Latino/a American Adult Education Research Symposium (11th, Chicago, Illinois, April 6, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garth, Phyllis Ham, Ed.

    This document contains 14 papers from an annual symposium on research in adult education for African Americans and Latin Americans. Representative papers include the following: "Congressman Adam Clayton Powell Jr., Keeping the Faith and Representing the Race--From the Pulpit to Politics" (Roudell Kirkwood); "Religious Education and Slavery:…

  17. The Complexity of African American Racial Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders Thompson, Vetta L.

    2001-01-01

    Interviewed adult African Americans regarding four parameters of racial identification (psychological, physical, cultural, and sociopolitical). Results indicated generally high levels of racial identification across participants, though scores varied across parameters. The highest level of racial identification was obtained on the cultural…

  18. Stroke recovery and prevention barriers among young African-American men: Potential avenues to reduce health disparities

    PubMed Central

    Blixen, Carol; Perzynski, Adam; Cage, Jamie; Smyth, Kathleen; Moore, Shirley; Sila, Cathy; Pundik, Svetlana; Sajatovic, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Background African-Americans (AA) who experience a first time stroke are younger, and have double the stroke rate and more post-stroke complications than other Americans. Objective To assess perceived post-stroke care barriers among younger AA men and their care partners (CPs) in order to inform development of acceptable and effective improvements in post-stroke care for this high-risk group. Methods Ten community-dwelling AA stroke survivors and 7 of their care partners (CPs) participated in focus groups and advisory board meetings. Survivors had stroke or transient ischemic attack within one year and a Barthel ADL Index >60. In focus groups, using a semi-structured interview guide, survivors and CPs identified self-perceived barriers and facilitators to post-stroke care. Thematic analysis of session transcripts and the constant comparative method were used to generate themes. Results Survivor age ranged from 34 to 64. Mean Barthel was 95.5. CPs, all AA women, ranged in age from 49–61. CPs were 5 wives, a fianceé and a niece. Participants cited multiple personal, social, and societal stroke recovery challenges. While hypertension and smoking risks were acknowledged, stress, depression, PTSD, anger/frustration, personal identity change, and difficulty communicating unique needs as AA men were much more frequently noted. Facilitators included family support, stress reduction and dietary changes. Conclusions Younger AA men and their CPs perceive multiple post-stroke care barriers. Biological risk reduction education may not capture all salient aspects of health management for AA stroke survivors. Leveraging family and community strengths, addressing psychological health, and directly engaging patients with healthcare teams may improve care management. PMID:25341388

  19. Gene polymorphisms and gene scores linked to low serum carotenoid status and their associations with metabolic disturbance and depressive symptoms in African-American adults

    PubMed Central

    Beydoun, May A.; Nalls, Michael A.; Canas, J. Atilio; Evans, Michele K.; Zonderman, Alan B.

    2016-01-01

    Gene polymorphisms provide means to obtain unconfounded associations between carotenoids and various health outcomes. We tested whether gene polymophorisms and gene scores linked to serum carotenoid status are related to metabolic disturbance and depressive symptoms in African-American adults residing in Baltimore city, MD, using cross-sectional data from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhood of Diversity Across the Lifespan (HANDLS) study (Age range:30–64y, N=873–994). We examined 24 single nucleotide polymorphisms of various gene loci that were previously shown to be associated with low serum carotenoid status (SNPlcar). Genetic risk scores (5 low specific-carotenoid risk scores (LSCRS: α-carotene, β-carotene, lutein+zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene) and 1 low total-carotenoid risk score (LTCRS: total carotenoids)) were created. SNPlcar, LSCRS and LTCRS were entered as predictors for a number of health outcomes. Those included obesity, National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components, elevated homeostatic model assessment, Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), C-reactive protein (CRP), hyperuricemia and elevated depressive symptoms (EDS, Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) score≥16). Among key findings, SNPlcar were not associated with the main outcomes after correction for multiple testing. However, an inverse association was found between LTCRS and HDL-C dyslipidemia. Specifically, the α-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin LSCRS were associated with lower odds of HDL-C dyslipidemia. However, the β-cryptoxanthin LSCRS was linked to a higher odds of EDS, with a linear dose-response relationship. In sum, gene risk scores linked to low serum carotenoids had mixed effects on HDL-C dyslipidemia and EDS. Further studies using larger African-American samples are needed. PMID:25201307

  20. Social support buffering of the relation between low income and elevated blood pressure in at-risk African-American adults.

    PubMed

    Coulon, S M; Wilson, D K

    2015-10-01

    Socioeconomic disadvantage has been linked to elevated blood pressure (BP), and the purpose of this study was to assess whether interpersonal social supports buffer these adverse relations in African-American adults. In three communities matched demographically, a subsample of participants (N = 204) of the Positive Action for Today's Health trial provided measures of perceived social support, annual household income, and BP. Multiple regression analyses with cross-product interactions were conducted using follow-up data. The sample had a mean age of 52.8 years (SD = 15.1), and was predominantly female (66 %) with a high body mass index (M = 33.5, SD = 14.7). Results indicated an inverse relation between social support and diastolic BP (B = -.178, p = .005), and also an interaction with income (p = .046), such that higher social support related to lower diastolic BP in the lowest-income individuals (B = -1.05). The same direct (B = -.141, p = .025) and interacting (B = -1.42, p = .040) social support effects were present for systolic BP, however the omnibus model for systolic BP was not significant, F(6, 196) = 1.80, p = .09. The hypothesized buffering effect of social support on the adverse relation of income to BP was partially supported in at-risk African-American adults. Future prevention efforts for reducing the impact of socioeconomic stress on BP may aim to increase perceptions of social support. PMID:26156119

  1. A Church-Based Diet and Physical Activity Intervention for Rural, Lower Mississippi Delta African American Adults: Delta Body and Soul Effectiveness Study, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Jessica L.; Mayo, Tanyatta; Edmond, Emanuel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Obesity, diabetes, and hypertension have reached epidemic levels in the largely rural Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) region. We assessed the effectiveness of a 6-month, church-based diet and physical activity intervention, conducted during 2010 through 2011, for improving diet quality (measured by the Healthy Eating Index-2005) and increasing physical activity of African American adults in the LMD region. Methods We used a quasi-experimental design in which 8 self-selected eligible churches were assigned to intervention or control. Assessments included dietary, physical activity, anthropometric, and clinical measures. Statistical tests for group comparisons included χ2, Fisher’s exact, and McNemar’s tests for categorical variables, and mixed-model regression analysis for continuous variables and modeling intervention effects. Results Retention rates were 85% (176 of 208) for control and 84% (163 of 195) for intervention churches. Diet quality components, including total fruit, total vegetables, and total quality improved significantly in both control (mean [standard deviation], 0.3 [1.8], 0.2 [1.1], and 3.4 [9.6], respectively) and intervention (0.6 [1.7], 0.3 [1.2], and 3.2 [9.7], respectively) groups, while significant increases in aerobic (22%) and strength/flexibility (24%) physical activity indicators were apparent in the intervention group only. Regression analysis indicated that intervention participation level and vehicle ownership were significant positive predictors of change for several diet quality components. Conclusion This church-based diet and physical activity intervention may be effective in improving diet quality and increasing physical activity of LMD African American adults. Components key to the success of such programs are participant engagement in educational sessions and vehicle access. PMID:23742940

  2. A Comparison of African-American and Caucasian Women Adult Children of Alcoholics and Non Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedigo, Shiela; McDermott, Diane

    Alcoholism is a disease that has been shown to affect not only the alcoholic but also the family of the alcoholic. The research on Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACOA) reveals that the effects of parental alcoholism are not something that is eradicated once the child leaves home. This study examined the empirical evidence for characteristics of…

  3. ‘It’s my inner strength’: Spirituality, religion and HIV in the lives of young African American men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Michael L.; Arnold, Emily; Rebchook, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) account for 48% of 13–29 year old HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in the USA. It is important to develop an effective HIV prevention approach that is grounded in the context of young men’s lives. Towards this goal, we conducted 31 interviews with 18–30 year old YBMSM in the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Area. This paper examines the roles of religion and spirituality in YBMSM’s lives, which is central in the lives of many African Americans. Six prominent themes emerged: (1) childhood participation in formal religious institutions; (2) the continued importance of spirituality among YBMSM; (3) homophobia and stigmatisation in traditional black churches; (4) tension between being an MSM and Christian; (5) religion and spirituality’s impact on men’s sense of personal empowerment and coping abilities; and (6) treatment of others and building compassion. Findings suggest that integrating spiritual practice into HIV prevention may help programmes be more culturally grounded, thereby attracting more men and resonating with their experiences and values. In addition, faith-based HIV/AIDS ministries that support HIV-positive YBMSM may be particularly helpful. Finally, targeting pastors and other church leaders through anti-stigma curricula is crucial. PMID:21824017

  4. 'It's my inner strength': spirituality, religion and HIV in the lives of young African American men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Foster, Michael L; Arnold, Emily; Rebchook, Gregory; Kegeles, Susan M

    2011-10-01

    Young black men who have sex with men account for 48% of 13-29-year-old HIV-positive men who have sex with men in the USA. It is important to develop an effective HIV prevention approach that is grounded in the context of young men's lives. Towards this goal, we conducted 31 interviews with 18-30-year-old men who have sex with men in the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Area. This paper examines the roles of religion and spirituality in men who have sex with men's lives, which is central in the lives of many African Americans. Six prominent themes emerged: (1) childhood participation in formal religious institutions, (2) the continued importance of spirituality among men who have sex with men, (3) homophobia and stigmatisation in traditional black churches, (4) tension between being a man who has sex with men and being a Christian, (5) religion and spirituality's impact on men's sense of personal empowerment and coping abilities and (6) treatment of others and building compassion. Findings suggest that integrating spiritual practice into HIV prevention may help programmes be more culturally grounded, thereby attracting more men and resonating with their experiences and values. In addition, faith-based HIV/AIDS ministries that support HIV-positive men who have sex with men may be particularly helpful. Finally, targeting pastors and other church leaders through anti-stigma curricula is crucial. PMID:21824017

  5. Chronic Pain in Older African American Grandparent Caregivers.

    PubMed

    Booker, Staja Q

    2016-06-01

    African American grandparent caregiving is increasing, and evidence shows that grandparent caregiving influences health and its management. As older adults age, their potential of experiencing chronic pain increases, and this is profound given that physiological research shows that African Americans, aside from aging, may have a predisposition for developing chronic pain. Research shows older African Americans experience significant chronic pain, but few have discussed the implications of managing chronic pain in older African Americans who have added parental responsibility. Many older African Americans receive home healthcare services and there is a unique role for home healthcare clinicians in caring for this vulnerable population. This article discusses the impact of pain on caregiving, challenges in pain management, and practice and policy implications to assist home healthcare clinicians maintain the safety and protection of both the older grandparent and grandchildren. PMID:27243429

  6. Racial differences in heritability of cigarette smoking in adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Bares, Cristina B.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Maes, Hermine H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although epidemiologic studies suggest low levels of cigarette use among African American adolescents relative to White U.S. adolescents, it is not known whether this may be due to racial differences in the relative contribution of genes and environment to cigarette use initiation and progression to regular use. Methods Using data from White (n=2,665) and African American (n=809) twins and full siblings sampled in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent, we fitted age-, sex- and race-specific variance decomposition models to estimate the magnitude of genetic and environmental effects on cigarette use initiation and cigarette use quantity in Whites and African Americans across adolescence and adulthood. We employ a causal-contingent-common pathway model to estimate the amount of variance explained in quantity of cigarettes smoked contingent on cigarette use initiation. Results African Americans had lower cigarette use prevalence from adolescence through adulthood, and used cigarettes less heavily than Whites. Race-specific causal-contingent-common pathway models indicate that racial differences in genetic and environmental contributions to cigarette use initiation and cigarette use quantities are not present in adolescence but appear in young adulthood. Additive genetic factors were an important risk factor for cigarette use initiation for White but less so for African American young adults and adults. Conclusions Genetic and environmental contributions for cigarette use are similar by race in adolescence. In adulthood, genes have a stronger influence for cigarette use among White adolescents while the influence of the environment is minimal. For African Americans, both genetic and environmental influences are important in young adulthood and adulthood. PMID:27427414

  7. Soy-Based Infant Formula Feeding and Ultrasound-Detected Uterine Fibroids among Young African-American Women with No Prior Clinical Diagnosis of Fibroids

    PubMed Central

    Upson, Kristen; Harmon, Quaker E.; Baird, Donna D.

    2015-01-01

    -detected uterine fibroids among young African-American women with no prior clinical diagnosis of fibroids. Environ Health Perspect 124:769–775; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510082 PMID:26565393

  8. Trajectories of Suicidal Ideation from Sixth through Tenth Grades in Predicting Suicide Attempts in Young Adulthood in an Urban African American Cohort.

    PubMed

    Musci, Rashelle J; Hart, Shelley R; Ballard, Elizabeth D; Newcomer, Alison; Van Eck, Kathryn; Ialongo, Nicholas; Wilcox, Holly

    2016-06-01

    The trajectory of suicidal ideation across early adolescence may inform the timing of suicide prevention program implementation. This study aimed to identify developmental trajectories of suicidal ideation among an urban cohort of community-residing African Americans (AA) longitudinally followed from middle school through early adulthood (ages 11-19 years). Subtypes based on the developmental course of suicidal ideation from late childhood through mid-adolescence were identified using longitudinal latent class analysis (LLCA) with 581 AA adolescents (52.7% male; 71.1% free or reduced school meals). The developmental trajectories of suicidal ideation were then used to predict suicide attempts in young adulthood. Our LLCA indicated two subtypes (i.e., ideators and nonideators), with 8% of the sample in the ideator class. This trajectory class shows a peak of suicidal ideation in seventh grade and a steady decline in ideation in subsequent grades. Additionally, suicidal ideation trajectories significantly predicted suicide attempt. Results of these analyses suggest the need for suicide prevention approaches prior to high school for AA youth. PMID:26395337

  9. Condom Use Negotiation in Heterosexual African-American Adults: Responses to Types of Social Power-Based Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Otto-Salaj, Laura L.; Reed, Barbara; Brondino, Michael J.; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Stevenson, L. Yvonne

    2009-01-01

    Little research has been performed on how people respond to different strategies to negotiate condom use in sexual situations, and whether certain strategies tend to be perceived as more or less effective in condom use negotiation. This study examined gender differences and preferences in the use of and response to six different styles of condom use negotiation with a hypothetical sexual partner of the opposite gender. Participants were 51 heterosexually-active African-American men and women between the ages of 18 and 35, attending an inner-city community center. Study participants completed a semi-structured qualitative interview in which they were presented with six negotiation strategies —coercive, reward, legitimate, expert, referent, and informational--based on Raven’s 1992 Power/Interaction Model of Interpersonal Influence. Results showed that women participants responded best to referent, reward, and legitimate strategies, and worst to informational tactics. Men participants responded best to reward strategies, and worst to coercion to use condoms. Further, responses given by a subset of both women—and, to a greater extent, men--indicated that use of negotiation tactics involving coercion to use condoms may result in negative or angry reactions. Finally, response to strategies may vary with the value of the relationship as viewed by the target of negotiation. Implications for HIV prevention programs and media campaigns are discussed. PMID:18569536

  10. Measurement equivalence of the Revised Helping Alliance Questionnaire across African American and non-Latino White substance using adult outpatients.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Frank R

    2013-08-01

    Analyses of the effectiveness of substance abuse treatments across racial/ethnic groups should ensure that outcome measures have the same conceptual meaning (i.e., measurement equivalence) across groups. Because racial groups differ in perceptions and experiences of the therapeutic alliance, this study investigated measurement equivalence properties of the Revised Helping Alliance Questionnaire (HAq-II) across racial groups. The sample included 138 African American and 133 non-Latino White participants, age 18-64 years, who participated in a randomized clinical trial investigating the effectiveness of Motivational Enhancement Therapy in the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network. Results demonstrated configural invariance and two forms of metric invariance (weak and strong/scalar), suggesting that conceptualizations of therapeutic alliance and overall levels of endorsement of therapeutic alliance are comparable across racial groups. The groups indicated partial, strict metric nonequivalence. No studies to date reported measurement equivalence properties of the HAq-II. Findings support valid measurement and interpretation of HAq-II outcomes. PMID:23522849

  11. Prevalence of High-Risk Sexual Behaviors Among Monoracial and Multiracial Groups from a National Sample: Are Multiracial Young Adults at Greater Risk?

    PubMed

    Landor, Antoinette M; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2016-02-01

    The present study compared the prevalence and variation in high-risk sexual behaviors among four monoracial (i.e., White, African American, Asian, Native American) and four multiracial (i.e., White/African American, White/Asian, White/Native American, African American/Native American) young adults using Wave IV data (2008-2009) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (N = 9724). Findings indicated differences in the sexual behavior of monoracial and multiracial young adults, but directions of differences varied depending on the monoracial group used as the referent and gender. Among males, White/African Americans had higher risk than Whites; White/Native Americans had higher risk than Native Americans. Otherwise, multiracial groups had lower risk or did not differ from the single-race groups. Among females, White/Native Americans had higher risk than Whites; White/African Americans had higher risk than African Americans. Other comparisons showed no differences or had lower risk among multiracial groups. Variations in high-risk sexual behaviors underscore the need for health research to disaggregate multiracial groups to better understand health behaviors and outcomes in the context of experiences associated with a multiracial background, and to improve prevention strategies. PMID:26585167

  12. Total alpha-tocopherol intakes are associated with serum alpha-tocopherol concentrations in African American adults.

    PubMed

    Talegawkar, Sameera A; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Carithers, Teresa; Taylor, Herman A; Bogle, Margaret L; Tucker, Katherine L

    2007-10-01

    African Americans in the southern United States have a high prevalence of chronic disease. Tocopherol intake and status have been associated with protection against several chronic diseases. Our objectives were, therefore, to examine the association between tocopherol intakes as measured by 2 regional FFQ and their corresponding concentrations in serum and to report on dietary sources of tocopherols in 404 men and women participating in the cross-sectional Diet and Physical Activity Sub-Study of the Jackson Heart Study. A large proportion (49% of men and 66% of women) reported dietary supplement use. Only 5.8% of men and 4.5% of women met the estimated average requirement (EAR) for vitamin E from foods alone, whereas 44.2% men and 49.2% women met it from foods and supplements. Total (diet + supplement) intake of alpha-tocopherol was associated with its corresponding measure in serum. Vitamin E supplement use, sex, serum cholesterol, education, and BMI, but not gamma-tocopherol intakes, were associated with serum gamma-tocopherol. For delta-tocopherol, associated variables included sex and serum cholesterol. The top food sources of alpha- and gamma-tocopherol were snack chips and the top food source of delta-tocopherol was margarine. Despite prevalent vitamin E supplement use, more than one-half of this population did not meet the EAR for alpha-tocopherol intake and very few met it from food alone. Supplement use was associated with higher alpha- but lower gamma-tocopherol concentration in serum. The possible health implications of this difference in relative tocopherol subtypes require further study. PMID:17885014

  13. African-American Sacred Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, A. Peter

    1991-01-01

    The history of African-American sacred music is traced from the time of slavery to the present interest in gospel music. The religious music of African Americans is geared toward liberation themes. It is important that this music does not dilute its power through cross-over with other music forms. (SLD)

  14. Depressive symptoms are more strongly related to executive functioning and episodic memory among African American compared with non-Hispanic White older adults.

    PubMed

    Zahodne, Laura B; Nowinski, Cindy J; Gershon, Richard C; Manly, Jennifer J

    2014-11-01

    We examined whether the reserve capacity model can be extended to cognitive outcomes among older African Americans. Two hundred and ninety-two non-Hispanic Whites and 37 African Americans over age 54 participated in the normative study for the NIH Toolbox for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function. Multiple-group path analysis showed that associations between depressive symptoms and cognition differed by race, independent of age, education, reading level, income, health, and recruitment site. Depressive symptoms were associated with slowed processing speed among Whites and worse task-switching, inhibition, and episodic memory among African Americans. African Americans may be more vulnerable to negative effects of depression on cognition than non-Hispanic Whites. Further research is needed to explicate the psychological and neurobiological underpinnings of this greater vulnerability. PMID:25280795

  15. Youth development: a positive strategy for African American youth.

    PubMed

    Rozie-Battle, Judith L

    2002-01-01

    The concept of positive youth development has been discussed and implemented for over ten years. The more recent emphasis on the connection between community and youth development is as important to the African American community in general as it is to African American youth. Opportunities to experience responsibility and involvement in their community, under the guidance of supportive adults, provide youth the chance of success for themselves and, ultimately, their communities. PMID:12413103

  16. Gender as a Moderator of the Relation between Race-Related Stress and Mental Health Symptoms for African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Tawanda M.; Laseter, Adrian; Asiamah, David

    2009-01-01

    The present study tested gender as a moderator of the relationship between race-related stress and mental health symptoms among African American adults. Because African American women are exposed to stressors associated with race and gender, we hypothesized that African American women would have higher levels of race-related stress and more severe…

  17. Unequal Burden of Disease, Unequal Participation in Clinical Trials: Solutions from African American and Latino Community Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Marvella E.; Siminoff, Laura A.; Pickelsimer, Elisabeth; Mainous, Arch G.; Smith, Daniel W.; Diaz, Vanessa A.; Soderstrom, Lea H.; Jefferson, Melanie S.; Tilley, Barbara C.

