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Sample records for afs ultrasonic examinations

  1. Ultrasonic Examination of Double-Shell Tank 241-AW-105 Examination Completed April 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Pardini, Allan F.; Weier, Dennis R.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Hathaway, John E.

    2009-05-31

    AREVA Federal Services LLC (AFS), under a contract from Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), has performed an ultrasonic examination of selected portions of Double-Shell Tank 241-AW-105. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report(s) that describes the results of the AFS ultrasonic examinations.

  2. Ultrasonic Examination of Double-Shell Tank 241-AW-101 Examination Completed February 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Pardini, Allan F.; Weier, Dennis R.; Anderson, Kevin K.

    2009-03-18

    AREVA Federal Services LLC (AFS), under a contract from Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), has performed an ultrasonic examination of selected portions of Double-Shell Tank 241-AW-101. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report(s) that describes the results of the AFS ultrasonic examinations.

  3. Ultrasonic Examination of Double-Shell Tank 241-AW-106 Examination Completed July 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Pardini, Allan F.; Weier, Dennis R.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Hathaway, John E.

    2009-08-28

    AREVA Federal Services LLC (AFS), under a contract from Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), has performed an ultrasonic examination of selected portions of Double-Shell Tank 241-AW-106. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report(s) that describes the results of the AFS ultrasonic examinations.

  4. Ultrasonic Examination of Double-Shell Tank 241-AN-102 Examination Completed July 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Pardini, Allan F.; Weier, Dennis R.; Anderson, Kevin K.

    2008-08-28

    AREVA Federal Services LLC (AFS), under a contract from CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CH2M Hill), has performed an ultrasonic examination of selected portions of Double-Shell Tank 241-AN-102. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report(s) that describes the results of the AFS ultrasonic examinations.

  5. Ultrasonic Examination of Double-Shell Tank 241-AP-107 Examination Completed February 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Pardini, Allan F.; Weier, Dennis R.; Anderson, Kevin K.

    2008-09-29

    AREVA Federal Services LLC (AFS), under a contract from CH2M HILL Hanford Group (CH2M HILL), has performed an ultrasonic examination of selected portions of Double-Shell Tank 241-AP-107. The purpose of this examination was to provide information that could be used to evaluate the integrity of the wall of the primary tank. The requirements for the ultrasonic examination of Tank 241-AP-107 were to detect, characterize (identify, size, and locate), and record measurements made of any wall thinning, pitting, or cracks that might be present in the wall of the primary tank. Any measurements that exceed the requirements set forth in the Engineering Task Plan (ETP), RPP-Plan-34301 (Castleberry 2007) and summarized on page 1 of this document, are to be reported to CH2M HILL and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for further evaluation. Under the contract with CH2M HILL, all data is to be recorded on electronic media and paper copies of all measurements are provided to PNNL for third-party evaluation. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report(s) that describes the results of the AFS ultrasonic examinations.

  6. Ultrasonic Examination of Double-Shell Tank 214-AN-101

    SciTech Connect

    Pardini, Allan F.; Posakony, Gerald J.

    2005-11-01

    COEGMA Engineering Corporation (COGEMA) under a contract from CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CH2M Hill) has performed an ultrasonic examination of selected portions of Double-Shell Tank 241-AN-101. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report(s) that describes the results of the COGEMs ultrasonic examinations.

  7. Ultrasonic Examination of Double-Shell Tank 241-AY-102. Examination Completed January 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Pardini, Allan F.; Weier, Dennis R.

    2007-05-01

    AREVA NC Inc. (AREVA), under a contract from CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CH2M Hill), has performed an ultrasonic examination of selected portions of Double-Shell Tank 241-AY-102. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report(s) that describes the results of the AREVA ultrasonic examinations.

  8. Ultrasonic Examination of Double-Shell Tank 241-AP-107 Examination Completed February 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Pardini, Allan F.; Weier, Dennis R.; Anderson, Kevin K.

    2008-04-28

    AREVA NC Inc. (AREVA), under a contract from CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CH2M Hill), has performed an ultrasonic examination of selected portions of Double-Shell Tank 241-AP-107. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report(s) that describes the results of the AREVA ultrasonic examinations.

  9. Ultrasonic Examination of Double-Shell Tank 241-AY-101. Examination Completed March 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Pardini, Allan F.; Weier, Dennis R.

    2007-06-01

    AREVA NC Inc. (AREVA), under a contract from CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CH2M Hill), has performed an ultrasonic examination of selected portions of Double-Shell Tank 241-AY-101. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report(s) that describes the results of the AREVA ultrasonic examinations.

  10. Ultrasonic Examination of Double-Shell Tank 241-AN-103. Examination Completed October 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Pardini, Allan F.; Posakony, Gerald J.

    2006-01-01

    COGEMA Engineering Corporation (COGEMA), under a contract from CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CH2M Hill), has performed an ultrasonic examination of selected portions of Double-Shell Tank 241-AN-103. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report(s) that describes the results of the COGEMA ultrasonic examinations.

  11. Ultrasonic Examination of Double-Shell Tank 241-AN-104. Examination Completed August 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Pardini, Allan F.; Posakony, Gerald J.

    2005-09-15

    COGEMA Engineering Corporation (COGEMA), under a contract from CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CH2M Hill), has performed an ultrasonic examination of selected portions of Double-Shell Tank 241-AN-104. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report(s) that describes the results of the COGEMA ultrasonic examinations.

  12. Results of tank 241-AN-107 ultrasonic examination

    SciTech Connect

    LESHIKAR, G.A.

    1999-05-18

    A tank examination supplier was retained to provide and use an ultrasonic examination system (equipment, procedures, and inspectors) to examine a limited area of Tank 241-AN-107 primary tank wall. The exam found no indications of wall thinning, pits, or cracks in excess of the acceptance criteria.

  13. Ultrasonic Examination of AN Austenitic Weld: Illustration of the Disturbances of the Ultrasonic Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chassignole, B.; Dupond, O.; Doudet, L.; Duwig, V.; Etchegaray, N.

    2009-03-01

    The ultrasonic examination of the primary coolant piping of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) is an important challenge for the nuclear industry. Numerous studies were undertaken by EDF R&D for a few years to improve the NDT process on these applications and to help to their qualification. More particularly, a great deal was made on the examination of the austenitic stainless steel welds. Indeed, the anisotropic, heterogeneous and coarse granular structures of these welds lead to important disturbances of the ultrasonic propagation. This paper presents some examples of the experimental and numerical studies which allowed to highlight the different disturbances (beam deviation, division and attenuation). We pay more attention on spurious echoes which may appear when a plane defect is located in an austenitic weld. The experimental approach is based on tests on mock-ups containing artificial defects. On the other hand, a numerical approach with the finite element code ATHENA, developed by EDF, allows to explain the origin of the disturbances. We show the interest of this tool to carry out a close analysis of the ultrasonic mode conversions in the complex structure of the weld which produce the spurious echoes. Finally, the influence of the ultrasonic disturbances on performances in term of detection of the defects is discussed.

  14. Ultrasonic Examination of Double-Shell Tank 241-AZ-101. Examination Completed July 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Pardini, Allan F.; Weier, Dennis R.

    2007-08-12

    AREVA NC Inc. (AREVA), under a contract from CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CH2M Hill), has performed an ultrasonic examination of selected portions of Double-Shell Tank 241-AZ-101. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report(s) that describes the results of the AREVA ultrasonic examinations. The purpose of this examination was to provide information that could be used to evaluate the integrity of the wall of the primary tank. The requirements for the ultrasonic examination of Tank 241-AZ-101 were to detect, characterize (identify, size, and locate), and record measurements made of any wall thinning, pitting, or cracks that might be present in the wall of the primary tank. Any measurements that exceed the requirements set forth in the Engineering Task Plan (ETP), RPP-Plan-27202 (Jensen 2005) and summarized on page 1 of this document, are to be reported to CH2M HILL and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for further evaluation. Under the contract with CH2M HILL, all data is to be recorded on electronic media and paper copies of all measurements are provided to PNNL for third-party evaluation. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report(s) that describes the results of the AREVA ultrasonic examinations. The results of the examination of Tank 241-AZ-101 have been evaluated by PNNL personnel. The ultrasonic examination consisted of two vertical 15-in.-wide scan paths over the entire height of the tank and the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of five vertical welds and one horizontal weld from Riser 89. The examination also included two vertical 15-in.-wide scan paths over the entire height of the tank from Riser 90. The examination was performed to detect any wall thinning, pitting, or cracking in the primary tank wall.

  15. Ultrasonic Examination of Double-Shell Tank 241-AY-101. Examination completed October 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Pardini, Allan F.; Weier, Dennis R.

    2008-01-26

    AREVA NC Inc., under contract from CH2M Hill Hanford Group, has performed an ultrasonic examination of selected portions of Double-Shell Tank 241-AY-101. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report(s) that describes the results of the AREVA ultrasonic examinations. This report is Revision 1 - more data has been added to the original report. The purpose of this examination was to provide information that could be used to evaluate the integrity of the wall of the primary tank. The requirements for the ultrasonic examination of Tank 241-AY-101 were to detect, characterize (identify, size, and locate), and record measurements made of any wall thinning, pitting, or cracks that might be present in the wall of the primary tank. Any measurements that exceed the requirements set forth in the Engineering Task Plan, RPP-Plan-27202 (Jensen 2005) and summarized on page 1 of this document, are to be reported to CH2M Hill Hanford Group and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for further evaluation. Under the contract with CH2M Hill Hanford Group, all data is to be recorded on electronic media and paper copies of all measurements are provided to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for third-party evaluation. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is responsible for preparing a report(s) that describes the results of the AREVA NC Inc. ultrasonic examinations.

  16. Ultrasonic Examination of Double-Shell Tank 241-AN-107. Examination Completed March 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Pardini, Allan F.; Weier, Dennis R.

    2007-04-01

    AREVA NC Inc. (AREVA), under a contract from CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CH2M Hill), has performed an ultrasonic examination of selected portions of Double-Shell Tank 241-AN-107. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report(s) that describes the results of the AREVA ultrasonic examinations. The purpose of this examination was to provide information that could be used to evaluate the integrity of the wall of the primary tank. The requirements for the ultrasonic examination of Tank 241-AN-107 were to detect, characterize (identify, size, and locate), and record measurements made of any wall thinning, pitting, or cracks that might be present in the wall of the primary tank. Any measurements that exceed the requirements set forth in the Engineering Task Plan (ETP), RPP-Plan-27202 (Jensen 2005) and summarized on page 1 of this document, are to be reported to CH2M Hill and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for further evaluation. Under the contract with CH2M Hill, all data is to be recorded on electronic media and paper copies of all measurements are provided to PNNL for third-party evaluation. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report(s) that describes the results of the AREVA ultrasonic examinations. The results of the examination of Tank 241-AN-107 have been evaluated by PNNL personnel. The ultrasonic examination consisted of two vertical 15-in.-wide scan paths over the entire height of the tank, the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of four vertical welds and one horizontal weld, the upper portion of the knuckle region, four small areas of the lower portion of the knuckle region within the air slot entrances, and the lower portion of the knuckle utilizing a multiple V path technique qualified for the extended Y-arm scanner from Riser 26. The examination also included two vertical 15-in.-wide scan paths over the entire height of the tank from Riser 25. The examination was performed to detect any wall thinning, pitting, or cracking in the primary tank wall.

  17. Ultrasonic Examination of Double-Shell Tank 241-SY-101. Examination Completed March 2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Pardini, Allan F.; Posakony, Gerald J.

    2004-07-22

    COGEMA Engineering Corporation (COGEMA), under a contract from CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CH2M Hill), has performed an ultrasonic nondestructive examination of selected portions of Double-Shell Tank 241-SY-101. The purpose of this examination was to provide information that could be used to evaluate the integrity of the wall of the primary tank. The requirements for the ultrasonic examination of Tank 241-SY-101 were to detect, characterize (identify, size, and locate), and record measurements made of any wall thinning, pitting, or cracks that might be present in the wall of the primary tank. Any measurements that exceed the requirements set forth in the Engineering Task Plan (ETP), RPP-17750 (Jensen 2003) and summarized on page 1 of this document, are reported to CH2M Hill and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for further evaluation. Under the contract with CH2M Hill, all data is to be recorded on disk and paper copies of all measurements are provided to PNNL for third-party evaluation. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report that describes the results of the COGEMA ultrasonic examinations.

  18. Ultrasonic Examination of Double-Shell Tank 241-SY-101. Examination Completed March 2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Pardini, Allan F.; Posakony, Gerald J.

    2004-05-25

    COGEMA Engineering Corporation (COGEMA), under a contract from CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CH2M Hill), has performed an ultrasonic nondestructive examination of selected portions of Double-Shell Tank 241-SY-101. The purpose of this examination was to provide information that could be used to evaluate the integrity of the wall of the primary tank. The requirements for the ultrasonic examination of Tank 241-SY-101 were to detect, characterize (identify, size, and locate), and record measurements made of any wall thinning, pitting, or cracks that might be present in the wall of the primary tank. Any measurements that exceed the requirements set forth in the Engineering Task Plan (ETP), RPP-17750 (Jensen 2003) and summarized on page 1 of this document, are reported to CH2M Hill and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for further evaluation. Under the contract with CH2M Hill, all data is to be recorded on disk and paper copies of all measurements are provided to PNNL for third-party evaluation. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report that describes the results of the COGEMA ultrasonic examinations.

  19. Ultrasonic Examination of Double-Shell Tank 241-AP-104. Examination Completed August 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Pardini, Allan F.; Posakony, Gerald J.

    2004-09-30

    COGEMA Engineering Corporation (COGEMA), under a contract from CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CH2M Hill), has performed an ultrasonic nondestructive examination of selected portions of Double-Shell Tank 241-AP-104. The purpose of this examination was to provide information that could be used to evaluate the integrity of the wall of the primary tank. The requirements for the ultrasonic examination of Tank 241-AP-104 were to detect, characterize (identify, size, and locate), and record measurements made of any wall thinning, pitting, or cracks that might be present in the wall of the primary tank. Any measurements that exceed the requirements set forth in the Engineering Task Plan (ETP), RPP-17750 (Jensen 2003) and summarized on page 1 of this document, are reported to CH2M Hill and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for further evaluation. Under the contract with CH2M Hill, all data is to be recorded on disk and paper copies of all measurements are provided to PNNL for third-party evaluation. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report that describes the results of the COGEMA ultrasonic examinations.

  20. Ultrasonic Examination of Double-Shell Tank 241-AP-106. Examination Completed November 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Pardini, Allan F.; Posakony, Gerald J.

    2004-12-14

    COGEMA Engineering Corporation (COGEMA), under a contract from CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CH2M Hill), has performed an ultrasonic nondestructive examination of selected portions of Double-Shell Tank 241-AP-106. The purpose of this examination was to provide information that could be used to evaluate the integrity of the wall of the primary tank. The requirements for the ultrasonic examination of Tank 241-AP-106 were to detect, characterize (identify, size, and locate), and record measurements made of any wall thinning, pitting, or cracks that might be present in the wall of the primary tank. Any measurements that exceed the requirements set forth in the Engineering Task Plan (ETP), RPP-22571 (Jensen 2004) and summarized on page 1 of this document, are reported to CH2M Hill and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for further evaluation. Under the contract with CH2M Hill, all data is to be recorded on disk and paper copies of all measurements are provided to PNNL for third-party evaluation. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report that describes the results of the COGEMA ultrasonic examinations.

  1. Ultrasonic Examination of Double-Shell Tank 241-AW-103. Examination Completed September 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Pardini, Allan F.; Posakony, Gerald J.; Weier, Dennis R.

    2007-04-01

    AREVA NC Inc. (AREVA), under a contract from CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CH2M Hill), has performed an ultrasonic examination of selected portions of Double-Shell Tank 241-AW-103. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report(s) that describes the results of the AREVA ultrasonic examinations. The purpose of this examination was to provide information that could be used to evaluate the integrity of the wall of the primary and secondary tank. The requirements for the ultrasonic examination of Tank 241-AW-103 were to detect, characterize (identify, size, and locate), and record measurements made of any wall thinning, pitting, or cracks that might be present in the wall of the primary tank and the wall of the secondary tank. Any measurements that exceed the requirements set forth in the Engineering Task Plan (ETP), RPP-Plan-27202 (Jensen 2005) and summarized on page 1 of this document, are to be reported to CH2M Hill and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for further evaluation. Under the contract with CH2M Hill, all data is to be recorded on electronic media and paper copies of all measurements are provided to PNNL for third-party evaluation. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report(s) that describes the results of the AREVA ultrasonic examinations. The results of the examination of Tank 241-AW-103 have been evaluated by PNNL personnel. The primary tank ultrasonic examination consisted of two vertical 15-in.-wide scan paths over the entire height of the tank, the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of four vertical welds and one horizontal weld from Riser 29 and two vertical 15-in.-wide scan paths over the entire height of the tank from Riser 28. Additionally, two vertical 15-in.-wide scan paths over the entire height of the secondary tank from Riser 28 were performed. The examinations were performed to detect any wall thinning, pitting, or cracking in the primary tank wall.

  2. Ultrasonic Examination of Double-Shell Tank 241-AW-103 Examination Completed September 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Pardini, Allan F.; Posakony, Gerald J.

    2006-11-06

    AREVA NC Inc. (AREVA), under a contract from CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CH2M Hill), has performed an ultrasonic examination of selected portions of Double-Shell Tank 241-AW-103. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report(s) that describes the results of the AREVA ultrasonic examinations. The purpose of this examination was to provide information that could be used to evaluate the integrity of the wall of the primary and secondary tank. The requirements for the ultrasonic examination of Tank 241-AW-103 were to detect, characterize (identify, size, and locate), and record measurements made of any wall thinning, pitting, or cracks that might be present in the wall of the primary tank and the wall of the secondary tank. Any measurements that exceed the requirements set forth in the Engineering Task Plan (ETP), RPP-Plan-27202 (Jensen 2005) and summarized on page 1 of this document, are to be reported to CH2M Hill and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for further evaluation. Under the contract with CH2M Hill, all data is to be recorded on electronic media and paper copies of all measurements are provided to PNNL for third-party evaluation. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report(s) that describes the results of the AREVA ultrasonic examinations. The results of the examination of Tank 241-AW-103 have been evaluated by PNNL personnel. The primary tank ultrasonic examination consisted of two vertical 15-in.-wide scan paths over the entire height of the tank, the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of four vertical welds and one horizontal weld from Riser 29 and two vertical 15-in.-wide scan paths over the entire height of the tank from Riser 28. Additionally, two vertical 15-in.-wide scan paths over the entire height of the secondary tank from Riser 28 were performed. The examinations were performed to detect any wall thinning, pitting, or cracking in the primary tank wall.

  3. Ultrasonic Examination of Double-Shell Tank 241-AN-106. Completed June 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Pardini, Allan F.; Weier, Dennis R.

    2007-07-24

    AREVA NC Inc. (AREVA), under a contract from CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CH2M Hill), has performed an ultrasonic examination of selected portions of Double-Shell Tank 241-AN-106. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report(s) that describes the results of the AREVA ultrasonic examinations.

  4. Ultrasonic levitation for the examination of gas/solid reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavouras, A.; Krammer, G.

    2003-10-01

    An experimental setup based on acoustic levitation for the examination of gas/solid reactions is presented. In this setup single particles in the diameter range 1 mm-30 μm can be held against gravity for any wanted time in a defined gas atmosphere at elevated temperatures. The change of particle size, shape, and position can be measured and recorded using an optical device, consisting of a camera and a long range microscope. Basic experiments with inert particles of different shape and solid density have shown that the axial position of a reacting particle can be employed to derive its weight change. A method to evaluate this change of the recorded position for the according weight change is proposed. Exemplary results in the context of dry flue gas cleaning using Ca(OH)2 powder are presented. Single Ca(OH)2 particles are exposed to a well defined gas atmosphere and after some time these particles are retrieved from the ultrasonic field for further analyses. Only an in situ measurement of the particle weight change (i.e., without removing the particle from the well defined reactive atmosphere) brings information regarding the uptake of water by the sorbent, which accompanies SO2 and HCl absorption.

  5. Ultrasonic Examination of Double-Shell Tank 241-SY-102. Examination Completed June 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Pardini, Allan F.; Posakony, Gerald J.

    2004-07-20

    COGEMA Engineering Corporation (COGEMA), under a contract from CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CH2M Hill), has performed an ultrasonic nondestructive examination of selected portions of Double-Shell Tank 241-SY-102. The purpose of this examination was to provide information that could be used to evaluate the integrity of the wall of the primary tank. The requirements for the ultrasonic examination of Tank 241-SY-102 were to detect, characterize (identify, size, and locate), and record measurements made of any wall thinning, pitting, or cracks that might be present in the wall of the primary tank. Any measurements that exceed the requirements set forth in the Engineering Task Plan (ETP), RPP-17750 (Jensen 2003) and summarized on page 1 of this document, are reported to CH2M Hill and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for further evaluation. Under the contract with CH2M Hill, all data is to be recorded on disk and paper copies of all measurements are provided to PNNL for third-party evaluation. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report that describes the results of the COGEMA

  6. Phased Array Ultrasonic Examination of Space Shuttle Main Engine Nozzle Weld

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, S.; Engel, J.; Kimbrough, D.; Suits, M.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a Phased Array Ultrasonic Examination that was developed for the examination of a limited access circumferential Inconel 718 fusion weld of a Space Shuttle Main Engine Nozzle - Cone. The paper discusses the selection and formation criteria used for the phased array focal laws, the reference standard that simulated hardware conditions, the examination concept, and results. Several unique constraints present during this examination included limited probe movement to a single axis and one-sided access to the weld.

  7. Ultrasonic Examination of Double-Shell Tank 241-AP-102. February 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Pardini, Allan F.; Posakony, Gerald J.

    2005-03-21

    COGEMA Engineering Corporation (COGEMA), under a contract from CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CH2M Hill), has performed an ultrasonic nondestructive examination of selected portions of Double-Shell Tank 241-AP-102. The purpose of this examination was to provide information that could be used to evaluate the integrity of the wall of the primary tank. The requirements for the ultrasonic examination of Tank 241-AP-102 were to detect, characterize (identify, size, and locate), and record measurements made of any wall thinning, pitting, or cracks that might be present in the wall of the primary tank. Any measurements that exceed the requirements set forth in the Engineering Task Plan (ETP), RPP-22571 (Jensen 2004) and summarized on page 1 of this document, are reported to CH2M Hill and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for further evaluation. Under the contract with CH2M Hill, all data is to be recorded on disk and paper copies of all measurements are provided to PNNL for third-party evaluation. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report that describes the results of the COGEMA ultrasonic examinations.

  8. Ultrasonic Examination of Double-Shell Tank 241-AP-104. February 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Pardini, Allan F.; Posakony, Gerald J.

    2005-03-15

    COGEMA Engineering Corporation (COGEMA), under a contract from CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CH2M Hill), has performed an ultrasonic nondestructive examination of selected portions of Double-Shell Tank 241-AP-104. The purpose of this examination was to provide information that could be used to evaluate the integrity of the wall of the primary and secondary tank. The requirements for the ultrasonic examination of Tank 241-AP-104 were to detect, characterize (identify, size, and locate), and record measurements made of any wall thinning that might be present in the wall of the primary tank in the upper knuckle region, and any wall thinning, pitting, or cracks in the wall of the secondary tank in the lower knuckle region. Any measurements that exceed the requirements set forth in the Engineering Task Plan (ETP), RPP-22571 (Jensen 2004) and summarized on page 1 of this document, are reported to CH2M Hill and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for further evaluation. Under the contract with CH2M Hill, all data is to be recorded on disk and paper copies of all measurements are provided to PNNL for third-party evaluation. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report that describes the results of the COGEMA ultrasonic examinations.

  9. Ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, B. E.; Gardner, C. G.

    1973-01-01

    Ultrasonic testing is discussed as a primary means of nondestructive evaluation of subsurface flaws. The advantages and disadvantages are listed. The elementary principles, basic components of test units, scan modes, resonance testing, detection of fatigue cracks, monitoring fatigue crack growth, and determination of residual stress are discussed.

  10. Nuclear Technology. Course 32: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II. Module 32-1, Fundamentals of Ultrasonic Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Bruce

    This first in a series of six modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II introduces the student/trainee to the basic behavior of ultrasound, describes ultrasonic test equipment, and outlines the principal methods of ultrasonic testing. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1)…

  11. Capabilities of Ultrasonic Phased Arrays for Far-Side Examinations of Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Welds

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2006-10-01

    A study was conducted to assess the ability of advanced ultrasonic techniques to detect and accurately determine the size of flaws from the far-side of wrought austenitic piping welds. Far-side inspections of nuclear system austenitic piping welds are currently performed on a “best effort” basis and do not conform to ASME Code Section XI Appendix VIII performance demonstration requirements for near side inspection. For this study, four circumferential welds in 610mm (24inch) diameter, 36mm (1.42inch) thick ASTM A-358, Grade 304 vintage austenitic stainless steel pipe were examined. The welds were fabricated with varied welding parameters; both horizontal and vertical pipe orientations were used, with air and water backing, to simulate field welding conditions. A series of saw cuts, electro-discharge machined (EDM) notches, and implanted fatigue cracks were placed into the heat affected zones of the welds. The saw cuts and notches ranged in depth from 7.5% to 28.4% through-wall. The implanted cracks ranged in depth from 5% through-wall to 64% through-wall. The welds were examined with phased array technology at 2.0 MHz, and compared to conventional ultrasonic techniques as a baseline. The examinations showed that phased-array methods were able to detect and accurately length-size, but not depth size, the notches and flaws through the welds. The ultrasonic results were insensitive to the different welding techniques used in each weld.

  12. Ultrasonic examination techniques for multicouple thermoelectric subcomponents and assemblies: Status report

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, K.V.; McClung, R.W.; Simpson, W.A. Jr.; Cunningham, R.A. Jr.

    1986-09-01

    Since the early 1960s, the United States has been using radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), developed by the US Department of Energy and its predecessors, for a variety of environments including space. A recent concept in building RTGs uses modular components to allow for an advanced, lighter space mission generator that provides scaled power level outputs. The scalability feature of the modular isotopic thermoelectric generator (MITG) represents a major advance over earlier RTG designs. However, special problems are encountered in applying nondestructive testing methods because of the miniature size of parts that require inspection. This report describes the status of ultrasonic inspection methods being developed to examine the subcomponents and assemblies of the; MITG. The principal emphasis has been to evaluate various bonds between subcomponents using ultrasonic techniques that employ focused search units and a pulse-echo method.

  13. Aging Wire Insulation Assessment by Phase Spectrum Examination of Ultrasonic Guided Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anastasi, Robert F.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2003-01-01

    Wire integrity has become an area of concern to the aerospace community including DoD, NASA, FAA, and Industry. Over time and changing environmental conditions, wire insulation can become brittle and crack. The cracks expose the wire conductor and can be a source of equipment failure, short circuits, smoke, and fire. The technique of using the ultrasonic phase spectrum to extract material properties of the insulation is being examined. Ultrasonic guided waves will propagate in both the wire conductor and insulation. Assuming the condition of the conductor remains constant then the stiffness of the insulator can be determined by measuring the ultrasonic guided wave velocity. In the phase spectrum method the guided wave velocity is obtained by transforming the time base waveform to the frequency domain and taking the phase difference between two waveforms. The result can then be correlated with a database, derived by numerical model calculations, to extract material properties of the wire insulator. Initial laboratory tests were performed on a simple model consisting of a solid cylinder and then a solid cylinder with a polymer coating. For each sample the flexural mode waveform was identified. That waveform was then transformed to the frequency domain and a phase spectrum was calculated from a pair of waveforms. Experimental results on the simple model compared well to numerical calculations. Further tests were conducted on aircraft or mil-spec wire samples, to see if changes in wire insulation stiffness can be extracted using the phase spectrum technique.

  14. Capabilities of Ultrasonic Techniques for the Far-Side Examination of Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Welds.

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2006-02-01

    A study was conducted to assess the ability of advanced ultrasonic techniques to detect and accurately determine the size of flaws from the far-side of wrought austenitic piping welds. Far-side inspections of nuclear system piping welds are currently performed on a “best effort” basis and do not conform to ASME Code Section XI Appendix VIII performance demonstration requirements. For this study, four circumferential welds in 610mm diameter, 36mm thick ASTM A-358, Grade 304 vintage austenitic stainless steel pipe were examined. The welds were fabricated with varied welding parameters; both horizontal and vertical pipe orientations were used, with air and water backing, to simulate field welding conditions. A series of saw cuts, electro-discharge machined (EDM) notches, and implanted fatigue cracks were placed into the heat affected zones of the welds. The saw cuts and notches ranged in depth from 7.5% to 28.4% through-wall. The implanted cracks ranged in depth from 5% through-wall to 64% through-wall. The welds were examined with phased array technology at 2.0 MHz, and with low-frequency/Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique (SAFT) methods in the 250-400 kHz regime. These results were compared to conventional ultrasonic techniques as a baseline. The examinations showed that both phased-array and low-frequency/SAFT were able to detect and accurately length-size, but not depth size, the notches and flaws through the welds. The ultrasonic results were insensitive to the different welding techniques used in each weld.

  15. Examination of the Spatial Correlation of Statistics Information in the Ultrasonic Echo from Diseased Liver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Tadashi; Hachiya, Hiroyuki; Kamiyama, Naohisa; Moriyasu, Fuminori

    2002-05-01

    To realize a quantitative diagnosis of liver cirrhosis, we have been analyzing the characteristics of echo amplitude in B-mode images. Realizing the distinction between liver diseases such as liver cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis is required in the field of medical ultrasonics. In this study, we examine the spatial correlation, with the coefficient of correlation between the frames and the amplitude characteristics of each frame, using the volumetric data of RF echo signals from normal and diseased liver. It is found that there is a relationship between the tissue structure of liver and the spatial correlation of echo information.

  16. Capabilities of Ultrasonic Techniques for Far-Side Examinations of Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Welds.

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the ability of advanced ultrasonic techniques to detect and accurately length-size flaws from the far-side of wrought austenitic piping welds. Far-side inspections of nuclear system piping welds are currently performed on a “best effort” basis and do not conform to ASME Code Section XI Appendix VIII performance demonstration requirements. For this study, austenitic stainless steel specimens with flaws located on the far-side of full penetration structural welds were used. The welds were fabricated with varied welding parameters to simulate as-built conditions in the components, and were examined with phased array technology at 2.0 MHz, and low-frequency/Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique (SAFT) methods in the 250-400 kHz regime. These results were compared to conventional ultrasonic techniques as a baseline. The examinations showed that both phased-array and low-frequency/SAFT were able to reliably detect and length-size, but not depth size, notches and implanted fatigue cracks through the welds.

  17. Ultrasonic examination of welded joints of great thickness in mechanical equipment under pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emil, N.

    1974-01-01

    The requirements involved in choosing ultrasonic devices, the factors that affect testing, and recommended calibration methods are discussed. The ultrasonic testing method is the only method that up to now permits detection of defects in welded joints of great thickness. The results are conditioned by the performances of the devices employed as well as by the degree of instruction of the personnel.

  18. Nuclear Technology. Course 32: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II. Module 32-2, Operation of Ultrasonic Test Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espy, John

    This second in a series of six modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) II describes specific ultrasonic test techniques and calibration principles. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to instructor/student, (5) subject…

  19. Use of an ultrasonic reflectance technique to examine bubble size changes in dough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strybulevych, A.; Leroy, V.; Shum, A. L.; Koksel, H. F.; Scanlon, M. G.; Page, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    Bread quality largely depends on the manner in which bubbles are created and manipulated in the dough during processing. We have developed an ultrasonic reflectance technique to monitor bubbles in dough, even at high volume fractions, where near the bubble resonances it is difficult to make measurements using transmission techniques. A broadband transducer centred at 3.5 MHz in a normal incidence wave reflection set-up is used to measure longitudinal velocity and attenuation from acoustic impedance measurements. The technique is illustrated by examining changes in bubbles in dough due to two very different physical effects. In dough made without yeast, a peak in attenuation due to bubble resonance is observed at approximately 2 MHz. This peak diminishes rapidly and shifts to lower frequencies, indicative of Ostwald ripening of bubbles within the dough. The second effect involves the growth of bubble sizes due to gas generated by yeast during fermentation. This process is experimentally challenging to investigate with ultrasound because of very high attenuation. The reflectance technique allows the changes of the velocity and attenuation during fermentation to be measured as a function of frequency and time, indicating bubble growth effects that can be monitored even at high volume fractions of bubbles.

  20. A STRUCTURAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF FLAWS DETECTED DURING ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION OF TANK 15

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B; James Elder, J

    2008-08-21

    Ultrasonic (UT) inspection of Tank 15 was conducted between April and July 2007 in accordance with the Tank 15 UT inspection plan. This was a planned re-inspection of this tank, the previous one was performed in 2002. Ten cracks were characterized in the previous examination. The re-inspection was performed to verify the present models and understanding for stress corrosion cracking. During this re-examination, one indication that was initially reported as a 'possible perpendicular crack <25% through wall' in 2002, was clearly shown not to be a crack. Additionally, examination of a new area immediately adjacent to other cracks along a vertical weld revealed three new cracks. It is not known when these new cracks formed as they could very well have been present in 2002 as well. Therefore, a total of twelve cracks were evaluated during the re-examination. A critical review of the information describing stress corrosion crack behavior for the SRS waste tanks, as well as a summary review of the service history of Tank 15, was performed. Each crack was then evaluated for service exposure history, consistency of the crack behavior with the current understanding of stress corrosion cracking, and present and future impact to the structural integrity of the tank. Crack instability calculations were performed on each crack for a bounding waste removal loading condition in Tank 15. In all cases, the crack behavior was determined to be consistent with the previous understanding of stress corrosion cracking in the SRS waste tank environment. The length of the cracks was limited due to the short-range nature of the residual stresses near seam, repair and attachment welds. Of the twelve cracks, nine were located in the vapor space above the sludge layer, including the three new cracks. Comparison of the crack lengths measured in 2002 and 2007 revealed that crack growth had occurred in four of the six previously measured vapor space cracks. However, the growth remained within the

  1. Frequency-sweep examination for wave mode identification in multimodal ultrasonic guided wave signal.

    PubMed

    Fateri, Sina; Boulgouris, Nikolaos V; Wilkinson, Adam; Balachandran, Wamadeva; Gan, Tat-Hean

    2014-09-01

    Ultrasonic guided waves can be used to assess and monitor long elements of a structure from a single position. The greatest challenges for any guided wave system are the plethora of wave modes arising from the geometry of the structural element which propagate with a range of frequency-dependent velocities and the interpretation of these combined signals reflected by discontinuities in the structural element. In this paper, a novel signal processing technique is presented using a combination of frequency-sweep measurement, sampling rate conversion, and Fourier transform. The technique is applied to synthesized and experimental data to identify different modes in complex ultrasonic guided wave signals. It is demonstrated throughout the paper that the technique also has the capability to derive the time of flight and group velocity dispersion curve of different wave modes in field inspections. PMID:25167151

  2. [A new approach to urinary continence disorders in women: urodynamic ultrasonic examination by the vaginal route].

    PubMed

    Beco, J; Sulu, M; Schaaps, J P; Lambotte, R

    1987-01-01

    The vesicourethral junction, the urethra cannot be seen when using the abdominal approach because of the interposition of the pubic symphysis. The ultrasonic vaginal approach makes it possible. 53 patients were ultrasonically observed during an urodynamic exploration. The simultaneous utilization of both methods has permit to observe the mechanisms of normal or pathological voiding. When initiating a voluntary micturition, an area (called "prepubic muscle") located in front of the pubic symphysis between the clitoris and the urethral meatus, exert a traction on the periurethral sphincteric area. This sphincteric area, which is well shown by ultrasound, contracts longitudinally (causing shortening of the urethra and opening of the bladder neck) and causes a drop in urethral closure pressure. The increase in the distance between the inferior part of the pubic symphysis and the anterior vaginal wall comes about because of slackening of the elevator ani muscles. This slackening occurs at different times before the bladder contracts. The urethra opens; the complete course of this organ is well defined. Things return to their previous state when voiding finishes. In the case of stress incontinence, the lack of transmission of pressure urodynamically found when the woman is coughing can be seen as a sliding mechanism within the space of Retzius and at the urethro-vesical junction behind the symphysis pubis. The degree of sliding depends on the strength of the cough. In all cases of pure stress incontinence without there being low urethral closure pressure, a maximum stress caused by coughing will produce more than 5 MM sliding before the urethra opens. If the urinary incontinence is due to low urethral closure pressure, the urethra opens without sliding of the urethro-vesical junction whenever the abdominal pressure increases. Urethral instability resembles voluntary voiding but without any voluntary command. "Prepubic" contractions, longitudinal contractions in the

  3. The PISC parametric study on the effect of cast austenitic steel macrostructure on the capability of ultrasonic examination

    SciTech Connect

    Maes, G.; Hansoul, B.; Dombret, P.

    1994-12-31

    Within the framework of Action 4 (Austenitic Steel Testing) of PISC 3, a parametric study was carried out on a set of centrifugically cast stainless steel samples, representative of the main coolant piping of pressurized water nuclear reactors. The samples are obtained from different manufacturers, and feature various grain structures and dimensions. Artificial and realistic flaws were used to assess the detection and sizing capability of ultrasonic examination techniques. The paper analyzes the data as a function of the metal structure and of the main parameters of the testing techniques, which include TRL contact probes and immersion focusing transducers. Guidelines are deduced as to the selection of inspection techniques, in relation with the metallurgical structure of each specimen. In addition, the influence of the presence of a weld across the wavepath is evaluated, as well as the similarity, between the responses obtained from crack-like machined reflectors and mechanical fatigue cracks.

  4. Phased Array Ultrasonic Examination of Reactor Coolant System (Carbon Steel-to-CASS) Dissimilar Metal Weld Mockup Specimen

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, S. L.; Cinson, A. D.; Diaz, A. A.; Anderson, M. T.

    2015-11-23

    In the summer of 2009, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff traveled to the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) NDE Center in Charlotte, North Carolina, to conduct phased-array ultrasonic testing on a large bore, reactor coolant pump nozzle-to-safe-end mockup. This mockup was fabricated by FlawTech, Inc. and the configuration originated from the Port St. Lucie nuclear power plant. These plants are Combustion Engineering-designed reactors. This mockup consists of a carbon steel elbow with stainless steel cladding joined to a cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) safe-end with a dissimilar metal weld and is owned by Florida Power & Light. The objective of this study, and the data acquisition exercise held at the EPRI NDE Center, were focused on evaluating the capabilities of advanced, low-frequency phased-array ultrasonic testing (PA-UT) examination techniques for detection and characterization of implanted circumferential flaws and machined reflectors in a thick-section CASS dissimilar metal weld component. This work was limited to PA-UT assessments using 500 kHz and 800 kHz probes on circumferential flaws only, and evaluated detection and characterization of these flaws and machined reflectors from the CASS safe-end side only. All data were obtained using spatially encoded, manual scanning techniques. The effects of such factors as line-scan versus raster-scan examination approaches were evaluated, and PA-UT detection and characterization performance as a function of inspection frequency/wavelength, were also assessed. A comparative assessment of the data is provided, using length-sizing root-mean-square-error and position/localization results (flaw start/stop information) as the key criteria for flaw characterization performance. In addition, flaw signal-to-noise ratio was identified as the key criterion for detection performance.

  5. Ultrasonic examination of the heavy section test blocks for hydroprocessing reactors used by the petroleum industry

    SciTech Connect

    Dodd, F.J.; Zhang, Y.; Imgram, A.

    1995-12-01

    An 18-inch (457 mm) thick Cr-Mo steel test block with an austenitic stainless steel ID cladding was designed and fabricated at the direction of the Material Properties Council in cooperation with the Pressure Vessel Research Committee (PVRC) Committee on Nondestructive Examination of Components. The test block contains several embedded flaws located near both ID and OD surfaces. Chevron Research and Technology Company and WesDyne International conducted the initial UT Examinations on this block at Chevron. In addition, a 10-inch (254 mm) thick block with embedded flaws was also examined. All the flaws m the two blocks were either cracks or lack of fusion. The examination results demonstrate the feasibility of UT to detect and size flaws in hydroprocessing reactor vessels and provide a basis to compare the relative capabilities of UT with the radiographic (RT) inspections currently required by the fabrication code.

  6. Ultrasonic search wheel probe

    DOEpatents

    Mikesell, Charles R.

    1978-01-01

    A device is provided for reducing internal reflections from the tire of an ultrasonic search wheel probe or from within the material being examined. The device includes a liner with an anechoic chamber within which is an ultrasonic transducer. The liner is positioned within the wheel and includes an aperture through which the ultrasonic sound from the transducer is directed.

  7. Noninvasive Ultrasonic Examination Technology in Support of Counter-Terrorism and Drug Interdiction Activities: the Acoustic Inspection Device (AID)

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, Aaron A.; Burghard, Brion J.; Skorpik, James R.; Shepard, Chester L.; Samuel, Todd J.; Pappas, Richard A.

    2003-07-16

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a portable, battery-operated handheld ultrasonic device that provides non-invasive container interrogation and material identification capabilities. The Acoustic Inspection Device (AID) performs an automated analysis of the return echoes to identify the material, and detect contraband in the form of submerged packages and concealed compartments in liquid filled containers and solid-form commodities. This device utilizes a database consisting of material property measurements acquired from an automated ultrasonic fluid characterization system called the Velocity-Attenuation Measurement System (VAMS).

  8. Evaluation of Manual Ultrasonic Examinations Applied to Detect Flaws in Primary System Dissimilar Metal Welds at North Anna Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2012-06-01

    During a recent inservice inspection (ISI) of a dissimilar metal weld (DMW) in an inlet (hot leg) steam generator nozzle at North Anna Power Station Unit 1, several axially oriented flaws went undetected by the licensee's manual ultrasonic testing (UT) technique. The flaws were subsequently detected as a result of outside diameter (OD) surface machining in preparation for a full structural weld overlay. The machining operation uncovered the existence of two through-wall flaws, based on the observance of primary water leaking from the DMW. Further ultrasonic tests were then performed, and a total of five axially oriented flaws, classified as primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC), were detected in varied locations around the weld circumference.

  9. Noninvasive ultrasonic examination technology in support of counter-terrorism and drug interdiction activities: the acoustic inspection device (AID)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Aaron A.; Burghard, Brion J.; Skorpik, James R.; Shepard, Chester L.; Samuel, Todd J.; Pappas, Richard A.

    2003-07-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a portable, battery-operated, handheld ultrasonic device that provides non-invasive container interrogation and material identification capabilities. The technique governing how the acoustic inspection device (AID) functions, involves measurements of ultrasonic pulses (0.1 to 5 MHz) that are launched into a container or material. The return echoes from these pulses are analyzed in terms of time-of-flight and frequency content to extract physical property measurements (the acoustic velocity and attenuation coefficient) of the material under test. The AID performs an automated analysis of the return echoes to identify the material, and detect contraband in the form of submerged packages and concealed compartments in liquid filled containers and solid-form commodities. An inspector can quickly interrogate outwardly innocuous commodity items such as shipping barrels, tanker trucks, and metal ingots. The AID can interrogate container sizes ranging from approximately 6 inches in diameter to over 96 inches in diameter and allows the inspector to sort liquid and material types into groups of like and unlike; a powerful method for discovering corrupted materials or miss-marked containers co-mingled in large shipments. This manuscript describes the functionality, capabilities and measurement methodology of the technology as it relates to homeland security applications.

  10. Final Assessment of Manual Ultrasonic Examinations Applied to Detect Flaws in Primary System Dissimilar Metal Welds at North Anna Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2014-03-24

    PNNL conducted a technical assessment of the NDE issues and protocols that led to missed detections of several axially oriented flaws in a steam generator primary inlet dissimilar metal weld at North Anna Power Station, Unit 1 (NAPS-1). This particular component design exhibits a significant outside-diameter (OD) taper that is not included as a blind performance demonstration mock-up within the industry’s Performance Demonstration Initiative, administered by EPRI. For this reason, the licensee engaged EPRI to assist in the development of a technical justification to support the basis for a site-specific qualification. The service-induced flaws at NAPS-1 were eventually detected as a result of OD surface machining in preparation for a full structural weld overlay. The machining operation uncovered the existence of two through-wall flaws, based on the observance of primary water leaking from the dissimilar metal weld. A total of five axially oriented flaws were detected in varied locations around the weld circumference. The field volumetric examination that was conducted at NAPS-1 was a non-encoded, real-time manual ultrasonic examination. PNNL conducted both an initial assessment, and subsequently, a more rigorous technical evaluation (reported here), which has identified an array of NDE issues that may have led to the subject missed detections. These evaluations were performed through technical reviews and discussions with NRC staff, EPRI NDE Center personnel, industry and ISI vendor personnel, and ultrasonic transducer manufacturers, and laboratory tests, to better understand the underlying issues at North Anna.

  11. Ultrasonic Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Moerk, Steven (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An imaging system is described which can be used to either passively search for sources of ultrasonics or as an active phase imaging system. which can image fires. gas leaks, or air temperature gradients. This system uses an array of ultrasonic receivers coupled to an ultrasound collector or lens to provide an electronic image of the ultrasound intensity in a selected angular region of space. A system is described which includes a video camera to provide a visual reference to a region being examined for ultrasonic signals.

  12. Korean Atrial Fibrillation (AF) Network: Genetic Variants for AF Do Not Predict Ablation Success

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eue-Keun; Park, Jae Hyung; Lee, Ji-Young; Nam, Chung Mo; Hwang, Min Ki; Uhm, Jae-Sun; Joung, Boyoung; Ko, Young-Guk; Lee, Moon-Hyoung; Lubitz, Steven A; Ellinor, Patrick T; Pak, Hui-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Background Genomewide association studies have identified several loci associated with atrial fibrillation (AF) and have been reportedly associated with response to catheter ablation for AF in patients of European ancestry; however, associations between top susceptibility loci and AF recurrence after ablation have not been examined in Asian populations. We examined whether the top single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at chromosomes 4q25 (PITX2), 16q22 (ZFHX3), and 1q21 (KCNN3) were associated with AF in a Korean population and whether these SNPs were associated with clinical outcomes after catheter ablation for AF. Methods and Results We determined the association between 4 SNPs and AF in 1068 AF patients who underwent catheter ablation (74.6% male, aged 57.5±10.9 years, 67.9% paroxysmal AF) and 1068 age- and sex-matched controls. The SNPs at the PITX2 and ZFHX3 loci, but not the KCNN3 locus, were significantly associated with AF (PITX2/rs6843082_G: odds ratio 3.41, 95% CI 2.55 to 4.55, P=1.32×10−16; PITX2/rs2200733_T: odds ratio 2.05, 95% CI 1.66 to 2.53, P=2.20×10−11; ZFHX3/rs2106261_A: odds ratio 2.33, 95% CI 1.87 to 2.91, P=3.75×10−14; KCNN3/rs13376333_T: odds ratio 1.74, 95% CI 0.93 to 3.25, P=0.085). Among those patients who underwent catheter ablation for AF, none of the top AF-associated SNPs were associated with long-term clinical recurrence of AF after catheter ablation. Conclusions SNPs at the PITX2 and ZFHX3 loci were strongly associated with AF in Korean patients. In contrast to prior reports, none of the 4 top AF-susceptibility SNPs predicted clinical recurrence after catheter ablation. PMID:26272656

  13. [Ultrasonic diagnosis of chest injuries].

    PubMed

    Tsurupa, D I; Deriabin, A I

    1982-03-01

    Ultrasonic diagnostic examinations were used in 365 patients with closed injuries (150), wounds (181) and consequences of traumas (34). The ultrasonic method allows to rapidly and exactly determine the presence and limits of the exudate, blood, coagulated hemothorax, residual cavity, thickness of the parietal and visceral layers of the pleura, the state of the pulmonary tissue (inflammation, blood inhibition, atelectasis). The ultrasonic method is simple, harmless and applicable under conditions of any surgical hospital. PMID:7080405

  14. Ultrasonic bone densitometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoop, J. M. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A device, for measuring the density of a bone structure so as to monitor the calcium content, is described. A pair of opposed spaced ultrasonic transducers are held within a clamping apparatus closely adjacent the bone being analyzed. These ultrasonic transducers incude piezoelectric crystals shaped to direct signals through the bone encompassed in the heel and finger of the subject being tested. A pulse generator is coupled to one of the transducers and generates an electric pulse for causing the transducers to generate an ultrasonic sound wave which is directed through the bone structure to the other transducer. An electric circuit, including an amplifier and a bandpass filter couples the signals from the receiver transducer back to the pulse generator for retriggering the pulse generator at a frequency proportional to the duration that the ultrasonic wave takes to travel through the bone structure being examined.

  15. AFS controlling algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hong; Jiang, Lanfang; Wang, Gengjie; Wang, Li

    2008-12-01

    Adaptive front lighting system (i.e., AFS) is the development trend of lighting system of motor vehicles. AFS means that headlamp can adjust beam direction to get best illumination according to road condition and its bodywork. The paper discusses the AFS key techniques: establishing calculation formulae of vehicle body state concerned road condition and steering state. Because of sensor technology limitations, it only can deal with inclination and turn of vehicle body state by means of sensor's signals. This paper studies the relationship between inclination and turn of the body and lamp lighting on the base of relative standards, and gives out the calculation formulae for the body and lamp lighting adjustment, also discusses its dynamical properties. The study is basic work for lighting adjustment automatically.

  16. Ultrasonic Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    Ultrasonic has proven its merit as one of the most promising sensing methods for food quality evaluation due to its non-destructive, noninvasive, precise, rapid, and on-line potential. Ultrasonic is mechanical wave at frequencies above 20 kHz propagating by vibration of the particles in the medium and penetrating through optically opaque materials to provide internal or surface information of physical attributes, such as texture and structure. Ultrasonic non-destructive testing is a way of characterizing materials by transmitting ultrasonic waves into a material, and investigating the characteristics of the transmitted and/or reflected ultrasonic waves. For the purpose of quality measurement of materials, low-intensity ultrasonic with the power level of up to 1 W/cm2 has been used. The low-intensity ultrasonic doesn't cause physical or chemical changes in the properties of the specimen when it transmits through the material. However, high-intensity ultrasonic of the power range above 1 W/cm2 may produce physical/chemical disruption and alteration in the material through which the wave propagates. High-intensity ultrasonic is usually used in cleaning, promotion of chemical reactions, homogenization, etc

  17. Cheese maturity assessment using ultrasonics.

    PubMed

    Benedito, J; Carcel, J; Clemente, G; Mulet, A

    2000-02-01

    The relationship between Mahon cheese maturity and ultrasonic velocity was examined. Moisture and textural properties were used as maturity indicators. The ultrasonic velocity of the cheese varied between 1630 and 1740 m/s, increasing with the curing time mainly because of loss of water, which also produced an increase of the textural properties. Because of the nature of low-intensity ultrasonics, velocity was better related to those textural parameters that involved small displacements. Ultrasonic velocity decreased with increasing temperature because of the negative temperature coefficient of the ultrasonic velocity of fat and the melting of fat. These results highlight the potential use of ultrasonic velocity measurements to rapidly and nondestructively assess cheese maturity. PMID:10714857

  18. Ultrasonic Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Ultraprobe 2000, manufactured by UE Systems, Inc., Elmsford, NY, is a hand-held ultrasonic system that detects indications of bearing failure by analyzing changes in amplitude. It employs the technology of a prototype ultrasonic bearing-failure monitoring system developed by Mechanical Technology, Inc., Latham, New York and Marshall Space Flight Center (which was based on research into Skylab's gyroscope bearings). Bearings on the verge of failure send ultrasonic signals indicating their deterioration; the Ultraprobe changes these to audible signals. The operator hears the signals and gages their intensity with a meter in the unit.

  19. Scanning ultrasonic probe

    DOEpatents

    Kupperman, David S.; Reimann, Karl J.

    1982-01-01

    The invention is an ultrasonic testing device for rapid and complete examination of the test specimen, and is particularly well suited for evaluation of tubular test geometries. A variety of defect categories may be detected and analyzed at one time and their positions accurately located in a single pass down the test specimen.

  20. Scanning ultrasonic probe

    DOEpatents

    Kupperman, D.S.; Reimann, K.J.

    1980-12-09

    The invention is an ultrasonic testing device for rapid and complete examination of the test specimen, and is particularly well suited for evaluation of tubular test geometries. A variety of defect categories may be detected and anlayzed at one time and their positions accurately located in a single pass down the test specimen.

  1. Ultrasonic Polishing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilmore, Randy

    1993-01-01

    The ultrasonic polishing process makes use of the high-frequency (ultrasonic) vibrations of an abradable tool which automatically conforms to the work piece and an abrasive slurry to finish surfaces and edges on complex, highly detailed, close tolerance cavities in materials from beryllium copper to carbide. Applications range from critical deburring of guidance system components to removing EDM recast layers from aircraft engine components to polishing molds for forming carbide cutting tool inserts or injection molding plastics. A variety of materials including tool steels, carbides, and even ceramics can be successfully processed. Since the abradable tool automatically conforms to the work piece geometry, the ultrasonic finishing method described offers a number of important benefits in finishing components with complex geometries.

  2. Ultrasonic neuromodulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naor, Omer; Krupa, Steve; Shoham, Shy

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasonic waves can be non-invasively steered and focused into mm-scale regions across the human body and brain, and their application in generating controlled artificial modulation of neuronal activity could therefore potentially have profound implications for neural science and engineering. Ultrasonic neuro-modulation phenomena were experimentally observed and studied for nearly a century, with recent discoveries on direct neural excitation and suppression sparking a new wave of investigations in models ranging from rodents to humans. In this paper we review the physics, engineering and scientific aspects of ultrasonic fields, their control in both space and time, and their effect on neuronal activity, including a survey of both the field’s foundational history and of recent findings. We describe key constraints encountered in this field, as well as key engineering systems developed to surmount them. In closing, the state of the art is discussed, with an emphasis on emerging research and clinical directions.

  3. Ultrasonic neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Naor, Omer; Krupa, Steve; Shoham, Shy

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasonic waves can be non-invasively steered and focused into mm-scale regions across the human body and brain, and their application in generating controlled artificial modulation of neuronal activity could therefore potentially have profound implications for neural science and engineering. Ultrasonic neuro-modulation phenomena were experimentally observed and studied for nearly a century, with recent discoveries on direct neural excitation and suppression sparking a new wave of investigations in models ranging from rodents to humans. In this paper we review the physics, engineering and scientific aspects of ultrasonic fields, their control in both space and time, and their effect on neuronal activity, including a survey of both the field's foundational history and of recent findings. We describe key constraints encountered in this field, as well as key engineering systems developed to surmount them. In closing, the state of the art is discussed, with an emphasis on emerging research and clinical directions. PMID:27153566

  4. Ultrasonic angioplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Robert J.

    1990-08-01

    Over the past 3 years we have developed a percutaneous ultrasonic angioplasty device and recently applied it in human peripheral arteries. This paper describes some of the background preceding the development of intravascular ultrasound for arterial recanalization. The chronology of our development of ultrasonic angioplasty is discussed from in vitro studies on atherosclerotic plaque to in vivo studies in canine models with differing types of arterial occlusions (thrombotic fibrotic calcific-atherosclerotic) and to initial human application. SPIE Vol. 1321 Modern Technologies Applied to Medical Practice (1989) / 69

  5. Ultrasonic Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Automation Industries Inc. has had more than $2 million in contracts to produce innovative equipment for the Apollo program. When Marshall Space Flight Center sought a fast nondestructive way to inspect butt welds in aluminum alloys for spacecraft, the company developed a reliable ultrasonic device using multiple transducers called "delta manipulators" which detect lack of weld penetration not readily seen in radiograph automation. Industry soon adapted the ultrasonic equipment to a unique rail inspection device that saves countless man hours. Device is contained in self propelled railroad cars produced and operated by the company to check old track welds for deterioration.

  6. Ultrasonic test system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Anthony; Goff, Dan; Kruchowy, Roman; Rhoads, Carl

    1994-08-01

    An ultrasonic system for determining the quality of concrete under water without inaccuracies caused by electromagnetic interference from the ultrasonic generator. An ultrasonic generator applies pulses to the concrete. An ultrasonic detector detects the ultrasonic pulses and produces corresponding signals that are indicative of ultrasonic pulses that have passed through the material. Signal processing circuitry processes the signals to determine the transit time of the ultrasonic pulses through the material. The signal processing circuitry is disabled for a predetermined time after application of each ultrasonic pulse to the material to prevent noise produced by the means for applying ultrasonic pulses to the material from entering the signal processing circuitry and causing spurious measurements.

  7. Ultrasonic distance and velocity measurement using a pair of LPM signals for cross-correlation method: improvement of Doppler-shift compensation and examination of Doppler velocity estimation.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Shinnosuke; Kurosawa, Minoru Kuribayashi

    2012-09-01

    Real-time distance measurement of a moving object with high accuracy and high resolution using an ultrasonic wave is difficult due to the influence of the Doppler effect or the limit of the calculation cost of signal processing. An over-sampling signal processing method using a pair of LPM signals has been proposed for ultrasonic distance and velocity measurement of moving objects with high accuracy and high resolution. The proposed method consists of cross correlation by single-bit signal processing, high-resolution Doppler velocity estimation with wide measurement range and low-calculation-cost Doppler-shift compensation. The over-sampling cross-correlation function is obtained from cross correlation by single-bit signal processing with low calculation cost. The Doppler velocity and distance of the object are determined from the peak interval and peak form in the cross-correlation function by the proposed method of Doppler velocity estimation and Doppler-shift compensation. In this paper, the proposed method of Doppler-shift compensation is improved. Accuracy of the determined distance was improved from approximately within ±140μm in the previous method to approximately within ±10μm in computer simulations. Then, the proposed method of Doppler velocity estimation is evaluated. In computer simulations, accuracy of the determined Doppler velocity and distance were demonstrated within ±8.471mm/s and ±13.87μm. In experiments, Doppler velocities of the motorized stage could be determined within ±27.9mm/s. PMID:22560801

  8. Molecular and functional identification of three interleukin-17A/F (IL-17A/F) homologues in large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea).

    PubMed

    Ding, Yang; Ao, Jingqun; Ai, Chunxiang; Chen, Xinhua

    2016-02-01

    The interleukin-17 (IL-17) cytokine family plays a central role in the coordination of inflammatory responses. In fish species, three genes that have a similar homology to both IL-17A and IL-17F were designated IL-17A/F1, 2, and 3. In this study, we identified three IL-17A/F homologues (LycIL-17A/F1, 2, and 3) from large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea). The deduced LycIL-17A/F1 and 3 had four cysteine residues conserved in teleost IL-17A/F1 and 3 homologues and shared a domain similar to the B chain of human IL-17F. The deduced LycIL-17A/F2 possessed the unique arrangement of six cysteine residues as teleost IL-17A/F2 (except Fugu IL-17A/F2) and higher vertebrate IL-17A and F, and shared a domain similar to the D/E chain of human IL-17A. Phylogenetic analysis showed that teleost IL-17A/F1 and 3 fall into a major clade, whereas IL-17A/F2 forms a separated clade and is clustered with IL-17N. Based on structural and phylogenetic analyses, we suggest that teleost IL-17A/Fs may be classified into two subgroups: one consisting of IL-17A/F1 and 3, and the other composed of IL-17A/F2. The three LycIL-17A/Fs were constitutively expressed in all tissues examined although at a different level. Following challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila, expression of these three LycIL-17A/Fs was rapidly increased in head kidney and gills. The in vivo assays showed that recombinant LycIL-17A/F1, 2, and 3 all were able to enhance the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α2), chemokines (CXCL8 and CXCL13), and antimicrobial peptide hepcidin in head kidney. Furthermore, LycIL-17A/Fs appeared to mediate pro-inflammatory responses via NF-κB signalling. These results therefore reveal similar functions between the two subgroup members,LycIL-17A/F1 and 3 and LycIL-17A/F2, in promoting inflammation and host defences. PMID:26429410

  9. Ultrasonic Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    MicroUltrasonics PLR-1000 is a refined microprocessor-controlled version (usable on bolts, plates, liquids and gases) of the P2L2 developed by Langley Research Center. New technique is for nondestructive measurement of residual stress in various types of structures, for example, nuclear pressure vessels, pipes in nuclear reactors, offshore platforms, bridges, railroad tracks and wheels, aircraft wings, and engines. The instrument produces sound tone pulses that travel through a test specimen. PLR-1000 precisely measures speeds as stress increases speed of sound, tone changes, making precise measurements possible.

  10. Ultrasonic transducer

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Steven C.; Kraft, Nancy C.

    2007-03-13

    An ultrasonic transducer having an effective center frequency of about 42 MHz; a bandwidth of greater than 85% at 6 dB; a spherical focus of at least 0.5 inches in water; an F4 lens; a resolution sufficient to be able to detect and separate a 0.005 inch flat-bottomed hole at 0.005 inches below surface; and a beam size of approximately 0.006–0.008 inches measured off a 11/2 mm ball in water at the transducer's focal point.

  11. Ultrasonic Interferometers Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    I have been tinkering with ultrasonic transducers once more. In earlier notes I reported on optics-like experiments performed with ultrasonics, described a number of ultrasonic interferometers, and showed how ultrasonic transducers can be used for Fourier analysis. This time I became interested in trying the technique of using two detectors in…

  12. Ultrasonic Interferometers Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2007-03-01

    I have been tinkering with ultrasonic transducers once more. In earlier notes I reported on optics-like experiments performed with ultrasonics, described a number of ultrasonic interferometers,2 and showed how ultrasonic transducers can be used for Fourier analysis.3 This time I became interested in trying the technique of using two detectors in acoustic interferometers instead of the usual one.

  13. Ultrasonic pipe assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Graham H.; Morrow, Valerie L.; Levie, Harold; Kane, Ronald J.; Brown, Albert E.

    2003-12-23

    An ultrasonic pipe or other structure assessment system includes an ultrasonic transducer positioned proximate the pipe or other structure. A fluid connection between the ultrasonic transducer and the pipe or other structure is produced. The ultrasonic transducer is moved relative to the pipe or other structure.

  14. Modern ultrasonic flowmeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurevich, V. M.; Truman, S. G.

    1986-01-01

    The current status of ultrasonic flowmeters were reviewed on the basis of materials published in the Soviet Union and elsewhere. The following advantages of ultrasonic flowmeters over earlier instruments are cited. A comparative analysis is made of the design methods employed in ultrasonic flowmeters. The evolution of ultrasonic flowmetering is traced from the first generation and trends in their development are analyzed.

  15. Ultrasonic hydrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Swoboda, C.A.

    1984-04-17

    The disclosed ultrasonic hydrometer determines the specific gravity (density) of the electrolyte of a wet battery, such as a lead-acid battery. The hydrometer utilizes a transducer that when excited emits an ultrasonic impulse that traverses through the electrolyte back and forth between spaced sonic surfaces. The transducer detects the returning impulse, and means measures the time ''t'' between the initial and returning impulses. Considering the distance ''d'' between the spaced sonic surfaces and the measured time ''t'', the sonic velocity ''V'' is calculated with the equation ''V=2d/t''. The hydrometer also utilizes a thermocouple to measure the electrolyte temperature. A hydrometer database correlates three variable parameters including sonic velocity in and temperature and specific gravity of the electrolyte, for temperature values between 0/sup 0/ and 40/sup 0/ C. and for specific gravity values between 1.05 and 1.30. Upon knowing two parameters (the calculated sonic velocity and the measured temperature), the third parameter (specific gravity) can be uniquely found in the database. The hydrometer utilizes a microprocessor for data storage and manipulation. The disclosed modified battery has a hollow spacer nub on the battery side wall, the sonic surfaces being on the inside of the nub and the electrolyte filling between the surfaces to the exclusion of intervening structure. An accessible pad exposed on the nub wall opposite one sonic surface allows the reliable placement thereagainst of the transducer.

  16. Ultrasonic hydrometer

    DOEpatents

    Swoboda, Carl A.

    1984-01-01

    The disclosed ultrasonic hydrometer determines the specific gravity (density) of the electrolyte of a wet battery, such as a lead-acid battery. The hydrometer utilizes a transducer that when excited emits an ultrasonic impulse that traverses through the electrolyte back and forth between spaced sonic surfaces. The transducer detects the returning impulse, and means measures the time "t" between the initial and returning impulses. Considering the distance "d" between the spaced sonic surfaces and the measured time "t", the sonic velocity "V" is calculated with the equation "V=2d/t". The hydrometer also utilizes a thermocouple to measure the electrolyte temperature. A hydrometer database correlates three variable parameters including sonic velocity in and temperature and specific gravity of the electrolyte, for temperature values between 0.degree. and 40.degree. C. and for specific gravity values between 1.05 and 1.30. Upon knowing two parameters (the calculated sonic velocity and the measured temperature), the third parameter (specific gravity) can be uniquely found in the database. The hydrometer utilizes a microprocessor for data storage and manipulation. The disclosed modified battery has a hollow spacer nub on the battery side wall, the sonic surfaces being on the inside of the nub and the electrolyte filling between the surfaces to the exclusion of intervening structure. An accessible pad exposed on the nub wall opposite one sonic surface allows the reliable placement thereagainst of the transducer.

  17. Atrial Fibrillation (AF or AFib)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Atrial Fibrillation (AF or AFib) Updated:Feb 10,2016 What ... to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy Atrial Fibrillation • Introduction • What is Atrial Fibrillation? • Why AFib Matters • ...

  18. Ultrasonics: Fundamentals, Technologies, and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ensminger, Dale; Bond, Leonard J.

    2011-09-17

    This is a new edition of a bestselling industry reference. Discusses the science, technology, and applications of low and high power ultrasonics, including industrial implementations and medical uses. Reviews the basic equations of acoustics, starting from basic wave equations and their applications. New material on property determination, inspection of metals (NDT) and non-metals, imaging, process monitoring and control. Expanded discussion of transducers, transducer wave-fields, scattering, attenuation and measurement systems and models. New material that discusses high power ultrasonics - in particular using mechanical effects and sonochemistry, including applications to nano-materials. Examines diagnosis, therapy, and surgery from a technology and medical physics perspective.

  19. Pathogenesis of AF: Impact on intracardiac signals

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ashok J; Dubois, Rémi; Miyazaki, Shinsuke; Jadidi, Amir S; Scherr, Daniel; Wilton, Stephen B; Roten, Laurent; Pascale, Patrizio; Pedersen, Michala; Derval, Nicolas; Knecht, Sebastien; Sacher, Frederic; Jais, Pierre; Narayan, Sanjiv; Hocini, Mélèze; Haïssaguerre, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, and is responsible for the highest number of rhythm-related disorders and cardioembolic strokes worldwide. Intracardiac signal analysis during the onset of paroxysmal AF led to the discovery of pulmonary vein as a triggering source of AF, which has led to the development of pulmonary vein ablation—an established curative therapy for drug-resistant AF. Complex, multicomponent and rapid electrical activity widely involving the atrial substrate characterizes persistent/permanent AF. Widespread nature of the problem and complexity of signals in persistent AF reduce the success rate of ablation therapy. Although signal processing applied to extraction of relevant features from these complex electrograms has helped to improve the efficacy of ablation therapy in persistent/permanent AF, improved understanding of complex signals should help to identify sources of AF and further increase the success rate of ablation therapy. PMID:22255589

  20. Delaminations Investigated With Ultrasonic Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgriff, Laura M.

    2003-01-01

    A previous study suggested that the ultrasonic spectroscopy technique identified possible disbonds or delaminations in polymer matrix composite (PMC) rings sectioned from flywheel rotors (ref. 1). These results went unsubstantiated by other nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods. To explain the results, PMC rings were further investigated with ultrasonic spectroscopy (ref. 2). The ultrasonic spectroscopy system utilizes a continuous-swept sine waveform as the input. After the swept sine wave traverses the material, the captured waveform is subjected to two fast Fourier transforms. The second fast Fourier transform along with equalization of the frequency spectrum, allows for evaluation of the fundamental resonant frequency. The full-thickness resonance, the resonance corresponding to the location of the intentional disbond, and the frequency spectrum were examined in an effort to characterize the sensitivity of the NDE method to various delamination conditions.

  1. Ultrasonic cleaning of fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Kondoh, Keisuke; Fujita, Chitoshi; Sakai, Hitoshi

    1994-12-31

    During fuel transportation, contamination of the transfer cask can lead to radiation dosage. That is radioactive crud becomes detached from the fuel surface and is deposited inside the cask. To avoid this at the Tsuruga Power Station Unit 1, crud was removed from fuel assemblies in advance of fuel transportation work. An ultrasonic cleaning process was adopted for this purpose; ultrasonic methods excel over other methods for this type of cleaning. Our process is also able to clean fuel assemblies without removing the channel box. Since this is the first time that the ultrasonic method was applied to fuel assemblies at the light water reactor in Japan on a large scale, the efficiency and the impact on plant instrumentation of the method were examined by performing preliminary test. Based on these tests, an optimum cleaning procedure was established.

  2. Ultrasonic stress wave characterization of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, J. C., Jr.; Henneke, E. G., II; Stinchcomb, W. W.

    1986-01-01

    The work reported covers three simultaneous projects. The first project was concerned with: (1) establishing the sensitivity of the acousto-ultrasonic method for evaluating subtle forms of damage development in cyclically loaded composite materials, (2) establishing the ability of the acousto-ultrasonic method for detecting initial material imperfections that lead to localized damage growth and final specimen failure, and (3) characteristics of the NBS/Proctor sensor/receiver for acousto-ultrasonic evaluation of laminated composite materials. The second project was concerned with examining the nature of the wave propagation that occurs during acoustic-ultrasonic evaluation of composite laminates and demonstrating the role of Lamb or plate wave modes and their utilization for characterizing composite laminates. The third project was concerned with the replacement of contact-type receiving piezotransducers with noncontacting laser-optical sensors for acousto-ultrasonic signal acquisition.

  3. ULTRASONIC NEUTRON DOSIMETER

    DOEpatents

    Truell, R.; de Klerk, J.; Levy, P.W.

    1960-02-23

    A neutron dosimeter is described which utilizes ultrasonic waves in the megacycle region for determination of the extent of neutron damage in a borosilicate glass through ultrasonic wave velocity and attenuation measurements before and after damage.

  4. Spark ultrasonic transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoop, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    Nondestructive testing by spark transducer induces ultrasonic pulses in materials without physical contact. High power pulse generator connected to step up transformer produces sparking between two tungsten rods and ultrasonic energy pulses in test samples placed between rods.

  5. Ultrasonic pulser-receiver

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Steven C.

    2006-09-12

    Ultrasonic pulser-receiver circuitry, for use with an ultrasonic transducer, the circuitry comprising a circuit board; ultrasonic pulser circuitry supported by the circuit board and configured to be coupled to an ultrasonic transducer and to cause the ultrasonic transducer to emit an ultrasonic output pulse; receiver circuitry supported by the circuit board, coupled to the pulser circuitry, including protection circuitry configured to protect against the ultrasonic pulse and including amplifier circuitry configured to amplify an echo, received back by the transducer, of the output pulse; and a connector configured to couple the ultrasonic transducer directly to the circuit board, to the pulser circuitry and receiver circuitry, wherein impedance mismatches that would result if the transducer was coupled to the circuit board via a cable can be avoided.

  6. Ultrasonic flow imaging system: A feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, S.H.; Lawrence, W.P.; Chien, H.T.; Raptis, A.C.

    1991-09-01

    This report examines the feasibility and potential problems in developing a real-time ultrasonic flow imaging instrument for on-line monitoring of mixed-phased flows such as coal slurries. State-of-the-art ultrasonic imaging techniques are assessed for this application. Reflection and diffraction tomographies are proposed for further development, including image-reconstruction algorithms and parallel processing systems. A conventional ultrasonic C-scan technique is used to demonstrate the feasibility of imaging the particle motion in a solid/water flow. 13 refs., 11 figs.

  7. Ultrasonic magnetostrictive transducers for guided ultrasonic waves in thin wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kropf, Matthew M.; Tittmann, B. R.

    2007-04-01

    The magnetostrictive effect is used to generate ultrasonic waves for a variety of health monitoring applications. Given the ductile nature of many ferromagnetic materials and the common geometrical configuration of magnetic inductance coils, magnetostrictive generation of ultrasound is especially suitable for long cylindrical waveguides such as thin wires. Furthermore, utilizing ultrasonic guided wave modes in such waveguides provides a robust tool for remote inspection of materials or environments over long distances. Through the use of different guided wave modes, structural health monitoring sensors could be tailored to suit individual applications. Guided wave modes offer a choice in displacement profile allowing sensors to be designed to be either sensitive or impervious to surface effects. The dispersivity of the guided wave velocity can also be optimized for applications involving time-of-flight measurements. Despite the advantages afforded by guided wave analysis, current magnetostrictive transducers, consisting of coil of wire and a bias magnet, can not perform at the frequencies necessary to excite higher order guided wave modes. In order to advance the capability of magnetostrictive transducers for ultrasonic guided waves in wires, the design parameters of inductance coils are examined. Using a Laser Doppler Vibrometer, ultrasonic displacements are measured over a range of excitation frequencies for different coil configurations and parameters to determine the feasibility of developing a higher mode magnetostrictive transducer.

  8. Ultrasonic Microtransport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroney, Richard Morgan, III

    We have observed numerous kinetic effects using ultrasonic flexural plate waves (FPWs) in 4mu -thick composite plates of low-stress silicon nitride, piezoelectric zinc oxide and aluminum. The wavelength is typically 100 mum, and the area 3 x 8 mm^2. A successful new surface micromachining fabrication process is presented here for the first time. FPWs have been used to move liquids and gasses with motion typically indicated by polysilicon blocks in air and polystyrene spheres in water; the velocity in air is 4.5 mm/s (with a zero-to-peak input of 3 V), and in water it is 100 mum/s (with an input of 7.8 V). Other observations include pumping of a liquid dye, and mixing near the FPW surface. All quantitative observations demonstrate that the kinetic effects of FPWs are proportional to the square of the wave amplitude. The amplitude for a typical device is 250 A at 9 V input; the power in a typical FPW is about 2 mW. The amplitude can be accurately measured using a laser diffraction technique. Experimental error is about +/-10%, and many of the results agree well with a simple theory to predict the FPW amplitude; extensions of the theory model the fluid loading of FPW devices, but experiment and theory disagree by about 15%. Pumping by flexural plate waves is an example of the phenomenon known as acoustic streaming. A common solution approach is the method of successive approximations, where the nonlinear equations are first linearized and solved. This "first-order" solution is then used to determine the inhomogeneous source terms in the linearized, "second -order" equations of motion. Theoretical predictions of streaming theory are in excellent agreement with experiment in the case where the FPW device contacts a half-space of fluid; predictions for flow in small channels encourage the development of integrated micropumps. Applications for microflow include thermal redistribution in integrated circuits and liquid movement in analytical instruments--particularly where

  9. Mutant U2AF1 Expression Alters Hematopoiesis and Pre-mRNA Splicing In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Shirai, Cara Lunn; Ley, James N.; White, Brian S.; Kim, Sanghyun; Tibbitts, Justin; Shao, Jin; Ndonwi, Matthew; Wadugu, Brian; Duncavage, Eric J.; Okeyo-Owuor, Theresa; Liu, Tuoen; Griffith, Malachi; McGrath, Sean; Magrini, Vincent; Fulton, Robert S.; Fronick, Catrina; O’Laughlin, Michelle; Graubert, Timothy A.; Walter, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Heterozygous somatic mutations in the spliceosome gene U2AF1 occur in ~11% of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), the most common adult myeloid malignancy. It is unclear how these mutations contribute to disease. We examined in vivo hematopoietic consequences of the most common U2AF1 mutation using a doxycycline-inducible transgenic mouse model. Mice expressing mutant U2AF1(S34F) display altered hematopoiesis and changes in pre-mRNA splicing in hematopoietic progenitor cells by whole transcriptome analysis (RNA-seq). Integration with human RNA-seq datasets determined that common mutant U2AF1-induced splicing alterations are enriched in RNA processing genes, ribosomal genes, and recurrently-mutated MDS and acute myeloid leukemia-associated genes. These findings support the hypothesis that mutant U2AF1 alters downstream gene isoform expression, thereby contributing to abnormal hematopoiesis in MDS patients. PMID:25965570

  10. Laser-Scan Ultrasonic/Thermographic Inspection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Marzwell, Neville; Chung, Tom; Carman, Greg

    1996-01-01

    Laser ultrasonic/thermographic inspection system is conceptual instrument used in nondestructive inspection of large areas of structures for subsurface defects. For example, operated in field to examine aircraft and pressure vessels for hidden cracks. System would not require contact with inspected structure or use of ultrasonic-coupling medium. Instrument obtains data in ultrasonic and thermographic C-scans over structural surfaces with contours characterized by surface normal vectors varying by angles as large as 45 degrees.

  11. High resolution ultrasonic densitometer

    SciTech Connect

    Dress, W.B.

    1983-01-01

    The velocity of torsional stress pulses in an ultrasonic waveguide of non-circular cross section is affected by the temperature and density of the surrounding medium. Measurement of the transit times of acoustic echoes from the ends of a sensor section are interpreted as level, density, and temperature of the fluid environment surrounding that section. This paper examines methods of making these measurements to obtain high resolution, temperature-corrected absolute and relative density and level determinations of the fluid. Possible applications include on-line process monitoring, a hand-held density probe for battery charge state indication, and precise inventory control for such diverse fluids as uranium salt solutions in accountability storage and gasoline in service station storage tanks.

  12. Totally thorascopic surgical ablation of persistent AF and long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation using the "Dallas" lesion set.

    PubMed

    Edgerton, James R; Jackman, Warren M; Mahoney, Cecile; Mack, Michael J

    2009-12-01

    Minimally invasive surgery consisting of bipolar radiofrequency pulmonary vein (PV) isolation and limited ganglionated plexus ablation is effective in eliminating atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with paroxysmal AF but is less effective in those with persistent AF or long-standing persistent AF. The purpose of this study was examine the results of minimally invasive surgery incorporating an additional set of radiofrequency ablation lines replicating a left-sided Cox maze III procedure. Thirty patients with persistent AF (n = 10) or long-standing persistent AF (n = 20) underwent minimally invasive surgery with an extended lesion set and PV isolation for a minimum follow-up of 6 months. Linear lesions were created at the roof line, at the anterior line, and between the roof line and the left atrial appendage. All patients underwent limited ganglionated plexus ablation and left atrial appendage excision as well as PV isolation verification. Block across the roof and anterior lines was confirmed in 29 (96.6%) of the 30 patients. Follow-up included 2-week event monitoring with auto-trigger in 21 patients, pacemaker interrogation in 8, and ECG in 1 who was in AF and refused longer-term monitoring. No operative mortality or major morbidity occurred. At 6 months, 24 (80%) of the 30 patients were free of AF: 15 (75%) with long-standing persistent AF and 9 (90%) with persistent AF. Among the six failures, burden of AF was low: one had 1 episode >15 seconds, two had 4 episodes, one had 6 episodes, one had >50 episodes, and one had AF on ECG and refused further monitoring. Early results of minimally invasive surgery with a new extended linear lesion set suggest increased efficacy over PV isolation and limited ganglionated plexus ablation in patients with persistent AF or long-standing persistent AF. PMID:19959146

  13. Ultrasonic ranking of toughness of tungsten carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.; Hull, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of using ultrasonic attenuation measurements to rank tungsten carbide alloys according to their fracture toughness was demonstrated. Six samples of cobalt-cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) were examined. These varied in cobalt content from approximately 2 to 16 weight percent. The toughness generally increased with increasing cobalt content. Toughness was first determined by the Palmqvist and short rod fracture toughness tests. Subsequently, ultrasonic attenuation measurements were correlated with both these mechanical test methods. It is shown that there is a strong increase in ultrasonic attenuation corresponding to increased toughness of the WC-Co alloys. A correlation between attenuation and toughness exists for a wide range of ultrasonic frequencies. However, the best correlation for the WC-Co alloys occurs when the attenuation coefficient measured in the vicinity of 100 megahertz is compared with toughness as determined by the Palmqvist technique.

  14. The effect of coal desulfurization on flotation through ultrasonic treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Jun; Chen Jianqi

    1997-12-31

    This paper carries out a study on the influence of ultrasonic treatment upon the changes of these aspects: pulp particle granularity, dissolving oxygen, pulp pH, surface potential (x), pulp potential (Eh) and conductivity rate, through the introduction of primary application and functional mechanism of ultrasonic wave such as ultrasonic comminution, ultrasonic cleaning and ultrasonic atomization. The effect of ultrasonic pretreatment on the size composition of the feeds and the floatability of coal and pyrite is examined. The tests affected the size composition of raw coal distinctively and caused the removal of sulfur from coals. It has been found that ultrasonic pretreatment of slurry enhances the differences in physico-chemical surface properties of coal and pyrite. In this case it is possible to obtain low-sulfur coals from high-sulfur coals. This may be explained by the different effects of ultrasonic vibrations on coal and pyrite which cause some improvement of the selectivity of their flotation separation. According to the authors` research, it explores the feasibility of flotation desulfurization by means of ultrasonic reinforcement, and puts forward that ultrasonic treatment of a slurry under the appropriate period of time, sonic frequency and energy density, along with appropriate flotation process and coal pyrite depression method, can achieve the best effect of flotation desulfurization. It offers a new method or means to gain abstraction of the clean coal.

  15. Wedges for ultrasonic inspection

    DOEpatents

    Gavin, Donald A.

    1982-01-01

    An ultrasonic transducer device is provided which is used in ultrasonic inspection of the material surrounding a threaded hole and which comprises a wedge of plastic or the like including a curved threaded surface adapted to be screwed into the threaded hole and a generally planar surface on which a conventional ultrasonic transducer is mounted. The plastic wedge can be rotated within the threaded hole to inspect for flaws in the material surrounding the threaded hole.

  16. The power of ultrasonics.

    PubMed

    Profit, Alan L; Martini, Luigi G

    2005-01-01

    This overview of ultrasonic technologies describes their effectiveness for a number of applications. Product examples illustrate use for welding, cutting and boring as well as atomising. PMID:16334603

  17. Ultrasonic Bolt Gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleman, Stuart M. (Inventor); Rowe, Geoffrey K. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An ultrasonic bolt gage is described which uses a crosscorrelation algorithm to determine a tension applied to a fastener, such as a bolt. The cross-correlation analysis is preferably performed using a processor operating on a series of captured ultrasonic echo waveforms. The ultrasonic bolt gage is further described as using the captured ultrasonic echo waveforms to perform additional modes of analysis, such as feature recognition. Multiple tension data outputs, therefore, can be obtained from a single data acquisition for increased measurement reliability. In addition, one embodiment of the gage has been described as multi-channel, having a multiplexer for performing a tension analysis on one of a plurality of bolts.

  18. Study about AFS swerve mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hong; Jiang, Lanfang; Zhao, Qin; Wang, Li

    2009-11-01

    A swerving mathematical model was established after stating the shortage of the present AFS swerving algorithm. The conception of 'expected lighting distance' was extended to 'expected lighting bound' and approximate treatment of geometry of light beam falling to ground of headlamp was processed. The expected lighting bound was ascertained and the lighting range of turning angle of headlamp was calculated. The calculation formula of turning angle of headlamp was worked out. It was indicated that the turning angle of inside and outside of headlamp calculated by revised algorithm was reasonable by comparing calculation. Finally the control strategy about the turning angle of inside and outside headlamp when turning was worked out. It is of practical significance in promoting the active safety, reducing the traffic accidents caused by insufficient angle and range of irradiation of headlamp.

  19. Eaton AF5000+Genesis Communication Driver

    1995-05-25

    Communication driver allows the Genesis Control Series software to interact with Eaton AF5000+ frequency drives via RS-232 communications. All Eaton AF5000+ parameters that support communications are supported by the Genesis driver. Multidrop addressing to multiple units is available with the Genesis communication driver.

  20. Production of aqueous spherical gold nanoparticles using conventional ultrasonic bath

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A conventional ultrasonic bath was used to examine the feasibility of forming aqueous spherical gold nanoparticles (GNPs) under atmospheric conditions. The effects of ultrasonic energy on the size and morphology of GNPs were also investigated. Highly monodispersed spherical GNPs were successfully synthesised by sodium citrate reduction in a conventional ultrasonic bath, without an additional heater or magnetic stirrer, as evidenced by ultraviolet–visible spectra and transmission electron microscopy. Ultrasonic energy was shown to be a key parameter for producing spherical GNPs of tunable sizes (20 to 50 nm). A proposed scheme for understanding the role of ultrasonic energy in the formation and growth of GNPs was discussed. The simple single-step method using just a conventional ultrasonic bath as demonstrated in this study offers new opportunities in the production of aqueous suspensions of monodispersed spherical GNPs. PMID:22839598

  1. Ultrasonic/Sonic Anchor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart

    2009-01-01

    The ultrasonic/sonic anchor (U/S anchor) is an anchoring device that drills a hole for itself in rock, concrete, or other similar material. The U/S anchor is a recent addition to a series of related devices, the first of which were reported in "Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corers With Integrated Sensors"

  2. Experiments in Pulsed Ultrasonics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, S. B.; Forster, G. A.

    1970-01-01

    Describes and apparatus designed to generate and detect pulsed ultrasonics in solids and liquids over the frequency range 1-20 MHz. Experiments are suggested for velocity of sound, elastic constant and ultrasonic attenuation measurements on various materials over a wide temperature range. The equipment should be useful for demonstration purposes.…

  3. Ultrasonic measurement apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Orban, J.; Mayes, J.C.

    1992-07-14

    This patent describes borehole measurement apparatus. It comprises a tool adapted for connection in a drill string in the borehole through earth formations, first and second ultra-sonic transmitter means disposed diametrically opposed from each other in the cylindrical body, first and second ultra-sonic transducer means disposed in the cylindrical body, and logic means, processing means, and memory means.

  4. Ultrasonic drilling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Duran, E.L.; Lundin, R.L.

    1988-06-20

    Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation. 3 figs.

  5. Ultrasonic determination of recrystallization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, E. R.

    1986-01-01

    Ultrasonic attenuation was measured for cold worked Nickel 200 samples annealed at increasing temperatures. Localized dislocation density variations, crystalline order and colume percent of recrystallized phase were determined over the anneal temperature range using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and metallurgy. The exponent of the frequency dependence of the attenuation was found to be a key variable relating ultrasonic attenuation to the thermal kinetics of the recrystallization process. Identification of this key variable allows for the ultrasonic determination of onset, degree, and completion of recrystallization.

  6. Ultrasonic washing of textiles.

    PubMed

    Choi, Junhee; Kim, Tae-Hong; Kim, Ho-Young; Kim, Wonjung

    2016-03-01

    We present the results of experimental investigation of ultrasonic washing of textiles. The results demonstrate that cavitation bubbles oscillating in acoustic fields are capable of removing soils from textiles. Since the washing performance is mitigated in a large washing bath when using an ultrasonic transducer, we propose a novel washing scheme by combining the ultrasonic vibration with a conventional washing method utilizing kinetic energy of textiles. It is shown that the hybrid washing scheme achieves a markedly enhanced performance up to 15% in comparison with the conventional washing machine. This work can contribute to developing a novel laundry machine with reduced washing time and waste water. PMID:26215790

  7. Ultrasonic liquid level detector

    DOEpatents

    Kotz, Dennis M.; Hinz, William R.

    2010-09-28

    An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use within a shielded container, the detector being tubular in shape with a chamber at its lower end into which liquid from in the container may enter and exit, the chamber having an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver in its top wall and a reflector plate or target as its bottom wall whereby when liquid fills the chamber a complete medium is then present through which an ultrasonic wave may be transmitted and reflected from the target thus signaling that the liquid is at chamber level.

  8. Ultrasonic drilling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Duran, Edward L.; Lundin, Ralph L.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation.

  9. STBC AF relay for unmanned aircraft system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Fumiyuki; Miyazaki, Hiroyuki; Endo, Chikara

    2015-01-01

    If a large scale disaster similar to the Great East Japan Earthquake 2011 happens, some areas may be isolated from the communications network. Recently, unmanned aircraft system (UAS) based wireless relay communication has been attracting much attention since it is able to quickly re-establish the connection between isolated areas and the network. However, the channel between ground station (GS) and unmanned aircraft (UA) is unreliable due to UA's swing motion and as consequence, the relay communication quality degrades. In this paper, we introduce space-time block coded (STBC) amplify-and-forward (AF) relay for UAS based wireless relay communication to improve relay communication quality. A group of UAs forms single frequency network (SFN) to perform STBC-AF cooperative relay. In STBC-AF relay, only conjugate operation, block exchange and amplifying are required at UAs. Therefore, STBC-AF relay improves the relay communication quality while alleviating the complexity problem at UAs. It is shown by computer simulation that STBC-AF relay can achieve better throughput performance than conventional AF relay.

  10. Perform Ultrasonic Testing on Cs Capsule Overpacks

    SciTech Connect

    DAVIS, S.J.

    2000-04-06

    This procedure provides a safe, uniform method for the performance of the ultrasonic weld inspection of the Cesium capsule overpacks. The inspection system will detect cracks, lack of fusion, and lack of penetration. This computer controlled automated system will perform the examination once the capsule overpack has been placed in the pool cell. Examination of the capsule overpacks will be in accordance with drawing H-283014, REV. 0 ,and a certified NDE examiner will perform the test procedure, provide analysis, and test documentation.

  11. Soft tissue cutting with ultrasonic mechanical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wylie, Mark. P.; McGuinness, Garrett; Gavin, Graham P.

    2012-05-01

    The use of ultrasonic vibrations transmitted via small diameter wire waveguides represents a technology that has potential for minimally invasive procedures in surgery. This form of energy delivery results in distal tip mechanical vibrations with amplitudes of vibration of up to 50 μm and at frequencies between 20-50 kHz commonly reported. This energy can then be used by micro-cutting surgical tools and end effectors for a range of applications such as bone cutting, cement removal in joint revision surgery and soft tissue cutting. One particular application which has gained regulatory approval in recent years is in the area of cardiovascular surgery in the removal of calcified atherosclerotic plaques and chronic total occlusions. This paper builds on previous work that was focused on the ultrasonic perforation of soft vascular tissue using ultrasonically activated mechanical waveguides and the applied force required to initiate failure in soft tissue when compared with non-ultrasonic waveguides. An ultrasonic device and experimental rig was developed that can deliver ultrasonic vibrations to the distal tip of 1.0 mm diameter nickel-titanium waveguides. The operation of the ultrasonic device has been characterized at 22.5 kHz with achievable amplitudes of vibration in the range of 16 - 40μm. The experimental rig allows the ultrasonically activated waveguide to be advanced through a tissue sample over a range of feedrates and the waveguide-tissue interaction force can be measured during perforation into the tissue. Preliminary studies into the effects of feedrate on porcine aortic arterial tissue perforation forces are presented as part of this work. A range of amplitudes of vibration at the wire waveguide distal tip were examined. The resulting temperature increase when perforating artery wall when using the energized wire waveguides is also examined. Results show a clear multistage failure of the tissue. The first stage involves a rise in force up to some

  12. Ultrasonic material property determinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serabian, S.

    1986-01-01

    The use and potential offered by ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements to determine and/or monitor material properties is explored. The basis for such unique measurements along with examples of materials from a variety of industries are presented.

  13. Laser ultrasonics: Current research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.W. . Center for Nondestructive Evaluation)

    1990-09-26

    Laser-ultrasonics refers to a range of technologies involving the use of laser electrooptical systems both to generate and to detect ultrasonic signals in and on materials and structures. Such systems have been developed to permit classical ultrasonic measurements for materials characterization and defect identification and measurement. From the point of view of one concerned with practical applications of ultrasonic inspection and measurement methods, laser-ultrasonic systems offer the flexibility which, in principle, should permit remote ultrasonic measurements to be performed on objects at elevated temperatures or in hostile environments. Laser-ultrasonic systems can be designed and constructed with extremely wide and flat detection bandwidth so that ultrasonic vibrational displacements can be recorded with high fidelity. In addition, there is no mechanical loading of the surface to damp, absorb, or otherwise distort the propagating acoustic energy. This feature has been used to great advantage in performing ultrasonic measurements in thin plates and films. In spite of the great advantages offered by laser-ultrasonics, there are severe limitations which restrict its application. In fact, based upon the performance of current state-of-the-art laser-ultrasonic systems, it is almost always more advantageous to use conventional ultrasonic transduction methods, if possible for a given application, than it is to apply laser-ultrasonics. In short, the main reason leading to this conclusion is the poor system detection sensitivity of laser-ultrasonic systems compared with piezoelectric transducer systems. The ramifications of this limited sensitivity are many.

  14. Noncontact Acousto-Ultrasonics for Material Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kautz, Harold E.

    1998-01-01

    A NdYAG 1064 nm, laser pulse was employed to produce ultrasonic waves in specimens of SiC/SiC and SiC/Ti 6-4 composites which are high temperature materials of interest for aerospace applications. Air coupled transducers were used to detect and collect the signals used for acousto-ultrasonic analysis. Conditions for detecting ultrasonic decay signals were examined. The results were compared to those determined on the same specimens with contact coupling. Some non-contact measurements were made employing conventional air focused detectors. Others were performed with a more novel micromachined capacitance transducer. Concerns of the laser-in technology include potential destructiveness of the laser pulse. Repeated laser pulsing at the same location does lead to deterioration of the ultrasonic signal in some materials, but seems to recover with time. Also, unlike contact AU, the frequency regime employed is a function of laser-material interaction rather than the choice of transducers. Concerns of the air coupled-out technology include the effect of air attenuation. This imposes a practical upper limit to frequency of detection. In the case of the experimental specimens studied ultrasonic decay signals could be imaged satisfactorily.

  15. Acousto-ultrasonic characterization of fiber reinforced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1981-01-01

    The acousto-ultrasonic technique combines advantageous aspects of acoustic emission and ultrasonic methodologies. Acousto-ultrasonics operates by introducing a repeating series of ultrasonic pulses into a material. The waves introduced simulate the spontaneous stress waves that would arise if the material were put under stress as in the case of acoustic emission measurements. These benign stress waves are detected by an acoustic emission sensor. The physical arrangement of the ultrasonic (input) transducer and acoustic emission (output) sensor is such that the resultant waveform carries an imprint of morphological factors that govern or contribute to material performance. The output waveform is complex, but it can be quantitized in terms of a 'stress wave factor.' The stress wave factor, which can be defined in a number of ways, is a relative measure of the efficiency of energy dissipation in a material. If flaws or other material anomalies exist in the volume being examined, their combined effect appears in the stress wave factor.

  16. The efficiency of ultrasonic oscillations transfer into the load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, O. V.; Abramov, V. O.; Mullakaev, M. S.; Artem'ev, V. V.

    2009-11-01

    The results of ultrasonic action to the substances have been presented. It is examined, the correlation between the electrical parameters of ultrasonic equipment and acoustic performances of the ultrasonic field in treating the medium, the efficiency of ultrasonic technological facility, and the peculiarities of oscillations introduced into the load under cavitation development. The correlation between the acoustic powers of oscillations securing the needed level of cavitation and desired technological effect, and the electrical parameters of the ultrasonic facility, first of all, the power, is established. The peculiarities of cavitation development in liquids with different physical-chemical properties (including the molten low-melting metals) have been studied, and the acoustic power of oscillations introduced into the load under input variation of electric power to the generator has been also estimated.

  17. Ultrasonic communication in frogs.

    PubMed

    Feng, Albert S; Narins, Peter M; Xu, Chun-He; Lin, Wen-Yu; Yu, Zu-Lin; Qiu, Qiang; Xu, Zhi-Min; Shen, Jun-Xian

    2006-03-16

    Among vertebrates, only microchiropteran bats, cetaceans and some rodents are known to produce and detect ultrasounds (frequencies greater than 20 kHz) for the purpose of communication and/or echolocation, suggesting that this capacity might be restricted to mammals. Amphibians, reptiles and most birds generally have limited hearing capacity, with the ability to detect and produce sounds below approximately 12 kHz. Here we report evidence of ultrasonic communication in an amphibian, the concave-eared torrent frog (Amolops tormotus) from Huangshan Hot Springs, China. Males of A. tormotus produce diverse bird-like melodic calls with pronounced frequency modulations that often contain spectral energy in the ultrasonic range. To determine whether A. tormotus communicates using ultrasound to avoid masking by the wideband background noise of local fast-flowing streams, or whether the ultrasound is simply a by-product of the sound-production mechanism, we conducted acoustic playback experiments in the frogs' natural habitat. We found that the audible as well as the ultrasonic components of an A. tormotus call can evoke male vocal responses. Electrophysiological recordings from the auditory midbrain confirmed the ultrasonic hearing capacity of these frogs and that of a sympatric species facing similar environmental constraints. This extraordinary upward extension into the ultrasonic range of both the harmonic content of the advertisement calls and the frog's hearing sensitivity is likely to have co-evolved in response to the intense, predominantly low-frequency ambient noise from local streams. Because amphibians are a distinct evolutionary lineage from microchiropterans and cetaceans (which have evolved ultrasonic hearing to minimize congestion in the frequency bands used for sound communication and to increase hunting efficacy in darkness), ultrasonic perception in these animals represents a new example of independent evolution. PMID:16541072

  18. Application of ultrasonic techniques to chemical coal cleaning processes. Final report, April 15, 1980-August 15, 1981. [Ultrasonic augmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Tarpley, W.B. Jr.; Twesme, E.N.; Howard, P.L.; Moulder, G.R.

    1981-08-01

    Ultrasonic activation was applied to several coal cleaning processes, including chlorinolysis, oxydesulfurization, and sodium hypochlorite leaching, in small-scale batch treatment processing of Illinois No. 6, Lower Kittanning, and Western Kentucky No. 11 coals. In all cases, ultrasonic energy application demonstrated effects that would translate in production to processing efficiencies and/or capital equipment savings. Specifically, in the chlorinolysis reaction, pyritic sulfur was removed 23 times faster with ultrasonics than without it. (Organic sulfur could not be removed from the coal examined with or without ultrasonics in the chlorinolysis process). In sodium hypochlorite leaching, the total sulfur extraction rate was 3 times faster with ultrasonics. Two separate benefits were seen with oxydesulfurization: ultrasonics doubled the reaction rate and at slightly accelerated rates allowed a pressure reduction from 960 to 500 psi, which would be a significant cost efficiency in production. With these results, it was recommended that ultrasonic processing be investigated with a process involving interactions similarly amenable to ultrasonic enhancement, i.e., molten salt leaching, which is reported to have the potential not only for more extensive sulfur extraction than the other experimental processes, but for ash removal as well.

  19. Remote consulting based on ultrasonic digital immages and dynamic ultrasonic sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margan, Anamarija; Rustemović, Nadan

    2006-03-01

    Telematic ultrasonic diagnostics is a relatively new tool in providing health care to patients in remote, islolated communities. Our project facility, "The Virtual Polyclinic - A Specialists' Consulting Network for the Islands", is located on the island of Cres in the Adriatic Sea in Croatia and has been extending telemedical services to the archipelago population since 2000. Telemedicine applications include consulting services by specialists at the University Clinical Hospital Center Rebro in Zagreb and at "Magdalena", a leading cardiology clinic in Croatia. After several years of experience with static high resolution ultrasonic digital immages for referral consulting diagnostics purposes, we now also use dynamic ultrasonic sequences in a project with the Department of Emmergency Gastroenterology at Rebro in Zagreb. The aim of the ongoing project is to compare the advantages and shortcomings in transmitting static ultrasonic digital immages and live sequences of ultrasonic examination in telematic diagnostics. Ultrasonic examination is a dynamic process in which the diagnostic accuracy is highly dependent on the dynamic moment of an ultrasound probe and signal. Our first results indicate that in diffuse parenchymal organ pathology the progression and the follow up of a disease is better presented to a remote consulting specialist by dynamic ultrasound sequences. However, the changes that involve only one part of a parenchymal organ can be suitably presented by static ultrasonic digital images alone. Furthermore, we need less time for digital imaging and such tele-consultations overall are more economical. Our previous telemedicine research and practice proved that we can greatly improve the level of medical care in remote healthcare facilities and cut healthcare costs considerably. The experience in the ongoing project points to a conclusion that we can further optimize remote diagnostics benefits by a right choice of telematic application thus reaching a

  20. Ultrasonic Inspection Of Thick Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friant, C. L.; Djordjevic, B. B.; O'Keefe, C. V.; Ferrell, W.; Klutz, T.

    1993-01-01

    Ultrasonics used to inspect large, relatively thick vessels for hidden defects. Report based on experiments in through-the-thickness transmission of ultrasonic waves in both steel and filament-wound composite cases of solid-fuel rocket motors.

  1. Ultrasonic characterization of materials hardness

    PubMed

    Badidi Bouda A; Benchaala; Alem

    2000-03-01

    In this paper, an experimental technique has been developed to measure velocities and attenuation of ultrasonic waves through a steel with a variable hardness. A correlation between ultrasonic measurements and steel hardness was investigated. PMID:10829663

  2. Bisphenol AF Is a Full Agonist for the Estrogen Receptor ERα but a Highly Specific Antagonist for ERβ

    PubMed Central

    Matsushima, Ayami; Liu, Xiaohui; Okada, Hiroyuki; Shimohigashi, Miki; Shimohigashi, Yasuyuki

    2010-01-01

    Background Bisphenol AF has been acknowledged to be useful for the production of CF3-containing polymers with improved chemical, thermal, and mechanical properties. Because of the lack of adequate toxicity data, bisphenol AF has been nominated for comprehensive toxicological characterization. Objectives We aimed to determine the relative preference of bisphenol AF for the human nuclear estrogenic receptors ERα and ERβ and the bisphenol A–specific estrogen-related receptor ERRγ, and to clarify structural characteristics of receptors that influence bisphenol AF binding. Methods We examined receptor-binding activities of bisphenol AF relative to [3H]17β-estradiol (for ERα and ERβ) and [3H]bisphenol A (for ERRγ). Functional luciferase reporter gene assays were performed to assess receptor activation in HeLa cells. Results We found that bisphenol AF strongly and selectively binds to ERs over ERRγ. Furthermore, bisphenol AF receptor-binding activity was three times stronger for ERβ [IC50 (median inhibitory concentration) = 18.9 nM] than for ERα. When examined using a reporter gene assay, bisphenol AF was a full agonist for ERα. In contrast, it was almost completely inactive in stimulating the basal constitutive activity of ERβ. Surprisingly, bisphenol AF acted as a distinct and strong antagonist against the activity of the endogenous ERβ agonist 17β-estradiol. Conclusion Our results suggest that bisphenol AF could function as an endocrine-disrupting chemical by acting as an agonist or antagonist to perturb physiological processes mediated through ERα and/or ERβ. PMID:20427257

  3. Ultrasonics in Dentistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walmsley, A. D.

    Ultrasonic instruments have been used in dentistry since the 1950's. Initially they were used to cut teeth but very quickly they became established as an ultrasonic scaler which was used to remove deposits from the hard tissues of the tooth. This enabled the soft tissues around the tooth to return to health. The ultrasonic vibrations are generated in a thin metal probe and it is the working tip that is the active component of the instrument. Scanning laser vibrometry has shown that there is much variability in their movement which is related to the shape and cross sectional shape of the probe. The working instrument will also generate cavitation and microstreaming in the associated cooling water. This can be mapped out along the length of the instrument indicating which are the active areas. Ultrasonics has also found use for cleaning often inaccessible or different surfaces including root canal treatment and dental titanium implants. The use of ultrasonics to cut bone during different surgical techniques shows considerable promise. More research is indicated to determine how to maximize the efficiency of such instruments so that they are more clinically effective.