    2013-01-01

    African Americans and Latinos are underrepresented in clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to elicit solutions to participation barriers from African Americans and Latinos. Fifty-seven adults (32 African Americans, 25 Latinos) ages 50 years and older participated. The Institute of Medicine's "Unequal Treatment" conceptual framework was…

  18. Differential Effects of Self-Reported Lifetime Marijuana Use on Interleukin-1 Alpha and Tumor Necrosis Factor in African American Adults

    PubMed Central

    Keen, Larry; Turner, Arlener D.; Callender, Clive; Campbell, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    It is unknown how lifetime marijuana use affects different proinflammatory cytokines. The purpose of the current study is to explore potential differential effects of lifetime marijuana use on interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in a community based sample. Participants included 168 African American adults (51% female, median age= 47 years). Upon study entry, blood was drawn and the participants completed questions regarding illicit drug use history whose answers were used to create three groups: lifetime non-drug users (n= 77), lifetime marijuana only users (n= 46) and lifetime marijuana and other drug users (n= 45). In the presence of demographic and physiological covariates, non-drug users were approximately two times more likely (AOR= 2.73, CI= 1.18, 6.31; p= .03) to have higher TNF levels than marijuana only users. Drug use was not associated with IL-1α. The influence of marijuana may be selective in nature, potentially localizing around innate immunity and the induction of cellular death. PMID:25731665

  19. Differential effects of self-reported lifetime marijuana use on interleukin-1 alpha and tumor necrosis factor in African American adults.

    PubMed

    Keen, Larry; Turner, Arlener D

    2015-06-01

    It is unknown how lifetime marijuana use affects different proinflammatory cytokines. The purpose of the current study is to explore potential differential effects of lifetime marijuana use on interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in a community based sample. Participants included 168 African American adults (51 % female, median age = 47 years). Upon study entry, blood was drawn and the participants completed questions regarding illicit drug use history whose answers were used to create three groups: lifetime non-drug users (n = 77), lifetime marijuana only users (n = 46) and lifetime marijuana and other drug users (n = 45). In the presence of demographic and physiological covariates, non-drug users were approximately two times more likely (AOR 2.73, CI 1.18, 6.31; p = .03) to have higher TNF levels than marijuana only users. Drug use was not associated with IL-1α. The influence of marijuana may be selective in nature, potentially localizing around innate immunity and the induction of cellular death. PMID:25731665

  20. Social Messages, Social Context, and Sexual Health: Voices of Urban African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secor-Turner, Molly; Sieving, Renee; Garwick, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe aspects of the social context that low-income, urban African American young women articulate as having influenced social messages they received during adolescence about pregnancy timing and childbearing. Methods: Individual interviews were conducted with 20 African American young women ages 18-22. Results: Findings clustered…

  1. An Evaluation Study of the Young Empowered Sisters (YES!) Program: Promoting Cultural Assets among African American Adolescent Girls through a Culturally Relevant School-Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Oseela; Davidson, William; McAdoo, Harriette

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines the effects of a culturally relevant school-based intervention in promoting cultural assets (i.e., ethnic identity, collectivist orientation, racism awareness, and liberatory youth activism) among a group of African American adolescent girls. The overall goal of the intervention was to promote cultural factors that can…

  2. Lessons Learned from the Development and Implementation of Two Internet-enhanced Culturally Relevant Physical Activity Interventions for Young Overweight African-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Rodney P.; Pekmezi, Dori W.; Allison, Jeroan J.; Durant, Nefertiti H.

    2014-01-01

    This research team has designed and implemented 2 culturally relevant, Internet-enhanced physical activity (PA) interventions for overweight/obese African-American female college students. Presumably, these are the only prospectively designed, culturally relevant interventions using the Internet to promote PA among African-American women. Due to the limited research on this topic, the experiences associated the design and implementation of these studies were syntesized and 5 key lessons learned from this research were formulated. Findings provide insight for researchers to consider when developing Internet-based PA promotion interventions for African-American women. Lessons learned included: 1) Elicit and incorporate feedback from the target population throughout development of an Internet-based PA promotion tool; 2) Incorporate new and emerging technologies into Internet-enhanced PA programs; 3) Maintain frequent participant contact and provide frequent incentives to promote participant engagement; 4) Supplement Internet-based efforts with face-to-face interactions; 5) Include diverse images of African-American women and culturally relevant PA-related information in Internet-based PA promotion materials. PMID:25653465

  3. Finding the "community" in community-level HIV/AIDS interventions: formative research with young African American men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Kraft, J M; Beeker, C; Stokes, J P; Peterson, J L

    2000-08-01

    Data from 76 qualitative interviews with 18- to 29-year-old African American men who have sex with men (MSM) in Chicago and Atlanta were examined to identify perceptions of "community" and components of a community-level HIV/AIDS intervention. Many men reported feeling marginal to African American and gay White communities because of perceived homophobia and racism. Those who reported feeling part of gay African American communities characterized communities in terms of settings, social structures, and functions, including social support, socialization, and mobility. Despite these positive functions, divisions among groups of MSM, lack of settings for nonsexual interaction with other MSM, lack of leadership, and negative attitudes toward homosexuality may make it difficult for men to participate in activities to alter community contexts that influence behavior. Rather, changing norms, increasing social support, and community building should be part of initial community-level interventions. Community building might identify leaders, create new settings, and create opportunities for dialogue between MSM and African American community groups to address negative perceptions of homosexuality. PMID:10929751

  4. Sedentary and physically active behavior patterns among low-income African-American and white adults living in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Sarah S; Matthews, Charles E; Signorello, Lisa B; Schlundt, David G; Blot, William J; Buchowski, Maciej S

    2013-01-01

    Increased sedentary behavior and lack of physical activity are associated with increased risk for many chronic diseases. Differences in leisure-time physical activity between African American and white adults have been suggested to partially explain racial disparities in chronic disease outcomes, but expanding the definition of physical activity to include household and occupational activities may reduce or even eliminate racial differences in total physical activity. The objective of this study was to describe patterns of active and sedentary behaviors in black and white adults and to examine these behaviors across demographic measures. Sedentary and physically active behaviors were obtained from a validated physical activity questionnaire in 23,021 black men, 9,899 white men, 32,214 black women, and 15,425 white women (age 40-79) at enrollment into the Southern Community Cohort Study. Descriptive statistics for sedentary time; light, moderate, and vigorous household/occupational activity; sports/exercise; total activity; and meeting current physical activity recommendations via sports/exercise were examined for each race-sex group. Adjusted means were calculated using multiple linear regression models across demographic measures. Study participants spent approximately 60% of waking time in sedentary behaviors. Blacks reported more television viewing time than whites (45 minutes for females, 15 minutes for males), but when sitting time was expressed as a proportion of overall awake time, minimal racial differences were found. Patterns of light, moderate, and vigorous household/occupational activity were similar in all race/sex groups. 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans were followed by 16% of women and 25% of men independent of race. Overall, black and white men and women in this study spent the majority of their daily time in sedentary behaviors and less than one-fourth followed current guidelines for physical activity. These results indicate that

  5. Successfully Educating Our African-American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moncree-Moffett, Kareem

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this empirical study was to explore the lived experiences of African American retired female teachers who have prior experience with educating urban African American students in public schools. Also explored are the experiences of active African American female teachers of urban African American students and comparisons are…

  6. Discrimination, Racial Identity, and Cytokine Levels Among African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Miller, Gregory E.; Chen, Edith

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Low-grade inflammation, measured by circulating levels of cytokines, is a pathogenic mechanism for several chronic diseases of aging. Identifying factors related to inflammation among African American youths may yield insights into mechanisms underlying racial disparities in health. The purpose of the study was to determine whether (a) reported racial discrimination from ages 17 to 19 forecast heightened cytokine levels at age 22, and (b) this association is lower for youths with positive racial identities. Methods A longitudinal research design was used with a community sample of 160 African Americans who were 17 at the beginning of the study. Discrimination and racial identity were measured with questionnaires, and blood was drawn to measure basal cytokine levels. Ordinary least squares regression analyses were used to examine the hypotheses. Results After controlling for socioeconomic risk, life stress, depressive symptoms, and body mass index, racial discrimination (β = .307, p < .01), racial identity (β = −.179, p < .05), and their interaction (β = −.180, p < .05) forecast cytokine levels. Youths exposed to high levels of racial discrimination evinced elevated cytokine levels 3 years later. This association was not significant for young adults with positive racial identities. Conclusions High levels of interpersonal racial discrimination and the development of a positive racial identity operate jointly to determine low-grade inflammation levels that have been found to forecast chronic diseases of aging, such as coronary disease and stroke. PMID:25907649

  7. Differential Predictors of Medication Adherence in HIV: Findings from a Sample of African American and Caucasian HIV-Positive Drug-Using Adults

    PubMed Central

    Moizel, Jennifer; Panos, Stella E.; Patel, Sapna M.; Byrd, Desiree A.; Myers, Hector F.; Wyatt, Gail E.; Hinkin, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Modest or even occasional nonadherence to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) can result in adverse clinical outcomes. African Americans demonstrate lower rates of adherence than Caucasians or Latinos. Identifying factors that influence medication adherence among African Americans is a critical step toward reducing HIV/AIDS disease progression and mortality. In a sample of 181 African American (n=144) and Caucasian (n=37) HIV-positive drug-using individuals [age (M=42.31; SD=6.6) education (M=13.41; SD=2.1)], we examined the influence of baseline drug use, literacy, neurocognition, depression, treatment-specific social support, and patient satisfaction with health care provider on medication adherence averaged over the course of 6 months (study dates 2002–2006). Our findings suggest differential baseline predictors of medication adherence for African Americans and Caucasians, such that patient satisfaction with provider was the strongest predictor of follow-up medication adherence for African Americans whereas for Caucasians depressive symptoms and treatment-specific social support were predictive of medication adherence (after controlling for duration of drug use). PMID:22889235

  8. Epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of BMI, BMI change and waist circumference in African American adults identifies multiple replicated loci

    PubMed Central

    Demerath, Ellen W.; Guan, Weihua; Grove, Megan L.; Aslibekyan, Stella; Mendelson, Michael; Zhou, Yi-Hui; Hedman, Åsa K.; Sandling, Johanna K.; Li, Li-An; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Zhi, Degui; Deloukas, Panos; Liang, Liming; Liu, Chunyu; Bressler, Jan; Spector, Tim D.; North, Kari; Li, Yun; Absher, Devin M.; Levy, Daniel; Arnett, Donna K.; Fornage, Myriam; Pankow, James S.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is an important component of the pathophysiology of chronic diseases. Identifying epigenetic modifications associated with elevated adiposity, including DNA methylation variation, may point to genomic pathways that are dysregulated in numerous conditions. The Illumina 450K Bead Chip array was used to assay DNA methylation in leukocyte DNA obtained from 2097 African American adults in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Mixed-effects regression models were used to test the association of methylation beta value with concurrent body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and BMI change, adjusting for batch effects and potential confounders. Replication using whole-blood DNA from 2377 White adults in the Framingham Heart Study and CD4+ T cell DNA from 991 Whites in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network Study was followed by testing using adipose tissue DNA from 648 women in the Multiple Tissue Human Expression Resource cohort. Seventy-six BMI-related probes, 164 WC-related probes and 8 BMI change-related probes passed the threshold for significance in ARIC (P < 1 × 10−7; Bonferroni), including probes in the recently reported HIF3A, CPT1A and ABCG1 regions. Replication using blood DNA was achieved for 37 BMI probes and 1 additional WC probe. Sixteen of these also replicated in adipose tissue, including 15 novel methylation findings near genes involved in lipid metabolism, immune response/cytokine signaling and other diverse pathways, including LGALS3BP, KDM2B, PBX1 and BBS2, among others. Adiposity traits are associated with DNA methylation at numerous CpG sites that replicate across studies despite variation in tissue type, ethnicity and analytic approaches. PMID:25935004

  9. Racial microstressors, racial self-concept, and depressive symptoms among male African Americans during the transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Steven M; Yu, Tianyi; Allen, Kimberly A; Brody, Gene H

    2015-04-01

    Racial discrimination is a pervasive stressor that can undermine mental health among African American youth and young adults. Several studies identify links between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms; however, this research base does not focus on male African American youth who experience significant racism-related stress during the transition to young adulthood. Moreover, few prospective studies consider significant confounding variables that affect exposure to and perception of discriminatory treatment. In response to this need, we examined the effect of exposure to racial discrimination from ages 16 to 18 on depressive symptoms among male African Americans at age 20. Racial self-concept, one's sense of positivity about one's race, was examined as a mediator and self-control as a moderator. Hypotheses were tested with 222 participants, age 16 at baseline and age 20 at the endpoint. Participants provided self-report data at five time points. Exposure to racial discrimination from ages 16 to 18 predicted depressive symptoms at age 20, net of confounding influences. Racial self-concept mediated this effect. Self-control moderated the influence of discrimination on racial self-concept. This study underscores the salience of racial discrimination in the development of depressive symptoms among African American male youth and the clinical utility of interventions targeting racial pride and self-control. PMID:25344920

  10. Neighborhood Environment and Marijuana Use in Urban Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Furr-Holden, C. Debra M.; Lee, Myong Hwa; Milam, Adam J; Duncan, Alexandra; Reboussin, Beth A.; Leaf, Philip J; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    Risk factors for marijuana use in older adolescents and young adults have focused primarily on family environment and peer affiliation. A growing body of work has examined the relationship between environmental context and young adult substance use. This study builds on previous research linking neighborhood environment to young adult marijuana use by exploring two distinct features of neighborhoods, namely the physical (e.g. broken windows) and social environment (e.g. adults watching youth). Data were obtained from a longitudinal sample of 398 predominately African American young adults living in an urban environment. The data also included observational measures of physical and social order and disorder collected on the young adult's residential block. Exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) was utilized to test hypothesized relationships between these two features of the neighborhood environment and past year young adult marijuana use. A two-factor model of neighborhood environment with good fit indices was selected (CFI=0.97, RMSEA=0.037). There was a positive and significant direct effect from neighborhood physical disorder to marijuana use (0.219, p<0.05) controlling for gender, race, and free and reduced meals status. The direct effect from neighborhood social environment to marijuana use was not significant. These results converge with previous research linking vacant housing with young adult marijuana use but do not provide empirical support for the neighborhood social environment as a determinant of drug taking. Better explication of the social environment is needed to understand it's relationship to drug use. PMID:25005818

  11. Associations between the SS Variant of 5-HTTLPR and PTSD Among Adults with Histories of Childhood Emotional Abuse: Results from Two African American Independent Samples

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kate; Uddin, Monica; Soliven, Richelo; Wildman, Derek E.; Bradley-Davino, Bekh

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior studies have found that the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) interacts with stressful life events to increase general risk for PTSD, but this association has not extended to African American samples. Further, little is known about the effects of this interaction on specific PTSD symptom clusters, despite indications that clusters may have different biological substrates. The current study examined the interaction between exposure to childhood emotional abuse and 5-HTTLPR genotype on risk for PTSD symptom severity and severity of specific PTSD symptom clusters in two African American samples. Methods Participants were 136 African American household residents from Detroit, MI and 546 African American patients recruited from waiting rooms in primary care clinics in Atlanta, GA. Participants reported emotional abuse exposure and PTSD symptom severity, and provided DNA for triallelic 5-HTTLPR genotyping. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to examine main effects and interactions. Results In both African American samples, 5-HTTLPR genotype modified the effect of emotional abuse on PTSD symptom severity. Participants with the low-expression SS genotype who were exposed to emotional abuse had significantly lower reexperiencing and arousal symptom severity scores. Limitations The DNHS genetic sample size was small, and abuse data were assessed retrospectively. Conclusions The SS variant of 5-HTTLPR appears to buffer against developing the reexperiencing and arousal symptoms of PTSD in two independent African American samples exposed to childhood emotional abuse. Findings also highlight the importance of considering emotional abuse experiences in patients with suspected PTSD. PMID:24751314

  12. Respondent-Driven Sampling with Hard-to-Reach Emerging Adults: An Introduction and Case Study with Rural African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Steven M.; Wejnert, Cyprian; Chen, Yi-fu; Brody, Gene H.; Slater, LaTrina M.

    2011-01-01

    Obtaining representative samples from populations of emerging adults who do not attend college is challenging for researchers. This article introduces respondent-driven sampling (RDS), a method for obtaining representative samples of hard-to-reach but socially interconnected populations. RDS combines a prescribed method for chain referral with a…

  13. The Interdependence of Adult Relationship Quality and Parenting Behaviours among African American and European Couples in Rural, Low-Income Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zvara, Bharathi J.; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Heilbron, Nicole; Clincy, Amanda; Cox, Martha J.

    2015-01-01

    The present study extends the spillover and crossover hypotheses to more carefully model the potential interdependence between parent-parent interaction quality and parent-child interaction quality in family systems. Using propensity score matching, the present study attempted to isolate family processes that are unique across African American and…

  14. Knowledge about type 2 diabetes risk and prevention of African-American and Hispanic adults and adolescents with family history of type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to assess type 2 diabetes knowledge, perceptions, risk factor awareness, and prevention practices among African-American and Hispanic families with a history of diabetes. Ninth and tenth grade Houston area students who had a parent who spoke English or Spanish and had a...

  15. The Interdependence of Adult Relationship Quality and Parenting Behaviours among African American and European Couples in Rural, Low-Income Communities

    PubMed Central

    Zvara, Bharathi J.; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Heilbron, Nicole; Clincy, Amanda; Cox, Martha J.

    2015-01-01

    The present study extends the spillover and crossover hypotheses to more carefully model the potential interdependence between parent–parent interaction quality and parent–child interaction quality in family systems. Using propensity score matching, the present study attempted to isolate family processes that are unique across African American and European American couples that are independent of other socio-demographic factors to further clarify how interparental relationships may be related to parenting in a rural, low-income sample. The Actor–Partner Interdependence Model (APIM), a statistical analysis technique that accounts for the interdependence of relationship data, was used with a sample of married and non-married cohabiting African American and European American couples (n = 82 dyads) to evaluate whether mothers' and fathers' observed parenting behaviours are related to their behaviours and their partner's behaviours observed in a couple problem-solving interaction. Findings revealed that interparental withdrawal behaviour, but not conflict behaviour, was associated with less optimal parenting for fathers but not mothers, and specifically so for African American fathers. Our findings support the notion of interdependence across subsystems within the family and suggest that African American fathers may be specifically responsive to variations in interparental relationship quality. PMID:26430390

  16. Racial-Ethnic Identity, Academic Achievement, and African American Males: A Review of Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Brian L.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses broadly, the literature on racial-ethnic identity (REI) and its role as a factor to promote academic success in young African American adolescents, in particular males. The review also defines, describes, and interprets styles of self-presentation that reflect aspects of REI among African American males in and outside of…

  17. Parental Involvement Promotes Rural African American Youths Self-Pride and Sexual Self-Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride Murry, V.; Brody, Gene H.; McNair, Lily D.; Luo, Zupei; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg; Wills, Thomas Ashby

    2005-01-01

    This study, an evaluation of the Strong African American Families Program, was designed to determine whether intervention-induced changes in targeted parenting behaviors were associated with young adolescents development of racial pride, self-esteem, and sexual identity. Participants were 332 African American mothers and their 11-year-old children…

  18. Meeting the Learning Needs of African American Youth in the Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Janice; Pringle, Lajuan S.