  4. Ultrasonic dip seal maintenance system

    DOEpatents

    Poindexter, Allan M.; Ricks, Herbert E.

    1978-01-01

    A system for removing impurities from the surfaces of liquid dip seals and or wetting the metal surfaces of liquid dip seals in nuclear components. The system comprises an ultrasonic transducer that transmits ultrasonic vibrations along an ultrasonic probe to the metal and liquid surfaces of the dip seal thereby loosening and removing those impurities.

  5. Artificial Intelligence Assists Ultrasonic Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Lloyd A.; Willenberg, James D.

    1992-01-01

    Subtle indications of flaws extracted from ultrasonic waveforms. Ultrasonic-inspection system uses artificial intelligence to help in identification of hidden flaws in electron-beam-welded castings. System involves application of flaw-classification logic to analysis of ultrasonic waveforms.

  6. Decomposition of cellulose by ultrasonic welding in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Shinfuku; Miyagawa, Seiya; Mukasa, Shinobu; Toyota, Hiromichi

    2016-07-01

    The use of ultrasonic welding in water to decompose cellulose placed in water was examined experimentally. Filter paper was used as the decomposition material with a horn-type transducer 19.5 kHz adopted as the ultrasonic welding power source. The frictional heat at the point where the surface of the tip of the ultrasonic horn contacts the filter paper decomposes the cellulose in the filter paper into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), furfural, and oligosaccharide through hydrolysis and thermolysis that occurs in the welding process.

  7. Concepts and techniques for ultrasonic evaluation of material mechanical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1980-01-01

    The ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation techniques discussed in the present paper indicate potentials for material characterization and property prediction. Stress wave interaction and material transfer function concepts are examined as a basis for explaining correlations between material mechanical behavior and ultrasonically measured quantities. It is observed that the effect and criticality of any discrete flaw, such as crack, inclusion, or any other stress raiser, is definable only in terms of its material microstructural environment. This underscores the importance of ultrasonic techniques capable of characterizing the stress wave energy transfer properties of a material.

  8. Acousto-ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, Alex

    1990-01-01

    The theoretical development, methodology, and potential applications of acousto-ultrasonic nondestructive testing are set forth in an overview to assess the effectiveness of the technique. Stochastic wave propagation is utilized to isolate and describe defects in fiber-reinforced composites, particularly emphasizing the integrated effects of diffuse populations of subcritical flaws. The generation and nature of acousto-ultrasonic signals are described in detail, and stress-wave factor analysis of the signals is discussed. Applications of acousto-ultrasonics are listed including the prediction of failure sites, assessing fatique and impact damage, calculating ultimate tensile strength, and determining interlaminar bond strength. The method can identify subtle but important variations in fiber-reinforced composites, and development of the related instrumentation technology is emphasized.

  9. Ultrasonic/Sonic Jackhammer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Herz, Jack L. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The invention provides a novel jackhammer that utilizes ultrasonic and/or sonic vibrations as source of power. It is easy to operate and does not require extensive training, requiring substantially less physical capabilities from the user and thereby increasing the pool of potential operators. An important safety benefit is that it does not fracture resilient or compliant materials such as cable channels and conduits, tubing, plumbing, cabling and other embedded fixtures that may be encountered along the impact path. While the ultrasonic/sonic jackhammer of the invention is able to cut concrete and asphalt, it generates little back-propagated shocks or vibrations onto the mounting fixture, and can be operated from an automatic platform or robotic system. PNEUMATICS; ULTRASONICS; IMPACTORS; DRILLING; HAMMERS BRITTLE MATERIALS; DRILL BITS; PROTOTYPES; VIBRATION

  10. Ultrasonic Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nabors, Sammy

    2015-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Ultrasonic Stir Welding (USW) to join large pieces of very high-strength metals such as titanium and Inconel. USW, a solid-state weld process, improves current thermal stir welding processes by adding high-power ultrasonic (HPU) energy at 20 kHz frequency. The addition of ultrasonic energy significantly reduces axial, frictional, and shear forces; increases travel rates; and reduces wear on the stir rod, which results in extended stir rod life. The USW process decouples the heating, stirring, and forging elements found in the friction stir welding process allowing for independent control of each process element and, ultimately, greater process control and repeatability. Because of the independent control of USW process elements, closed-loop temperature control can be integrated into the system so that a constant weld nugget temperature can be maintained during welding.

  11. Ultrasonic nondestructive materials characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, R. E., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A brief review of ultrasonic wave propagation in solid materials is presented with consideration of the altered behavior in anisotropic and nonlinear elastic materials in comparison with isotropic and linear elastic materials. Some experimental results are described in which ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements give insight into materials microstructure and associated mechanical properties. Recent developments with laser beam non-contact generation and detection of ultrasound are presented. The results of several years of experimental measurements using high-power ultrasound are discussed, which provide substantial evidence of the inability of presently accepted theories to fully explain the interaction of ultrasound with solid materials. Finally, a special synchrotron X-ray topographic system is described which affords the possibility of observing direct interaction of ultrasonic waves with the microstructural features of real crystalline solid materials for the first time.

  12. Ultrasonic Leak Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Moerk, J. Steven (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A system for detecting ultrasonic vibrations. such as those generated by a small leak in a pressurized container. vessel. pipe. or the like. comprises an ultrasonic transducer assembly and a processing circuit for converting transducer signals into an audio frequency range signal. The audio frequency range signal can be used to drive a pair of headphones worn by an operator. A diode rectifier based mixing circuit provides a simple, inexpensive way to mix the transducer signal with a square wave signal generated by an oscillator, and thereby generate the audio frequency signal. The sensitivity of the system is greatly increased through proper selection and matching of the system components. and the use of noise rejection filters and elements. In addition, a parabolic collecting horn is preferably employed which is mounted on the transducer assembly housing. The collecting horn increases sensitivity of the system by amplifying the received signals. and provides directionality which facilitates easier location of an ultrasonic vibration source.

  13. Ultrasonic Processing of Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Qingyou

    2015-08-01

    Irradiation of high-energy ultrasonic vibration in metals and alloys generates oscillating strain and stress fields in solids, and introduces nonlinear effects such as cavitation, acoustic streaming, and radiation pressure in molten materials. These nonlinear effects can be utilized to assist conventional material processing processes. This article describes recent research at Oak Ridge National Labs and Purdue University on using high-intensity ultrasonic vibrations for degassing molten aluminum, processing particulate-reinforced metal matrix composites, refining metals and alloys during solidification process and welding, and producing bulk nanostructures in solid metals and alloys. Research results suggest that high-intensity ultrasonic vibration is capable of degassing and dispersing small particles in molten alloys, reducing grain size during alloy solidification, and inducing nanostructures in solid metals.

  14. Ultrasonic/Sonic Jackhammer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Herz, Jack

    2005-01-01

    An ultrasonic/sonic jackhammer (USJ) is the latest in a series of related devices. Each of these devices cuts into a brittle material by means of hammering and chiseling actions of a tool bit excited with a combination of ultrasonic and sonic vibrations. A small-scale prototype of the USJ has been demonstrated. A fully developed, full-scale version of the USJ would be used for cutting through concrete, rocks, hard asphalt, and other materials to which conventional pneumatic jackhammers are applied, but the USJ would offer several advantages over conventional pneumatic jackhammers.

  15. Ultrasonic Processing of Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Meek, Thomas T.; Han, Qingyou; Jian, Xiaogang; Xu, Hanbing

    2005-06-30

    The purpose of this project was to determine the impact of a new breakthrough technology, ultrasonic processing, on various industries, including steel, aluminum, metal casting, and forging. The specific goals of the project were to evaluate core principles and establish quantitative bases for the ultrasonc processing of materials, and to demonstrate key applications in the areas of grain refinement of alloys during solidification and degassing of alloy melts. This study focussed on two classes of materials - aluminum alloys and steels - and demonstrated the application of ultrasonic processing during ingot casting.

  16. Ultrasonic shear wave couplant

    DOEpatents

    Kupperman, D.S.; Lanham, R.N.

    1984-04-11

    Ultrasonically testing of an article at high temperatures is accomplished by the use of a compact layer of a dry ceramic powder as a couplant in a method which involves providing an ultrasonic transducer as a probe capable of transmitting shear waves, coupling the probe to the article through a thin compact layer of a dry ceramic powder, propagating a shear wave from the probe through the ceramic powder and into the article to develop echo signals, and analyzing the echo signals to determine at least one physical characteristic of the article.

  17. Ultrasonic shear wave couplant

    DOEpatents

    Kupperman, David S.; Lanham, Ronald N.

    1985-01-01

    Ultrasonically testing of an article at high temperatures is accomplished by the use of a compact layer of a dry ceramic powder as a couplant in a method which involves providing an ultrasonic transducer as a probe capable of transmitting shear waves, coupling the probe to the article through a thin compact layer of a dry ceramic powder, propagating a shear wave from the probe through the ceramic powder and into the article to develop echo signals, and analyzing the echo signals to determine at least one physical characteristic of the article.

  18. Degradation of AF1Q by chaperone-mediated autophagy

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Peng; Ji, Min; Lu, Fei; Zhang, Jingru; Li, Huanjie; Cui, Taixing; Li Wang, Xing; Tang, Dongqi; Ji, Chunyan

    2014-09-10

    AF1Q, a mixed lineage leukemia gene fusion partner, is identified as a poor prognostic biomarker for pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML), adult AML with normal cytogenetic and adult myelodysplastic syndrome. AF1Q is highly regulated during hematopoietic progenitor differentiation and development but its regulatory mechanism has not been defined clearly. In the present study, we used pharmacological and genetic approaches to influence chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) and explored the degradation mechanism of AF1Q. Pharmacological inhibitors of lysosomal degradation, such as chloroquine, increased AF1Q levels, whereas activators of CMA, including 6-aminonicotinamide and nutrient starvation, decreased AF1Q levels. AF1Q interacts with HSPA8 and LAMP-2A, which are core components of the CMA machinery. Knockdown of HSPA8 or LAMP-2A increased AF1Q protein levels, whereas overexpression showed the opposite effect. Using an amino acid deletion AF1Q mutation plasmid, we identified that AF1Q had a KFERQ-like motif which was recognized by HSPA8 for CMA-dependent proteolysis. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time that AF1Q can be degraded in lysosomes by CMA. - Highlights: • Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) is involved in the degradation of AF1Q. • Macroautophagy does not contribute to the AF1Q degradation. • AF1Q has a KFERQ-like motif that is recognized by CMA core components.

  19. AFS Estuaries Section - A Successful Partnership

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Estuaries Section of the American Fisheries Society offers travel awards to students in support of their attendance and presentations at the AFS meeting. Since 2007, the Southern Association of Marine Laboratories has partnered with the Estuaries Section to sponsor two stude...

  20. Some observations on the mechanics of oscillation of ultrasonic files.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, M

    1990-02-01

    The resonant characteristics of ultrasonic files driven by the Cavi-Endo unit were examined. The investigation was carried out by evaluating the pattern of oscillation and the power emitted by the ultrasonic files. It was observed that the files oscillated in a sinusoidal fashion, exhibiting a standing wave pattern along the file. The power emitted was found to be directly proportional to the flexibility of the file. Such behaviour is typical of a system that exhibits resonance. PMID:2202589

  1. Health Information in Somali (af Soomaali): MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... af Soomaali (Somali) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Animal Bites Animal Bites and Scratches Qaniinyada iyo Xagashada Xayawaanka - af ... Soomaali (Somali) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Radiation Therapy Preventing Infections When Your White Blood Cell Count ...

  2. Health Information in Somali (af Soomaali): MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Appendectomy for a Child Qabsin-saarid ilmo - af Soomaali (Somali) Bilingual PDF ... Somali) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Asthma in Children Nebulizer Treatments Daawenta wal in Xaqiiqsanaan - af Soomaali ( ...

  3. Experiments with Ultrasonic Transducers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas R., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the use of 40 kHz ultrasonic transducers to study wave phenomena. Determines that the resulting wavelength of 9 mm allows acoustic experiments to be performed on a tabletop. Includes transducer characteristics and activities on speed of sound, reflection, double- and single-slit diffraction, standing waves, acoustical zone plate, and…

  4. Broadband Ultrasonic Transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyser, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    New geometry spreads out resonance region of piezoelectric crystal. In new transducer, crystal surfaces made nonparallel. One surface planar; other, concave. Geometry designed to produce nearly uniform response over a predetermined band of frequencies and to attenuate strongly frequencies outside band. Greater bandwidth improves accuracy of sonar and ultrasonic imaging equipment.

  5. Ultrasonic Drilling and Coring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    1998-01-01

    A novel drilling and coring device, driven by a combination, of sonic and ultrasonic vibration, was developed. The device is applicable to soft and hard objects using low axial load and potentially operational under extreme conditions. The device has numerous potential planetary applications. Significant potential for commercialization in construction, demining, drilling and medical technologies.

  6. Ultrasonic Transducer Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grounds, M. K.

    1982-01-01

    Ultrasonic transducer-beam-intensity distributions are determined by analyzing echoes from a spherical ball. Computers control equipment and process data. Important beam characteristics, such as location of best beam focus and beam diameter at focus, can be determined quickly from extensive set of plots generated by apparatus.

  7. Evaluation of the Sustainability and Clinical Outcome of Alternatives for Families: A Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (AF-CBT) in a Child Protection Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolko, David J.; Iselin, Anne-Marie R.; Gully, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the sustainability and outcome of Alternatives for Families: A Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (AF-CBT) as delivered by practitioners in a community-based child protection program who had received training in the model several years earlier. Formerly described as Abuse-Focused CBT, AF-CBT is an evidence-based treatment (EBT) for…

  8. Ultrasonic cleaning: Fundamental theory and application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuchs, F. John

    1995-01-01

    This presentation describes: the theory of ultrasonics, cavitation and implosion; the importance and application of ultrasonics in precision cleaning; explanations of ultrasonic cleaning equipment options and their application; process parameters for ultrasonic cleaning; and proper operation of ultrasonic cleaning equipment to achieve maximum results.

  9. Method of determining ultrasonic attenuation of tissue using reflective tomographic reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Flax, S. W.; Glover, G. H.

    1984-10-09

    Ultrasonic wave attenuation is determined for a plurality of limited volumes of tissue comprising a body under examination by directing ultrasonic waves through each limited volume along a plurality of vectors, determining a measure of attenuation of the limited volume by detecting the frequency shift of reflections of the ultrasonic wave along each vector, and averaging the attenuation of each limited volume from each vector intersecting the limited volume.

  10. Ultrasonic characterization of metallic interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, D.D. Jr.

    1987-11-01

    A set of diffusion bonded copper samples was prepared at different temperatures and times, allowing the bonding to proceed across the planar interfaces. To obtain a second set, interfaces were roughened to various degrees followed by diffusion bonding at a designated time/temperature condition. On all samples, ultrasonic reflection coefficient (R) maps of the bonded interfaces were obtained over a broad frequency range. In addition, the bond strengths, ..sigma.., of the interfaces were determined, thus providing an empirical ..sigma..-R correlation. Nearly all of the specimens tested failed along the interfaces, exposing fracture planes with distinctive features indicating originally bonded and unbonded areas. These features, examined metallographically, allowed for the successful testing of the ''distributed spring model'' by Baik and Thompson (J. NDE 4, 177, 1984). This model was used as an intermediate step in the development of a bond strength model to explain the observed ..sigma..-R correlation, the beginnings of which are discussed. 32 refs., 22 figs.

  11. Evaluation of Ultrasonic Measurement Variation in the Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project

    SciTech Connect

    Pardini, Allan F.; Weier, Dennis R.; Crawford, Susan L.; Munley, John T.

    2010-01-12

    Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) under contract from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for assessing the condition of the double-shell tanks (DST) on the Hanford nuclear site. WRPS has contracted with AREVA Federal Services LLC (AFS) to perform ultrasonic testing (UT) inspections of the 28 DSTs to assess the condition of the tanks, judge the effects of past corrosion control practices, and satisfy a regulatory requirement to periodically assess the integrity of the tanks. Since measurement inception in 1997, nine waste tanks have been examined twice (at the time of this report) providing UT data that can now be compared over specific areas. During initial reviews of these two comparable data sets, average UT wall-thickness measurement reductions were noted in most of the tanks. This variation could be a result of actual wall thinning occurring on the waste-tanks walls, or some other unexplained anomaly resulting from measurement error due to causes such as the then-current measurement procedures, operator setup, or equipment differences. WRPS contracted with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to assist in understanding why this variation exists and where it stems from.

  12. Molecular genetic analysis of U2AF59 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe: differential sensitivity of introns to mutational inactivation.

    PubMed Central

    Romfo, C M; Lakhe-Reddy, S; Wise, J A

    1999-01-01

    The large subunit of the mammalian U2AF heterodimer (U2AF65) is essential for splicing in vitro. To expand our understanding of how this protein functions in vivo, we have created a null allele of the gene encoding the Schizosaccharomyces pombe ortholog, U2AF59, and employed it in a variety of genetic complementation assays. First, analysis of an extensive series of double amino acid substitutions indicates that this splicing factor is surprisingly refractory to mutations. Second, despite extensive structural conservation, we find that metazoan large subunit orthologs cannot substitute in vivo for fission yeast U2AF59. Third, because the activity of U2AF65 in vitro involves binding to the 3' polypyrimidine tract, we examined the splicing of introns containing or lacking this feature in a U2AF59 mutant described here as well as a previously isolated temperature-sensitive mutant (Potashkin et al., 1993, Science 262:573-575). Our data indicate that all four introns tested, including two that lack extensive runs of pyrimidines between the branchpoint and 3' splice site, show splicing defects upon shifting to the nonpermissive condition. In all cases, splicing is blocked prior to the first transesterification reaction in the mutants, consistent with the role inferred for human U2AF65 based on in vitro experiments. PMID:9917066

  13. Microfluidic Pumps Containing Teflon [Trademark] AF Diaphragms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Peter; White, Victor; Grunthaner, Frank; Ikeda, Mike; Mathies, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    Microfluidic pumps and valves based on pneumatically actuated diaphragms made of Teflon AF polymers are being developed for incorporation into laboratory-on-a-chip devices that must perform well over temperature ranges wider than those of prior diaphragm-based microfluidic pumps and valves. Other potential applications include implanted biomedical microfluidic devices, wherein the biocompatability of Teflon AF polymers would be highly advantageous. These pumps and valves have been demonstrated to function stably after cycling through temperatures from -125 to 120 C. These pumps and valves are intended to be successors to similar prior pumps and valves containing diaphragms made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) [commonly known as silicone rubber]. The PDMS-containing valves ae designed to function stably only within the temperature range from 5 to 80 C. Undesirably, PDMS membranes are somwehat porous and retain water. PDMS is especially unsuitable for use at temperatures below 0 C because the formation of ice crystals increases porosity and introduces microshear.

  14. Ultrasonic Backscattering in Polycrystalline Materials of Pwr Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chassignole, B.; Dupond, O.; Fouquet, T.; Rupin, F.

    2011-06-01

    The ultrasonic examination of metallic components of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) is an important challenge for the nuclear industry. During the past decades, EDF R&D has undertaken numerous studies in order to improve the NDT process on these applications and to help to their qualification. The present paper deals with the problem of the structural noise which can potentially disturbs the ultrasonic inspection. In particular, this study proposes a modeling approach to simulate the ultrasonic scattering due to coarse grain structures of polycrystalline materials. The methodology is based on the mixing of a grain scale description of the material and a 2D finite element code (ATHENA) developed by EDF to simulate the ultrasonic propagation in isotropic and anisotropic elastic media. The modeling results are compared to experimental acquisitions on mock-ups containing artificial defects.

  15. AFS men and women differ most in their lifestyle choices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connelly, N.A.; Brown, T.L.; Hardiman, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The American Fisheries Society sponsored a survey to examine the career development choices of men and women and how they might differ by gender. A random sample of 700 men and 700 women was selected from the AFS membership database. The survey was mailed out in October 2004 and 991 questionnaires were returned for an adjusted response rate of 71%. Some differences exist between men and women in the areas of interest development, education, and employment, but the substantive differences occur in lifestyle choices. Women with a fisheries career are less likely to be married than men, even when age is controlled for, and women who are married are more likely to have dual-career considerations than their male counterparts. Among respondents without dependents in their home during their professional career, twice as many women as men think having children will adversely affect their career. For those with dependents, more than twice as many women as men said they had to put their career "on hold" because of their dependents. While AFS members do not represent all members of the fisheries profession, their experiences shed substantial light on the lifestyle choices likely faced by most members of the profession.

  16. Validation of the Risk Estimator Decision aid for Atrial Fibrillation (RED-AF) for Predicting 30-Day Adverse Events in Emergency Department Patients With Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Tyler W.; Jenkins, Cathy A.; Self, Wesley H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Nearly 70% of emergency departments (ED) visits for atrial fibrillation (AF) result in hospitalization. The incidence of serious 30-day adverse events following an ED evaluation for AF remains low. This study’s goal was to prospectively validate our previously reported Risk Estimator Decision aid for AF (RED-AF) model for estimating a patient’s risk of experiencing a 30-day adverse event. Methods This was a prospective cohort study, which enrolled a convenience sample of ED patients presenting with AF. RED-AF, previously derived from a retrospective cohort of 832 patients, assigns points based on age, sex, coexisting disease (heart failure, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), smoking, home medications (beta blocker, diuretic), physical examination findings (dyspnea, palpitations, peripheral edema), and adequacy of ED ventricular rate control. Primary outcome was occurrence of ≥1 AF-related adverse outcome (ED visits, rehospitalization, cardiovascular complications, death) within 30 days. We identified a clinically relevant threshold and measured RED-AF’s performance in this prospective cohort, assessing its calibration, discrimination, and diagnostic accuracy. Results The study enrolled 497 patients between June 2010 and February 2013. Of these, 120 (24%) had ≥1 adverse event within 30 days. A RED-AF score of 87 was identified as an optimal threshold, resulting in sensitivity (95% CI) and specificity (95%CI) of 96% (91–98) and 19% (15–23), respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 27% (23–32) and 93% (85–97), respectively. The c-statistic for RED-AF was 0.65 (95% CI, 0.59 to 0.71). Conclusion In this separate validation cohort, RED-AF performed moderately well and similar to the original derivation cohort for identifying the risk of short-term AF-related adverse events in ED patients diagnosed with AF. PMID:25245277

  17. Effect of ultrasonic wave on the syntheses of Au and ZnO nanoparticles by laser ablation in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, N.; Fujikawa, A.; Koshizaki, N.; Sasaki, K.

    2013-03-01

    We synthesized Au and ZnO nanoparticles by laser ablation in distilled water with the superposition of an ultrasonic wave. The effect of the ultrasonic wave was examined on the optical absorbance of colloidal solution and the crystallinity of synthesized nanoparticles. The absorbance of colloidal solution was enhanced by the ultrasonic wave, indicating more efficient production rate of nanoparticles. In addition, the ultrasonic wave enhanced the crystallinity of synthesized nanoparticles. These enhancements are attributed to the fact that the ultrasonic wave drives the repetitive formations and collapses of cavitation bubbles.

  18. Ultrasonic thermometer isolation standoffs

    DOEpatents

    Arave, Alvin E.

    1977-01-01

    A method is provided for minimizing sticking of the transmission line to the protective sheath and preventing noise echoes from interfering with signal echoes in an improved high temperature ultrasonic thermometer which includes an ultrasonic transmission line surrounded by a protective sheath. Small isolation standoffs are mounted on the transmission line to minimize points of contact between the transmission line and the protective sheath, the isolation standoffs serving as discontinuities mounted on the transmission line at locations where a signal echo is desired or where an echo can be tolerated. Consequently any noise echo generated by the sticking of the standoff to the protective sheath only adds to the amplitude of the echo generated at the standoff and does not interfere with the other signal echoes.

  19. Pulsed ultrasonic stir welding system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An ultrasonic stir welding system includes a welding head assembly having a plate and a rod passing through the plate. The rod is rotatable about a longitudinal axis thereof. During a welding operation, ultrasonic pulses are applied to the rod as it rotates about its longitudinal axis. The ultrasonic pulses are applied in such a way that they propagate parallel to the longitudinal axis of the rod.

  20. [Development of ultrasonic power meter].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hongxin; Hu, Changming; Zheng, Yan; Xu, Honglei; Zhou, Wohua; Wu, Ziwen; Yu, Liudan; Hao, Jiandong; Luo, Yifan

    2014-07-01

    This article describes the design and development of an ultrasonic power meter which is consist of an electronic balance, a practice target, an acoustic enclosures and a blocking. The electronic balance mounted on the blocking is linked with the practice target by connecting rod. By adjusting the blocking makes the practice target suspended above ultrasound probe, and then the ultrasonic power can be measured. After initial tests, the ultrasonic power meter performanced with good stability and high precision. PMID:25330604

  1. Miniature implantable ultrasonic echosonometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojima, G. K. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A miniature echosonometer adapted for implantation in the interior of an animal for imaging the internal structure of a organ, tissue or vessel is presented. The echosonometer includes a receiver/transmitter circuit which is coupled to an ultrasonic transducer. Power is coupled to the echosonometer by electromagnetic induction through the animal's skin. Imaging signals from the echosonometer are electromagnetically transmitted through the animal's skin to an external readout apparatus.

  2. Ultrasonic Clothes Drying Technology

    ScienceCinema

    Patel, Viral; Momen, Ayyoub

    2016-05-12

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory researchers Ayyoub Momen and Viral Patel demonstrate a direct contact ultrasonic clothes dryer under development by ORNL in collaboration with General Electric (GE) Appliances. This novel approach uses high-frequency mechanical vibrations instead of heat to extract moisture as cold mist, dramatically reducing drying time and energy use. Funding for this project was competitively awarded by DOE?s Building Technologies Office in 2014.

  3. Ultrasonic differential measurement

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, George W.; Migliori, Albert

    1995-01-01

    A method and apparatus for ultrasonic resonance testing of an object is shown and described. Acoustic vibrations are applied to an object at a plurality of frequencies. Measurements of the object's vibrational response are made simultaneously at different locations on said object. The input frequency is stepped by using small frequency changes over a predetermined range. There is a pause interval or ring delay which permits the object to reach a steady state resonance before a measurement is taken.

  4. Ultrasonic techniques for process monitoring and control.

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, H.-T.

    1999-03-24

    Ultrasonic techniques have been applied successfully to process monitoring and control for many industries, such as energy, medical, textile, oil, and material. It helps those industries in quality control, energy efficiency improving, waste reducing, and cost saving. This paper presents four ultrasonic systems, ultrasonic viscometer, on-loom, real-time ultrasonic imaging system, ultrasonic leak detection system, and ultrasonic solid concentration monitoring system, developed at Argonne National Laboratory in the past five years for various applications.

  5. Sharpening of ultrasonic scalers.

    PubMed

    Checchi, L; Pelliccioni, G A; D'Achille, C

    1991-08-01

    Instruments suitable for removing calculus, plaque and necrotic cementum, which hinder normal periodontal reattachment, are extremely important for successful therapy. The test was carried out in order to see if a standard scaler used for ultrasonic tartar removal maintains its physical features when sharpened. 6 scalers, compatible with piezo-electric generators, were tested and 2 diameters, A and B, weights and resonance frequencies were measured. Scalers no. 2, 3, 4, 5, were sharpened and was used as control. All measurements were taken again at the end of the test. Statistical analysis reveals significant variations, after sharpening, of A diameter (t = 4.14 greater than 3.55, p less than 0.01), B diameter (t = 5.34 greater than 3.355, p less than 0.01) and resonance frequency (t = 2.82 greater than 2.306, p less than 0.05); in contrast, there is no significant change of weights (t = 1.17 less than 2.306, p greater than 0.05). These results suggest that sharpening slightly modifies the physical features of ultrasonic tips, so that sharpening ultrasonic scalers, from a physical point of view, can be carried out, paying attention not to damage the water cooling system. PMID:1894743

  6. Ultrasonic Cutting of Foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Yvonne; Zahn, Susann; Rohm, Harald

    In the field of food engineering, cutting is usually classified as a mechanical unit operation dealing with size reduction by applying external forces on a bulk product. Ultrasonic cutting is realized by superpositioning the macroscopic feed motion of the cutting device or of the product with a microscopic vibration of the cutting tool. The excited tool interacts with the product and generates a number of effects. Primary energy concentration in the separation zone and the modification of contact friction along the tool flanks arise from the cyclic loading and are responsible for benefits such as reduced cutting force, smooth cut surface, and reduced product deformation. Secondary effects such as absorption and cavitation originate from the propagation of the sound field in the product and are closely related to chemical and physical properties of the material to be cut. This chapter analyzes interactions between food products and ultrasonic cutting tools and relates these interactions with physical and chemical product properties as well as with processing parameters like cutting velocity, ultrasonic amplitude and frequency, and tool design.

  7. Ultrasonic Transducers for Fourier Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Describes an experiment that uses the ultrasonic transducer for demonstrating the Fourier components of waveshapes such as the square and triangular waves produced by laboratory function generators. (JRH)

  8. Development of an Ultrasonic Brake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Tatsuya; Takemura, Kenjiro; Maeno, Takashi

    In the present paper, a newly developed ultrasonic brake is proposed. The ultrasonic brake can solve problems of conventional passive elements, such as time delay, instability, and large size, by using unique characteristics of ultrasonic motor, as fast response, silent motion, and non-magnetic feature. It can also be designed to be smaller than conventional elements due to its simple structure. The brake locks or releases the rotor by use of ultrasonic levitation phenomenon. First, we have designed the structure of the ultrasonic brake using an equation of ultrasonic levitation phenomenon, results from structural analysis and finite element (FE) analysis of piezoelectric material of the vibrator. Then we have manufactured the ultrasonic brake and have conducted a driving experiment. Finally, we have demonstrated that the maximum levitation force is around 40 N and the friction torque of the ultrasonic brake is up to 0.38 Nm. Moreover, we have confirmed that both response time and torque/inertia ratio of the ultrasonic brake are much more superior to the conventional ones.

  9. Nondestructive Ultrasonic Inspection of Friction Stir Welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabatabaeipour, M.; Hettler, J.; Delrue, S.; Van Den Abeele, K.

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a relatively new solid-state welding procedure developed at The Welding Institute (TWI-UK) and the technique is widely employed for welding aluminum alloys in various applications. In order to examine the quality of the welds and to detect a variety of welding flaws such as wormholes and root-flaws, it is required to develop a methodical inspection technique that can be used for the identification and localization of such defects. The most prevalent and risky defect in this type of welding is the barely visible root flaw with a length varying from 100-700 μm. Due to the extreme characteristics of the flaw, off-the-shelf ultrasonic weld inspection methods are not always able to readily detect this type of minute defect feature. Here, we propose a novel approach to characterize root flaws using an oblique incident ultrasonic C-scan backscattering analysis. The implementation consists of an immersion ultrasonic testing method in pulse echo (i.e. backscatter) mode with a 3.5 MHz transducer, and makes use of an empirical procedure to engender of a shear wave dominated excitation at the root surface, and to properly gate the received signal for root flaw examination. By scanning the surface above the welded component, a C-scan image displaying the backscatter response from the root surface of the nugget zone can be obtained which allows a simple interpretation of the root flaw status of the weld.

  10. Riser Difference Evaluation from Ultrasonic Wall Thickness Inspection of Thirteen Double-Shell Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Weier, Dennis R.; Pardini, Allan F.

    2010-03-15

    PNNL has performed an analysis of ultrasonic thickness measurements taken on Hanford's double-shell tanks (DSTs) approximately eight years apart. The analysis was performed to determine whether significant differences exist between ultrasonic thickness measurements made in two opposite risers in Hanford DSTs that have been examined twice.

  11. Pure Ultrasonic Communication in an Endemic Bornean Frog

    PubMed Central

    Arch, Victoria S.; Grafe, T. Ulmar; Gridi-Papp, Marcos; Narins, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    Huia cavitympanum, an endemic Bornean frog, is the first amphibian species known to emit exclusively ultrasonic (i.e., >20 kHz) vocal signals. To test the hypothesis that these frogs use purely ultrasonic vocalizations for intraspecific communication, we performed playback experiments with male frogs in their natural calling sites. We found that the frogs respond with increased calling to broadcasts of conspecific calls containing only ultrasound. The field study was complemented by electrophysiological recordings from the auditory midbrain and by laser Doppler vibrometer measurements of the tympanic membrane's response to acoustic stimulation. These measurements revealed that the frog's auditory system is broadly tuned over high frequencies, with peak sensitivity occurring within the ultrasonic frequency range. Our results demonstrate that H. cavitympanum is the first non-mammalian vertebrate described to communicate with purely ultrasonic acoustic signals. These data suggest that further examination of the similarities and differences in the high-frequency/ultrasonic communication systems of H. cavitympanum and Odorrana tormota, an unrelated frog species that produces and detects ultrasound but does not emit exclusively ultrasonic calls, will afford new insights into the mechanisms underlying vertebrate high-frequency communication. PMID:19401782

  12. Ultrasonic Bonding to Metalized Plastic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conroy, B. L.; Cruzan, C. T.

    1986-01-01

    New technique makes it possible to bond wires ultrasonically to conductor patterns on such soft substrates as plain or ceramic-filled polytetrafluoroethylene. With ultrasonic bonding, unpackaged chips attached to soft circuit boards. Preferred because chips require substrate area and better matched electrically to circuit board at high frequencies.

  13. Acousto-ultrasonics - An update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, Alex

    1989-01-01

    The application possibilities and limitations of acoustoultrasonics are reviewed. One of the most useful aspects of acousto-ultrasonics is its ability to assess degradation and damage states in composites. The sensitivity of the acousto-ultrasonic approach for detecting and measuring subtle but significant material property variations in composites has been demonstrated.

  14. Physical mechanism of ultrasonic machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaev, A.; Grechishnikov, V.; Kozochkin, M.; Pivkin, P.; Petuhov, Y.; Romanov, V.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the main aspects of ultrasonic machining of constructional materials are considered. Influence of coolant on surface parameters is studied. Results of experiments on ultrasonic lathe cutting with application of tangential vibrations and with use of coolant are considered.

  15. Ultrasonic cleaning: An historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Mason, Timothy J

    2016-03-01

    The development of ultrasonic cleaning dates from the middle of the 20th century and has become a method of choice for a range of surface cleaning operations. The reasons why this has happened and the methods of assessing the efficiency of ultrasonic cleaning baths are reviewed. PMID:26054698

  16. Ultrasonic absortion in fatigued materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugan, S.; Arnold, W.

    2013-01-01

    Non-destructive detection of fatigue damage, allowing an estimate of the residual life-time of components, could contribute to a safe and reliable operation of components and installations. Ultrasonic absorption, i.e. the internal friction, of a material increases with increasing fatigue or creep damage and there are many theories trying to explain the physics behind this phenomenon. Measurement of ultrasonic absorption directly on components could provide information on the degree of damage. A laser ultrasonic method, using laser-generated pulses and optical detection, was applied to study ultrasonic absorption in fatigue specimens of different metals. A characteristic behavior of the ultrasonic absorption coefficient with increasing levels of fatigue damage was found for the titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V. Another aim of this study was to relate the absorption mechanisms to the behavior of ultrasonic absorption observed in metals with complex microstructure. To achieve this, different ultrasonic absorption mechanisms were analyzed with respect to experimental data. A thermoelastic effect related to the size and elasticity of the microstructure is discussed as the origin of the increased ultrasonic absorption.

  17. Measurement of the spectral directivity of optoacoustic and ultrasonic transducers with a laser ultrasonic source

    PubMed Central

    Conjusteau, André; Ermilov, Sergey A.; Su, Richard; Brecht, Hans-Peter; Fronheiser, Matthew P.; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    2009-01-01

    Comprehensive characterization of wideband ultrasonic transducers and specifically optoacoustic detectors is achieved through the analysis of their frequency response as a function of the incident angle. The tests are performed under well-defined, repeatable operating conditions. Backillumination of a blackened, acoustically matched planar surface with a short laser pulse creates an acoustic impulse which is used as a wideband ultrasonic source. Upon illumination with a short laser pulse, the bandwidth of our source shows a −6 dB point of 12 MHz and a low-frequency roll-off around 300 kHz. Using proprietary software, we examine thoroughly the planarity of the emitted wave front within a specified amplitude cutoff and phase incoherence. Analysis of the angular dependence of the frequency response yields invaluable directivity information about the detector under study: a necessary component toward accurate optoacoustic image reconstruction and quantitative tomography. The laser ultrasonic source we developed is the main feature of our directivity measurement setup. Due to its simplicity, it can easily be adapted to various calibration devices. This paper focuses on the development and characterization of the flatness and the bandwidth of our wideband ultrasonic source. PMID:19791945

  18. Ultrasonic Guided Waves for Aging Wire Insulation Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anastasi, Robert F.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2001-01-01

    Environmentally aged wire insulation can become brittle and crack and thus expose the underlying conductive wire to the potential for short circuits and fire. The feasibility of using ultrasonic guided waves to measure insulation condition was examined. First a simple model to study guided wave propagation in a bare and thin plastic coated wire was examined and then some aviation grade wire samples that had been heat-damaged. Initial measurements indicate that ultrasonic guided wave velocity can be used to monitor insulation stiffness.

  19. Ultrasonic dyeing of cellulose nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Muzamil; Ahmed, Farooq; Jatoi, Abdul Wahab; Mahar, Rasool Bux; Khatri, Zeeshan; Kim, Ick Soo

    2016-07-01

    Textile dyeing assisted by ultrasonic energy has attained a greater interest in recent years. We report ultrasonic dyeing of nanofibers for the very first time. We chose cellulose nanofibers and dyed with two reactive dyes, CI reactive black 5 and CI reactive red 195. The cellulose nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning of cellulose acetate (CA) followed by deacetylation. The FTIR results confirmed complete conversion of CA into cellulose nanofibers. Dyeing parameters optimized were dyeing temperature, dyeing time and dye concentrations for each class of the dye used. Results revealed that the ultrasonic dyeing produced higher color yield (K/S values) than the conventional dyeing. The color fastness test results depicted good dye fixation. SEM analysis evidenced that ultrasonic energy during dyeing do not affect surface morphology of nanofibers. The results conclude successful dyeing of cellulose nanofibers using ultrasonic energy with better color yield and color fastness results than conventional dyeing. PMID:26964959

  20. Ultrasonic flow nozzle cleaning apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Fridsma, D.E.; Silvestri, G.J. Jr.; Twerdochlib, M.

    1992-06-23

    This patent describes an ultrasonic cleaning apparatus for a venturi flow measuring nozzle mounted in a pipe of a steam power plant and having an inlet, venturi throat, and an outlet, the pipe and nozzle having fluid flowing therethrough, the cleaning occurring while the fluid is flowing. It comprises first ultrasonic transducer means mounted to connect to the inside of the pipe, disposed adjacent the inlet of the venturi flow nozzle and the means being in direct contact with the fluid flowing through the pipe for transmitting ultrasonic waves directly into and thereby exciting the fluid flowing through the venturi flow nozzle; and control means coupled to the first ultrasonic transducer means for activating the first ultrasonic transducer means.

  1. Ultrasonic colour flow imaging.

    PubMed

    Wells, P N

    1994-12-01

    Real-time ultrasonic colour flow imaging, which was first demonstrated to be feasible only about a decade ago, has come into widespread clinical use. Ultrasound is scattered by ensembles of red blood cells. The ultrasonic frequency that gives the best signal-to-noise ratio for backscattering from blood depends on the required penetration. The frequency of ultrasound backscattered from flowing blood is shifted by the Doppler effect. The direction of flow can be determined by phase quadrature detection, and range selectivity can be provided by pulse-echo time-delay measurements. The Doppler frequency spectrum can be determined by Fourier analysis. Early two- and three-dimensional flow-imaging systems used slow manual scanning; velocity colour coding was introduced. Real-time colour flow imaging first became feasible when autocorrelation detection was used to extract the Doppler signal. Time-domain processing, which is a broad-band technique, was also soon shown to be practicable, for analysing both radio-frequency pulse-echo wavetrains and two-dimensional image speckle. Frequency- and time-domain processing both require effective cancellation of stationary echoes. The time-domain approach seems to have advantages in relation to both aliasing and the effects of attenuation in overlying tissues. Colour-coding schemes that can be interpreted without the need to refer to keys have been adopted, for both velocity and flow disturbance. Colour coding according to signal power has also been reintroduced. Three-dimensional display has been demonstrated. In interpreting colour flow images, it is important to understand the functions of critical system controls and the origins of artifacts. Various strategies can be adopted to increase the image frame rate. The problems of performance measurement and safety need to be kept under review. There are numerous opportunities for further development of ultrasonic colour flow imaging, including improvements in system design, methods of

  2. Ultrasonic aesthetic cranioplasty.

    PubMed

    Robiony, Massimo; Casadei, Matteo; Sbuelz, Massimo; Della Pietra, Lorenzo; Politi, Massimo

    2014-07-01

    The management of frontal bone injury is an important issue, and inappropriate management of such injuries may give rise to serious complications. Piezosurgery is a technique used to perform safe and effective osteotomies using piezoelectric ultrasonic vibrations. This instrument allows a safe method for osteotomy of the cranial vault in close proximity to extremely injury-sensitive tissue such as the brain. After a wide review of the literature, the authors present this technical report, introduce the use of piezosurgery to perform a safe "slim-osteotomies" for treatment of posttraumatic frontal bone deformities, and suggest the use of this instrument for aesthetic recontouring of the craniofacial skeleton. PMID:24914759

  3. Ultrasonic linear measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Scot H. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An ultrasonic linear measurement system uses the travel time of surface waves along the perimeter of a three-dimensional curvilinear body to determine the perimeter of the curvilinear body. The system can also be used piece-wise to measure distances along plane surfaces. The system can be used to measure perimeters where use of laser light, optical means or steel tape would be extremely difficult, time consuming or impossible. It can also be used to determine discontinuities in surfaces of known perimeter or dimension.

  4. Ultrasonic cleaner evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, T. J.

    1980-10-01

    A method to evaluate the capabilities of ultrasonic cleaners is described. This method utilizes a ceramic plate on which a metallized coating has been deposited. The plate is immersed in a beaker filled with DI water and a few drops of liquid detergent. The plate is then subjected to a two-minute cleaning cycle. Measurement of the amount of metallized coating that is removed is determined with an image enhancement system. Use of this test reveals several factors that influence cleaning capabilities. These include system frequency, use of a wetting agent in the bath, bath temperature, fixture materials and fixture mounting.

  5. Hydrodynamic ultrasonic probe

    DOEpatents

    Day, Robert A.; Conti, Armond E.

    1980-01-01

    An improved probe for in-service ultrasonic inspection of long lengths of a workpiece, such as small diameter tubing from the interior. The improved probe utilizes a conventional transducer or transducers configured to inspect the tubing for flaws and/or wall thickness variations. The probe utilizes a hydraulic technique, in place of the conventional mechanical guides or bushings, which allows the probe to move rectilinearly or rotationally while preventing cocking thereof in the tube and provides damping vibration of the probe. The probe thus has lower friction and higher inspection speed than presently known probes.

  6. [Evaluation of the complementary drug Factor AF2 as a supportive agent in management of advanced urothelial carcinoma. Prospective randomized multicenter study].

    PubMed

    Krege, S; Hinke, A; Otto, T; Rübben, H

    2002-03-01

    This is a prospective randomized multicenter trial for evaluation of the biological response modifier Factor AF2 in advanced urothelial cancer treated with chemotherapy. Main aim of the study was the analysis of supportive effects. Additionally patients were examined with regard to tumor response, time to progression and survival. 106 patients with advanced urothelial cancer received chemotherapy with cisplatin and methotrexate. They were randomized for additional Factor AF2 (500 mg i.v., given at days 0-3, 7-10 and 11-14). Myelotoxicity was more common and severe in the group without Factor AF2 reaching statistical significance. Gastrointestinal side effects occurred in both groups, though grade III to IV toxicity was more common without Factor AF2. Overall remission rate was 38%, median survival 33 weeks, mean time to progression 20 weeks. There was no significant difference between the two groups with or without Factor AF2. PMID:11993095

  7. 4:2:1 conduction of an AF initiating trigger

    PubMed Central

    Kojodjojo, Pipin; Chong, Eric; Lim, Toon Wei; Seow, Swee Chong

    2015-01-01

    A 44 year old male with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy was undergoing persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation. Following antral ablation, AF terminated into a regular narrow complex rhythm. Earliest activation was mapped to a focus in the superior vena cava (SVC) which was conducted in a 2:1 ratio to the atria which in turn was conducted with 2:1 ratio to the ventricles, resulting in an unusual 4:2:1 conduction of the SVC tachycardia. 1:1 conduction of the SVC tachycardia to the atrium preceded initiation of AF. During AF, SVC tachycardia continued unperturbed. Sinus rhythm was restored following catheter ablation of the focus. PMID:27134438

  8. Ultrasonic scanning of multilayer ceramic chip capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, F. N.

    1981-01-01

    Ultrasonic scanning is compared to neutron radiography and scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM). Data show that SLAM and ultrasonic scanning evaluations are in good agreement. There is poor agreement between N-ray and both ultrasonic techniques because N-ray is insensitive to all but the grossest delaminations. Statistical analysis show a good correlation between ultrasonic scanning and destructive physical analysis.

  9. Ultrasonic Inspection Of Welds On Tube Fittings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Arjun N.; Nummelin, John L.

    1996-01-01

    Scanning ultrasonic apparatus designed for use in nondestructive inspection of electron-beam welds between heat-exchanger tube and end fittings. Includes ultrasonic probe, scanning mechanism, ultrasonic-signal-generating and -processing circuits, and computers. Not necessary to immerse any part of apparatus or tube/fitting assembly in water during inspection. Output ultrasonic-test signals displayed on computer to reveal defects.

  10. Domains with transcriptional regulatory activity within the ALL1 and AF4 proteins involved in acute leukemia.

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, R; Yano, T; Sorio, C; Nakamura, T; Rallapalli, R; Gu, Y; Leshkowitz, D; Croce, C M; Canaani, E

    1995-01-01

    The ALLI gene, located at chromosome band 11q23, is involved in acute leukemia through a series of chromosome translocations and fusion to a variety of genes, most frequently to A4 and AF9. The fused genes encode chimeric proteins proteins. Because the Drosophila homologue of ALL1, trithorax, is a positive regulator of homeotic genes and acts at the level of transcription, it is conceivable that alterations in ALL1 transcriptional activity may underlie its action in malignant transformation. To begin studying this, we examined the All1, AF4, AF9, and AF17 proteins for the presence of potential transcriptional regulatory domains. This was done by fusing regions of the proteins to the yeast GAL4 DNA binding domain and assaying their effect on transcription of a reporter gene. A domain of 55 residues positioned at amino acids 2829-2883 of ALL1 was identified as a very strong activator. Further analysis of this domain by in vitro mutagenesis pointed to a core of hydrophobic and acidic residues as critical for the activity. An ALL1 domain that repressed transcription of the reporter gene coincided with the sequence homologous to a segment of DNA methyltransferase. An AF4 polypeptide containing residues 480-560 showed strong activation potential. The C-terminal segment of AF9 spanning amino acids 478-568 transactivated transcription of the reporter gene in HeLa but not in NIH 3T3 cells. These results suggest that ALL1, AF4, and probably AF9 interact with the transcriptional machinery of the cell. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8618864

  11. A device for human ultrasonic echolocation

    PubMed Central

    Gaub, Benjamin M.; Rodgers, Chris C.; Li, Crystal; DeWeese, Michael R.; Harper, Nicol S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We present a device that combines principles of ultrasonic echolocation and spatial hearing to provide human users with environmental cues that are 1) not otherwise available to the human auditory system and 2) richer in object, and spatial information than the more heavily processed sonar cues of other assistive devices. The device consists of a wearable headset with an ultrasonic emitter and stereo microphones with affixed artificial pinnae. The goal of this study is to describe the device and evaluate the utility of the echoic information it provides. Methods The echoes of ultrasonic pulses were recorded and time-stretched to lower their frequencies into the human auditory range, then played back to the user. We tested performance among naive and experienced sighted volunteers using a set of localization experiments in which the locations of echo-reflective surfaces were judged using these time stretched echoes. Results Naive subjects were able to make laterality and distance judgments, suggesting that the echoes provide innately useful information without prior training. Naive subjects were generally unable to make elevation judgments from recorded echoes. However trained subjects demonstrated an ability to judge elevation as well. Conclusion This suggests that the device can be used effectively to examine the environment and that the human auditory system can rapidly adapt to these artificial echolocation cues. Significance Interpreting and interacting with the external world constitutes a major challenge for persons who are blind or visually impaired. This device has the potential to aid blind people in interacting with their environment. PMID:25608301

  12. Ultrasonic thermoacoustic cooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Young S.; El-Gendy, H.; Symko, O. G.

    2005-09-01

    The development of a thermoacoustic cooler in the ultrasonic range is presented. This cooler was designed to operate at a drive frequency of 24 kHz using air as the working fluid; the resonator is 7.1 mm long and it contains a cotton wool stack with copper heat exchangers at each end. Since the ultrasonic driver is a key element in this device, a major effort was made to optimize its performance and coupling to the resonator. It is a resonant piezoelectric monomorph loaded with a metallic cone for impedance matching to the resonator. By its design it is capable of intense sound levels, of order 140 dB and higher. The attained cooling power scales with the sound power levels and a COP larger than one is achieved. Studies of heat losses consist of PIV imaging of acoustic streaming (such as Eckart) in this device and back heat flow along the stack. The developed device shows much promise for rapid cooling of small samples. [Work supported by the Office of Naval Research.

  13. Ultrasonic Drying Processing Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, V.; Bon, J.; Riera, E.; Pinto, A.

    The design of a high intensity ultrasonic chamber for drying process was investigated. The acoustic pressure distribution in the ultrasonic drying chamber was simulated solving linear elastic models with attenuation for the acoustic-structure interaction. Together with the government equations, the selection of appropriate boundary conditions, mesh refinement, and configuration parameters of the calculation methods, which is of great importance to simulate adequately the process, were considered. Numerical solution, applying the finite element method (FEM), of acoustic-structure interactions involves to couple structural and fluid elements (with different degrees of freedom), whose solution implies several problems of hardware requirements and software configuration, which were solved. To design the drying chamber, the influence of the directivity of the drying open camera and the staggered reflectors over the acoustic pressure distribution was analyzed. Furthermore, to optimize the influence of the acoustic energy on the drying process, the average value of the acoustic energy distribution in the drying chamber was studied. This would determine the adequate position of the food samples to be dried. For this purpose, the acoustic power absorbed by the samples will be analyzed in later studies.

  14. Ultrasonic Lamb wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Kevin R.; Malyarenko, Eugene V.; Hinders, Mark K.