    2013-01-01

    The African American male psyche is a complicated multi-layered mixture of outside media influences, stereotypes, peer pressure, how they see themselves, and how they think others see them. This article describes how school and public librarians can help raise the literacy efforts of young African American males. It cites the need for libraries to…

  19. Pride, Heritage, and Self-Worth: Keys to African-American Male Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Hood, Marian

    1994-01-01

    Young African American males' role models are those in the entertainment and sports arenas. Few see themselves as scholars, contributing to the common good. To counteract teachers' low expectations of black males' performance, educators at Benjamin Tasker Middle School in Bowie, Maryland, established African-American Achievers, a program that…

  20. Cardiac Assessment Risk Evaluation (Care Study) of African American College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra C.; Geiselman, Paula J.; Copeland, Amy L.; Gordon, Carol; Dudley, Mary; Manogin, Toni; Backstedt, Carol; Pourciau, Cathi; Ghebretatios, Ghenet

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To identify physiological and psychosocial variables of young African American women that may serve as a risk factor for heart disease and to assess their health promotion programme preferences. Method: A descriptive design was used to assess the cardiovascular risk factors of 100 African American women ages 18 to 40 years, enrolled in…

  1. African American Students and College Choice: A Consideration of the Role of School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammad, Crystal Gafford

    2008-01-01

    Misinformation in the African American community regarding college costs, access, and the benefits of a college education abound. Counseling from a trustworthy, supportive school counselor can make a difference in stemming African American talent loss, especially among young Black men. Using the 1988 National Educational Longitudinal Survey, the…

  2. A Contextualized Approach to Faith-Based HIV Risk Reduction for African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jennifer M.; Rogers, Christopher K.; Bellinger, Dawn; Thompson, Keitra

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS has a devastating impact on African Americans (AA), particularly women and young adults. We sought to characterize risks, barriers, content and delivery needs for a faith-based intervention to reduce HIV risk among AA women ages 18–25. In a convergent parallel mixed methods study we conducted four focus groups (n=38) and surveyed 71 young adult women. Data were collected across 4 AA churches for a total of 109 participants. We found the majority of women in this sample were engaged in behaviors that put them at risk for contracting HIV, struggled with religiously based barriers and matters of sexuality, and had a desire to incorporate their intimate relationships, parenting and financial burdens into faith-based HIV risk reduction interventions (RRIs). Incorporating additional social context related factors into HIV RRIs for young AA women is critical to adapting and developing HIV interventions to reduce risk among young adult women in faith settings. PMID:26879828

  3. Correlates of Obesity in Young Black and White Women: The CARDIA Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Gregory L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Contrasts body size and potential correlates of obesity in 1,481 African-American and 1,307 white 18- through 30-year-old women in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (CARDIA). The increased prevalence of obesity in African-American women could not be explained by racial differences in age or education. (SLD)

  4. Young Adult Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Ernestine P., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    The major articles in this journal issue deal with various aspects of young adult literature. Specific topics covered in the articles are (1) questions worth asking students about young adult novels, (2) the five major functions of adolescent literature in high school literature programs, (3) Southwestern literature for adolescents, (4) teaching…

  5. Discordance between self-report and genetic confirmation of sickle cell disease status in African-American adults

    PubMed Central

    Bean, Christopher J.; Hooper, W. Craig; Ellingsen, Dorothy; DeBaun, Michael R.; Sonderman, Jennifer; Blot, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder, with persons heterozygous for the mutation said to have the sickle cell trait (SCT). Serious adverse effects are mainly limited to those with SCD, but the distinction between disease and trait is not always clear to the general population. We sought to determine accuracy of self-reported SCD when compared to genetic confirmation. Methods From stratified random samples of Southern Community Cohort Study participants, we sequenced the β-globin gene in 51 individuals reporting SCD and 75 individuals reporting no SCD. Results The median age of the group selected was 53 (range 40–69) with 29% male. Only 5.9% of the 51 individuals reporting SCD were confirmed by sequencing, with the remaining 62.7% having SCT, 5.9% having hemoglobin C trait, and 25.5% having neither SCD nor trait. Sequencing results of the 75 individuals reporting no SCD by contrast were 100% concordant with self-report. Conclusions Misreporting of SCD is common in an older adult population, with most persons reporting SCD in this study being carriers of the trait and a sizeable minority completely unaffected. The results from this pilot survey support the need for increased efforts to raise community awareness and knowledge of SCD. PMID:24685557

  6. Moderate chronic pain, weight and dietary intake in African-American adult patients with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed Central

    Pells, Jennifer J.; Presnell, Katherine E.; Edwards, Christopher L.; Wood, Mary; Harrison, Myleme O.; DeCastro, Laura; Johnson, Stephanie; Feliu, Miriam; Canada, Stephanie; Jonassaint, Jude C.; Barker, Camela; Leach-Beale, Brittani; Mathis, Markece J.; Applegate, Katherine; Holmes, Anita; Byrd, Goldie; Robinson, Elwood

    2005-01-01

    In this exploratory study, we evaluated weight status and dietary intake patterns during painful episodes in adult patients with SCD. Specifically, we explored the relation between pain severity and body mass index (BMI), and we tested the hypothesis that dietary intake would be reduced and dietary content altered during periods of increased pain. We conducted an analysis of survey data from 62 patients involved in a longitudinal evaluation of the relationship of medical and psychosocial factors to pain. Nearly half of patients with SCD were overweight, and 20% were obese. BMI was positively related to interference associated with pain. Although BMI was not statistically associated with reported pain severity, >40% of patients reported that they perceived their pain to be affected by their weight. Less than 20% of patients reported that they perceived that their weight affected their pain. Regarding dietary patterns, the majority of patients reported eating less during episodes of pain and significantly decreasing their intake of fats and proteins. We conclude that there is a need to better understand the relation among weight, dietary patterns and pain in patients with SCD in order to provide patients with accurate education and effective treatment recommendations for managing their disease and reducing current and future risks of lifestyle and disease-related morbidities. PMID:16396054

  7. Perpetuation theory and the racial segregation of young adults.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Pat Rubio

    2016-03-01

    Previous research confirms a strong empirical association between the racial composition of young adults' residential areas and the racial compositions of the residential areas and schools of their youth. Perpetuation theory predicts that part of this association is causal. The present study uses data from the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS) and the U.S. Censuses of 1990 and 2000 to test for this effect with regression models, propensity-score-weighted models with robustness tests, and regression models that look at long-distance movers. The findings suggest that the association declines rapidly as the distance moved increases, but it remains robust even at long distances. It is also stronger for African Americans and more assimilated Latinos than for whites and less assimilated Latinos. These findings suggests that to some extent, young white, African American, and Latino adults are residentially segregated from each other because they grew up that way. Policies that promote integrating youth residentially and/or desegregating schools may contribute to residential integration over time. PMID:26857168

  8. Excessive Drinking Among African American Men: Individual and Contextual Correlates

    PubMed Central

    DePadilla, Lara; Elifson, Kirk; McCarty, Frances; Sterk, Claire

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we explored associations of multiple domains with regular drinking and getting drunk among adult African American men. Questionnaire-based, computer-assisted interviews were conducted with 484 men in Atlanta, Georgia. Data analysis involved multivariate logistic regression analyses. Findings show that being older increased the odds of both drinking behaviors. Sensation seeking increased the odds of regular drinking and having experienced childhood sexual and physical abuse increased the odds of getting drunk. Having health insurance reduced the odds of both outcomes. Insurance coverage and the heterogeneity among adult African American men must be considered in risk reduction efforts. PMID:22679893

  9. Excessive drinking among African American men: individual and contextual correlates.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Frances; DePadilla, Lara; Elifson, Kirk; Sterk, Claire

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors explored associations of multiple domains with regular drinking and getting drunk among adult African American men. Questionnaire-based, computer-assisted interviews were conducted with 484 men in Atlanta, Georgia. Data analysis involved multivariate logistic regression analyses. Findings show that being older increased the odds of both drinking behaviors. Sensation seeking increased the odds of regular drinking, and having experienced childhood sexual and physical abuse increased the odds of getting drunk. Having health insurance reduced the odds of both outcomes. Insurance coverage and the heterogeneity among adult African American men must be considered in risk reduction efforts. PMID:22679893

  10. Technical Consulting: The African-American Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Tracy N.

    2010-01-01

    The qualitative research study explored the organizational characteristics necessary in addressing the low concentration of African American technical consultants employed in the information technology industry. Using research participants' professional experience, participants responded to a developed questionnaire. African American technical…

  11. Heritability of Lipid Phenotypes among African-Americans: Jackson Heart Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determinants of serum lipid levels include both genetic and non-genetic components. More research is needed to determine the role each plays in serum lipid levels of African-Americans. The Jackson Heart Study Family Sub-Study (JHS, FSS) represents a cohort of African-American adults for which both ...

  12. The Role of Public Schools in HIV Prevention: Perspectives from African Americans in the Rural South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Stacey W.; Ferguson, Yvonne Owens; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Ellison, Arlinda; Blumenthal, Connie; Council, Barbara J.; Youmans, Selena; Muhammad, Melvin R.; Wynn, Mysha; Adimora, Adaora; Akers, Aletha

    2012-01-01

    Though African-American youth in the South are at high risk for HIV infection, abstinence until marriage education continues to be the only option in some public schools. Using community-based participatory research methods, we conducted 11 focus groups with African-American adults and youth in a rural community in North Carolina with high rates…

  13. Straight Talk: HIV Prevention for African-American Heterosexual Men--Theoretical Bases and Intervention Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Victoria; Bonner, Sebastian; Williams, Kim; Henny, Kirk; Bond, Keosha; Lucy, Debbie; Cupid, Malik; Smith, Stephen; Koblin, Beryl A.

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, racial disparities in HIV/AIDS are stark. Although African Americans comprise an estimated 14% of the U.S. population, they made up 52% of new HIV cases among adults and adolescents diagnosed in 2009. Heterosexual transmission is now the second leading cause of HIV in the United States. African Americans made up a full…

  14. The effect of data collection mode on smoking attitudes and behavior in young African American and Latina women. Face-to-face interview versus self-administered questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, C P; Hilton, J F; Park-Tanjasiri, S; Pérez-Stable, E J

    2001-08-01

    Evaluating smoking prevention and cessation programs requires valid data collection. This study examined two survey modes--face-to-face (FTF) interview and self-administered questionnaire (SAQ)--comparing response rates, sample characteristics, data quality, and response effects. From two family planning clinics, 601 female Latina and African American clients ages 12 to 21 were recruited and randomized to either group. Results reveal that neither mode is superior to the other. The SAQ may therefore be preferable for this population, despite its higher rate of incompletes, because it yields results similar to the FTF yet is more cost effective and less disruptive to clinic routines. PMID:11480308

  15. Culturally Sensitive Approaches to Identification and Treatment of Depression among HIV Infected African American Adults: A Qualitative Study of Primary Care Providers’ Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Le, Huynh-Nhu; Hipolito, Maria Mananita S; Lambert, Sharon; Terrell-Hamilton, Flora; Rai, Narayan; McLean, Charlee; Kapetanovic, Suad; Nwulia, Evaristus

    2016-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is highly prevalent among HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals, and is associated with non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), and accelerated disease progression. MDD is underdiagnosed and undertreated among low-income African Americans, who are disproportionately impacted by the HIV epidemic. To improve detection and treatment of depression among African Americans living with HIV/AIDS, it is important to understand culturally and contextually relevant aspects of MDD and attitudes about mental health treatment. Methods A focus group session was conducted with seven providers and staff at a primary care center that serves a largely African-American community heavily impacted by the HIV epidemic in Washington, DC. Data were analyzed using an inductive approach to distill prominent themes, perspectives, and experiences among participating providers. Results Five themes emerged to characterize the lived experiences of HIV+ African-American patients: (a) Changes in perceptions of HIV over time; (b) HIV is comorbid with mental illness, particularly depression and substance abuse; (c) Stigma is associated with both HIV and depression; (d) Existing mental health services vary and are insufficient and (e) Suggestions for optimal treatment for comorbid HIV and depression. Limitation This study reflects the views of providers from one clinic in this community. Conclusion Substantial economic disadvantage, pervasive childhood adversity, limited education and limited resources jointly put members of this community at risk for acquisition of HIV and for development of depression and addictions. These contextual factors provide an important reminder that any patient-level depression identification or intervention in this community will have to be mindful of such circumstances. PMID:27347445

  16. The Education of African-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willie, Charles V., Ed.; And Others

    The 17 papers in this volume are products of a study group on the education of African Americans that was part of a national project, "The Assessment of the Status of African-Americans." The volume takes a comprehensive look at the education of African Americans, specifically early childhood through postsecondary education, and relevant public…

  17. Engaging African Americans in Smoking Cessation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…

  18. A Scale To Assess African American Acculturation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowden, Lonnie R.; Hines, Alice M.

    1999-01-01

    Investigated an acculturation scale designed for use in the African-American population. Responses from more than 900 African Americans generally indicate an African-American orientation within the sample, although there are notable variations on all 10 scale items. Discusses evidence for scale reliability and validity. (SLD)

  19. Early Academic Experiences of Recently Incarcerated African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffers, Adam R.

    2010-01-01

    This project examines the early educational experiences of 6 young African American males (ages 18-25) who attended urban schools in San Diego, California. All 6 men were incarcerated for at least 1-year before participating in a pre-release program. The participants were part of a pre-release program in San Diego, California, which was selected…

  20. African American Men in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuyjet, Michael J., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This book is a much-needed resource that includes examples of real-world programs and activities to enhance academic success in the college environment for African American men. The examples are collected from a variety of institutions across the country. With contributions from leading practitioners and scholars in the field, this book explores…

  1. Classic African American Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNair, Jonda C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to assert that there are classic African American children's books and to identify a sampling of them. The author presents multiple definitions of the term classic based on the responses of children's literature experts and relevant scholarship. Next, the manner in which data were collected and analyzed in regard to…

  2. Young Adult Utilization of a Smoking Cessation Website: An Observational Study Comparing Young and Older Adult Patterns of Use

    PubMed Central

    Ilakkuvan, Vinu; Graham, Amanda L; Richardson, Amanda; Xiao, Haijun; Mermelstein, Robin J; Curry, Susan J; Sporer, Amy K; Vallone, Donna M

    2016-01-01

    (18-24 years: AOR 0.61, 95% CI 0.48-0.79, P<.001; 25-34 years: AOR 0.73, 95% CI 0.60-0.88, P<.001), or utilize Separation Exercises (18-24 years: AOR 0.68, 95% CI 0.51-0.89, P<.01; 25-34 years: AOR 0.77, 95% CI 0.63-0.94, P<.01). Gender differences in utilization were more pronounced among young adults compared with older adults, with lower levels of utilization among young men than young women. For all age groups, utilization was higher among whites and African Americans than among Hispanics and other racial minorities, with one exception—BecomeAnEX.org community utilization was significantly higher among Hispanic young adults compared with white and African American young adults. Conclusions Results point to important areas of inquiry for future research and development efforts. Research should focus on enhancing demand and increasing engagement among younger adults and men, examining strategies for capitalizing on young adult developmental needs, and increasing utilization of effective site features among diverse young adult users. PMID:27401019

  3. Sexual health communication within religious African-American families.

    PubMed

    Williams, Terrinieka T; Pichon, Latrice C; Campbell, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    While research suggests youth prefer parents and family members to serve as the primary sources of sexual health information, fear and discomfort around discussing sex with their parents may leave youth misinformed and underinformed. This study explored sexual heath communication within religious African-American families. Thirty adolescents participated in four focus groups, and 19 adults and 30 adolescents participated in six focus groups, at two predominantly African-American Christian churches in Flint, MI. All data were analyzed inductively using a constant comparison approach. Nearly all participants reported attending church weekly. Three themes emerged and are described: initiating sex talks, using mistakes as teaching tools, and clarifying prevention messages. Participants highlighted the need for religious parents to offer both religious and practical guidance to adolescents about sexual health. Findings from this study may be used to inform future sexual health promotion interventions for religious African-American families. PMID:24901449

  4. Diet Quality and Physical Activity Outcome Improvements Resulting From a Church-Based Diet and Supervised Physical Activity Intervention for Rural, Southern, African American Adults: Delta Body and Soul III.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Jessica L; Goodman, Melissa H; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa

    2015-09-01

    We assessed the effects of a 6-month, church-based, diet and supervised physical activity intervention, conducted between 2011 and 2012, on improving diet quality and increasing physical activity of Southern, African American adults. Using a quasi-experimental design, eight self-selected, eligible churches were assigned to intervention or control. Assessments included dietary, physical activity, anthropometric, and clinical measures. Mixed model regression analysis and McNemar's test were used to determine if within and between group differences were significant. Cohen's d effect sizes for selected outcomes also were computed and compared with an earlier, lower dose intervention. Retention rates were 84% (102/122) for control and 76% (219/287) for intervention participants. Diet quality components, including fruits, vegetables, discretionary calories, and total quality, improved significantly in the intervention group. Strength/flexibility physical activity also increased in the intervention group, while both aerobic and strength/flexibility physical activity significantly decreased in the control group. Effect sizes for selected health outcomes were larger in the current intervention as compared to an earlier, less intense iteration of the study. Results suggest that more frequent education sessions as well as supervised group physical activity may be key components to increasing the efficacy of behavioral lifestyle interventions in rural, Southern, African American adults. PMID:25603798

  5. The College Health and Wellness Study: baseline correlates of overweight among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Gary, Tiffany L; Gross, Susan M; Browne, Dorothy C; LaVeist, Thomas A

    2006-03-01

    Overweight and obesity are epidemic in the United States, particularly among minority populations. This epidemic contributes to the development of chronic conditions that occur later in life such as type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Therefore, it is important to identify factors associated with the development of obesity during young adulthood. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among students graduating from a Historically Black College or University (HBCU) in the Mid-Atlantic region. Participants were 392 predominantly African American seniors graduating in the spring of 2003. Data were collected using a self-administered paper and pencil questionnaire which focused on weight, weight management activities, individual and familial weight history, and health status indicators. Participants were on average 24 +/- 5 years of age and 69% female; over 90% identified as African American or Black. According to NIH guidelines, about 30% of males and 28% of females were considered overweight, 12% of males and 7% of females were considered obese, and 7% of males and females were considered extremely obese. Significant correlates of being more overweight were being married, having children, lower socio-economic status, weight-loss attempts, personal and family history of overweight, and poorer health status. These data suggest that among this sample, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is similar to other populations of young African American adults. Familial factors such as socio-economic status and family weight history were important correlates of overweight. Overweight is a significant problem in this population, and these data should be useful for developing weight loss interventions aimed at young adults. PMID:16736374

  6. HIV/AIDS Knowledge Scores and Perceptions of Risk Among African American Students Attending Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Madeline Y.; Hardnett, Felicia P.; Wright, Pierre; Wahi, Sagina; Pathak, Sonal; Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari; Jones, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Objective African American young adults are disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic and often unaware of their personal risk for HIV. Historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) enroll 25% of college-educated African American young adults and can play an important role in HIV prevention. We examined HIV/AIDS knowledge of students at HBCUs to inform and strengthen our HIV prevention efforts at HBCUs. Methods African American undergraduate HBCU students completed online surveys assessing HIV/AIDS knowledge and behaviors, and we analyzed data to assess their knowledge and behaviors. Results A total of 1,051 of 1,230 surveys completed (85.4%) were analyzable. Eighty-two percent of students had average/high HIV knowledge scores. Seventy-nine percent of students surveyed perceived themselves to be at low risk for HIV infection; 64% of those who had at least two or more sex partners had not used a condom at last sex encounter. In the final model, significant independent effects were identified for average/high knowledge of HIV risk, including agreeing with assessing a potential partner's HIV risk by all of the five actions listed (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7, 4.3) and never using a needle to inject drugs (AOR=5.6, 95% CI 3.2, 9.7). Conclusions Educating students about effectively assessing sex partner risk will improve HIV knowledge and prevention efforts at HBCUs. PMID:21886325

  7. Fostering Healthy Lifestyles in the African American Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murimi, Mary; Chrisman, Matthew S.; McAllister, Tiffany; McDonald, Olevia D.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 8.3% of the U.S. population (25.8 million people) is affected by type 2 diabetes. The burden of diabetes is disproportionately greater in the African American community. Compared with non-Hispanic Caucasian adults, the risk of diagnosed type 2 diabetes was 77% higher among non-Hispanic Blacks, who are 27% more likely to die of…

  8. African American College Students: Literacy of Depression and Help Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansbury, Kim L.; Wimsatt, Maureen; Simpson, Gaynell Marie; Martin, Fayetta; Nelson, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Depression is a serious public health concern in the United States affecting almost 18.8 million adults. It is a common mental disorder in college students, with estimates of 1 in 4 "experiencing an episode by age 24." African American college students are at an elevated risk for depression due to racism, stress, sleep deprivation, and lack of…

  9. Correlates of African American Men's Sexual Schemas

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Dawn A.; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; St. Lawrence, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Sexual schemas are cognitive representations of oneself as a sexual being and aid in the processing of sexually relevant information. We examined the relationship between sociosexuality (attitudes about casual sex), masculine ideology (attitudes toward traditional men and male roles), and cultural centrality (strength of identity with racial group) as significant psychosocial and sociocultural predictors in shaping young, heterosexual African American men's sexual schemas. A community sample (n=133) of men in a southeastern city of the United States completed quantitative self-report measures examining their attitudes and behavior related to casual sex, beliefs about masculinity, racial and cultural identity, and self-views of various sexual aspects of themselves. Results indicated that masculine ideology and cultural centrality were both positively related to men's sexual schemas. Cultural centrality explained 12 % of the variance in level of sexual schema, and had the strongest correlation of the predictor variables with sexual schema (r=.36). The need for more attention to the bidirectional relationships between masculinity, racial/cultural identity, and sexual schemas in prevention, intervention, and public health efforts for African American men is discussed. PMID:24031118

  10. Characterizing the learning styles and testing the science-related attitudes of African American middle school students: Implications for the underrepresentation of African Americans in the sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perine, Donald Ray

    African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans and women are underrepresented among the population of scientists and science teachers in the United States. Specifically, the shortage of African Americans teaching math and science at all levels of the educational process and going into the many science-related fields is manifested throughout the entire educational and career structure of our society. This shortage exists when compared to the total population of African Americans in this country, the population of African American students, and to society's demand for more math and science teachers and professionals of all races. One suggestion to address this problem is to update curricular and instructional programs to accommodate the learning styles of African Americans from elementary to graduate school. There is little in the published literature to help us understand the learning styles of African American middle school students and how they compare to African American adults who pursue science careers. There is also little published data to help inform us about the relationship between learning styles of African American middle school students and their attitudes toward science. The author used a learning styles inventory instrument to identify the learning style preferences of the African American students and adults. The preferences identified describe how African American students and African American adult science professionals prefer to function, learn, concentrate, and perform in their educational and work activities in the areas of: (a) immediate environment, (b) emotionality, (c) sociological needs, and (d) physical needs. The learning style preferences for the students and adults were not significantly different in key areas of preference. A Test of Science-Related Attitudes (TOSRA) was used to measure seven distinct science-related attitudes of the middle school students. A comparison of the profile of the mean scores for the students in this study

  11. Infant-feeding practices among African American women: social-ecological analysis and implications for practice.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Elizabeth A; Woods-Giscombé, Cheryl L

    2015-05-01

    Despite extensive evidence supporting the health benefits of breastfeeding, significant disparities exist between rates of breastfeeding among African American women and women of other races. Increasing rates of breastfeeding among African American women can contribute to the improved health of the African American population by decreasing rates of infant mortality and disease and by enhancing cognitive development. Additionally, higher rates of breastfeeding among African American women could foster maternal-child bonding and could contribute to stronger families, healthier relationships, and emotionally healthier adults. The purpose of this article is twofold: (a) to use the social-ecological model to explore the personal, socioeconomic, psychosocial, and cultural factors that affect the infant feeding decision-making processes of African American women and (b) to discuss the implications of these findings for clinical practice and research to eliminate current disparities in rates of breastfeeding. PMID:24810518

  12. Development and validation of a diabetes self-management instrument for older African-Americans.

    PubMed

    McCaskill, Gina M; Bolland, Kathleen A; Burgio, Kathryn L; Leeper, James

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and validate a new diabetes self-management instrument for older African-Americans 65 years of age and older. The Self-Care Utility Geriatric African-American Rating (SUGAAR) was developed using the American Diabetes Association's standards for the management of type 2 diabetes in older adults and cognitive interviews with older African-Americans. The instrument underwent extensive review by a panel of experts, two rounds of cognitive interviews, and a pilot test before it was administered in an interview format to 125 community-dwelling older African-Americans. The instrument demonstrated content validity and significant, but modest, convergent validity with items from an established diabetes self-management instrument. Social workers and health care professionals can use the SUGARR to assess diabetes self-management and to identify areas for education and support for older African-Americans with type 2 diabetes. PMID:27045578

  13. A comparison of skin tone discrimination among African American men: 1995 and 2003

    PubMed Central

    Uzogara, Ekeoma E.; Lee, Hedwig; Abdou, Cleopatra M.; Jackson, James S.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated perceptions of skin tone discrimination among adult African American men. Research suggests that through negative African American stereotypes, out-group members (Whites) perceive light-skinned African Americans favorably and dark-skinned African Americans unfavorably. However, it is unclear how treatment by in-group members (other African Americans) uniquely affects men. Using data from the 1995 Detroit Area Study and the 2003 National Survey of American Life, we investigated these relationships among African American men representing a wide range of socioeconomic groups. We found that African American men’s perceptions of out-group and in-group treatment, respectively, were similar across time. Light-skinned men perceived the least out-group discrimination while dark-skinned men perceived the most out-group discrimination. In appraisals of skin tone discrimination from in-group members, medium-skinned men perceived the least discrimination while both light- and dark-skinned men perceived more in-group discrimination. Additionally, men of lower social economic groups were more affected by skin tone bias than others. Future research should explore the influence of these out- and in-group experiences of skin tone discrimination on social and psychological functioning of African American men. PMID:25798076

  14. Examining the Consequences of the “Prevalent Life Events” of Arrest and Incarceration among an Urban African-American Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Cwick, Jaclyn M.; Green, Kerry M.; Ensminger, Margaret E.

    2015-01-01

    The life course perspective has traditionally examined prevalent adult life events, such as marriage and employment, and their potential to redirect offending trajectories. However, for African Americans, the life events of arrest and incarceration are becoming equally prevalent in young adulthood. Therefore, it is critical to understand how these “standard” criminal justice practices, which are designed to deter as well as punish, affect deviance among this population. This study evaluates the long-term consequences of criminal justice intervention on substance use and offending into midlife among an African American community cohort using propensity score matching and multivariate regression analyses. The results largely point to a criminogenic effect of criminal justice intervention on midlife deviance with a particularly strong effect of young adult arrest on rates of violent and property arrest counts into midlife. The theoretical and policy implications of the findings are discussed.

  15. Parameters of obesity in African-American women.

    PubMed

    Railey, M T

    2000-10-01

    Non-Hispanic African-American women have the highest incidence of overweight in the United States, at 48%. For non-Hispanic white females, the prevalence is 32.9%. This striking difference can be expected to have a great impact on morbidity and mortality within this culture. The purpose of this study is to ascertain, by descriptive analysis of data derived from a questionnaire, whether there are modifiable factors specific to African-American women that could lead to an increased prevalence of obesity. Forty adult, African-American obese women were given a questionnaire covering personal socioeconomics, dietary habits, educational level, exercise patterns, childhood exposures, and stress management. Data from the questionnaire were grouped and collated to determine whether specific trends could be discerned. This descriptive evaluation found that hair care issues had some effect on exercise patterns. In addition, a lack of childhood role models for exercise and an adult pattern of sedentary lifestyles appeared to be significant factors contributing to obesity. After this pilot study, a comparative study with a white group of obese women or a group of nonobese African-American women should be the next step in evaluation to further define and understand these observations. PMID:11105728

  16. Parameters of obesity in African-American women.

    PubMed Central

    Railey, M. T.

    2000-01-01

    Non-Hispanic African-American women have the highest incidence of overweight in the United States, at 48%. For non-Hispanic white females, the prevalence is 32.9%. This striking difference can be expected to have a great impact on morbidity and mortality within this culture. The purpose of this study is to ascertain, by descriptive analysis of data derived from a questionnaire, whether there are modifiable factors specific to African-American women that could lead to an increased prevalence of obesity. Forty adult, African-American obese women were given a questionnaire covering personal socioeconomics, dietary habits, educational level, exercise patterns, childhood exposures, and stress management. Data from the questionnaire were grouped and collated to determine whether specific trends could be discerned. This descriptive evaluation found that hair care issues had some effect on exercise patterns. In addition, a lack of childhood role models for exercise and an adult pattern of sedentary lifestyles appeared to be significant factors contributing to obesity. After this pilot study, a comparative study with a white group of obese women or a group of nonobese African-American women should be the next step in evaluation to further define and understand these observations. PMID:11105728

  17. African American Therapists Working with African American Families: An Exploration of the Strengths Perspective in Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell-Tolliver, Laverne; Burgess, Ruby; Brock, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    With the exception of Hill's (1971, 1999) work, historically much of the literature on African American families has focused more on pathology than strengths. This study used interviews with 30 African American psychotherapists, self-identified as employing a strengths perspective with African American families, to investigate which strengths they…

  18. African American Preschoolers' Language, Emergent Literacy Skills, and Use of African American English: A Complex Relation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Craig, Holly K.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relation between African American preschoolers' use of African American English (AAE) and their language and emergent literacy skills in an effort to better understand the perplexing and persistent difficulties many African American children experience learning to read proficiently. Method: African American…

  19. Pathways from Early Childhood Adversity to Later Adult Drug Use and Psychological Distress: A Prospective Study of a Cohort of African Americans.

    PubMed

    Fothergill, Kate; Ensminger, Margaret E; Doherty, Elaine E; Juon, Hee-Soon; Green, Kerry M

    2016-06-01

    Drawing on the life course perspective, this research addresses the direct and indirect pathways between childhood adversity and midlife psychological distress and drug use across a majority of the life span in an African American cohort (N = 1,242) followed from age 6 to 42 (1966 to 2002). Results from structural equation models highlight the impact of low childhood socioeconomic status (SES), poor maternal mental health, and the role of first-grade maladaptation in launching a trajectory of social maladaptation from age 6 to 42. Specifically, for men, we found a direct pathway from early low SES to drug use in mid adulthood and an indirect pathway to psychological distress through first-grade maladaptation and adolescent poor mental health. For females, early SES affected first-grade maladaptation and low school bonds, which then predicted later drug use. PMID:27284077

  20. Depression and Cognitive Impairment Are Associated with Low Education and Literacy Status and Smoking but Not Caffeine Consumption in Urban African Americans and White Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kuczmarski, Andrew V.; Mason, Marc A.; Evans, Michele K.; Zonderman, Alan B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent research has linked caffeine consumption with a lower risk for depression and cognitive decline. However, no studies have examined the relationship in an African American compared to a white, socioeconomically diverse representative urban sample. Methods: Data from a cross-sectional study were used to determine the associations of caffeine use with depressive symptomatology and cognition in a sample of 1,724 participants in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study. The United States Department of Agriculture's Automated Multiple Pass Method was used by trained interviewers to collect two, in-person 24-hour dietary recalls. Depressive symptoms and global cognition were assessed using two well-validated measures: the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depressive Scale (CES-D) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), respectively. Usual caffeine intake was based on both recalls. Data were analyzed with t- and chi-square tests, correlation analysis, and ordinal logistic regression. Results: African Americans consumed significantly less caffeine than did whites (89.0±3.2 and 244.0±8.7 mg respectively). Caffeine consumption was not associated with depressive symptomatology or global cognition. Age, less than 5th grade literacy, and less than high school education were significantly associated with both depressive symptoms and cognitive function. Smokers had a 43% greater risk for depression but only a 3% higher risk for cognitive impairment. Conclusion: The low level of dietary caffeine intake in combination with smoking among HANDLS study participants may have influenced the lack of association with depressive symptomatology or global cognition. For this sample, low literacy and education appear more highly associated with depressive symptoms and cognitive function than caffeine intake. PMID:25785235

  1. Still Excluded? An Update on the Status of African American Scholars in the Discipline of Criminology and Criminal Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbidon, Shaun L.; Greene, Helen Taylor; Wilder, Kideste

    2004-01-01

    This article reexamines the exclusion of African Americans in the discipline of criminology and criminal justice. Young and Sulton raised this issue in their important article that focused on the role of African American scholars in various aspects of the field. The article revisits several areas investigated in the original article, including the…

  2. High-Achieving, Low Socioeconomic Status African-American Males: A Comparative Perspective of Students at Three Urban High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randle, James P.

    2012-01-01

    A recent study by the Council of the Great City Schools reports that "the nation's young African-American males are in a state of crisis" and describes the situation as "a national catastrophe" (Lewis, Simon, Uzzell, Horwitz, & Casserly, 2010; Herbert, 2010). The report indicates that African-American males still lag…

  3. Experiences of African American adolescent fathers.

    PubMed

    Dallas, C M; Chen, S P

    1998-04-01

    Social and cultural factors influence the experience of fatherhood. This descriptive focus-group study describes the lived experience of fatherhood from the perspectives of 5 unmarried, low-income, African American adolescent fathers in a Midwestern urban area. Naturalistic inquiry approach guided the study. Seven themes of fatherhood emerged: barriers to fatherhood, value of fatherhood, introduction to fatherhood, competencies of fatherhood, role-set relationships, social norms of fatherhood, and father-child contact. This study suggests that nurses should support the involvement of adolescent fathers with their children. Future study may determine the influence of adult female family members on the decisions of adolescent fathers to remain involved with their children. PMID:9550932

  4. Environmental health and African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, B

    1991-01-01

    As environmental health has taken on immensely increased significance in the prevention of disease, dysfunction, and premature death, its boundaries have been anything but stable. This instability, along with a multitude of demographic, social, and economic currents, have brought into stark relief the increasing demand for scientists who have the skills and knowledge to perform environmental risk assessment and implement effective risk management policies and services. Despite this demand far too few African Americans want, or are prepared, to pursue careers in sciences. This paper describes efforts to address this problem and suggests why such initiatives may not yield the desired results. PMID:1951793

  5. Religiosity and risky sexual behaviors among an African American church-based population.

    PubMed

    Hawes, Starlyn M; Berkley-Patton, Jannette Y

    2014-04-01

    African Americans are disproportionately burdened by STDs and HIV in the US. This study examined the relationships between demographics, religiosity, and sexual risk behaviors among 255 adult African American church-based participants. Although participants were highly religious, they reported an average of seven lifetime sex partners and most inconsistently used condoms. Several demographic variables and religiosity significantly predicted lifetime HIV-related risk factors. Taken together, findings indicated that this population is at risk for HIV. Future research should continue to identify correlates of risky sexual behavior among African American parishioners to facilitate the development of HIV risk reduction interventions in their church settings. PMID:23054481

  6. Religiosity and Risky Sexual Behaviors among an African American Church-based Population

    PubMed Central

    Hawes, Starlyn M.; Berkley-Patton, Jannette Y.

    2014-01-01

    African Americans are disproportionately burdened by STDs and HIV in the US. This study examined the relationships between demographics, religiosity, and sexual risk behaviors among 255 adult African American church-based participants. Although participants were highly religious, they reported an average of seven lifetime sex partners and most inconsistently used condoms. Several demographic variables and religiosity significantly predicted lifetime HIV-related risk factors. Taken together, findings indicated that this population is at risk for HIV. Future research should continue to identify correlates of risky sexual behavior among African American parishioners to facilitate the development of HIV risk reduction interventions in their church settings. PMID:23054481

  7. Ready to die: a postmodern interpretation of the increase of African-American adolescent male suicide.

    PubMed

    Willis, Leigh A; Coombs, David W; Cockerham, William C; Frison, Sonja L

    2002-09-01

    African-Americans have typically registered lower rates of suicide than other ethnic groups. In the last 20 years this pattern has changed, particularly among young African-Americans between the ages of 15 and 19 (National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Mortality Statistics, 1998, Atlanta, GA). Today, young African-American males are as likely to commit suicide as their White counterparts. To date, the research conducted regarding this phenomenon has been inconclusive and existing suicide interventions appear to have no effect on reducing this behavior among young African-Americans. This paper synthesizes classical (Durkheim, Suicide, 1979, Free Press, New York) and postmodern (Beck, Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity, 1992, Sage, London; Bauman, Modernity and Ambivalence, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 1991) social theories in order to provide a more complete theoretical explanation for the increase in the suicide rate among adolescent African-American males. Postmodern society is typified by: (1) institutional deconstruction; (2) decreased collectivism; (3) increased normlessness and helplessness; and (4) exacerbated personal risk for stress. It is therefore possible to hypothesize that postmodernity characteristically loosens the bonds between the individual and society, thereby increasing vulnerability to depression, related pathologies (such as substance abuse), and suicide. African-Americans tend to be more affected/vulnerable because they are concentrated in resource-poor, low income areas, and institutions that provided social support (family, religious, community) and protected individuals from societal risk factors, have gradually been dissolving in postmodern societies. We argue that young African-American males of today are more exposed to stressors which increase psychological distress thus increasing depression and related pathological behaviors such as suicide. The main reason behind this increase is found in the inability of

  8. Expecting the Unexpected: a Comparative Study of African-American Women's Experiences in Science during the High School Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Sandra L.; Johnson, Elizabeth Palmer

    Data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS) for the years 1988 to 1992 are used to explore the science experiences of young African-American women during the high school years. The comparison groups we use in trying to understand these experiences involve White women (for a race contrast) and African-American men (for a gender contrast). Within the context of a critical feminist perspective, it is argued that gender is constructed in a different way in White and African-American communities. Instead of expecting a disadvantage for young African-American women because of their gender and minority statuses, it is suggested that unique gender ideologies and work-family arrangements in the African-American community give these young women the resources and agency that allow them to compete with their White female counterparts and their African-American male counterparts in the science domain. Results from our analyses of the NELS data confirm these expectations. We find that on a majority of science measures, African-American women do as well as - and sometimes better than - White women and African-American men. For example, there are no differences between African-American women and men on attitudes toward science. And when compared with White women, African-American women tend to have more positive attitudes. When disadvantages appear for these young African-American women, they are more likely to be race effects then gender effects. The minimal gender effects in the science experiences of young African-Americans is in contrast to the more frequent male advantage in the White sample. A careful examination of family and individual resources shows that African-American families compensate for disadvantages on some resources (e.g., family socioeconomic status) by providing young women with an excess of other resources (e.g., unique gender ideologies, work expectations, and maternal expectations and involvement). And, unlike White parents, they sometimes

  9. Improving African American Achievement in Geometry Honors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mims, Adrian B.

    2010-01-01

    This case study evaluated the significance of implementing an enrichment mathematics course during the summer to rising African American ninth graders entitled, "Geometry Honors Preview." In the past, 60 to 70 percent of African American students in this school district had withdrawn from Geometry Honors by the second academic quarter. This study…

  10. Heart Truth for African American Women

    MedlinePlus

    THE HEART TRUTH ® FOR AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN: AN ACTION PLAN When you hear the term “heart disease,” what’s your first reaction? Like many women, you may ... in four women dies of heart disease. For African American women, the risk of heart disease is especially ...

  11. A Mirror Image African American Student Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon Dawson, Candice

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a narrative inquiry research project that focuses on the collegiate experiences of African American students at both historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly white institutions (PWIs). I look at how African American college students who engage in race or culturally specific activities, the degree…

  12. African American Women in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamani, Eboni M.

    2003-01-01

    African American women hold a unique position as members of two groups that have been treated in a peripheral manner by postsecondary education (Moses, 1989). Membership in both marginalized groups often makes African American women invisible in colleges and universities. Given the complex intersection of race and gender, more attention should be…

  13. African-American Student Achievement Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagstaff, Mark; Melton, Jerry; Lawless, Brenda; Combs, Linda

    Data from the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) reveal that gains in performance for the African American student population of Region VII of the state's educational system were not keeping pace with the performance of African Americans in the rest of Texas. This study investigated practices in school districts in the region in which…

  14. Cancer and the African American Experience

    Cancer.gov

    The first plenary of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the many factors that lead to inequalities in cancer care outcomes for African Americans.

  15. Reading Comprehension among African American Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Mayes, Eric; Arthur, Leslie; Johnson, Joseph; Robinson, Veronica; Ashe, Shante; Elbedour, Salman; Collins, Kathleen M. T.

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the reading comprehension performance of African American graduate students. The result showed that though the African American sample attained statistically significantly higher levels of reading comprehension than a normative sample of undergraduate students, they achieved lower levels of reading comprehension…

  16. African American Art: A Los Angeles Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Harriet

    This curriculum unit focuses on the importance of Los Angeles (California) as a center for African American art and shows how African American artists have developed their own styles and how critics and collectors have encouraged them. The unit consists of four lessons, each of which can stand alone or be used in conjunction with the others. It…

  17. Beyond Afrocentricism: Alternatives for African American Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Perry A.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses new directions for African-American studies curricula. Argues that the Afrocentrist perspective presents a static model that does not adequately address the dynamic interaction of Afrocentric sensibility with Western-dominated economic, cultural, and political structures. The African-American studies discipline should be conceptualized…

  18. The African American Woman. Runta (Truth).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Monica L.; Watson, Betty Collier, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    The African American woman has commanded widespread public attention, but popular misconceptions of her socioeconomic role and status differ sharply from her actual situation. The following basic characteristics of the contemporary African American woman, drawn from census figures, are outlined: (1) demographically, females comprise a majority of…

  19. Cultural aspects of African American eating patterns.

    PubMed

    Airhihenbuwa, C O; Kumanyika, S; Agurs, T D; Lowe, A; Saunders, D; Morssink, C B

    1996-09-01

    The high mortality from diet-related diseases among African Americans strongly suggests a need to adopt diets lower in total fat, saturated fat and salt and higher in fiber. However, such changes would be contrary to some traditional African American cultural practices. Focus group interviews were used to explore cultural aspects of eating patterns among low- and middle-income African Americans recruited from an urban community in Pennsylvania. In total, 21 males and 32 females, aged 13-65+ years were recruited using a networking technique. Participants identified eating practices commonly attributed to African Americans and felt that these were largely independent of socioeconomic status. They were uncertain about links between African American eating patterns and African origins but clear about influences of slavery and economic disadvantage. The perception that African American food patterns were characteristically adaptive to external conditions, suggest that, for effective dietary change in African American communities, changes in the food availability will need to precede or take place in parallel with changes recommended to individuals. Cultural attitudes about where and with whom food is eaten emerged as being equivalent in importance to attitudes about specific foods. These findings emphasize the importance of continued efforts to identify ways to increase the relevance of cultural context and meanings in dietary counseling so that health and nutrition interventions are anchored in values as perceived, in this case, by African Americans. PMID:9395569

  20. African American Undergraduates and the Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmire, Ethelene

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the academic library experiences of African American undergraduates attending a research university in the Midwest. Data collection techniques included questionnaires and ethnographic observations. The results indicated that African American undergraduates are using the academic library primarily to read and to study with their…

  1. Hidden Education among African Americans during Slavery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundaker, Grey

    2007-01-01

    Background/Context: Historical studies examine aspects of African American education in and out of school in detail (Woodson 1915, 1933, Bullock 1970, Anderson 1988, Morris 1982, Rachal 1986, Rose 1964, Webber 1978, Williams 2005). Scholars of African American literacy have noted ways that education intersects other arenas such as religion and…

  2. Depression, Sociocultural Factors, and African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunn, Vanessa Lynn; Craig, Carlton David

    2009-01-01

    The authors discuss depression in African American women from a sociocultural perspective, including aspects of oppression and racism that affect symptom manifestation. The authors highlight John Henryism as a coping mechanism, the history and continuing role of the African American church as a safe haven, and strategies for culturally competent…

  3. Knowledge, Beliefs and Behaviours Related to STD Risk, Prevention, and Screening among a Sample of African American Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhrig, Jennifer D.; Friedman, Allison; Poehlman, Jon; Scales, Monica; Forsythe, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Current data on sexually transmitted disease (STD) among African Americans show significant racial/ethnic disparities. The purpose of this study was to explore knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours related to STD risk, prevention, and testing among African American adults to help inform the development of a health communication…

  4. Perceptions, Knowledge, Incentives, and Barriers of Brain Donation among African American Elders Enrolled in an Alzheimer's Research Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambe, Susan; Cantwell, Nicole; Islam, Fareesa; Horvath, Kathy; Jefferson, Angela L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To learn about African American older adults' knowledge and perceptions of brain donation, factors that relate to participating or not participating in a brain donation research program, and methods to increase African American brain donation commitment rates in the context of an Alzheimer's disease (AD) research program. Design and…

  5. Intimate partner violence in African American women.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Doris Williams; Sharps, Phyllis W; Gary, Faye A; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Lopez, Loretta M

    2002-01-01

    Violence against African American women, specifically intimate partner abuse, has a significant impact on their health and well being. Intimate partner femicide and near fatal intimate partner femicide are the major causes of premature death and disabling injuries for African American women. Yet, despite this, there is a paucity of research and interventions specific and culturally relevant for these women. This article focuses on issues relevant to intimate partner violence and abuse against African American women by examining existing empirical studies of prevalence and health outcomes of intimate partner violence against women in general, plus what limited research there is about African American women, specifically. It includes a discussion of specific recommendations for research, practice, education, and policy to reduce and prevent intimate partner violence against African American women. PMID:12044219

  6. Healthy Eating and Risks of Total and Cause-Specific Death among Low-Income Populations of African-Americans and Other Adults in the Southeastern United States: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Danxia; Sonderman, Jennifer; Buchowski, Maciej S.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Steinwandel, Mark; Signorello, Lisa B.; Zhang, Xianglan; Hargreaves, Margaret K.; Blot, William J.; Zheng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background A healthy diet, as defined by the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA), has been associated with lower morbidity and mortality from major chronic diseases in studies conducted in predominantly non-Hispanic white individuals. It is unknown whether this association can be extrapolated to African-Americans and low-income populations. Methods and Findings We examined the associations of adherence to the DGA with total and cause-specific mortality in the Southern Community Cohort Study, a prospective study that recruited 84,735 American adults, aged 40–79 y, from 12 southeastern US states during 2002–2009, mostly through community health centers that serve low-income populations. The present analysis included 50,434 African-Americans, 24,054 white individuals, and 3,084 individuals of other racial/ethnic groups, among whom 42,759 participants had an annual household income less than US$15,000. Usual dietary intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Adherence to the DGA was measured by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), 2010 and 2005 editions (HEI-2010 and HEI-2005, respectively). During a mean follow-up of 6.2 y, 6,906 deaths were identified, including 2,244 from cardiovascular disease, 1,794 from cancer, and 2,550 from other diseases. A higher HEI-2010 score was associated with lower risks of disease death, with adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.73–0.86) for all-disease mortality, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.70–0.94) for cardiovascular disease mortality, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.69–0.95) for cancer mortality, and 0.77 (95% CI, 0.67–0.88) for other disease mortality, when comparing the highest quintile with the lowest (all p-values for trend < 0.05). Similar inverse associations between HEI-2010 score and mortality were observed regardless of sex, race, and income (all p-values for interaction > 0.50). Several component scores in the HEI-2010, including whole grains, dairy, seafood and plant proteins, and ratio

  7. Associations of body mass and body fat distribution with parity among African-American and Caucasian women: The CARDIA Study.