    2002-12-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of aerospace structures using traditional methods is a complex, time-consuming process critical to maintaining mission readiness and flight safety. Limited access to corrosion-prone structure and the restricted applicability of available NDE techniques for the detection of hidden corrosion or other damage often compound the challenge. In this paper we discuss our recent work using ultrasonic Lamb wave tomography to address this pressing NDE technology need. Lamb waves are ultrasonic guided waves, which allow large sections of aircraft structures to be rapidly inspected for structural flaws such as disbonds, corrosion and delaminations. Because the velocity of Lamb waves depends on thickness, for example, the travel times of the fundamental Lamb modes can be converted into a thickness map of the inspection region. However, extracting quantitative information from Lamb wave data has always involved highly trained personnel with a detailed knowledge of mechanical waveguide physics. Our work focuses on tomographic reconstruction to produce quantitative maps that can be easily interpreted by technicians or fed directly into structural integrity and lifetime prediction codes. Laboratory measurements discussed here demonstrate that Lamb wave tomography using a square perimeter array of transducers with algebraic reconstruction tomography is appropriate for detecting flaws in aircraft materials. The speed and fidelity of the reconstruction algorithms as well as practical considerations for person-portable array-based systems are discussed in this paper.

  15. Ultrasonic mitigation investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, B.P.; Shepard, C.L.

    1993-04-01

    The suggestion was made that the introduction of ultrasound into Tank 101-SY might serve to release the hydrogen bubbles trapped in the slurry. This would cause a continuous release of bubbles and thereby prevent the turnover phenomenon. Two major considerations were (1) the method for delivering the energy into the slurry and (2) the effective volume of action. In this study, we attached the former by designing and testing a liquid-filled waveguide and radiator, and the latter by making ultrasonic property measurements on synthetic waste. Our conclusion is that ultrasonic mitigation may not be feasible, primarily because of the very high attenuation (1000 to 50000 dB/m) factor to 10 to 30 kHz. Such a high attenuation would restrict the action volume to such a low value as to make the method impractical. Further investigations are recommended to identify the cause of this effect and determine if this same effect will be seen in real 101-SY waste.

  16. Ultrasonics and space instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The design topic selected was an outgrowth of the experimental design work done in the Fluid Behavior in Space experiment, which relies on the measurement of minute changes of the pressure and temperature to obtain reasonably accurate volume determinations. An alternative method of volume determination is the use of ultrasonic imaging. An ultrasonic wave system is generated by wall mounted transducer arrays. The interior liquid configuration causes reflection and refraction of the pattern so that analysis of the received wave system provides a description of the configuration and hence volume. Both continuous and chirp probe beams were used in a laboratory experiment simulating a surface wetting propellant. The hardware included a simulated tank with gaseous voids, transmitting and receiving transducers, transmitters, receivers, computer interface, and computer. Analysis software was developed for image generation and interpretation of results. Space instrumentation was pursued in support of a number of experiments under development for GAS flights. The program included thirty undergraduate students pursuing major qualifying project work under the guidance of eight faculty supported by a teaching assistant. Both mechanical and electrical engineering students designed and built several microprocessor systems to measure parameters such as temperature, acceleration, pressure, velocity, and circulation in order to determine combustion products, vortex formation, gas entrainment, EMR emissions from thunderstorms, and milli-g-accelerations due to crew motions.

  17. 29 CFR 1919.78 - Nondestructive examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nondestructive examinations. 1919.78 Section 1919.78 Labor... Nondestructive examinations. (a) Wherever it is considered necessary by the accredited person or his authorized...., examination of structure or parts by electronic, ultrasonic, or other nondestructive methods may be...

  18. AF4 and AF4N protein complexes: recruitment of P-TEFb kinase, their interactome and potential functions

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Bastian; Kowarz, Eric; Rössler, Tanja; Ahmad, Khalil; Steinhilber, Dieter; Marschalek, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    AF4/AFF1 and AF5/AFF4 are the molecular backbone to assemble “super-elongation complexes” (SECs) that have two main functions: (1) control of transcriptional elongation by recruiting the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb = CyclinT1/CDK9) that is usually stored in inhibitory 7SK RNPs; (2) binding of different histone methyltransferases, like DOT1L, NSD1 and CARM1. This way, transcribed genes obtain specific histone signatures (e.g. H3K79me2/3, H3K36me2) to generate a transcriptional memory system. Here we addressed several questions: how is P-TEFb recruited into SEC, how is the AF4 interactome composed, and what is the function of the naturally occuring AF4N protein variant which exhibits only the first 360 amino acids of the AF4 full-length protein. Noteworthy, shorter protein variants are a specific feature of all AFF protein family members. Here, we demonstrate that full-length AF4 and AF4N are both catalyzing the transition of P-TEFb from 7SK RNP to their N-terminal domain. We have also mapped the protein-protein interaction network within both complexes. In addition, we have first evidence that the AF4N protein also recruits TFIIH and the tumor suppressor MEN1. This indicate that AF4N may have additional functions in transcriptional initiation and in MEN1-dependend transcriptional processes. PMID:26171280

  19. Vibration in The Ultrasonic Machining System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Nan; Chen, Zhigang; Zhong, Xinrong

    The rotary ultrasonic machining system is the vibration system, using the characteristics of the ultrasonic resonance. Based on the ultrasonic vibration model, the dynamic characteristics of the ultrasonic machining system are analyzed, and using the wave equations, the dynamic characteristics of the horn with the exponential transition are analyzed. Based on FEM, the dynamic characteristics of the horn with the exponential transition in the rotary ultrasonic machining system are analyzed.

  20. Irradiation Testing of Ultrasonic Transducers

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, Joshua; Tittmann, Bernhard; Reinhardt, Brian; Kohse, Gordon E.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Montgomery, Robert O.; Chien, Hual-Te; Villard, Jean-Francois; Palmer, Joe; Rempe, Joy

    2014-07-30

    Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential for high accuracy and resolution in-pile measurement of a range of parameters, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes. Many Department of Energy-Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs are exploring the use of ultrasonic technologies to provide enhanced sensors for in-pile instrumentation during irradiation testing. For example, the ability of single, small diameter ultrasonic thermometers (UTs) to provide a temperature profile in candidate metallic and oxide fuel would provide much needed data for validating new fuel performance models. Other efforts include an ultrasonic technique to detect morphology changes (such as crack initiation and growth) and acoustic techniques to evaluate fission gas composition and pressure. These efforts are limited by the lack of existing knowledge of ultrasonic transducer material survivability under irradiation conditions. For this reason, the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was awarded an Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) project to evaluate promising magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer performance in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR) up to a fast fluence of at least 1021 n/cm2 (E> 0.1 MeV). The goal of this research is to characterize magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer survivability during irradiation, enabling the development of novel radiation tolerant ultrasonic sensors for use in Material and Test Reactors (MTRs). As such, this test will be an instrumented lead test and real-time transducer performance data will be collected along with temperature and neutron and gamma flux data. The current work bridges the gap between proven out-of-pile ultrasonic techniques and in-pile deployment of ultrasonic sensors by acquiring the data necessary to demonstrate the performance of ultrasonic transducers.

  1. Irradiation Testing of Ultrasonic Transducers

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, Joshua; Tittmann, Bernhard; Reinhardt, Brian; Kohse, Gordon E.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Montgomery, Robert O.; Chien, Hual-Te; Villard, Jean-Francois; Palmer, Joe; Rempe, Joy

    2013-12-01

    Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential for high accuracy and resolution in-pile measurement of a range of parameters, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes. Many Department of Energy-Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs are exploring the use of ultrasonic technologies to provide enhanced sensors for in-pile instrumentation during irradiation testing. For example, the ability of single, small diameter ultrasonic thermometers (UTs) to provide a temperature profile in candidate metallic and oxide fuel would provide much needed data for validating new fuel performance models. Other efforts include an ultrasonic technique to detect morphology changes (such as crack initiation and growth) and acoustic techniques to evaluate fission gas composition and pressure. These efforts are limited by the lack of existing knowledge of ultrasonic transducer material survivability under irradiation conditions. For this reason, the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was awarded an Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) project to evaluate promising magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer performance in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR) up to a fast fluence of at least 1021 n/cm2 (E> 0.1 MeV). The goal of this research is to characterize magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer survivability during irradiation, enabling the development of novel radiation tolerant ultrasonic sensors for use in Material and Test Reactors (MTRs). As such, this test will be an instrumented lead test and real-time transducer performance data will be collected along with temperature and neutron and gamma flux data. The current work bridges the gap between proven out-of-pile ultrasonic techniques and in-pile deployment of ultrasonic sensors by acquiring the data necessary to demonstrate the performance of ultrasonic transducers.

  2. Ultrasonic Transducer Irradiation Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, Joshua; Palmer, Joe; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Keller, Paul; Montgomery, Robert; Chien, Hual-Te; Kohse, Gordon; Tittmann, Bernhard; Reinhardt, Brian; Rempe, Joy

    2015-02-01

    Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential for high-accuracy and -resolution in-pile measurement of a range of parameters, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes. Many Department of Energy-Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs are exploring the use of ultrasonic technologies to provide enhanced sensors for in-pile instrumentation during irradiation testing. For example, the ability of small diameter ultrasonic thermometers (UTs) to provide a temperature profile in candidate metallic and oxide fuel would provide much needed data for validating new fuel performance models. Other ongoing efforts include an ultrasonic technique to detect morphology changes (such as crack initiation and growth) and acoustic techniques to evaluate fission gas composition and pressure. These efforts are limited by the lack of identified ultrasonic transducer materials capable of long term performance under irradiation test conditions. For this reason, the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was awarded an ATR NSUF project to evaluate the performance of promising magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducers in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR) up to a fast fluence of at least 1021 n/cm2. The goal of this research is to characterize and demonstrate magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer operation during irradiation, enabling the development of novel radiation-tolerant ultrasonic sensors for use in Material Testing Reactors (MTRs). As such, this test is an instrumented lead test and real-time transducer performance data is collected along with temperature and neutron and gamma flux data. The current work bridges the gap between proven out-of-pile ultrasonic techniques and in-pile deployment of ultrasonic sensors by acquiring the data necessary to demonstrate the performance of ultrasonic transducers. To date, one piezoelectric

  3. Ultrasonic characterization of structural ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klima, S. J.; Baaklini, G. Y.

    1986-01-01

    Ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements were used to characterize density and microstructure in monolithic silicon nitride and silicon carbide. Research samples of these structural ceramics exhibited a wide range of density and microstructural variations. It was shown that bulk density variations correlate with and can be estimated by velocity measurements. Variations in microstructural features such as grain size or shape and pore morphology had a minor effect on velocity. However, these features had a pronounced effect on ultrasonic attenuation. The ultrasonic results are supplemented by low-energy radiography and scanning laser acoustic microscopy.

  4. Pulsed ultrasonic stir welding method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method of performing ultrasonic stir welding uses a welding head assembly to include a plate and a rod passing through the plate. The rod is rotatable about a longitudinal axis thereof. In the method, the rod is rotated about its longitudinal axis during a welding operation. During the welding operation, a series of on-off ultrasonic pulses are applied to the rod such that they propagate parallel to the rod's longitudinal axis. At least a pulse rate associated with the on-off ultrasonic pulses is controlled.

  5. Analytical ultrasonics for structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kupperman, D. S.

    1986-01-01

    The application of ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements to characterize the microstructure of structural materials is discussed. Velocity measurements in cast stainless steel are correlated with microstructural variations ranging from equiaxed (elastically isotropic) to columnar (elastically anisotropic) grain structure. The effect of the anisotropic grain structure on the deviation of ultrasonic waves in cast stainless steel is also reported. Field-implementable techniques for distinguishing equiaxed from columnar grain structures in cast strainless steel structural members are presented. The application of ultrasonic velocity measurements to characterize structural ceramics in the green state is also discussed.

  6. Computer automation of ultrasonic testing. [inspection of ultrasonic welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, B. G. W.; Kerlin, E. E.; Gardner, A. H.; Dunmyer, D.; Wells, T. G.; Robinson, A. R.; Kunselman, J. S.; Walker, T. C.

    1974-01-01

    Report describes a prototype computer-automated ultrasonic system developed for the inspection of weldments. This system can be operated in three modes: manual, automatic, and computer-controlled. In the computer-controlled mode, the system will automatically acquire, process, analyze, store, and display ultrasonic inspection data in real-time. Flaw size (in cross-section), location (depth), and type (porosity-like or crack-like) can be automatically discerned and displayed. The results and pertinent parameters are recorded.

  7. 7 CFR Exhibits A-F to Subpart A... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false A Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... Real and Chattel Property Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955...

  8. 7 CFR Exhibits A-F to Subpart A... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false A Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... Real and Chattel Property Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955...

  9. 7 CFR Exhibits A-F to Subpart A... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true A Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... Real and Chattel Property Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955...

  10. 7 CFR Exhibits A-F to Subpart A... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false A Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... Real and Chattel Property Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955...

  11. 7 CFR Exhibits A-F to Subpart A... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false A Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... Real and Chattel Property Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955...

  12. Part III: AFS - A Secure Distributed File System

    SciTech Connect

    Wachsmann, A.; /SLAC

    2005-06-29

    AFS is a secure distributed global file system providing location independence, scalability and transparent migration capabilities for data. AFS works across a multitude of Unix and non-Unix operating systems and is used at many large sites in production for many years. AFS still provides unique features that are not available with other distributed file systems even though AFS is almost 20 years old. This age might make it less appealing to some but with IBM making AFS available as open-source in 2000, new interest in use and development was sparked. When talking about AFS, people often mention other file systems as potential alternatives. Coda (http://www.coda.cs.cmu.edu/) with its disconnected mode will always be a research project and never have production quality. Intermezzo (http://www.inter-mezzo.org/) is now in the Linux kernel but not available for any other operating systems. NFSv4 (http://www.nfsv4.org/) which picked up many ideas from AFS and Coda is not mature enough yet to be used in serious production mode. This article presents the rich features of AFS and invites readers to play with it.

  13. Ultrasonic Membrane Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kentish, Sandra; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    A membrane is a sermipermeable material that permits the passage of some molecules while retaining others. Ultrasound can enhance membrane operation through the asymmetric collapse of cavitating bubbles and through the turbulence associated with acoustic streaming. The added turbulence can lead to a looser, more porous fouling cake layer and may agglomerate fine particles, reducing pore blockage and cake compaction.These effects are dependent upon the ultrasonic intensity, the operating pressure, crossflow velocity and solids concentration.Membrane cleaning can also be enhanced by the use of ultrasound, but this application may not be economic when used in isolation. One of the greatest challenges facing the technology is the generation of a uniform acoustic field across the entire membrane surface in a full-scale module.

  14. Apparatus for ultrasonic nebulization

    DOEpatents

    Olson, Kenneth W.; Haas, Jr., William J.; Fassel, Velmer A.

    1978-08-29

    An improved apparatus for ultrasonic nebulization of liquid samples or suspensions in which the piezoelectric transducer is protected from chemical attack and erosion. The transducer is protected by being bonded to the inner surface of a glass plate which forms one end wall of a first hollow body provided with apparatus for circulating a fluid for cooling and stabilizing the transducer. The glass plate, which is one-half wavelength in thickness to provide an acoustically coupled outer nebulizing surface, seals an opening in a second hollow body which encloses an aerosol mixing chamber. The second body includes apparatus for delivering the sample solution to the nebulizing surface, a gas inlet for providing a flow of carrier gas for transporting the aerosol of the nebulized sample and an aerosol outlet.

  15. Metrology for ultrasonic applications.

    PubMed

    Zeqiri, Bajram

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a review of current metrological capability applied to the characterisation of the acoustic output of equipment used within medical ultrasonic applications. Key measurement devices, developed to underpin metrology in this area, are the radiation force balance, used to determine total output power, and the piezo-electric hydrophone, used to resolve the spatial and temporal distribution of acoustic pressure. The measurement infrastructure in place within the United Kingdom ensuring users are able to carry out traceable measurements of these quantities in a meaningful way, is described. This includes the relevant primary standards, the way international equivalence of national standards is demonstrated and the routes by which the standards are disseminated to the user community. Emerging measurement techniques that may in future lead to improved measurement capability, are also briefly discussed. PMID:17081597

  16. Toward a petabyte-scale AFS service at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Ster, Daniel; Moscicki, Jakub T.; Wiebalck, Arne

    2014-06-01

    AFS is a mature and reliable storage service at CERN, having worked for more than 20 years as the provider of Unix home directories and project areas. Recently, the AFS service has grown at unprecedented rates (200% in the past year); this growth was unlocked thanks to innovations in both the hardware and software components of our file servers. This work presents how AFS is used at CERN and how the service offering is evolving with the increasing storage needs of its local and remote user communities. In particular, we demonstrate the usage patterns for home directories, workspaces and project spaces, as well as show the daily work which is required to rebalance data and maintaining stability and performance. Finally, we highlight some recent changes and optimisations made to the AFS Service, thereby revealing how AFS can possibly operate at all while being subjected to frequent-almost DDOS-like-attacks from its users.

  17. Laboratory and Field Tests of Ultrasonic Sensors for Precision Sprayers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reliable function of sensors under rough field conditions is required for the development of variable-rate sprayers to deliver pest control agents to tree liners in ornamental nurseries. Two ultrasonic sensors were examined to identify how their durability and detection stability would be influenced...

  18. Ultrasonic extensometer measures bolt preload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, C. M., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Extensometer using ultrasonic pulse reflections to measure elongations in tightened belts and studs is much more accurate than conventional torque wrenches in application of specified preload to bolts and other threaded fasteners.

  19. Ultrasonic Technology in Duress Alarms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Martha A.

    2000-01-01

    Provides the pros and cons of the most commonly used technologies in personal duress alarm systems in the school environment. Discussed are radio frequency devices, infrared systems, and ultrasonic technology. (GR)

  20. Flaw imaging and ultrasonic techniques for characterizing sintered silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baaklini, George Y.; Abel, Phillip B.

    1987-01-01

    The capabilities were investigated of projection microfocus x-radiography, ultrasonic velocity and attenuation, and reflection scanning acoustic microscopy for characterizing silicon carbide specimens. Silicon carbide batches covered a range of densities and different microstructural characteristics. Room temperature, four point flexural strength tests were conducted. Fractography was used to identify types, sizes, and locations of fracture origins. Fracture toughness values were calculated from fracture strength and flaw characterization data. Detection capabilities of radiography and acoustic microscopy for fracture-causing flaws were evaluated. Applicability of ultrasonics for verifying material strength and toughness was examined.

  1. Radiographic and ultrasonic characterization of sintered silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baaklini, G. Y.; Abel, P. B.

    1988-01-01

    The capabilities were investigated of projection microfocus X-radiography, ultrasonic velocity and attenuation, and reflection scanning acoustic microscopy for characterizing silicon carbide specimens. Silicon carbide batches covered a range of densities and different microstructural characteristics. Room temperature, four point flexural strength tests were conducted. Fractography was used to identify types, sizes, and locations of fracture origins. Fracture toughness values were calculated from fracture strength and flaw characterization data. Detection capabilities of radiography and acoustic microscopy for fracture-causing flaws were evaluated. Applicability of ultrasonics for verifying material strength and toughness was examined.

  2. Thermal and ultrasonic evaluation of porosity in composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Patrick H.; Winfree, William P.; Long, Edward R., Jr.; Kullerd, Susan M.; Nathan, N.; Partos, Richard D.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of porosity on damage incurred by low-velocity impact are investigated. Specimens of graphite/epoxy composite were fabricated with various volume fractions of voids. The void fraction was independently determined using optical examination and acid resin digestion methods. Thermal diffusivity and ultrasonic attenuation were measured, and these results were related to the void volume fraction. The relationship between diffusivity and fiber volume fraction was also considered. The slope of the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient was found to increase linearly with void content, and the diffusivity decreased linearly with void volume fraction, after compensation for an approximately linear dependence on the fiber volume fraction.

  3. Ultrasonic Imaging Of Deep Arteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rooney, James A.; Heyser, Richard C.; Lecroissette, Dennis H.

    1990-01-01

    Swept-frequency sound replaces pulsed sound. Ultrasonic medical instrument produces images of peripheral and coronary arteries with resolutions higher and at depths greater than attainable by previous ultrasonic systems. Time-delay-spectrometry imager includes scanning, image-processing, and displaying equipment. It sweeps in frequency from 0 to 10 MHz in 20 ms, pauses for 5 ms, and repeats sweep. Intended for use in noninvasive detection and measurement of atherosclerotic lesions.

  4. Recapping hemilaminoplasty for spinal surgical disorders using ultrasonic bone curette

    PubMed Central

    Matsuoka, Hidenori; Itoh, Yasunobu; Numazawa, Shinichi; Tomii, Masato; Watanabe, Kazuo; Hirano, Yoshitaka; Nakagawa, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors present a novel method of the recapping hemilaminoplasty in a retrospective study of patients with spinal surgical disorders. This report describes the surgical technique and the results of hemilaminoplasty using an ultrasonic bone curette. The aim of this study was to examine the safety and effectiveness of the hemilaminoplasty technique with ultrasonic bone curette. Methods: Between April 2003 and July 2011, 33 patients with various spinal diseases (17 spinal tumors, 5 dural arteriovenous fistulas, 3 syringomyelia, 2 sacral perineural cysts, and 2 arachnoid cysts) were treated microsurgically by using an ultrasonic bone curette with scalpel blade and lightweight handpiece. The ultrasonic bone curette was used for division of lamina. After resection of the lesion, the excised lamina was replaced exactly in situ to its original anatomic position with a titanium plate and screw. Additional fusion technique was not required and the device was easy to handle. All patients were observed both neurologically and radiologically by dynamic plain radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scan. Results: The operation was performed successfully and there were no instrument-related complications such as dural laceration, nerve root injury, and vessels injury. The mean number of resected and restored lamina was 1.7. CT confirmed primary bone fusion in all patients by 12 months after surgery. Conclusion: The ultrasonic bone curette is a useful instrument for recapping hemilaminoplasty in various spinal surgeries. This method allows anatomical reconstruction of the excised bone to preserve the posterior surrounding tissues. PMID:22754735

  5. Ultrasonically assisted extraction of bioactive principles from Quillaja Saponaria Molina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cares, M. G.; Vargas, Y.; Gaete, L.; Sainz, J.; Alarcón, J.

    2010-01-01

    A study of ultrasonically assisted extraction of bioactive principles from Quillaja Saponaria Molina (Quillay) is presented. To address the problem it was studied the effects that could influence the extraction process through a two-level Factorial Design. The effects considered in the Experimental Design were: Granulometry, Extraction time, Acoustic Power and Acoustic Impedance. The production of the quillaja extracts is done with an aqueous extraction and the process is assisted by an ultrasonic field; no other solvents are used in its production. The final product only incorporates natural ingredients and raw materials, authorized for their use in food manufacturing processes. The principal factors affecting the ultrasonic extraction process were: Granulometry and Extraction time. The enhanced of ultrasonic assisted extraction ratio was measuring the increasing yield of extracted components, the extraction ratio was increased by ultrasonic effect and a reduction in extraction time was verified. In addition the process can be carried out at temperatures lower than the traditional way. The influence of ultrasound on the quality of bioactive principles was examined by HPLC technique and no influence of ultrasound on natural components was found.

  6. The acousto-ultrasonic approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, Alex

    1987-01-01

    The nature and underlying rationale of the acousto-ultrasonic approach is reviewed, needed advanced signal analysis and evaluation methods suggested, and application potentials discussed. Acousto-ultrasonics is an NDE technique combining aspects of acoustic emission methodology with ultrasonic simulation of stress waves. This approach uses analysis of simulated stress waves for detecting and mapping variations of mechanical properties. Unlike most NDE, acousto-ultrasonics is less concerned with flaw detection than with the assessment of the collective effects of various flaws and material anomalies. Acousto-ultrasonics has been applied chiefly to laminated and filament-wound fiber reinforced composites. It has been used to assess the significant strength and toughness reducing effects that can be wrought by combinations of essentially minor flaws and diffuse flaw populations. Acousto-ultrasonics assesses integrated defect states and the resultant variations in properties such as tensile, shear, and flexural strengths and fracture resistance. Matrix cure state, porosity, fiber orientation, fiber volume fraction, fiber-matrix bonding, and interlaminar bond quality are underlying factors.

  7. Thermal fatigue of composites: Ultrasonic and SEM evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Forsyth, D.S.; Kasap, S.O. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Wacker, I.; Yannacopoulos, S. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    Results are presented on the evaluation of thermal fatigue in three fiber reinforced polymer composites, using ultrasonic techniques and scanning electron microscopy. The composites examined were (a) continuous carbon fibers in a vinylester matrix (b) continuous aramid fibers in a vinylester matrix and (c) randomly oriented aramid fibers in a polyphenylene matrix. Specimens of these composites were subjected to thermal fatigue by thermal cycling from [minus]25 C to 75 C. Changes in ultrasonic attenuation and velocity were monitored during thermal cycling, and scanning electron microscopy was used to qualitatively evaluate any damage. It was observed that ultrasonic attenuation is sensitive to thermal fatigue, increasing with increasing number of thermal cycles. SEM evaluations showed that the primary damage due to thermal fatigue is due to fiber-matrix debonding.

  8. Signal Processing Variables for Optimization of Flaw Detection in Composites Using Ultrasonic Guided Wave Scanning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don J.; Cosgriff, Laura M.; Martin, Richard E.; Teemer, LeTarrie

    2004-01-01

    This study analyzes the effect of signal processing variables on the ability of the ultrasonic guided wave scan method at NASA Glenn Research Center to distinguish various flaw conditions in ceramic matrix composites samples. In the ultrasonic guided wave scan method, several time- and frequency-domain parameters are calculated from the ultrasonic guided wave signal at each scan location to form images. The parameters include power spectral density, centroid mean time, total energy (zeroth moment), centroid frequency, and ultrasonic decay rate. A number of signal processing variables are available to the user when calculating these parameters. These signal processing variables include 1) the time portion of the time-domain waveform processed, 2) integration type for the properties requiring integrations, 3) bounded versus unbounded integrations, 4) power spectral density window type, 5) and the number of time segments chosen if using the short-time fourier transform to calculate ultrasonic decay rate. Flaw conditions examined included delamination, cracking, and density variation.

  9. Elastic-plastic cube model for ultrasonic friction reduction via Poisson's effect.

    PubMed

    Dong, Sheng; Dapino, Marcelo J

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonic friction reduction has been studied experimentally and theoretically. This paper presents a new elastic-plastic cube model which can be applied to various ultrasonic lubrication cases. A cube is used to represent all the contacting asperities of two surfaces. Friction force is considered as the product of the tangential contact stiffness and the deformation of the cube. Ultrasonic vibrations are projected onto three orthogonal directions, separately changing contact parameters and deformations. Hence, the overall change of friction forces. Experiments are conducted to examine ultrasonic friction reduction using different materials under normal loads that vary from 40 N to 240 N. Ultrasonic vibrations are generated both in longitudinal and vertical (out-of-plane) directions by way of the Poisson effect. The tests show up to 60% friction reduction; model simulations describe the trends observed experimentally. PMID:23850422

  10. Microstructure and Joint Properties of Nano-Silver Paste by Ultrasonic-Assisted Pressureless Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuan; Jing, Hongyang; Han, Yongdian; Xu, Lianyong; Lu, Guoquan

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, sintering nano-silver paste has become a popular worldwide technology. This paper presents the effect of ultrasonic vibration on the microstructure and mechanical properties of pressureless sintered nano-silver joints. Ultrasonic waves have been introduced prior to sintering using a new type of nano-silver paste in order to improve bonding of large-area chips (≥10 × 10 mm2). The results show that ultrasonic vibration can not only reduce black pores, increase the size and the density of sintered silver, but also transfer the fracture mode of joints to cohesive failure. With increasing ultrasonic power or time, the shear strength of joints gradually increases linearly. The surface of the sintered silver, the fracture surface, and the cross section of joints were examined, and the microstructure has a transition zone at the edge of the joints that is insufficiently sintered. Ultrasonic vibration can reduce the transition zone and thus improve the reliability of joints.

  11. Final results of double-shell tank 241-AZ-101 ultrasonic inspection

    SciTech Connect

    JENSEN, C.E.

    1999-08-23

    This document presents the results and documentation of the nondestructive ultrasonic examination of tank 241-AZ-101. A tank inspection supplier was retained to provide and use an ultrasonic examination system (equipment, procedures, and inspectors) to scan a limited area of double-shell tank 241-AZ-101 primary tank wall and welds. The inspection found one reportable indication of thinning and no reportable pitting, corrosion, or cracking.

  12. Final results of double-shell tank 241-AN-105 ultrasonic inspection

    SciTech Connect

    JENSEN, C.E.

    1999-08-23

    This document presents the results and documentation of the nondestructive ultrasonic examination of tank 241-AN-105. A tank inspection supplier was retained to provide and use an ultrasonic examination system (equipment, procedures, and inspectors) to scan a limited area of double-shell tank 241-AN-105 primary tank wall primary knuckle, and secondary tank bottom. The inspection found some indication of general and local wall thinning with no cracks detected.

  13. Center crack detection during continuous casting of aluminum by laser ultrasonic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grün, Hubert; Mitter, Thomas; Roither, Jürgen; Betz, Andreas; Bozorgi, Salar; Burgholzer, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Crack detection during continuous direct chill casting of aluminum is a matter of economics. Determining cracks during production process saves money, energy and raw material. Of course, a non-destructive method is required for this evaluation. Because of temperature concerns conventional ultrasound is not applicable. One non-contact alternative is laser ultrasonics. In laser ultrasonics short laser pulses illuminate the sample. The electromagnetic energy gets absorbed at the surface of the sample and results in local heating followed by expansion. Thereby broadband ultrasonic waves are launched which propagate through the sample and get back reflected or scattered at interfaces (cracks, blowholes,…) like conventional ultrasonic waves. Therefore laser ultrasonics is an alternative thermal infrared technology. By using an interferometer also the detection of the ultrasonic waves at the sample surface is done in a remote manner. During preliminary examinations in the lab by scanning different aluminum studs it was able to distinguish between studs with and without cracks. The prediction of the dimension of the crack by evaluation of the damping of the broadband ultrasonic waves was possible. With simple image reconstruction methods one can localize the crack and give an estimation of its extent and even its shape. Subsequent first measurements using this laser ultrasonic setup during the continuous casting of aluminum were carried out and showed the proof of principle in an industrial environment with elevated temperatures, dust, cooling water and vibrations.

  14. MnO2/CeO2 for catalytic ultrasonic degradation of methyl orange.

    PubMed

    Zhao, He; Zhang, Guangming; Zhang, Quanling

    2014-05-01

    Catalytic ultrasonic degradation of aqueous methyl orange was studied in this paper. Heterogeneous catalyst MnO2/CeO2 was prepared by impregnation of manganese oxide on cerium oxide. Morphology and specific surface area of MnO2/CeO2 catalyst were characterized and its composition was determined. Results showed big differences between fresh and used catalyst. The removal efficiency of methyl orange by MnO2/CeO2 catalytic ultrasonic process was investigated. Results showed that ultrasonic process could remove 3.5% of methyl orange while catalytic ultrasonic process could remove 85% of methyl orange in 10 min. The effects of free radical scavengers were studied to determine the role of hydroxyl free radical in catalytic ultrasonic process. Results showed that methyl orange degradation efficiency declined after adding free radical scavengers, illustrating that hydroxyl free radical played an important role in degrading methyl orange. Theoretic analysis showed that the resonance size of cavitation bubbles was comparable with the size of catalyst particles. Thus, catalyst particles might act as cavitation nucleus and enhance ultrasonic cavitation effects. Measurement of H2O2 concentration in catalytic ultrasonic process confirmed this hypothesis. Effects of pre-adsorption on catalytic ultrasonic process were examined. Pre-adsorption significantly improved methyl orange removal. The potential explanation was that methyl orange molecules adsorbed on catalysts could enter cavitation bubbles and undergo stronger cavitation. PMID:24369902

  15. Ultrasonic speech translator and communications system

    DOEpatents

    Akerman, M. Alfred; Ayers, Curtis W.; Haynes, Howard D.

    1996-01-01

    A wireless communication system undetectable by radio frequency methods for converting audio signals, including human voice, to electronic signals in the ultrasonic frequency range, transmitting the ultrasonic signal by way of acoustical pressure waves across a carrier medium, including gases, liquids, or solids, and reconverting the ultrasonic acoustical pressure waves back to the original audio signal. The ultrasonic speech translator and communication system (20) includes an ultrasonic transmitting device (100) and an ultrasonic receiving device (200). The ultrasonic transmitting device (100) accepts as input (115) an audio signal such as human voice input from a microphone (114) or tape deck. The ultrasonic transmitting device (100) frequency modulates an ultrasonic carrier signal with the audio signal producing a frequency modulated ultrasonic carrier signal, which is transmitted via acoustical pressure waves across a carrier medium such as gases, liquids or solids. The ultrasonic receiving device (200) converts the frequency modulated ultrasonic acoustical pressure waves to a frequency modulated electronic signal, demodulates the audio signal from the ultrasonic carrier signal, and conditions the demodulated audio signal to reproduce the original audio signal at its output (250).

  16. Ultrasonic speech translator and communications system

    DOEpatents

    Akerman, M.A.; Ayers, C.W.; Haynes, H.D.

    1996-07-23

    A wireless communication system undetectable by radio frequency methods for converting audio signals, including human voice, to electronic signals in the ultrasonic frequency range, transmitting the ultrasonic signal by way of acoustical pressure waves across a carrier medium, including gases, liquids, or solids, and reconverting the ultrasonic acoustical pressure waves back to the original audio signal. The ultrasonic speech translator and communication system includes an ultrasonic transmitting device and an ultrasonic receiving device. The ultrasonic transmitting device accepts as input an audio signal such as human voice input from a microphone or tape deck. The ultrasonic transmitting device frequency modulates an ultrasonic carrier signal with the audio signal producing a frequency modulated ultrasonic carrier signal, which is transmitted via acoustical pressure waves across a carrier medium such as gases, liquids or solids. The ultrasonic receiving device converts the frequency modulated ultrasonic acoustical pressure waves to a frequency modulated electronic signal, demodulates the audio signal from the ultrasonic carrier signal, and conditions the demodulated audio signal to reproduce the original audio signal at its output. 7 figs.

  17. An Implicit LU/AF FDTD Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beggs, John H.; Briley, W. Roger

    2001-01-01

    There has been some recent work to develop two and three-dimensional alternating direction implicit (ADI) FDTD schemes. These ADI schemes are based upon the original ADI concept developed by Peaceman and Rachford and Douglas and Gunn, which is a popular solution method in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). These ADI schemes work well and they require solution of a tridiagonal system of equations. A new approach proposed in this paper applies a LU/AF approximate factorization technique from CFD to Maxwell s equations in flux conservative form for one space dimension. The result is a scheme that will retain its unconditional stability in three space dimensions, but does not require the solution of tridiagonal systems. The theory for this new algorithm is outlined in a one-dimensional context for clarity. An extension to two and threedimensional cases is discussed. Results of Fourier analysis are discussed for both stability and dispersion/damping properties of the algorithm. Results are presented for a one-dimensional model problem, and the explicit FDTD algorithm is chosen as a convenient reference for comparison.

  18. Ultrasound body composition traits response to an endotoxin challenge in Brahman heifers supplemented with Omnigen-AF

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the effect of feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Prince Agri Products) on the body composition traits response of newly-weaned heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Brahman heifers (n=24; 183 ± 5 kg) from the Texas AgriLife Research Center in Overton, TX, were separat...

  19. Design and analysis of ultrasonic horn for USDC (ultrasonic/sonic driller/corer)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Zensheu; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2004-07-01

    In-situ sampling and analysis is one of the major objectives of future NASA exploration missions. Existing drilling techniques are limited by the need for large axial forces, holding torques, and high power consumption. Lightweight robots and rovers have difficulties accommodating these requirements. These requirements are becoming increasingly tougher to meet as the need for drilling techniques is expanding to reach deeper into the subsurface. To address these key challenges to the NASA objective of planetary in-situ rock sampling and analysis, a drilling technology called ultrasonic/sonic driller/corer (USDC) was developed. The USDC uses a novel driving mechanism, transferring ultrasonic vibration to sonic frequency impacts with the aid of a free-flying mass block (free-mass). The free mass then drives the drill bit. The actuator consists of a stack of piezoelectric disks with a horn that amplifies the induced vibration amplitudes. To meet the need for deep driller the USDC was modified to form the Ultrasonic/Sonic Gopher. Drilling to the depth of several meters in ice or hard rocks requires the optimization of the amplification of the vibration displacement and velocity that are generated by the piezoelectric materials. For this purpose, various horn designs were examined analytically. Conventional and new designs of the horn were analyzed using finite element modeling and the results allow for the determination of the control parameters that can enhance the tip displacement and velocity. The results of the modeling are described and discussed in this paper.

  20. Ultrasensitive ultrasonic transducer studies

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, R.; Darling, T.; Migliori, A.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to continue development of the ultrasensitive ultrasonic transducers that won a 1994 R&D 100 Award. These transducers have a very smooth response across a broad frequency range and thus are extremely well- suited for resonant ultrasound spectroscopy as well as pulsed-echo and acoustic-emission applications. Current work on these transducers has indicated that bonding the piezoelectric and wear surface to a metal foil and attaching the foil to a body is less expensive and produces a transducer that is as good or better than commercially produced transducers. We have diffusion- bonded piezoelectric crystals and backings to stainless-steel-foil and wear surfaces. These are then attached onto stainless-steel tubes with electrical connectors to form the transducers. The transducers have been characterized using a reciprocity technique, electrical response, and optical interferometry. After characterization, the transducers have been compared to existing transducers by measuring and testing identical properties.

  1. Inexpensive Ultrasonic Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossmann, John; Svitelskiy, Oleksiy; Suslov, Alexey

    2013-03-01

    Growing interest of small universities and colleges in research determines an increasing need in affordable laboratory equipment that would be capable of producing scientifically valuable experimental results. In this report we present the current status of our efforts to develop a simple and low-cost version of a classical experimental setup for ultrasonic pulse-echo measurements that would be easily reproducible in the electronics shop of any small educational institution. In particular, usage of a dual timer microchip LM556 allowed us to simplify the design of a probing pulse generator. Also, we propose that using modern broadband RF components in phase detection circuits will allow us to substitute the complicated and expensive superheterodyne design of receiver with the technique of direct transformation and analysis of the echo signal right at the probe frequency. Our analysis shows that these simplifications can be achieved without compromising for sensitivity of the experiment or precision of measurements. This work is supported by Research Council of Colgate University

  2. Ultrasonic Time Reversal Mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, Mathias; Montaldo, Gabriel; Tanter, Mickael

    2004-11-01

    For more than ten years, time reversal techniques have been developed in many different fields of applications including detection of defects in solids, underwater acoustics, room acoustics and also ultrasound medical imaging and therapy. The essential property that makes time reversed acoustics possible is that the underlying physical process of wave propagation would be unchanged if time were reversed. In a non dissipative medium, the equations governing the waves guarantee that for every burst of sound that diverges from a source there exists in theory a set of waves that would precisely retrace the path of the sound back to the source. If the source is pointlike, this allows focusing back on the source whatever the medium complexity. For this reason, time reversal represents a very powerful adaptive focusing technique for complex media. The generation of this reconverging wave can be achieved by using Time Reversal Mirrors (TRM). It is made of arrays of ultrasonic reversible piezoelectric transducers that can record the wavefield coming from the sources and send back its time-reversed version in the medium. It relies on the use of fully programmable multi-channel electronics. In this paper we present some applications of iterative time reversal mirrors to target detection in medical applications.

  3. Ultrasonic metal etching for metallographic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, S. G.

    1971-01-01

    Ultrasonic etching delineates microstructural features not discernible in specimens prepared for metallographic analysis by standard chemical etching procedures. Cavitation bubbles in ultrasonically excited water produce preferential damage /etching/ of metallurgical phases or grain boundaries, depending on hardness of metal specimens.

  4. [Ultrasonics in endodontics: mechanism of action].

    PubMed

    Pacheco Plaza, M C; Kessler Nieto, F; Orts Rodríguez, M T; Ruiz de Temiño Malo, P

    1989-01-01

    The present study, first of three dwelling with ultrasonics in endodontic therapy, is a review of the literature about mechanisms involved and appliance of some of the sonic and ultrasonic system. PMID:2700391

  5. Study of ultrasonic thermometry based on ultrasonic time-of-flight measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Ruixi; Xiong, Qingyu; Wang, Lijie; Wang, Kai; Shen, Xuehua; Liang, Shan; Shi, Xin

    2016-03-01

    Ultrasonic thermometry is a kind of acoustic pyrometry and it has been evolving as a new temperature measurement technology for various environment. However, the accurate measurement of the ultrasonic time-of-flight is the key for ultrasonic thermometry. In this paper, we study the ultrasonic thermometry technique based on ultrasonic time-of-flight measurement with a pair of ultrasonic transducers for transmitting and receiving signal. The ultrasonic transducers are installed in a single path which ultrasonic travels. In order to validate the performance of ultrasonic thermometry, we make a contrast about the absolute error between the measured temperature value and the practical one. With and without heater source, the experimental results indicate ultrasonic thermometry has high precision of temperature measurement.

  6. Prevention of Obesity and Insulin Resistance by Estrogens Requires ERα Activation Function-2 (ERαAF-2), Whereas ERαAF-1 Is Dispensable

    PubMed Central

    Handgraaf, Sandra; Riant, Elodie; Fabre, Aurélie; Waget, Aurélie; Burcelin, Rémy; Lière, Philippe; Krust, Andrée; Chambon, Pierre; Arnal, Jean-François; Gourdy, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The beneficial metabolic actions of estrogen-based therapies are mainly mediated by estrogen receptor α (ERα), a nuclear receptor that regulates gene transcription through two activation functions (AFs): AF-1 and AF-2. Using mouse models deleted electively for ERαAF-1 (ERαAF-1°) or ERαAF-2 (ERαAF-2°), we determined their respective roles in the actions of estrogens on body composition and glucose homeostasis in response to either a normal diet or a high-fat diet (HFD). ERαAF-2° males and females developed accelerated weight gain, massive adiposity, severe insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance—quite reminiscent of the phenotype observed in mice deleted for the entire ERα protein (ERα−/−). In striking contrast, ERαAF-1° and wild-type (wt) mice shared a similar metabolic phenotype. Accordingly, 17β-estradiol administration regulated key metabolic genes in insulin-sensitive tissues and conferred a strong protection against HFD-induced metabolic disturbances in wt and ERαAF-1° ovariectomized mice, whereas these actions were totally abrogated in ERαAF-2° and ERα−/− mice. Thus, whereas both AFs have been previously shown to contribute to endometrial and breast cancer cell proliferation, the protective effect of estrogens against obesity and insulin resistance depends on ERαAF-2 but not ERαAF-1, thereby delineating new options for selective modulation of ERα. PMID:23903353

  7. Ultrasonic propulsion of kidney stones

    PubMed Central

    May, Philip C.; Bailey, Michael R.; Harper, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Ultrasonic propulsion is a novel technique that uses short bursts of focused ultrasonic pulses to reposition stones transcutaneously within the renal collecting system and ureter. The purpose of this review is to discuss the initial testing of effectiveness and safety, directions for refinement of technique and technology, and opinions on clinical application. Recent findings Preclinical studies with a range of probes, interfaces, and outputs have demonstrated feasibility and consistent safety of ultrasonic propulsion with room for increased outputs and refinement toward specific applications. Ultrasonic propulsion was used painlessly and without adverse events to reposition stones in 14 of 15 human study participants without restrictions on patient size, stone size, or stone location. The initial feasibility study showed applicability in a range of clinically relevant situations, including facilitating passage of residual fragments following ureteroscopy or shock wave lithotripsy, moving a large stone at the UPJ with relief of pain, and differentiating large stones from a collection of small fragments. Summary Ultrasonic propulsion shows promise as an office-based system for transcutaneously repositioning kidney stones. Potential applications include facilitating expulsion of residual fragments following ureteroscopy or shock wave lithotripsy, repositioning stones prior to treatment, and repositioning obstructing UPJ stones into the kidney to alleviate acute renal colic. PMID:26845428

  8. Ultrasonic stir welding process and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An ultrasonic stir welding device provides a method and apparatus for elevating the temperature of a work piece utilizing at least one ultrasonic heater. Instead of relying on a rotating shoulder to provide heat to a workpiece an ultrasonic heater is utilized to provide ultrasonic energy to the workpiece. A rotating pin driven by a motor assembly performs the weld on the workpiece. A handheld version can be constructed as well as a fixedly mounted embodiment.

  9. Ultrasonic Detectors Safely Identify Dangerous, Costly Leaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    In 1990, NASA grounded its space shuttle fleet. The reason: leaks detected in the hydrogen fuel systems of the Space Shuttles Atlantis and Columbia. Unless the sources of the leaks could be identified and fixed, the shuttles would not be safe to fly. To help locate the existing leaks and check for others, Kennedy Space Center engineers used portable ultrasonic detectors to scan the fuel systems. As a gas or liquid escapes from a leak, the resulting turbulence creates ultrasonic noise, explains Gary Mohr, president of Elmsford, New York-based UE Systems Inc., a long-time leader in ultrasonic detector technologies. "In lay terms, the leak is like a dog whistle, and the detector is like the dog ear." Because the ultrasound emissions from a leak are highly localized, they can be used not only to identify the presence of a leak but also to help pinpoint a leak s location. The NASA engineers employed UE s detectors to examine the shuttle fuel tanks and solid rocket boosters, but encountered difficulty with the devices limited range-certain areas of the shuttle proved difficult or unsafe to scan up close. To remedy the problem, the engineers created a long-range attachment for the detectors, similar to "a zoom lens on a camera," Mohr says. "If you are on the ground, and the leak is 50 feet away, the detector would now give you the same impression as if you were only 25 feet away." The enhancement also had the effect of reducing background noise, allowing for a clearer, more precise detection of a leak s location.

  10. Ultrasonic sludge pretreatment under pressure.

    PubMed

    Le, Ngoc Tuan; Julcour-Lebigue, Carine; Delmas, Henri

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this work was to optimize the ultrasound (US) pretreatment of sludge. Three types of sewage sludge were examined: mixed, secondary and secondary after partial methanisation ("digested" sludge). Thereby, several main process parameters were varied separately or simultaneously: stirrer speed, total solid content of sludge (TS), thermal operating conditions (adiabatic vs. isothermal), ultrasonic power input (PUS), specific energy input (ES), and for the first time external pressure. This parametric study was mainly performed for the mixed sludge. Five different TS concentrations of sludge (12-36 g/L) were tested for different values of ES (7000-75,000 kJ/kgTS) and 28 g/L was found as the optimum value according to the solubilized chemical oxygen demand in the liquid phase (SCOD). PUS of 75-150 W was investigated under controlled temperature and the "high power input - short duration" procedure was the most effective at a given ES. The temperature increase in adiabatic US application significantly improved SCOD compared to isothermal conditions. With PUS of 150 W, the effect of external pressure was investigated in the range of 1-16 bar under isothermal and adiabatic conditions for two types of sludge: an optimum pressure of about 2 bar was found regardless of temperature conditions and ES values. Under isothermal conditions, the resulting improvement of sludge disintegration efficacy as compared to atmospheric pressure was by 22-67% and 26-37% for mixed and secondary sludge, respectively. Besides, mean particle diameter (D[4,3]) of the three sludge types decreased respectively from 408, 117, and 110 μm to about 94-97, 37-42, and 36-40 μm regardless of sonication conditions, and the size reduction process was much faster than COD extraction. PMID:23587728

  11. Tuning the Music: Acoustic Force Spectroscopy (AFS) 2.0.

    PubMed

    Kamsma, Douwe; Creyghton, Ramon; Sitters, Gerrit; Wuite, Gijs J L; Peterman, Erwin J G

    2016-08-01

    AFS is a recently introduced high-throughput single-molecule technique that allows studying structural and mechanochemical properties of many biomolecules in parallel. To further improve the method, we developed a modelling tool to optimize the layer thicknesses, and a calibration method to experimentally validate the modelled force profiles. After optimization, we are able to apply 350pN on 4.5μm polystyrene beads, without the use of an amplifier, at the coverslip side of the AFS chip. Furthermore, we present the use of a transparent piezo to generate the acoustic force and we show that AFS can be combined with high-NA oil or water-immersion objectives. With this set of developments AFS will be applicable to a broad range of single-molecule experiments. PMID:27163865

  12. Decontamination of blood soaked electronic devices using ultrasonic technology.

    PubMed

    Dudeck, Kimberly C; Brennan, Tamara C; Embury, Daniel J

    2012-01-10

    With advancements in technology allowing for the miniaturization of consumer electronics, criminal investigations of all types frequently involve the forensic examination of electronic devices, such as cellular telephones, smartphones, and portable flash memory; in some extreme, violent cases, these devices are found covered in blood. Due to the complexity of such devices, standard operating procedures for the complete removal of blood had not previously been established by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police prior to this study. The electronics industry has adopted the use of the ultrasonic cleaner for sanitizing printed circuit boards (PCBs) by removing residues and contaminants. High frequency sound waves created by the machine penetrate and remove dirt and residues; however, early research during the 1950s recorded these sound waves breaking the internal bonds of integrated circuit chips. Experimentation with modern ultrasonic technology was used to determine if internal components were damaged, as well as if ultrasonic cleaning was the most suitable method for the removal of dried and liquid blood from a PCB. Several disinfectant solutions were compared against the 0.5% Triton(®) X-100 detergent solution in the ultrasonic cleaner, including: 10% sodium hypochlorite bleach, 85% isopropyl alcohol, and Conflikt(®) disinfectant spray. The results not only demonstrated that the ultrasonic cleaner did not damage the vital memory chip on the PCB, but also, with the assistance of Conflikt(®), was able to remove all traces of blood as indicated by Hemastix(®) reagent strips. Of five methods experimented with, two cycles of ultrasonic cleaning followed by sanitization with Conflikt(®) proved to be the only procedure capable of removing all traces of blood, as confirmed with both Hemastix(®) reagent strips and the hemochromogen test. PMID:21820828

  13. High temperature pressure coupled ultrasonic waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Caines, M.J.

    1983-07-12

    A pressure coupled ultrasonic waveguide is provided to which one end may be attached a transducer and at the other end a high temperature material for continuous ultrasonic testing of the material. The ultrasonic signal is coupled from the waveguide into the material through a thin, dry copper foil.

  14. High temperature pressure coupled ultrasonic waveguide

    DOEpatents

    Caines, Michael J.

    1983-01-01

    A pressure coupled ultrasonic waveguide is provided to which one end may be attached a transducer and at the other end a high temperature material for continuous ultrasonic testing of the material. The ultrasonic signal is coupled from the waveguide into the material through a thin, dry copper foil.

  15. Pitch-catch only ultrasonic fluid densitometer

    DOEpatents

    Greenwood, Margaret S.; Harris, Robert V.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge and pitch-catch only ultrasonic transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface.

  16. 21 CFR 870.2880 - Ultrasonic transducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ultrasonic transducer. 870.2880 Section 870.2880...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2880 Ultrasonic transducer. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic transducer is a device applied to the skin to transmit and...

  17. 21 CFR 870.2880 - Ultrasonic transducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ultrasonic transducer. 870.2880 Section 870.2880...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2880 Ultrasonic transducer. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic transducer is a device applied to the skin to transmit and...

  18. 21 CFR 870.2880 - Ultrasonic transducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ultrasonic transducer. 870.2880 Section 870.2880...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2880 Ultrasonic transducer. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic transducer is a device applied to the skin to transmit and...

  19. 21 CFR 870.2880 - Ultrasonic transducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ultrasonic transducer. 870.2880 Section 870.2880...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2880 Ultrasonic transducer. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic transducer is a device applied to the skin to transmit and...

  20. 21 CFR 870.2880 - Ultrasonic transducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultrasonic transducer. 870.2880 Section 870.2880...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2880 Ultrasonic transducer. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic transducer is a device applied to the skin to transmit and...

  1. 21 CFR 872.4850 - Ultrasonic scaler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ultrasonic scaler. 872.4850 Section 872.4850 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4850 Ultrasonic scaler. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic scaler is a device intended for use during dental cleaning and periodontal (gum) therapy to...

  2. 21 CFR 872.4850 - Ultrasonic scaler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ultrasonic scaler. 872.4850 Section 872.4850 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4850 Ultrasonic scaler. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic scaler is a device intended for use during dental cleaning and periodontal (gum) therapy to...

  3. 21 CFR 872.4850 - Ultrasonic scaler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultrasonic scaler. 872.4850 Section 872.4850 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4850 Ultrasonic scaler. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic scaler is a device intended for use during dental cleaning and periodontal (gum) therapy to...

  4. 21 CFR 872.4850 - Ultrasonic scaler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ultrasonic scaler. 872.4850 Section 872.4850 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4850 Ultrasonic scaler. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic scaler is a device intended for use during dental cleaning and periodontal (gum) therapy to...

  5. 21 CFR 872.4850 - Ultrasonic scaler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ultrasonic scaler. 872.4850 Section 872.4850 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4850 Ultrasonic scaler. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic scaler is a device intended for use during dental cleaning and periodontal (gum) therapy to...

  6. Pitch-catch only ultrasonic fluid densitometer

    DOEpatents

    Greenwood, M.S.; Harris, R.V.

    1999-03-23

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge and pitch-catch only ultrasonic transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface. 6 figs.

  7. Dot1a-AF9 Complex Mediates Histone H3 Lys-79 Hypermethylation and Repression of ENaCα in an Aldosterone-sensitive Manner*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenzheng; Xia, Xuefeng; Reisenauer, Mary Rose; Hemenway, Charles S.; Kone, Bruce C.

    2010-01-01

    Aldosterone is a major regulator of epithelial Na+ absorption and acts in large part through induction of the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) gene in the renal collecting duct. We previously identified Dot1a as an aldosterone early repressed gene and a repressor of ENaCα transcription through mediating histone H3 Lys-79 methylation associated with the ENaCα promoter. Here, we report a novel aldosterone-signaling network involving AF9, Dot1a, and ENaCα. AF9 and Dot1a interact in vitro and in vivo as evidenced in multiple assays and colocalize in the nuclei of mIMCD3 renal collecting duct cells. Overexpression of AF9 results in hypermethylation of histone H3 Lys-79 at the endogenous ENaCα promoter at most, but not all subregions examined, repression of endogenous ENaCα mRNA expression and acts synergistically with Dot1a to inhibit ENaCα promoter-luciferase constructs. In contrast, RNA interference-mediated knockdown of AF9 causes the opposite effects. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays reveal that overexpressed FLAG-AF9, endogenous AF9, and Dot1a are each associated with the ENaCα promoter. Aldosterone negatively regulates AF9 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. Thus, Dot1a-AF9 modulates histone H3 Lys-79 methylation at the ENaCα promoter and represses ENaCα transcription in an aldosterone-sensitive manner. This mechanism appears to be more broadly applicable to other aldosterone-regulated genes because overexpression of AF9 alone or in combination with Dot1a inhibited mRNA levels of three other known aldosterone-inducible genes in mIMCD3 cells. PMID:16636056

  8. Enzyme-catalyzed synthesis and kinetics of ultrasonic-assisted biodiesel production from waste tallow.

    PubMed

    Adewale, Peter; Dumont, Marie-Josée; Ngadi, Michael

    2015-11-01

    The use of ultrasonic processing was evaluated for its ability to achieve adequate mixing while providing sufficient activation energy for the enzymatic transesterification of waste tallow. The effects of ultrasonic parameters (amplitude, cycle and pulse) and major reaction factors (molar ratio and enzyme concentration) on the reaction kinetics of biodiesel generation from waste tallow bio-catalyzed by immobilized lipase [Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB)] were investigated. Three sets of experiments namely A, B, and C were conducted. In experiment set A, two factors (ultrasonic amplitude and cycle) were investigated at three levels; in experiment set B, two factors (molar ratio and enzyme concentration) were examined at three levels; and in experiment set C, two factors (ultrasonic amplitude and reaction time) were investigated at five levels. A Ping Pong Bi Bi kinetic model approach was employed to study the effect of ultrasonic amplitude on the enzymatic transesterification. Kinetic constants of transesterification reaction were determined at different ultrasonic amplitudes (30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, and 50%) and enzyme concentrations (4, 6, and 8 wt.% of fat) at constant molar ratio (fat:methanol); 1:6, and ultrasonic cycle; 5 Hz. Optimal conditions for ultrasound-assisted biodiesel production from waste tallow were fat:methanol molar ratio, 1:4; catalyst level 6% (w/w of fat); reaction time, 20 min (30 times less than conventional batch processes); ultrasonic amplitude 40% at 5 Hz. The kinetic model results revealed interesting features of ultrasound assisted enzyme-catalyzed transesterification (as compared to conventional system): at ultrasonic amplitude 40%, the reaction activities within the system seemed to be steady after 20 min which means the reaction could proceed with or without ultrasonic mixing. Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography indicated the biodiesel yield to be 85.6±0.08%. PMID:26186814

  9. Examination report: Remote video examination of air slots under the primary tank at 241-AN-107

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, L.T.

    1998-02-23

    This report documents the results of remote video examination of air slots in the insulating concrete slab beneath the primary tank at 241-AN-107. Life Extension Equipment Engineering has selected tank 241-AN-107 for ultrasonic evaluation of tank wall, knuckle, and floor plates. Access to the primary tank floor plates is via the air slots which were formed into the insulating concrete slab during tank construction (reference drawings H-2-71105 and H-2-71160). Prior to deployment of the ultrasonic inspection equipment it is desirable to examine the air slots for obstructions and debris which could impede the ultrasonic equipment. The criteria, equipment description, deliverables, and responsibilities for examination of the air slots are described in HNF-1949, Rev. 0, ``Engineering Task Plan for Remote Video Examination of Air Slots Under the Primary Tank at 241-AN-107``.

  10. Ultrasonic ash/pyrite liberation

    SciTech Connect

    Yungman, B.A.; Buban, K.S.; Stotts, W.F.

    1990-06-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a coal preparation concept which employed ultrasonics to precondition coal prior to conventional or advanced physical beneficiation processes such that ash and pyrite separation were enhanced with improved combustible recovery. Research activities involved a series of experiments that subjected three different test coals, Illinois No. 6, Pittsburgh No. 8, and Upper Freeport, ground to three different size fractions (28 mesh [times] 0, 200 mesh [times] 0, and 325 mesh [times] 0), to a fixed (20 kHz) frequency ultrasonic signal prior to processing by conventional and microbubble flotation. The samples were also processed by conventional and microbubble flotation without ultrasonic pretreatment to establish baseline conditions. Product ash, sulfur and combustible recovery data were determined for both beneficiation processes.

  11. Lamb Wave Helical Ultrasonic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, K. R.; Hinders, M. K.

    2004-02-01

    Ultrasonic guided waves have been used for a wide variety of ultrasonic inspection techniques. We describe here a new variation called helical ultrasound tomography (HUT). This new technique, among other things, has direct application to advanced pipe inspection. HUT uses guided ultrasonic waves along with an adaptation of the tomographic reconstruction algorithms developed by seismologists for what they call "cross borehole" tomography. In HUT, the Lamb-like guided waves travel in various helical crisscross paths between two parallel circumferential transducer arrays instead of the planar crisscross seismic paths between two boreholes. Although the measurement itself is fairly complicated, the output of the tomographic reconstruction is a readily interpretable map of a quantity of interest such as pipe wall thickness. We demonstrate the feasibility of the HUT technique via laboratory scans on steel pipe segments into which controlled thinnings have been introduced.

  12. Improved ultrasonic standard reference blocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eitzen, D. G.; Sushinsky, G. F.; Chwirut, D. J.; Bechtoldt, C. J.; Ruff, A. W.

    1976-01-01

    A program to improve the quality, reproducibility and reliability of nondestructive testing through the development of improved ASTM-type ultrasonic reference standards is described. Reference blocks of aluminum, steel, and titanium alloys are to be considered. Equipment representing the state-of-the-art in laboratory and field ultrasonic equipment was obtained and evaluated. RF and spectral data on ten sets of ultrasonic reference blocks have been taken as part of a task to quantify the variability in response from nominally identical blocks. Techniques for residual stress, preferred orientation, and micro-structural measurements were refined and are applied to a reference block rejected by the manufacturer during fabrication in order to evaluate the effect of metallurgical condition on block response. New fabrication techniques for reference blocks are discussed and ASTM activities are summarized.

  13. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jenkins, Charles F.; Howard, Boyd D.

    1998-01-01

    A flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus, comprising a flexible, hollow shaft that carries a plurality of modules, including at least one rotatable ultrasonic transducer, a motor/gear unit, and a position/signal encoder. The modules are connected by flexible knuckle joints that allow each module of the apparatus to change its relative orientation with respect to a neighboring module, while the shaft protects electrical wiring from kinking or buckling while the apparatus moves around a tight corner. The apparatus is moved through a pipe by any suitable means, including a tether or drawstring attached to the nose or tail, differential hydraulic pressure, or a pipe pig. The rotational speed of the ultrasonic transducer and the forward velocity of the apparatus are coordinated so that the beam sweeps out the entire interior surface of the pipe, enabling the operator to accurately assess the condition of the pipe wall and determine whether or not leak-prone corrosion damage is present.

  14. Improved ultrasonic standard reference blocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eitzen, D. G.

    1975-01-01

    A program to improve the quality, reproducibility and reliability of nondestructive testing through the development of improved ASTM-type ultrasonic reference standards is described. Reference blocks of aluminum, steel, and titanium alloys were considered. Equipment representing the state-of-the-art in laboratory and field ultrasonic equipment was obtained and evaluated. Some RF and spectral data on ten sets of ultrasonic reference blocks were taken as part of a task to quantify the variability in response from nominally identical blocks. Techniques for residual stress, preferred orientation, and microstructural measurements were refined and are applied to a reference block rejected by the manufacturer during fabrication in order to evaluate the effect of metallurgical condition on block response.

  15. Concurrent ultrasonic weld evaluation system

    DOEpatents

    Hood, Donald W.; Johnson, John A.; Smartt, Herschel B.

    1987-01-01

    A system for concurrent, non-destructive evaluation of partially completed welds for use in conjunction with an automated welder. The system utilizes real time, automated ultrasonic inspection of a welding operation as the welds are being made by providing a transducer which follows a short distance behind the welding head. Reflected ultrasonic signals are analyzed utilizing computer based digital pattern recognition techniques to discriminate between good and flawed welds on a pass by pass basis. The system also distinguishes between types of weld flaws.

  16. Improved Portable Ultrasonic Leak Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C.; Moerk, John S.; Haskell, William D.; Cox, Robert B.; Polk, Jimmy D.; Strobel, James P.; Luaces, Frank

    1995-01-01

    Improved portable ultrasonic leak detector features three interchangeable ultrasonic-transducer modules, each suited for operation in unique noncontact or contact mode. One module equipped with ultrasound-collecting horn for use in scanning to detect leaks from distance; horn provides directional sensitivity pattern with sensitivity multiplied by factor of about 6 in forward direction. Another module similar, does not include horn; this module used for scanning close to suspected leak, where proximity of leak more than offsets loss of sensitivity occasioned by lack of horn. Third module designed to be pressed against leaking vessel; includes rugged stainless-steel shell. Improved detectors perform significantly better, smaller, more rugged, and greater sensitivity.

  17. Concurrent ultrasonic weld evaluation system

    DOEpatents

    Hood, D.W.; Johnson, J.A.; Smartt, H.B.

    1985-09-04

    A system for concurrent, non-destructive evaluation of partially completed welds for use in conjunction with an automated welder. The system utilizes real time, automated ultrasonic inspection of a welding operation as the welds are being made by providing a transducer which follows a short distance behind the welding head. Reflected ultrasonic signals are analyzed utilizing computer based digital pattern recognition techniques to discriminate between good and flawed welds on a pass by pass basis. The system also distinguishes between types of weld flaws.

  18. Concurrent ultrasonic weld evaluation system

    DOEpatents

    Hood, D.W.; Johnson, J.A.; Smartt, H.B.

    1987-12-15

    A system for concurrent, non-destructive evaluation of partially completed welds for use in conjunction with an automated welder is disclosed. The system utilizes real time, automated ultrasonic inspection of a welding operation as the welds are being made by providing a transducer which follows a short distance behind the welding head. Reflected ultrasonic signals are analyzed utilizing computer based digital pattern recognition techniques to discriminate between good and flawed welds on a pass by pass basis. The system also distinguishes between types of weld flaws. 5 figs.

  19. Ultrasonic fluid densitometry and densitometer

    DOEpatents

    Greenwood, M.S.; Lail, J.C.

    1998-01-13

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge having an acoustic impedance that is near the acoustic impedance of the fluid, specifically less than a factor of 11 greater than the acoustic impedance of the fluid. The invention also includes a wedge having at least two transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface. 6 figs.

  20. Ultrasonic fluid densitometry and densitometer

    DOEpatents

    Greenwood, Margaret S.; Lail, Jason C.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge having an acoustic impedance that is near the acoustic impedance of the fluid, specifically less than a factor of 11 greater than the acoustic impedance of the fluid. The invention also includes a wedge having at least two transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface.

  1. Expression of E1AF/PEA3, an Ets-related transcription factor in human non-small-cell lung cancers: its relevance in cell motility and invasion.

    PubMed

    Hiroumi, H; Dosaka-Akita, H; Yoshida, K; Shindoh, M; Ohbuchi, T; Fujinaga, K; Nishimura, M

    2001-09-01

    Cell invasion and metastasis characterize the malignant potential of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). We have previously reported that E1AF, a member of the Ets-related transcription factor family, confers invasive phenotype on breast cancer and oral squamous-cell carcinoma cell lines. In our study, we analyzed the E1AF expression in cell lines and resected tumors of NSCLCs by Northern blot and in situ hybridization analyses and found that 15 of 17 cell lines and 12 of 19 tumors expressed E1AF mRNA while normal lung tissue and concomitant normal cells within tumors did not. To examine the biologic importance of E1AF in NSCLCs, we introduced the E1AF gene into VMRC-LCD and NCI-H226, NSCLC cell lines lacking E1AF expression, and examined cell motility and invasion activities. E1AF-transfected VMRC-LCD cells showed increased cell motility that was 2-fold that of parental and vector-transfected control cells (p < 0.01), and both cell motility and invasion were increased 1.6-fold in NCI-H226 (p < 0.01). Furthermore, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), which is one of the most effective cell-scattering factors, stimulated the motile and invasive activities in E1AF-transfected VMRC-LCD and NCI-H226 cells but not in their parental or vector-transfected control cells. Ets-1 mRNA expression was found in E1AF-transfected VMRC-LCD cells but not in parental or vector-transfected cells. HGF further induced expression of the Ets-1 and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) genes specifically in E1AF-transfected cells. These findings suggest that E1AF plays a substantial role in the cell motility and invasion of NSCLCs. PMID:11519038

  2. Ultrasonic evaluation of high voltage circuit boards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klima, S. J.; Riley, T. J.

    1976-01-01

    Preliminary observations indicate that an ultrasonic scanning technique may be useful as a quick, low cost, nondestructive method for judging the quality of circuit board materials for high voltage applications. Corona inception voltage tests were conducted on fiberglass-epoxy and fiberglass-polyimide high pressure laminates from 20 to 140 C. The same materials were scanned ultrasonically by utilizing the single transducer, through-transmission technique with reflector plate, and recording variations in ultrasonic energy transmitted through the board thickness. A direct relationship was observed between ultrasonic transmission level and corona inception voltage. The ultrasonic technique was subsequently used to aid selection of high quality circuit boards for the Communications Technology Satellite.

  3. Materials analysis by ultrasonics: Metals, ceramics, composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, Alex (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Research results in analytical ultrasonics for characterizing structural materials from metals and ceramics to composites are presented. General topics covered by the conference included: status and advances in analytical ultrasonics for characterizing material microstructures and mechanical properties; status and prospects for ultrasonic measurements of microdamage, degradation, and underlying morphological factors; status and problems in precision measurements of frequency-dependent velocity and attenuation for materials analysis; procedures and requirements for automated, digital signal acquisition, processing, analysis, and interpretation; incentives for analytical ultrasonics in materials research and materials processing, testing, and inspection; and examples of progress in ultrasonics for interrelating microstructure, mechanical properties, and dynamic response.

  4. Analytical Ultrasonics in Materials Research and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1986-01-01

    Research results in analytical ultrasonics for characterizing structural materials from metals and ceramics to composites are presented. General topics covered by the conference included: status and advances in analytical ultrasonics for characterizing material microstructures and mechanical properties; status and prospects for ultrasonic measurements of microdamage, degradation, and underlying morphological factors; status and problems in precision measurements of frequency-dependent velocity and attenuation for materials analysis; procedures and requirements for automated, digital signal acquisition, processing, analysis, and interpretation; incentives for analytical ultrasonics in materials research and materials processing, testing, and inspection; and examples of progress in ultrasonics for interrelating microstructure, mechanical properites, and dynamic response.

  5. Acoustic leak detection and ultrasonic crack detection

    SciTech Connect

    Kupperman, D.S.; Claytor, T.N.; Groenwald, R.

    1983-10-01

    A program is under way to assess the effectiveness of current and proposed techniques for acoustic leak detection (ALD) in reactor coolant systems. An ALD facility has been constructed and tests have begun on five laboratory-grown cracks (three fatigue and two thermal-fatigue and two field-induced IGSCC specimens. After ultrasonic testing revealed cracks in the Georgia Power Co. HATCH-1 BWR recirculation header, the utility installed an ALD system. Data from HATCH-1 have given an indication of the background noise level at a BWR recirculation header sweepolet weld. The HATCH leak detection system was tested to determine the sensitivity and dynamic range. Other background data have been acquired at the Watts Bar Nuclear Reactor in Tennessee. An ANL waveguide system, including transducer and electronics, was installed and tested on an accumulator safety injection pipe. The possibility of using ultrasonic wave scattering patterns to discriminate between IGSCCs and geometric reflectors has been explored. Thirteen reflectors (field IGSCCs, graphite wool IGSCCs, weld roots, and slits) were examined. Work with cast stainless steel (SS) included sound velocity and attenuation in isotropic and anisotropic cast SS. Reducing anisotropy does not help reduce attenuation in large-grained material. Large artificial flaws (e.g., a 1-cm-deep notch with a 4-cm path) could not be detected in isotropic centrifugally cast SS (1 to 2-mm grains) by longitudinal or shear waves at frequencies of 1 MHz or greater, but could be detected with 0.5-MHz shear waves. 13 figures.

  6. Ultrasonic Inspection Results of Double Shell Tank (DST) 241-AP-108 [SEC 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    JENSEN, C.E.

    2000-09-11

    This document presents the results and documentation of the non-destructive ultrasonic examination (NDE) of tank 241-AP-107. An NDE contractor was retained to provide and use an ultrasonic inspection system (equipment, procedures, and inspectors) to scan a limited area of the primary tank wall, welds, and lower knuckle of double-shell tank 241-AP-107. The exam found no reportable indications of wall thinning, pits, or crack in excess of the acceptance criteria.

  7. Study of microstructure of surface layers of low-carbon steel after turning and ultrasonic finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalevskaya, Zh. G.; Ivanov, Yu. F.; Perevalova, O. B.; Klimenov, V. A.; Uvarkin, P. V.

    2013-01-01

    Profilometry and optical and transmission electron microscopy are used to examine the microstructure of surface layers of a low-carbon ferrite-pearlite steel subjected to turning and ultrasonic finishing. It is shown that turning peaks and valleys have different microstructures, which stipulates manifestation of technological hereditary when processing surfaces of machined parts. Ultrasonic finishing causes the severe plastic deformation of the surface layer, which favors the elimination of a technological heredity that is acquired during turning.

  8. Optical fiber interferometer for the study of ultrasonic waves in composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claus, R. O.; Zewekh, P. S.; Turner, T. M.; Wade, J. C.; Rogers, R. T.; Garg, A. O.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of acoustic emission detection in composites using embedded optical fibers as sensing elements was investigated. Optical fiber interferometry, fiber acoustic sensitivity, fiber interferometer calibration, and acoustic emission detection are reported. Adhesive bond layer dynamical properties using ultrasonic interface waves, the design and construction of an ultrasonic transducer with a two dimensional Gaussian pressure profile, and the development of an optical differential technique for the measurement of surface acoustic wave particle displacements and propagation direction are also examined.

  9. Wire Crimp Connectors Verification using Ultrasonic Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Perey, Daniel F.; Yost, William T.

    2007-01-01

    The development of a new ultrasonic measurement technique to quantitatively assess wire crimp connections is discussed. The amplitude change of a compressional ultrasonic wave propagating through the junction of a crimp connector and wire is shown to correlate with the results of a destructive pull test, which previously has been used to assess crimp wire junction quality. Various crimp junction pathologies (missing wire strands, incorrect wire gauge, incomplete wire insertion in connector) are ultrasonically tested, and their results are correlated with pull tests. Results show that the ultrasonic measurement technique consistently (as evidenced with pull-testing data) predicts good crimps when ultrasonic transmission is above a certain threshold amplitude level. A physics-based model, solved by finite element analysis, describes the compressional ultrasonic wave propagation through the junction during the crimping process. This model is in agreement within 6% of the ultrasonic measurements. A prototype instrument for applying the technique while wire crimps are installed is also presented.

  10. Racial Differences in Quality of Anticoagulation Therapy for Atrial Fibrillation (from the TREAT-AF Study).

    PubMed

    Yong, Celina; Azarbal, Farnaz; Abnousi, Freddy; Heidenreich, Paul A; Schmitt, Susan; Fan, Jun; Than, Claire T; Ullal, Aditya J; Yang, Felix; Phibbs, Ciaran S; Frayne, Susan M; Ho, P Michael; Shore, Supriya; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Turakhia, Mintu P

    2016-01-01

    The influence of race on quality of anticoagulation control is not well described. We examined the association between race, international normalized ratio (INR) monitoring intensity, and INR control in warfarin-treated patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Using data from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), we performed a retrospective cohort study of 184,161 patients with a new diagnosis of AF/flutter from 2004 to 2012 who received any VHA prescription within 90 days of diagnosis. The primary predictor was race, ascertained from multiple VHA and linked Medicare demographic files. The primary outcome was first-year and long-term time in therapeutic range (TTR) of INR 2.0 to 3.0. Secondary outcomes were INR monitoring intensity and warfarin persistence. Of the 116,021 patients who received warfarin in the cohort, INR monitoring intensity was similar across racial groups. However, TTR was lowest in blacks and highest in whites (first year 0.49 ± 0.23 vs 0.57 ± 0.21, p <0.001; long term 0.52 ± 0.20 vs 0.59 ± 0.18, p <0.001); 64% of whites and 49% of blacks had long-term TTR >55% (p <0.001). After adjusting for site and patient-level covariates, black race was associated with lower first-year and long-term TTRs (4.2% and 4.1% below the conditional mean, relative to whites; p <0.0001 for both). One-year warfarin persistence was slightly lower in blacks compared to whites (58% vs 60%, p <0.0001). In conclusion, in patients with AF anticoagulated with warfarin, differences in INR control are most evident among blacks, underscoring the need to determine if other types of intensive management or warfarin alternatives may be necessary to improve anticoagulation among vulnerable AF populations. PMID:26552504

  11. Speciation of antimony in airborne particulate matter using ultrasound probe fast extraction and analysis by HPLC-HG-AFS.

    PubMed

    Bellido-Martín, A; Gómez-Ariza, J L; Smichowsky, P; Sánchez-Rodas, D

    2009-09-01

    A fast extraction procedure has been developed for Sb(III) and Sb(V) oxoanions speciation in airborne particulate matter samples. Different extraction media (diammonium tartrate, hidroxilammonium clorhidrate, citric acid+ascorbic acid, phosphoric acid and citrate solutions) were tried, with assistance of an ultrasonic probe. The operation power and time of extraction were also optimized. The higher extraction recoveries were obtained with a 100 mmol L(-1) hidroxilammonium clorhidrate aqueous solution assisted by the ultrasound probe operated at 50 W during 3 min. The extracts were analyzed by HPLC-HG-AFS. The chromatographic separation of Sb(III) and Sb(V) was also optimized using diammonium tartrate and phthalic acid as mobile phases. The separation of both Sb species was performed in less than 3 min under isocratic conditions, using a 200 mmol L(-1) diammonium tartrate solution. The proposed extraction procedure and the HPLC-HG-AFS instrumental coupling have been successfully applied to airborne particulate matter samples, with high Sb content, collected in heavy traffic streets from Buenos Aires (Argentina). The results showed the presence of both Sb species at similar concentrations in the ng m(-3) level. The extraction yield was higher than 90% for all the analyzed samples. PMID:19699393

  12. Improved ultrasonic biomedical measuring apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    Device for making measurements of organs in living specimens and recording movements of organs is described. System uses series of ultrasonic pulses beamed into body of animal and reflected echo pulses are picked up by transducers and recorded. Diagram of equipment required and method of application is included.

  13. Ultrasonic-impact grinder system

    DOEpatents

    Calkins, N.C.

    1982-09-30

    The disclosure relates to an ultrasonic impact grinding apparatus utilizing a counterweight to set an unloaded friction free condition. An added weight is used to optimize feed rate in accordance with the material to be cut, tool size and the like.

  14. Cutting Head for Ultrasonic Lithotripsy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angulo, Earl D. (Inventor); Goodfriend, Roger (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A cutting head for attachment to the end of the wire probe of an ultrasonic kidney stone disintegration instrument. The cutting head has a plurality of circumferentially arranged teeth formed at one end thereof to provide a cup-shaped receptacle for kidney stones encountered during the disintegration procedure. An integral reduced diameter collar diminishes stress points in the wire and reduces breakage thereof.

  15. Ultrasonic seam welding. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Darner, G.S.

    1980-06-01

    Ultrasonic seam welding has been evaluated for making continuous seam welds on aluminum and copper-foil conductors. A seam welding system has been designed and fabricated, weldable material combinations have been identified, and the process parameters for welding materials applicable to flat cable production have been established.

  16. Ultrasonic approach for surface nanostructuring.

    PubMed

    Skorb, Ekaterina V; Möhwald, Helmuth

    2016-03-01

    The review is about solid surface modifications by cavitation induced in strong ultrasonic fields. The topic is worth to be discussed in a special issue of surface cleaning by cavitation induced processes since it is important question if we always find surface cleaning when surface modifications occur, or vice versa. While these aspects are extremely interesting it is important for applications to follow possible pathways during ultrasonic treatment of the surface: (i) solely cleaning; (ii) cleaning with following surface nanostructuring; and (iii) topic of this particular review, surface modification with controllably changing its characteristics for advanced applications. It is important to know what can happen and which parameters should be taking into account in the case of surface modification when actually the aim is solely cleaning or aim is surface nanostructuring. Nanostructuring should be taking into account since is often accidentally applied in cleaning. Surface hydrophilicity, stability to Red/Ox reactions, adhesion of surface layers to substrate, stiffness and melting temperature are important to predict the ultrasonic influence on a surface and discussed from these points for various materials and intermetallics, silicon, hybrid materials. Important solid surface characteristics which determine resistivity and kinetics of surface response to ultrasonic treatment are discussed. It is also discussed treatment in different solvents and presents in solution of metal ions. PMID:26382299

  17. Federal technology alert: Ultrasonic humidifiers

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    Humidifiers are used in buildings to maintain humidity levels to ensure quality and handling capabilities in manufacturing processes, to lower the transmission rate of disease-causing bacteria in hospitals, to reduce static electricity in manufacturing clean rooms and in computer rooms, and to provide higher levels of employee comfort in offices. Ultrasonic humidifiers generate a water mist without raising its temperature. An electronic oscillation is converted to a mechanical oscillation using a piezo disk immersed in a reservoir of mineral-free water. The mechanical oscillation is directed at the surface of the water, where at very high frequencies it creates a very fine mist of water droplets. This adiabatic process, which does not heat the supply water, reduces humidifier energy use by 90 to 93% compared with systems that do boil the water. Ultrasonic humidifiers have been demonstrated to be more efficient and to require less maintenance than competing humidifier technologies such as electrode canisters, quartz lamps, and indirect steam-to-steam. They do not require anticorrosive additives that affect the indoor air quality of buildings using direct steam humidifiers. There are two potential disadvantages of ultrasonic humidifiers. They must use mineral-free, deionized water or water treated with reverse osmosis. Treated water reduces maintenance costs because it eliminates calcium deposits, but increases other operating costs. Also, the cool mist from ultrasonic humidifiers absorbs energy from the supply air as it evaporates and provides a secondary cooling effect.

  18. Non-bonded ultrasonic transducer

    DOEpatents

    Eoff, J.M.

    1984-07-06

    A mechanically assembled non-bonded ultrasonic transducer includes a substrate, a piezoelectric film, a wetting agent, a thin metal electrode, and a lens held in intimate contact by a mechanical clamp. No epoxy or glue is used in the assembly of this device.

  19. Ultrasonic Calibration Wire Test Phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, S K; Fisher, K A; Werve, M; Chambers, D H

    2004-09-24

    We designed and built a phantom consisting of vertical wires maintained under tension to be used as an ultrasonic test, calibration, and reconstruction object for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory annular array scanner. We provide a description of the phantom, present example data sets, preliminary reconstructions, example metadata, and MATLAB codes to read the data.

  20. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    Pipe crawlers, pipe inspection {open_quotes}rabbits{close_quotes} and similar vehicles are widely used for inspecting the interior surfaces of piping systems, storage tanks and process vessels for damaged or flawed structural features. This paper describes the design of a flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus.

  1. Desensitizing Agent Reduces Dentin Hypersensitivity During Ultrasonic Scaling: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Suda, Tomonari; Akiyama, Toshiharu; Takano, Takuya; Gokyu, Misa; Sudo, Takeaki; Khemwong, Thatawee; Izumi, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    Background Dentin hypersensitivity can interfere with optimal periodontal care by dentists and patients. The pain associated with dentin hypersensitivity during ultrasonic scaling is intolerable for patient and interferes with the procedure, particularly during supportive periodontal therapy (SPT) for patients with gingival recession. Aim This study proposed to evaluate the desensitizing effect of the oxalic acid agent on pain caused by dentin hypersensitivity during ultrasonic scaling. Materials and Methods This study involved 12 patients who were incorporated in SPT program and complained of dentin hypersensitivity during ultrasonic scaling. We examined the availability of the oxalic acid agent to compare the degree of pain during ultrasonic scaling with or without the application of the dentin hypersensitivity agent. Evaluation of effects on dentin hypersensitivity was determined by a questionnaire and visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores after ultrasonic scaling. The statistical analysis was performed using the paired Student t-test and Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Results The desensitizing agent reduced the mean VAS pain score from 69.33 ± 16.02 at baseline to 26.08 ± 27.99 after application. The questionnaire revealed that >80% patients were satisfied and requested the application of the desensitizing agent for future ultrasonic scaling sessions. Conclusion This study shows that the application of the oxalic acid agent considerably reduces pain associated with dentin hypersensitivity experienced during ultrasonic scaling. This pain control treatment may improve patient participation and treatment efficiency. PMID:26501012

  2. Ultrasonic oil recovery and salt removal from refinery tank bottom sludge.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guangji; Li, Jianbing; Thring, Ronald W; Arocena, Joselito

    2014-01-01

    The oil recovery and salt removal effects of ultrasonic irradiation on oil refinery tank bottom sludge were investigated, together with those of direct heating. Ultrasonic power, treatment duration, sludge-to-water ratio, and initial sludge-water slurry temperature were examined for their impacts on sludge treatment. It was found that the increased initial slurry temperature could enhance the ultrasonic irradiation performance, especially at lower ultrasonic power level (i.e., 21 W), but the application of higher-power ultrasound could rapidly increase the bulk temperature of slurry. Ultrasonic irradiation had a better oil recovery and salt removal performance than direct heating treatment. More than 60% of PHCs in the sludge was recovered at an ultrasonic power of 75 W, a treatment duration of 6 min, an initial slurry temperature of 25°C, and a sludge-to-water ratio of 1:4, while salt content in the recovered oil was reduced to <5 mg L(-1), thereby satisfying the salt requirement in refinery feedstock oil. In general, ultrasonic irradiation could be an effective method in terms of oil recovery and salt removal from refinery oily sludge, but the separated wastewater still contains relatively high concentrations of PHCs and salt which requires proper treatment. PMID:25072775

  3. Ultrasonic/Sonic Impacting Penetrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Sherrit, Stewart; Stark, Randall A.

    2008-01-01

    Ultrasonic/sonic impacting penetrators (USIPs) are recent additions to the series of apparatuses based on ultrasonic/sonic drill corers (USDCs). A USIP enables a rod probe to penetrate packed soil or another substance of similar consistency, without need to apply a large axial force that could result in buckling of the probe or in damage to some buried objects. USIPs were conceived for use in probing and analyzing soil to depths of tens of centimeters in the vicinity of buried barrels containing toxic waste, without causing rupture of the barrels. USIPs could also be used for other purposes, including, for example, searching for pipes, barrels, or other hard objects buried in soil; and detecting land mines. USDCs and other apparatuses based on USDCs have been described in numerous previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. The ones reported previously were designed, variously, for boring into, and/or acquiring samples of, rock or other hard, brittle materials of geological interest. To recapitulate: A USDC can be characterized as a lightweight, low-power, piezoelectrically driven jackhammer in which ultrasonic and sonic vibrations are generated and coupled to a tool bit. As shown in the figure, a basic USDC includes a piezoelectric stack, a backing and a horn connected to the stack, a free mass (free in the sense that it can slide axially a short distance between the horn and the shoulder of tool bit), and a tool bit, i.e., probe for USIP. The piezoelectric stack is driven at the resonance frequency of the stack/horn/backing assembly to create ultrasonic vibrations that are mechanically amplified by the horn. To prevent fracture during operation, the piezoelectric stack is held in compression by a bolt. The bouncing of the free mass between the horn and the tool bit at sonic frequencies generates hammering actions to the bit that are more effective for drilling than is the microhammering action of ultrasonic vibrations in ordinary ultrasonic drills. The hammering actions

  4. Ultrasonic Evaluation of Two Dissimilar Metal Weld Overlay Specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Susan L.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Moran, Traci L.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2012-06-30

    Two dissimilar metal weld (DMW) pipe-to-nozzle specimens were implanted with thermal fatigue cracks in the 13% to 90% through-wall depth range. The specimens were ultrasonically evaluated with phased-array probes having center frequencies of 0.8, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 megahertz (MHz). An Alloy 82/182 weld overlay (WOL) was applied and the specimens were ultrasonically re-evaluated for flaw detection and characterization. The Post-WOL flaw depths were approximately 10% to 56% through-wall. This study has shown the effectiveness of ultrasonic examinations of Alloy 82/182 overlaid DMW specimens. Phased-array probes with center frequency in the 0.8- to 1.0-MHz range provide a strong coherent signal but the greater ultrasonic wavelength and larger beam spot size prevent the reliable detection of small flaws. These small flaws had nominal through-wall depths of less than 15% and length in the 50-60 mm (2-2.4 in.) range. Flaws in the 19% and greater through-wall depth range were readily detected with all four probes. At the higher frequencies, the reflected signals are less coherent but still provide adequate signal for flaw detection and characterization. A single inspection at 2.0 MHz could provide adequate detection and sizing information but a supplemental inspection at 1.0 or 1.5 MHz is recommended.

  5. Rodent ultrasonic vocalizations are bound to active sniffing behavior

    PubMed Central

    Sirotin, Yevgeniy B.; Costa, Martín Elias; Laplagne, Diego A.

    2014-01-01

    During rodent active behavior, multiple orofacial sensorimotor behaviors, including sniffing and whisking, display rhythmicity in the theta range (~5–10 Hz). During specific behaviors, these rhythmic patterns interlock, such that execution of individual motor programs becomes dependent on the state of the others. Here we performed simultaneous recordings of the respiratory cycle and ultrasonic vocalization emission by adult rats and mice in social settings. We used automated analysis to examine the relationship between breathing patterns and vocalization over long time periods. Rat ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs, “50 kHz”) were emitted within stretches of active sniffing (5–10 Hz) and were largely absent during periods of passive breathing (1–4 Hz). Because ultrasound was tightly linked to the exhalation phase, the sniffing cycle segmented vocal production into discrete calls and imposed its theta rhythmicity on their timing. In turn, calls briefly prolonged exhalations, causing an immediate drop in sniffing rate. Similar results were obtained in mice. Our results show that ultrasonic vocalizations are an integral part of the rhythmic orofacial behavioral ensemble. This complex behavioral program is thus involved not only in active sensing but also in the temporal structuring of social communication signals. Many other social signals of mammals, including monkey calls and human speech, show structure in the theta range. Our work points to a mechanism for such structuring in rodent ultrasonic vocalizations. PMID:25477796

  6. Effects of Iron Depletion on CALM-AF10 Leukemias

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Jessica L.; Weiss, Joshua M.

    2014-01-01

    Iron, an essential nutrient for cellular growth and proliferation, enters cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). The clathrin assembly lymphoid myeloid (CALM) protein plays an essential role in the cellular import of iron by CME. CALM-AF10 leukemias harbor a single copy of the normal CALM gene, and may therefore be more sensitive to the growth inhibitory effect of iron restriction compared with normal hematopoietic cells. We found that Calm heterozygous (CalmHET) murine fibroblasts exhibit signs of iron deficiency, with increased surface transferrin receptor (sTfR) levels and reduced growth rates. CalmHET hematopoietic cells are more sensitive in vitro to iron chelators than their wild type counterparts. Iron chelation also displayed toxicity towards cultured CalmHET CALM-AF10 leukemia cells and this effect was additive to that of chemotherapy. In mice transplanted with CalmHET CALM-AF10 leukemia, we found that dietary iron restriction reduces tumor burden in the spleen. However, dietary iron restriction, used alone or in conjunction with chemotherapy, did not increase survival of mice with CalmHET CALM-AF10 leukemia. In summary, while Calm heterozygosity results in iron deficiency and increased sensitivity to iron chelation in vitro, our data in mice do not suggest that iron depletion strategies would be beneficial for the therapy of CALM-AF10 leukemia patients. PMID:25193880

  7. Promotion of Methane Hydrate Dissociation by Underwater Ultrasonic Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Hikaru; Takata, Makoto; Tajima, Daisuke; Tsuyuki, Kenichirou

    2006-05-01

    The methane hydrate that exists in the abyssal floor is receiving attention as a nonconventional type of natural gas resource. An efficient dissociation technology is necessary and indispensable to achieve a steady supply of methane from methane hydrate because it does not easily dissociate in a stable environment of high pressure and low temperature. We consider that underwater ultrasonic wave irradiation may be a method of promoting the dissociation of methane hydrate on the basis of the facilitator effect. We carried out a preliminary examination using dry ice at various pressures, water temperatures, and input electric power. Methane hydrate was similarly examined. As a result, it was clarified that the dissociation time was shorted by the ultrasonic wave, and the wave was effective when the water temperature was low at the time of dissociation.

  8. Statistical analysis of ultrasonic measurements in concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Chih-Hung; Chen, Po-Chih

    2002-05-01

    Stress wave techniques such as measurements of ultrasonic pulse velocity are often used to evaluate concrete quality in structures. For proper interpretation of measurement results, the dependence of pulse transit time on the average acoustic impedance and the material homogeneity along the sound path need to be examined. Semi-direct measurement of pulse velocity could be more convenient than through transmission measurement. It is not necessary to assess both sides of concrete floors or walls. A novel measurement scheme is proposed and verified based on statistical analysis. It is shown that Semi-direct measurements are very effective for gathering large amount of pulse velocity data from concrete reference specimens. The variability of measurements is comparable with that reported by American Concrete Institute using either break-off or pullout tests.

  9. Vocal coselection in rat pup ultrasonic vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Spence, Heather R; Aslam, Ali M; Hofer, Myron A; Brunelli, Susan A; Shair, Harry N

    2016-04-01

    Selective breeding and natural selection that select for one trait often bring along other correlated traits via coselection. Selective breeding for an infantile trait, high or low call rates of isolation-induced ultrasonic vocalization of rat pups, also alters functions of some brain systems and emotional behaviors throughout life. We examined the effect of breeding for call rate on acoustic parameters that are of communicative significance. Selecting for higher call rate produced calls of significantly increased amplitude and bandwidth relative to a randomly bred line. Selecting for lower rate produced calls of decreased duration. These nonmorphological, functional trait changes demonstrate enhanced communicatory potential and energy expenditure for the High line and the opposite for the Low line. This demonstration of coselection in a communicatory system suggests an underlying heritable suite of linked acoustic vocalization characteristics that in noisy environments could enhance dam-pup communication and lead to selection of emotionality traits with beneficial responses to stress. PMID:27066218

  10. Ultrasonic imaging of materials under unconventional circumstances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Declercq, Nico Felicien; McKeon, Peter; Slah, Yaacoubi; Liu, Jingfei; Shaw, Anurupa

    2015-03-01

    This paper reflects the contents of the plenary talk given by Nico Felicien Declercq. "Ultrasonic Imaging of materials" covers a wide technological area with main purpose to look at and to peek inside materials. In an ideal world one would manage to examine materials like a clairvoyant. Fortunately this is impossible hence nature has offered sufficient challenges to mankind to provoke curiosity and to develop science and technology. Here we focus on the appearance of certain undesired physical effects that prohibit direct imaging of materials in ultrasonic C-scans. Furthermore we try to make use of these effects to obtain indirect images of materials and therefore make a virtue of necessity. First we return to one of the oldest quests in the progress of mankind: how thick is ice? Our ancestors must have faced this question early on during migration to Northern Europe and to the America's and Asia. If a physicist or engineer is not provided with helpful tools such as a drill or a device based on ultrasound, it is difficult to determine the ice thickness. Guided waves, similar to those used for nondestructive testing of thin plates in structural health monitoring can be used in combination with the human ear to determine the thickness of ice. To continue with plates, if an image of its interior is desired high frequency ultrasonic pulses can be applied. It is known by the physicist that the resolution depends on the wavelength and that high frequencies usually result in undesirably high damping effects inhibiting deep penetration into the material. To the more practical oriented engineer it is known that it is advantageous to polish surfaces before examination because scattering and diffraction of sound lowers the image resolution. Random scatterers cause some blurriness but cooperating scatters, causing coherent diffraction effects similar to the effects that cause DVD's to show rainbow patterns under sunlight, can cause spooky images and erroneous measurements of

  11. Ultrasonic imaging of materials under unconventional circumstances

    SciTech Connect

    Declercq, Nico Felicien McKeon, Peter Liu, Jingfei; Shaw, Anurupa; Slah, Yaacoubi

    2015-03-31

    This paper reflects the contents of the plenary talk given by Nico Felicien Declercq. “Ultrasonic Imaging of materials” covers a wide technological area with main purpose to look at and to peek inside materials. In an ideal world one would manage to examine materials like a clairvoyant. Fortunately this is impossible hence nature has offered sufficient challenges to mankind to provoke curiosity and to develop science and technology. Here we focus on the appearance of certain undesired physical effects that prohibit direct imaging of materials in ultrasonic C-scans. Furthermore we try to make use of these effects to obtain indirect images of materials and therefore make a virtue of necessity. First we return to one of the oldest quests in the progress of mankind: how thick is ice? Our ancestors must have faced this question early on during migration to Northern Europe and to the America’s and Asia. If a physicist or engineer is not provided with helpful tools such as a drill or a device based on ultrasound, it is difficult to determine the ice thickness. Guided waves, similar to those used for nondestructive testing of thin plates in structural health monitoring can be used in combination with the human ear to determine the thickness of ice. To continue with plates, if an image of its interior is desired high frequency ultrasonic pulses can be applied. It is known by the physicist that the resolution depends on the wavelength and that high frequencies usually result in undesirably high damping effects inhibiting deep penetration into the material. To the more practical oriented engineer it is known that it is advantageous to polish surfaces before examination because scattering and diffraction of sound lowers the image resolution. Random scatterers cause some blurriness but cooperating scatters, causing coherent diffraction effects similar to the effects that cause DVD’s to show rainbow patterns under sunlight, can cause spooky images and erroneous

  12. Column oil agglomeration of fly ash with ultrasonics

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, M.L.; Champagne, K.J.; Soong, Y.; Finseth, D.H.

    1999-07-01

    A promising oil agglomeration process has been developed for the beneficiation of fly ash using a six-foot agglomeration column. Carbon concentrates have been separated from fly ash with yields greater than 60 % and purities of 55 to 74 %. The parameters examined in the study include ultrasonic exposure, pulse rate, frequency, agitation speed, and blade configuration. The effects of the experimental variables on the quality of separation are discussed.

  13. Unconstrained Evaluation System for Heart Rate Using Ultrasonic Vibrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagamune, Kouki; Kobashi, Syoji; Kondo, Katsuya; Hata, Yutaka; Taniguchi, Kazuhiko; Sawayama, Toshiyuki

    2004-05-01

    Unconstrained health monitoring systems have received much considerable attention in medical applications, because such system can examine a subject without constraint. In this study, we propose a detection method based on a fuzzy logic for evaluating heart rate using our ultrasonic vibrograph. In the experiment for confirming heart rate, our method has been successfully used to detect the heart rates of four subjects, compared with a method using an electrocardiograph.

  14. Ultrasonic technique for inspection of GPHS capsule girth weld integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Placr, Arnost

    1993-05-01

    An innovative nondestructive examination (NDE) technique for the inspection of integrity of General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) capsule girth welds (Figure 1) was developed employing a Lamb (plate) wave as the mode of the sound propagation. Reliability of the Lamb wave technique was tested on GPHS capsules using plutonium pallet simulators. All ten capsules, which were previously rejected, passed ultrasonic (UT) inspection using the Lamb wave technique.

  15. Dystocia in late labor: determining fetal position by clinical and ultrasonic techniques.

    PubMed

    Rayburn, W F; Siemers, K H; Legino, L J; Nabity, M R; Anderson, J C; Patil, K D

    1989-07-01

    A failure of adequate progression during late labor occurs often and may prohibit an accurate determination of the fetal head position from scalp edema or caput formation. This investigation was undertaken to determine whether ultrasonic evaluation could confirm or correct the digital examination impressions of the fetal head position. Eighty-six attempted vaginal deliveries had recent evidence for arrested cervical dilation after 7 cm or more. An occiput transverse position in 24 (28%) cases was diagnosed accurately, with the need for additional ultrasonic information only in the presence of scalp edema. Distinguishing between a persistent occiput posterior (15 cases, 17%) or anterior (47 cases, 55%) position was often inexact by palpation alone. Combined clinical and ultrasonic impressions allowed for a significantly more precise diagnosis. Ultrasonic imaging allowed for more security while waiting, more confidence with midforceps application, or a prompter decision for cesarean section, depending on the head position. PMID:2659012

  16. Characterization of TiN coating layers using ultrasonic backward radiation.

    PubMed

    Song, Sung-Jin; Yang, Dong-Joo; Kim, Hak-Joon; Kwon, Sung D; Lee, Young-Ze; Kim, Ji-Yoon; Choi, Song-Chun

    2006-12-22

    Since ceramic layers coated on machinery components inevitably experience the changes in their properties it is necessary to evaluate the characteristics of ceramic coating layers nondestructively for the reliable use of coated components and the remaining life prediction. To address such a need, in the present study, the ultrasonic backward radiation technique is applied to examine the very thin TiN ceramic layers coated on AISI 1045 steel or austenitic 304 steel substrate. Specifically, the ultrasonic backward radiation profiles have been measured with variations in specimen preparation conditions such as coating layer thickness and sliding loading. In the experiments performed in the current study, the peak angle and the peak amplitude of ultrasonic backward radiation profile varied sensitively according to two specimen preparation conditions. In fact, this result demonstrates a high possibility of the ultrasonic backward radiation as an effective tool for the nondestructive characterization of the TiN ceramic coating layers even in such a thin regime. PMID:16797659

  17. AF-GEOSpace Version 2.5: Space Environment Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilmer, R. V.; Hall, T.; Roth, C.; Ling, A.; Ginet, G. P.; Madden, D.

    2010-12-01

    AF-GEOSpace is a graphics-intensive software program with space environment models and applications developed by the Space Weather Center of Excellence at AFRL. The software addresses a wide range of physical domains, e.g., solar disturbance propagation, geomagnetic field and radiation belt configurations, auroral particle precipitation, and ionospheric scintillation. AF-GEOSpace has become a platform for developing and prototyping space weather visualization products. The new AF-GEOSpace Version 2.5 (release scheduled for 2010) expands on the content of Version 2.1 by including modules addressing the following new topics: (1) energetic proton maps for the South Atlantic Anomaly (from Ginet et al. [2007]), (2) GPS scintillation outage simulation tools, (3) magnetopause location determination (Shue et al. [1998]), (4) a plasmasphere model (Global Core Plasma Model, 2009 version based on Gallagher et al. [2000]), (5) a standard ionospheric model (International Reference Ionosphere 2007), (6) the CAMMICE/MICS model of inner magnetosphere plasma population (based on Roeder et al. [2005]), (7) magnetic field models (e.g., Tsyganenko and Sitnov [2005]), and (8) loading and displaying externally-produced 3D gridded data sets within AF-GEOSpace. Improvements to existing Version 2.1 capabilities include: (1) a 2005 update to the geomagnetic cutoff rigidity model of Smart and Shea [2003], (2) a 2005 update to the ionospheric scintillation Wide-Band Model (WBMOD) of Secan and Bussey [1994], and (3) improved magnetic field flux mapping options for the existing set of AF-GEOSpace radiation belt models. A basic review of these new AF-GEOSpace capabilities will be provided. To obtain a copy of the software, please contact the first author.

  18. AF-GEOSpace Version 2.1 Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilmer, R. V.; Ginet, G. P.; Hall, T.; Holeman, E.; Madden, D.; Perry, K. L.; Tautz, M.; Roth, C.