    PubMed

    Lewis, C E; Smith, D E; Caveny, J L; Perkins, L L; Burke, G L; Bild, D E

    1994-11-01

    Associations of parity with body fat and its distribution are poorly understood; therefore, we examined the relationships between parity and obesity in young adult women. Body mass index (BMI), skin-folds, and waist-hip ratio were compared in 1452 African-American and 1268 Caucasian nonpregnant women aged 18 to 30, adjusting for age (where no age-parity interactions were present), education, physical activity (assessed by questionnaire) and fitness (assessed by graded exercise test), dietary fat intake, alcohol and smoking. Adjusted mean BMI was significantly higher in African-American women aged 25-30 years with three or more children (28.5 kg/m2) than in those with two (27.0 kg/m2), one (26.2 kg/m2), or no children (26.3 kg/m2). Similar trends were found in Caucasians (BMI = 23.3, 23.4, 23.7, 25.0 kg/m2 for parity = 0, 1, 2, > or = 3, respectively), but the mean BMI was significantly higher in African Americans in each parity group. The association between BMI and parity was not present among women 18-24 years of age. Skinfolds were directly associated with parity in African Americans only. Waist-hip ratios were generally lower among nulliparous than parous women in both ethnic groups; race differences were present only among nulliparas. In conclusion, parity was associated with BMI in women aged 25 to 30 years but did not explain ethnicity-related differences in body mass. PMID:16358400

  8. Triple-negative breast cancer in African-American women: disparities versus biology.

    PubMed

    Dietze, Eric C; Sistrunk, Christopher; Miranda-Carboni, Gustavo; O'Regan, Ruth; Seewaldt, Victoria L

    2015-04-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive breast cancer subtype that disproportionately affects BRCA1 mutation carriers and young women of African origin. There is evidence that African-American women with TNBC have worse clinical outcomes than women of European descent. However, it is unclear whether survival differences persist after adjusting for disparities in access to health-care treatment, co-morbid disease and income. It remains controversial whether TNBC in African-American women is a molecularly distinct disease or whether African-American women have a higher incidence of aggressive biology driven by disparities: there is evidence in support of both. Understanding the relative contributions of biology and disparities is essential for improving the poor survival rate of African-American women with TNBC. PMID:25673085

  9. Avoiding Adolescent Pregnancy: A Longitudinal Analysis of African American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Steven M.; Cho, Junhan; Allen, Kimberly; Lei, Man-Kit; Beach, Steven R. H.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Simons, Leslie G.; Simons, Ronald L.; Brody, Gene H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The timing and social context of pregnancy have significant implications for the well-being of African American young people. Rarely, however, do studies focus on identifying the developmental processes associated with young people’s avoidance of pregnancy until after adolescence. Methods We tested hypotheses regarding the factors associated with delayed fertility (no experience of a pregnancy by age 19) among a sample of 889 African American youth recruited at age 11 and assessed longitudinally through age 19. We hypothesized that, during preadolescence (age 11), health-promoting environmental processes would be linked to nurturant-responsive parenting, which in turn would be linked to youths’ conventional future orientations and risky sexual behavior in midadolescence (age 16) and to pregnancy experience by late adolescence (age 19). Hypotheses were tested with logistic structural equation modeling. Results Our conceptual model fit the data well. We identified a cascade process whereby protective environments were associated with nurturant-responsive parenting, which was associated with youths’ conventional future orientations; conventional future orientations were associated with avoidance of sexual risk behaviors at age 16 and avoidance of pregnancy by age 19. We identified an additional direct effect between nurturant-responsive parenting and avoidance of risky sexual behavior. Conclusions The results suggest processes that may be targeted to facilitate delayed fertility among African American youth. PMID:23583506

  10. Misconceptions of Depression in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Sohail, Zohaib; Bailey, Rahn Kennedy; Richie, William D.

    2014-01-01

    Major depression is a very common disabling disorder. Although the relationship between race and depression is complex, depression affects all races, all ethnic and geographic locations as well as all age groups. The prevalence of depression in African Americans is controversial, due to the paucity of research. The deficit in the knowledge and skills in treating depression in African Americans have not been adequately addressed so far. Inadequate and insufficient data on African Americans contributes to the problems of under diagnoses, misdiagnosis, and under treatment of depression. This article will highlight the existing problem of depression in Afro American with a focus on diagnostic and treatment issues. PMID:24999332

  11. Assessing spirituality in mentally ill African Americans.

    PubMed

    Perdue, Bobbie; Johnson, Deanna; Singley, Doretha; Jackson, Cheylon

    2006-01-01

    The case scenario illustrates the advantage of using spirituality as a tool for recovery when working with mentally ill African American clients. Often spiritual and clinical perspectives are seen as contradictory. But for African Americans, these perspectives can be mutually reinforcing. Spirituality can serve as a resource of strength. It can provide emotional consolation, inspiration, guidance, and security. It can foster personal responsibility, identity, respect for ethical codes and community building. Mental Health professionals who use spirituality as a tool for recovery can expect to have better client outcomes when working with African Americans than those who do not. PMID:18402348

  12. Knowledge and Attitudes in Alzheimer's Disease in a Cohort of Older African Americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Howell, J Christina; Soyinka, Oretunlewa; Parker, Monica; Jarrett, Thomas L; Roberts, David L; Dorbin, Cornelya D; Hu, William T

    2016-06-01

    African American participation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) research studies has been historically low. To determine whether older African Americans and Caucasians had different knowledge or attitudes related to AD, we administered the Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale (ADKS) to 67 older African Americans and 140 older caucasians in the greater Atlanta area as well as questions targeting locus of control over general health and AD risks. Older African Americans scored slightly lower on ADKS than older caucasians, with race only accounting for 1.57 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57-2.61, P < .001) points of difference in a multivariate model. Attitudes toward AD were also similar between the 2 groups but 1 (35.7%) in 3 adults reported control over general health but not AD risks. In addition to enhancing education content in outreach efforts, there is an urgent need to address the perception that future AD risks are beyond one's own internal control. PMID:26646115

  13. Childhood Trauma and Psychiatric Disorders as Correlates of School Dropout in a National Sample of Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Porche, Michelle V.; Fortuna, Lisa R.; Lin, Julia; Alegria, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    The effect of childhood trauma, psychiatric diagnoses, and mental health services on school dropout among U.S. born and immigrant youth is examined using data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES), a nationally representative probability sample of African Americans, Afro-Caribbeans, Asians, Latinos, and non-Latino Whites, including 2532 young adults, ages 21 to 29. The dropout prevalence rate was 16% overall, with variation by childhood trauma, childhood psychiatric diagnosis, race/ethnicity, and nativity. Childhood substance and conduct disorders mediated the relationship between trauma and school dropout. Likelihood of dropout was decreased for Asians, and increased for African Americans and Latinos, compared to non-Latino Whites as a function of psychiatric disorders and trauma. Timing of U.S. immigration during adolescence increased risk of dropout. PMID:21410919

  14. Fatigue Severity among African Americans: Gender and Age Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Sharon; Jason, Leonard A.; Taylor, Renee R.; Torres-Harding, Susan R.; Helgerson, Jena; Witter, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between fatigue, age, and gender among African Americans, Caucasians, and Latinos. Survey results found significant age and gender interactions among African Americans and Caucasians. African American women and older African American men had the highest fatigue rates. There was no significant difference in levels of…

  15. The African-American History of Martha's Vineyard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weintraub, Elaine

    1993-01-01

    Reports on research into African American history and experiences in Martha's Vineyard (Massachusetts). Examines primary sources and oral traditions of African American cultural and social history from 1703 to the present. Discusses African American sailors, race relations, and contributions by African American individuals to the community. (CFR)

  16. Subjective Social Status and Health Behaviors Among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Nguyen, Nga; Strong, Larkin L.; Wetter, David W.; McNeill, Lorna H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine associations of the US and community subjective social status (SSS) ladders with smoking status, at-risk drinking, fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, and body mass index among 1467 church-going African American adults from a larger cohort study. Methods Regression analyses, adjusted for sociodemographics, examined associations between SSS ladders and health behaviors. Results The SSS-US ladder was significantly associated with fruit and vegetable consumption (p = .007) and physical activity (p = .005). The SSS-community ladder was not significantly associated with any health behaviors. Conclusions Among this sample of African Americans, the SSS-US ladder is more predictive of some health behaviors than is the SSS-community ladder. PMID:22943107

  17. The Cultural Relevance of Mindfulness Meditation as a Health Intervention for African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Woods-Giscombé, Cheryl L.; Gaylord, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    African Americans experience a disproportionate rate of stress-related health conditions compared to European Americans. Mindfulness meditation has been shown to be effective for managing stress and various stress-related health conditions. This study explored the cultural relevance of mindfulness meditation training for African Americans adults. Fifteen African American adults with past or current experience with mindfulness meditation training were interviewed. Participants felt that mindfulness meditation helped them with enhanced stress management, direct health improvement, and enhanced self-awareness and purposefulness. They felt that they would recommend it and that other African Americans would be open to the practice but suggested that its presentation may need to be adapted. They suggested emphasizing the health benefits, connecting it to familiar spiritual ideology and cultural practices, supplementing the reading material with African American writers, increasing communication (education, instructor availability, “buddy system,” etc.), and including African Americans as instructors and participants. By implementing minor adaptations that enhance cultural relevance, mindfulness meditation can be a beneficial therapeutic intervention for this population. PMID:24442592

  18. Hopelessness and Healing: Racial Identity in Young Adult Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzak, Judith K.

    2003-01-01

    Notes that "Tears of a Tiger" is the story of a young African American man's responsibility for a drunk-driving crash that killed his best friend. Offers a reading of "Tears of a Tiger" and "Whirligig" through the lens of critical race theory. Suggests that, paired together, these novels afford a powerful opportunity for students to explore racial…

  19. Obesity and Pulmonary Function in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Mehari, Alem; Afreen, Samina; Ngwa, Julius; Setse, Rosanna; Thomas, Alicia N.; Poddar, Vishal; Davis, Wayne; Polk, Octavius D.; Hassan, Sheik; Thomas, Alvin V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity prevalence in United States (US) adults exceeds 30% with highest prevalence being among blacks. Obesity is known to have significant effects on respiratory function and obese patients commonly report respiratory complaints requiring pulmonary function tests (PFTs). However, there is no large study showing the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and PFTs in healthy African Americans (AA). Objective To determine the effect of BMI on PFTs in AA patients who did not have evidence of underlying diseases of the respiratory system. Methods We reviewed PFTs of 339 individuals sent for lung function testing who had normal spirometry and lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) with wide range of BMI. Results Functional residual capacity (FRC) and expiratory reserve volume (ERV) decreased exponentially with increasing BMI, such that morbid obesity resulted in patients breathing near their residual volume (RV). However, the effects on the extremes of lung volumes, at total lung capacity (TLC) and residual volume (RV) were modest. There was a significant linear inverse relationship between BMI and DLCO, but the group means values remained within the normal ranges even for morbidly obese patients. Conclusions We showed that BMI has significant effects on lung function in AA adults and the greatest effects were on FRC and ERV, which occurred at BMI values < 30 kg/m2. These physiological effects of weight gain should be considered when interpreting PFTs and their effects on respiratory symptoms even in the absence of disease and may also exaggerate existing lung diseases. PMID:26488406

  20. Mellonee Burnim on African American Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Patricia Shehan

    1995-01-01

    Describes the role and influence of Mellonee Burnim on U.S. music education. Discusses the origins and impact of African American gospel music. Includes a list of selected resources and two lesson plans featuring gospel music. (CFR)

  1. African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... more about African-Americans and stroke at our Power To End Stroke website This content was last reviewed July 2015. ... Attack • Heart Failure (HF) • Heart Valve Problems and Disease • High Blood ...

  2. Health Conditions Common in African American Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... health. Return to top Health conditions common in African-American women Asthma Breast cancer Cancer Cervical cancer Diabetes Glaucoma and cataracts Heart disease High blood pressure High cholesterol HIV/AIDS Infant death Kidney disease Lupus Mental health ...

  3. African Americans: Diverse People, Diverse Career Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimbrough, Verna D.; Salomone, Paul R.

    1993-01-01

    Identifies the many subgroups within the African-American population and suggests guidelines for career counseling with different subcultures: rural and urban lower class, middle class, and underclass. (SK)

  4. Gender and the tobacco-depression relationship: a sample of African American college students at a Historically Black College or University (HBCU).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Browne, Dorothy C; Storr, Carla L; Wagner, Fernando A

    2005-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between tobacco use and depression and its possible variation by gender among African American young adults. A paper-and-pencil survey was administered to African American college students graduating in 2003 from a Historically Black College or University (HBCU). Tobacco use measures included lifetime involvement. Depression symptoms were assessed using a revised version of the CES-D. Male smokers were found to be four times more likely to be depressed than male non-smokers (OR=4.4; 95% CI, 1.4, 14.3; p=0.012). However, female smokers were not more likely to be depressed than female non-smokers (OR=1.0; 95% CI, 0.5, 2.1). Findings from this study suggest the need of gender-specific tobacco or depression interventions among HBCU students. PMID:16022938

  5. Individual and community determinants of calling 911 for stroke among African Americans in an urban community

    PubMed Central

    Skolarus, Lesli E.; Murphy, Jillian B.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bailey, Sarah; Fowlkes, Sophronia; Brown, Devin L.; Lisabeth, Lynda D.; Greenberg, Emily; Morgenstern, Lewis B.

    2013-01-01

    Background African Americans receive acute stroke treatment less often than non-Hispanic Whites. Interventions to increase stroke preparedness (recognizing stroke warning signs and calling 911) may decrease the devastating effects of stroke by allowing more patients to be candidates for acute stroke therapy. In preparation for such an intervention, we used a community-based participatory research approach to conduct a qualitative study exploring perceptions of emergency medical care and stroke among urban African American youth and adults. Methods and Results Community partners, church health teams, and church leaders identified and recruited focus group participants from 3 African American churches in Flint, Michigan. We conducted 5 youth (11-16 years) and 4 adult focus groups from November 2011 to March 2012. A content analysis approach was taken for analysis. Thirty nine youth and 38 adults participated. Women comprised 64% of youth and 90% of adult focus group participants. All participants were African American. Three themes emerged from the adult and youth data: 1) recognition that stroke is a medical emergency; 2) perceptions of difficulties within the medical system in an under resourced community and; 3) need for greater stroke education in the community. Conclusions African American adults and youth have a strong interest in stroke preparedness. Designing behavioral interventions to increase stroke preparedness should be sensitive to both individual and community factors contributing to the likelihood of seeking emergency care for stroke. PMID:23674311

  6. An exploration of the down-low identity: nongay-identified young African-American men who have sex with men.

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Jaime; Hosek, Sybil G.

    2005-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention urges that strategies are needed to increase the proportion of young men who have sex with men (MSM) who are linked to primary care and prevention services. One subgroup of young men engaging in male-male sex, those that do not identify as gay, may be less likely to be reached by prevention and intervention services that are aimed at the broader MSM community. Additionally, nongay-identified young men engaging in male-male sex may have risk-reduction needs that are different from those that identify as gay. At present, very little is known about this subgroup of men. This study qualitatively interviewed six nongay-identified young men engaging in male-male sex about their sexual identity, their relationships with both men and women, their perceptions of their own sexual risk behavior and their comfort in accessing primary care services. The information gathered in these interviews can be used to increase the understanding of this understudied population while improving prevention and primary care services aimed at these youth. PMID:16173325

  7. A Prospective Study of the Effects of Marital Status and Family Relations on Young Children's Adjustment among African American and European American Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Daniel S.; Winslow, Emily B.; Flanagan, Clare

    1999-01-01

    Investigated effects of divorce and family relations on young children's development in ethnically diverse low-income families. Found that soon-to-be-divorced families demonstrated higher rates of preschool-age behavior problems, and already-divorced families showed similar trends. Parental conflict and behavior problems accounted for pre-divorce…

  8. Raising African American boys: an exploration of gender and racial socialization practices.

    PubMed

    Howard, Lionel C; Rose, Jason C; Barbarin, Oscar A

    2013-01-01

    Although parental socialization practices are critical to a child's social development, little is known of the details of how parental practices function to meet the specific challenges of supporting young boys' development as African American and men. Accordingly, this article offers a window onto how 15 parents of African American boys (ages 3-8) conceive and implement strategies for their sons' social and emotional development. Using ethnographic observations and structured interview data, this article explores the ways they promote emerging racial and gender identities and socioemotional well-being. Findings reveal that highly incongruous messages and expectations are communicated to young boys about race and gender. The study's findings have implications for young African American boys' emerging racial and gender identities. PMID:23889014

  9. Perceived Discrimination and Cognition in Older African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, L.L.; Lewis, T.T.; Begeny, C.T.; Yu, L.; Bennett, D.A.; Wilson, R.S.

    2012-01-01

    Existing evidence suggests that psychosocial stress is associated with cognitive impairment in older adults. Perceived discrimination is a persistent stressor in African Americans that has been associated with several adverse mental and physical health outcomes. To our knowledge, the association of discrimination with cognition in older African Americans has not been examined. In a cohort of 407 older African Americans without dementia (mean age = 72.9; SD = 6.4), we found that a higher level of perceived discrimination was related to poorer cognitive test performance, particularly episodic memory (estimate = −0.03; SE = .013; p < .05) and perceptual speed tests (estimate = −0.04; SE = .015; p < .05). The associations were unchanged after adjusting for demographics and vascular risk factors, but were attenuated after adjustment for depressive symptoms (Episodic memory estimate = −0.02; SE = 0.01; Perceptual speed estimate = −0.03; SE = 0.02; both p’s = .06). The association between discrimination and several cognitive domains was modified by level of neuroticism. The results suggest that perceived discrimination may be associated with poorer cognitive function, but does not appear to be independent of depressive symptoms. PMID:22595035

  10. Focus on Young Adult Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Union, Bunni; Williams, Sheila

    1996-01-01

    Presents three library youth service programs which focus on "Pizza and Politicians," a public library pizza party which gave high school students and college-aged young adults a chance to meet and question politicians; a young adult "Reading to Seniors" program; "Making Books," a public library journal-making project for middle school students.…

  11. Perceived discrimination among African American adolescents and allostatic load: a longitudinal analysis with buffering effects.