    2006-05-01

    AF-GEOSpace Version 2.1 is a graphics-intensive software program with space environment models and applications developed recently by the Space Weather Center of Excellence at AFRL. A review of new and planned AF-GEOSpace capabilities will be given. The software addresses a wide range of physical domains and addresses such topics as solar disturbance propagation, geomagnetic field and radiation belt configurations, auroral particle precipitation, and ionospheric scintillation. Building on the success of previous releases, AF-GEOSpace has become a platform for the rapid prototyping of automated operational and simulation space weather visualization products and helps with a variety of tasks, including: orbit specification for radiation hazard avoidance; satellite design assessment and post-event anomaly analysis; solar disturbance effects forecasting; determination of link outage regions for active ionospheric conditions; satellite magnetic conjugate studies, scientific model validation and comparison, physics research, and education. Previously, Version 2.0 provided a simplified graphical user interface, improved science and application modules, significantly enhanced graphical performance, common input data archive sets, and 1-D, 2-D, and 3- D visualization tools for all models. Dynamic capabilities permit multiple environments to be generated at user- specified time intervals while animation tools enable the display of satellite orbits and environment data together as a function of time. Building on the Version 2.0 software architecture, AF-GEOSpace Version 2.1 includes a host of new modules providing, for example, plasma sheet charged particle fluxes, neutral atmosphere densities, 3-D cosmic ray cutoff maps, low-altitude trapped proton belt flux specification, DMSP particle data displays, satellite magnetic field footprint mapping determination, and meteor sky maps and shower/storm fluxes with spacecraft impact probabilities. AF-GEOSpace Version 2.1 was

  19. Ultrasonic findings of fetal axillary lymphangioma with intralesional hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Furue, Akiko; Mochizuki, Junko; Onishi, Yoko; Kawano, Shoko; Kanai, Yuji; Kemmochi, Manabu; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Unno, Nobuya

    2016-04-01

    We report a case of an axillary lymphangioma in a fetus delivered at 30 weeks' gestation with suspected intralesional hemorrhage based on the ultrasonic findings. In the ultrasonic examination at 15 weeks' gestation, the fetus was found to have a multilocular mass spreading from the axilla to the chest wall, which was diagnosed as an axillary lymphangioma. Chromosome analysis by amniocentesis showed a normal karyotype, and no other malformations were observed. At 29 weeks, the mass had increased in size, and color Doppler ultrasound examination revealed that the middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity (MCA-PSV) reached 80.2 cm/s [1.86 MoM (multiples of the median)]. Intralesional bleeding was suspected because of the multiple images of hemorrhage in which sites of blood spouting in a pulsatile fashion were detected within the mass. Cordocentesis at 30 weeks revealed that fetal hemoglobin concentration was 5.1 g/dL. An emergency Cesarean section was performed. A female weighing 2810 g, including the mass, was delivered, and the blood hemoglobin level was 5.9 g/dL at birth. Blood transfusion, fine-needle aspiration of the fluid in the mass, intralesional injection of OK-432, and partial excision of the lymphangioma were performed after birth. Ultrasonic examination proved useful in the diagnosis of intralesional bleeding in this lymphangioma. PMID:26707998

  20. Ultrasonic propagation in inhomogeneous media: Toward quantitative ultrasonic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trousil, Rebecca Leigh

    The goal of this dissertation is to explore the physics underpinning the use of quantitative acoustic measurements to extend the role of ultrasonic imaging. In the 30 year history of medical ultrasonic imaging, the diagnostic use of this modality has primarily relied upon morphology and motion to differentiate healthy from diseased tissue. Significant improvements in the bandwidth and dynamic range of clinical ultrasonic imaging systems in recent years offer the possibility of complementing existing qualitative information with truly quantitative information, derived from measurements of the acoustic properties of soft tissue. The phase velocity, attenuation coefficient, and backscatter coefficient are three such acoustic properties that are often employed to characterize the state of soft tissues. One goal of this dissertation was to investigate the reliability of these measurements, based on systematic laboratory studies performed on well-characterized tissue-mimicking media. To this end, quantitative measurements of the frequency dependence of phase velocity, attenuation coefficient, and backscatter coefficient were performed in tissue-mimicking phantoms as part of a national, multi-center study, sponsored by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine. Both the intra- and inter-laboratory variability associated with these measurements were addressed. In addition to assessing the reproducibility of quantitative estimates of these acoustic parameters, this dissertation introduces and experimentally validates a novel measurement technique, based on the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations, that improves the robustness of frequency domain phase velocity estimates in tissue-like media.

  1. GPIM AF-M315E Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spores, Ronald A.; Masse, Robert; Kimbrel, Scott; McLean, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Space Technology mission Directorate's (STMD) Green Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM) Technology Demonstration Mission (TDM) will demonstrate an operational AF-M315E green propellant propulsion system. Aerojet-Rocketdyne is responsible for the development of the propulsion system payload. This paper statuses the propulsion system module development, including thruster design and system design; Initial test results for the 1N engineering model thruster are presented. The culmination of this program will be high-performance, green AF-M315E propulsion system technology at TRL 7+, with components demonstrated to TRL 9, ready for direct infusion to a wide range of applications for the space user community.

  2. Techniques for enhancing laser ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J; Chinn, D; Huber, R; Spicer, J; Thomas, G

    1999-02-16

    Ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation is an extremely powerful tool for characterizing materials and detecting defects. A majority of the ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation is performed with piezoelectric transducers that generate and detect high frequency acoustic energy. The liquid needed to couple the high frequency acoustic energy from the piezoelectric transducers restricts the applicability of ultrasonics. For example, traditional ultrasonics cannot evaluate parts at elevated temperatures or components that would be damaged by contact with a fluid. They are developing a technology that remotely generates and detects the ultrasonic pulses with lasers and consequently there is no requirement for liquids. Thus the research in laser-based ultrasound allows them to solve inspection problems with ultrasonics that could not be done before. This technology has wide application in many Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory programs, especially when remote and/or non-contact sensing is necessary.

  3. Unified Ultrasonic/Eddy-Current Data Acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chern, E. James; Butler, David W.

    1993-01-01

    Imaging station for detecting cracks and flaws in solid materials developed combining both ultrasonic C-scan and eddy-current imaging. Incorporation of both techniques into one system eliminates duplication of computers and of mechanical scanners; unifies acquisition, processing, and storage of data; reduces setup time for repetitious ultrasonic and eddy-current scans; and increases efficiency of system. Same mechanical scanner used to maneuver either ultrasonic or eddy-current probe over specimen and acquire point-by-point data. For ultrasonic scanning, probe linked to ultrasonic pulser/receiver circuit card, while, for eddy-current imaging, probe linked to impedance-analyzer circuit card. Both ultrasonic and eddy-current imaging subsystems share same desktop-computer controller, containing dedicated plug-in circuit boards for each.

  4. Novel method for driving the ultrasonic motor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeoung woo; Dong, Shuxiang; Laoratanakul, Pitak; Uchino, Kenji; Park, Tae gone

    2002-10-01

    This paper reports a novel driving method for an annular plate-type ultrasonic motor. Instead of the direct current/alternating current (DC/AC) converter type driver using conventional electromagnetic transformer, a compact disc-type piezoelectric transformer is used to obtain high voltage output for driving the ultrasonic motor. The piezoelectric transformer is operated in the radial vibration mode at resonance frequency close to the resonance frequency of the ultrasonic motor. Later, it was found that the piezoelectric transformer could drive the ultrasonic motor, even if their resonance frequencies are not exactly the same by incorporating the matching network in the circuit. The maximum speed of the ultrasonic motor obtained by using this driving method is over 300 rpm. It is believed that the results of this study will have impact on the integration and miniaturization of the ultrasonic motor and its driving circuit. PMID:12403137

  5. Enhanced ultrasonic characterization of assemblies, TLL_19

    SciTech Connect

    Chinn, D; Thomas, G

    1998-09-01

    Bonded joints, such as the autoclave bond, are critical to the performance of weapon systems. A nondestructive method to assess the integrity of these bonds is needed to certify the weapon for extended life. This project is developing ultrasonic technologies for bond quality assessment. Existing ultrasonic technology easily maps totally unbonded areas in a bond line but does not measure the quality of the bond. We are extracting information from the ultrasonic signals to quantify the mechanical. properties and assess the durability of the bond. Our approach is based on advanced signal processing and artificial intelligence techniques that process information from the ultrasonic signal after it interacts with the bondline. Computer algorithms recognize variations in bond quality from the acoustic signals. The ultrasonic signal processing and bond classification software will be installed on ultrasonic scanners at the appropriate sites.

  6. Enhanced ultrasonic characterization of assemblies, TLL 19

    SciTech Connect

    Chinn, D; Thomas, G.

    1998-09-01

    Bonded joints, such as the autoclave bond, are critical to the performance of weapon systems. A nondestructive method to assess the integrity of these bonds is needed to certify the weapon for extended life. This project is developing ultrasonic technologies for bond quality assessment. Existing ultrasonic technology easily maps totally unbonded areas in a bond line but does not measure the quality of the bond. We are extracting information from the ultrasonic signals to quantify the mechanical. properties and assess the durability of the bond. Our approach is based on advanced signal processing and artificial intelligence techniques that process information from the ultrasonic signal after it interacts with the bondline. Computer algorithms recognize variations in bond quality from the acoustic signals. The ultrasonic signal processing and bond classification software will be installed on ultrasonic scanners at the appropriate sites.

  7. The Implementation of Collaborative Learning Using AfL through Giving Feedback Strategy for Improving Students’ Attention to Mathematics Lesson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurniasih, R.; Sujadi, I.; Pramesti, G.

    2016-02-01

    This research aims to describe the process of implementation collaborative learning with AfL through giving feedback strategy for improving students’ attention to mathematics lesson. Data which is collected in this research are students’ attention towards learning and students’ achievement. The result of this research showed that the learning steps by using collaborative learning with AfL through giving feedback strategy which can improve students’ attention are: 1) pre activity: the teacher delivers the purpose of the learning, successful criteria, apperception, and motivation. 2) main activity: the teacher gives the background of learning activity, explains learning materials at a glance, divides students discuss, the teacher observes and guides students to the problem solving, present their discussion result, gives feedback, the students do AfL problem and the answer is collected and result will be given before next meeting. 3) post activity: the teacher with students concludes the material. Test result, the percentage of students who complete the examination in the second cycle is 77.27%. Based on those results can be concluded that the implementation of collaborative learning using AfL through giving feedback can improve students’ attention towards learning and students’ achievement of XI IPA Students MA Al-Islam Jamsaren Surakarta academic year 2013/2014.

  8. Ultrasonic inspection of reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Majzlik, E.J. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The subject of this presentation is ultrasonic inspection of reactor systems. This paper describes two current programs underway at Savannah River Site which provide state-of-the-art ultrasonic inspections of weld heat-affected zones in the primary cooling loop of the Savannah River Site reactors. It also describes the automated remote inspection equipment being developed and employed; briefly describe the procedures being used; and give you a general idea of the future direction of two major programs: Moderator Piping Inspection Program and the Reactor Tank Wall Weld Inspection Program. The objective of these programs is to provide inspection techniques to more fully determine the condition of the reactor primary system and provide data for prediction of maintenance needs and remaining service life. Detection and sizing of intergranular stress corrosion cracking is the focus of these programs.

  9. Hydrazine degradation by ultrasonic irradiation.

    PubMed

    Nakui, Hiroyuki; Okitsu, Kenji; Maeda, Yasuaki; Nishimura, Rokurou

    2007-07-31

    The influence of pH on the degradation of hydrazine with a concentration of 0.1mmol/L was investigated under the stirring (300rpm) and ultrasonic irradiation conditions (200kHz, 200W) in the pH range of 1-9. It was found that the hydrazine degradation depended greatly upon pH under the ultrasonic irradiation condition, while it did not take place over the whole pH range under the stirring condition. Although it has been known that OH radicals and hydrogen peroxide are sonochemically formed from water, it was considered that the OH radicals played an important role of the hydrazine degradation, but not hydrogen peroxide. The pH dependence of the hydrazine degradation was discussed in terms of the relationship between the chemical structure and the basic dissociation constants of hydrazine. PMID:17513042

  10. Ultrasonic material hardness depth measurement

    DOEpatents

    Good, M.S.; Schuster, G.J.; Skorpik, J.R.

    1997-07-08

    The invention is an ultrasonic surface hardness depth measurement apparatus and method permitting rapid determination of hardness depth of shafts, rods, tubes and other cylindrical parts. The apparatus of the invention has a part handler, sensor, ultrasonic electronics component, computer, computer instruction sets, and may include a display screen. The part handler has a vessel filled with a couplant, and a part rotator for rotating a cylindrical metal part with respect to the sensor. The part handler further has a surface follower upon which the sensor is mounted, thereby maintaining a constant distance between the sensor and the exterior surface of the cylindrical metal part. The sensor is mounted so that a front surface of the sensor is within the vessel with couplant between the front surface of the sensor and the part. 12 figs.

  11. Ultrasonic ranging for the oculometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guy, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    Ultrasonic tracking techniques are investigated for an oculometer. Two methods are reported in detail. The first is based on measurements of time from the start of a transmit burst to a received echo. Knowing the sound velocity, distance can be calculated. In the second method, a continuous signal is transmitted. Target movement causes phase shifting of the echo. By accumulating these phase shifts, tracking from a set point can be achieved. Both systems have problems with contoured targets, but work well on flat plates and the back of a human head. Also briefly reported is an evaluation of an ultrasonic ranging system. Interface circuits make this system compatible with the echo time design. While the system is consistently accurate, it has a beam too narrow for oculometer use. Finally, comments are provided on a tracking system using the Doppler frequency shift to give range data.

  12. Ultrasonic cleaning of interior surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Odell, D. MacKenzie C.

    1996-01-01

    An ultrasonic cleaning method for cleaning the interior surfaces of tubes. The method uses an ultrasonic generator and reflector each coupled to opposing ends of the open-ended, fluid-filled tube. Fluid-tight couplings seal the reflector and generator to the tube, preventing leakage of fluid from the interior of the tube. The reflector and generator are operatively connected to actuators, whereby the distance between them can be varied. When the distance is changed, the frequency of the sound waves is simultaneously adjusted to maintain the resonant frequency of the tube so that a standing wave is formed in the tube, the nodes of which are moved axially to cause cavitation along the length of the tube. Cavitation maximizes mechanical disruption and agitation of the fluid, dislodging foreign material from the interior surface.

  13. Ultrasonic cleaning of interior surfaces

    DOEpatents

    MacKenzie, D.; Odell, C.

    1994-03-01

    An ultrasonic cleaning apparatus is described for cleaning the interior surfaces of tubes. The apparatus includes an ultrasonic generator and reflector each coupled to opposing ends of the open-ended, fluid-filled tube. Fluid-tight couplings seal the reflector and generator to the tube, preventing leakage of fluid from the interior of the tube. The reflector and generator are operatively connected to actuators, whereby the distance between them can be varied. When the distance is changed, the frequency of the sound waves is simultaneously adjusted to maintain the resonant frequency of the tube so that a standing wave is formed in the tube, the nodes of which are moved axially to cause cavitation along the length of the tube. Cavitation maximizes mechanical disruption and agitation of the fluid, dislodging foreign material from the interior surface. 3 figures.

  14. Ultrasonic cleaning of interior surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Odell, D. MacKenzie C.

    1994-01-01

    An ultrasonic cleaning apparatus for cleaning the interior surfaces of tubes. The apparatus includes an ultrasonic generator and reflector each coupled to opposing ends of the open-ended, fluid-filled tube. Fluid-tight couplings seal the reflector and generator to the tube, preventing leakage of fluid from the interior of the tube. The reflector and generator are operatively connected to actuators, whereby the distance between them can be varied. When the distance is changed, the frequency of the sound waves is simultaneously adjusted to maintain the resonant frequency of the tube so that a standing wave is formed in the tube, the nodes of which are moved axially to cause cavitation along the length of the tube. Cavitation maximizes mechanical disruption and agitation of the fluid, dislodging foreign material from the interior surface.

  15. Ultrasonic disruption of algae cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, P. M.; Nowotarski, K.; Joyce, E. M.; Mason, T. J.

    2012-05-01

    During last decade there has been increasing interest in the production of sustainable fuels from microalgae (R.H. Wijffels and M.J. Barbosa, 2010; Singh et al 2011; D.H. Lee 2011). The aim of this project was to determine if algal cells can be ultrasonically disrupted to release lipids for biofuel production. Ultrasonic disruption of two unicellular algal species: Dunnaliella salina and Nannochloropsis oculata was investigated using a 20 kHz probe. Haemocytometer, optical density, UV-Vis, fluoro-spectrophotometer and confocal microscopy results demonstrated complete cell destruction of Dunaliella salina within 16 minutes of sonication. Results obtained for Nannochloropsis oculata differed in that ultrasound dispersed clumped cells with little or no cell disruption, as observed by haemocytometer and confocal microscopy analysis. However, UV-Visible and fluoro-spectrophotometer analysis indicated chlorophyll release following sonication, suggesting some cell disruption had occurred.

  16. Discriminating ultrasonic proximity detection system

    DOEpatents

    Annala, Wayne C.

    1989-01-01

    This invention uses an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver and a microprocessor to detect the presence of an object. In the reset mode the invention uses a plurality of echoes from each ultrasonic burst to create a reference table of the echo-burst-signature of the empty monitored environment. The invention then processes the reference table so that it only uses the most reliable data. In the detection mode the invention compares the echo-burst-signature of the present environment with the reference table, detecting an object if there is a consistent difference between the echo-burst-signature of the empty monitored environment recorded in the reference table and the echo-burst-signature of the present environment.

  17. Ultrasonic enhancement of battery diffusion.

    PubMed

    Hilton, R; Dornbusch, D; Branson, K; Tekeei, A; Suppes, G J

    2014-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that sonic energy can be harnessed to enhance convection in Galvanic cells during cyclic voltammetry; however, the practical value of this approach is limited due to the lack of open volumes for convection patterns to develop in most batteries. This study evaluates the ability of ultrasonic waves to enhance diffusion in membrane separators commonly used in sandwich-architecture batteries. Studies include the measuring of open-circuit performance curves to interpret performances in terms of reductions in concentration overpotentials. The use of a 40 kHz sonicator bath can consistently increase the voltage of the battery and reduce overpotential losses up to 30%. This work demonstrates and quantifies battery enhancement due to enhanced diffusion made possible with ultrasonic energy. PMID:24210813

  18. Ultrasonic cleaning of interior surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Odell, D.M.C.

    1996-06-25

    An ultrasonic cleaning method is described for cleaning the interior surfaces of tubes. The method uses an ultrasonic generator and reflector each coupled to opposing ends of the open-ended, fluid-filled tube. Fluid-tight couplings seal the reflector and generator to the tube, preventing leakage of fluid from the interior of the tube. The reflector and generator are operatively connected to actuators, whereby the distance between them can be varied. When the distance is changed, the frequency of the sound waves is simultaneously adjusted to maintain the resonant frequency of the tube so that a standing wave is formed in the tube, the nodes of which are moved axially to cause cavitation along the length of the tube. Cavitation maximizes mechanical disruption and agitation of the fluid, dislodging foreign material from the interior surface. 3 figs.

  19. Ultrasonic material hardness depth measurement

    DOEpatents

    Good, Morris S.; Schuster, George J.; Skorpik, James R.

    1997-01-01

    The invention is an ultrasonic surface hardness depth measurement apparatus and method permitting rapid determination of hardness depth of shafts, rods, tubes and other cylindrical parts. The apparatus of the invention has a part handler, sensor, ultrasonic electronics component, computer, computer instruction sets, and may include a display screen. The part handler has a vessel filled with a couplant, and a part rotator for rotating a cylindrical metal part with respect to the sensor. The part handler further has a surface follower upon which the sensor is mounted, thereby maintaining a constant distance between the sensor and the exterior surface of the cylindrical metal part. The sensor is mounted so that a front surface of the sensor is within the vessel with couplant between the front surface of the sensor and the part.

  20. Ultrasonic attenuation in pearlitic steel.

    PubMed

    Du, Hualong; Turner, Joseph A

    2014-03-01

    Expressions for the attenuation coefficients of longitudinal and transverse ultrasonic waves are developed for steel with pearlitic microstructure. This type of lamellar duplex microstructure influences attenuation because of the lamellar spacing. In addition, longitudinal attenuation measurements were conducted using an unfocused transducer with 10 MHz central frequency on the cross section of a quenched railroad wheel sample. The dependence of longitudinal attenuation on the pearlite microstructure is observed from the changes of longitudinal attenuation from the quenched tread surface to deeper locations. The results show that the attenuation value is lowest and relatively constant within the quench depth, then increases linearly. The experimental results demonstrate a reasonable agreement with results from the theoretical model. Ultrasonic attenuation provides an important non-destructive method to evaluate duplex microstructure within grains which can be implemented for quality control in conjunction with other manufacturing processes. PMID:24268679

  1. Fundamentals of picosecond laser ultrasonics.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Osamu; Larciprete, Maria Cristina; Li Voti, Roberto; Wright, Oliver B

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an introduction to picosecond laser ultrasonics, a means by which gigahertz-terahertz ultrasonic waves can be generated and detected by ultrashort light pulses. This method can be used to characterize materials with nanometer spatial resolution. With reference to key experiments, we first review the theoretical background for normal-incidence optical detection of longitudinal acoustic waves in opaque single-layer isotropic thin films. The theory is extended to handle isotropic multilayer samples, and is again compared to experiment. We then review applications to anisotropic samples, including oblique-incidence optical probing, and treat the generation and detection of shear waves. Solids including metals and semiconductors are mainly discussed, although liquids are briefly mentioned. PMID:24998119

  2. Ultrasonic Bonding of Solar-Cell Leads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frasch, W.

    1984-01-01

    Rolling ultrasonic spot-bonding method successfully joins aluminum interconnect fingers to silicon solar cells with copper metalization. Technique combines best features of ultrasonic rotary seam welding and ultrasonic spot bonding: allows fast bond cycles and high indexing speeds without use of solder or flux. Achieves reliable bonds at production rates without damage to solar cells. Bonding system of interest for all solar-cell assemblies and other assemblies using flat leads (rather than round wires).

  3. The upcoming revolution in ultrasonic guided waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Joseph L.

    2011-04-01

    This paper will include discussions on fundamental principles and market forces associated with the upcoming revolution in ultrasonic guided waves. A literature survey is also outlined covering some selected major developments this past decade. A few applications in pipe, rail, bonding and composites, imaging and tomography, ultrasonic vibration, de-icing, structural health monitoring, gas entrapment, and non-linear methods are treated to provide an idea of where we are heading with ultrasonic guided waves.

  4. Calorimetric measurement of energy of ultrasonic cleaners

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, W.B.

    1994-11-01

    The development of a calorimeter that measured the power within an ultrasonic cleaning tank is presented. The principle involved is explained. Several types of calorimeter that were tested are described. Measurement of the power in an ultrasonic cleaner permits: (1) comparing different ultrasonic cleaners; (2) monitoring the performance of a specific cleaner; (3) measuring the distribution of power in a cleaning tank, and (4) evaluating the effects of process variables on the power.

  5. Degassing of Aluminum Alloys Using Ultrasonic Vibration

    SciTech Connect

    Meek, T. T.; Han, Q.; Xu, H.

    2006-06-01

    The research was intended to lead to a better fundamental understanding of the effect of ultrasonic energy on the degassing of liquid metals and to develop practical approaches for the ultrasonic degassing of alloys. The goals of the project described here were to evaluate core principles, establish a quantitative basis for the ultrasonic degassing of aluminum alloy melts, and demonstrate the application of ultrsaonic processing during ingot casting and foundry shape casting.

  6. Precision Ultrasonic Wave Measurements With Simple Equipment

    PubMed Central

    Fick, Steven E.; Palmer, C. Harvey

    2001-01-01

    We describe the design and construction of a relatively simple, inexpensive laser interferometer system for accurate measurements of ultrasonic surface displacement waveforms in reasonably friendly environments. We show how analysis of a single waveform can provide both the calibration constant required for absolute measurements and an estimate of the uncertainty of these measurements. We demonstrate the performance of this interferometer by measuring ultrasonic waveforms generated by a novel conical-element ultrasonic transducer.

  7. Cutting head for ultrasonic lithotripsy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anguluo, E. D.; Goodfriend, R. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A cutting head for attachment to the end of the wire probe of an ultrasonic kidney stone disintegration instrument is described. The cutting head has a plurality of circumferentially arranged teeth formed at one end thereof to provide a cup shaped receptacle for kidney stones encountered during the disintegration procedure. An integral reduced diameter collar diminishes stress points in the wire and reduce breakage thereof.

  8. Ultrasonic Attenuation in Zircaloy-4

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, M.P.; Banchik, A.D.; Lopez Pumarega, M.I.; Ruzzante, J.E.

    2005-04-09

    In this work the relationship between Zircaloy-4 grain size and ultrasonic attenuation behavior was studied for longitudinal waves in the frequency range of 10-90 MHz. The attenuation was analyzed as a function of frequency for samples with different mechanical and heat treatments having recrystallized and Widmanstatten structures with different grain size. The attenuation behavior was analyzed by different scattering models, depending on grain size, wavelength and frequency.

  9. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.

    1998-06-23

    A flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus, comprises a flexible, hollow shaft that carries a plurality of modules, including at least one rotatable ultrasonic transducer, a motor/gear unit, and a position/signal encoder. The modules are connected by flexible knuckle joints that allow each module of the apparatus to change its relative orientation with respect to a neighboring module, while the shaft protects electrical wiring from kinking or buckling while the apparatus moves around a tight corner. The apparatus is moved through a pipe by any suitable means, including a tether or drawstring attached to the nose or tail, differential hydraulic pressure, or a pipe pig. The rotational speed of the ultrasonic transducer and the forward velocity of the apparatus are coordinated so that the beam sweeps out the entire interior surface of the pipe, enabling the operator to accurately assess the condition of the pipe wall and determine whether or not leak-prone corrosion damage is present. 7 figs.

  10. Ultrasonic destruction of kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Brannen, G E; Bush, W H

    1984-02-01

    Kidney stones may be removed without using a surgical incision by a combination of techniques and skills recently developed in the fields of urology and radiology. Percutaneous access to the kidney is established under fluoroscopic control. A guide wire placed into the renal pelvis allows a nephroscope to be inserted and the collecting system visualized. A long hollow metal probe is advanced through the nephroscope and placed in contact with the stone. This probe conducts the ultrasonic energy. The stone absorbs the energy and breaks into fine granules, which are evacuated by suction.Twenty-three consecutively seen patients presenting with 27 upper urinary tract calculi for which removal was indicated underwent successful percutaneous ultrasonic lithotripsy. Fifteen stones were located in the renal pelvis, eight in a calix, three at the ureteropelvic junction and one in the upper ureter. One infected staghorn calculus was removed. Two complications resulted in extended hospital stays, but in no patients were surgical incisions required. Of the 23 patients, 9 had previously had a surgical lithotomy. The authors believe that most renal and upper ureteral calculi for which removal is indicated may be extracted percutaneously with the aid of the ultrasonic lithotriptor. The patients may expect a rapid convalescence with diminished pain. PMID:6730470

  11. Ultrasonic NDE of Multilayered Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Quarry, M J; Fisher, K A; Lehman, S K

    2005-02-14

    This project developed ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation techniques based on guided and bulk waves in multilayered structures using arrays. First, a guided wave technique was developed by preferentially exciting dominant modes with energy in the layer of interest via an ultrasonic array. Second, a bulk wave technique uses Fermat's principle of least time as well as wave-based properties to reconstruct array data and image the multilayered structure. The guided wave technique enables the inspection of inaccessible areas of a multilayered structure without disassembling it. Guided waves propagate using the multilayer as a waveguide into the inaccessible areas from an accessible position. Inspecting multi-layered structures with a guided wave relies on exciting modes with sufficient energy in the layer of interest. Multilayered structures are modeled to determine the possible modes and their distribution of energy across the thickness. Suitable modes were determined and excited by designing arrays with the proper element spacing and frequency. Bulk wave imaging algorithms were developed to overcome the difficulties of multiple reflections and refractions at interfaces. Reconstruction algorithms were developed to detect and localize flaws. A bent-ray algorithm incorporates Fermat's principle to correct time delays in the ultrasonic data that result from the difference in wave speeds in each layer and refractions at the interfaces. A planar wave-based algorithm was developed using the Green function for the multilayer structure to enhance focusing on reception for improved imaging.

  12. Stresses in ultrasonically assisted bone cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, K.; Mitrofanov, A. V.; Bäker, M.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

    2009-08-01

    Bone cutting is a frequently used procedure in the orthopaedic surgery. Modern cutting techniques, such as ultrasonic assisted drilling, enable surgeons to perform precision operations in facial and spinal surgeries. Advanced understanding of the mechanics of bone cutting assisted by ultrasonic vibration is required to minimise bone fractures and to optimise the technique performance. The paper presents results of finite element simulations on ultrasonic and conventional bone cutting analysing the effects of ultrasonic vibration on cutting forces and stress distribution. The developed model is used to study the effects of cutting and vibration parameters (e.g. amplitude and frequency) on the stress distributions in the cutting region.

  13. Out-of-plane ultrasonic velocity measurement

    DOEpatents

    Hall, M.S.; Brodeur, P.H.; Jackson, T.G.

    1998-07-14

    A method for improving the accuracy of measuring the velocity and time of flight of ultrasonic signals through moving web-like materials such as paper, paperboard and the like, includes a pair of ultrasonic transducers disposed on opposing sides of a moving web-like material. In order to provide acoustical coupling between the transducers and the web-like material, the transducers are disposed in fluid-filled wheels. Errors due to variances in the wheel thicknesses about their circumference which can affect time of flight measurements and ultimately the mechanical property being tested are compensated by averaging the ultrasonic signals for a predetermined number of revolutions. The invention further includes a method for compensating for errors resulting from the digitization of the ultrasonic signals. More particularly, the invention includes a method for eliminating errors known as trigger jitter inherent with digitizing oscilloscopes used to digitize the signals for manipulation by a digital computer. In particular, rather than cross-correlate ultrasonic signals taken during different sample periods as is known in the art in order to determine the time of flight of the ultrasonic signal through the moving web, a pulse echo box is provided to enable cross-correlation of predetermined transmitted ultrasonic signals with predetermined reflected ultrasonic or echo signals during the sample period. By cross-correlating ultrasonic signals in the same sample period, the error associated with trigger jitter is eliminated. 20 figs.

  14. Out-of-plane ultrasonic velocity measurement

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Maclin S.; Brodeur, Pierre H.; Jackson, Theodore G.

    1998-01-01

    A method for improving the accuracy of measuring the velocity and time of flight of ultrasonic signals through moving web-like materials such as paper, paperboard and the like, includes a pair of ultrasonic transducers disposed on opposing sides of a moving web-like material. In order to provide acoustical coupling between the transducers and the web-like material, the transducers are disposed in fluid-filled wheels. Errors due to variances in the wheel thicknesses about their circumference which can affect time of flight measurements and ultimately the mechanical property being tested are compensated by averaging the ultrasonic signals for a predetermined number of revolutions. The invention further includes a method for compensating for errors resulting from the digitization of the ultrasonic signals. More particularly, the invention includes a method for eliminating errors known as trigger jitter inherent with digitizing oscilloscopes used to digitize the signals for manipulation by a digital computer. In particular, rather than cross-correlate ultrasonic signals taken during different sample periods as is known in the art in order to determine the time of flight of the ultrasonic signal through the moving web, a pulse echo box is provided to enable cross-correlation of predetermined transmitted ultrasonic signals with predetermined reflected ultrasonic or echo signals during the sample period. By cross-correlating ultrasonic signals in the same sample period, the error associated with trigger jitter is eliminated.

  15. An Empirical Test of Oklahoma's A-F School Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Curt M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.; Ware, Jordan; Mwavita, Mwarumba; Barnes, Laura L.; Khojasteb, Jam

    2016-01-01

    Oklahoma is one of 16 states electing to use an A-F letter grade as an indicator of school quality. On the surface, letter grades are an attractive policy instrument for school improvement; they are seemingly clear, simple, and easy to interpret. Evidence, however, on the use of letter grades as an instrument to rank and improve schools is scant…

  16. R2 AIRS/AFS FACILITY GIS LAYER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The AFS subsystem contains emissions, compliance, and permit data for stationary sources regulated by the U.S. EPA and state and local air pollution agencies. This information is used by states in preparation of State Implementation Plans (SIPs), to track the compliance status ...

  17. R2 AIRS/AFS PERMITS GIS LAYER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Region 2 AIRS/AFS Permits Regulated Facility GIS layer contains identification (name, address, ID), and location (latitude, longitude, and locational metadata), attributes of stationary source(s) of air pollution associated with facilities that are regulated by the U. S. EPA....

  18. Treatment Guidelines of Atrial Fibrillation (AFib or AF)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Treatment Guidelines of Atrial Fibrillation (AFib or AF) Updated:Jun 23,2016 What ... content was last reviewed on 04/16/14. Atrial Fibrillation • Introduction • What is Atrial Fibrillation? • Why AFib Matters • ...

  19. Method and means of transmitting and receiving broad-band unipolar, ultrasonic pulses for ultrasonic inspection

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, D.O.; Hsu, D.K.

    1993-12-14

    The invention includes a means and method for transmitting and receiving broadband, unipolar, ultrasonic pulses for ultrasonic inspection. The method comprises generating a generally unipolar ultrasonic stress pulse from a low impedance voltage pulse transmitter along a low impedance electrical pathway to an ultrasonic transducer, and receiving the reflected echo of the pulse by the transducer, converting it to a voltage signal, and passing it through a high impedance electrical pathway to an output. The means utilizes electrical components according to the method. The means and method allow a single transducer to be used in a pulse/echo mode, and facilitates alternatingly transmitting and receiving the broadband, unipolar, ultrasonic pulses. 25 figures.

  20. Method and means of transmitting and receiving broad-band unipolar, ultrasonic pulses for ultrasonic inspection

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Donald O.; Hsu, David K.

    1993-12-14

    The invention includes a means and method for transmitting and receiving broadband, unipolar, ultrasonic pulses for ultrasonic inspection. The method comprises generating a generally unipolar ultrasonic stress pulse from a low impedance voltage pulse transmitter along a low impedance electrical pathway to an ultrasonic transducer, and receiving the reflected echo of the pulse by the transducer, converting it to a voltage signal, and passing it through a high impedance electrical pathway to an output. The means utilizes electrical components according to the method. The means and method allow a single transducer to be used in a pulse/echo mode, and facilitates alternatingly transmitting and receiving the broadband, unipolar, ultrasonic pulses.

  1. Ultrasonic Drilling as a Tool in Planetary Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, M.; Parnell, J.; Sykes, J.; Wiercigroch, M.

    2003-04-01

    The concept and technique of ultrasonic drilling has been examined and is seen to offer potential advantages in terms of faster cutting rates, consequently lower energy to cut to a given depth and lower pre-loads. Mechanical analysis has shown that the required resonant frequencies can be achieved with a relatively simple design. The initial finite element model of the ultrasonic drill has shown that a tool operating around 28kHz is feasible. A 3mm diameter tip displacement of a few tens of mm is possible in the unloaded condition, with an operating power of less than 20W. A novel drive electronics design has been identified based on bi-directional switching amplifier controlled by control logic (perhaps using a Digital Signal Processor) allowing waveform synthesis to be performed if required. This design overcomes the lower efficiency inherent in other potential designs.

  2. Ultrasonic inspection of brazed titanium samples with complex shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamberg, J.; Steinhauser, L.

    The ultrasonic technique of inspecting the completeness of brazed titanium joints of complex shape in aircraft engines is examined. The metal dies used for the inspection of titanium parts can be made of aluminum alloy because the longitudinal sound velocity of both materials is nearly the same. The two aluminum dies with an interposed turbine blade dummy are shown. The experiments indicate that a gap of 1.5 mm is sufficient for a broadband 5 MHz pulse. The smallest detected defect with axicon lenses was about 2 mm in diameter. The variation in the transmitted ultrasonic signal through junctions without defects was smaller than 3 dB. A C-scan of a titanium blade dummy with the two cavities inside is shown.

  3. Rotary ultrasonic motors actuated by traveling flexural waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Grandia, Willem

    1997-06-01

    Ultrasonic rotary motors are being developed as actuators for miniature spacecraft instruments and subsystems. The technology that has emerged in commercial products requires rigorous analytical tools for effective design of such motors. An analytical model was developed to examine the excitation of flexural plate wave traveling in a rotary piezoelectrically actuated motor. The model uses annular finite elements that are applied to predict the excitation frequency and modal response of the annular stator. This model allows to design efficient ultrasonic motors (USMs) and it incorporates the details of the stator which include the teeth, piezoelectric crystals, stator geometry, etc. The theoretical predictions and the experimental corroboration showed a remarkable agreement. Parallel to this effort, USMs are made and incorporated into a robotic arm and their capability to operate at the environment of Mars is being studied.

  4. Ear examination

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003340.htm Ear examination To use the sharing features on this page, ... ear References King EF, Couch ME. History, physical examination, and the preoperative evaluation. In: Flint PW, Haughey ...

  5. Extracting uranium from seawater: Promising AF series adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Y.; Mayes, Richard T.; Janke, Christopher James; Kuo, Li-Jung; Gill, Gary; Wood, Jordana; Dai, Sheng

    2015-11-02

    Here, a new family of high surface area polyethylene fiber adsorbents (AF series) was recently developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The AF series of were synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylonitrile and itaconic acid (at different monomer/co-monomer mol ratios) onto high surface area polyethylene fibers. The degree of grafting (%DOG) of AF series adsorbents was found to be 154 354%. The grafted nitrile groups were converted to amidoxime groups by treating with hydroxylamine. The amidoximated adsorbents were then conditioned with 0.44M KOH at 80 C followed by screening at ORNL with simulated seawater spiked with 8 ppm uranium. Uranium adsorption capacity in simulated seawater screening ranged from 170-200 g-U/kg-ads irrespective of %DOG. A monomer/co-monomer mol ratio in the range of 7.57-10.14 seemed to be optimum for highest uranium loading capacity. Subsequently, the adsorbents were also tested with natural seawater at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) using flow-through exposure uptake experiments to determine uranium loading capacity with varying KOH conditioning time at 80 C. The highest adsorption capacity of AF1 measured after 56 days of marine testing was demonstrated as 3.9 g-U/kg-adsorbent and 3.2 g-U/kg-adsorbent for 1hr and 3hrs of KOH conditioning at 80 C, respectively. Based on capacity values of several AF1 samples, it was observed that changing KOH conditioning from 3hrs to 1hr at 80 C resulted in 22-27% increase in uranium loading capacity in seawater.

  6. Extracting uranium from seawater: Promising AF series adsorbents

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Y.; Mayes, Richard T.; Janke, Christopher James; Kuo, Li-Jung; Gill, Gary; Wood, Jordana; Dai, Sheng

    2015-11-02

    Here, a new family of high surface area polyethylene fiber adsorbents (AF series) was recently developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The AF series of were synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylonitrile and itaconic acid (at different monomer/co-monomer mol ratios) onto high surface area polyethylene fibers. The degree of grafting (%DOG) of AF series adsorbents was found to be 154 354%. The grafted nitrile groups were converted to amidoxime groups by treating with hydroxylamine. The amidoximated adsorbents were then conditioned with 0.44M KOH at 80 C followed by screening at ORNL with simulated seawater spiked with 8more » ppm uranium. Uranium adsorption capacity in simulated seawater screening ranged from 170-200 g-U/kg-ads irrespective of %DOG. A monomer/co-monomer mol ratio in the range of 7.57-10.14 seemed to be optimum for highest uranium loading capacity. Subsequently, the adsorbents were also tested with natural seawater at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) using flow-through exposure uptake experiments to determine uranium loading capacity with varying KOH conditioning time at 80 C. The highest adsorption capacity of AF1 measured after 56 days of marine testing was demonstrated as 3.9 g-U/kg-adsorbent and 3.2 g-U/kg-adsorbent for 1hr and 3hrs of KOH conditioning at 80 C, respectively. Based on capacity values of several AF1 samples, it was observed that changing KOH conditioning from 3hrs to 1hr at 80 C resulted in 22-27% increase in uranium loading capacity in seawater.« less

  7. 32 CFR 989.12 - AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... record the focusing of environmental issues. ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact... FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.12 AF Form...

  8. 32 CFR 989.12 - AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... record the focusing of environmental issues. ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact... FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.12 AF Form...

  9. 32 CFR 989.12 - AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... record the focusing of environmental issues. ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact... FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.12 AF Form...

  10. Precision Cleaning Verification of Nonvolatile Residues by Using Water, Ultrasonics, and Turbidity Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, S. Ballou

    1991-01-01

    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's) in the atmosphere are believed to present a major environmental problem because they are able to interact with and deplete the ozone layer. NASA has been mandated to replace chlorinated solvents in precision cleaning, cleanliness verification, and degreasing of aerospace fluid systems hardware and ground support equipment. KSC has a CFC phase-out plan which provides for the elimination of over 90 percent of the CFC and halon use by 1995. The Materials Science Laboratory and KSC is evaluating four analytical methods for the determination of nonvolatile residues removal by water: (1) infrared analyses using an attenuated total reflectance; (2) surface tension analyses, (3) total organic content analyses, and (4) turbidity analyses. This research project examined the ultrasonic-turbidity responses for 22 hydrocarbons in an effect to determine: (1) if ultrasonics in heated water (70 C) will clean hydrocarbons (oils, greases, gels, and fluids) from aerospace hardware; (2) if the cleaning process by ultrasonics will simultaneously emulsify the removed hydrocarbons in the water; and (3) if a turbidimeter can be used successfully as an analytical instrument for quantifying the removal of hydrocarbons. Sixteen of the 22 hydrocarbons tested showed that ultrasonics would remove it at least 90 percent of the contaminated hydrocarbon from the hardware in 10 minutes or less giving a good ultrasonic-turbidity response. Six hydrocarbons had a lower percentage removal, a slower removal rate, and a marginal ultrasonic-turbidity response.

  11. Potential of ultrasonic pulse velocity for evaluating the dimensional stability of oak and chestnut wood.

    PubMed

    Dündar, Türker; Wang, Xiping; As, Nusret; Avcı, Erkan

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the potential of ultrasonic velocity as a rapid and nondestructive method to predict the dimensional stability of oak (Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Lieblein) and chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) that are commonly used in flooring industry. Ultrasonic velocity, specific gravity, and radial, tangential and volumetric shrinkages were measured on seventy-four 20×20×30-mm(3) specimens obtained from freshly cut oak and chestnut stems. The ultrasonic velocities of the specimens decreased with increasing moisture content (MC). We found that specific gravity was not a good predictor of the transverse shrinkages as indicated by relatively weak correlations. Ultrasonic velocity, on the other hand, was found to be a significant predictor of the transverse shrinkages for both oak and chestnut. The best results for prediction of shrinkages of oak and chestnut were obtained when the ultrasonic velocity and specific gravity were used together. The multiple regression models we developed in this study explained 77% of volumetric shrinkages in oak and 72% of volumetric shrinkages in chestnut. It is concluded that ultrasonic velocity coupled with specific gravity can be employed as predicting parameters to evaluate the dimensional stability of oak and chestnut wood during manufacturing process. PMID:26678790

  12. Experimental Study on the Effect of the Ultrasonic Wave on the Freezing of the Supercooled Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hozumi, Tsutomu; Saito, Akio; Okawa, Seiji; Matsui, Tatsuyuki

    In order to confirm the effect of ultrasonic wave on the freezing of supercooled water, various level of ultrasonic waves were applied to the supercooled water. The frequencies of the waves applied were 28kHz, 40kHz, 45kHz, 50kHz, and 1MHz. In order to clarify the mechanism of the effect of the ultrasonic wave, several factors were examined changing the experimental conditions and the results were compared each other; the factors were the existence of a free surface or oil -water interface, the volume of water, the purity of water and the existence of metal bar inserted. Each test section was cooled at a constant cooling rate and the ultrasonic waves were applied to each test section continuously, varying the frequency and the intensity. The experiments were carried out until the water in the test section solidified. The degree of supercooling at the freezing is determined by measuring the temperature just before a rapid increment of temperature due to freezing. It was found that the existence of a free surface and insertion of a metal bar with an addition to the ultrasonic wave have effects on the freezing of supercooled water. On the other hand, if oil-water interface or no metal bar insertion was selected as the experimental condition, there was no influence of the ultrasonic wave on the freezing of the supercooled water even the frequency and the intensity were varied.

  13. A study of weld quality in ultrasonic spot welding of similar and dissimilar metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Sarraf, Z.; Lucas, M.

    2012-08-01

    Several difficulties are faced in joining thinner sheets of similar and dissimilar materials from fusion welding processes such as resistance welding and laser welding. Ultrasonic metal welding overcomes many of these difficulties by using high frequency vibration and applied pressure to create a solid-state weld. Ultrasonic metal welding is an effective technique in joining small components, such as in wire bonding, but is also capable of joining thicker sheet, depending on the control of welding conditions. This study presents the design, characterisation and test of a lateral-drive ultrasonic metal welding device. The ultrasonic welding horn is modelled using finite element analysis and its vibration behaviour is characterised experimentally to ensure ultrasonic energy is delivered to the weld coupon. The welding stack and fixtures are then designed and mounted on a test machine to allow a series of experiments to be conducted for various welding and ultrasonic parameters. Weld strength is subsequently analysed using tensile-shear tests. Control of the vibration amplitude profile through the weld cycle is used to enhance weld strength and quality, providing an opportunity to reduce part marking. Optical microscopic examination and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to investigate the weld quality. The results show how the weld quality is particularly sensitive to the combination of clamping force and vibration amplitude of the welding tip.

  14. Transducer Joint for Kidney-Stone Ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angulo, E. D.

    1983-01-01

    Ultrasonic therapy for kidney stones improved by new way of connecting wire-probe ultrasonic waveguide to transducer. Improved mounting allows joint to last long enough for effective treatment. Sheath and rubber dampers constrain lateral vibration of wire waveguide. Combination of V-shaped mounting groove, sheath, and rubber dampers increases life expectancy of wire 15 times or more.

  15. In sodium tests of ultrasonic transducers

    SciTech Connect

    Lhuillier, C.; Descombin, O.; Baque, F.; Marchand, B.; Saillant, J. F.

    2011-07-01

    Ultrasonic techniques are seen as suitable candidates for the in-service inspection and for the continuous surveillance of sodium cooled reactors (SFR). These techniques need the development and the qualification of immersed ultrasonic transducers, and materials. This paper presents some developments performed by CEA (DTN and LIST) and AREVA (NDE Solutions), and some results. (authors)

  16. Ultrasonic Abrasive Removal Of EDM Recast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandel, Johnny L.; Jacobson, Marlowe S.

    1990-01-01

    Ultrasonic abrasive process removes layer of recast material generated during electrical-discharge machining (EDM) of damper pocket on turbine blade. Form-fitted tool vibrated ultrasonically in damper pocket from which material removed. Vibrations activate abrasive in pocket. Amount of material removed controlled precisely.

  17. Proceedings of the IEEE 1986 ultrasonics symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Mc Avoy, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on ultrasonic testing. Topics considered at the conference included the use of multiprocessors, the laser generation of acoustic waves, ultrasonic techniques in oil well logging, digital systems, piezoelectric devices, computerized tomography, Doppler tomography, pulse shaping techniques, blood flow, surface acoustic wave attenuation, sputtering, and microstructure.

  18. Beat-Frequency/Microsphere Medical Ultrasonic Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T.; Cantrell, John H.; Pretlow, Robert A., III

    1995-01-01

    Medical ultrasonic imaging system designed to provide quantitative data on various flows of blood in chambers, blood vessels, muscles, and tissues of heart. Sensitive enough to yield readings on flows of blood in heart even when microspheres used as ultrasonic contrast agents injected far from heart and diluted by circulation of blood elsewhere in body.

  19. Improved Ultrasonic Transducer For Measuring Cryogenic Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkhoudarian, Sarkis

    1991-01-01

    Improved ultrasonic transducer used to measure flow of cryogenic fluid. Includes wedge made nonintrusive by machining it out of bulk material of duct carrying fluid. Skewed surfaces of wedge suppress standing waves, thus reducing ringing and increasing signal-to-noise ratio. Increases accuracy of measurements of times of arrival of ultrasonic pulses, from which times flow inferred.

  20. Broadband, High-Temperature Ultrasonic Transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, F. Raymond; Winfree, William P.; Barrows, Danny A.

    1995-01-01

    Materials chosen for endurance at high temperatures and acoustic coupling and damping. Acoustic transducer designed to exhibit broad frequency response and to survive temperatures close to melting points of brazing alloys. Attached directly and continuously to hot object monitored ultrasonically: for example, it can be attached to relatively cool spot on workpiece during brazing for taking ultrasonic quality-control measurements.

  1. Ultrasonic cold forming of aircraft sheet materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devine, J.; Krause, P. C.

    1981-01-01

    Ultrasonic forming was investigated as a means for shaping aircraft sheet materials, including titanium 6Al-4V alloy, nickel, and stainless steel AM355-CRT, into a helicopter rotor blade nosecap contour. Equipment for static forming of small coupons consisted of a modified 4000 watt ultrasonic spot welder provided with specially designed punch and die sets. The titanium alloy was successfully formed to a 60 degree angle in one step with ultrasonics, but invariably cracked under static force alone. Nickel had a low enough yield strength that it could be successfully formed either with or without ultrasonics. Insufficient ultrasonic power was available to produce beneficial effect with the high-strength steel. From analogy with commercially used ultrasonic tube drawing, it was postulated that dynamic forming of long lengths of the nosecap geometry could be achieved with an ultrasonic system mounted on a draw bench. It was recommended that the ultrasonic technique be considered for forming other aircraft sheet geometries, particularly involving titanium alloy.

  2. Graphene electrostatic microphone and ultrasonic radio.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qin; Zheng, Jinglin; Onishi, Seita; Crommie, M F; Zettl, Alex K

    2015-07-21

    We present a graphene-based wideband microphone and a related ultrasonic radio that can be used for wireless communication. It is shown that graphene-based acoustic transmitters and receivers have a wide bandwidth, from the audible region (20∼20 kHz) to the ultrasonic region (20 kHz to at least 0.5 MHz). Using the graphene-based components, we demonstrate efficient high-fidelity information transmission using an ultrasonic band centered at 0.3 MHz. The graphene-based microphone is also shown to be capable of directly receiving ultrasound signals generated by bats in the field, and the ultrasonic radio, coupled to electromagnetic (EM) radio, is shown to function as a high-accuracy rangefinder. The ultrasonic radio could serve as a useful addition to wireless communication technology where the propagation of EM waves is difficult. PMID:26150483

  3. Nondestructive evaluation by acousto-ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kautz, Harold E.

    1988-01-01

    Acousto-ultrasonics is an ultrasonic technique that was originally devised to cope with the particular problems associated with nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of fiber/polymer composite structures. The fiber/polymer composites are more attenuating to ultrasound than any other material presently of interest. This limits the applicability of high-frequency ultrasonics. A common use of ultrasound is the imaging of flaws internal to a structure by scattering from the interface with the flaw. However, structural features of composites can scatter ultrasound internally, thus obscuring the flaws. A need relative to composites is to be able to nondestructively measure the strength of laminar boundaries in order to assess the integrity of a structure. Acousto-ultrasonics has exhibited the ability to use the internal scattering to provide information for determining the strength of laminar boundaries. Analysis of acousto-ultrasonic signals by the wave ray paths that compose it leads to waveform partitioning that enhances the sensitivity to mechanical strength parameters.

  4. Ultrasonic Vocalizations Emitted by Flying Squirrels

    PubMed Central

    Murrant, Meghan N.; Bowman, Jeff; Garroway, Colin J.; Prinzen, Brian; Mayberry, Heather; Faure, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Anecdotal reports of ultrasound use by flying squirrels have existed for decades, yet there has been little detailed analysis of their vocalizations. Here we demonstrate that two species of flying squirrel emit ultrasonic vocalizations. We recorded vocalizations from northern (Glaucomys sabrinus) and southern (G. volans) flying squirrels calling in both the laboratory and at a field site in central Ontario, Canada. We demonstrate that flying squirrels produce ultrasonic emissions through recorded bursts of broadband noise and time-frequency structured frequency modulated (FM) vocalizations, some of which were purely ultrasonic. Squirrels emitted three types of ultrasonic calls in laboratory recordings and one type in the field. The variety of signals that were recorded suggest that flying squirrels may use ultrasonic vocalizations to transfer information. Thus, vocalizations may be an important, although still poorly understood, aspect of flying squirrel social biology. PMID:24009728

  5. Graphene electrostatic microphone and ultrasonic radio

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qin; Zheng, Jinglin; Onishi, Seita; Crommie, M. F.; Zettl, Alex K.

    2015-01-01

    We present a graphene-based wideband microphone and a related ultrasonic radio that can be used for wireless communication. It is shown that graphene-based acoustic transmitters and receivers have a wide bandwidth, from the audible region (20∼20 kHz) to the ultrasonic region (20 kHz to at least 0.5 MHz). Using the graphene-based components, we demonstrate efficient high-fidelity information transmission using an ultrasonic band centered at 0.3 MHz. The graphene-based microphone is also shown to be capable of directly receiving ultrasound signals generated by bats in the field, and the ultrasonic radio, coupled to electromagnetic (EM) radio, is shown to function as a high-accuracy rangefinder. The ultrasonic radio could serve as a useful addition to wireless communication technology where the propagation of EM waves is difficult. PMID:26150483

  6. Ultrasonic ranging and data telemetry system

    DOEpatents

    Brashear, Hugh R.; Blair, Michael S.; Phelps, James E.; Bauer, Martin L.; Nowlin, Charles H.

    1990-01-01

    An ultrasonic ranging and data telemetry system determines a surveyor's position and automatically links it with other simultaneously taken survey data. An ultrasonic and radio frequency (rf) transmitter are carried by the surveyor in a backpack. The surveyor's position is determined by calculations that use the measured transmission times of an airborne ultrasonic pulse transmitted from the backpack to two or more prepositioned ultrasonic transceivers. Once a second, rf communications are used both to synchronize the ultrasonic pulse transmission-time measurements and to transmit other simultaneously taken survey data. The rf communications are interpreted by a portable receiver and microcomputer which are brought to the property site. A video display attached to the computer provides real-time visual monitoring of the survey progress and site coverage.

  7. Ultrasonic vocalizations emitted by flying squirrels.

    PubMed

    Murrant, Meghan N; Bowman, Jeff; Garroway, Colin J; Prinzen, Brian; Mayberry, Heather; Faure, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    Anecdotal reports of ultrasound use by flying squirrels have existed for decades, yet there has been little detailed analysis of their vocalizations. Here we demonstrate that two species of flying squirrel emit ultrasonic vocalizations. We recorded vocalizations from northern (Glaucomys sabrinus) and southern (G. volans) flying squirrels calling in both the laboratory and at a field site in central Ontario, Canada. We demonstrate that flying squirrels produce ultrasonic emissions through recorded bursts of broadband noise and time-frequency structured frequency modulated (FM) vocalizations, some of which were purely ultrasonic. Squirrels emitted three types of ultrasonic calls in laboratory recordings and one type in the field. The variety of signals that were recorded suggest that flying squirrels may use ultrasonic vocalizations to transfer information. Thus, vocalizations may be an important, although still poorly understood, aspect of flying squirrel social biology. PMID:24009728

  8. Ultrasonic characterization of laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. A.; Telschow, K. L.

    When a pulsed laser beam strikes the surface of an absorbing material, ultrasonic waves are generated due to thermoelectric expansion and, at higher laser power densities, ablation of the material. These sound generation mechanisms have been the subject of numerous theoretical and experimental studies and are now fairly well understood. In particular, it has been established that at low power densities the thermoelastic mechanism is well described by a surface center of expansion. This mechanism produces a characteristic waveform whose amplitude is proportional to the energy absorbed from the laser pulse and also dependent on the thermal and elastic properties of the material. The ablation ultrasonic source can be described by a point normal force acting on the material surface. For laser power densities near the ablation onset, the time dependence of the source is that of the laser pulse. The resultant waveform recorded on epicenter (source and detector collinear) has a sharp peak determined by the momentum impulse delivered to the material by the ablation process. Particularly in the near ablation onset region, this ultrasonic displacement peak can be used to characterize the ablation process occurring at the material surface. The onset power density for ablation and subsequent ablation dependence on power density are material dependent and thought to be a function of the heat capacity and thermal conductivity of the material. With this in mind, it is possible that these ablation signals could be used to characterize material microstructures, and perhaps material mechanical properties such as hardness, through microstructural changes of the material thermal parameters. This paper explores this question for samples of Type 304 stainless steel with microstructures controlled through work hardening and annealing.

  9. Embossed Teflon AF Laminate Membrane Microfluidic Diaphragm Valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Peter; Hunt, Brian; White,Victor; Grunthaner, Frank

    2008-01-01

    A microfluidic system has been designed to survive spaceflight and to function autonomously on the Martian surface. It manipulates microscopic quantities of liquid water and performs chemical analyses on these samples to assay for the presence of molecules associated with past or present living processes. This technology lies at the core of the Urey Instrument, which is scheduled for inclusion on the Pasteur Payload of the ESA ExoMars rover mission in 2013. Fabrication processes have been developed to make the microfabricated Teflon-AF microfluidic diaphragm pumps capable of surviving extreme temperature excursions before and after exposure to liquid water. Two glass wafers are etched with features and a continuous Teflon membrane is sandwiched between them (see figure). Single valves are constructed using this geometry. The microfabricated devices are then post processed by heating the assembled device while applying pneumatic pressure to force the Teflon diaphragm against the valve seat while it is softened. After cooling the device, the embossed membrane retains this new shape. This solves previous problems with bubble introduction into the fluid flow where deformations of the membrane at the valve seat occurred during device bonding at elevated temperatures (100-150 C). The use of laminated membranes containing commercial Teflon AF 2400 sheet sandwiched between spun Teflon AF 1600 layers performed best, and were less gas permeable than Teflon AF 1600 membranes on their own. Spinning Teflon AF 1600 solution (6 percent in FLOURINERT(Registered TradeMark) FC40 solvent, 3M Company) at 500 rpm for 1.5 seconds, followed by 1,000 rpm for 3 seconds onto Borofloat glass wafers, results in a 10-micron-thick film of extremely smooth Teflon AF. This spinning process is repeated several times on flat, blank, glass wafers in order to gradually build a thick, smooth membrane. After running this process at least five times, the wafer and Teflon coating are heated under vacuum

  10. Vector Theory of Ultrasonic Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, W. S.

    So far, works on ultrasonic diffraction imaging are based on scalar theory of sound wave. This is not correct as sound has vector nature. But when sound propagates in solids, its vector nature has to be considered as polarization occurs and transverse wave as well as longitudinal wave will appear. Vector theory is especially needed when the obstacle size is smaller than the wavelength. We use the Smythe-Kirchhoff approach for the vector theory of diffraction. We derive the image formation theory based on the vector diffraction theory. The effect of polarization on acoustical imaging is discussed.

  11. Passive wireless ultrasonic transducer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, C. H.; Croxford, A. J.; Wilcox, P. D.

    2014-02-01

    Inductive coupling and capacitive coupling both offer simple solutions to wirelessly probe ultrasonic transducers. This paper investigates the theory and feasibility of such system in the context of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) applications. Firstly, the physical principles and construction of an inductively coupled transducer system (ICTS) and a capacitively coupled transducer system (CCTS) are introduced. Then the development of a transmission line model with the measured impedance of a bonded piezoelectric ceramic disc representing a sensor attached to an arbitrary solid substrate for both systems is described. The models are validated experimentally. Several applications of CCTS are presented, such CCTS for the underwater and through-composite testing.

  12. Ultrasonic Songs of Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Previously it was shown that male mice, when they encounter female mice or their pheromones, emit ultrasonic vocalizations with frequencies ranging over 30–110 kHz. Here, we show that these vocalizations have the characteristics of song, consisting of several different syllable types, whose temporal sequencing includes the utterance of repeated phrases. Individual males produce songs with characteristic syllabic and temporal structure. This study provides a quantitative initial description of male mouse songs, and opens the possibility of studying song production and perception in an established genetic model organism. PMID:16248680

  13. Lase Ultrasonic Web Stiffness tester

    SciTech Connect

    Tim Patterson, Ph.D., IPST at Ga Tech

    2009-01-12

    The objective is to provide a sensor that uses non-contact, laser ultrasonics to measure the stiffness of paper during the manufacturing process. This will allow the manufacturer to adjust the production process in real time, increase filler content, modify fiber refining and as result produce a quality product using less energy. The sensor operates by moving back and forth across the paper web, at pre-selected locations firing a laser at the sheet, measuring the out-of-plane velocity of the sheet then using that measurement to calculate sheet stiffness.

  14. 21 CFR 884.2960 - Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories... Monitoring Devices § 884.2960 Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. (a) Identification. An obstetric ultrasonic transducer is a device used to apply ultrasonic energy to, and to receive...

  15. 21 CFR 884.2960 - Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories... Monitoring Devices § 884.2960 Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. (a) Identification. An obstetric ultrasonic transducer is a device used to apply ultrasonic energy to, and to receive...

  16. 21 CFR 884.2960 - Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories... Monitoring Devices § 884.2960 Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. (a) Identification. An obstetric ultrasonic transducer is a device used to apply ultrasonic energy to, and to receive...

  17. 21 CFR 884.2960 - Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories... Monitoring Devices § 884.2960 Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. (a) Identification. An obstetric ultrasonic transducer is a device used to apply ultrasonic energy to, and to receive...

  18. 21 CFR 884.2960 - Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories... Monitoring Devices § 884.2960 Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. (a) Identification. An obstetric ultrasonic transducer is a device used to apply ultrasonic energy to, and to receive...

  19. 21 CFR 884.2660 - Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. 884.2660... Devices § 884.2660 Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. A fetal ultrasonic monitor is a device designed to transmit and receive ultrasonic energy into and from the pregnant...

  20. 21 CFR 884.2660 - Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. 884.2660... Devices § 884.2660 Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. A fetal ultrasonic monitor is a device designed to transmit and receive ultrasonic energy into and from the pregnant...

  1. Ultrasonic characterization of microstructure in powder metal alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tittmann, B. R.; Ahlberg, L. A.; Fertig, K.

    1986-01-01

    The ultrasonic wave propagation characteristics were measured for IN-100, a powder metallurgy alloy used for aircraft engine components. This material was as a model system for testing the feasibility of characterizing the microstructure of a variety of inhomogeneous media including powder metals, ceramics, castings and components. The data were obtained for a frequency range from about 2 to 20 MHz and were statistically averaged over numerous volume elements of the samples. Micrographical examination provided size and number distributions for grain and pore structure. The results showed that the predominant source for the ultrasonic attenuation and backscatter was a dense (approx. 100/cubic mm) distribution of small micropores (approx. 10 micron radius). Two samples with different micropore densities were studied in detail to test the feasibility of calculating from observed microstructural parameters the frequency dependence of the microstructural backscatter in the regime for which the wavelength is much larger than the size of the individual scattering centers. Excellent agreement was found between predicted and observed values so as to demonstrate the feasibility of solving the forward problem. The results suggest a way towards the nondestructive detection and characterization of anomalous distributions of micropores when conventional ultrasonic imaging is difficult. The findings are potentially significant toward the application of the early detection of porosity during the materials fabrication process and after manufacturing of potential sites for stress induced void coalescence leading to crack initiation and subsequent failure.

  2. Mathematical modeling of a single stage ultrasonically assisted distillation process.

    PubMed

    Mahdi, Taha; Ahmad, Arshad; Ripin, Adnan; Abdullah, Tuan Amran Tuan; Nasef, Mohamed M; Ali, Mohamad W

    2015-05-01

    The ability of sonication phenomena in facilitating separation of azeotropic mixtures presents a promising approach for the development of more intensified and efficient distillation systems than conventional ones. To expedite the much-needed development, a mathematical model of the system based on conservation principles, vapor-liquid equilibrium and sonochemistry was developed in this study. The model that was founded on a single stage vapor-liquid equilibrium system and enhanced with ultrasonic waves was coded using MATLAB simulator and validated with experimental data for ethanol-ethyl acetate mixture. The effects of both ultrasonic frequency and intensity on the relative volatility and azeotropic point were examined, and the optimal conditions were obtained using genetic algorithm. The experimental data validated the model with a reasonable accuracy. The results of this study revealed that the azeotropic point of the mixture can be totally eliminated with the right combination of sonication parameters and this can be utilized in facilitating design efforts towards establishing a workable ultrasonically intensified distillation system. PMID:25432400

  3. Parallel strip waveguide for ultrasonic flow measurement in harsh environments.

    PubMed

    Laws, Michael; Ramadas, Sivaram N; Lynnworth, Lawrence C; Dixon, Steve

    2015-04-01

    Wetted ultrasonic transit time flow meters typically consist of one or more pairs of transducers, containing piezoelectric elements, which alternate between transmitting and detecting an ultrasonic pulse. Typical piezoelectric materials and the adhesives used to attach the piezoelectric element in such devices can be damaged by hostile environments, such as extreme temperature, potentially limiting possible applications of ultrasonic flow measurement techniques. We have investigated a design for a flow meter with an integrated thermal buffer waveguide consisting of five parallel stainless steel strips. These, in addition to thermal protection, may function as a transducer array, with the possibility of steering the emitted field. Because the buffer strips used in the transducer assembly are thin, one might expect Lamb-like guided waves to propagate along it. However, the finite width of the strips has a significant effect on the propagation characteristics of the guided waves. In this work, the effect of the waveguide's small rectangular cross-section has been studied. Additionally, we have examined the effect of thermal gradients on the average sound speed and dispersion characteristics of such strip waveguides. We also suggest modifications to the plate geometry, which can alter both the frequency content and the shape of the transmitted pulse, potentially giving a better signal to use in flow measurement. PMID:25881347

  4. Evaluation of manual ultrasonic inspection of cast stainless steel piping

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, T.T.

    1984-05-01

    Two studies have attempted to determine the degree of inspectability of centrifugally cast stainless steel (CCSS) pipe. In one study, Westinghouse examined the reliability of ultrasonic test methods in the detection of mechanical fatigue cracks. The second study was an NRC-sponsored Pipe Inspection Round Robin (PIRR) test conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The Westinghouse study reported that 80% detection was achieved for mechanical fatigue cracks having 20% throughwall depth. The PNL study reported that less than 30% detection was achieved for thermal fatigue cracks ranging from 5% to 50% through-wall. A cooperative program between PNL and Westinghouse was conducted to resolve the differences between the two studies. The program was designed as a limited round robin. Detection experiments were performed on samples from both the PNL and Westinghouse studies. The data reported here indicate that flaw type (thermal fatigue versus mechanical fatigue) was a significant factor in detection. Mechanical fatigue cracks were more easily detected than thermal fatigue cracks. The data conclusively show that manual ultrasonic inspection cannot size flaws in cast stainless steel material. The study recommends that ultrasonic inspection of cast stainless steel pipe be continued because cracks caused by some failure mechanisms (i.e., mechanical fatigue cracks) have proven to be detectable.

  5. Ultrasonic Sound Field Mapping Through Coarse Grained Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel Components

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Susan L.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Larche, Michael R.; Diaz, Aaron A.

    2014-08-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been involved with nondestructive examination (NDE) of coarse-grained cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) components for over 30 years. More recent work has focused on mapping the ultrasonic sound fields generated by low-frequency phased array probes that are typically used for the evaluation of CASS materials for flaw detection and characterization. The casting process results in the formation of large grained material microstructures that are nonhomogeneous and anisotropic. The propagation of ultrasonic energy for examination of these materials results in scattering, partitioning and redirection of these sound fields. The work reported here provides an assessment of sound field formation in these materials and provides recommendations on ultrasonic inspection parameters for flaw detection in CASS components.

  6. Characterization of physically vapor deposited AF2400 thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, R.; Spragge, M.K.; Loomis, G.E.; Rainer, F.; Ward, R.; Thomas, I.M.; Kozlowski, M.R.

    1993-11-01

    Anti-reflective coatings made with Teflon AF2400 had the highest damage thresholds recorded for physical vapor deposited coatings at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory damage facility. Physical vapor deposited layers of Teflon AF2400, a perfluorinated amorphous polymer, maintained the bulk optical properties of a high transmittance from 200 nm to 1600 nm, and a low refractive index. In addition, the refractive index can be intentionally reduced by control of two common deposition parameters, deposition rate and substrate temperature. Scanning electron microscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance observations indicated that morphological changes caused the variations in the refractive index rather than compositional changes. The coatings adhered to fused silica and silicon wafers under normal laboratory handling conditions.

  7. Arctic acoustics ultrasonic modeling studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamuel, Jacques R.

    1990-03-01

    A unique collection of laboratory ultrasonic modeling results are presented revealing and characterizing hidden pulsed seismoacoustic wave phenomena from 3-D range dependent liquid/solid boundaries. The research succeeded in isolating and identifying low frequency (10 to 500 Hz) transmission loss mechanisms and provided physical insight into Arctic acoustic problems generally beyond the state-of-the-art of theoretical and numerical analysis. The ultrasonic modeling studies dealt with controversial issues and existing discrepancies on seismo-acoustic waves at water/ice interface, sea ice thickness determination, low frequency transmission loss, and bottom leaky Rayleigh waves. The areas investigated include leaky Rayleigh waves at water/ice interface, leaky flexural waves in floating ice plates, effects of dry/wet cracks in sea ice on plate waves and near grazing acoustic waves, edge waves in floating plates, low frequency backscatter from ice keel width resonances, conversion of underwater acoustic waves into plate waves by keels, nondispersive flexural wave along apex of small angle solid wedge, Scholte and leaky Rayleigh waves along apex of immersed 90 ice wedge, backscatter from trailing edge of floes, floating plate resonances associated with near-grazing underwater acoustic waves, acoustic coupling between adjacent floes, and multiple bottom leaky Rayleigh wave components in water layer over solid bottom.

  8. Ultrasonic Characterization of Aerospace Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckey, Cara; Johnston, Patrick; Haldren, Harold; Perey, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Composite materials have seen an increased use in aerospace in recent years and it is expected that this trend will continue due to the benefits of reduced weight, increased strength, and other factors. Ongoing work at NASA involves the investigation of the large-scale use of composites for spacecraft structures (SLS components, Orion Composite Crew Module, etc). NASA is also involved in work to enable the use of composites in advanced aircraft structures through the Advanced Composites Project (ACP). In both areas (space and aeronautics) there is a need for new nondestructive evaluation and materials characterization techniques that are appropriate for characterizing composite materials. This paper will present an overview of NASA's needs for characterizing aerospace composites, including a description of planned and ongoing work under ACP for the detection of composite defects such as fiber waviness, reduced bond strength, delamination damage, and microcracking. The research approaches include investigation of angle array, guided wave, and phase sensitive ultrasonic methods. The use of ultrasonic simulation tools for optimizing and developing methods will also be discussed.

  9. Split-mode ultrasonic transducer.

    PubMed

    Ostrovskii, Igor; Cremaldi, Lucien

    2013-08-01

    A split-mode ultrasonic transducer is investigated in both theory and experiment. This transducer is a two-dimensional structure of periodically poled domains in a ferroelectric wafer with free surfaces. The acoustic vibrations are excited by a radio frequency electric current applied along the length of the wafer, which allows the basal-plane surfaces to be free of metal coatings and thus ready for further biomedical applications. A specific physical property of this transducer consists of the multiple acousto-electric resonances, which occur due to an acoustic mode split when the acoustic half-wavelength is equal to the domain length. Possible applications include ultrasonic generation and detection at the micro-scale, intravascular sonification and visualization, ultrasound therapy of localized small areas such as the eye, biomedical applications for cell cultures, and traditional nondestructive testing including bones and tissues. A potential use of a non-metallized wafer is a therapeutic application with double action that is both ultrasound itself and an electric field over the wafer. The experimental measurements and theoretical calculations are in good agreement. PMID:23927212

  10. Digital Image Processing for Noise Reduction in Medical Ultrasonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loupas, Thanasis

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. The purpose of this project was to investigate the application of digital image processing techniques as a means of reducing noise in medical ultrasonic imaging. Ultrasonic images suffer primarily from a type of acoustic noise, known as speckle, which is generally regarded as a major source of image quality degradation. The origin of speckle, its statistical properties as well as methods suggested to eliminate this artifact were reviewed. A simple model which can characterize the statistics of speckle on displays was also developed. A large number of digital noise reduction techniques was investigated. These include frame averaging techniques performed by commercially available devices and spatial filters implemented in software. Among the latter, some filters have been proposed in the scientific literature for ultrasonic, laser and microwave speckle or general noise suppression and the rest are original, developed specifically to suppress ultrasonic speckle. Particular emphasis was placed on adaptive techniques which adjust the processing performed at each point according to the local image content. In this way, they manage to suppress speckle with negligible loss of genuine image detail. Apart from preserving the diagnostically significant features of a scan another requirement a technique must satisfy before it is accepted in routine clinical practice is real-time operation. A spatial filter capable of satisfying both these requirements was designed and built in hardware using low-cost and readily available components. The possibility of incorporating all the necessary filter circuitry into a single VLSI chip was also investigated. In order to establish the effectiveness and usefulness of speckle suppression, a representative sample from the techniques examined here was applied to a large number of abdominal scans and their effect on image quality was evaluated. Finally, further

  11. Physical Principles Underlying Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation of Anisotropic Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blodgett, Earl Daniel

    The research described in this thesis is aimed toward extending the physics underlying the application of ultrasound to the investigation of materials. Some of the results presented deal with isotropic materials, both homogeneous and inhomogeneous. However, the primary focus is the physics of inhomogeneous, anisotropic materials, such as fiber-reinforced plastics. Fiber-reinforced plastics exhibit very favorable strength-to-weight ratios and can be fabricated to exhibit a wide range of structural properties. From a mechanical standpoint, two types of disadvantages of otherwise well -designed composite materials are fabrication defects (e.g., delamination, fiber-misalignment, and porosity) and wear damage (e.g., environmental degradation, fatigue stress, and impact damage). In this thesis, we describe the physics underlying the use of ultrasound as a tool for the detection and characterization of damage in composite materials. The thesis is composed of two inter-related portions. The first portion serves as an introduction to wave propagation in isotropic and anisotropic media. These chapters provide a basis of insight and intuition for the non-destructive evaluation experiments described in the second portion. The second portion deals with experimental application of ultrasonic techniques to several specific problems in nondestructive evaluation. The studies reported here examine parameters of ultrasonic propagation in materials with known flaws whose location and character have been verified by independent (non-ultrasonic) means. The ultrasonic parameters employed in these studies are backscatter, attenuation measured in transmission, and attenuation estimated from backscatter. Three chapters deal with the use of a backscatter -based technique known as polar backscatter. In this technique the effects of specular reflection from the water/sample interface in an immersion-type measurement are reduced by interrogating at nonperpendicular incidence. The anisotropic

  12. Ultrasonic treatment of aramid fiber surface and its effect on the interface of aramid/epoxy composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Huang, Y. D.; Zhang, Z. Q.; Jiang, Z. X.; Wu, L. N.

    2008-02-01

    Aramid fiber/epoxy composites have been treated by ultrasound during the winding process to enhance the adhesion. According to the ultrasonic treatment interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of composites has been greatly improved. Dynamic wetting method, XPS and AFM are used to examine the microscopic properties of resultant composites. The enhanced ILSS is attributed to the ultrasonic cavitation, which improves the wetting between aramid fibers and resins.

  13. Floating Ultrasonic Transducer Inspection System and Method for Nondestructive Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N. (Inventor); Johnston, Patrick H. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method for inspecting a structural sample using ultrasonic energy includes positioning an ultrasonic transducer adjacent to a surface of the sample, and then transmitting ultrasonic energy into the sample. Force pulses are applied to the transducer concurrently with transmission of the ultrasonic energy. A host machine processes ultrasonic return pulses from an ultrasonic pulser/receiver to quantify attenuation of the ultrasonic energy within the sample. The host machine detects a defect in the sample using the quantified level of attenuation. The method may include positioning a dry couplant between an ultrasonic transducer and the surface. A system includes an actuator, an ultrasonic transducer, a dry couplant between the transducer the sample, a scanning device that moves the actuator and transducer, and a measurement system having a pulsed actuator power supply, an ultrasonic pulser/receiver, and a host machine that executes the above method.

  14. Sinuladiterpenes A-F, new cembrane diterpenes from Sinularia flexibilis.

    PubMed

    Lo, Kuang-Liang; Khalil, Ashraf Taha; Kuo, Yao-Haur; Shen, Ya-Ching

    2009-12-01

    Chromatographic investigation of the octocoral Sinularia flexibilis afforded six new cembrane diterpenes, sinuladiterpenes A-F (1-6, resp.), in addition to four known cembranolides, 11-episinulariolide acetate, 11-dehydrosinulariolide, 11-episinulariolide, and sinulariolide. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, especially 2D-NMR and HR-ESI-MS. Compound 2 exhibited significant in vitro cytotoxic activity against human colon adenocarcinoma (WiDr) cell line. PMID:20020460

  15. Characterization of the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient and its frequency dependence in a polymer gel dosimeter.

    PubMed

    Crescenti, Remo A; Bamber, Jeffrey C; Partridge, Mike; Bush, Nigel L; Webb, Steve

    2007-11-21

    Research on polymer-gel dosimetry has been driven by the need for three-dimensional dosimetry, and because alternative dosimeters are unsatisfactory or too slow for that task. Magnetic resonance tomography is currently the most well-developed technique for determining radiation-induced changes in polymer structure, but quick low-cost alternatives remain of significant interest. In previous work, ultrasound attenuation and speed of sound were found to change as a function of absorbed radiation dose in polymer-gel dosimeters, although the investigations were restricted to one ultrasound frequency. Here, the ultrasound attenuation coefficient mu in one polymer gel (MAGIC) was investigated as a function of radiation dose D and as a function of ultrasonic frequency f in a frequency range relevant for imaging dose distributions. The nonlinearity of the frequency dependence was characterized, fitting a power-law model mu = af(b); the fitting parameters were examined for potential use as additional dose readout parameters. In the observed relationship between the attenuation coefficient and dose, the slopes in a quasi-linear dose range from 0 to 30 Gy were found to vary with the gel batch but lie between 0.0222 and 0.0348 dB cm(-1) Gy(-1) at 2.3 MHz, between 0.0447 and 0.0608 dB cm(-1) Gy(-1) at 4.1 MHz and between 0.0663 and 0.0880 dB cm(-1) Gy(-1) at 6.0 MHz. The mean standard deviation of the slope for all samples and frequencies was 15.8%. The slope was greater at higher frequencies, but so were the intra-batch fluctuations and intra-sample standard deviations. Further investigations are required to overcome the observed variability, which was largely associated with the sample preparation technique, before it can be determined whether any frequency is superior to others in terms of accuracy and precision in dose determination. Nevertheless, lower frequencies will allow measurements through larger samples. The fit parameter a of the frequency dependence, describing the

  16. The Ultrasonic Microsurgical Anatomical Comparative Study of the CHD Fetuses and Their Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaosong; Xia, Hongmei; Wang, Dan; Zhu, Junke; Ran, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to increase the detection rate of fetal cardiac malformations for congenital heart disease (CHD). The ultrasonic and microanatomical methods were combined to study the CHD cases firstly, which could provide the microsurgical anatomical basis to the prenatal ultrasonic diagnosis which was used in suspected CHD and help the sonographer to improve the quality of fetal cardiac diagnosis. We established the ultrasonic standard section of the 175 complex CHD cases and collected the fetal echocardiography image files. The induced/aborted fetuses were fixed by 4% paraformaldehyde and dissected by the ultrasonic microsurgical anatomy. This research could obtain the fetal cardiac anatomic cross-sectional images which was consistent with the ultrasonic standard section and could clearly show the internal structure of the vascular malformation that optimized the ultrasound examination individually. This method could directly display the variation of the CHD fetal heart clearly and comprehensively help us to understand the complex fetal cardiac malformation from the internal structure of the vascular malformation which was consolidated by the anatomical basis of the fetal heart. This study could improve the integrity and accuracy of the prenatal cardiac ultrasound examination tremendously. PMID:26640788

  17. Durable Superhydrophobic Surfaces via Spontaneous Wrinkling of Teflon AF.

    PubMed

    Scarratt, Liam R J; Hoatson, Ben S; Wood, Elliot S; Hawkett, Brian S; Neto, Chiara

    2016-03-16

    We report the fabrication of both single-scale and hierarchical superhydrophobic surfaces, created by exploiting the spontaneous wrinkling of a rigid Teflon AF film on two types of shrinkable plastic substrates. Sub-100 nm to micrometric wrinkles were reproducibly generated by this simple process, with remarkable control over the size and hierarchy. Hierarchical Teflon AF wrinkled surfaces showed extremely high water repellence (contact angle 172°) and very low contact angle hysteresis (2°), resulting in droplets rolling off the surface at tilt angles lower than 5°. The wrinkling process intimately binds the Teflon AF layer with its substrate, making these surfaces mechanically robust, as revealed by macroscale and nanoscale wear tests: hardness values were close to that of commercial optical lenses and aluminum films, resistance to scratch was comparable to commercial hydrophobic coatings, and damage by extensive sonication did not significantly affect water repellence. By this fabrication method the size of the wrinkles can be reproducibly tuned from the nanoscale to the microscale, across the whole surface in one step; the fabrication procedure is extremely rapid, requiring only 2 min of thermal annealing to produce the desired topography, and uses inexpensive materials. The very low roll-off angles achieved in the hierarchical surfaces offer a potentially up-scalable alternative as self-cleaning and drag-reducing coatings. PMID:26910574

  18. Intracardiac impedance response during acute AF internal cardioversion using novel rectilinear and capacitor-discharge waveforms.

    PubMed

    Rababah, A S; Walsh, S J; Manoharan, G; Walsh, P R; Escalona, O J

    2016-07-01

    Intracardiac impedance (ICI) is a major determinant of success during internal cardioversion of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, there have been few studies that have examined the dynamic behaviour of atrial impedance during internal cardioversion in relation to clinical outcome. In this study, voltage and current waveforms captured during internal cardioversion of acute AF in ovine models using novel radiofrequency (RF) generated low-tilt rectilinear and conventional capacitor-discharge based shock waveforms were retrospectively analysed using a digital signal processing algorithm to investigate the dynamic behaviour of atrial impedance during cardioversion. The algorithm was specifically designed to facilitate the simultaneous analysis of multiple impedance parameters, including: mean intracardiac impedance (Z M), intracardiac impedance variance (ICIV) and impedance amplitude spectrum area (IAMSA) for each cardioversion event. A significant reduction in ICI was observed when comparing two successive shocks of increasing energy where cardioversion outcome was successful. In addition, ICIV and IAMSA variables were found to inversely correlate to the magnitude of energy delivered; with a stronger correlation found to the former parameter. In conclusion, ICIV and IAMSA have been evidenced as two key dynamic intracardiac impedance variables that may prove useful in better understanding of the cardioversion process and that could potentially act as prognostic markers with respect to clinical outcome. PMID:27328164

  19. Design and analysis of ultrasonic actuator in consideration of length reduction for a USDC (ultrasonic/sonic driller/corer)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Zensheu; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2005-05-01

    Sample return and in-situ sampling and analysis is one of the major objectives of future NASA exploration missions. Existing drilling techniques are limited by the need for large axial forces, holding torques, and high power consumption. Lightweight robots and rovers have difficulties accommodating these requirements. To address these key challenges to the NASA objective of planetary in-situ rock sampling and analysis, a drilling technology called ultrasonic/sonic driller/corer (USDC) was developed. The USDC uses a novel driving mechanism, transferring ultrasonic vibration to sonic frequency impacts with the aid of a free-flying mass block (free-mass). The free mass then drives the drill bit. The actuator consists of a stack of piezoelectric disks with a horn that amplifies the induced vibration amplitudes. The standard USDC is a slender device, and some times its length is too long for specific NASA missions. It is of current interest to have novel designs that reduce the length of the device. For this purpose, two novel horn designs were examined analytically. One is the flipped horn, the other is the planar folded horn. The new designs of the horn were analyzed using finite element modeling and the results allow for the determination of the control parameters that can optimize the performance of the ultrasonic horn in terms of the tip displacement and velocity. The results of the modeling are described and discussed in this paper.

  20. Genomic functions of U2AF in constitutive and regulated splicing

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tongbin; Fu, Xiang-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The U2AF heterodimer is generally accepted to play a vital role in defining functional 3′ splice sites in pre-mRNA splicing. Given prevalent mutations in U2AF, particularly in the U2AF1 gene (which encodes for the U2AF35 subunit) in blood disorders and other human cancers, there are renewed interests in these classic splicing factors to further understand their regulatory functions in RNA metabolism in both physiological and disease settings. We recently reported that U2AF has a maximal capacity to directly bind ˜88% of functional 3′ splice sites in the human genome and that numerous U2AF binding events also occur in various exonic and intronic locations, thus providing additional mechanisms for the regulation of alternative splicing besides their traditional role in titrating weak splice sites in the cell. These findings, coupled with the existence of multiple related proteins to both U2AF65 and U2AF35, beg a series of questions on the universal role of U2AF in functional 3′ splice site definition, their binding specificities in vivo, potential mechanisms to bypass their requirement for certain intron removal events, contribution of splicing-independent functions of U2AF to important cellular functions, and the mechanism for U2AF mutations to invoke specific diseases in humans. PMID:25901584

  1. Wire Crimp Termination Verification Using Ultrasonic Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perey, Daniel F.; Cramer, K. Elliott; Yost, William T.

    2007-01-01

    The development of a new ultrasonic measurement technique to quantitatively assess wire crimp terminations is discussed. The amplitude change of a compressional ultrasonic wave propagating through the junction of a crimp termination and wire is shown to correlate with the results of a destructive pull test, which is a standard for assessing crimp wire junction quality. Various crimp junction pathologies such as undercrimping, missing wire strands, incomplete wire insertion, partial insulation removal, and incorrect wire gauge are ultrasonically tested, and their results are correlated with pull tests. Results show that the nondestructive ultrasonic measurement technique consistently (as evidenced with destructive testing) predicts good crimps when ultrasonic transmission is above a certain threshold amplitude level. A physics-based model, solved by finite element analysis, describes the compressional ultrasonic wave propagation through the junction during the crimping process. This model is in agreement within 6% of the ultrasonic measurements. A prototype instrument for applying this technique while wire crimps are installed is also presented. The instrument is based on a two-jaw type crimp tool suitable for butt-splice type connections. Finally, an approach for application to multipin indenter type crimps will be discussed.

  2. Ear examination

    MedlinePlus

    King EF, Couch ME. History, physical examination, and the preoperative evaluation. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  3. [Examination procedures].

    PubMed

    Vassault, A; Arnaud, J; Szymanovicz, A

    2010-12-01

    Examination procedures have to be written for each examination according to the standard requirements. Using CE marked devices, technical inserts can be used, but because of their lack of homogeneity, it could be easier to document their use as a standard procedure. Document control policy applies for those procedures, the content of which could be as provided in this document. Electronic manuals can be used as well. PMID:21613016

  4. Identification and functional characterization of grass carp IL-17A/F1: An evaluation of the immunoregulatory role of teleost IL-17A/F1.

    PubMed

    Du, Linyong; Feng, Shiyu; Yin, Licheng; Wang, Xinyan; Zhang, Anying; Yang, Kun; Zhou, Hong

    2015-07-01

    In mammals, IL-17A and IL-17F are hallmark cytokines of Th17 cells which act significant roles in eradicating extracellular pathogens. IL-17A and IL-17F homologs nominated as IL-17A/F1-3 have been revealed in fish and their functions remain largely undefined. Here we identified and characterized grass carp IL-17A/F1 (gcIL-17A/F1) in fish immune system. In this regard, both tissue distribution and inductive expression of gcIL-17A/F1 indicated its possible involvement in immune response. Moreover, recombinant gcIL-17A/F1 (rgcIL-17A/F1) was prepared and displayed an ability to enhance pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6) mRNA expression in head kidney leukocytes. It is suggestive of that gcIL-17A/F1 may act as a proinflammatory cytokine in fish immunity. Besides, rgcIL-17A/F1 induced gene expression and protein release of grass carp chemokine CXCL-8 (gcCXCL-8) in head kidney cells (HKCs), probably via NF-κB, p38 and Erk1/2 pathways. In particular, culture medium from the HKCs treated by rgcIL-17A/F1 could stimulate peripheral blood leukocytes migration and immunoneutralization of endogenous gcCXCL-8 could partially attenuate this stimulation, suggesting that rgcIL-17A/F1 could recruit immune cells through producing gcCXCL-8 as mammalian IL-17 A and F. Taken together, we not only identified the pro-inflammatory role of gcIL-17A/F1 in host defense, but also provided the basis for clarifying Th17 cells in teleost. PMID:25847875

  5. Ultrasonic angle beam standard reflector. [ultrasonic nondestructive inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, R. F., Jr. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A method that provides an impression profile in a reference standard material utilized in inspecting critically stressed components with pulsed ultrasound is described. A die stamp having an I letter is used to impress the surface of a reference material. The die stamp is placed against the surface and struck with an inertia imparting member to impress the I in the reference standard material. Upset may appear on the surface as a result of the impression and is removed to form a smooth surface. The stamping and upset removal is repeated until the entire surface area of a depth control platform on the die stamp uniformly contacts the material surface. The I impression profile in the reference standard material is utilized for reflecting pulsed ultrasonic beams for inspection purposes.

  6. Ultrasonic sensing of porous granular media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parthasarathi, Sanjai; Lu, Yichi; Wadley, Haydn N. G.

    1991-01-01

    The existence of phenomena for sensing porosity and grain growth in powder metallurgical processes using ultrasonic techniques is demonstrated. Ultrasonic velocity is a strong function of pore concentration and provides a potential means for in situ measurement of this quantity. Ultrasonic attenuation, measured in the low megahertz range, depends on grain size and pore content. When velocity data and a scattering theory are used to account for the attenuation due to pores, attenuation data may be used to infer the grain size. Predictions of existing scattering theories are compared with experimental observations, and substantial disagreements are attributed to modeling inadequacies.

  7. Ultrasonic technology improves drill cuttings disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Avern, N.; Copercini, A.

    1997-07-01

    Advancements are being made by employing ultrasonics for onsite cuttings size reduction for slurrification prior to disposal. The size reduction proficiency of this new ultrasonics slurrification system as a medium to reduce the particle size of drill cuttings presents operators with a system that can enhance existing disposal techniques. This article presents results from a recent field trial, where ultrasonic processors were used to Agip (UK) Limited to reduce the particle size of drill cuttings prior to disposal into the water column and natural dispersement.

  8. Model-based optimization of ultrasonic transducers.

    PubMed

    Heikkola, Erkki; Laitinen, Mika

    2005-01-01

    Numerical simulation and automated optimization of Langevin-type ultrasonic transducers are investigated. These kind of transducers are standard components in various applications of high-power ultrasonics such as ultrasonic cleaning and chemical processing. Vibration of the transducer is simulated numerically by standard finite element method and the dimensions and shape parameters of a transducer are optimized with respect to different criteria. The novelty value of this work is the combination of the simulation model and the optimization problem by efficient automatic differentiation techniques. The capabilities of this approach are demonstrated with practical test cases in which various aspects of the operation of a transducer are improved. PMID:15474952

  9. Waveguide ultrasonic force microscopy at 60 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, K.; Kolosov, O. V.; Briggs, G. A. D.; Wright, O. B.

    2000-04-01

    We present measurements using ultrasonic force microscopy at ˜60 MHz, operating in a "waveguide" mode in which the cantilever base is vibrated and flexural ultrasonic vibrations are launched down the cantilever without exciting any particular cantilever resonance. The nonlinearity of the tip-sample force-distance curve allows the conversion of a modulated ultrasonic frequency into a low frequency vibration of the cantilever, detected in a conventional atomic force microscope. Images of Ge quantum dots on a Si substrate show contrast related to elasticity and adhesion differences, and this is interpreted with the Johnson-Kendall-Roberts model of the force-distance curve.

  10. Ultrasonic measurement of milk coagulation time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakkali, F.; Moudden, A.; Faiz, B.; Amghar, A.; Maze, G.; Montero de Espinosa, F.; Akhnak, M.

    2001-12-01

    Using a pulse reflection technique an ultrasonic system has been developed to monitor in situ the coagulation process of rennetted milk. The velocity and attenuation of ultrasonic waves through coagulating milk were continuously monitored. The observed changes in ultrasonic velocity during coagulation were used to predict the coagulation time. The coagulation time is indicative of the transition from the enzymatic phase to the physicochemical phase. The determination of coagulation time has a decisive role in determining the qualities of the end product in cheesemaking.

  11. On-line ultrasonic gas entrainment monitor

    DOEpatents

    Day, Clifford K.; Pedersen, Herbert N.

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus employing ultrasonic energy for detecting and measuring the quantity of gas bubbles present in liquids being transported through pipes. An ultrasonic transducer is positioned along the longitudinal axis of a fluid duct, oriented to transmit acoustic energy radially of the duct around the circumference of the enclosure walls. The back-reflected energy is received centrally of the duct and interpreted as a measure of gas entrainment. One specific embodiment employs a conical reflector to direct the transmitted acoustic energy radially of the duct and redirect the reflected energy back to the transducer for reception. A modified embodiment employs a cylindrical ultrasonic transducer for this purpose.

  12. Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing using two ultrasonic transducers for improved ultrasonic axial resolution

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiang; Xu, Xiao; Lai, Puxiang; Xu, Daxiong

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Focusing light inside highly scattering media is a challenging task in biomedical optical imaging, manipulation, and therapy. A recent invention has overcome this challenge by time reversing ultrasonically encoded diffuse light to an ultrasound-modulated volume inside a turbid medium. In this technique, a photorefractive (PR) crystal or polymer can be used as the phase conjugate mirror for optical time reversal. Accordingly, a relatively long ultrasound burst, whose duration matches the PR response time of the PR material, is usually used to encode the diffuse light. This long burst results in poor focusing resolution along the acoustic axis. In this work, we propose to use two intersecting ultrasound beams, emitted from two ultrasonic transducers at different frequencies, to modulate the diffuse light at the beat frequency within the intersection volume. We show that the time reversal of the light encoded at the beat frequency can converge back to the intersection volume. Experimentally, an acoustic axial resolution of ∼1.1  mm was demonstrated inside turbid media, agreeing with theoretical estimation. PMID:24194060

  13. Light-scattering analysis of ultrasonic wave's influence on the RBC agglutination in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doubrovski, Valeri A.; Dvoretski, Costanten N.

    1999-04-01

    Elastic light scattering is one of the most often used optical methods to analyze the cells agglutination reaction - the base of a great number of medical diagnostic test and biomedical investigations. The increase of the resolution of methods and apparatus towards the induced cells aggregation - the foundation of the reaction of agglutination, is quite an actual problem. The solution of this problem increases the reliability of the diagnostic test and gives an opportunity to achieve the diagnostic information in the cases when the traditional approaches do not lead to the diagnostic results. The attempt to increase the resolution of the immune reaction analyzer by means of ultrasonic waves action on the reagent mixture in vitro is taken in this paper. The RBC agglutination reaction which is usually used for the blood group type examination is chosen as an example of an object of the investigation. Different laser optical trains of the devices based on the turbidimetric and nephelometric methods and their combination are analyzed here. The influence of the ultrasonic wave time interval action and of the features of the sample preparation procedure on the resolution towards the agglutination process was investigated in this work. It is shown that the ultrasonic wave action on the reagent mixture leads to a large gain in the resolution of the device towards the RBC agglutination process. The experiments showed that the resolution of the device was enough to register the agglutination process even for the erythrocytes with weak agglutination ability when the reaction was invisible without ultrasonic action. It occurred that the diagnostic test time was more than by an order shortened due to the ultrasonic wave action. The optimal ultrasonic time interval action, the sample preparation technology and experimental technique were defined. The principle of the ultrasonic wave action on the cells agglutination process suggested here can be spread out on the immune

  14. Mass spectrometric analysis for high molecular weight synthetic polymers using ultrasonic degradation and the mechanism of degradation.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Hideya; Takeda, Yoshiki; Arakawa, Ryuichi

    2007-06-01

    We have investigated ultrasonic degradations of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEG) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) in aqueous media by means of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS). The ultrasonic degradation of polymers was monitored as a function of ultrasonication duration to examine the structural details of ultrasonic degradation polymers. PEG solution ultrasonication produced five types of oligomers (M approximately 1000 Da) with different end groups, irrespective of the initial average molecular masses (M=2, 6, 20, and 2000 kDa). Several degradation pathways with free radical reactions have been suggested to explain these degradation products: the ultrasonic degradation of PEG is initiated by breaking of the C-O bond in the PEG chain, generating polymeric radicals with two terminal groups, i.e., X*( approximately CH2CH2*) and Y*( approximately CH2CH2O*), followed by termination with extraction or release of a hydrogen atom. However, PMMA (M=1630 Da) ultrasonication generated only one type of degradation oligomer, which has a hydrogen group at both ends, the same as that of the original oligomer. It has been suggested that the presence of the radical terminal groups X*( approximately CH2*) and Y*( approximately (CH3)CCOO(CH3)C*) is due to selective C-C bond breaking in the chain during the ultrasonic degradation of PMMA. The MALDI-TOFMS combined with the ultrasonic degradation technique (UD/MALDI-TOFMS) developed in this study could be extended to the analysis of synthetic polymer structures with high molecular weights. PMID:17461552

  15. A new approach involving a multi transducer ultrasonic system for cleaning turbine engines' oil filters under practical conditions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Dinh Duc; Ngo, Huu Hao; Yoon, Yong Soo; Chang, Soon Woong; Bui, Hong Ha

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a green technology that can clean turbine engine oil filters effectively in ships using ultrasound, with ultrasonic devices having a frequency of 25kHz and different powers of 300W and 600W, respectively. The effects of temperature, ultrasonic cleaning times, pressure losses through the oil filter, solvent washing, and ultrasonic power devices were investigated. In addition, the cleaning efficiency of three modes (hand washing, preliminary washing and ultrasonic washing) were compared to assess their relative effectiveness. Experimental results revealed that the necessary ultrasonic time varied significantly depending on which solvent was used for washing. For instance, the optimum ultrasonic cleaning time was 50-60min when the oil filter was cleaned in a solvent of kerosene oil (KO) and over 80min when in a solvent of diesel oil (DO) using the same ultrasonic generator device (25kHz, 600W) and experimental conditions. Furthermore, microscopic examination did not reveal any damage or breakdown on or within the structure of the filter after ultrasonic cleaning, even in the filter's surfaces at a constantly low frequency of 25kHz and power specific capacity (100W/gal). Overall, it may be concluded that ultrasound-assisted oil filter washing is effective, requiring a significantly shorter time than manual washing. This ultrasonic method also shows promise as a green technology for washing oil filters in turbine engines in general and Vietnamese navy ships in particular, because of its high cleaning efficiency, operational simplicity and savings. PMID:27423027

  16. Nanocellulose Composite Materials Synthesizes with Ultrasonic Agitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidd, Timothy; Folken, Andrew; Fritch, Byron; Bradley, Derek

    We have extended current techniques in forming nanocellulose composite solids, suspensions and aerogels to enhance the breakdown of cellulose into its molecular components. Using only mechanical processing which includes ball milling, using a simple mortar and pestle, and ultrasonic agitation, we are able to create very low concentration uniform nanocellulose suspensions in water, as well as incorporate other materials such as graphite, carbon nanotubes, and magnetic materials. Of interest is that no chemical processing is necessary, nor is the use of nanoparticles, necessary for composite formation. Using both graphite and carbon nanotubes, we are able to achieve conducting nanocellulose solids and aerogels. Standard magnetic powder can also be incorporated to create magnetic solids. The technique also allows for the creation of an extremely fine nanocellulose suspension in water. Using extremely low concentrations, less than 1% cellulose by mass, along with careful control over processing parameters, we are able to achieve highly dilute, yet homogenous nanocellulose suspensions. When air dried, these suspensions have similar hardness and strength properties to those created with more typical starting cellulose concentrations (2-10%). However, when freeze-dried, these dilute suspensions form aerogels with a new morphology with much higher surface area than those with higher starting concentrations. We are currently examining the effect of this higher surface area on the properties of nanocellulose aerogel composites and how it influences the impact of incorporating nanocellulose into other polymer materials.

  17. Ultrasonically enhanced electrochemical oxidation of ibuprofen.

    PubMed

    Thokchom, Binota; Kim, Kyungho; Park, Jeonghyuk; Khim, Jeehyeong

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid advanced oxidation process combining sonochemistry (US) and electrochemistry (EC) for the batch scale degradation of ibuprofen was developed. The performance of this hybrid reactor system was evaluated by quantifying on the degradation of ibuprofen under the variation in electrolytes, frequency, applied voltage, ultrasonic power density and temperature in aqueous solutions with a platinum electrode. Among the methods examined (US, EC and US/EC), the hybrid method US/EC resulted 89.32%, 81.85% and 88.7% degradations while using NaOH, H2SO4 and deionized water (DI), respectively, with a constant electrical voltages of 30V, an ultrasound frequency of 1000kHz, and a power density of 100WL(-1) at 298K in 1h. The degradation was established to follow pseudo first order kinetics. In addition, energy consumption and energy efficiencies were also calculated. The probable mechanism for the anodic oxidation of ibuprofen at a platinum electrode was also postulated. PMID:24844440

  18. Automated ultrasonic arterial vibrometry: detection and measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plett, Melani I.; Beach, Kirk W.; Paun, Marla

    2000-04-01

    Since the invention of the stethoscope, the detection of vibrations and sounds from the body has been a touchstone of diagnosis. However, the method is limited to vibrations whose associated sounds transmit to the skin, with no means to determine the anatomic and physiological source of the vibrations save the cunning of the examiner. Using ultrasound quadrature phase demodulation methods similar to those of ultrasonic color flow imaging, we have developed a system to detect and measure tissue vibrations with amplitude excursions as small as 30 nanometers. The system uses wavelet analysis for sensitive and specific detection, as well as measurement, of short duration vibrations amidst clutter and time-varying, colored noise. Vibration detection rates in ROC curves from simulated data predict > 99.5% detections with < 1% false alarms for signal to noise ratios >= 0.5. Vibrations from in vivo arterial stenoses and punctures have been studied. The results show that vibration durations vary from 10 - 150 ms, frequencies from 100 - 1000 Hz, and amplitudes from 30 nanometers to several microns. By marking the location of vibration sources on ultrasound images, and using color to indicate amplitude, frequency or acoustic intensity, new diagnostic information is provided to aid disorder diagnosis and management.

  19. Ultrasonic inspection and deployment apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Michaels, Jennifer E.; Michaels, Thomas E.; Mech, Jr., Stephen J.

    1984-01-01

    An ultrasonic inspection apparatus for the inspection of metal structures, especially installed pipes. The apparatus combines a specimen inspection element, an acoustical velocity sensing element, and a surface profiling element, all in one scanning head. A scanning head bellows contains a volume of oil above the pipe surface, serving as acoustical couplant between the scanning head and the pipe. The scanning head is mounted on a scanning truck which is mobile around a circular track surrounding the pipe. The scanning truck has sufficient motors, gears, and position encoders to allow the scanning head six degrees of motion freedom. A computer system continually monitors acoustical velocity, and uses that parameter to process surface profiling and inspection data. The profiling data is used to automatically control scanning head position and alignment and to define a coordinate system used to identify and interpret inspection data. The apparatus is suitable for highly automated, remote application in hostile environments, particularly high temperature and radiation areas.

  20. Ultrasonic thermometry using pulse techniques.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnworth, L. C.; Carnevale, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Ultrasonic pulse techniques have been developed which, when applied to inert gases, provide temperature measurements up to 8000 K. The response time can be less than 1 msec. This is a significant feature in studying shock-heated or combusting gases. Using a momentary contact coupling technique, temperature has been measured inside steel from 300 to 1500 K. Thin-wire sensors have been used above 2000 K in nuclear and industrial applications where conditions preclude the use of thermocouples, resistance devices, or optical pyrometers. At 2500 K, temperature sensitivity of 0.1% is obtained in Re wire sensors 5 cm long by timing five round trips with an electronic instrument that resolves the time interval between selected echoes to 0.1 microsec. Sensors have been operated at rotational speeds over 2000 rpm and in noisy environments. Temperature profiling of up to ten regions using only a single guided path or beam has also been accomplished.

  1. Ultrasonic sensing of powder densification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Yichi; Wadley, Haydn N. G.; Parthasarathi, Sanjai

    1992-01-01

    An independent scattering theory has been applied to the interpretation of ultrasonic velocity measurements made on porous metal samples produced either by a cold or a high-temperature compaction process. The results suggest that the pores in both processes are not spherical, an aspect ration of 1:3 fitting best with the data for low (less than 4 percent) pore volume fractions. For the hot compacted powders, the pores are smooth due to active diffusional processes during processing. For these types of voids, the results can be extended to a pore fraction of 10 percent, at which point voids form an interconnected network that violates the model assumptions. The cold pressed samples are not as well predicted by the theory because of poor particle bonding.