    PubMed

    Brody, Gene H; Lei, Man-Kit; Chae, David H; Yu, Tianyi; Kogan, Steven M; Beach, Steven R H

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the prospective relations of perceived racial discrimination with allostatic load (AL), along with a possible buffer of the association. A sample of 331 African Americans in the rural South provided assessments of perceived discrimination from ages 16 to 18 years. When youth were 18 years, caregivers reported parental emotional support and youth assessed peer emotional support. AL and potential confounder variables were assessed when youth were 20. Latent growth mixture modeling identified two perceived discrimination classes: high and stable, and low and increasing. Adolescents in the high and stable class evinced heightened AL even with confounder variables controlled. The racial discrimination to AL link was not significant for young adults who received high emotional support. PMID:24673162

  12. Perceived Discrimination among African American Adolescents and Allostatic Load: A Longitudinal Analysis with Buffering Effects

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Gene H.; Lei, Man-Kit; Chae, David H.; Yu, Tianyi; Kogan, Steven M.; Beach, Steven R. H.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the prospective relations of perceived racial discrimination with allostatic load (AL), along with a possible buffer of the association. A sample of 331 African Americans in the rural South provided assessments of perceived discrimination from ages 16 to 18 years. When youths were 18, caregivers reported parental emotional support, and youths assessed peer emotional support. AL and potential confounder variables were assessed when youths were 20. Latent Growth Mixture Modeling identified two perceived discrimination classes: high and stable and low and increasing. Adolescents in the high and stable class evinced heightened AL even with confounder variables controlled. The racial discrimination to AL link was not significant for young adults who received high emotional support. PMID:24673162

  13. Impact of Technology on the Academic Self-Efficacy and Career Selection of African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    With the continuing debate of the use and impact of technology on young children, this article examines the impact on technology on the academic self-efficacy and career intentions of African American students. The results from this study may be applicable to teaching, implementation, and use of technology with young children.

  14. Parental Attitudes about Teenage Pregnancy: Impact on Sexual Risk Behaviour of African-American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annang, Lucy; Lian, Brad; Fletcher, Faith E.; Jackson, Dawnyéa

    2014-01-01

    African-American youth suffer disproportionately from sexual risk consequences including unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Parents educating young people about sex may be one approach to reduce sexual risk behaviour among this population. The purpose of this study was to determine young people's perceptions of…

  15. Seven-year trends in body weight and associations with lifestyle and behavioral characteristics in black and white young adults: the CARDIA study.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, C E; Smith, D E; Wallace, D D; Williams, O D; Bild, D E; Jacobs, D R

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study estimated the amount of weight change in a biracial cohort of young adults and the separate components attributable to time-related and aging-related changes, as well as identified possible determinants of weight change. METHODS: In this population-based prospective study of 18- to 30-year-old African-American and White men and women, body weight and prevalence of overweight were measured from 1985/86 to 1992/93. RESULTS: Average weight increased over the 7 years, increases ranging from 5.2 kg (SE = 0.2, n = 811) in White women to 8.5 kg (SE = 0.3, n = 882) in African-American women. Significant time-related increases in weight, ranging from 2.0 kg (SE = 1.0) in White women to 4.8 kg (SE = 1.0, n = 711) in African-American men, accounted for 40% to 60% of the average total weight gain. Aging-related increases were also significant, ranging from 2.6 kg (SE = 0.8, n = 944) in White men to 5.0 kg (SE = 1.1) in African-American women. The prevalence of overweight increased progressively in each group. Decreased physical fitness was most strongly associated with weight gain in both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: The observed dramatic time-related weight gains, most likely due to secular (period-related) trends, are a serious public health concern. PMID:9146444

  16. Adult Cancers in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Laurence, Valérie; Marples, Maria; Stark, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    The pattern of cancer seen in young people changes with increasing age, transitioning from childhood- to adult-type cancer in adolescence and the third decade. The risk factors, presentation and biology of cancer in young adults differ from those in the older adult population. Factors of particular significance in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) include genetic predisposition to adult-type cancer, diagnostic uncertainty, long-term morbidity and considerations of fertility. New systemic therapies are being introduced that can prolong life and even increase the chance of cure, but the impact on AYAs is uncertain, as these patients are often under-represented in clinical trials. Here, we discuss the management of AYAs with 3 of the most common cancers affecting adults, when they emerge in the AYA populations, and therefore are currently met by medical oncologists - breast cancer, colorectal cancer and melanoma. PMID:27595357

  17. Research with African Americans: Lessons Learned about Recruiting African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coker, Angela D.; Huang, Hsin-Hsin; Kashubeck-West, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The authors briefly explore literature related to recruiting African American research participants, reflect on their experiences conducting body image research with a sample of African American college women in an earlier study (S. Kashubeck-West et al., 2008), and discuss some methodological and cultural challenges that they encountered during…

  18. African American Pastors' Beliefs and Actions Regarding Childhood Incest in the African American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Tesia Denis

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study sought to explore African American pastors' beliefs and actions regarding childhood incest in the African American community and their decisions to inform the proper authorities. This exploratory study was developed in order to draw both public and academic attention to the understudied phenomenon of childhood incest…

  19. Perceptions of African American and European American Teachers on the Education of African American Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Ellen; Banks, Joy; Young, Kathryn; Jackson, Francesina R.

    2007-01-01

    The authors interviewed 27 teachers (16 African American and 11 European American) on instructional factors contributing to overidentification of behavior problems in African American boys. Interviews focused on teachers' perspectives of effective teachers, teacher-student relationships, and communication styles. Analysis of the interviews showed…

  20. Teaching African American Youth: Learning from the Lives of Three African American Social Studies Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Chantee Earl

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the life histories of three African American social studies teachers, focusing on the evolution and changes in their identities, perspectives, and attitudes related to their profession and instructional practice. In addition, the study addresses the significance of the teachers' racialized experiences as African Americans and…

  1. Exploring resiliency factors of older African American Katrina survivors.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Cecilia L

    2012-01-01

    Through this qualitative study the author explores the resiliency processes demonstrated by older African American Hurricane Katrina survivors who relocated in the aftermath of the storm and were consequently faced with difficult challenges. In-depth interviews were used to assess the multidimensional characteristics of resiliency that enabled these older adults to deal with adversity. These findings highlight distinct processes reflecting resiliency: (a) Trusting in a higher power, and the importance of (b) living in the present, (c) activating resources, (d) creating community, and (e) doing for others. The author concludes this study with suggestions on how these findings may inform social work practice with older adults. PMID:22830937

  2. Making the Hurt Go Away: Psychological and Spiritual Healing for African American Women Survivors of Childhood Incest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Tracy L.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the psychological and spiritual healing for African American women survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Considers adult sexuality for these women. Includes implications for counselors and recommendations for their self-care. (Author/JDM)

  3. Gangsta Rap and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy, Talmadge C.

    2004-01-01

    Adult education instructors and administrators, who typically are not members of the hip-hop generation, have little or no background, sensitivity, or understanding of the influence and significance of black popular culture and music for young African American and white adult learners. (Contains 1 note.)

  4. I Know Who I Am, Do You?: Identity and Academic Achievement of Successful African American Male Adolescents in an Urban Pilot High School in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Brian L.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores racial-ethnic identity and academic achievement of five young African American men in 11th and 12th grade in an urban pilot high school. Data gathered through individual and group interviews and a questionnaire were analyzed to understand how academically successful African American male adolescents interpret their social and…

  5. Neighborhood Racial Composition, Racial Discrimination, and Depressive Symptoms in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Sharon F.; Evans, Michele K.; Zonderman, Alan B.

    2015-01-01

    While evidence indicates that experienced racial discrimination is associated with increased depressive symptoms for African Americans, there is little research investigating predictors of experienced racial discrimination. This paper examines neighborhood racial composition and sociodemographic factors as antecedents to experienced racial discrimination and resultant levels of depressive symptoms among African American adults. The sample included 505 socioeconomically-diverse African American adults from Baltimore, MD. Study data were obtained via self-report and geocoding of participant addresses based on 2010 census data. Study hypotheses were tested using multiple pathways within a longitudinal Structural Equation Model. Experienced racial discrimination was positively associated with age and sex such that older individuals and males experienced increased levels of racial discrimination. In addition, the percentage of White individuals residing in a neighborhood was positively associated with levels of experienced racial discrimination for African American neighborhood residents. Experienced racial discrimination was positively associated with later depressive symptoms. Neighborhood-level contextual factors such as neighborhood racial composition and individual differences in sociodemographic characteristics appear to play an important role in the experience of racial discrimination and the etiology of depression in African American adults. PMID:24969707

  6. Neighborhood racial composition, racial discrimination, and depressive symptoms in African Americans.

    PubMed

    English, Devin; Lambert, Sharon F; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2014-12-01

    While evidence indicates that experienced racial discrimination is associated with increased depressive symptoms for African Americans, there is little research investigating predictors of experienced racial discrimination. This paper examines neighborhood racial composition and sociodemographic factors as antecedents to experienced racial discrimination and resultant levels of depressive symptoms among African American adults. The sample included 505 socioeconomically-diverse African American adults from Baltimore, MD. Study data were obtained via self-report and geocoding of participant addresses based on 2010 census data. Study hypotheses were tested using multiple pathways within a longitudinal Structural Equation Model. Experienced racial discrimination was positively associated with age and sex such that older individuals and males experienced increased levels of racial discrimination. In addition, the percentage of White individuals residing in a neighborhood was positively associated with levels of experienced racial discrimination for African American neighborhood residents. Experienced racial discrimination was positively associated with later depressive symptoms. Neighborhood-level contextual factors such as neighborhood racial composition and individual differences in sociodemographic characteristics appear to play an important role in the experience of racial discrimination and the etiology of depression in African American adults. PMID:24969707

  7. Hyperinsulinemia and acanthosis nigricans in African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, C. A.; Gilkison, C. R.; Keenan, B. S.; Nagamani, M.

    1997-01-01

    Compared with the US white, non-Hispanic population, the African-American population has a nearly two-fold higher prevalence of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Obesity, which usually precedes NIDDM, is associated with the skin lesion acanthosis nigricans in African Americans. This study was undertaken to determine what the relationship of acanthosis nigricans was to hyperinsulinemia, a major risk factor for NIDDM. Eighty-nine African-American subjects with acanthosis nigricans and 25 others without the skin lesion were evaluated using oral glucose tolerance testing and responsiveness to insulin. Noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus was present in 19 of the subjects with acanthosis nigricans. The prevalence of NIDDM in this group increased with increasing age, reaching 50% among those in their 40s. Fasting plasma insulin concentration was in direct proportion to the severity of the acanthosis nigricans involvement of the neck. These data suggest that among African Americans, this skin lesion is a marker for hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. Furthermore, the presence of acanthosis nigricans identifies a subset with a much higher prevalence of NIDDM than is present in African Americans in the general population. PMID:9264219

  8. Keep It Up: development of a community-based health screening and HIV prevention strategy for reaching young African American men.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Lydia; Bonaparte, Beverly; Joseph, Heather; Agronick, Gail; Leow, Deborah McLean; Myint-U, Athi; Stueve, Ann

    2009-08-01

    This article addresses the challenge of developing HIV prevention interventions that not only prove to be efficacious but also are designed from the outset to overcome obstacles to reaching priority populations. We describe how community input has informed development of Keep It Up (KIU), a community health screening and behavioral prevention program for young Black men. KIU embeds HIV prevention in a broader health promotion campaign, with the goal of reducing stigma and reaching a population that bears a disproportionate burden of HIV/AIDS and other health problems-hypertension, high cholesterol, diabetes, asthma, and obesity. Information from community partners, expert advisers, and focus groups was collected at key junctures and incorporated into four core components: social marketing, a computerized behavioral learning module, biological testing for HIV and other conditions, and a personalized health profile and risk reduction plan. A pilot with 116 participants provided evidence that the KIU model of integrating HIV prevention with other health screening is acceptable and has the potential to reach Black men at risk for HIV as well as other chronic health conditions. PMID:19670966

  9. Cardiometabolic Risk among African-American Women: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Appel, Susan J.; Oster, Robert A.; Floyd, Natalie A.; Ovalle, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the associations of the Homeostatic Model of Assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-ir), acanthosis nigricans, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) with two of the commonly used definitions of the metabolic syndrome (Adult Treatment Panel III {ATP III} and International Diabetes Federation {IDF}) among reproductive age healthy free living African-American women. Methods A pilot study with a cross-sectional design examined 33 African-American women aged 20 to 46 (mean 31.24, +/- 7.25), for the presence of metabolic syndrome determined by ATP III and IDF criteria, insulin resistance (HOMA-ir and/or acanthosis nigricans), degree of inflammation (hs-CRP) and presence of dysfibrinolysis (PAI-1). Results HOMA-ir identified insulin resistance in 27 (81.8%) of the women, whereas the presence of acanthosis nigricans indicated that 16 (48 %) of these women manifested insulin resistance. Metabolic syndrome was found in 7 women (21.2 %) by ATP III or 9 (27.3 %) by IDF criteria. Bivariate correlations showed associations between HOMA-ir and waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), acanthosis nigricans, the ATP III and IDF definitions for metabolic syndrome. PAI-1 was significantly correlated with waist circumference, BMI, fasting glucose, HOMA-ir, and ATP III. Both HOMA-ir and PAI-1 were significantly and negatively correlated with HDL-C. hs-CRP was significantly correlated with BMI and 2-hour post glucose. Conclusion Both dysfibrinolysis (PAI-1 levels) and insulin resistance (HOMA-ir) when individually regressed on the ATP III definition of metabolic syndrome explained 32 % and 29% of the respective variance. The addition of HOMA-ir measurement may significantly improve early recognition of cardiometabolic risk among reproductive age African-American women who have not yet met the criteria for the ATP III or IDF definitions of the metabolic syndrome. Likewise, acanthosis nigricans is potentially a

  10. Trichomonas vaginalis, HIV, and African-Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Sorvillo, F.; Smith, L.; Kerndt, P.; Ash, L.

    2001-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis may be emerging as one of the most important cofactors in amplifying HIV transmission, particularly in African-American communities of the United States. In a person co-infected with HIV, the pathology induced by T. vaginalis infection can increase HIV shedding. Trichomonas infection may also act to expand the portal of entry for HIV in an HIV-negative person. Studies from Africa have suggested that T. vaginalis infection may increase the rate of HIV transmission by approximately twofold. Available data indicate that T. vaginalis is highly prevalent among African-Americans in major urban centers of the United States and is often the most common sexually transmitted infection in black women. Even if T. vaginalis increases the risk of HIV transmission by a small amount, this could translate into an important amplifying effect since Trichomonas is so common. Substantial HIV transmission may be attributable to T. vaginalis in African-American communities of the United States. PMID:11747718

  11. Social Patterning of Cumulative Biological Risk by Education and Income Among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Diez Roux, Ana V.; Gebreab, Samson Y.; Wyatt, Sharon B.; Dubbert, Patricia M.; Sarpong, Daniel F.; Sims, Mario; Taylor, Herman A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the social patterning of cumulative dysregulation of multiple systems, or allostatic load, among African Americans adults. Methods. We examined the cross-sectional associations of socioeconomic status (SES) with summary indices of allostatic load and neuroendocrine, metabolic, autonomic, and immune function components in 4048 Jackson Heart Study participants. Results. Lower education and income were associated with higher allostatic load scores in African American adults. Patterns were most consistent for the metabolic and immune dimensions, less consistent for the autonomic dimension, and absent for the neuroendocrine dimension among African American women. Associations of SES with the global allostatic load score and the metabolic and immune domains persisted after adjustment for behavioral factors and were stronger for income than for education. There was some evidence that the neuroendocrine dimension was inversely associated with SES after behavioral adjustment in men, but the immune and autonomic components did not show clear dose–response trends, and we observed no associations for the metabolic component. Conclusions. Findings support our hypothesis that allostatic load is socially patterned in African American women, but this pattern is less consistent in African American men. PMID:22594727

  12. Recruitment of a hidden population: African Americans with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Williams, Monnica T; Proetto, Dante; Casiano, Delane; Franklin, Martin E

    2012-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide, however for reasons that are poorly understood ethnic minority groups are not well represented in clinical research studies. Thus, although African Americans experience equivalent rates of OCD according to epidemiological surveys, the generalizability of findings from clinical trials remains unknown. Research designed to improve identification, assessment and treatment of OCD is an important public health priority. The purpose of this study is to report outreach methods used to recruit African American adults for participation in an OCD research study. A variety of methods were employed, including radio advertisements, public transportation advertising, community outreach, and online advertising. A total of 83 African American adult participants were recruited over a 9.5 month period at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, and given comprehensive psychiatric assessments. African Americans with OCD symptoms were reliably identified and assessed, for a total of 75 with lifetime OCD (4 past and 71 current diagnoses). There was variability in the success and cost effectiveness of study recruitment methods. Radio ads were the most expensive means of recruitment, newspaper ads accounted for the largest number of eligible participants, and no cost methods such as Craig's List and word of mouth were also effective. The authors conclude that, with focused efforts, there are many effective methods for recruiting African Americans with OCD. Guidelines for recruitment are discussed, with a focus on cultural considerations. PMID:21983626

  13. Use of complementary and alternative therapies by rural African Americans with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Jones, Randy A; Utz, Sharon; Wenzel, Jennifer; Steeves, Richard; Hinton, Ivora; Andrews, Dana; Murphy, Alison; Oliver, Norman

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes among non-Hispanic African American adults aged 20 years and older is 11.4%, compared to 8.4% non-Hispanic whites. Given the high rate of diabetes in this population, it is important to determine whether African Americans use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), and if so, what kind. Such information is important to healthcare professionals who prescribe therapies and make self-care recommendations to those with diabetes. The use of CAM by African Americans with diabetes has not been well studied, however, particularly among those living in rural areas. This descriptive study was conducted in 2 rural communities in Central Virginia to explore the use of CAM therapies and the role of religion and spirituality in dealing with diabetes among adult African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Sixty-eight participants attended 1 of 8 focus group sessions in various community settings and described their use of alternative therapies. According to these sessions, the most common alternative therapies used are prayer, diet-based therapies, and natural products. The participants' descriptions enhance our understanding of CAM use among rural African Americans with diabetes. PMID:17017753

  14. Recruitment of a Hidden Population: African Americans with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Monnica T.; Proetto, Dante; Casiano, Delane; Franklin, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide, however for reasons that are poorly understood ethnic minority groups are not well represented in clinical research studies. Thus, although African Americans experience equivalent rates of OCD according to epidemiological surveys, the generalizability of findings from clinical trials remains unknown. Research designed to improve identification, assessment and treatment of OCD is an important public health priority. The purpose of this study is to report outreach methods used to recruit African American adults for participation in an OCD research study. A variety of methods were employed, including radio advertisements, public transportation advertising, community outreach, and online advertising. A total of 83 African American adult participants were recruited over a 9.5 month period at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, and given comprehensive psychiatric assessments. African Americans with OCD symptoms were reliably identified and assessed, for a total of 75 with lifetime OCD (4 past and 71 current diagnoses). There was variability in the success and cost effectiveness of study recruitment methods. Radio ads were the most expensive means of recruitment, newspaper ads accounted for the largest number of eligible participants, and no cost methods such as Craig’s List and word of mouth were also effective. The authors conclude that, with focused efforts, there are many effective methods for recruiting African Americans with OCD. Guidelines for recruitment are discussed, with a focus on cultural considerations. PMID:21983626

  15. Discussing Cancer: Communication with African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Caito, Nikki; Hood, Sula; Thompson, Vetta L. Sanders

    2015-01-01

    Regular screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) facilitates earlier detection, lowers mortality, and may reduce incidence through detection and removal of pre-cancerous polyps. Optimizing health professional delivery of CRC screening information and recommendations can assist in reducing CRC disparity in the African American community. This paper presents qualitative data on African Americans’ attitudes about health professional CRC communications based on the analysis of focus groups (N=79). Using a social-ecological framework, colorectal cancer and professional communication themes are examined to offer four general and nine cancer specific theoretically based and culturally appropriate strategies for improving health professional cancer communication with African Americans. PMID:25050658

  16. Health parties for African American study recruitment.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Georgia Robins; York, Crystal; Madlensky, Lisa; Gibson, Kathi; Wasserman, Linda; Rosenthal, Eric; Barbier, Leslie; Newman, Vicky A; Tso, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    Innovative strategies are needed to increase minorities' research participation. Using existing social networks within the African American community, "home health parties" were tested as a way to recruit African American women to a breast cancer control study. Parties included social, educational, and recruitment components. All women attending health parties consented, completed a survey, and received the study's preliminary breast cancer risk assessment. There were no differences in rates of participation for subsequent study components between women recruited via parties versus other methods. Health parties are viable recruitment strategies, reduce barriers to participation, provide a supportive environment, and are relatively inexpensive. PMID:17020516

  17. What about African Americans and High Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? The prevalence of high blood pressure in African Americans is among the highest in ...

  18. A Six-Year Follow-Up Study of Social Network Changes among African-American, Caribbean, and U.S.-Born Caucasian Urban Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Francine; Magai, Carol; Jones, Samuel; Fiori, Katherine; Gillespie, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study explores dynamic changes in network size and composition by examining patterns of older adults' social network change over time, that is: types of movements; the reason for the loss of network members; and the relation of movement and composition in concert. This study is a 6-year follow up of changes in the social networks of U.S.-Born…

  19. Fragile health and fragile wealth: mortgage strain among African American homeowners.

    PubMed

    Keene, Danya E; Lynch, Julia F; Baker, Amy Castro

    2014-10-01

    Several recent studies identify illness and disability as contributors to mortgage strain, suggesting that the disproportionate burden of poor health that African Americans experience may be an important source of housing fragility in this population. In order to understand how poor health plays out in the lived experiences of African-American homeowners and contributes to mortgage strain, we present an analysis of 28 in-depth interviews conducted with middle and working-class African-American homeowners at risk of losing their homes. Our interviews show how racial inequalities in health, which result from an ongoing history of racial discrimination, intersect with other racially stratified sources of housing fragility to put homeowners at risk of foreclosure. Many participants in this study were long-term homeowners who experienced mortgage strain as result of a health-related event that triggered the collapse of a fragile household budget. Like many middle and working-class African Americans, participants experienced poor health and disability at relatively young ages. Additionally, they often lacked access to personal and public safety nets that could buffer the consequences of illness. Understanding how poor health contributes to mortgage strain among African-American homeowners provides important insight into the downstream consequences of health inequalities. Furthermore, understanding the processes through which illness can act as a financial shock has important policy implications. PMID:25112566

  20. Comparison of Substance Use Typologies as Predictors of Sexual Risk Outcomes in African American Adolescent Females.

    PubMed

    Swartzendruber, Andrea; Sales, Jessica M; Brown, Jennifer L; DiClemente, Ralph J; Rose, Eve S

    2016-01-01

    African American female adolescents have a disproportionate risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and other adverse sexual health outcomes. Both alcohol and marijuana use have been shown to predict sexual risk among young African American women. However, no studies have attempted to differentiate alcohol and marijuana typologies use as predictors of sexual risk outcomes exclusively among adolescents who use these substances. This study compared recent alcohol and/or marijuana use as predictors of sexual risk outcomes over 18 months among 182 African American female adolescents. African American females (14-20 years) completed interviews at baseline, 6-, 12-, and 18-months. At each assessment, pregnancy testing was conducted and self-collected vaginal swab specimens were assayed for Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae using DNA amplification. Logistic subject-specific random-intercept models compared sexual risk outcomes during follow-up among adolescents who reported recent use of alcohol only (AO), marijuana only (MO) or both substances (A + M) at the baseline assessment. Relative to baseline AO use, baseline MO use predicted condom non-use at last sex. Relative to AO use, A + M use predicted pregnancy. Relative to MO use, A + M use predicted pregnancy and acquisition of T. vaginalis and any STI. The results suggest that African American female adolescents who use A + M may represent a priority population for STI, HIV, and pregnancy prevention efforts. PMID:25929200

  1. African American Single Mothers Raising Sons: Implications for Family Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gantt, Ann L.; Greif, Geoffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Being raised by a single mother is one factor that has been suggested as contributing to the plight of African American males. Yet few studies have focused specifically on African American single mothers' experiences with raising sons. This qualitative study explored the following questions: (1) What are the experiences of African American single…

  2. Barriers to Hospice Use among African Americans: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Karla T.; Bickel-Swenson, Denise; Stephens, Nathan

    2008-01-01

    The present review was undertaken to explore recent evidence in the professional literature pertaining to use of hospice services by African Americans. The article addresses the research methods that have been used to study African American hospice use, obstacles to African American participation in hospice that have been identified, and…

  3. Exposure of African-American Youth to Alcohol Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The marketing of alcohol products in African-American communities has, on occasion, stirred national controversy and met with fierce resistance from African Americans and others. Despite occasional media and community spotlights on the marketing of alcohol products in the African-American community, there has been no systematic review of the…

  4. African American Educational Leadership in the School Superintendency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Eva C.

    2013-01-01

    African American educational leadership has long been part of American education and African American activism to resist oppression. However, the field of educational leadership has rarely included the contributions of African American leaders, particularly women leaders, into mainstream leadership theory and practices. This omission is difficult…

  5. Oral Cancer in African Americans: Addressing Health Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Virginia J.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Choi, Youjin; Tomar, Scott L.; Logan, Henrietta L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To explore factors underlying African Americans' perceptions of oral cancer and the oral cancer exam. Study findings were used to guide development of oral cancer messages designed to increase oral cancer exams among African Americans. Methods: Focus groups were conducted to understand African Americans' attitudes and expectations…

  6. African American Males in Counseling: Who's Pulling the Trigger Now?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethea-Whitfield, Patricia

    African American males face numerous challenges to their physical and psychological well-being. This project is a survey of the literature and trends relative to African American males from 1987 to the present. In reviewing the fifteen years since Parham and McDavis published their now famous article on African American men as an endangered…

  7. Seeing African Americans as Competent Parents: Implications for Family Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla

    2011-01-01

    One of the primary roles of parents is to guide and socialize children to make meaningful life choices. African American parents, in particular, have the additional tasks of preparing their children to thrive in an environment that has historically been hostile toward African Americans. Yet, many African American parents are often depicted as…

  8. Help-Seeking Attitudes among African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    So, Dominicus W.; Gilbert, Stefanie; Romero, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, African American students display a low-rate of seeking mental health treatment. Issues such as mistrust of White therapists, attitudes toward mental health problems, and African American spirituality affect their help-seeking behavior. The present study examined a sample of 134 African American students at a Historically Black…

  9. Persistence among African American Males in the Honors College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson Goins, Johnell Roxann

    2014-01-01

    Retaining African American students, specifically African American males, is an issue that plagues the American higher education system. Research shows that African American male students are the lowest represented group in the gifted studies programs (Ford, 2010). Lockie and Burke (1999); Chen and DeJardins (2010) and Bell (2010a) found that…

  10. Perceptions of Domestic Violence: A Dialogue with African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bent-Goodley, Tricia B.

    2004-01-01

    Although empirical research has accumulated over the past 20 years regarding African Americans and domestic violence, many questions remain about African American perceptions of domestic violence. This article explores African American women's perceptions about domestic violence through three focus groups held at a New York social services agency.…

  11. African American Acculturation and Black Racial Identity: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope-Davis, Donald B.; Liu, William M.; Ledesma-Jones, Shannon; Nevitt, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    Examines the relationship between acculturation and racial identity among African Americans. One hundred eighty-seven African American students completed the Black Racial Identity Attitude Scale and the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS). Acculturation was associated with three of the five AAAS subscales: Dissonance, Immersion, and…

  12. An Exploration of African American Students' Attitudes toward Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okwumabua, Theresa M.; Walker, Kristin M.; Hu, Xiangen; Watson, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The current work presents exploratory research findings concerning African American students' attitudes toward online learning. The Online Tutoring Attitudes Scale (OTAS; Graff, 2003) was administered to 124 African American students in a positive youth development program. Findings suggest that African American students' attitudes toward…

  13. Empowerment Groups for Urban African American Girls: A Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl C.

    2005-01-01

    Although the author wanted to read Bemak, Chung, and Siroskey-Sabdo's article in an objective sense, her response to their article is most likely influenced by her own experiences as an African American female and mother of an African American daughter. To her, the paramount issue facing African American females is the double and sometimes triple…

  14. Perceptions of Discrimination and Achievement in African American Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Stephanie Johnson

    This study explored the processes that lead to relatively lower academic performance among African American students. It has been suggested that African American students perceive that, because of discrimination, education is less useful as a tool for upward mobility for African Americans than it is for members of other ethnic groups. The nature…

  15. Gender Differences in African American Attitudes toward Gay Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battle, Juan; Lemelle, Anthony J., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Used data from the 1993 National Black Politics Study to examine the way gender worked in explaining African American attitudes toward gay men. Results indicated that African American females expressed more positive attitudes toward homosexual men than did African American males, and of the variables examined (including age, church attendance,…

  16. From Crisis to Empowerment: African American Women in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Marcie Ann

    2012-01-01

    Social challenges tear at the fabric of the African American family, revealing complexities that identify a de facto leader, the African American woman. She exists in a chasm of overt circumstances which heavily influences her successes. The purpose of this study is to identify factors that motivated seven female African American community college…

  17. Effective Coping Strategies Employed in African-American Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Novella Channell

    Living in a society that is quick to label and condemn, has been, and continues to be a source of pain for African-Americans. However, society's microscope has for sometime had a one dimensional lens, particularly when examining the coping styles of African-American male-female relationships within the African-American family. There exists a great…

  18. Representing African American Women in U.S. History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schocker, Jessica B.; Woyshner, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the dearth of African American women in high school U.S. history textbooks. The authors conducted a content analysis of the images in an African American history textbook and found that black women are underrepresented. Women are found in less than 15 percent of the images in the African American history text, while they…

  19. Cultural Meanings of Mothering Through the Eyes of African American Adolescent Mothers.

    PubMed

    Dole, Debora M; Shambley-Ebron, Donna

    2016-01-01

    The life-course perspective considers the effects of chronic, high levels of stress as contributing to the disparity in infant mortality between African Americans and all other groups. Many young mothers are mothering their children in isolation without benefit of the cultural safety net that once existed, further contributing to a state of chronic stress. This study explored the cultural meanings of mothering for African American adolescent mothers using Photovoice, a participatory research methodology. Results suggested a network consisting of extended kin and "other mothers" is integral in providing support and identifying cultural strengths used in coping and reducing effects of chronic stress. PMID:27149231

  20. HIV-related stigma among African-American youth in the Northeast and Southeast US.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Jelani C; Valois, Robert F; Diclemente, Ralph J; Fletcher, Faith; Carey, Michael P; Romer, Daniel; Vanable, Peter A; Farber, Naomi

    2014-06-01

    HIV-related stigma inhibits optimal HIV prevention and treatment among African-Americans. Regional differences in HIV/AIDS prevalence may be related to stigma among young African-Americans. Baseline data (N = 1,606) from an HIV prevention intervention were used to investigate regional differences in HIV-related stigma and knowledge among African-American adolescents in four midsized cities in the Northeastern and Southeastern US. Analyses indicated greater HIV-related stigma among adolescents from the Southeast relative to adolescents from the Northeast (F = 22.23; p < 0.0001). Linear regression indicated a negative relationship between HIV stigma and HIV knowledge (b = -0.65; p < 0.0001). Addressing HIV/AIDS in high prevalence locales should include efforts to reduce HIV-related stigma. PMID:24402690

  1. Choice and social exchange theory and the rewards of African American caregivers.

    PubMed

    Picot, S J

    1994-01-01

    Exploration of the perceived rewards of African American caregivers has received little attention, but is of acute importance because of their potential effects on symptoms of depression. In this non-experimental, cross-sectional study, the investigator used choice and social exchange theory as a framework for identifying potential rewards of African American caregivers of demented elders. Study findings indicated that African Americans perceived rewards which were internal or external in source and short-term or long-term in timing. With the exception of caregivers age and education, these rewards were little affected by sociodemographic characteristics of the caregiver or care recipient. Young, more educated caregivers tended to perceive fewer rewards than old, less educated caregivers. The implications of the findings for nursing practice care are discussed. PMID:9128531

  2. African American and Non-African American Patients’ and Families’ Decision Making About Renal Replacement Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Sheu, Johanna; Ephraim, Patti L.; Powe, Neil R.; Rabb, Hamid; Senga, Mikiko; Evans, Kira E.; Jaar, Bernard G.; Crews, Deidra C.; Greer, Raquel C.; Boulware, L. Ebony

    2014-01-01

    We conducted focus group meetings of African American and non-African American patients with end-stage renal disease (six groups) and their family members (six groups), stratified by race/ethnicity and treatment. We elicited differences in participants’ experiences with shared decision making about initiating renal replacement therapy (RRT; that is, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, or a kidney transplant). Patients were often very sick when initiating RRT, and had little, if any, time to make a decision about what type of RRT to initiate. They also lacked sufficient information about alternative treatment options prior to initiation. Family members played supportive roles and shared in decision making when possible. Reports were similar for African American and non-African American participants. Our findings suggest that a greater emphasis on the improved engagement of patients and their families in shared decision making about RRT initiation is needed for both ethnic/racial minorities and nonminorities. PMID:22645225

  3. A Program to Improve Emergent Literacy Skills among African American Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Verlyn M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this applied dissertation was to examine the effects of a preschool emergent literacy program on young African American children from a low socioeconomic background. The preschool is located in an urban setting in North Carolina. All students participating in this study were identified as at-risk for school failure. The behavior and…

  4. Till Death Do Us Part: Lived Experiences of HIV-Positive Married African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Lorece V.; Irving, Shalon M.; Hawkins, Anita S.

    2011-01-01

    HIV/AIDS disease continues to be an escalating health problem, particularly among women. However, African American women are among the leading demographic groups for HIV prevalence in the United States. The typical woman with HIV/AIDS is young, in her late twenties, economically challenged, and of childbearing age. Participants were recruited from…

  5. Beyond Passion: Maximizing on Lessons Learned to Better Serve African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phalen, Earl Martin

    2013-01-01

    A passion to ensure the educational and life success of all children, particularly young African American men, has propelled my work for all of my professional life. Although following one's passion can make for a fulfilling life, passion is not enough to create a successful and sustainable nonprofit organization. Like many leaders in the…

  6. Buffers of Racial Discrimination: Links with Depression among Rural African American Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Erica C.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2010-01-01

    The current study examines racial discrimination as a predictor of depression in a sample of 414 rural, low-income African American mothers of young children. The potential moderating role of optimism and church-based social support was also examined. Mothers completed questionnaires when their child was 24 months old. Hierarchical regression…

  7. Racial Respect and Racial Socialization as Protective Factors for African American Male Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeGruy, Joy; Kjellstrand, Jean M.; Briggs, Harold E.; Brennan, Eileen M.

    2012-01-01

    African American adolescents must negotiate the transition to adulthood in a society that makes the achievement of positive cultural identity and self-respect difficult. Frequently, young men turn to violence in an attempt to achieve respect in their communities. This article explores factors that predict the use of violence among African American…

  8. Dialect Awareness and Lexical Comprehension of Mainstream American English in African American English-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Jan; Gross, Megan; Chen, Jianshen; MacDonald, Maryellen C.; Kaplan, David; Brown, Megan; Seidenberg, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to examine the relationships among minority dialect use, language ability, and young African American English (AAE)-speaking children's understanding and awareness of Mainstream American English (MAE). Method: Eighty-three 4- to 8-year-old AAE-speaking children participated in 2 experimental tasks. One task…

  9. Hope, Healing, and Care: Pushing the Boundaries of Civic Engagement for African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginwright, Shawn

    2011-01-01

    Issues such as joblessness, violence, and substance abuse have threatened some forms of civic life and community well-being in African American urban neighborhoods. And for young people, a diminished capacity for hope is one of the most significant threats to civic engagement. Community organizations are responding to this crisis by creating…

  10. School Day Eating Habits of Inner-City, African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDuffie, Thomas E.; George, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    School administrators and food providers need to better understand what factors drive young consumers' food choices in order to keep them as customers and avoid a potential backlash from parents, the community, and public policymakers. This article reports the findings of a study on African American adolescents and food, specifically, their…

  11. Speaking up for African American English: Equity and Inclusion in Early Childhood Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beneke, Margaret; Cheatham, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    A large percentage of young children entering preschool are English speakers who speak a language variety that often differs from the English dialect expected by educators within early childhood programs. While African American English (AAE) is one of the most widely recognized English dialects in the United States, the use of AAE in schools and…

  12. Profiles of Racial Socialization among African American Parents: Correlates, Context, and Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Nettles, Saundra Murray; Lima, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Self report and observational data on racial socialization practices in a sample of 218 African American parents of young children were used to determine whether or not parents could be characterized in terms of their pattern of racial socialization practices. Parents fell into four groups: silence about race, emphasis on cultural socialization,…

  13. Talking about Corporal Punishment: Nine Low-Income African American Mothers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ispa, J.M.; Halgunseth, L.C.

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative interviews conducted over the course of 5 years with nine young low-income African American mothers were analyzed in order to gain understanding of their perspectives on corporal punishment. All used corporal punishment with their children. Results pertain to the vocabulary mothers used to describe corporal punishment (pop, tap, whup,…

  14. Demographics of African-American vs. European-Heritage Mothers of Newborns with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodapp, Robert M.; Urbano, Richard C.

    2008-01-01

    Although important for public health policy, ethnic/racial disparities have rarely been examined among families of young children with Down syndrome. This study compared 144 African-American mothers with 726 European-heritage mothers of newborns with Down syndrome using official birth records in one American state from 1990 through 2002; outcome…

  15. The Right (Write) Start: African American Language and the Discourse of Sounding Right

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Anne Haas; Smitherman, Geneva

    2009-01-01

    Background: Both academic research and educational policy have focused on the diverse language resources of young schoolchildren. African American Language (AAL) in particular has a rich history of scholarship that both documents its historical evolution and sociolinguistic complexity and reveals the persistent lack of knowledge about AAL in our…

  16. Profiling the African American Student Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grier-Reed, Tabitha; Ehlert, John; Dade, Shari

    2011-01-01

    The African American Student Network (AFAM) originated at a large Predominantly White Institution (PWI) in the Midwest. Including a sample of 163 network participants, the current paper profiles the academic performance of students in the network over its first 4 years. Findings indicate that although participants were similar to the average…

  17. African Americans in Television: An Afrocentric Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tait, Alice A.; Perry, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    Proposes that, historically and contemporarily, African Americans were and are severely underrepresented in the Eurocentric press, portrayed stereotypically, depicted in low-status occupational roles, and denied news or public affairs programs to adequately serve their informational needs. Theories on mass media's impact on society and individuals…

  18. Legacy of a Pioneer African American Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cazers, Gunars; Curtner-Smith, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to reconstruct the historical and legendary contribution of one exemplary African American physical education teacher educator who lived and worked in the Deep South prior to and immediately following the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education court case. The following questions guided data collection and analysis: To what…

  19. Violent Behaviors among African-American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Darhyl

    1995-01-01

    Explores the development of behaviors by using Erik Erikson's psychosocial developmental theory, with emphasis on adolescents. Examines factors, such as identity versus identity diffusion, that may be contributing to increasing acts of violence by African American adolescents. Other factors are examined that may contribute to increased violence.…

  20. Prevalence of Stuttering in African American Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Adele; Yairi, Ehud; Duff, Melissa C.; Zhang, Jie

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors sought to determine the prevalence of stuttering in African American (AA) 2- to 5-year-olds as compared with same-age European Americans (EAs). Method: A total of 3,164 children participated: 2,223 AAs and 941 EAs. Data were collected using a 3-pronged approach that included investigators' individual…

  1. Careers of African Americans in Academic Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fikes, Robert Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Though traditionally the field of academic astronomy has belonged almost exclusively to whites, today several black scholars are beginning to make their mark in this scientific discipline. Profiles a group of contemporary African American scholars who are astronomers and astrophysicists, noting that there are at least four black graduate students…

  2. African American Biographies: A Collection Development Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Donna

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the lack of African American biographies for elementary school libraries and reports the results of a study that surveyed publishers from the Children's Book Council. Examines book reviews, discusses the number of sports figures included, and considers problems with a lack of appropriate materials to support the curriculum. (LRW)

  3. Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans

    Cancer.gov

    The EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans is a free comprehensive multimedia curricula for health professionals caring for persons with cancer and their families.

  4. Promotive Parenting Practices among African American Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among African American children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted. Multiple…

  5. GI Bill Expands Access for African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Reginald

    1994-01-01

    The GI Bill is seen as the most revolutionary and radically empowering federal legislation to affect American higher education in the 20th century. The bill gave African American veterans more access to higher education than ever before, at government expense, and helped improve the quality of education at black colleges. (MSE)

  6. Educational Resilience in African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Michael; Swanson, Dena Phillips

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine factors within the school context that facilitates educational resilience among African American high school students. The authors expected academic self-esteem to be positively associated with future expectations (academic and general). They expected perceptions of school-based social support to have…

  7. Language and the African American Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lisa J.

    2011-01-01

    How do children acquire African American English? How do they develop the specific language patterns of their communities? Drawing on spontaneous speech samples and data from structured elicitation tasks, this book explains the developmental trends in the children's language. It examines topics such as the development of tense/aspect marking,…

  8. 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex, the planning committee for the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon gather in the lobby. At the far left is Mack McKinney, chief, Programs Resources Management, who was chairperson for the event.

  9. 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Mack McKinney (left), chief, Programs Resources Management, and Delores Abraham (right), with the Astronaut office, flank one of the posters decorating the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex for the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon. McKinney is chairperson for the event.

  10. 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex, Dr. Julian M. Earls (left), deputy director for Operations, Glenn Research Center, receives a plaque from astronaut Joan Higginbotham (right) during the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon. Dr. Earls was guest speaker at the luncheon.

  11. African American Women Counselors, Wellness, and Spirituality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Debora; Bryant, Rhonda M.