  2. Ultrasonic assessment of tooth structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blodgett, David W.

    2002-06-01

    A means of assessing the internal structure of teeth based upon use of high frequency, highly localized ultrasound (acoustic waves) generated by a short laser pulse is discussed. Some key advantages of laser-generated ultrasound over more traditional contact transducer methods are that it is noncontact and nondestructive in nature and requires no special surface preparation. Optical interferometric detection of ultrasound provides a complementary nondestructive, noncontact technique with a very small detection footprint. This combination of techniques, termed laser-based ultrasonics, holds promise for future in-vivo diagnostics of tooth health. In this paper, initial results using laser-based ultrasound for assessment of dental structures are presented on an extracted human incisor. Results show the technique to be sensitive to the enamel/dentin, dentin/pulp, and dentin/cementum junctions as well as a region of dead tracts in the dentin.

  3. Ultrasonic flowmetering with reflected pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyle, D. C.; Glicksman, L. R.; Peterson, C. R.

    1984-09-01

    Consolidated Edison of New York City has expressed the need for a new gasmeter for accurately monitoring large diameter interdistrict gas transmission lines for loss due to theft or leakage. A research effort aimed at developing a new flowmeter for Con Edison is described. The new flowmeter uses ultrasonic flowmetering technology in a novel way to meet Con Edison's four major design specifications: the flowmeter should be accurate to 0.5 percent of totalized flow over one year, it should be much simpler to install than a conventional flowmeter, essentially meaning that excavation be limited to that necessary to expose the upper surface of a buried main; its installation must not require service shutdown; and, the flowmeter should not require zero-flow calibration once installed in the gas main.

  4. Ultrasonic cleaning of root canals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhaagen, Bram; Boutsioukis, Christos; Jiang, Lei-Meng; Macedo, Ricardo; van der Sluis, Luc; Versluis, Michel

    2011-11-01

    A crucial step during a dental root canal treatment is irrigation, where an antimicrobial fluid is injected into the root canal system to eradicate all bacteria. Agitation of the fluid using an ultrasonically vibrating miniature file has shown significant improvement in cleaning efficacy over conventional syringe irrigation. However, the physical mechanisms underlying the cleaning process, being acoustic streaming, cavitation or chemical activity, and combinations thereof, are not fully understood. High-speed imaging allows us to visualize the flow pattern and cavitation in a root canal model at microscopic scales, at timescales relevant to the cleaning processes (microseconds). MicroPIV measurements of the induced acoustic streaming are coupled to the oscillation characteristics of the file as simulated numerically and measured with a laser vibrometer. The results give new insight into the role of acoustic streaming and the importance of the confinement for the cleaning of root canals.

  5. Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer arrays as tunable acoustic metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Lani, Shane W. E-mail: karim.sabra@me.gatech.edu Sabra, Karim G.; Wasequr Rashid, M.; Hasler, Jennifer; Levent Degertekin, F.

    2014-02-03

    Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers (CMUTs) operating in immersion support dispersive evanescent waves due to the subwavelength periodic structure of electrostatically actuated membranes in the array. Evanescent wave characteristics also depend on the membrane resonance which is modified by the externally applied bias voltage, offering a mechanism to tune the CMUT array as an acoustic metamaterial. The dispersion and tunability characteristics are examined using a computationally efficient, mutual radiation impedance based approach to model a finite-size array and realistic parameters of variation. The simulations are verified, and tunability is demonstrated by experiments on a linear CMUT array operating in 2-12 MHz range.

  6. Simulation of ultrasonic inspection for sodium cooled reactors using CIVA

    SciTech Connect

    Reverdy, F.; Baque, F.; Lu, B.; Jezzine, K.; Dorval, V.; Augem, J. M.

    2011-07-01

    In-service inspection of sodium fast reactors (SFR) requires the development of non-destructive techniques adapted to the harsh conditions of the environment (opaque and hot) and the complexity of the examination (large and littered reactor block). Ultrasonic techniques are seen as suitable candidates for the inspection of SFRs and two approaches are being followed: inside inspection where transducers are directly immersed in sodium coolant and inspection from outside with transducers positioned along the wall of the main vessel. Probe design and inspection performances can be predicted by using comprehensive models that can take into account the various variables of the problem. These models are explained in this paper. (authors)

  7. The scattering of ultrasonic third sound from substrate surface defects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, E. R.; Reed, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    The interaction of third sound with isolated surface defects is examined. Phase-inverted reflections are observed to occur at surface defects even when the wavelength of the third sound is much greater than the dimensions of the defect. The origin of the scattering mechanism is believed to be due to the change in the helium film thickness in the vicinity of the topological variations introduced by the presence of the surface defects. Data are obtained for ultrasonic frequencies in the 20-200 kHz range.

  8. 2008 ULTRASONIC BENCHMARK STUDIES OF INTERFACE CURVATURE--A SUMMARY

    SciTech Connect

    Schmerr, L. W.; Huang, R.; Raillon, R.; Mahaut, S.; Leymarie, N.; Lonne, S.; Spies, M.; Lupien, V.

    2009-03-03

    In the 2008 QNDE ultrasonic benchmark session researchers from five different institutions around the world examined the influence that the curvature of a cylindrical fluid-solid interface has on the measured NDE immersion pulse-echo response of a flat-bottom hole (FBH) reflector. This was a repeat of a study conducted in the 2007 benchmark to try to determine the sources of differences seen in 2007 between model-based predictions and experiments. Here, we will summarize the results obtained in 2008 and analyze the model-based results and the experiments.

  9. Scanning Ultrasonic Spectroscopy System Developed for the Inspection of Composite Flywheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Richard E.; Baaklini, George Y.

    2002-01-01

    Composite flywheels are being considered as replacements for chemical batteries aboard the International Space Station. A flywheel stores energy in a spinning mass that can turn a generator to meet power demands. Because of the high rotational speeds of the spinning mass, extensive testing of the flywheel system must be performed prior to flight certification. With this goal in mind, a new scanning system has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center for the nondestructive inspection of composite flywheels and flywheel subcomponents. The system uses ultrasonic waves to excite a material and examines the response to detect and locate flaws and material variations. The ultrasonic spectroscopy system uses a transducer to send swept-frequency ultrasonic waves into a test material and then receives the returning signal with a second transducer. The received signal is then analyzed in the frequency domain using a fast Fourier transform. A second fast Fourier transform is performed to examine the spacing of the peaks in the frequency domain. The spacing of the peaks is related to the standing wave resonances that are present in the material because of the constructive and destructive interferences of the waves in the full material thickness as well as in individual layers within the material. Material variations and flaws are then identified by changes in the amplitudes and positions of the peaks in both the frequency and resonance spacing domains. This work, conducted under a grant through the Cleveland State University, extends the capabilities of an existing point-by-point ultrasonic spectroscopy system, thus allowing full-field automated inspection. Results of an ultrasonic spectroscopy scan of a plastic cylinder with intentionally seeded flaws. The result of an ultrasonic spectroscopy scan of a plastic cylinder used as a proof-of-concept specimen is shown. The cylinder contains a number of flat bottomed holes of various sizes and shapes. The scanning system

  10. Ultrasonic Histotripsy for Tissue Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahk, K. J.; Dhar, D. K.; Malago, M.; Saffari, N.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation has been considered and investigated as a promising and alternative method to liver transplantation for treating liver-based metabolic disorder in newborns over the past two decades. Although some clinical trials have been conducted and shown clinical benefits and outcomes, it is difficult to deliver and achieve a desired level of integration and transplantation of hepatocytes in the liver parenchyma. To overcome this problem, this work introduces an alternative method to a portal-infused-hepatocyte cell transplantation. To improve the level of engraftment of transplantable hepatocytes, these are injected directly into cavities generated by ultrasonic histotripsy. Histotripsy is an extracorporeal noninvasive technique which has been recently developed using high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for inducing tissue fractionation with no coagulative necrosis. The exact mechanisms for the tissue fractionation are not well understood yet; but the possible mechanisms are thought to be a combination of nonlinear wave propagation effect, explosive bubble growth and ultrasonic atomization. The main objectives of this work are to demonstrate the feasibility of this new cell therapy and evaluate and distinguish between the different types of cavitation activity for either a thermally or a mechanically induced lesion. In the present work, numerical studies on the bubble dynamics (the Gilmore-Akulichev bubble model coupled with the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov equation) and both ex- and in vivo liver experiments are conducted with histological analysis (haematoxylin and eosin stain). The numerical and the experimental results suggest that (a) the acoustic emissions emitted during the thermal ablation and the histotripsy exposure can be distinguished both numerically and experimentally and (b) the proposed cell therapy may potentially form an effective and safe clinical treatment for replacing and correcting disordered hepatocytes, although the

  11. Engineering task plan for the ultrasonic inspection of hanford double-shell tanks

    SciTech Connect

    LYSHER, R.W.

    1999-06-23

    This document facilitates the ultrasonic examination of Hanford Double-Shell Tanks. Included are a plan for engineering activities (individual responsibilities), plan for performance demonstration testing, and a plan for field activities (tank inspection). Also included are a Statement of Work (SOW) for contractor performance of the work and a protocol to be followed should tank flaws that exceed the acceptances criteria be discovered.

  12. Engineering Task Plan for the Ultrasonic Inspection of Hanford Double Shell Tanks (DST) FY2000

    SciTech Connect

    JENSEN, C.E.

    2000-01-10

    This document facilitates the ultrasonic examination of Hanford double-shell tanks. Included are a plan for engineering activities (individual responsibilities), plan for performance demonstration testing, and a plan for field activities (tank inspection). Also included are a Statement of Work for contractor performance of the work and a protocol to be followed should tank flaws that exceed the acceptance criteria be discovered.

  13. Engineering Task Plan for the Ultrasonic Inspection of Hanford Double-Shell Tanks - FY 2001

    SciTech Connect

    JENSEN, C.E.

    2000-10-12

    This document facilitates the ultrasonic examination of Hanford double-shell tanks. Included are a plan for engineering activities, plan for performance demonstration testing, and a plan for field activities. Also included are a Statement of Work for contractor performance and a protocol to be followed should tank flaws that exceed the acceptance criteria are found.

  14. Dynamic assessment of the focal hepatic lesion in rats using ultrasonic contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Deng, Youbin; Huang, Daozhong; Zhang, Qingping

    2006-01-01

    The focal hepatic lesion caused by local injection of absolute alcohol in rats was evaluated with ultrasonic contrast agent and pathologic examination. Twenty adult Wistar rats weighing about 200 g were injected with absolute alcohol (0.05-0.1 mL each one) on the exterior left lobe of the liver under the monitoring of ultrasound. Pulse inversion harmonic imaging was used to evaluate the focal lesion after bolus injection of ultrasonic contrast agent (0.05 mL/200 g) through caudal vein. Seven days later, the focal lesion was studied again as before. The exterior left lobe of liver with focal lesion was incised and underwent pathologic examination. The results showed that all of the focal lesions could be defined clearly after bolus injection of the ultrasonic contrast agent under the mode of pulse inversion harmonic imaging. There was good correlation between the size of the focal lesion measured by ultrasound on the 7th day after the "ablation" under the mode of pulse inversion harmonic imaging and that gotten by pathologic examination (P = 0.39). The focus size measured by ultrasound right after the ablation was larger than that gotten by pathologic examination (P = 0.002). It was concluded that ultrasonic contrast agent plus pulse inversion harmonic imaging could be used to assess the size of the focal hepatic lesion caused by local injection of absolute alcohol in rats. PMID:16961285

  15. Ultrasonics used to measure residual stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    Ultrasonic method is used to measure residual stress in metal structures. By using this method, various forms of wave propagation in metals are possible, and more thorough analysis of complex geometric structures may be had.

  16. Ultrasonic propagation in gases at high temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carey, C.; Carnevale, E. H.; Lynworth, L. C.; Uva, S.

    1970-01-01

    Ultrasonic pulse method /1 to 3 MHz/ measures both sound speed and absorption in monatomic and polyatomic gases in a temperature range of 300 to 20000 degrees K at atmospheric pressure. Helium, nitrogen, oxygen, and argon are investigated.

  17. Ultrasonically-assisted Thermal Stir Welding System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A welding head assembly has a work piece disposed between its containment plates' opposing surfaces with the work piece being maintained in a plastic state thereof at least in a vicinity of the welding head assembly's stir rod as the rod is rotated about its longitudinal axis. The welding head assembly and the work piece experience relative movement there between in a direction perpendicular to the rod's longitudinal axis as the work piece is subjected to a compressive force applied by the containment plates. A first source coupled to the first containment plate applies a first ultrasonic wave thereto such that the first ultrasonic wave propagates parallel to the direction of relative movement. A second source coupled to the second containment plate applies a second ultrasonic wave thereto such that the second ultrasonic wave propagates parallel to the direction of relative movement.propagates parallel to the direction of relative movement.

  18. Tailoring ultrasonic beams with optoacoustic holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Alex; Gspan, Stefan J.; Bernet, Stefan; Ritsch-Marte, Monika

    2003-06-01

    A combination of laser-induced ultrasound generation and ultrasonic holography for spatial control of the generated ultrasonic pulse is presented. Ultrasound is produced by absorption of laser pulses at an absorbing layer in a water tank via the optoacoustic effect. In order to produce a defined ultrasonic frequency in the MHz range, the laser pulses are harmonically time-modulated using an acousto-optic modulator (AOM). Additionally, the laser intensity is spatially controlled. This is realized with a high resolution liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LCD). A computer generated pattern is displayed at the LCD and projected by the expanded laser beam to an absorptive layer in the water tank. As a result, the emitted ultrasonic wave emerges in a predetermined way, which is an acoustical analogue to the effect of a "diffractive optical element" in laser optics. The flexible method of optical ultrasound generation and diffractive steering promises new applications in medical and technical ultrasound diagnostics.

  19. Continuous flow measurements using fixed ultrasonic meters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oltmann, Rick

    1993-01-01

    USGS has or soon will be installing four continuous flow-monitoring stations in the delta that will use ultrasonic velocity meters (DVM). Funding for the stations has been provided by USGS, DWR, USBR, and Contra Costa Water District.

  20. Ultrasonic temperature measurements with fiber optic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Siwen; Wu, Nan; Zhou, Jingcheng; Ma, Tong; Liu, Yuqian; Cao, Chengyu; Wang, Xingwei

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasonic temperature measurements have been developed and widely applied in non-contact temperature tests in many industries. However, using optical fibers to build ultrasound generators are novel. This paper reports this new fiber optic ultrasonic system based on the generator of gold nanoparticles/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composites. The optical acoustic system was designed to test the change of temperature on the aluminum plate and the temperature of the torch in the air. This paper explores the relationship between the ultrasonic transmission and the change of temperature. From the experimental results, the trend of ultrasonic speed was different in the aluminum plate and air with the change of temperature. Since the system can measure the average temperature of the transmission path, it will have significant influence on simulating the temperature distribution.

  1. New pressure cell for ultrasonic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepa, Michal; Huxley, Andrew; Kamenev, Konstantin

    2013-06-01

    Ultrasonic interferometry at high pressure remains a technical challenge as the small sample space requires the application of very high-frequency ultrasound. Here we present the design of a new cell developed specifically for ultrasonic measurements of single crystals at low temperatures (2K) and high pressures (5GPa). The design allows greater sample space (compared to a conventional diamond anvil cell) and simultaneous measurement of ultrasonic attenuation and velocities. Coupling the fine transducers to spherical sapphire anvils reduces background and enables different polarizations of the ultrasonic wave to be measured at the same pressure and temperature conditions. The results are used to deduce the elastic, electronic and magnetic properties of a crystal. The finite element analysis of the cell together with the pressure calibration curves and test data taken on UGe2 are presented.

  2. Semiconductor measurement technology: Microelectronic ultrasonic bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harman, G. G. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    Information for making high quality ultrasonic wire bonds is presented as well as data to provide a basic understanding of the ultrasonic systems used. The work emphasizes problems and methods of solving them. The required measurement equipment is first introduced. This is followed by procedures and techniques used in setting up a bonding machine, and then various machine- or operator-induced reliability problems are discussed. The characterization of the ultrasonic system and its problems are followed by in-process bonding studies and work on the ultrasonic bonding (welding) mechanism. The report concludes with a discussion of various effects of bond geometry and wire metallurgical characteristics. Where appropriate, the latest, most accurate value of a particular measurement has been substituted for an earlier reported one.

  3. Some Recent Advances of Ultrasonic Diagnostic Methods Applied to Materials and Structures (Including Biological Ones)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobile, Lucio; Nobile, Stefano

    This paper gives an overview of some recent advances of ultrasonic methods applied to materials and structures (including biological ones), exploring typical applications of these emerging inspection technologies to civil engineering and medicine. In confirmation of this trend, some results of an experimental research carried out involving both destructive and non-destructive testing methods for the evaluation of structural performance of existing reinforced concrete (RC) structures are discussed in terms of reliability. As a result, Ultrasonic testing can usefully supplement coring thus permitting less expensive and more representative evaluation of the concrete strength throughout the whole structure under examination.

  4. Coating thickness and elastic modulus measurement using ultrasonic bulk wave resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, S.; Lanyon, B.; Rowlands, G.

    2006-04-03

    Measurement of the resonant through thickness ultrasonic modes of a homogeneous plate using a fast Fourier transform of the temporal data can be used to calculate plate thickness very accurately. We describe an extension of this principle to two-layer systems, examining a thin coating on a substrate of known properties. The resonant behavior of these systems is predicted and we explain how this approach is used to measure coating thickness and elastic modulus. Noncontact electromagnetic acoustic transducers are used for ultrasonic measurement, as they do not significantly affect the resonant response of the system, unlike alternative contact transducers.

  5. Noncontact atomization of droplets using an aerial ultrasonic source with two vibrating plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Arisa; Yanagimoto, Miduki; Asami, Takuya; Miura, Hikaru

    2015-07-01

    For use in mass spectrometry, we investigated the noncontact atomization of droplets using a rectangular transverse vibrating plate ultrasonic source. To determine the atomization properties of the ultrasonic source, we examined the sound pressure distribution of the standing wave acoustic field formed and observed the behavior of the atomized particles in the acoustic field. We determined the relationship between sound pressure and the conditions and location where atomization occurs with the variations in droplet surface tension and viscosity using three different compounds: water, ethanol, and glycerin. Furthermore, we clarifies the distribution of particle diameters in atomized water.

  6. Ultrasonic intensification as a tool for enhanced microbial biofuel yields.

    PubMed

    Naveena, Balakrishnan; Armshaw, Patricia; Tony Pembroke, J

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonication has recently received attention as a novel bioprocessing tool for process intensification in many areas of downstream processing. Ultrasonic intensification (periodic ultrasonic treatment during the fermentation process) can result in a more effective homogenization of biomass and faster energy and mass transfer to biomass over short time periods which can result in enhanced microbial growth. Ultrasonic intensification can allow the rapid selective extraction of specific biomass components and can enhance product yields which can be of economic benefit. This review focuses on the role of ultrasonication in the extraction and yield enhancement of compounds from various microbial sources, specifically algal and cyanobacterial biomass with a focus on the production of biofuels. The operating principles associated with the process of ultrasonication and the influence of various operating conditions including ultrasonic frequency, power intensity, ultrasonic duration, reactor designs and kinetics applied for ultrasonic intensification are also described. PMID:26379772

  7. Binding sites for two novel phosphoproteins, 3AF5 and 3AF3, are required for rbcS-3A expression.

    PubMed Central

    Sarokin, L P; Chua, N H

    1992-01-01

    Previous studies of boxes II (-151 to -138) and III (-125 to -114), binding sites for the nuclear factor GT-1 within the -166 deleted promoter of the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-3A (rbcS-3A) gene, suggested that GT-1 might act in concert with an additional protein to confer light-responsive rbcS-3A expression. In this work, S1 analysis of RNA isolated from transgenic tobacco plants carrying mutant rbcS-3A constructs led to the identification of two short sequences located at the 5' and 3' ends of box III that are required for expression. These two sequences serve as binding sites for two novel proteins, 3AF5 and 3AF3. Gel shift studies using tetramerized binding sites for both 3AF5 and 3AF3 showed that complexes with faster mobilities were formed using nuclear extracts prepared from dark-adapted plants compared with those from light-grown tobacco plants. Phosphatase treatment of extracts from light-grown plants resulted in the formation of complexes with faster mobility. Although the binding of 3AF3 to its target site is dependent upon phosphorylation, the binding of 3AF5 does not appear to be affected by its phosphorylation state. These results suggest that the phosphorylated forms of both 3AF5 and 3AF3 are required for -166 rbcS-3A expression but that the mechanisms differ by which phosphorylation regulates the activities of 3AF5 and 3AF3. PMID:1498605

  8. Thermography And Ultrasonics Find Flaws In Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Gary L.; Zalameda, Joseph N.; Smith, Barry T.; Winfree, William P.

    1993-01-01

    Flaws first located in infrared imagery, then probed ultrasonically to reveal details. Thermographic and ultrasonic techniques, applied sequentially, constitute basis of developmental method of nondestructive inspection of structures made of lightweight composite materials like carbon-fiber/epoxy-matrix laminates. Method enables rapid detection and evaluation of damage and other flaws in composite structures. Does not require access to both sides of structure to be inspected.

  9. Method of ultrasonic measurement of texture

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, R. Bruce; Smith, John F.; Lee, Seung S.; Li, Yan

    1993-10-12

    A method for measuring texture of metal plates or sheets using non-destructive ultrasonic investigation includes measuring the velocity of ultrasonic energy waves in lower order plate modes in one or more directions, and measuring phase velocity dispersion of higher order modes of the plate or sheet if needed. Texture or preferred grain orientation can be derived from these measurements with improves reliability and accuracy. The method can be utilized in production on moving metal plate or sheet.

  10. Method of ultrasonic measurement of texture

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, R.B.; Smith, J.F.; Lee, S.S.; Taejon Ch'ungmam; Yan Li.

    1993-10-12

    A method for measuring texture of metal plates or sheets using non-destructive ultrasonic investigation includes measuring the velocity of ultrasonic energy waves in lower order plate modes in one or more directions, and measuring phase velocity dispersion of higher order modes of the plate or sheet if needed. Texture or preferred grain orientation can be derived from these measurements with improves reliability and accuracy. The method can be utilized in production on moving metal plate or sheet. 9 figures.

  11. General relationships between ultrasonic attenuation and dispersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odonnell, M.; Jaynes, E. T.; Miller, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    General relationships between the ultrasonic attenuation and dispersion are presented. The validity of these nonlocal relationships hinges only on the properties of causality and linearity, and does not depend upon details of the mechanism responsible for the attenuation and dispersion. Approximate, nearly local relationships are presented and are demonstrated to predict accurately the ultrasonic dispersion in solutions of hemoglobin from the results of attenuation measurements.

  12. Ultrasonic sensor and method of use

    DOEpatents

    Condreva, Kenneth J.

    2001-01-01

    An ultrasonic sensor system and method of use for measuring transit time though a liquid sample, using one ultrasonic transducer coupled to a precision time interval counter. The timing circuit captures changes in transit time, representing small changes in the velocity of sound transmitted, over necessarily small time intervals (nanoseconds) and uses the transit time changes to identify the presence of non-conforming constituents in the sample.

  13. Ultrasonic fluid densitometer for process control

    DOEpatents

    Greenwood, Margaret S.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses at least one pair of transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within a material wedge. A temperature sensor is provided to monitor the temperature of the wedge material. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface and comparing a transducer voltage and wedge material temperature to a tabulation as a function of density.

  14. Ultrasonic Sensor and Method of use

    SciTech Connect

    Condreva, Kenneth J.

    1999-07-22

    An ultrasonic sensor system and method of use for measuring transit time through a liquid sample, comprising at least one ultrasonic transducer coupled to a precision time interval counter. The timing circuit captures changes in transit time, representing small changes in the velocity of sound transmitted, over necessarily small time intervals (nanoseconds) and uses the transit time changes to identify the presence of non-conforming constituents in the sample.

  15. Ultrasonic flow measurements for irrigation process monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziani, Elmostafa; Bennouna, Mustapha; Boissier, Raymond

    2004-02-01

    This paper presents the state of the art of the general principle of liquid flow measurements by ultrasonic method, and problems of flow measurements. We present an ultrasonic flowmeter designed according to smart sensors concept, for the measurement of irrigation water flowing through pipelines or open channels, using the ultrasonic transit time approach. The new flowmeter works on the principle of measuring time delay differences between sound pulses transmitted upstream and downstream in the flowing liquid. The speed of sound in the flowing medium is eliminated as a variable because the flowrate calculations are based on the reciprocals of the transmission times. The transit time difference is digitally measured by means of a suitable, microprocessor controlled logic. This type of ultrasonic flowmeter will be widely used in industry and water management, it is well studied in this work, followed by some experimental results. For pressurized channels, we use one pair of ultrasonic transducer arranged in proper positions and directions of the pipe, in this case, to determine the liquid velocity, a real time on-line analysis taking account the geometries of the hydraulic system, is applied to the obtained ultrasonic data. In the open channels, we use a single or two pairs of ultrasonic emitter-receiver according to the desired performances. Finally, the goals of this work consist in integrating the smart sensor into irrigation systems monitoring in order to evaluate potential advantages and demonstrate their performance, on the other hand, to understand and use ultrasonic approach for determining flow characteristics and improving flow measurements by reducing errors caused by disturbances of the flow profiles.

  16. Improvement of ultrasonic characteristics in butt-welded joint of austenitic stainless steel using magnetic stirring method

    SciTech Connect

    Tanosaki, M.; Yoshikawa, K.; Arakawa, T.

    1995-08-01

    Magnetic Stirring Method of Tungsten Inert Gas(TIG) Welding are applied to butt-welded joint of austenitic stainless steel. The purpose of this method is to refine the welded structure and to improve the ultrasonic characteristics. In the conventional method of ultrasonic test in austenitic stainless steel weldments, dendritic solidification structure of weldment prevents smooth ultrasonic beam transmission. The tests are performed in three welding conditions; One is conventional TIG welding (without magnetic stirring), the other two are TIG welding using magnetic stirring method. Each test piece is evaluated by observing macro structure of cross section and by several ultrasonic tests examining pulse amplitudes, beam path length and proceeding beam direction. The detectability of artificial notches in weldment is also investigated and compared.

  17. COMPARATIVE IN VITROSTUDY OF ROOT ROUGHNESS AFTER INSTRUMENTATION WITH ULTRASONIC AND DIAMOND TIP SONIC SCALER

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Fernanda Vieira; Casarin, Renato Correa Viana; Nociti, Francisco Humberto; Sallum, Enilson Antônio; Sallum, Antonio Wilson; Casati, Márcio Zaffalon

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the root surface roughness after instrumentation with hand curette and diamond-coated sonic and universal ultrasonic tips. Materials and Methods: Forty root surfaces of human teeth were randomly assigned to four treatment groups: control group (without instrumentation), curette instrumentation, ultrasonic instrumentation with universal tip and sonic instrumentation with diamond-coated tip. Each sample was instrumented with fifteen strokes. Before and after instrumentation, surface roughness was measured. In addition, the root surface topography was examined after treatment under the scanning electron microscope. Results: Significant statistical differences (p<0.05) were observed when comparing the control group (0.48±0.07mm) to the treated groups (hand - 1.246±0.279mm, ultrasonic - 1.468±0.177mm and sonic instrumentation - 1.576±0.20mm). The highest roughness was produced by diamond-coated sonic tip and by ultrasonic universal tip (p>0.05). Conclusion: The diamond-coated tip with sonic scaler instrumentation and ultrasonic instrumentation produce similar root surface roughness, higher than curette instrumentation. PMID:19089043

  18. Experience-dependent overrepresentation of ultrasonic vocalization frequencies in the rat primary auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Heesoo

    2013-01-01

    Cortical sensory representation is highly adaptive to the environment, and prevalent or behaviorally important stimuli are often overrepresented. One class of such stimuli is species-specific vocalizations. Rats vocalize in the ultrasonic range >30 kHz, but cortical representation of this frequency range has not been systematically examined. We recorded in vivo cortical electrophysiological responses to ultrasonic pure-tone pips, natural ultrasonic vocalizations, and pitch-shifted vocalizations to assess how rats represent this ethologically relevant frequency range. We find that nearly 40% of the primary auditory cortex (AI) represents an octave-wide band of ultrasonic vocalization frequencies (UVFs; 32–64 kHz) compared with <20% for other octave bands <32 kHz. These UVF neurons respond preferentially and reliably to ultrasonic vocalizations. The UVF overrepresentation matures in the cortex before it develops in the central nucleus of inferior colliculus, suggesting a cortical origin and corticofugal influences. Furthermore, the development of cortical UVF overrepresentation depends on early acoustic experience. These results indicate that natural sensory experience causes large-scale cortical map reorganization and improves representations of species-specific vocalizations. PMID:23741037

  19. Three-dimensional shape construction of pulsatile tissue from ultrasonic movies for assistance of clinical diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuzawa, Masayuki; Kawaguchi, Hikari; Yamada, Masayoshi; Nakamori, Nobuyuki; Kitsunezuka, Yoshiki

    2010-02-01

    Three-dimensional shape of pulsatile tissue due to blood flow, which is one of key diagnostic features in ischemia, has been constructed from 2D ultrasonic movies for assisting clinical diagnosis. The 2D ultrasonic movies (640x480pixels/frame, 8bits/pixel, 33ms/frame) were taken with a conventional ultrasonic apparatus and an ultrasonic probe, while measuring the probe orientations with a compact tilt-sensor. The 2D images of pulsatile strength were obtained from each 2D ultrasonic movie by evaluating a heartbeat-frequency component calculated by Fourier transform of a series of pixel values sampled at each pixel. The 2D pulsatile images were projected into a 3D domain to obtain a 3D grid of pulsatile strength according to the probe orientations. The 3D shape of pulsatile tissue was constructed by determining the iso-surfaces of appropriate strength in the 3D grid. The shapes of pulsatile tissue examined in neonatal crania clearly represented the 3D structures of several arteries such as middle cerebral artery, which is useful for diagnosis of ischemic diseases. Since our technique is based on feature extraction in tissue dynamics, it is also useful for homogeneous tissue, for which conventional 3D ultrasonogram is unsuitable due to unclear tissue boundary.

  20. Beyond Cervical Length: A Pilot Study of Ultrasonic Attenuation for Early Detection of Preterm Birth Risk.

    PubMed

    McFarlin, Barbara L; Kumar, Viksit; Bigelow, Timothy A; Simpson, Douglas G; White-Traut, Rosemary C; Abramowicz, Jacques S; O'Brien, William D

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether cervical ultrasonic attenuation could identify women at risk of spontaneous preterm birth. During pregnancy, women (n = 67) underwent from one to five transvaginal ultrasonic examinations to estimate cervical ultrasonic attenuation and cervical length. Ultrasonic data were obtained with a Zonare ultrasound system with a 5- to 9-MHz endovaginal transducer and processed offline. Cervical ultrasonic attenuation was lower at 17-21 wk of gestation in the SPTB group (1.02 dB/cm-MHz) than in the full-term birth groups (1.34 dB/cm-MHz) (p = 0.04). Cervical length was shorter (3.16 cm) at 22-26 wk in the SPTB group than in the women delivering full term (3.68 cm) (p = 0.004); cervical attenuation was not significantly different at this time point. These findings suggest that low attenuation may be an additional early cervical marker to identify women at risk for SPTB. PMID:26259887

  1. Low Frequency Ultrasonication of Degussa P25 TiO2 and Its Superior Photocatalytic Properties.

    PubMed

    Vijayarangamuthu, K; Han, EunJi; Jeon, Ki-Joon

    2016-05-01

    We report the simple and effective method for enhancing the photocatalytic properties of Degussa P25 TiO2 by low frequency ultrasonication. The improvement in the crystallinity of ultrasonicated TiO2 was confirmed by the X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy studies. Further, the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was utilized to study the changes in chemical nature and band edge due to the effect of ultrasonication and H2O2 solvent. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used to analysis the surface distortion. The Moire fringes in TEM were examined to understand the partial transformation of amorphous to crystalline anatase structure and overlapping of rutile over anatase crystal. The photocatalytic results indicated improvement in the degradation of methylene blue dye. The degradation efficiency was estimated to be 86% for ultrasonicated TiO2, which is higher as compared to 40% of P25. The rate constant values revealed four times superior degradation property of ultrasonicated TiO2. The improvement in the photocatalytic efficiency was correlated to the formation of rutile/anatase TiO2 aggregation and its consequences on electron-hole recombination. PMID:27483763

  2. Measuring bovine mammary gland blood flow using a transit time ultrasonic flow probe.

    PubMed

    Gorewit, R C; Aromando, M C; Bristol, D G

    1989-07-01

    Lactating cattle were used to validate a transit time ultrasonic blood flow metering system for measuring mammary gland arterial blood flow. Blood flow probes were surgically placed around the right external pudic artery. An electromagnetic flow probe was implanted in tandem with the ultrasonic probe in two cows for comparative measurements. The absolute accuracy of the implanted flow probes was assessed in vivo by mechanical means on anesthetized cows after 2 to 3 wk of implantation. The zero offset of the ultrasonic probes ranged from -12 to 8 ml/min. When the ultrasonic probe was properly implanted, the slopes of the calibration curves were linear and ranged from .92 to .95, tracking absolute flow to within 8%. The transit time instrument's performance was examined under a variety of physiological conditions. These included milking and hormone injections. The transit time ultrasonic flow meter accurately measured physiological changes in mammary arterial blood flow in chronically prepared conscious cattle. Blood flow increased 29% during milking. Epinephrine decreased mammary blood flow by 90 to 95%. Oxytocin doses increased mammary blood flow by 15 to 24%. PMID:2674232

  3. Two-step biodiesel production from crude Jatropha curcas L. oil using ultrasonic irradiation assisted.

    PubMed

    Worapun, Ittipon; Pianthong, Kulachate; Thaiyasuit, Prachasanti

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of crude Jatropha curcas L. oil (CJCO) as raw material to produce biodiesel under low-frequency ultrasonic irradiation (40 kHz) assisted is examined. A two-step transesterification process (acid catalyzed esterification followed by alkaline catalyzed transesterification) is employed to produce biodiesel. In the first step, the high level of free fatty acid (FFA), 12.5%, of CJCO is successfully reduced to less than 3% by acid catalyzed esterification with 15% w/w methanol to oil ratio, catalyst concentration 3.0% w/w, ultrasonic irradiation time 20 min at under reaction temperature 30°C, which are selected as optimum conditions for the acid catalyzed esterification. Then, the second step, alkaline catalyzed transesterification is carried out as methanol to oil ratio 15% w/w, catalyst concentration 1% w/w, reaction temperature 30°C and ultrasonic irradiation time 30 min. This results to high percentage of conversion to biodiesel about 98%. Comparing the results obtained under the ultrasonic irradiation in this study with those under conventional stirring conditions, ultrasonic irradiation technique significantly illustrated the higher efficiency than the conventional method, especially for the high FFA oil. PMID:22450117

  4. Ultrasonic techniques for aircraft ice accretion measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. John, Jr.; Kirby, Mark S.; Lichtenfelts, Fred

    1990-01-01

    Results of tests to measure ice growth in natural (flight) and artificial (icing wind tunnel) icing conditions are presented. Ice thickness is measured using an ultrasonic pulse-echo technique. Two icing regimes, wet and dry ice growth, are identified and the unique ultrasonic signal characteristics associated with these different types of ice growth are described. Ultrasonic measurements of ice growth on cylinders and airfoils exposed to artificial and natural icing conditions are presented. An accuracy of plus or minus 0.5 mm is achieved for ice thickness measurement using the pulse-echo technique. The performance of two-probe type ice detectors is compared to the surface mounted ultrasonic system. The ultrasonically measured ice accretion rates and ice surface condition (wet or dry) are used to compare the heat transfer characteristics for flight and icing wind tunnel environments. In general the heat transfer coefficient is inferred to be higher in the wind tunnel environment, not likely due to higher freestream turbulence levels. Finally, preliminary results of tests to measure ice growth on airfoil using an array of ultrasonic transducers are described. Ice profiles obtained during flight in natural icing conditions are shown and compared with mechanical and stereo image measurements.

  5. Ultrasonic imaging techniques for breast cancer detection.

    SciTech Connect

    Goulding, N. R.; Marquez, J. D.; Prewett, E. M.; Claytor, T. N.; Nadler, B. R.; Huang, L.

    2006-01-01

    Improving the resolution and specificity of current ultrasonic imaging technology can enhance its relevance to detection of early-stage breast cancers. Ultrasonic evaluation of breast lesions is desirable because it is quick, inexpensive, and does not expose the patient to potentially harmful ionizing radiation. Improved image quality and resolution enables earlier detection and more accurate diagnoses of tumors, thus reducing the number of biopsies performed, increasing treatment options, and lowering mortality, morbidity, and remission percentages. In this work, a novel ultrasonic imaging reconstruction method that exploits straight-ray migration is described. This technique, commonly used in seismic imaging, accounts for scattering more accurately than standard ultrasonic approaches, thus providing superior image resolution. A breast phantom with various inclusions is imaged using a pulse-echo approach. The data are processed using the ultrasonic migration method and results are compared to standard linear ultrasound and to x-ray computed tomography (CT) scans. For an ultrasonic frequency of 2.25 MHz, imaged inclusions and features of approximately 1mm are resolved, although better resolution is expected with minor modifications. Refinement of this application using other imaging techniques such as time-reversal mirrors (TRM), synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT), decomposition of the time reversal operator (DORT), and factorization methods is also briefly discussed.

  6. A finite element model for ultrasonic cutting.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Margaret; MacBeath, Alan; McCulloch, Euan; Cardoni, Andrea

    2006-12-22

    Using a single-blade ultrasonic cutting device, a study of ultrasonic cutting of three very different materials is conducted using specimens of cheese, polyurethane foam and epoxy resin. Initial finite element models are created, based on the assumption that the ultrasonic blade causes a crack to propagate in a controlled mode 1 opening, and these are validated against experimental data from three point bend fracture tests and ultrasonic cutting experiments on the materials. Subsequently, the finite element model is developed to represent ultrasonic cutting of a multi-layered material. Materials are chosen whose properties allow a model to be developed that could represent a multi-layer food product or biological structure, to enable ultrasonic cutting systems to be designed for applications both in the field of food processing and surgical procedures. The model incorporates an estimation of the friction condition between the cutting blade and the material to be cut and allows adjustment of the frequency, cutting amplitude and cutting speed. PMID:16814351

  7. Absolute calibration technique for broadband ultrasonic transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, John H. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Calibrating an ultrasonic transducer can be performed with a reduced number of calculations and testing. A wide-band pulser is connected to an ultrasonic transducer under test to generate ultrasonic waves in a liquid. A single frequency is transmitted to the electrostatic acoustic transducer (ESAT) and the voltage change produced is monitored. Then a broadband ultrasonic pulse is generated by the ultrasonic transducer and received by the ESAT. The output of the ESAT is amplified and input to a digitized oscilloscope for fast Fourier transform. The resulting plot is normalized with the monitored signal from the single frequency pulse. The plot is then corrected for characteristics of the membrane and diffraction effects. The transfer function of the final plot is determined. The transfer function gives the final sensitivity of the ultrasonic transducer as a function of frequency. The advantage of the system is the speed of calibrating the transducer by a reduced number of measurements and removal of the membrane and diffraction effects.

  8. Role of 20-HETE in the impaired myogenic and TGF responses of the Af-Art of Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    PubMed

    Ge, Ying; Murphy, Sydney R; Fan, Fan; Williams, Jan Michael; Falck, John R; Liu, Ruisheng; Roman, Richard J

    2014-09-01

    The present study examined whether 20-HETE production is reduced in the renal vasculature and whether this impairs myogenic or tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) responses of the afferent arteriole (Af-Art). The production of 20-HETE was 73% lower in renal microvessels of Dahl salt-sensitive rats (SS) rats than in SS.5(BN) rats, in which chromosome 5 from the Brown Norway (BN) rat containing the CYP4A genes was transferred into the SS genetic background. The luminal diameter of the Af-Art decreased by 14.7 ± 1.5% in SS.5(BN) rats when the perfusion pressure was increased from 60 to 120 mmHg, but it remained unaltered in SS rats. Administration of an adenosine type 1 receptor agonist (CCPA, 1 μM) reduced the diameter of the Af-Art in the SS.5(BN) rats by 44 ± 2%, whereas the diameter of the Af-Art of SS rats was unaltered. Autoregulation of renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular capillary pressure (PGC) was significantly impaired in SS rats but was intact in SS.5(BN) rats. Administration of a 20-HETE synthesis inhibitor, HET0016 (1 μM), completely blocked the myogenic and adenosine responses in the Af-Art and autoregulation of RBF and PGC in SS.5(BN) rats, but it had no effect in SS rats. These data indicate that a deficiency in the formation of 20-HETE in renal microvessels impairs the reactivity of the Af-Art of SS rats and likely contributes to the development of hypertension induced renal injury. PMID:25007877

  9. Sensitivity Distribution Properties of a Phase-Shifted Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor to Ultrasonic Waves

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qi; Okabe, Yoji; Saito, Kazuya; Yu, Fengming

    2014-01-01

    In this research, the sensitivity distribution properties of a phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating (PS-FBG) to ultrasonic waves were investigated employing the surface attachment method. A careful consideration was taken and examined by experimental results to explain that the distances and angles between the sensor and ultrasonic source influence not only the amplitudes, but also the initial phases, waveforms, and spectra of detected signals. Furthermore, factors, including the attachment method and the material's geometric dimensions, were also discussed. Although these results were obtained based on PS-FBG, they are also applicable to a normal FBG sensor or even an optical fiber sensor, due to the identical physical changes induced by ultrasonic waves in all three. Thus, these results are useful for applications of optical fiber sensors in non-destructive testing and structural health monitoring. PMID:24412903

  10. Towards multifocal ultrasonic neural stimulation II: design considerations for an acoustic retinal prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naor, Omer; Hertzberg, Yoni; Zemel, Esther; Kimmel, Eitan; Shoham, Shy

    2012-04-01

    Ultrasound waves, widely used as a non-invasive diagnostic modality, were recently shown to stimulate neuronal activity. Functionally meaningful stimulation, as is required in order to form a unified percept, requires the dynamic generation of simultaneous stimulation patterns. In this paper, we examine the general feasibility and properties of an acoustic retinal prosthesis, a new vision restoration strategy that will combine ultrasonic neuro-stimulation and ultrasonic field sculpting technology towards non-invasive artificial stimulation of surviving neurons in a degenerating retina. We explain the conceptual framework for such a device, study its feasibility in an in vivo ultrasonic retinal stimulation study and discuss the associated design considerations and tradeoffs. Finally, we simulate and experimentally validate a new holographic method—the angular spectrum-GSW—for efficient generation of uniform and accurate continuous ultrasound patterns. This method provides a powerful, flexible solution to the problem of projecting complex acoustic images onto structures like the retina.

  11. Sensitivity distribution properties of a phase-shifted fiber bragg grating sensor to ultrasonic waves.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qi; Okabe, Yoji; Saito, Kazuya; Yu, Fengming

    2014-01-01

    In this research, the sensitivity distribution properties of a phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating (PS-FBG) to ultrasonic waves were investigated employing the surface attachment method. A careful consideration was taken and examined by experimental results to explain that the distances and angles between the sensor and ultrasonic source influence not only the amplitudes, but also the initial phases, waveforms, and spectra of detected signals. Furthermore, factors, including the attachment method and the material's geometric dimensions, were also discussed. Although these results were obtained based on PS-FBG, they are also applicable to a normal FBG sensor or even an optical fiber sensor, due to the identical physical changes induced by ultrasonic waves in all three. Thus, these results are useful for applications of optical fiber sensors in non-destructive testing and structural health monitoring. PMID:24412903

  12. Microstructural and Defect Characterization in Ceramic Composites Using an Ultrasonic Guided Wave Scan System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, D. J.; Cosgriff, L. M.; Martin, R. E.; Verrilli, M. J.; Bhatt, R. T.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, an ultrasonic guided wave scan system was used to characterize various microstructural and flaw conditions in two types of ceramic matrix composites, SiC/SiC and C/SiC. Rather than attempting to isolate specific lamb wave modes to use for characterization (as is desired for many types of guided wave inspection problems), the guided wave scan system utilizes the total (multi-mode) ultrasonic response in its inspection analysis. Several time and frequency-domain parameters are calculated from the ultrasonic guided wave signal at each scan location to form images. Microstructural and defect conditions examined include delamination, density variation, cracking, and pre/ post-infiltration. Results are compared with thermographic imaging methods. Although the guided wave technique is commonly used so scanning can be eliminated, applying the technique in the scanning mode allows a more precise characterization of defect conditions.

  13. Time Reversal Beam Focusing of Ultrasonic Array Transducer on a Defect in a Two Layer Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Hyunjo; Lee, Jeong-Sik; Lee, Chung-Hoon

    2010-02-01

    The ability of time reversal techniques to focus ultrasonic beams on the source location is important in many aspects of ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation. In this paper, we investigate the time reversal beam focusing of ultrasonic array sensors on a defect in layered media. Numerical modeling is performed using the commercially available software which employs a time domain finite difference method. Two different time reversal approaches are considered—the through transmission and the pulse-echo. Linear array sensors composed of N elements of line sources are used for signal reception/excitation, time reversal, and reemission in time reversal processes associated with the scattering source of a side-drilled hole located in the second layer of two layer structure. The simulation results demonstrate the time reversal focusing even with multiple reflections from the interface of layered structure. We examine the focusing resolution that is related to the propagation distance, the size of array sensor and the wavelength.

  14. The effects of ultrasonic cleaning on the microstructural characteristics of thermally sprayed coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Blann, G.A.

    1995-12-31

    Accurate microstructural analysis of thermally sprayed coatings is possible only if each step of the preparation process is performed in a careful manner. Various methods are used to evaluate the characteristics of thermally sprayed coatings, but metallographic examination provides the most information about the many different coating characteristics. Any one step that is improperly performed during the metallographic preparation process can potentially produce incorrect coating characterization information. Ultrasonic cleaning of coated samples between preparation steps and after the completion of the entire process is not an accepted practice. The possibility of enlarging existing porosity is a concern due to the ultrasonic action. A study was conducted on five different coating types specifically evaluating the effects of ultrasonic cleaning on each coating. Variations in the coating porosity were quantified using image analysis and photomicrography.

  15. Improved measurement of soil moisture using an ultrasonic waveguide to predict rainfall-induced slope failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Katsuhiko; Hiraoka, Nobutaka; Nakano, Shunya; Kameda, Takuma; Fujimoto, Masamitsu; Fukagawa, Ryoichi

    2015-10-01

    Field monitoring of soil moisture and groundwater level is important to predict shallow slope failure stemming from heavy rainfall. We previously proposed a monitoring technique using ultrasonic waveguides in which soil moisture and groundwater levels are monitored on the basis of the intensity and propagation time of ultrasonic waves reflected from the underground soil surface, respectively. In field monitoring, the reflective intensity depends on the depth of monitoring points and the inhomogeneity of grains, so it has been difficult to examine the reflective intensity change quantitatively. In the present work, we propose improvements that will allow us to measure the intensity change quantitatively. Specifically, we utilize an ultrasonic waveguide of a constant length by using casing pipes with different lengths depending on the monitoring depth and cover the surface of coarse-grained soil with a homogeneous fine soil to obtain repeatable data for wetting and drying cycles. The positive effects of these improvements were confirmed by a field monitoring test.

  16. Towards multifocal ultrasonic neural stimulation II: design considerations for an acoustic retinal prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Naor, Omer; Hertzberg, Yoni; Zemel, Esther; Kimmel, Eitan; Shoham, Shy

    2012-04-01

    Ultrasound waves, widely used as a non-invasive diagnostic modality, were recently shown to stimulate neuronal activity. Functionally meaningful stimulation, as is required in order to form a unified percept, requires the dynamic generation of simultaneous stimulation patterns. In this paper, we examine the general feasibility and properties of an acoustic retinal prosthesis, a new vision restoration strategy that will combine ultrasonic neuro-stimulation and ultrasonic field sculpting technology towards non-invasive artificial stimulation of surviving neurons in a degenerating retina. We explain the conceptual framework for such a device, study its feasibility in an in vivo ultrasonic retinal stimulation study and discuss the associated design considerations and tradeoffs. Finally, we simulate and experimentally validate a new holographic method--the angular spectrum-GSW--for efficient generation of uniform and accurate continuous ultrasound patterns. This method provides a powerful, flexible solution to the problem of projecting complex acoustic images onto structures like the retina. PMID:22326949

  17. Feasibility study using non-contact ultrasonic sensors for assessing reservoir fill state

    SciTech Connect

    Min, S.; Wei-yang Lu

    1995-12-01

    The change out of reservoirs in weapon systems can pose a significant safety threat if the reservoir has inadvertently transferred its contents. While the possibility of this occurring is very remote, the consequence can be extremely severe. There is therefore a need for equipment and procedures to determine the gas containment status before the component is removed from the weapon during normal maintenance procedures. The objective of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility of using ultrasonics to detect a change in stress states of a filled and unfilled reservoir. Electromagnetic-acoustic transducers (EMATs) and laser ultrasonics (LU), two non-contact ultrasonic techniques, were examined. A second approach which measures the changes in modal resonances was also explored. This report summarizes the experimental results from an initial feasibility study aimed at demonstrating the use of acoustics to determine the gas containment status of GTS reservoirs.

  18. Note: Decoupling design for high frequency piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers with their clamping connections

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, F. J. Liang, C. M.; Tian, Y. L.; Zhao, X. Y.; Zhang, D. W.; Zhang, H. J.

    2015-12-15

    This work presents the flexure-mechanism based decoupling design between high frequency piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers and their clamping connections to improve ultrasonic energy transmission efficiency. The ring, prismatic beam, and circular notched hinge based flanges were presented, and the crucial geometric dimensions of the transducers with the flexure decoupling flanges were determined. Finite element analysis (FEA) was carried out to investigate the dynamic characteristics of the transducers. Finally, experiments were conducted to examine and verify the effects of the proposed decoupling flanges. FEA and experimental results show that smaller frequency deviations and larger tip displacement amplitudes have been achieved by using the transducers with the flexure flanges compared with the transducer with a rigid ring-type flange, and thus the ultrasonic transmission efficiency can be improved through the flexure flanges.

  19. The Advancing State of AF-M315E Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masse, Robert; Spores, Ronald A.; McLean, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The culmination of twenty years of applied research in hydroxyl ammonium nitrate (HAN)-based monopropellants, the NASA Space Technology mission Directorate's (STMD) Green Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM) will achieve the first on-orbit demonstration of an operational AF-M315E green propellant propulsion system by the end of 2015. Following an contextual overview of the completed flight design of the GPIM propellant storage and feed system, results of first operation of a flight-representative heavyweight 20-N engineering model thruster (to be conducted in mid-2014) are presented with performance comparisons to prior lab model (heavyweight) test articles.

  20. RX-26-AY/AF rifle bullet tests

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, D.D.

    1980-11-01

    A series of rifle bullet tests was performed on two explosives, RX-26-AY and RX-26-AF, using the Pantex version of the Picatinny Arsenal Test (PA-2). With the exception of one test, both explosives displayed a relatively low sensitivity to bullet impact. However, a marked difference was noted in the average burn time duration between the two types of explosives being tested. A minor modification was made on the rifle barrel used at the test site in order to improve the sighting procedure.