    2011-01-01

    Given their tremendous professional responsibilities, professional counselors face daunting challenges to remaining healthy and avoiding role stress and overload. This article explores the intersection of race, gender, wellness, and spirituality in the self-care of African American women counselors. The authors give particular attention to…

  12. African American English: A Linguistic Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lisa J.

    This introduction to African American English (AAE) looks at the grammar as a whole, describing patterns in sentence structure, sound system, word formation, and word use in AAE. The book uses linguistic description and data from conversation to explain that AAE is not a compilation of random deviations from mainstream English but rather a…

  13. Reconceptualization of African American Self-Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braithwaite, Harold, Jr.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Focuses on how African American students define self-concept, and whether there is a specific black self-concept. Questionnaires completed by 60 undergraduates at a historically black college provide insight into student self-esteem and support the existence of a specific black self-concept. (SLD)

  14. African American's Perceptions of Psychotherapy and Psychotherapists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Vetta L. Sanders; Akbar, Maysa D.; Bazile, Anita

    The attitudes and beliefs about utilization of mental health services of 201 African Americans, 18 years and older, are explored. One hundred and thirty-four females and 66 males participated in mixed sex focus groups conducted in an urban, Midwestern city. Discussion probes addressed participant perceptions of psychotherapists and psychotherapy,…

  15. African American Homeschooling Practices: Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazama, Ama

    2016-01-01

    Despite a significant increase in scholarly interest for homeschooling, some of its most critical aspects, such as instructional daily practices, remain grossly understudied. This essay thus seeks to fill that void by presenting empirical evidence regarding the homeschooling practices of a specific group, African Americans. Most specifically, the…

  16. Colorectal Cancer in African Americans: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Renee; White, Pascale; Nieto, Jose; Vieira, Dorice; Francois, Fritz; Hamilton, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This review is an update to the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) Committee on Minority Affairs and Cultural Diversity's paper on colorectal cancer (CRC) in African Americans published in 2005. Over the past 10 years, the incidence and mortality rates of CRC in the United States has steadily declined. However, reductions have been strikingly much slower among African Americans who continue to have the highest rate of mortality and lowest survival when compared with all other racial groups. The reasons for the health disparities are multifactorial and encompass physician and patient barriers. Patient factors that contribute to disparities include poor knowledge of benefits of CRC screening, limited access to health care, insurance status along with fear and anxiety. Physician factors include lack of knowledge of screening guidelines along with disparate recommendations for screening. Earlier screening has been recommended as an effective strategy to decrease observed disparities; currently the ACG and American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopists recommend CRC screening in African Americans to begin at age 45. Despite the decline in CRC deaths in all racial and ethnic groups, there still exists a significant burden of CRC in African Americans, thus other strategies including educational outreach for health care providers and patients and the utilization of patient navigation systems emphasizing the importance of screening are necessary. These strategies have been piloted in both local communities and Statewide resulting in notable significant decreases in observed disparities. PMID:27467183

  17. African American Students' Attitudes toward Entrepreneurship Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ede, Fred O.; Panigrahi, Bhagaban; Calcich, Stephen E.

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 171 African-American students found that 72% came from nonentrepreneurial family backgrounds; only 24.5% intended to start their own businesses, there were no gender differences in entrepreneurship attitudes, and seniors and those from entrepreneurial backgrounds were more favorable toward entrepreneurship. (SK)

  18. Colorectal Cancer in African Americans: An Update.

    PubMed

    Williams, Renee; White, Pascale; Nieto, Jose; Vieira, Dorice; Francois, Fritz; Hamilton, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This review is an update to the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) Committee on Minority Affairs and Cultural Diversity's paper on colorectal cancer (CRC) in African Americans published in 2005. Over the past 10 years, the incidence and mortality rates of CRC in the United States has steadily declined. However, reductions have been strikingly much slower among African Americans who continue to have the highest rate of mortality and lowest survival when compared with all other racial groups. The reasons for the health disparities are multifactorial and encompass physician and patient barriers. Patient factors that contribute to disparities include poor knowledge of benefits of CRC screening, limited access to health care, insurance status along with fear and anxiety. Physician factors include lack of knowledge of screening guidelines along with disparate recommendations for screening. Earlier screening has been recommended as an effective strategy to decrease observed disparities; currently the ACG and American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopists recommend CRC screening in African Americans to begin at age 45. Despite the decline in CRC deaths in all racial and ethnic groups, there still exists a significant burden of CRC in African Americans, thus other strategies including educational outreach for health care providers and patients and the utilization of patient navigation systems emphasizing the importance of screening are necessary. These strategies have been piloted in both local communities and Statewide resulting in notable significant decreases in observed disparities. PMID:27467183

  19. The Persistence of African American College Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Tyson J.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the family dynamics of persistent African American college men. These students were typical Black males, not those pre-categorized as high-achieving or unprepared for college. The stories of participants revealed their strength, ambition, and intentions to successfully gain a baccalaureate degree. In general Black males are…

  20. African American College Women's Suicide Buffers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion, Michelle S.; Range, Lillian M.

    2003-01-01

    To examine the relationships buffers may have with suicide ideation, 300 African American female college students completed measures of suicide ideation and buffers. Three variables accounted for a significant and unique portion of the variance in suicide ideation: family support, a view that suicide is unacceptable, and a collaborative religious…

  1. Neighborhood Satisfaction and Colorectal Cancer Screening in a Community Sample of African Americans.

    PubMed

    Halbert, Chanita Hughes; Melvin, Cathy; Briggs, Vanessa; Delmoor, Ernestine; Rice, LaShanta J; Lynch, Cheryl; Jefferson, Melanie; Johnson, Jerry C

    2016-02-01

    Social determinants are important to cancer screening among African Americans. To evaluate the association between social determinants (e.g., psychological characteristics, perceived social environment, cultural beliefs such as present temporal orientation) and colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African Americans. African American adults (n = 262) ages 50-75 completed a telephone interview. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors having significant independent associations with CRC screening. Only 57% of respondents reported having CRC screening. The likelihood of screening increased with greater neighborhood satisfaction (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.90, p = 0.04), older age (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.24, 2.48, p = 0.002), greater self-efficacy (OR = 2.73, 95% CI = 1.40, 5.35, p = 0.003), and health care provider communication (OR = 10.78, 95% CI = 4.85, 29.94, p = 0.0001). Community resources are important precursors to CRC screening and outcomes among African Americans. In addition to addressing psychological factors and patient-provider communication, efforts to ensure the availability of quality health care facilities that provide CRC screening in the neighborhoods where African Americans live are needed. PMID:26184107

  2. Neighborhood Satisfaction and Colorectal Cancer Screening in a Community Sample of African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Halbert, Chanita Hughes; Melvin, Cathy; Briggs, Vanessa; Delmoor, Ernestine; Rice, LaShanta J.; Lynch, Cheryl; Jefferson, Melanie; Johnson, Jerry C.

    2016-01-01

    Social determinants are important to cancer screening among African Americans. To evaluate the association between social determinants (e.g., psychological characteristics, perceived social environment, cultural beliefs such as present temporal orientation) and colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African Americans. African American adults (n = 262) ages 50–75 completed a telephone interview. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors having significant independent associations with CRC screening. Only 57 % of respondents reported having CRC screening. The likelihood of screening increased with greater neighborhood satisfaction (OR = 1.38, 95 % CI = 1.01, 1.90, p = 0.04), older age (OR = 1.75, 95 % CI = 1.24, 2.48, p = 0.002), greater self-efficacy (OR = 2.73, 95 % CI = 1.40, 5.35, p = 0.003), and health care provider communication (OR = 10.78, 95 % CI = 4.85, 29.94, p = 0.0001). Community resources are important precursors to CRC screening and outcomes among African Americans. In addition to addressing psychological factors and patient– provider communication, efforts to ensure the availability of quality health care facilities that provide CRC screening in the neighborhoods where African Americans live are needed. PMID:26184107

  3. Neighborhood Characteristics, Adherence to Walking, and Depressive Symptoms in Midlife African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Zenk, Shannon; Wang, Edward; Oh, April; McDevitt, Judith; Block, Dick; McNeil, Sue; Ju, SuKyung

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background African American women have more symptoms of depressed mood than white women. Adverse neighborhood conditions may contribute to these symptoms. Although reductions in depressive symptoms with physical activity have been demonstrated in white adults, little research has examined the mental health benefits of physical activity in African American women. Further, it is unknown whether physical activity can offset the effects of living in disadvantaged neighborhoods on depressive symptoms. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among neighborhood characteristics, adherence to a physical activity intervention, and change over time in depressive symptoms in midlife African American women. Methods Two hundred seventy-eight women participated in a home-based, 24-week moderate-intensity walking intervention. Either a minimal treatment (MT) or enhanced treatment (ET) version of the intervention was randomly assigned to one of the two community health centers. Walking adherence was measured as the percentage of prescribed walks completed. Objective and perceived measures of neighborhood deterioration and crime were included. Results Adjusting for demographics, body mass index (BMI), and depressive symptoms at baseline, walking adherence and objective neighborhood deterioration were associated with significantly lower depressive symptoms, whereas perceived neighborhood deterioration was associated with significantly higher depressive symptoms at 24 weeks. Conclusions Adherence to walking as well as aspects of the environment may influence depressive symptoms in African American women. In addition to supporting active lifestyles, improving neighborhood conditions may also promote mental health among African American women. PMID:19630546

  4. A Call to Action to Raise Achievement for African American Students. Student Achievement Policy Brief #1: African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    One out of every six public school students in the U.S. is African American. The achievement of African American students as a group will have a significant impact on the nation's economic strength and social well-being. This brief looks at the performance of African American students on state reading and mathematics tests and considers the policy…

  5. Predicting Non-African American Lesbian and Heterosexual Preadoptive Couples' Openness to Adopting an African American Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.

    2009-01-01

    Despite increases in transracial adoption, African American children remain the least likely to be adopted. No research has examined the factors that predict prospective adopters' willingness to adopt an African American child. This study used multilevel modeling to examine predictors of willingness to adopt an African American child in a sample…

  6. "Brothers Gonna Work It Out:" Understanding the Pedagogic Performance of African American Male Teachers Working with African American Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony L.

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from ethnographic data, this paper explores how African American male teachers working with African American male students performed their pedagogy. This paper highlights how teachers' understanding of African American males social and educational needs shaped their pedagogical performance. Interestingly however, teachers' performance was…

  7. An African-American family with dystonia.

    PubMed

    Puschmann, Andreas; Xiao, Jianfeng; Bastian, Robert W; Searcy, Jill A; LeDoux, Mark S; Wszolek, Zbigniew K

    2011-08-01

    The genetic cause of late-onset focal and segmental dystonia remains unknown in most individuals. Recently, mutations in Thanatos-associated protein domain containing, apoptosis associated protein 1 (THAP1) have been described in DYT6 dystonia and associated with some cases of familial and sporadic late-onset dystonia in Caucasians. We are not aware of any previous descriptions of familial dystonia in African-Americans or reports of THAP1 mutations in African-Americans. Herein, we characterize an African-American (AA) kindred with late-onset primary dystonia, clinically and genetically. The clinical phenotype included cervical, laryngeal and hand-forearm dystonia. Symptoms were severe and disabling for several family members, whereas others only displayed mild signs. There were no accompanying motor or cognitive signs. In this kindred, age of onset ranged from 45 to 50 years and onset was frequently sudden, with symptoms developing within weeks or months. DYT1 was excluded as the cause of dystonia in this kindred. The entire genomic region of THAP1, including non-coding regions, was sequenced. We identified 13 sequence variants in THAP1, although none co-segregated with dystonia. A novel THAP1 variant (c.-237-3G>T/A) was found in 3/84 AA dystonia patient alleles and 3/212 AA control alleles, but not in 5870 Caucasian alleles. In summary, although previously unreported, familial primary dystonia does occur in African-Americans. Genetic analysis of the entire genomic region of THAP1 revealed a novel variant that was specific for African-Americans. Therefore, genetic testing for dystonia and future studies of candidate genes must take genetic background into consideration. PMID:21601506

  8. An African-American Family with Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Puschmann, Andreas; Xiao, Jianfeng; Bastian, Robert W.; Searcy, Jill A.; LeDoux, Mark S.; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.

    2011-01-01

    The genetic cause of late-onset focal and segmental dystonia remains unknown in most individuals. Recently, mutations in Thanatos-associated protein domain containing, apoptosis associated protein 1 (THAP1) have been described in DYT6 dystonia and associated with some cases of familial and sporadic late-onset dystonia in Caucasians. We are not aware of any previous descriptions of familial dystonia in African Americans or reports of THAP1 mutations in African Americans. Herein, we characterize an African-American (AA) kindred with late-onset primary dystonia, clinically and genetically. The clinical phenotype included cervical, laryngeal and hand-forearm dystonia. Symptoms were severe and disabling for several family members, whereas others only displayed mild signs. There were no accompanying motor or cognitive signs. In this kindred, age of onset ranged from 45 to 50 years and onset was frequently sudden, with symptoms developing within weeks or months. DYT1 was excluded as the cause of dystonia in this kindred. The entire genomic region of THAP1, including non-coding regions, was sequenced. We identified 13 sequence variants in THAP1, although none co-segregated with dystonia. A novel THAP1 variant (c.-237-3G>T/A) was found in 3/84 AA dystonia patient alleles and 3/212 AA control alleles, but not in 5,870 Caucasian alleles. In summary, although previously unreported, familial primary dystonia does occur in African Americans. Genetic analysis of the entire genomic region of THAP1 revealed a novel variant that was specific for African Americans. Therefore, genetic testing for dystonia and future studies of candidate genes must take genetic background into consideration. PMID:21601506

  9. Comparing the Experiential and Psychosocial Dimensions of Chronic Pain in African Americans and Caucasians: Findings from a National Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Ruehlman, Linda S.; Karoly, Paul; Newton, Craig

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To ascertain whether non-Hispanic African American and Caucasian chronic pain sufferers differ or converge in their self-reports of pain experience and pain adjustment. Research Design A telephone survey of U.S. English-speaking adults selected via random-digit dialing procedures and constrained to locate persons with chronic pain within selected gender by age groupings. Subjects A national sample of 2,407 participants contained a total of 214 non-Hispanic African Americans. A sample of 214 non-Hispanic Caucasians was randomly selected from the larger set of 1,935 Caucasian participants to serve as a comparison group for the present study. Measures Participants provided responses to interviewer questions that assessed pain experience (severity, interference, and emotional burden) and psychosocial outcomes (coping, attitudes and beliefs, catastrophizing, social support and hindrance, pain’s interference with daily life activities, treatment status, and medication taking). Results Although African American and Caucasian adults with chronic pain did not differ significantly in pain severity, interference, emotional burden, or current treatment status, multivariate analyses revealed differences in several domains of psychosocial functioning. Compared to Caucasians, African Americans reported greater pain-related interference with daily living, deficiencies in coping, and counterproductive attitudes and beliefs. African Americans also reported greater impatience and insensitivity from the most important person in their lives. Conclusions Psychosocial dimensions of chronic pain differed between community-residing African American and Caucasian adults surveyed as part of a national sample. PMID:15669950

  10. Psychometric evaluations of the efficacy expectations and Outcome Expectations for Exercise Scales in African American women.

    PubMed

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Gary, Faye

    2014-01-01

    This secondary analysis tested the reliability and validity of the Self-Efficacy for Exercise (SEE) and the Outcome Expectations for Exercise (OEE) scales in 126 community dwelling, middle aged African American women. Social Cognitive Theory postulates self-efficacy is behavior age, gender and culture specific. Therefore, it is important to determine ifself-efficacy scales developed and tested in older Caucasian female adults are reliable and valid in middle aged, minority women. Cronbach's alpha and construct validity using hypothesis testing and confirmatory factor analysis supported the reliability and validity of the SEE and OEE scales in community dwelling, middle aged African American women. PMID:25612395

  11. Social support, psychological vulnerability, and HIV risk among African American men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Lena D.; Chambers, Christopher S.; Operario, Don

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has suggested a need to understand the social-psychological factors contributing to HIV risk among African American men who have sex with men (MSM). We conducted individual in-depth interviews with 34 adult African American MSM to examine their personal experiences about: (i) sources of social support, (ii) psychological responses to the presence or absence of social support, and (iii) influences of social support on sexual behaviors. The majority of participants described limited positive encouragement and lack of emotional support from family, as well as few meaningful personal relationships. Feelings of isolation and mistrust about personal relationships led many participants to avoid emotional intimacy and seek physical intimacy through sexual encounters. Findings highlight a need for multi-level interventions that enhance social support networks and address the social-psychological, emotional, and interpersonal factors that contribute to HIV risk among African American MSM. PMID:26588945

  12. Social support, psychological vulnerability, and HIV risk among African American men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Lena D; van den Berg, Jacob J; Chambers, Christopher S; Operario, Don

    2016-05-01

    Previous research has suggested a need to understand the social-psychological factors contributing to HIV risk among African American men who have sex with men (MSM). We conducted individual in-depth interviews with 34 adult African American MSM to examine their personal experiences about: (i) sources of social support, (ii) psychological responses to the presence or absence of social support and (iii) influences of social support on sexual behaviours. The majority of participants described limited positive encouragement and lack of emotional support from family, as well as few meaningful personal relationships. Feelings of isolation and mistrust about personal relationships led many participants to avoid emotional intimacy and seek physical intimacy through sexual encounters. Findings highlight a need for multilevel interventions that enhance social support networks and address the social-psychological, emotional and interpersonal factors that contribute to HIV risk among African American MSM. PMID:26588945

  13. Social class and heart disease mortality among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Elizabeth; Williams, Carol R; Moore, Latetia; Chen, Fangfei

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine variation in heart disease death rates by the social class of decedents. The term, "social class" refers to a complex set of phenomena such as control over economic resources, social status, and power relative to others in society. The target population for this study was African-American adults aged 35-74 years old who resided in the United States during the years 1996-1997. As a proxy for social class, we examined 5 levels of educational attainment: 0-8 years of school completed (Social Class I), 9-11 years of school completed (Social Class II), high school graduate/12 years of school completed (Social Class III), some college completed (Social Class IV), and college degree completed (Social Class V). Older age, male gender, and lower social class were all independently associated with higher heart disease death rates. For all ages, more disadvantaged social classes had a higher risk of heart disease mortality. The highest relative risks were found for Social Classes I and II among the younger age groups. Many of the "prerequisites" for the "heart healthy lifestyle" are predicated on the benefits of a privileged social class position. For African Americans, there are the additional stressors of segregation, exclusion, and discrimination to overcome, as well as the cumulative physiological toll of lifetime resistance to various forms of racism. For many African Americans in disadvantaged social class positions, the obstacles to reducing the risk for heart disease are very difficult to overcome. PMID:12477160

  14. Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus-type 2 in African-American college women.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, L. M.; Bernstein, D. I.; Rosenthal, S. L.; Stanberry, L. R.

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between sexual behaviors and prevalence of herpes simplex virus-type 2 (HSV-2) among African-American college women. Subjects (n = 138) were recruited randomly from a state university to participate in a study regarding sexual attitudes and behaviors and to have their blood drawn for type-specific HSV seroprevalence. Sera were analyzed for 96 college women with a mean age of 21 years. Of the 96 women, 29 (30%) were HSV-2 seropositive. The results of this study revealed that a history of sexually transmitted disease was predictive of HSV-2 infection. Number of lifetime partners, however, was not related to HSV-2 seropositivity. Four (31%) of the 13 women who reported only one lifetime partner were seropositive. These findings indicate that for young African-American college women, the risk of being infected with HSV-2 is high even with only one lifetime partner. Behavioral strategies focused on decreasing the number of sexual partners are not likely to be sufficient in preventing the spread of HSV-2 infection among young African-American women. The development and use of alternative approaches to prevent the spread of HSV-2 among young African Americans should be considered. PMID:10333670

  15. Parenting, Socioeconomic Status Risk, and Later Young Adult Health: Exploration of Opposing Indirect Effects via DNA Methylation.

    PubMed

    Beach, Steven R H; Lei, Man-Kit; Brody, Gene H; Kim, Sangjin; Barton, Allen W; Dogan, Meesha V; Philibert, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    A sample of 398 African American youth, residing in rural counties with high poverty and unemployment, were followed from ages 11 to 19. Protective parenting was associated with better health, whereas elevated socioeconomic status (SES) risk was associated with poorer health at age 19. Genome-wide epigenetic variation assessed in young adulthood (age 19), was associated with both SES risk and protective parenting. Three categories of genes were identified whose methylation was associated with parenting, SES risk, and young adult health. Methylation was a significant mediator of the impact of parenting and SES risk on young adult health. Variation in mononuclear white blood cell types was also examined and controlled, showing that it did not account for observed effects of parenting and SES risk on health. PMID:26822447

  16. Lessons from the Workplace: Writing and Oral Communication in Three African American Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Constance

    A study examined the ways in which members of low-income Southern African-American families deal with writing in their everyday lives. Three families headed by single parents participated in the study. The researcher resided with each family for 2 months, following the adults to their workplaces, sharing chores and leisure activities, and…

  17. Predictors of Coparenting Relationship Quality in African American Single Mother Families: An Ecological Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterrett, Emma; Jones, Deborah J.; Forehand, Rex; Garai, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Nonmarital coparents, or adults who assist mothers with childrearing, play a significant role in the lives of African American single mothers and their children. Yet relatively little research has examined correlates of the quality of the coparenting relationship in these families. Using a broad ecological framework, the current study examined…

  18. A Review of Childrearing in African American Single Mother Families: The Relevance of a Coparenting Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Deborah J.; Zalot, Alecia A.; Foster, Sarah E.; Sterrett, Emma; Chester, Charlene

    2007-01-01

    Clinical research on African American single mother families has focused largely on mother-child dyads, with relatively less empirical attention to the roles of other adults or family members who often assist with childrearing. This narrow definition of "family" fails to take into account the extended family networks which often provide support…

  19. African American Career Aspirations: Examining the Relative Influence of Internalized Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Danice L.; Segrist, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relative influence of aspects of internalized racism on the career aspirations of a sample of African American adults. Participants (N = 315), ranging in age from 18 to 62 years, completed measures of internalized racism and career aspirations online. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted to…

  20. Marriage Expectations among African American Couples in Early Adulthood: A Dyadic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Ashley B.; Simons, Ronald L.

    2012-01-01

    Using Family and Community Health Study data consisting of 168 unmarried, primarily African American couples, the current study sought to understand the dyadic interplay among school, work, and partner-specific marriage expectations in early adulthood. Drawing on the economic prospects, adult transitions, and work-family literatures, the authors…